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Sample records for bcl-2 predicts favorable

  1. High BAX/BCL2 mRNA ratio predicts favorable prognosis in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, particularly in patients with negative lymph nodes at the time of diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Giotakis, Aris I; Kontos, Christos K; Manolopoulos, Leonidas D; Sismanis, Aristides; Konstadoulakis, Manousos M; Scorilas, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC), a common type of head and neck cancer, is associated with high rates of metastasis and recurrence. Therefore, accurate prognostic stratification of LSCC patients based on molecular prognostic tumor biomarkers would definitely lead to a better clinical management of this malignancy. The aim of this study was the investigation of the potential combinatorial prognostic value of BCL2 and BAX mRNA expression in LSCC. Total RNA was isolated from 105 cancerous laryngeal tissue specimens obtained from patients having undergone surgical treatment for primary LSCC. After cDNA preparation, a low-cost, in-house developed, sensitive and accurate real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) methodology was applied for the quantification of BCL2 and BAX mRNA levels. Then, we carried out a biostatistical analysis to assess the prognostic value of the BAX/BCL2 mRNA expression ratio. High BAX/BCL2 mRNA expression constitutes a favorable prognosticator in LSCC, predicting significantly longer disease-free survival (P=0.011) and overall survival (P=0.014) of patients. More importantly, the significant prognostic value of the BAX/BCL2 mRNA expression appeared to be independent of the histological grade and size of the malignant laryngeal tumor as well as TNM stage, as revealed by the multivariate bootstrap Cox regression analysis. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis demonstrated also that the BAX/BCL2 ratio can stratify node-negative (N0) LSCC patients into two subgroups with significantly different DFS and OS (P=0.021 and P=0.009, respectively). The BAX/BCL2 mRNA ratio is a putative molecular tissue biomarker in CLL and hence deserves further validation in larger cohorts of LSCC patients. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Leishmania donovani-Induced Increase in Macrophage Bcl-2 Favors Parasite Survival

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Rajeev Kumar; Mehrotra, Sanjana; Sharma, Smriti; Gudde, Ramachandra Subbaraya; Sundar, Shyam; Shaha, Chandrima

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Bcl-2 family are major regulators of apoptosis in mammalian cells, and hence infection-induced perturbations in their expression could result into elimination of the parasites or creation of a niche favoring survival. In this investigation, we uncover a novel role of host Bcl-2 in sustaining Leishmania donovani infection. A rapid twofold increase in Bcl-2 expression occurred in response to parasite challenge. Downregulation of post infection Bcl-2 increase using siRNA or functional inhibition using Bcl-2 small molecule inhibitors interfered with intracellular parasite survival confirming the necessity of elevated Bcl-2 during infection. An increased nitric oxide (NO) response and reduced parasitic burden was observed upon Bcl-2 inhibition, where restitution of the NO response accounted for parasite mortality. Mechanistic insights revealed a major role of elevated Th2 cytokine IL-13 in parasite-induced Bcl-2 expression via the transcription factor STAT-3, where blocking at the level of IL-13 receptor or downstream kinase JAK-2 dampened Bcl-2 induction. Increase in Bcl-2 was orchestrated through Toll like receptor (TLR)-2-MEK-ERK signaling, and changes in TLR-2 levels affected parasite uptake. In a mouse model of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), Bcl-2 inhibitors partially restored the antimicrobial NO response by at least a twofold increase that resulted in significantly reduced parasite burden. Interestingly, monocytes derived from the peripheral blood of six out of nine human VL subjects demonstrated Bcl-2 expression at significantly higher levels, and sera from these patients showed only marginally quantifiable nitrites. Collectively, our study for the first time reveals a pro-parasitic role of host Bcl-2 and the capacity of host-derived IL-13 to modulate NO levels during infection via Bcl-2. Here, we propose Bcl-2 inhibition as a possible therapeutic intervention for VL. PMID:27826299

  3. An antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family protein index predicts the response of leukaemic cells to the pan-Bcl-2 inhibitor S1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Z; Liu, Y; Song, T; Xue, Z; Shen, X; Liang, F; Zhao, Y; Li, Z; Sheng, H

    2013-01-01

    Background: Bcl-2-like members have been found to be inherently overexpressed in many types of haematologic malignancies. The small-molecule S1 is a BH3 mimetic and a triple inhibitor of Bcl-2, Mcl-1 and Bcl-XL. Methods: The lethal dose 50 (LD50) values of S1 in five leukaemic cell lines and 41 newly diagnosed leukaemia samples were tested. The levels of Bcl-2 family members and phosphorylated Bcl-2 were semiquantitatively measured by western blotting. The interactions between Bcl-2 family members were tested by co-immunoprecipitation. The correlation between the LD50 and expression levels of Bcl-2 family members, alone or in combination, was analysed. Results: S1 exhibited variable sensitivity with LD50 values ranging >2 logs in both established and primary leukaemic cells. The ratio of pBcl-2/(Bcl-2+Mcl-1) could predict the S1 response. Furthermore, we demonstrated that pBcl-2 antagonised S1 by sequestering the Bak and Bim proteins that were released from Mcl-1, andpBcl-2/Bak, pBcl-2/Bax and pBcl-2/Bim complexes cannot be disrupted by S1. Conclusion: A predictive index was obtained for the novel BH3 mimetic S1. The shift of proapoptotic proteins from being complexed with Mcl-1 to being complexed with pBcl-2 was revealed for the first time, which is the mechanism underlying the index value described herein. PMID:23558901

  4. Bcl-2-like Protein 11 (BIM) Expression Is Associated with Favorable Prognosis for Patients with Cervical Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bo Wook; Cho, Hanbyoul; Ylaya, Kris; Kitano, Haruhisa; Chung, Joon-Yong; Hewitt, Stephen M; Kim, Jae-Hoon

    2017-09-01

    Bcl-2-like protein 11 (BIM) is a pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 protein family. BIM elicits cell death by binding to pro-survival Bcl-2 proteins. Even though the association of BIM expression with cell death has been investigated, its clinical survival significance in cervical cancer has not. In the current study, the prognostic significance of BIM in cervical cancer was investigated. The study included normal cervical tissues (n=254), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) tissues (n=275), and invasive cervical cancer (n=164). In order to identify BIM expression, immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed, and IHC scoring by quantitative digital image analysis was determined. Then, the association of BIM with prognostic factors was investigated. BIM expression was higher in cervical cancer than normal cervical tissues (p<0.001). Well and moderate differentiation indicated higher BIM expression than did poor differentiation (p=0.001). Also, BIM expression was high in radiation-sensitive cervical cancer relative to radiation-resistant cancer (p=0.049). High BIM expression showed better 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates (p=0.049 and π=0.030, respectively) than did low expression. In a multivariate analysis, BIM was shown to be an independent risk factor for DFS and OS in cervical cancer, with hazard ratios of 0.22 (p=0.006) and 0.46 (p=0.046), respectively. BIM is associated with favorable prognostic markers for prediction of DFS and OS in cervical cancer. High BIM expression is a potential prognostic marker as well as a chemotherapeutic target for cervical cancer. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  5. Predictive Bcl-2 Family Binding Models Rooted in Experiment or Structure

    PubMed Central

    DeBartolo, Joe; Dutta, Sanjib; Reich, Lothar; Keating, Amy E.

    2013-01-01

    Proteins of the Bcl-2 family either enhance or suppress programmed cell death and are centrally involved in cancer development and resistance to chemotherapy. BH3 (Bcl-2 homology 3)-only Bcl-2 proteins promote cell death by docking an α-helix into a hydrophobic groove on the surface of one or more of five pro-survival Bcl-2 receptor proteins. There is high structural homology within the pro-death and pro-survival families, yet a high degree of interaction specificity is nevertheless encoded, posing an interesting and important molecular recognition problem. Understanding protein features that dictate Bcl-2 interaction specificity is critical for designing peptide-based cancer therapeutics and diagnostics. In this study, we present peptide SPOT arrays and deep sequencing data from yeast display screening experiments that significantly expand the BH3 sequence space that has been experimentally tested for interaction with five human anti-apoptotic receptors. These data provide rich information about the determinants of Bcl-2 family specificity. To interpret and use the information, we constructed two simple data-based models that can predict affinity and specificity when evaluated on independent data sets within a limited sequence space. We also constructed a novel structure-based statistical potential, called STATIUM, which is remarkably good at predicting Bcl-2 affinity and specificity, especially considering it is not trained on experimental data. We compare the performance of our three models to each other and to alternative structure-based methods and discuss how such tools can guide prediction and design of new Bcl-2 family complexes. PMID:22617328

  6. Genome-Wide Prediction and Validation of Peptides That Bind Human Prosurvival Bcl-2 Proteins

    PubMed Central

    DeBartolo, Joe; Taipale, Mikko; Keating, Amy E.

    2014-01-01

    Programmed cell death is regulated by interactions between pro-apoptotic and prosurvival members of the Bcl-2 family. Pro-apoptotic family members contain a weakly conserved BH3 motif that can adopt an alpha-helical structure and bind to a groove on prosurvival partners Bcl-xL, Bcl-w, Bcl-2, Mcl-1 and Bfl-1. Peptides corresponding to roughly 13 reported BH3 motifs have been verified to bind in this manner. Due to their short lengths and low sequence conservation, BH3 motifs are not detected using standard sequence-based bioinformatics approaches. Thus, it is possible that many additional proteins harbor BH3-like sequences that can mediate interactions with the Bcl-2 family. In this work, we used structure-based and data-based Bcl-2 interaction models to find new BH3-like peptides in the human proteome. We used peptide SPOT arrays to test candidate peptides for interaction with one or more of the prosurvival proteins Bcl-xL, Bcl-w, Bcl-2, Mcl-1 and Bfl-1. For the 36 most promising array candidates, we quantified binding to all five human receptors using direct and competition binding assays in solution. All 36 peptides showed evidence of interaction with at least one prosurvival protein, and 22 peptides bound at least one prosurvival protein with a dissociation constant between 1 and 500 nM; many peptides had specificity profiles not previously observed. We also screened the full-length parent proteins of a subset of array-tested peptides for binding to Bcl-xL and Mcl-1. Finally, we used the peptide binding data, in conjunction with previously reported interactions, to assess the affinity and specificity prediction performance of different models. PMID:24967846

  7. BCL2L12 Is a Novel Biomarker for the Prediction of Short-Term Relapse in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Fendri, Ali; Kontos, Christos K; Khabir, Abdelmajid; Mokdad-Gargouri, Raja; Scorilas, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    BCL2-like 12 (BCL2L12 ) is a new member of the apoptosis-related BCL2 gene family, members of which are implicated in various malignancies. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a highly metastatic, malignant epithelial tumor, with a high prevalence in Southeast Asia and North Africa. The purpose of the current study was to quantify and investigate the expression levels of the BCL2L12 gene in nasopharyngeal carcinoma biopsies and to assess its prognostic value. Total RNA was isolated from 89 malignant and hyperplastic nasopharyngeal biopsies from Tunisian patients. After testing the quality of the extracted RNA, cDNA was prepared by reverse transcription. A highly sensitive real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for BCL2L12 mRNA quantification was developed using SYBR® Green chemistry. GAPDH served as a reference gene. Relative quantification analysis was performed using the comparative CT (2−ΔΔCT) method. Higher BCL2L12 mRNA levels were detected in undifferentiated carcinomas of the nasopharynx, rather than in nonkeratinizing nasopharyngeal tumors (P = 0.045). BCL2L12 expression status was also found to be positively associated with the presence of distant metastases (P = 0.014). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis demonstrated that patients with BCL2L12-positive nasopharyngeal tumors have significantly shorter disease-free survival (P = 0.020). Cox regression analysis showed BCL2L12 expression to be an unfavorable and independent prognostic indicator of short-term relapse in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (P = 0.042). Our results suggest that mRNA expression of BCL2L12 may constitute a novel biomarker for the prediction of short-term relapse in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. PMID:21152697

  8. Expression Profile of BCL-2, BCL-XL, and MCL-1 Predicts Pharmacological Response to the BCL-2 Selective Antagonist Venetoclax in Multiple Myeloma Models.

    PubMed

    Punnoose, Elizabeth A; Leverson, Joel D; Peale, Franklin; Boghaert, Erwin R; Belmont, Lisa D; Tan, Nguyen; Young, Amy; Mitten, Michael; Ingalla, Ellen; Darbonne, Walter C; Oleksijew, Anatol; Tapang, Paul; Yue, Peng; Oeh, Jason; Lee, Leslie; Maiga, Sophie; Fairbrother, Wayne J; Amiot, Martine; Souers, Andrew J; Sampath, Deepak

    2016-05-01

    BCL-2 family proteins dictate survival of human multiple myeloma cells, making them attractive drug targets. Indeed, multiple myeloma cells are sensitive to antagonists that selectively target prosurvival proteins such as BCL-2/BCL-XL (ABT-737 and ABT-263/navitoclax) or BCL-2 only (ABT-199/GDC-0199/venetoclax). Resistance to these three drugs is mediated by expression of MCL-1. However, given the selectivity profile of venetoclax it is unclear whether coexpression of BCL-XL also affects antitumor responses to venetoclax in multiple myeloma. In multiple myeloma cell lines (n = 21), BCL-2 is expressed but sensitivity to venetoclax correlated with high BCL-2 and low BCL-XL or MCL-1 expression. Multiple myeloma cells that coexpress BCL-2 and BCL-XL were resistant to venetoclax but sensitive to a BCL-XL-selective inhibitor (A-1155463). Multiple myeloma xenograft models that coexpressed BCL-XL or MCL-1 with BCL-2 were also resistant to venetoclax. Resistance to venetoclax was mitigated by cotreatment with bortezomib in xenografts that coexpressed BCL-2 and MCL-1 due to upregulation of NOXA, a proapoptotic factor that neutralizes MCL-1. In contrast, xenografts that expressed BCL-XL, MCL-1, and BCL-2 were more sensitive to the combination of bortezomib with a BCL-XL selective inhibitor (A-1331852) but not with venetoclax cotreatment when compared with monotherapies. IHC of multiple myeloma patient bone marrow biopsies and aspirates (n = 95) revealed high levels of BCL-2 and BCL-XL in 62% and 43% of evaluable samples, respectively, while 34% were characterized as BCL-2(High)/BCL-XL (Low) In addition to MCL-1, our data suggest that BCL-XL may also be a potential resistance factor to venetoclax monotherapy and in combination with bortezomib. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(5); 1132-44. ©2016 AACR.

  9. HOX gene expression predicts response to BCL-2 inhibition in acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kontro, M; Kumar, A; Majumder, M M; Eldfors, S; Parsons, A; Pemovska, T; Saarela, J; Yadav, B; Malani, D; Fløisand, Y; Höglund, M; Remes, K; Gjertsen, B T; Kallioniemi, O; Wennerberg, K; Heckman, C A; Porkka, K

    2017-02-01

    Inhibitors of B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2) such as venetoclax (ABT-199) and navitoclax (ABT-263) are clinically explored in several cancer types, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML), to selectively induce apoptosis in cancer cells. To identify robust biomarkers for BCL-2 inhibitor sensitivity, we evaluated the ex vivo sensitivity of fresh leukemic cells from 73 diagnosed and relapsed/refractory AML patients, and then comprehensively assessed whether the responses correlated to specific mutations or gene expression signatures. Compared with samples from healthy donor controls (nonsensitive) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients (highly sensitive), AML samples exhibited variable responses to BCL-2 inhibition. Strongest CLL-like responses were observed in 15% of the AML patient samples, whereas 32% were resistant, and the remaining exhibited intermediate responses to venetoclax. BCL-2 inhibitor sensitivity was associated with genetic aberrations in chromatin modifiers, WT1 and IDH1/IDH2. A striking selective overexpression of specific HOXA and HOXB gene transcripts were detected in highly BCL-2 inhibitor sensitive samples. Ex vivo responses to venetoclax showed significant inverse correlation to β2-microglobulin expression and to a lesser degree to BCL-XL and BAX expression. As new therapy options for AML are urgently needed, the specific HOX gene expression pattern can potentially be used as a biomarker to identify venetoclax-sensitive AML patients for clinical trials.

  10. Bcl-2/Bax protein ratio predicts 5-fluorouracil sensitivity independently of p53 status

    PubMed Central

    Mirjolet, J-F; Barberi-Heyob, M; Didelot, C; Peyrat, J-P; Abecassis, J; Millon, R; Merlin, J-L

    2000-01-01

    p53 tumour-suppressor gene is involved in cell growth control, arrest and apoptosis. Nevertheless cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction can be observed in p53-defective cells after exposure to DNA-damaging agents such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) suggesting the importance of alternative pathways via p53-independent mechanisms. In order to establish relationship between p53 status, cell cycle arrest, Bcl-2/Bax regulation and 5-FU sensitivity, we examined p53 mRNA and protein expression and p53 protein functionality in wild-type (wt) and mutant (mt) p53 cell lines. p53 mRNA and p53 protein expression were determined before and after exposure to equitoxic 5-FU concentration in six human carcinoma cell lines differing in p53 status and displaying marked differences in 5-FU sensitivity, with IC 50 values ranging from 0.2–22.6 mM. 5-FU induced a rise in p53 mRNA expression in mt p53 cell lines and in human papilloma virus positive wt p53 cell line, whereas significant decrease in p53 mRNA expression was found in wt p53 cell line. Whatever p53 status, 5-FU altered p53 transcriptional and translational regulation leading to up-regulation of p53 protein. In relation with p53 functionality, but independently of p53 mutational status, after exposure to 5-FU equitoxic concentration, all cell lines were able to arrest in G1. No relationship was evidenced between G1 accumulation ability and 5-FU sensitivity. Moreover, after 5-FU exposure, Bax and Bcl-2 proteins regulation was under p53 protein control and a statistically significant relationship (r= 0.880,P= 0.0097) was observed between Bcl-2/Bax ratio and 5-FU sensitivity. In conclusion, whatever p53 status, Bcl-2 or Bax induction and Bcl-2/Bax protein ratio were correlated to 5-FU sensitivity. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:11044365

  11. Importance of functional groups in predicting the activity of small molecule inhibitors for Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL.

    PubMed

    Kanakaveti, Vishnupriya; Sakthivel, Ramasamy; Rayala, S K; Gromiha, M Michael

    2017-08-01

    Evasion of apoptosis owing to aberrant expression of Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma-2) anti-apoptotic proteins is a promising hallmark of cancer. These proteins are associated with resistance to chemotherapy and radiation. Currently available QSAR models are limited to a set of inhibitors corresponding to a particular chemical scaffold, and unified models are required to identify the differential specificity of diverse compounds toward inhibiting these targets. In this study, we predicted the factors driving differential activity and specificity implementing multiplexed QSAR analysis for a dataset of 1,649 reported inhibitors of Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma-2) and Bcl-xL (B-cell lymphoma-extra large). We developed QSAR models for seven diverse scaffolds and critically analyzed the chemical space with coupling factors. The correlation values of QSAR models for Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL range from 0.95 to 0.985. The MAE and sMAPE of the models were in the range of 0.052-5.4 nm and 0.41%-10%, respectively, signifying model robustness. The crucial descriptors and moieties accounting for the activity were benchmarked against experimentally determined binding patterns. The comprehensive analysis made in the study explores latent features of the chemical space in a broad perspective. Further, we have developed a user-friendly Web server for predicting a specific/dual inhibitor of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL [http://www.iitm.ac.in/bioinfo/APPLE/]. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Expression of Bcl-2 family proteins and associated clinicopathologic factors predict survival outcome in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Camisasca, Danielle Resende; Honorato, Júlia; Bernardo, Vagner; da Silva, Licínio Esmeraldo; da Fonseca, Eliene Carvalho; de Faria, Paulo Antônio Silvestre; Dias, Fernando Luiz; Lourenço, Simone de Queiroz Chaves

    2009-03-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the expression levels of three proteins involved in apoptosis--Bcl-2, Bcl-X, and Bax--and evaluate their relationship with clinicopathologic features and survival in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate protein expression in 53 primary OSCCs treated by radical surgery with free margins at a single institution in 1999. Histologic specimens were graded and analyzed for perineural invasion, lymphocytic infiltrate, and pattern of invasion. Digital image analysis was performed to quantify immunostaining. Survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox's proportional hazard model. Cancer-specific 5-year survival (CSS) was 61% (56% overall survival (OS), and 51% disease-free interval (DFI)). Kaplan-Meier analysis identified pathologic stage (p=0.0007, log-rank test, OS), negative nodes status (pN) (p<0.0001, log-rank test, OS), presence of lymphocytic infiltrate (p=0.0084, log-rank test, OS), and high Bax expression (p=0.025, log-rank test, OS) to each be associated with both better OS and CSS. Tongue tumors (p=0.0179, log-rank test), worst pattern of invasion (p=0.0293, log-rank test), lack of lymphocytic infiltrate (p=0.0328, log-rank test), perineural invasion (p=0.0448, log-rank test), poorly differentiated tumors (p=0.0318, log-rank test), and low Bcl-X expression (p=0.044, log-rank test) were all associated with a low DFI. Cox regression found pN, lymphocytic infiltrate, and Bax expression to be independent prognostic factors for OS and CSS, whereas lymphocytic response and tongue tumors were predictors of DFI. Bcl-2 expression emerged as an independent marker of favorable CSS. Lymphocytic infiltrate was the most meaningful histopathologic parameter in survival analysis, whereas expression of Bcl-2 family members seems to be an important marker of a favorable prognosis in OSCC.

  13. Overexpression of MYC and BCL2 Predicts Poor Prognosis in Patients with Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma, Nasal Type

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing-hua; Bi, Xi-wen; Li, Peng-fei; Xia, Zhong-jun; Huang, Hui-qiang; Jiang, Wen-qi; Zhang, Yu-jing; Wang, Liang

    2017-01-01

    Background: Recently double-hit lymphoma or double protein expressor lymphoma has been identified as a distinct group of diffuse large B cell lymphoma with poor prognosis. However, the expression status, clinical and prognostic effect of combined overexpression of MYC and BCL2 in extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTL) are not known. Materials and methods: Paraffin-embedded lymphoma samples from 53 patients with newly diagnosed ENKTL were studied using immunohistochemistry for MYC and BCL2, and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for MYC and BCL2 were done on 5 tissue sections with highest percentages of both MYC and BCL2 positive lymphoma cells. Results: The median percentage of MYC-positive lymphoma cells and BCL2-positive lymphoma cells were 20% (range, 5%-45%) and 70% (10%-95%), respectively. Using median scores as cutoffs, we assigned each patient an IHC double-hit score (DHS) that ranged from 0 to 2. Using this DHS, 15 patients (28.3%) had a DHS of 0, 24 patients (45.3%) had a DHS of 1, and the remaining 14 patients (26.4%) had a DHS of 2. FISH analysis was performed on 5 tissue sections with DHS of 2, and none of them had MYC or BCL2 rearrangement. The DHS was not associated with patients' age, gender, disease stage, LDH level, B symptoms, performance status, or local tumor invasiveness. However, patients with tumor localized in extranasal sites seemed to have higher expression of BCL2 and higher DHS than nasal lesions (p=0.014 and 0.042, respectively). In univariate survival analysis, either high expression of MYC or BCL2 was significantly correlated with inferior PFS and OS (p<0.05). According to the DHS, patients with ENKTL could be divided into three significantly different risk groups for PFS and OS (3-year PFS rate for DHS of 0, 1, and 2 was 60%, 41%, and 21%, respectively, p=0.008; 3-year OS rate for DHS of 0, 1, and 2 was 79%, 49%, and 33%, respectively, p=0.015). In multivariate survival analysis, it was found that DHS was an

  14. MYC Expression in Concert with BCL2 and BCL6 Expression Predicts Outcome in Chinese Patients with Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma, Not Otherwise Specified

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Li-Xu; Liu, Yan-Hui; Luo, Dong-Lan; Zhang, Fen; Cheng, Yu; Luo, Xin-Lan; Xu, Jie; Cheng, Jie; Zhuang, Heng-Guo

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies provide convincing evidence that a combined immunohistochemical or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) score of MYC, BCL2, BCL6 proteins and MYC translocations predicted outcome in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients treated with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP). However, by far, all these researches are based on Western populations. Therefore, we investigate the prognostic relevance of MYC-, BCL2- and BCL6-rearrangements and protein expression by immunohistochemistry and FISH from 336 de novo DLBCL, NOS treated with CHOP or R-CHOP. Breaks in MYC and BCL6, and fusion in IGH/BCL2 were detected in 9.7%, 20.0%, and 11.1% of the cases, respectively, and were not significantly associated with clinical outcomes. Protein overexpression of MYC (≥40%), BCL2 (≥70%) and BCL6 (≥50%) was encountered in 51%, 51% and 36% of the tumors, respectively. On the basis of MYC, BCL2 and BCL6 expression, double-hit scores (DHSs) and triple-hit score (THS) were assigned to all patients with DLBCL. Patients with high MYC/BCL2 DHS, high MYC/BCL6 DHS and high THS had multiple adverse prognostic factors including high LDH level, poor performance status, advanced clinical stage, high International Prognostic Index (IPI) score, and non-germinal center B-cell. In univariate analysis, high MYC/BCL2 DHS, high MYC/BCL6 DHS and high THS were associated with inferior OS and PFS in both CHOP and R-CHOP cohorts (P<0.05). The highly significant correlations with OS and PFS were maintained in multivariate models that controlled for IPI (P<0.05). DLBCLs with high DHSs and high THS share the clinical features and poor prognosis of double-hit lymphoma (P>0.05). These data together suggest that the immunohistochemical DHSs and THS defined a large subset of DLBCLs with double-hit biology and was strongly associated with poor outcome in patients treated with R-CHOP or CHOP. PMID:25090026

  15. Identification of expression signatures predictive of sensitivity to the Bcl-2 family member inhibitor ABT-263 in small cell lung carcinoma and leukemia/lymphoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Tahir, Stephen K; Wass, John; Joseph, Mary K; Devanarayan, Viswanath; Hessler, Paul; Zhang, Haichao; Elmore, Steve W; Kroeger, Paul E; Tse, Christin; Rosenberg, Saul H; Anderson, Mark G

    2010-03-01

    ABT-263 inhibits the antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-x(L), and Bcl-w and has single-agent efficacy in numerous small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) and leukemia/lymphoma cell lines in vitro and in vivo. It is currently in clinical trials for treating patients with SCLC and various leukemia/lymphomas. Identification of predictive markers for response will benefit the clinical development of ABT-263. We identified the expression of Bcl-2 family genes that correlated best with sensitivity to ABT-263 in a panel of 36 SCLC and 31 leukemia/lymphoma cell lines. In cells sensitive to ABT-263, expression of Bcl-2 and Noxa is elevated, whereas expression of Mcl-1 is higher in resistant cells. We also examined global expression differences to identify gene signature sets that correlated with sensitivity to ABT-263 to generate optimal signature sets predictive of sensitivity to ABT-263. Independent cell lines were used to verify the predictive power of the gene sets and to refine the optimal gene signatures. When comparing normal lung tissue and SCLC primary tumors, the expression pattern of these genes in the tumor tissue is most similar to sensitive SCLC lines, whereas normal tissue is most similar to resistant SCLC lines. Most of the genes identified using global expression patterns are related to the apoptotic pathway; however, all but Bcl-rambo are distinct from the Bcl-2 family. This study leverages global expression data to identify key gene expression patterns for sensitivity to ABT-263 in SCLC and leukemia/lymphoma and may provide guidance in the selection of patients in future clinical trials.

  16. BCL2 predicts survival in germinal center B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with CHOP-like therapy and rituximab.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Javeed; Meyer, Paul N; Smith, Lynette M; Johnson, Nathalie A; Vose, Julie M; Greiner, Timothy C; Connors, Joseph M; Staudt, Louis M; Rimsza, Lisa; Jaffe, Elaine; Rosenwald, Andreas; Ott, German; Delabie, Jan; Campo, Elias; Braziel, Rita M; Cook, James R; Tubbs, Raymond R; Gascoyne, Randy D; Armitage, James O; Weisenburger, Dennis D; Chan, Wing C

    2011-12-15

    We have previously shown the prognostic significance of BCL2 expression in the activated B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (ABC-DLBCL) patients treated with cyclophosphamide-Adriamycin-vincristine-prednisone (CHOP) or CHOP-like therapy. However, after the inclusion of rituximab (R) in the CHOP regimen, several conflicting observations about the prognostic value of BCL2 expression have been reported. We evaluated the R-CHOP cohort of 221 DLBCL cases with gene expression profiling data. BCL2 protein (n = 169), mRNA (n = 221) expression, and t(14;18) (n = 144) were correlated with clinical outcome. The CHOP cohort (n = 181) was used for comparative analysis. BCL2 protein expression has significant impact on overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) in DLBCL (OS, P = 0.009; EFS, P = 0.001) and GCB-DLBCL (OS, P = 0.03; EFS, P = 0.002) but not in ABC-DLBCL in the R-CHOP cohort. The survival differences for EFS in GCB-DLBCL were still observed in multivariate analysis. At the mRNA level, this correlation was observed in EFS in DLBCL (P = 0.006), but only a trend was observed in GCB-DLBCL (P = 0.09). The t(14;18) was detected in 34% of GCB-DLBCL but was not associated with significant differences in survival. Gene enrichment analysis identified significant enrichment of the DLBCL "stromal-1" signatures and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1-α) signature in BCL2(-)GCB-DLBCL, whereas T(FH) cell signatures were enriched in BCL2(+)GCB-DLBCL. The prognostic significance of BCL2 has changed after inclusion of rituximab in the treatment protocol and is observed in the GCB-DLBCL rather than the ABC-DLBCL. Although rituximab has benefited patients in both DLBCL subgroups, the BCL2(+)GCB-DLBCL seems to receive less benefit from this treatment and may require other novel therapeutic intervention. ©2011 AACR.

  17. Structural studies of Bcl-2-family regulators of apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, P.W. |; Cai, X.; Schiffer, M.

    1996-06-01

    The Bcl-2 family of proteins includes about a dozen different proteins which share two small regions of amino acid homology but otherwise exhibit rather modest sequence similarities. The members of this family function as molecular regulators of apoptosis, some as accelerators of cell death and others as inhibitors of apoptosis. The authors analyzed the predicted secondary structures of Bcl-2-family proteins and found that a series of four amphipathic helices, three short {beta}-strands, and a carboxyl-terminal transmembrane helix were conserved throughout the family. Since the Bcl-2-family proteins do not have homology with any proteins of known three-dimensional structure, it seems likely that the tertiary structure assumed by these conserved Bcl-2-family structural elements will represent a completely new protein fold. The authors have prepared recombinant versions of particular proteins of the Bcl-2-family so that the can analyze their molecular structures experimentally. In addition, since some of the Bcl-2-family members homodimerize, they are using small-zone size-exclusion chromatography to analyze the homodimerization of individual, purified Bcl-2-family proteins in order to determine the association and rate constants for these dimerization reactions using computer-simulation methods previously developed in the group. Since certain of these proteins also interest with each other to form heterodimers, the authors also hope to extend the analyses to similarly analyze the heterodimerization of pairs of purified Bcl-2-family proteins.

  18. Targeting the Bcl-2 Family for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Shibu; Quinn, Bridget A.; Das, Swadesh K.; Dash, Rupesh; Emdad, Luni; Dasgupta, Santanu; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Dent, Paul; Reed, John C.; Pellecchia, Maurizio; Sarkar, Devanand; Fisher, Paul B.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Programmed cell death is well-orchestrated process regulated by multiple pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes, particularly those of the Bcl-2 gene family. These genes are well documented in cancer with aberrant expression being strongly associated with resistance to chemotherapy and radiation. Areas covered This review focuses on the resistance induced by the Bcl-2 family of anti-apoptotic proteins and current therapeutic interventions currently in preclinical or clinical trials that target this pathway. Major resistance mechanisms that are regulated by Bcl-2 family proteins and potential strategies to circumvent resistance are also examined. Although antisense and gene therapy strategies are used to nullify Bcl-2 family proteins, recent approaches use small molecule inhibitors and peptides. Structural similarity of the Bcl-2 family of proteins greatly favors development of inhibitors that target the BH3 domain, called BH3 mimetics. Expert opinion Strategies to specifically identify and inhibit critical determinants that promote therapy-resistance and tumor progression represent viable approaches for developing effective cancer therapies. From a clinical perspective, pretreatment with novel, potent Bcl-2 inhibitors either alone or in combination with conventional therapies hold significant promise for providing beneficial clinical outcomes. Identifying small molecule inhibitors with broader and higher affinities for inhibiting all of the Bcl-2 pro-survival proteins will facilitate development of superior cancer therapies. PMID:23173842

  19. Bcl-2 inhibits the mitochondrial release of an apoptogenic protease

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Bcl-2 belongs to a family of apoptosis-regulatory proteins which incorporate into the outer mitochondrial as well as nuclear membranes. The mechanism by which the proto-oncogene product Bcl-2 inhibits apoptosis is thus far elusive. We and others have shown previously that the first biochemical alteration detectable in cells undergoing apoptosis, well before nuclear changes become manifest, is a collapse of the mitochondrial inner membrane potential (delta psi m), suggesting the involvement of mitochondrial products in the apoptotic cascade. Here we show that mitochondria contain a pre-formed approximately 50-kD protein which is released upon delta psi m disruption and which, in a cell-free in vitro system, causes isolated nuclei to undergo apoptotic changes such as chromatin condensation and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation. This apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) is blocked by N- benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp.fluoromethylketone (Z-VAD.fmk), an antagonist of interleukin-1 beta-converting enzyme (ICE)-like proteases that is also an efficient inhibitor of apoptosis in cells. We have tested the effect of Bcl-2 on the formation, release, and action of AIF. When preventing mitochondrial permeability transition (which accounts for the pre-apoptotic delta psi m disruption in cells), Bcl-2 hyperexpressed in the outer mitochondrial membrane also impedes the release of AIF from isolated mitochondria in vitro. In contrast, Bcl-2 does not affect the formation of AIF, which is contained in comparable quantities in control mitochondria and in mitochondria from Bcl-2- hyperexpressing cells. Furthermore, the presence of Bcl-2 in the nuclear membrane does not interfere with the action of AIF on the nucleus, nor does Bcl-2 hyperexpression protect cells against AIF. It thus appears that Bcl-2 prevents apoptosis by favoring the retention of an apoptogenic protease in mitochondria. PMID:8879205

  20. Bcl-2–Mediated Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Rakesh K.; Sasaki, Carl Y.; Hardwick, J. Marie; Longo, Dan L.

    1999-01-01

    Bcl-2 inhibits apoptosis induced by a variety of stimuli, including chemotherapy drugs and glucocorticoids. It is generally accepted that Bcl-2 exerts its antiapoptotic effects mainly by dimerizing with proapoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family such as Bax and Bad. However, the mechanism of the antiapoptotic effects is unclear. Paclitaxel and other drugs that disturb microtubule dynamics kill cells in a Fas/Fas ligand (FasL)-dependent manner; antibody to FasL inhibits paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. We have found that Bcl-2 overexpression leads to the prevention of chemotherapy (paclitaxel)-induced expression of FasL and blocks paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. The mechanism of this effect is that Bcl-2 prevents the nuclear translocation of NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T lymphocytes, a transcription factor activated by microtubule damage) by binding and sequestering calcineurin, a calcium-dependent phosphatase that must dephosphorylate NFAT to move to the nucleus. Without NFAT nuclear translocation, the FasL gene is not transcribed. Thus, it appears that paclitaxel and other drugs that disturb microtubule function kill cells at least in part through the induction of FasL. Furthermore, Bcl-2 antagonizes drug-induced apoptosis by inhibiting calcineurin activation, blocking NFAT nuclear translocation, and preventing FasL expression. The effects of Bcl-2 can be overcome, at least partially, through phosphorylation of Bcl-2. Phosphorylated Bcl-2 cannot bind calcineurin, and NFAT activation, FasL expression, and apoptosis can occur after Bcl-2 phosphorylation. PMID:10432288

  1. Bcl-2 expression is a poor predictor for hepatocellular carcinoma prognosis of andropause-age patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Yang, Xin; Jia, Hu-Liang; Zhu, Wen-Wei; Lu, Lu; Shi, Wei; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Jin-Hong; Tao, Yi-Feng; Wang, Zheng-Xin; Yang, Jun; Wang, Lian-Xin; Lu, Ming; Zheng, Yan; Zhao, Jing; Dong, Qiong-Zhu; Qin, Lun-Xiu

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) seems to be influenced by the endocrine environment. Numerous reports demonstrate the diverse expression of Bcl-2 family members under sex steroid regulation. With the exception of estrogen-related tumors, androgen-related tumors have shown their characteristics in Bcl-2 expression. In this study, the status of Bcl-2 expression in male hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients was examined to verify the high incidence of HCC in males. Methods: Tumor tissue microarray was used to examine Bcl-2 expression levels in 374 HCC cases including 306 males and 68 females. Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank test, and Cox proportional hazards model were applied to investigate the predictive value of Bcl-2 in HCC patients. Results: Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that male patients with higher Bcl-2 levels had significantly longer median survival time and recurrence time than those with lower levels. However, no significant differences in outcomes were found between different Bcl-2 levels in female patients. When the male patients were stratified into several age points, the level of Bcl-2 expression showed poorer predictive efficiency in the 45–49 and 55–60 age groups in andropause-age patients compared with other age groups. Bcl-2 was an independent prognostic factor for both overall survival (P < 0.0001) and recurrence time (P = 0.0001) in male patients. After excluding male patients in the 45–60 age group, the predictive efficiency was enhanced (n = 147, OS, P = 0.0002, TTR, P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Bcl-2 expression is an independent predictor of survival and recurrence in male HCC. Bcl-2 levels may also be regulated by androgens or androgen receptors in male HCC patients. Bcl-2 levels change and exhibit poor predictive efficiency when androgen levels vary dramatically (andropause age). PMID:28154777

  2. Bcl-2 inhibitors potentiate the cytotoxic effects of radiation in Bcl-2 overexpressing radioresistant tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hara, Takamitsu; Omura-Minamisawa, Motoko . E-mail: momuram@med.yokohama-cu.ac.jp; Chao Cheng; Nakagami, Yoshihiro; Ito, Megumi; Inoue, Tomio

    2005-02-01

    Purpose: Bcl-2, an inhibitor of apoptosis frequently shows elevated expression in human tumors, thus resulting in resistance to radiation therapy. Therefore, inhibiting Bcl-2 function may enhance the radiosensitivity of tumor cells. Tetrocarcin A (TC-A) and bcl-2 antisense oligonucleotides exhibit antitumor activity by inhibiting Bcl-2 function and transcription, respectively. We investigated whether these antitumor agents would enhance the cytotoxic effects of radiation in tumor cells overexpressing Bcl-2. Methods and materials: We used HeLa/bcl-2 cells, a stable Bcl-2-expressing cell line derived from wild-type HeLa (HeLa/wt) cells. Cells were incubated with TC-A and bcl-2 antisense oligonucleotides for 24 h after irradiation, and cell viability was then determined. Apoptotic cells were quantified by flow cytometric assay. Results: The HeLa/bcl-2 cells were more resistant to radiation than HeLa/wt cells. At concentrations that are not inherently cytotoxic, both TC-A and bcl-2 antisense oligonucleotides increased the cytotoxic effects of radiation in HeLa/bcl-2 cells, but not in HeLa/wt cells. However, in HeLa/bcl-2 cells, additional treatment with TC-A in combination with radiation did not significantly increase apoptosis. Conclusions: The present results suggest that TC-A and bcl-2 antisense oligonucleotides reduce radioresistance of tumor cells overexpressing Bcl-2. Therefore, a combination of radiotherapy and Bcl-2 inhibitors may prove to be a useful therapeutic approach for treating tumors that overexpress Bcl-2.

  3. Clinical response after two cycles compared to HER2, Ki-67, p53, and bcl-2 in independently predicting a pathological complete response after preoperative chemotherapy in patients with operable carcinoma of the breast

    PubMed Central

    von Minckwitz, Gunter; Sinn, Hans-Peter; Raab, Günter; Loibl, Sibylle; Blohmer, Jens-Uwe; Eidtmann, Holger; Hilfrich, Jörn; Merkle, Elisabeth; Jackisch, Christian; Costa, Serban D; Caputo, Angelika; Kaufmann, Manfred

    2008-01-01

    Introduction To investigate the predictive value of clinical and biological markers for a pathological complete remission after a preoperative dose-dense regimen of doxorubicin and docetaxel, with or without tamoxifen, in primary operable breast cancer. Methods Patients with a histologically confirmed diagnosis of previously untreated, operable, and measurable primary breast cancer (tumour (T), nodes (N) and metastases (M) score: T2-3(≥ 3 cm) N0-2 M0) were treated in a prospectively randomised trial with four cycles of dose-dense (bi-weekly) doxorubicin and docetaxel (ddAT) chemotherapy, with or without tamoxifen, prior to surgery. Clinical and pathological parameters (menopausal status, clinical tumour size and nodal status, grade, and clinical response after two cycles) and a panel of biomarkers (oestrogen and progesterone receptors, Ki-67, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), p53, bcl-2, all detected by immunohistochemistry) were correlated with the detection of a pathological complete response (pCR). Results A pCR was observed in 9.7% in 248 patients randomised in the study and in 8.6% in the subset of 196 patients with available tumour tissue. Clinically negative axillary lymph nodes, poor tumour differentiation, negative oestrogen receptor status, negative progesterone receptor status, and loss of bcl-2 were significantly predictive for a pCR in a univariate logistic regression model, whereas in a multivariate analysis only the clinical nodal status and hormonal receptor status provided significantly independent information. Backward stepwise logistic regression revealed a response after two cycles, with hormone receptor status and lymph-node status as significant predictors. Patients with a low percentage of cells stained positive for Ki-67 showed a better response when treated with tamoxifen, whereas patients with a high percentage of Ki-67 positive cells did not have an additional benefit when treated with tamoxifen. Tumours overexpressing

  4. BCL2DB: database of BCL-2 family members and BH3-only proteins

    PubMed Central

    Rech de Laval, Valentine; Deléage, Gilbert; Aouacheria, Abdel; Combet, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    BCL2DB (http://bcl2db.ibcp.fr) is a database designed to integrate data on BCL-2 family members and BH3-only proteins. These proteins control the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and probably many other cellular processes as well. This large protein group is formed by a family of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic homologs that have phylogenetic relationships with BCL-2, and by a collection of evolutionarily and structurally unrelated proteins characterized by the presence of a region of local sequence similarity with BCL-2, termed the BH3 motif. BCL2DB is monthly built, thanks to an automated procedure relying on a set of homemade profile HMMs computed from seed reference sequences representative of the various BCL-2 homologs and BH3-only proteins. The BCL2DB entries integrate data from the Ensembl, Ensembl Genomes, European Nucleotide Archive and Protein Data Bank databases and are enriched with specific information like protein classification into orthology groups and distribution of BH motifs along the sequences. The Web interface allows for easy browsing of the site and fast access to data, as well as sequence analysis with generic and specific tools. BCL2DB provides a helpful and powerful tool to both ‘BCL-2-ologists’ and researchers working in the various fields of physiopathology. Database URL: http://bcl2db.ibcp.fr PMID:24608034

  5. Prognostic value of mitotic index and Bcl2 expression in male breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lacle, Miangela M; van der Pol, Carmen; Witkamp, Arjen; van der Wall, Elsken; van Diest, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of male breast cancer (MBC) is rising. Current treatment regimens for MBC are extrapolated from female breast cancer (FBC), based on the assumption that FBC prognostic features and therapeutic targets can be extrapolated to MBC. However, there is yet little evidence that prognostic features that have been developed and established in FBC are applicable to MBC as well. In a recent study on FBC, a combination of mitotic index and Bcl2 expression proved to be of strong prognostic value. Previous papers on Bcl2 expression in MBC were equivocal, and the prognostic value of Bcl2 combined with mitotic index has not been studied in MBC. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the prognostic value of Bcl2 in combination with mitotic index in MBC. Immunohistochemical staining for Bcl2 was performed on tissue microarrays of a total of 151 male breast cancer cases. Mitotic index was scored. The prognostic value of Bcl2 expression and Bcl2/mitotic index combinations was evaluated studying their correlations with clinicopathologic features and their prediction of survival. The vast majority of MBC (94%) showed Bcl2 expression, more frequently than previously described for FBC. Bcl2 expression had no significant associations with clinicopathologic features such as tumor size, mitotic count and grade. In univariate survival analysis, Bcl2 had no prognostic value, and showed no additional prognostic value to tumor size and histological grade in Cox regression. In addition, the Bcl2/mitotic index combination as opposed to FBC did not predict survival in MBC. In conclusion, Bcl2 expression is common in MBC, but is not associated with major clinicopathologic features and, in contrast to FBC, does not seem to have prognostic value, also when combined with mitotic index.

  6. New insights in the role of Bcl-2 Bcl-2 and the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Rudner, J; Jendrossek, V; Belka, C

    2002-10-01

    The oncogenic protein Bcl-2 which is expressed in membranes of different subcellular organelles protects cells from apoptosis induced by endogenic stimuli. Most of the results published so far emphasise the importance of Bcl-2 at the mitochondria. Several recent observations suggest a role of Bcl-2 at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Bcl-2 located at the ER was shown to interfere with apoptosis induction by Bax, ceramides, ionising radiation, serum withdrawal and c-myc expression. Although the detailed functions of Bcl-2 at the ER remain elusive, several speculative mechanisms may be supposed. For instance, Bcl-2 at the ER may regulate calcium fluxes between the ER and the mitochondria. In addition, Bcl-2 is able to interact with the endoplasmic protein Bap31 thus avoiding caspase activation at the ER. Bcl-2 may also abrogate the function of ER located pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 like proteins by heterodimerization. Current data on the function of Bcl-2 at the ER, its role for the modulation of calcium fluxes and its influence on caspase activation at the ER are reviewed.

  7. Expression of Bcl-2 in canine osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Piro, F.; Leonardi, L.

    2015-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignancy of bone. It is responsible for 80-85% of the primary bone tumors affecting dogs and it is characterized by aggressive and invasive behavior, with a high metastatic potential. Several studies on cancer and related tumorigenesis, show an involvement of the mechanisms of programmed cell death and cell survival. Many signals seem to be involved in the related mechanism of autophagy and in particular, our interest is focused on the expression of a family of Bcl-2 that seems to be involved either in the control of biomolecular mechanisms like autophagy and apoptosis. In this study we investigated the expression of Bcl-2 in different cases of spontaneous canine osteosarcoma and the related preliminary results are described. We found Bcl-2 activity was increased in OS tissue compared to normal bone tissue. These results suggested that Bcl-2 activity may play an important role in the formation of OS and as a diagnostic for neoplastic activity. However, further research is needed to confirm the role of Bcl-2 activity in OS in canines. PMID:26623359

  8. Involvement of Bcl-2 and Bax in photodynamic therapy-mediated apoptosis. Antisense Bcl-2 oligonucleotide sensitizes RIF 1 cells to photodynamic therapy apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, M; Ahmad, N; Gupta, S; Mukhtar, H

    2001-05-04

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT), a promising treatment modality, is an oxidative stress that induces apoptosis in many cancer cells in vitro and tumors in vivo. Understanding the mechanism(s) involved in PDT-mediated apoptosis may improve its therapeutic efficacy. Although studies suggest the involvement of multiple pathways, the triggering event(s) responsible for PDT-mediated apoptotic response is(are) not clear. To investigate the role of Bcl-2 in PDT-mediated apoptosis, we employed Bcl-2-antisense and -overexpression approaches in two cell types differing in their responses toward PDT apoptosis. In the first approach, we treated radiation-induced fibrosarcoma (RIF 1) cells, which are resistant to silicon phthalocyanine (Pc 4)-PDT apoptosis, with Bcl-2-antisense oligonucleotide. This treatment resulted in sensitization of RIF 1 cells to PDT-mediated apoptosis as demonstrated by i) cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, ii) DNA ladder formation, iii) terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells, and iv) DEVDase activity. This treatment also resulted in oligonucleotide concentration-dependent decrease in cell viability and down-regulation of Bcl-2 protein with a concomitant increase in apoptosis. However, the level of Bax, a pro-apoptotic member of Bcl-2 family, remained unaltered. In the second approach, an overexpression of Bcl-2 in PDT apoptosis-sensitive human epidermoid carcinoma (A431) cells resulted in enhanced apoptosis and up-regulation of Bax following PDT. In both the approaches, the increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was associated with an increased apoptotic response of PDT. Our data also demonstrated that PDT results in modulation of other Bcl-2 family members in a way that the overall ratio of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic member proteins favors apoptosis.

  9. Cell cycle progression dictates the requirement for BCL2 in natural killer cell survival.

    PubMed

    Viant, Charlotte; Guia, Sophie; Hennessy, Robert J; Rautela, Jai; Pham, Kim; Bernat, Claire; Goh, Wilford; Jiao, Yuhao; Delconte, Rebecca; Roger, Michael; Simon, Vanina; Souza-Fonseca-Guimaraes, Fernando; Grabow, Stephanie; Belz, Gabrielle T; Kile, Benjamin T; Strasser, Andreas; Gray, Daniel; Hodgkin, Phillip D; Beutler, Bruce; Vivier, Eric; Ugolini, Sophie; Huntington, Nicholas D

    2017-02-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphoid cells with antitumor functions. Using an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-induced mutagenesis screen in mice, we identified a strain with an NK cell deficiency caused by a hypomorphic mutation in the Bcl2 (B cell lymphoma 2) gene. Analysis of these mice and the conditional deletion of Bcl2 in NK cells revealed a nonredundant intrinsic requirement for BCL2 in NK cell survival. In these mice, NK cells in cycle were protected against apoptosis, and NK cell counts were restored in inflammatory conditions, suggesting a redundant role for BCL2 in proliferating NK cells. Consistent with this, cycling NK cells expressed higher MCL1 (myeloid cell leukemia 1) levels in both control and BCL2-null mice. Finally, we showed that deletion of BIM restored survival in BCL2-deficient but not MCL1-deficient NK cells. Overall, these data demonstrate an essential role for the binding of BCL2 to BIM in the survival of noncycling NK cells. They also favor a model in which MCL1 is the dominant survival protein in proliferating NK cells.

  10. Cell cycle progression dictates the requirement for BCL2 in natural killer cell survival

    PubMed Central

    Viant, Charlotte; Guia, Sophie; Hennessy, Robert J.; Rautela, Jai; Pham, Kim; Bernat, Claire; Goh, Wilford; Jiao, Yuhao; Delconte, Rebecca; Roger, Michael; Simon, Vanina; Souza-Fonseca-Guimaraes, Fernando; Grabow, Stephanie; Belz, Gabrielle T.; Kile, Benjamin T.; Strasser, Andreas; Gray, Daniel; Hodgkin, Phillip D.; Beutler, Bruce; Vivier, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphoid cells with antitumor functions. Using an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)–induced mutagenesis screen in mice, we identified a strain with an NK cell deficiency caused by a hypomorphic mutation in the Bcl2 (B cell lymphoma 2) gene. Analysis of these mice and the conditional deletion of Bcl2 in NK cells revealed a nonredundant intrinsic requirement for BCL2 in NK cell survival. In these mice, NK cells in cycle were protected against apoptosis, and NK cell counts were restored in inflammatory conditions, suggesting a redundant role for BCL2 in proliferating NK cells. Consistent with this, cycling NK cells expressed higher MCL1 (myeloid cell leukemia 1) levels in both control and BCL2-null mice. Finally, we showed that deletion of BIM restored survival in BCL2-deficient but not MCL1-deficient NK cells. Overall, these data demonstrate an essential role for the binding of BCL2 to BIM in the survival of noncycling NK cells. They also favor a model in which MCL1 is the dominant survival protein in proliferating NK cells. PMID:28057804

  11. Prognostic Influence of BCL2 on Molecular Subtypes of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Han, Wonshik; Kim, Jongjin; Moon, Hyeong-Gon; Oh, Sohee; Song, Yun Seon; Kim, Young A; Chang, Mee Soo; Noh, Dong-Young

    2017-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to reveal the prognostic influence of B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (BCL2) on molecular subtypes of breast cancer. Methods We analyzed 9,468 patients with primary breast cancer. We classified molecular subtypes according to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) and St. Gallen guidelines, mainly on the basis of the expression of hormonal receptor (HR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and Ki-67. Results Regarding NCCN classification, BCL2 was a strong favorable prognostic factor in the HR(+)/HER2(–) subtype (p<0.001) and a marginally significant favorable prognosticator in the HR(+)/HER2(+) subtype (p=0.046). BCL2 had no prognostic impact on HR(–)/HER2(+) and HR(–)/HER2(–) subtypes. In relation to St. Gallen classification, BCL2 was a strong favorable prognosticator in luminal A and luminal B/HER2(–) subtypes (both p<0.001). BCL2 was a marginally significant prognosticator in the luminal B/HER2(+) subtype (p=0.046), and it was not a significant prognosticator in HER2 or triple negative (TN) subtypes. The prognostic effect of BCL2 was proportional to the stage of breast cancer in HR(+)/HER2(–), HR(+)/HER2(+), and HR(–)/HER2(–) subtypes, but not in HR(–)/HER2(+) subtype. BCL2 was not a prognostic factor in TN breast cancer regardless of epidermal growth factor receptor expression. Conclusion The prognostic influence of BCL2 was different across molecular subtypes of breast cancer, and it was largely dependent on HR, HER2, Ki-67, and the stage of cancer. BCL2 had a strong favorable prognostic impact only in HR(+)/HER2(–) or luminal A and luminal B/HER2(–) subtypes, particularly in advanced stages. Further investigations are needed to verify the prognostic influence of BCL2 on molecular subtypes of breast cancer and to develop clinical applications for prognostication using BCL2. PMID:28382095

  12. Is Bax/Bcl-2 ratio considered as a prognostic marker with age and tumor location in colorectal cancer?

    PubMed

    Khodapasand, Ehsan; Jafarzadeh, Narges; Farrokhi, Farid; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Houshmand, Massoud

    2015-01-01

    Bax and Bcl-2 are the major members of Bcl-2 family whose play a key role in tumor progression or inhibition of intrinsic apoptotic pathway triggered by mitochondrial dysfunction. Therefore, the balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic members of this family can determine the cellular fate. In this study, the relative level of mRNA expression of Bax and Bcl-2 genes was determined using RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis and RT-qPCR technique from 22 tumoral tissues and adjacent non-tumoral tissues from adenocarcinoma colorectal cancer. The potential prognostic and predictive significance of Bax and Bcl-2 gene expression and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio were demonstrated in colorectal cancer. The significant correlation between qPCR data and different clinicopathologic parameters of colorectal carcinoma, including age, gender, tumor size, tumor stage, tumor location, and tumor differentiation was also examined. Interestingly, no significant correlation was seen between Bax and Bcl-2 expressions and clinicopathological parameters of colorectal cancer. However, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was statistically correlated with age and tumor location. Patients with age above 50 showed decreased levels of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Moreover, the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was significantly lower in tumors resected from colon compared to sigmoid colon, rectosigmoid and rectum tumors. This study indicates a significant correlation between age and tumor location with Bax/Bcl-2 expression ratio, suggesting predictive value as a potential molecular marker of colorectal cancer.

  13. Is Bax/Bcl-2 Ratio Considered as a Prognostic Marker with Age and Tumor Location in Colorectal Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Khodapasand, Ehsan; Jafarzadeh, Narges; Farrokhi, Farid; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Houshmand, Massoud

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bax and Bcl-2 are the major members of Bcl-2 family whose play a key role in tumor progression or inhibition of intrinsic apoptotic pathway triggered by mitochondrial dysfunction. Therefore, the balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic members of this family can determine the cellular fate. Methods: In this study, the relative level of mRNA expression of Bax and Bcl-2 genes was determined using RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis and RT-qPCR technique from 22 tumoral tissues and adjacent non-tumoral tissues from adenocarcinoma colorectal cancer. Results: The potential prognostic and predictive significance of Bax and Bcl-2 gene expression and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio were demonstrated in colorectal cancer. The significant correlation between qPCR data and different clinicopathologic parameters of colorectal carcinoma, including age, gender, tumor size, tumor stage, tumor location, and tumor differentiation was also examined. Interestingly, no significant correlation was seen between Bax and Bcl-2 expressions and clinicopathological parameters of colorectal cancer. However, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was statistically correlated with age and tumor location. Patients with age above 50 showed decreased levels of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Moreover, the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was significantly lower in tumors resected from colon compared to sigmoid colon, rectosigmoid and rectum tumors. Conclusion: This study indicates a significant correlation between age and tumor location with Bax/Bcl-2 expression ratio, suggesting predictive value as a potential molecular marker of colorectal cancer. PMID:25864810

  14. Locating herpesvirus Bcl-2 homologs in the specificity landscape of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins

    PubMed Central

    Foight, Glenna Wink; Keating, Amy E.

    2015-01-01

    Viral homologs of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins are highly diverged from their mammalian counterparts, yet they perform overlapping functions by binding and inhibiting BH3 motif-containing proteins. We investigated the BH3 binding properties of the herpesvirus Bcl-2 homologs KSBcl-2, BHRF1, and M11, as they relate to those of the human Bcl-2 homologs Mcl-1, Bfl-1, Bcl-w, Bcl-xL, and Bcl-2. Analysis of the sequence and structure of the BH3 binding grooves showed that, despite low sequence identity, M11 has structural similarities to Bcl-xL, Bcl-2, and Bcl-w. BHRF1 and KSBcl-2 are more structurally similar to Mcl-1 than to the other human proteins. Binding to human BH3-like peptides showed that KSBcl-2 has similar specificity to Mcl-1, and BHRF1 has a restricted binding profile; M11 binding preferences are distinct from those of Bcl-xL, Bcl-2 and Bcl-w. Because KSBcl-2 and BHRF1 are from human herpesviruses associated with malignancies, we screened computationally designed BH3 peptide libraries using bacterial surface display to identify selective binders of KSBcl-2 or BHRF1. The resulting peptides bound to KSBcl-2 and BHRF1 in preference to Bfl-1, Bcl-w, Bcl-xL, and Bcl-2, but showed only modest specificity over Mcl-1. Rational mutagenesis increased specificity against Mcl-1, resulting in a peptide with a dissociation constant of 2.9 nM for binding to KSBcl-2 and >1000-fold specificity over human Bcl-2 proteins, and a peptide with >70-fold specificity for BHRF1. In addition to providing new insights into viral Bcl-2 binding specificity, this study will inform future work analyzing the interaction properties of homologous binding domains and designing specific protein interaction partners. PMID:26009469

  15. Expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-2-Ig fusion transcripts in normal and neoplastic cells.

    PubMed Central

    Graninger, W B; Seto, M; Boutain, B; Goldman, P; Korsmeyer, S J

    1987-01-01

    We examined the expression of the Bcl-2 gene at chromosome segment 18q21, that is translocated into the Ig heavy chain gene locus in t(14;18) bearing lymphomas. Bcl-2, while B cell associated, is expressed in a variety of hematopoietic lineages including T cells. Bcl-2 mRNA levels are high during pre-B cell development, the time at which the t(14;18) translocation occurs, but are down regulated with maturation. Like certain other oncogenes, Bcl-2 is quiescent in resting B cells but up-regulated with B cell activation. Mature B cell lymphomas with a t(14;18) have log-folds more mRNA than matched counterparts without the translocation. A sensitive S1 protection assay revealed that all transcripts in t(14;18) B cells were Bcl-2-Ig fusion mRNAs and originated from the translocated allele. Thus, there is a marked deregulation of Bcl-2 when it is introduced into the Ig locus in t(14;18) lymphomas. Images PMID:3500184

  16. Partial lack of BCL2 in follicular lymphoma: An unusual immunohistochemical staining pattern explained by ongoing BCL2 mutation.

    PubMed

    van den Brand, Michiel; Garcia-Garcia, Mar; Mathijssen, Janneke J M; Colomo, Lluis; Groenen, Patricia J T A; Serrano, Sergio; van Krieken, J Han J M

    2016-02-01

    Follicular lymphomas are characterized by overexpression of BCL2 which, in the large majority of cases, is due to a t(14;18) translocation which juxtaposes the BCL2 locus to the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus (IGH). Here, we report partial absence of BCL2 immunohistochemical staining in a case of FL, due to a mutation in the part of BCL2 that encodes the epitope for the most frequently used antibody against BCL2. This finding shows that mutations in BCL2 occur in an ongoing process in follicular which can give rise to unusual immunohistochemical staining patterns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. BCL-2 is dispensable for thrombopoiesis and platelet survival

    PubMed Central

    Debrincat, M A; Pleines, I; Lebois, M; Lane, R M; Holmes, M L; Corbin, J; Vandenberg, C J; Alexander, W S; Ng, A P; Strasser, A; Bouillet, P; Sola-Visner, M; Kile, B T; Josefsson, E C

    2015-01-01

    Navitoclax (ABT-263), an inhibitor of the pro-survival BCL-2 family proteins BCL-2, BCL-XL and BCL-W, has shown clinical efficacy in certain BCL-2-dependent haematological cancers, but causes dose-limiting thrombocytopaenia. The latter effect is caused by Navitoclax directly inducing the apoptotic death of platelets, which are dependent on BCL-XL for survival. Recently, ABT-199, a selective BCL-2 antagonist, was developed. It has shown promising anti-leukaemia activity in patients whilst sparing platelets, suggesting that the megakaryocyte lineage does not require BCL-2. In order to elucidate the role of BCL-2 in megakaryocyte and platelet survival, we generated mice with a lineage-specific deletion of Bcl2, alone or in combination with loss of Mcl1 or Bclx. Platelet production and platelet survival were analysed. Additionally, we made use of BH3 mimetics that selectively inhibit BCL-2 or BCL-XL. We show that the deletion of BCL-2, on its own or in concert with MCL-1, does not affect platelet production or platelet lifespan. Thrombocytopaenia in Bclx-deficient mice was not affected by additional genetic loss or pharmacological inhibition of BCL-2. Thus, BCL-2 is dispensable for thrombopoiesis and platelet survival in mice. PMID:25880088

  18. BCL-2 is dispensable for thrombopoiesis and platelet survival.

    PubMed

    Debrincat, M A; Pleines, I; Lebois, M; Lane, R M; Holmes, M L; Corbin, J; Vandenberg, C J; Alexander, W S; Ng, A P; Strasser, A; Bouillet, P; Sola-Visner, M; Kile, B T; Josefsson, E C

    2015-04-16

    Navitoclax (ABT-263), an inhibitor of the pro-survival BCL-2 family proteins BCL-2, BCL-XL and BCL-W, has shown clinical efficacy in certain BCL-2-dependent haematological cancers, but causes dose-limiting thrombocytopaenia. The latter effect is caused by Navitoclax directly inducing the apoptotic death of platelets, which are dependent on BCL-XL for survival. Recently, ABT-199, a selective BCL-2 antagonist, was developed. It has shown promising anti-leukaemia activity in patients whilst sparing platelets, suggesting that the megakaryocyte lineage does not require BCL-2. In order to elucidate the role of BCL-2 in megakaryocyte and platelet survival, we generated mice with a lineage-specific deletion of Bcl2, alone or in combination with loss of Mcl1 or Bclx. Platelet production and platelet survival were analysed. Additionally, we made use of BH3 mimetics that selectively inhibit BCL-2 or BCL-XL. We show that the deletion of BCL-2, on its own or in concert with MCL-1, does not affect platelet production or platelet lifespan. Thrombocytopaenia in Bclx-deficient mice was not affected by additional genetic loss or pharmacological inhibition of BCL-2. Thus, BCL-2 is dispensable for thrombopoiesis and platelet survival in mice.

  19. AMBRA1, a Novel BH3-Like Protein: New Insights Into the AMBRA1-BCL2-Family Proteins Relationship.

    PubMed

    Di Rita, A; Strappazzon, F

    2017-01-01

    Cellular homeostasis swings like a pendulum backward and forward between life and death. Two of the main processes, which regulate this equilibrium, are autophagy and apoptosis. While autophagy is a highly conserved self-digestion mechanism that mediates degradation of damaged or surplus components, apoptosis is a programmed cell suicide in which typical death signals induce the elimination of undesired cells. Both these processes are highly regulated by complex molecular machineries, including some common proteins whose "dual role" favors one process or the other. Among these proteins, the well-known antiapoptotic factor BCL2 downregulates autophagy through interactions with the essential autophagic effectors, BECN1/BECLIN 1 and AMBRA1. Recently, we have demonstrated that the proautophagic protein AMBRA1 contains a BH3 domain necessary for AMBRA1 binding with the antiapoptotic factor BCL2. We found that the AMBRA1-BCL2 couple have a "dual role" in autophagy and apoptosis: the mitochondrial pool of BCL2 is able to inhibit AMBRA1-dependent autophagy, whereas in cell death conditions, the cleaved form of AMBRA1 (AMBRA1(CT)), resulting from CASP/CASPASES-cleavage, abrogates the prosurvival activity of BCL2 and promotes a proapoptotic amplification loop. The CASP-cleaved form of AMBRA1 bound other antiapoptotic members of the BCL2 family proteins such as MCL1 and BCL2L1/BCL-X; by contrast, no binding could be detected with the proapoptotic-BCL2 factors such as BAK1/BAK and BAX. These findings underline an intricate interplay between autophagy and cell death in which the proautophagic protein AMBRA1 and the antiapoptotic BCL2 family members are the major players. Here, we give an overview of the AMBRA1-BCL2 family proteins interactome and its involvement in controlling life and cell death. We discuss a putative therapeutic target which offers the novel BH3 motif identified in the C-terminal part of AMBRA1.

  20. Molecular Basis for Bcl-2 Homology 3 Domain Recognition in the Bcl-2 Protein Family

    PubMed Central

    Moroy, Gautier; Martin, Elyette; Dejaegere, Annick; Stote, Roland H.

    2009-01-01

    The proteins of the Bcl-2 family are important regulators of apoptosis, or programmed cell death. These proteins regulate this fundamental biological process via the formation of heterodimers involving both pro- and anti-apoptotic family members. Disruption of the balance between anti- and pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins is the cause of numerous pathologies. Bcl-xl, an anti-apoptotic protein of this family, is known to form heterodimers with multiple pro-apoptotic proteins, such as Bad, Bim, Bak, and Bid. To elucidate the molecular basis of this recognition process, we used molecular dynamics simulations coupled with the Molecular Mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann Surface Area approach to identify the amino acids that make significant energetic contributions to the binding free energy of four complexes formed between Bcl-xl and pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 homology 3 peptides. A fifth protein-peptide complex composed of another anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-w, in complex with the peptide from Bim was also studied. The results identified amino acids of both the anti-apoptotic proteins as well as the Bcl-2 homology 3 (BH3) domains of the pro-apoptotic proteins that make strong, recurrent interactions in the protein complexes. The calculations show that the two anti-apoptotic proteins, Bcl-xl and Bcl-w, share a similar recognition mechanism. Our results provide insight into the molecular basis for the promiscuous nature of this molecular recognition process by members of the Bcl-2 protein family. These amino acids could be targeted in the design of new mimetics that serve as scaffolds for new antitumoral molecules. PMID:19293158

  1. Sensitization of BCL-2–expressing breast tumors to chemotherapy by the BH3 mimetic ABT-737

    PubMed Central

    Oakes, Samantha R.; Vaillant, François; Lim, Elgene; Lee, Lily; Breslin, Kelsey; Feleppa, Frank; Deb, Siddhartha; Ritchie, Matthew E.; Takano, Elena; Ward, Teresa; Fox, Stephen B.; Generali, Daniele; Smyth, Gordon K.; Strasser, Andreas; Huang, David C. S.; Visvader, Jane E.; Lindeman, Geoffrey J.

    2012-01-01

    Overexpression of the prosurvival protein BCL-2 is common in breast cancer. Here we have explored its role as a potential therapeutic target in this disease. BCL-2, its anti-apoptotic relatives MCL-1 and BCL-XL, and the proapoptotic BH3-only ligand BIM were found to be coexpressed at relatively high levels in a substantial proportion of heterogeneous breast tumors, including clinically aggressive basal-like cancers. To determine whether the BH3 mimetic ABT-737 that neutralizes BCL-2, BCL-XL, and BCL-W had potential efficacy in targeting BCL-2–expressing basal-like triple-negative tumors, we generated a panel of primary breast tumor xenografts in immunocompromised mice and treated recipients with either ABT-737, docetaxel, or a combination. Tumor response and overall survival were significantly improved by combination therapy, but only for tumor xenografts that expressed elevated levels of BCL-2. Treatment with ABT-737 alone was ineffective, suggesting that ABT-737 sensitizes the tumor cells to docetaxel. Combination therapy was accompanied by a marked increase in apoptosis and dissociation of BIM from BCL-2. Notably, BH3 mimetics also appeared effective in BCL-2–expressing xenograft lines that harbored p53 mutations. Our findings provide in vivo evidence that BH3 mimetics can be used to sensitize primary breast tumors to chemotherapy and further suggest that elevated BCL-2 expression constitutes a predictive response marker in breast cancer. PMID:21768359

  2. Bcl-2 delays cell cycle through mitochondrial ATP and ROS.

    PubMed

    Du, Xing; Fu, Xufeng; Yao, Kun; Lan, Zhenwei; Xu, Hui; Cui, Qinghua; Yang, Elizabeth

    2017-02-22

    Bcl-2 inhibits cell proliferation by delaying G0/G1 to S phase entry. We tested the hypothesis that Bcl-2 regulates S phase entry through mitochondrial pathways. Existing evidence indicates mitochondrial adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important signals in cell survival and cell death, however, the molecular details of how these 2 processes are linked remain unknown. In this study, 2 cell lines stably expressing Bcl-2, 3T3Bcl-2 and C3HBcl-2, and vector-alone PB controls were arrested in G0/G1 phase by serum starvation and contact inhibition, and ATP and ROS were measured during re-stimulation of cell cycle entry. Both ATP and ROS levels were decreased in G0/G1 arrested cells compared with normal growing cells. In addition, ROS levels were significant lower in synchronized Bcl-2 cells than those in PB controls. After re-stimulation, ATP levels increased with time, reaching peak value 1-3 hours ahead of S phase entry for both Bcl-2 cells and PB controls. Consistent with 2 hours of S phase delay, Bcl-2 cells reached ATP peaks 2 hours later than PB control, which suggests a rise in ATP levels is required for S phase entry. To examine the role of ATP and ROS in cell cycle regulation, ATP and ROS level were changed. We observed that elevation of ATP accelerated cell cycle progression in both PB and Bcl-2 cells, and decrease of ATP and ROS to the level equivalent to Bcl-2 cells delayed S phase entry in PB cells. Our results support the hypothesis that Bcl-2 protein regulates mitochondrial metabolism to produce less ATP and ROS, which contributes to S phase entry delay in Bcl-2 cells. These findings reveal a novel mechanistic basis for understanding the link between mitochondrial metabolism and tumor-suppressive function of Bcl-2.

  3. Phage display screen for peptides that bind Bcl-2 protein.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye-Yeon; Kim, Joungmok; Cho, June-Haeng; Moon, Ji Young; Lee, Su-Jae; Yoon, Moon-Young

    2011-01-01

    Bcl-2 family proteins are key regulators of apoptosis associated with human disease, including cancer. Bcl-2 protein has been found to be overexpressed in many cancer cells. Therefore, Bcl-2 protein is a potential diagnostic target for cancer detection. In the present study, the authors have identified several Bcl-2 binding peptides with high affinity (picomolar range) from a 5-round M13 phage display library screening. These peptides can be used to develop novel diagnostic probes or potent inhibitors with diverse polyvalencies.

  4. MicroRNA-181c targets Bcl-2 and regulates mitochondrial morphology in myocardial cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongjiang; Li, Jing; Chi, Hongjie; Zhang, Fan; Zhu, Xiaoming; Cai, Jun; Yang, Xinchun

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis is an important mechanism for the development of heart failure. Mitochondria are central to the execution of apoptosis in the intrinsic pathway. The main regulator of mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis is Bcl-2 family which includes pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins. MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression by inhibiting mRNA translation and/or inducing mRNA degradation. It has been proposed that microRNAs play critical roles in the cardiovascular physiology and pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Our previous study has found that microRNA-181c, a miRNA expressed in the myocardial cells, plays an important role in the development of heart failure. With bioinformatics analysis, we predicted that miR-181c could target the 3′ untranslated region of Bcl-2, one of the anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family. Thus, we have suggested that miR-181c was involved in regulation of Bcl-2. In this study, we investigated this hypothesis using the Dual-Luciferase Reporter Assay System. Cultured myocardial cells were transfected with the mimic or inhibitor of miR-181c. We found that the level of miR-181c was inversely correlated with the Bcl-2 protein level and that transfection of myocardial cells with the mimic or inhibitor of miR-181c resulted in significant changes in the levels of caspases, Bcl-2 and cytochrome C in these cells. The increased level of Bcl-2 caused by the decrease in miR-181c protected mitochondrial morphology from the tumour necrosis factor alpha-induced apoptosis. PMID:25898913

  5. Expression of Apoptosis-regulating Proteins Bcl-2 and Bax in Lymph Node Aspirates from Dogs with Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Meichner, K; Fogle, J E; English, L; Suter, S E

    2016-05-01

    Dysregulated apoptosis is a hallmark of tumorigenesis, and is also involved in resistance to cytotoxic treatment, and might be relevant in lymphoma in dogs. That Bcl-2/Bax expression patterns differ between lymphoma immunophenotypes, and that Bcl-2/Bax ratio is correlated with prognosis. Fifty-five client-owned dogs with multicentric lymphoma and 5 healthy dogs. Prospective, case-control study. We compared 3 methods (flow cytometry, qRT-PCR, Western blot) for Bcl-2 and Bax quantification in a subset of dogs. The effect of time on Bcl-2/Bax ratios measured by flow cytometry was assessed in lymphoma cell lines. Immunophenotype and Bcl-2/Bax expression by flow cytometry were determined in LN aspirates from all dogs with multicentric lymphoma compared to healthy dogs. Progression-free survival (PFS) was retrospectively evaluated in a group of dogs all receiving similar treatment. Bcl-2/Bax ratios remain consistent for at least 5 days after sample collection. Bcl-2/Bax ratio was higher in dogs with T-cell lymphoma (TCL; median 0.97, range 0.37-1.36) compared to B-cell lymphoma (BCL; median 0.36, range 0.07-1.45) (P < .0001) and normal dogs (median 0.36, range 0.21-0.48) (P = .0006), respectively. Dogs with Bcl-2/Bax ratios higher than the median of the group experienced a median PFS of 101 days and dogs with ratios equal and lower than the median had PFS of 130 days (P = .19). Higher intrinsic resistance to apoptosis following cytotoxic treatment might contribute to the less favorable prognosis associated with multicentric TCL in dogs. Whether Bcl-2/Bax will be helpful to identify canine BCL and TCL with more aggressive and more indolent behavior, respectively, should be evaluated in larger prospective clinical studies. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  6. Biophysical Basis of the Promiscuous Binding of Bcl2 Apoptotic Repressor to BH3 Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Vikas; Olenick, Max B.; Schuchardt, Brett J.; Mikles, David C.; McDonald, Caleb B.; Farooq, Amjad

    2013-01-01

    Bcl2 apoptotic repressor carries out its function by virtue of its ability to bind to BH3 domains of various pro-apoptotic regulators in a highly promiscuous manner. Herein, we investigate the biophysical basis of such promiscuity of Bcl2 toward its cognate BH3 ligands. Our data show that while the BH3 ligands harboring the LXXXAD motif bind to Bcl2 with submicromolar affinity, those with the LXXX[G/S]D motif afford weak interactions. This implies that the replacement of alanine at the fourth position (A+4)—relative to the N-terminal leucine (L0) within the LXXXAD motif—to glycine/serine results in the loss of free energy of binding. Consistent with this notion, the A+4 residue within the BH3 ligands harboring the LXXXAD motif engages in key intermolecular van der Waals contacts with A149 lining the ligand binding groove within Bcl2, while A+4G/S substitution results in the disruption of such favorable binding interactions. Of particular interest is the observation that while increasing ionic strength has little or negligible effect on the binding of high-affinity BH3 ligands harboring the LXXXAD motif, the binding of those with the LXXX[G/S]D motif in general experiences a varying degree of enhancement. This salient observation is indicative of the fact that hydrophobic forces not only play a dominant but also a universal role in driving the Bcl2-BH3 interactions. Taken together, our study sheds light on the molecular basis of the factors governing the promiscuous binding of Bcl2 to pro-apoptotic regulators and thus bears important consequences on the development of rational therapeutic approaches. PMID:23996493

  7. Citations alone were enough to predict favorable conclusions in reviews of neuraminidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xujuan; Wang, Ying; Tsafnat, Guy; Coiera, Enrico; Bourgeois, Florence T; Dunn, Adam G

    2015-01-01

    To examine the use of supervised machine learning to identify biases in evidence selection and determine if citation information can predict favorable conclusions in reviews about neuraminidase inhibitors. Reviews of neuraminidase inhibitors published during January 2005 to May 2013 were identified by searching PubMed. In a blinded evaluation, the reviews were classified as favorable if investigators agreed that they supported the use of neuraminidase inhibitors for prophylaxis or treatment of influenza. Reference lists were used to identify all unique citations to primary articles. Three classification methods were tested for their ability to predict favorable conclusions using only citation information. Citations to 4,574 articles were identified in 152 reviews of neuraminidase inhibitors, and 93 (61%) of these reviews were graded as favorable. Primary articles describing drug resistance were among the citations that were underrepresented in favorable reviews. The most accurate classifier predicted favorable conclusions with 96.2% accuracy, using citations to only 24 of 4,574 articles. Favorable conclusions in reviews about neuraminidase inhibitors can be predicted using only information about the articles they cite. The approach highlights how evidence exclusion shapes conclusions in reviews and provides a method to evaluate citation practices in a corpus of reviews. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Bcl-2 Antagonists: A Proof of Concept for CLL Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, Kumudha; Gandhi, Varsha

    2014-01-01

    Defective apoptosis is a fundamental hallmark feature of CLL biology and is a major target of cancer therapy development. High levels of Bcl-2 family anti-apoptotic proteins are considered primarily responsible for inhibiting apoptosis in CLL cells. While several approaches were considered to selectively inhibit Bcl-2 family anti-apoptotic proteins, the discovery that gossypol binds and antagonizes anti-apoptotic effect of Bcl-2 family proteins was a major breakthrough in identifying specific Bcl-2 antagonists. The concept of mimicking BH3 domain emphasized the importance of Bcl-2 family-targeted therapy that can modulate the function of anti-apoptotic proteins. Although parent compound gossypol did not sustain in the clinic, its structural modifications led to the development of additional analogues that demonstrated improved efficacy and reduced toxicity in preclinical and clinical investigations. Proof of concept of this hypothesis was demonstrated by structure based BH3 mimetic ABT-737 that has shown greater cytotoxicity towards CLL cells both in pre-clinical models and clinical trials. Its oral compound ABT-263 has demonstrated the substantial susceptibility of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells through Bcl-2 inhibition. Collectively, results of a Phase I Study of Navitoclax (ABT-263) in patients with relapsed or refractory disease warrants Bcl-2 as a valid therapeutic target in CLL. Importantly, molecules that mimic pro-apoptotic BH3 domains represent a direct approach to overcoming the protective effects of anti-apoptotic proteins such as Mcl-1, Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL. PMID:23907405

  9. Initiation of premature senescence by Bcl-2 in hypoxic condition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Desheng; Li, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Senescence, a state of cell cycle arrest, has been regarded as an intrinsic barrier to malignance. Although being repressed in most immortal tumors, the genetic program of senescence can be reactivated by critical regulators, including the apoptosis regulator Bcl-2. We showed here that hypoxic condition resulted in an irreversible senescence-like phenotype with increased expression of Bcl-2 in mouse melanoma B16 cells. In CoCl2-simulating hypoxic condition, characteristic morphological alterations and increased activity of senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) can be detected with high level of Bcl-2, which was confirmed by western blot and co-staining of SA-β-gal and Bcl-2 by immunocytochemistry. Accordingly, Bcl-2 silence by specific siRNA ahead of hypoxia treatment interrupted the senescent development. Moreover Bcl-2 overexpression led to early onset of senescence. We propose that Bcl-2 is required to initiate and maintain the senescent phenotype. In addition, p53 and p16 were not involved in hypoxia-induced senescence according to the expression levels during senescent process. These results suggest that when encountering harmful stress (hypoxia), melanoma cells overexpress Bcl-2 and turn to senescence, a permanent cell-cycle arrest, for prolonged survival.

  10. Loss in MCL-1 function sensitizes non-Hodgkin's lymphoma cell lines to the BCL-2-selective inhibitor venetoclax (ABT-199).

    PubMed

    Phillips, D C; Xiao, Y; Lam, L T; Litvinovich, E; Roberts-Rapp, L; Souers, A J; Leverson, J D

    2015-11-13

    As a population, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) cell lines positive for the t(14;18) translocation and/or possessing elevated BCL2 copy number (CN; BCL2(High)) are exquisitely sensitive to navitoclax or the B-cell lymphoma protein-2 (BCL-2)-selective inhibitor venetoclax. Despite this, some BCL2(High) cell lines remain resistant to either agent. Here we show that the MCL-1-specific inhibitor A-1210477 sensitizes these cell lines to navitoclax. Chemical segregation of this synergy with the BCL-2-selective inhibitor venetoclax or BCL-XL-selective inhibitor A-1155463 indicated that MCL-1 and BCL-2 are the two key anti-apoptotic targets for sensitization. Similarly, the CDK inhibitor flavopiridol downregulated MCL-1 expression and synergized with venetoclax in BCL2(High) NHL cell lines to a similar extent as A-1210477. A-1210477 also synergized with navitoclax in the majority of BCL2(Low) NHL cell lines. However, chemical segregation with venetoclax or A-1155463 revealed that synergy was driven by BCL-XL inhibition in this population. Collectively these data emphasize that BCL2 status is predictive of venetoclax potency in NHL not only as a single agent, but also in the adjuvant setting with anti-tumorigenic agents that inhibit MCL-1 function. These studies also potentially identify a patient population (BCL2(Low)) that could benefit from BCL-XL (navitoclax)-driven combination therapy.

  11. Loss in MCL-1 function sensitizes non-Hodgkin's lymphoma cell lines to the BCL-2-selective inhibitor venetoclax (ABT-199)

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, D C; Xiao, Y; Lam, L T; Litvinovich, E; Roberts-Rapp, L; Souers, A J; Leverson, J D

    2015-01-01

    As a population, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) cell lines positive for the t(14;18) translocation and/or possessing elevated BCL2 copy number (CN; BCL2High) are exquisitely sensitive to navitoclax or the B-cell lymphoma protein-2 (BCL-2)-selective inhibitor venetoclax. Despite this, some BCL2High cell lines remain resistant to either agent. Here we show that the MCL-1-specific inhibitor A-1210477 sensitizes these cell lines to navitoclax. Chemical segregation of this synergy with the BCL-2-selective inhibitor venetoclax or BCL-XL-selective inhibitor A-1155463 indicated that MCL-1 and BCL-2 are the two key anti-apoptotic targets for sensitization. Similarly, the CDK inhibitor flavopiridol downregulated MCL-1 expression and synergized with venetoclax in BCL2High NHL cell lines to a similar extent as A-1210477. A-1210477 also synergized with navitoclax in the majority of BCL2Low NHL cell lines. However, chemical segregation with venetoclax or A-1155463 revealed that synergy was driven by BCL-XL inhibition in this population. Collectively these data emphasize that BCL2 status is predictive of venetoclax potency in NHL not only as a single agent, but also in the adjuvant setting with anti-tumorigenic agents that inhibit MCL-1 function. These studies also potentially identify a patient population (BCL2Low) that could benefit from BCL-XL (navitoclax)-driven combination therapy. PMID:26565405

  12. Blastic Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Neoplasm Is Dependent on BCL2 and Sensitive to Venetoclax.

    PubMed

    Montero, Joan; Stephansky, Jason; Cai, Tianyu; Griffin, Gabriel K; Cabal-Hierro, Lucia; Togami, Katsuhiro; Hogdal, Leah J; Galinsky, Ilene; Morgan, Elizabeth A; Aster, Jon C; Davids, Matthew S; LeBoeuf, Nicole R; Stone, Richard M; Konopleva, Marina; Pemmaraju, Naveen; Letai, Anthony; Lane, Andrew A

    2017-02-01

    Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is an aggressive hematologic malignancy with dismal outcomes for which no standard therapy exists. We found that primary BPDCN cells were dependent on the antiapoptotic protein BCL2 and were uniformly sensitive to the BCL2 inhibitor venetoclax, as measured by direct cytotoxicity, apoptosis assays, and dynamic BH3 profiling. Animals bearing BPDCN patient-derived xenografts had disease responses and improved survival after venetoclax treatment in vivo Finally, we report on 2 patients with relapsed/refractory BPDCN who received venetoclax off-label and experienced significant disease responses. We propose that venetoclax or other BCL2 inhibitors undergo expedited clinical evaluation in BPDCN, alone or in combination with other therapies. In addition, these data illustrate an example of precision medicine to predict treatment response using ex vivo functional assessment of primary tumor tissue, without requiring a genetic biomarker.

  13. The Development and Current Use of BCL-2 Inhibitors for the Treatment of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Lampson, Benjamin L; Davids, Matthew S

    2017-01-23

    The BCL-2 family of proteins integrates pro- and anti-apoptotic signals within the cell and is responsible for initiation of caspase-dependent apoptosis. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells are particularly dependent on the anti-apoptotic protein BCL-2 for their survival, making this an attractive therapeutic target in CLL. Several early efforts to create inhibitors of the anti-apoptotic family members faced significant challenges, but eventually, the BCL-2 specific inhibitor venetoclax moved forward in CLL. Overall and complete response rates to venetoclax monotherapy in relapsed, refractory CLL are approximately 80 and 20%, respectively, even in patients with high-risk 17p deletion. Toxicities have been manageable and include neutropenia, diarrhea, and nausea. The risk of tumor lysis syndrome (TLS), seen in early experience with the drug, has been mitigated by the use of appropriate TLS risk assessment, prophylaxis, and management. Future studies of venetoclax will focus on combination approaches, predictive biomarker discovery, and mechanisms of resistance.

  14. Expression of the bcl-2 gene product in follicular lymphoma.

    PubMed Central

    Gaulard, P.; d'Agay, M. F.; Peuchmaur, M.; Brousse, N.; Gisselbrecht, C.; Solal-Celigny, P.; Diebold, J.; Mason, D. Y.

    1992-01-01

    Expression of bcl-2 protein was analyzed in 140 cases of follicular lymphoma by immunohistologic staining of paraffin-embedded tissue; 85% of cases were positive, the frequency being related to histologic grade (100% for the small-cleaved cell type, 86% for the mixed cell type, and 76% for the large cell group). There was striking heterogeneity of bcl-2 content in a number of cases and the smaller neoplastic cells (i.e., centrocytes) were usually the most strongly labeled. In most cases, bcl-2 protein staining was much weaker in normal lymphoid cells than in the neoplastic cells. In several cases, staining for bcl-2 revealed patterns of neoplastic cell spread into adjacent tissue (e.g., normal follicles, lymphoid sinuses), and bcl-2 protein expression tended to be highest in these migratory cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:1374590

  15. BCL2 in breast cancer: a favourable prognostic marker across molecular subtypes and independent of adjuvant therapy received

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, S-J; Makretsov, N; Blows, F M; Driver, K E; Provenzano, E; Le Quesne, J; Baglietto, L; Severi, G; Giles, G G; McLean, C A; Callagy, G; Green, A R; Ellis, I; Gelmon, K; Turashvili, G; Leung, S; Aparicio, S; Huntsman, D; Caldas, C; Pharoah, P

    2010-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is heterogeneous and the existing prognostic classifiers are limited in accuracy, leading to unnecessary treatment of numerous women. B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2), an antiapoptotic protein, has been proposed as a prognostic marker, but this effect is considered to relate to oestrogen receptor (ER) status. This study aimed to test the clinical validity of BCL2 as an independent prognostic marker. Methods: Five studies of 11 212 women with early-stage breast cancer were analysed. Individual patient data included tumour size, grade, lymph node status, endocrine therapy, chemotherapy and mortality. BCL2, ER, progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) levels were determined in all tumours. A Cox model incorporating the time-dependent effects of each variable was used to explore the prognostic significance of BCL2. Results: In univariate analysis, ER, PR and BCL2 positivity was associated with improved survival and HER2 positivity with inferior survival. For ER and PR this effect was time dependent, whereas for BCL2 and HER2 the effect persisted over time. In multivariate analysis, BCL2 positivity retained independent prognostic significance (hazard ratio (HR) 0.76, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.66–0.88, P<0.001). BCL2 was a powerful prognostic marker in ER− (HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.54–0.74, P<0.001) and ER+ disease (HR 0.56, 95% CI 0.48–0.65, P<0.001), and in HER2− (HR 0.55, 95% CI 0.49–0.61, P<0.001) and HER2+ disease (HR 0.70, 95% CI 0.57–0.85, P<0.001), irrespective of the type of adjuvant therapy received. Addition of BCL2 to the Adjuvant! Online prognostic model, for a subset of cases with a 10-year follow-up, improved the survival prediction (P=0.0039). Conclusions: BCL2 is an independent indicator of favourable prognosis for all types of early-stage breast cancer. This study establishes the rationale for introduction of BCL2 immunohistochemistry to improve prognostic stratification. Further work

  16. The Bcl-2-associated death promoter (BAD) lowers the threshold at which the Bcl-2-interacting domain death agonist (BID) triggers mitochondria disintegration.

    PubMed

    Howells, Christopher C; Baumann, William T; Samuels, David C; Finkielstein, Carla V

    2011-02-21

    The Bcl-2-associated death promoter (BAD) protein, like many other BH3-only proteins, is known to promote apoptosis through the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. Unlike the BH3-interacting domain death agonist (BID) protein, BAD cannot directly trigger apoptosis but, instead, lowers the threshold at which apoptosis is induced. In many mathematical models of apoptosis, BAD is neglected or abstracted. The work presented here considers the incorporation of BAD and its various modifications in a model of the tBID-induction of BAK (Bcl-2 homologous antagonist killer) or the tBID-induction of BAX (Bcl-2-associated X protein). Steady state equations are used to develop an explicit formula describing the total concentration level of tBID, guaranteed to trigger apoptosis, as a bilinear function of the total BAD concentration level and the total anti-apoptotic protein concentration level (usually Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL). In particular, the formula explains how the pro-apoptotic protein BAD lowers the threshold at which tBID induces BAK/BAX activation-reducing the level of total Bcl-2/Bcl-xL available to inhibit tBID signaling in the mitochondria. Attention is then turned to the experimental data surrounding BAD phosphorylation, a process known to inhibit the pro-apoptotic effects of BAD. To address this data, the phosphorylation process is modeled following two separate kinetics in which either free unbound BAD is the assumed substrate or Bcl-xL/Bcl-2-bound BAD is the assumed substrate. Bifurcation analysis and further analysis of the bilinear equation validate experiments, which suggest that BAD phosphorylation prevents irreversible BAK/BAX-mediated apoptosis, even when phosphorylation-induced dissociation of Bcl-xL/Bcl-2-bound BAD is blocked. It is also shown that a cooperative, even synergistic, removal of mitochondrial BAD is seen when both types of phosphorylation are assumed possible. The presented work, however, reveals that the balance between BAD phosphorylation and

  17. Integrated strategy reveals the protein interface between cancer targets Bcl-2 and NAF-1

    PubMed Central

    Tamir, Sagi; Rotem-Bamberger, Shahar; Katz, Chen; Morcos, Faruck; Hailey, Kendra L.; Zuris, John A.; Wang, Charles; Conlan, Andrea R.; Lipper, Colin H.; Paddock, Mark L.; Mittler, Ron; Onuchic, José N.; Jennings, Patricia A.; Friedler, Assaf; Nechushtai, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Life requires orchestrated control of cell proliferation, cell maintenance, and cell death. Involved in these decisions are protein complexes that assimilate a variety of inputs that report on the status of the cell and lead to an output response. Among the proteins involved in this response are nutrient-deprivation autophagy factor-1 (NAF-1)- and Bcl-2. NAF-1 is a homodimeric member of the novel Fe-S protein NEET family, which binds two 2Fe-2S clusters. NAF-1 is an important partner for Bcl-2 at the endoplasmic reticulum to functionally antagonize Beclin 1-dependent autophagy [Chang NC, Nguyen M, Germain M, Shore GC (2010) EMBO J 29(3):606–618]. We used an integrated approach involving peptide array, deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (DXMS), and functional studies aided by the power of sufficient constraints from direct coupling analysis (DCA) to determine the dominant docked conformation of the NAF-1–Bcl-2 complex. NAF-1 binds to both the pro- and antiapoptotic regions (BH3 and BH4) of Bcl-2, as demonstrated by a nested protein fragment analysis in a peptide array and DXMS analysis. A combination of the solution studies together with a new application of DCA to the eukaryotic proteins NAF-1 and Bcl-2 provided sufficient constraints at amino acid resolution to predict the interaction surfaces and orientation of the protein–protein interactions involved in the docked structure. The specific integrated approach described in this paper provides the first structural information, to our knowledge, for future targeting of the NAF-1–Bcl-2 complex in the regulation of apoptosis/autophagy in cancer biology. PMID:24706857

  18. ABT-199 (venetoclax) and BCL-2 inhibitors in clinical development.

    PubMed

    Cang, Shundong; Iragavarapu, Chaitanya; Savooji, John; Song, Yongping; Liu, Delong

    2015-11-20

    With the advent of new agents targeting CD20, Bruton's tyrosine kinase, and phosphoinositol-3 kinase for chronic lymphoid leukemia (CLL), more treatment options exist than ever before. B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2) plays a major role in cellular apoptosis and is a druggable target. Small molecule inhibitors of BCL-2 are in active clinical studies. ABT-199 (venetoclax, RG7601, GDC-0199) has been granted breakthrough designation by FDA for relapsed or refractory CLL with 17p deletion. In this review, we summarized the latest clinical development of ABT-199/venetoclax and other novel agents targeting the BCL-2 proteins.

  19. [Bcl-2 expression following the brain concussion in rats].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xu-yang; Wang, Feng; Fang, Wei-hua; Wu, Mao-wang

    2007-02-15

    To evaluate the expression of Bcl-2 protein after brain concussion. Expression levels of Bel-2 protein in cortex, pontine and cerebellum of rats were investigated using immunohistochemistry. There was no expression of Bcl-2 protein in control group seen. The expression of Bcl-2 protein in brain concussion groups was detected at l hour, and the expression level reached its peak 4 days after the concussion and then declined gradually. Our findings suggest that the detection of Bel-2 protein could be an indicator for diagnosis of brain concussion and for estimation of the post injury time interval.

  20. Detecting DNA methylation of the BCL2, CDKN2A and NID2 genes in urine using a nested methylation specific polymerase chain reaction assay to predict bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Scher, Michael B; Elbaum, Michael B; Mogilevkin, Yakov; Hilbert, David W; Mydlo, Jack H; Sidi, A Ami; Adelson, Martin E; Mordechai, Eli; Trama, Jason P

    2012-12-01

    Detection of methylated DNA has been shown to be a good biomarker for bladder cancer. Bladder cancer has the highest recurrence rate of any cancer and, as such, patients are regularly monitored using invasive diagnostic techniques. As urine is easily attainable, bladder cancer is an optimal cancer to detect using DNA methylation. DNA methylation is highly specific in cancer detection. However, it is difficult to detect because of the limited amount of DNA present in the urine of patients with bladder cancer. Therefore, an improved, sensitive and noninvasive diagnostic test is needed. We developed a highly specific and sensitive nested methylation specific polymerase chain reaction assay to detect the presence of bladder cancer in small volumes of patient urine. The genes assayed for DNA methylation are BCL2, CDKN2A and NID2. The regions surrounding the DNA methylation sites were amplified in a methylation independent first round polymerase chain reaction and the amplification product from the first polymerase chain reaction was used in a real-time methylation specific polymerase chain reaction. Urine samples were collected from patients receiving treatment at Wolfson Medical Center in Holon, Israel. In a pilot clinical study using patient urine samples we were able to differentiate bladder cancer from other urogenital malignancies and nonmalignant conditions with a sensitivity of 80.9% and a specificity of 86.4%. We developed a novel methylation specific polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection and monitoring of bladder cancer using DNA extracted from patient urine. The assay may also be combined with other diagnostic tests to improve accuracy. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Deletion of AU-Rich Elements within the Bcl2 3′UTR Reduces Protein Expression and B Cell Survival In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Muñoz, Manuel D.; Bell, Sarah E.; Turner, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Post-transcriptional mRNA regulation by RNA binding proteins (RBPs) associated with AU-rich elements (AREs) present in the 3′ untranslated region (3’UTR) of specific mRNAs modulates transcript stability and translation in eukaryotic cells. Here we have functionally characterised the importance of the AREs present within the Bcl2 3’UTR in order to maintain Bcl2 expression. Gene targeting deletion of 300 nucleotides of the Bcl2 3’UTR rich in AREs diminishes Bcl2 mRNA stability and protein levels in primary B cells, decreasing cell lifespan. Generation of chimeric mice indicates that Bcl2-ARE∆/∆ B cells have an intrinsic competitive disadvantage compared to wild type cells. Biochemical assays and predictions using a bioinformatics approach show that several RBPs bind to the Bcl2 AREs, including AUF1 and HuR proteins. Altogether, association of RBPs to Bcl2 AREs contributes to Bcl2 protein expression by stabilizing Bcl2 mRNA and promotes B cell maintenance. PMID:25680182

  2. Bcl-2-related protein family gene expression during oligodendroglial differentiation.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Takayuki; Itoh, Aki; Pleasure, David

    2003-06-01

    Oligodendroglial lineage cells (OLC) vary in susceptibility to both necrosis and apoptosis depending on their developmental stages, which might be regulated by differential expression of Bcl-2-related genes. As an initial step to test this hypothesis, we examined the expression of 19 Bcl-2-related genes in purified cultures of rat oligodendroglial progenitors, immature and mature oligodendrocytes. All 'multidomain' anti-apoptotic members (Bcl-x, Bcl-2, Mcl-1, Bcl-w and Bcl2l10/Diva/Boo) except Bcl2a1/A1 are expressed in OLC. Semiquantitative and real-time RT-PCR revealed that Bcl-xL and Mcl-1 mRNAs are the dominant anti-apoptotic members and increase four- and twofold, respectively, with maturation. Bcl-2 mRNA is less abundant than Bcl-xL mRNA in progenitors and falls an additional 10-fold during differentiation. Bcl-w mRNA also increases, with significant changes in its splicing pattern, as OLC mature. Transfection studies demonstrated that Bcl-xL overexpression protects against kainate-induced excitotoxicity, whereas Bcl-2 overexpression does not. As for 'multidomain' pro-apoptotic members (Bax, Bad and Bok/Mtd), Bax and Bak are highly expressed throughout differentiation. Among 'BH3 domain-only' members examined (Bim, Biklk, DP5/Hrk, Bad, Bid, Noxa, Puma/Bbc3, Bmf, BNip3 and BNip3L), BNip3 and Bmf mRNAs increase markedly during differentiation. These results provide basic information to guide further studies on the roles for Bcl-2-related family proteins in OLC death.

  3. Bcl2 induces DNA replication stress by inhibiting ribonucleotide reductase.

    PubMed

    Xie, Maohua; Yen, Yun; Owonikoko, Taofeek K; Ramalingam, Suresh S; Khuri, Fadlo R; Curran, Walter J; Doetsch, Paul W; Deng, Xingming

    2014-01-01

    DNA replication stress is an inefficient DNA synthesis process that leads replication forks to progress slowly or stall. Two main factors that cause replication stress are alterations in pools of deoxyribonucleotide (dNTP) precursors required for DNA synthesis and changes in the activity of proteins required for synthesis of dNTPs. Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), containing regulatory hRRM1 and catalytic hRRM2 subunits, is the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ribonucleoside diphosphates (NDP) to deoxyribonucleoside diphosphates (dNDP) and thereby provides dNTP precursors needed for the synthesis of DNA. Here, we demonstrate that either endogenous or exogenous expression of Bcl2 results in decreases in RNR activity and intracellular dNTP, retardation of DNA replication fork progression, and increased rate of fork asymmetry leading to DNA replication stress. Bcl2 colocalizes with hRRM1 and hRRM2 in the cytoplasm and directly interacts via its BH4 domain with hRRM2 but not hRRM1. Removal of the BH4 domain of Bcl2 abrogates its inhibitory effects on RNR activity, dNTP pool level, and DNA replication. Intriguingly, Bcl2 directly inhibits RNR activity by disrupting the functional hRRM1/hRRM2 complex via its BH4 domain. Our findings argue that Bcl2 reduces intracellular dNTPs by inhibiting ribonucleotide reductase activity, thereby providing insight into how Bcl2 triggers DNA replication stress.

  4. Bcl-2 is a critical mediator of intestinal transformation

    PubMed Central

    van der Heijden, Maartje; Zimberlin, Cheryl D.; Nicholson, Anna M.; Colak, Selcuk; Kemp, Richard; Meijer, Sybren L.; Medema, Jan Paul; Greten, Florian R.; Jansen, Marnix; Winton, Douglas J.; Vermeulen, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal tumour formation is generally thought to occur following mutational events in the stem cell pool. However, active NF-κB signalling additionally facilitates malignant transformation of differentiated cells. We hypothesized that genes shared between NF-κB and intestinal stem cell (ISCs) signatures might identify common pathways that are required for malignant growth. Here, we find that the NF-κB target Bcl-2, an anti-apoptotic gene, is specifically expressed in ISCs in both mice and humans. Bcl-2 is dispensable in homeostasis and, although involved in protecting ISCs from radiation-induced damage, it is non-essential in tissue regeneration. Bcl-2 is upregulated in adenomas, and its loss or inhibition impairs outgrowth of oncogenic clones, because Bcl-2 alleviates apoptotic priming in epithelial cells following Apc loss. Furthermore, Bcl-2 expression in differentiated epithelial cells renders these cells amenable to clonogenic outgrowth. Collectively, our results indicate that Bcl-2 is required for efficient intestinal transformation following Apc-loss and constitutes a potential chemoprevention target. PMID:26956214

  5. Synthesis and characterization of novel 2-amino-chromene-nitriles that target Bcl-2 in acute myeloid leukemia cell lines.

    PubMed

    Keerthy, Hosadurga K; Garg, Manoj; Mohan, Chakrabhavi D; Madan, Vikas; Kanojia, Deepika; Shobith, Rangappa; Nanjundaswamy, Shivananju; Mason, Daniel J; Bender, Andreas; Basappa; Rangappa, Kanchugarakoppal S; Koeffler, H Phillip

    2014-01-01

    The anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 is a well-known and attractive therapeutic target for cancer. In the present study the solution-phase T3P-DMSO mediated efficient synthesis of 2-amino-chromene-3-carbonitriles from alcohols, malanonitrile and phenols is reported. These novel 2-amino-chromene-3-carbonitriles showed cytotoxicity in human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines. Compound 4 g was found to be the most bioactive, decreasing growth and increasing apoptosis of AML cells. Moreover, compound 4 g (at a concentration of 5 µM) increased the G2/M and sub-G1 (apoptosis) phases of AML cells. The AML cells treated with compound 4 g exhibited decreased levels of Bcl-2 and increased levels of caspase-9. In silico molecular interaction analysis showed that compound 4 g shared a similar global binding motif with navitoclax (another small molecule that binds Bcl-2), however compound 4 g occupies a smaller volume within the P2 hot spot of Bcl-2. The intermolecular π-stacking interaction, direct electrostatic interactions, and docking energy predicted for 4 g in complex with Bcl-2 suggest a strong affinity of the complex, rendering 4 g as a promising Bcl-2 inhibitor for evaluation as a new anticancer agent.

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of Novel 2-Amino-Chromene-Nitriles that Target Bcl-2 in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Chakrabhavi D.; Madan, Vikas; Kanojia, Deepika; Shobith, Rangappa; Nanjundaswamy, Shivananju; Mason, Daniel J.; Bender, Andreas; Basappa; Rangappa, Kanchugarakoppal S.; Koeffler, H. Phillip

    2014-01-01

    The anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 is a well-known and attractive therapeutic target for cancer. In the present study the solution-phase T3P-DMSO mediated efficient synthesis of 2-amino-chromene-3-carbonitriles from alcohols, malanonitrile and phenols is reported. These novel 2-amino-chromene-3-carbonitriles showed cytotoxicity in human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines. Compound 4g was found to be the most bioactive, decreasing growth and increasing apoptosis of AML cells. Moreover, compound 4g (at a concentration of 5 µM) increased the G2/M and sub-G1 (apoptosis) phases of AML cells. The AML cells treated with compound 4g exhibited decreased levels of Bcl-2 and increased levels of caspase-9. In silico molecular interaction analysis showed that compound 4g shared a similar global binding motif with navitoclax (another small molecule that binds Bcl-2), however compound 4g occupies a smaller volume within the P2 hot spot of Bcl-2. The intermolecular π-stacking interaction, direct electrostatic interactions, and docking energy predicted for 4g in complex with Bcl-2 suggest a strong affinity of the complex, rendering 4g as a promising Bcl-2 inhibitor for evaluation as a new anticancer agent. PMID:25268519

  7. Key Survival Factor, Mcl-1, Correlates with Sensitivity to Combined Bcl-2/Bcl-xL Blockade.

    PubMed

    Williams, Michelle M; Lee, Linus; Hicks, Donna J; Joly, Meghan M; Elion, David; Rahman, Bushra; McKernan, Courtney; Sanchez, Violeta; Balko, Justin M; Stricker, Thomas; Estrada, Monica Valeria; Cook, Rebecca S

    2017-03-01

    An estimated 40,000 deaths will be attributed to breast cancer in 2016, underscoring the need for improved therapies. Evading cell death is a major hallmark of cancer, driving tumor progression and therapeutic resistance. To evade apoptosis, cancers use antiapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins to bind to and neutralize apoptotic activators, such as Bim. Investigation of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members in clinical breast cancer datasets revealed greater expression and more frequent gene amplification of MCL1 as compared with BCL2 or BCL2L1 (Bcl-xL) across three major molecular breast cancer subtypes, Luminal (A and B), HER2-enriched, and Basal-like. While Mcl-1 protein expression was elevated in estrogen receptor α (ERα)-positive and ERα-negative tumors as compared with normal breast, Mcl-1 staining was higher in ERα(+) tumors. Targeted Mcl-1 blockade using RNAi increased caspase-mediated cell death in ERα(+) breast cancer cells, resulting in sustained growth inhibition. In contrast, combined blockade of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL only transiently induced apoptosis, as cells rapidly acclimated through Mcl-1 upregulation and enhanced Mcl-1 activity, as measured in situ using Mcl-1/Bim proximity ligation assays. Importantly, MCL1 gene expression levels correlated inversely with sensitivity to pharmacologic Bcl-2/Bcl-xL inhibition in luminal breast cancer cells, whereas no relationship was seen between the gene expression of BCL2 or BCL2L1 and sensitivity to Bcl-2/Bcl-xL inhibition. These results demonstrate that breast cancers rapidly deploy Mcl-1 to promote cell survival, particularly when challenged with blockade of other Bcl-2 family members, warranting the continued development of Mcl-1-selective inhibitors for targeted tumor cell killing.Implications: Mcl-1 levels predict breast cancer response to inhibitors targeting other Bcl-2 family members, and demonstrate the key role played by Mcl-1 in resistance to this drug class. Mol Cancer Res; 15(3); 259-68. ©2016 AACR. ©2016

  8. MicroRNA-184 Modulates Doxorubicin Resistance in Osteosarcoma Cells by Targeting BCL2L1

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Bo-chuan; Huang, Dong; Yu, Chao-qun; Mou, Yong; Liu, Yuan-hang; Zhang, Da-wei; Shi, Feng-jun

    2016-01-01

    Background Early metastasis of osteosarcoma (OS) is highly lethal and responds poorly to drug and radiation therapies. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs that modulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. However, the detailed functions of specific miRNAs are not entirely understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of miR-184 as a mediator of drug resistance in human osteosarcoma. Material/Methods qRT-PCR was used to analyze the expression level of miR-184 in OS cell line U-2 OS and MG-63 treated with doxorubicin. MiR-184 agomir or miR-184 antagomir was transferred into cells to regulated miR-184. The target of miR-184 was predicted by TargetScan and confirmed by luciferase reporter assay. Bcl-2-like protein 1 (BCL2L1) expression was detected by Western blot. Cell apoptosis was determined by Annexin V staining and analysis by flow cytometry. Results Doxorubicin induced time-dependent expression of miR-184 in OS cell line U-2 OS and MG-63. Luciferase reporter assay identified BCL2L1 as the direct target gene of miR-184. Furthermore, doxorubicin reduced BCL2L1 expression, which was reversed by miR-184 overexpression and further decreased by miR-184 inhibition in OS cells. In addition, miR-184 agomir reduced doxorubicin-induced cell apoptosis, whereas miR-184 antagomir enhanced apoptosis in OS cells, suggesting that up-regulation of miR-184 contributes to chemoresistance of the OS cell line. Conclusions Our data show that miR-184 was up-regulated in OS patients treated with doxorubicin therapy and leads to poor response to drug therapy by targeting BCL2L1. PMID:27222034

  9. Targeting BCL-2-like Proteins to Kill Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Cory, Suzanne; Roberts, Andrew W; Colman, Peter M; Adams, Jerry M

    2016-08-01

    Mutations that impair apoptosis contribute to cancer development and reduce the effectiveness of conventional anti-cancer therapies. These insights and understanding of how the B cell lymphoma (BCL)-2 protein family governs apoptosis have galvanized the search for a new class of cancer drugs that target its pro-survival members by mimicking their natural antagonists, the BCL-2 homology (BH)3-only proteins. Successful initial clinical trials of the BH3 mimetic venetoclax/ABT-199, specific for BCL-2, have led to its recent licensing for refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia and to multiple ongoing trials for other malignancies. Moreover, preclinical studies herald the potential of emerging BH3 mimetics targeting other BCL-2 pro-survival members, particularly myeloid cell leukemia (MCL)-1, for multiple cancer types. Thus, BH3 mimetics seem destined to become powerful new weapons in the arsenal against cancer. This review sketches the discovery of the BCL-2 family and its impact on cancer development and therapy; describes how interactions of family members trigger apoptosis; outlines the development of BH3 mimetic drugs; and discusses their potential to advance cancer therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Acidosis Promotes Bcl-2 Family-mediated Evasion of Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Ryder, Christopher; McColl, Karen; Zhong, Fei; Distelhorst, Clark W.

    2012-01-01

    Acidosis arises in solid and lymphoid malignancies secondary to altered nutrient supply and utilization. Tumor acidosis correlates with therapeutic resistance, although the mechanism behind this effect is not fully understood. Here we show that incubation of lymphoma cell lines in acidic conditions (pH 6.5) blocks apoptosis induced by multiple cytotoxic metabolic stresses, including deprivation of glucose or glutamine and treatment with dexamethasone. We sought to examine the role of the Bcl-2 family of apoptosis regulators in this process. Interestingly, we found that acidic culture causes elevation of both Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, while also attenuating glutamine starvation-induced elevation of p53-up-regulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) and Bim. We confirmed with knockdown studies that these shifts direct survival decisions during starvation and acidosis. Importantly, the promotion of a high anti- to pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member ratio by acidosis renders cells exquisitely sensitive to the Bcl-2/Bcl-xL antagonist ABT-737, suggesting that acidosis causes Bcl-2 family dependence. This dependence appears to be mediated, in part, by the acid-sensing G protein-coupled receptor, GPR65, via a MEK/ERK pathway. PMID:22685289

  11. Jacarelhyperol A induced apoptosis in leukaemia cancer cell through inhibition the activity of Bcl-2 proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shoude; Yin, Jun; Li, Xia; Zhang, Jigang; Yue, Rongcai; Diao, Yanyan; Li, Honglin; Wang, Hui; Shan, Lei; Zhang, Weidong

    2014-09-22

    Hypericum japonicum Thunb. ex Murray is widely used as an herbal medicine for the treatment of hepatitis and tumours in China. However, the molecular mechanisms of its effects are unclear. Our previous research showed that extracts of H. japonicum can induce apoptosis in leukaemia cells. We also previously systematically analysed and isolated the chemical composition of H. japonicum. The fluorescence polarisation experiment was used to screen for inhibitors of Bcl-2 proteins which are proved as key proteins in apoptosis. The binding mode was modelled by molecular docking. We investigated the proliferation attenuating and apoptosis inducing effects of active compound on cancer cells by MTT assay and flow cytometry analysis. Activation of caspases were tested by Western blot. A broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK was used to investigate the caspases-dependence. In addition, co-immunoprecipitation was performed to analyse the inhibition of heterodimerization between anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins with pro-apoptotic proteins. Moreover, in vivo activity was tested in a mouse xenograph tumour model. Jacarelhyperol A (Jac-A), a characteristic constituent of H. japonicum, was identified as a potential Bcl-2 inhibitor. Jac-A showed binding affinities to Bcl-xL, Bcl-2, and Mcl-1 with Ki values of 0.46 μM, 0.43 μM, and 1.69 μM, respectively. This is consistent with computational modelling results, which show that Jac-A presents a favorable binding mode with Bcl-xL in the BH3-binding pocket. In addition, Jac-A showed potential growth inhibitory activity in leukaemia cells with IC50 values from 1.52 to 6.92 μM and significantly induced apoptosis of K562 cells by promoting release of cytochrome c and activating the caspases. Jac-A also been proved that its effect is partly caspases-dependent and can disrupt the heterodimerization between anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins with pro-apoptotic proteins. Moreover, Jac-A dose-dependently inhibited human K562 cell growth in a

  12. Current termination of resuscitation (TOR) guidelines predict neurologically favorable outcome in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kajino, Kentaro; Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Iwami, Taku; Daya, Mohamud; Ong, Marcus Eng Hock; Hiraide, Atsushi; Shimazu, Takeshi; Kishi, Masashi; Yamayoshi, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    It is unclear whether the basic life support (BLS) and advanced life support (ALS) pre-hospital termination of resuscitation (TOR) rules developed in North America can be applied successfully to patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in other countries. To assess the performance of the BLS and ALS TOR in Japan. Retrospective nationwide, population-based, observational cohort study of consecutive OHCA patients with emergency responder resuscitation attempts from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2009 in Japan. The BLS TOR rule has 3 criteria whereas the ALS TOR rule includes 2 additional criteria. We extracted OHCA patients meeting all criteria for each TOR rule, and calculated the specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) of each TOR rule for identifying OHCA patients who did not have neurologically favorable one-month survival. During the study-period, 151,152 cases were available to evaluate the BLS TOR rule, and 137,986 cases to evaluate the ALS TOR rule. Of 113,140 patients that satisfied all three criteria for the BLS TOR rule, 193 (0.2%) had a neurologically favorable one-month survival. The specificity of BLS TOR rule was 0.968 (95% CI: 0.963-0.972), and the PPV was 0.998 (95% CI: 0.998-0.999) for predicting lack of neurologically favorable one-month survival. Of 41,030 patients that satisfied all five criteria for the ALS TOR rule, just 37 (0.1%) had a neurologically favorable one-month survival. The specificity of ALS TOR rule was 0.981 (95% CI: 0.973-0.986), and the PPV was 0.999 (95% CI: 0.998-0.999) for predicting lack of neurologically favorable one-month survival. The prehospital BLS and ALS TOR rules performed well in Japan with high specificity and PPV for predicting lack of neurologically favorable one-month survival in Japan. However, the specificity and PPV were not 1000 and we have to develop more specific TOR rules. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. BCL-2 family proteins as regulators of mitochondria metabolism.

    PubMed

    Gross, Atan

    2016-08-01

    The BCL-2 family proteins are major regulators of apoptosis, and one of their major sites of action are the mitochondria. Mitochondria are the cellular hubs for metabolism and indeed selected BCL-2 family proteins also possess roles related to mitochondria metabolism and dynamics. Here we discuss the link between mitochondrial metabolism/dynamics and the fate of stem cells, with an emphasis on the role of the BID-MTCH2 pair in regulating this link. We also discuss the possibility that BCL-2 family proteins act as metabolic sensors/messengers coming on and off of mitochondria to "sample" the cytosol and provide the mitochondria with up-to-date metabolic information. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'EBEC 2016: 19th European Bioenergetics Conference, Riva del Garda, Italy, July 2-6, 2016', edited by Prof. Paolo Bernardi.

  14. Computational study of the mechanism of Bcl-2 apoptotic switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokár, Tomáš; Uličný, Jozef

    2012-12-01

    In spite of attention devoted to molecular mechanisms of apoptosis, the details of functioning of one crucial component-the Bcl-2 apoptotic switch-are not completely understood. There are two competing mechanisms of its internal working-the indirect activation and the direct activation. In the absence of conclusive experimental data, we have used computational modeling to assess the properties of both mechanisms and their suitability to act as a biological switch. Since the two mechanisms form opposite poles of continuum of Bcl-2 molecular interaction models, we have constructed more general models including these two models as extreme cases. By studying the relationship between model parameters and the steady-state response we have found optimal interaction patterns which reproduce the behavior of the Bcl-2 apoptotic switch. Our results show, that stimulus-response ultrasensitivity is negatively affected by spontaneous activation of Bcl-2 effectors. We found that ultrasensitivity requires effectors activation, mediated by another subgroup of Bcl-2 proteins-activators. We have shown that the auto-activation of monomeric effector forms provides an ultrasensitivity enhancing feedback loop. Thorough robustness analysis revealed that the interaction pattern postulated in the direct activation hypothesis is able to conserve stimulus-response switching characteristics for wide range changes of its internal parameters. The robustness of the switch against the variation of the reaction parameter is strongly reduced for the intermediate hybrid model and even more for the indirect part of the models. Computer simulations of the more general model presented here suggest, that stimulus-response ultrasensitivity is an emergent property of the direct activation model that is unlikely to occur in the model of indirect activation. Introduction of indirect-model-specific interactions does not provide a better explanation of the Bcl-2 switch functionality compared to the direct

  15. BIM (BCL-2 interacting mediator of cell death) SAHB (stabilized α helix of BCL2) not always convinces BAX (BCL-2-associated X protein) for apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Verma, Sharad; Goyal, Sukriti; Tyagi, Chetna; Jamal, Salma; Singh, Aditi; Grover, Abhinav

    2016-06-01

    The interaction of BAX (BCL-2-associated X protein) with BIM (BCL-2 interacting mediator of cell death) SAHB (stabilized α helix of BCL2) directly initiates BAX-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis. This molecular dynamics study reveals that BIM SAHB forms a stable complex with BAX but it remains in a non-functional conformation. N terminal of BAX folds towards the core which has been reported exposed in the functional monomer. The α1-α2 loop, which has been reported in open conformation in functional BAX, acquires a closed conformation during the simulation. BH3/α2 remains less exposed as compared to initial structure. The hydrophobic residues of BIM accommodates in the rear pocket of BAX during the simulation. A steep decrease in radius of gyration and solvent accessible surface area (SASA) indicates the complex folding to acquire a more stable but inactive conformation. Further the covariance matrix reveals that the backbone atoms' motions favour the inactive conformation of the complex. This is the first report on the non-functional BAX-BIM SAHB complex by molecular dynamics simulation in the best of our knowledge.

  16. Low incidence of MYC/BCL2 double-hit in Burkitt lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Maki; Ichikawa, Ayako; Miyoshi, Hiroaki; Kiyasu, Junichi; Kimura, Yoshizo; Niino, Daisuke; Ohshima, Koichi

    2015-09-01

    Translocations involving MYC are highly characteristic for Burkitt lymphoma (BL). BCL2 expression has also been found previously in about 10 to 20% of BL cases, and BCL2 translocation is a major mechanism for the deregulation of BCL2 expression in non-Hodgkin lymphomas. However, we know little about the incidence of MYC/BCL2 double-hit (DH) in BL. We examined BL cases to determine how frequently they contained BCL2 translocations in combination with MYC translocations using fluorescence in situ hybridization. We also determined the effect of BCL2 expression on clinical outcomes of BL. BCL2 translocations were detected in 3.5% (2/57 cases) of the cases, and BCL2 expression was detected in 33%. Two cases with BCL2 translocation also showed BCL2 expression. The incidence of BCL2 expression was significantly higher in patients 16 years of age and older (46%) than in patients under 16 years of age (6%). Among patients 16 years of age and older, we did not detect significant differences in overall survival with respect to BCL2 expression status. In conclusion, BCL2 translocation is a rare cytogenetic abnormality in BL, and BL probably accounts for only a small fraction of MYC/BCL2 DH lymphomas. BCL2 expression in BL is probably not associated with BCL2 translocations.

  17. p28 Bap31, a Bcl-2/Bcl-XL- and procaspase-8-associated protein in the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Ng, F W; Nguyen, M; Kwan, T; Branton, P E; Nicholson, D W; Cromlish, J A; Shore, G C

    1997-10-20

    We have identified a human Bcl-2-interacting protein, p28 Bap31. It is a 28-kD (p28) polytopic integral protein of the endoplasmic reticulum whose COOH-terminal cytosolic region contains overlapping predicted leucine zipper and weak death effector homology domains, flanked on either side by identical caspase recognition sites. In cotransfected 293T cells, p28 is part of a complex that includes Bcl-2/Bcl-XL and procaspase-8 (pro-FLICE). Bax, a pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family, does not associate with the complex; however, it prevents Bcl-2 from doing so. In the absence (but not presence) of elevated Bcl-2 levels, apoptotic signaling by adenovirus E1A oncoproteins promote cleavage of p28 at the two caspase recognition sites. Purified caspase-8 (FLICE/MACH/Mch5) and caspase-1(ICE), but not caspase-3 (CPP32/apopain/ Yama), efficiently catalyze this reaction in vitro. The resulting NH2-terminal p20 fragment induces apoptosis when expressed ectopically in otherwise normal cells. Taken together, the results suggest that p28 Bap31 is part of a complex in the endoplasmic reticulum that mechanically bridges an apoptosis-initiating caspase, like procaspase-8, with the anti-apoptotic regulator Bcl-2 or Bcl-XL. This raises the possibility that the p28 complex contributes to the regulation of procaspase-8 or a related caspase in response to E1A, dependent on the status of the Bcl-2 setpoint within the complex.

  18. Discovery of a small-molecule pBcl-2 inhibitor that overcomes pBcl-2-mediated resistance to apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Song, Ting; Yu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Yubo; Li, Xiangqian; Chai, Gaobo; Zhang, Zhichao

    2015-03-23

    Although the role of Bcl-2 phosphorylation is still under debate, it has been identified in a resistance mechanism to BH3 mimetics, for example ABT-737 and S1. We identified an S1 analogue, S1-16, as a small-molecule inhibitor of pBcl-2. S1-16 efficiently kills EEE-Bcl-2 (a T69E, S70E, and S87E mutant mimicking phosphorylation)-expressing HL-60 cells and high endogenously expressing pBcl-2 cells, by disrupting EEE-Bcl-2 or native pBcl-2 interactions with Bax and Bak, followed by apoptosis. In vitro binding assays showed that S1-16 binds to the BH3 binding groove of EEE-Bcl-2 (Kd =0.38 μM by ITC; IC50 =0.16 μM by ELISA), as well as nonphosphorylated Bcl-2 (npBcl-2; Kd =0.38 μM; IC50 =0.12 μM). However, ABT-737 and S1 had much weaker affinities to EEE-Bcl-2 (IC50 =1.43 and >10 μM, respectively), compared with npBcl-2 (IC50 =0.011 and 0.74 μM, respectively). The allosteric effect on BH3 binding groove by Bcl-2 phosphorylation in the loop region was illustrated for the first time.

  19. Does Spontaneous Favorability to Power (vs. Universalism) Values Predict Spontaneous Prejudice and Discrimination?

    PubMed

    Souchon, Nicolas; Maio, Gregory R; Hanel, Paul H P; Bardin, Brigitte

    2017-10-01

    We conducted five studies testing whether an implicit measure of favorability toward power over universalism values predicts spontaneous prejudice and discrimination. Studies 1 (N = 192) and 2 (N = 86) examined correlations between spontaneous favorability toward power (vs. universalism) values, achievement (vs. benevolence) values, and a spontaneous measure of prejudice toward ethnic minorities. Study 3 (N = 159) tested whether conditioning participants to associate power values with positive adjectives and universalism values with negative adjectives (or inversely) affects spontaneous prejudice. Study 4 (N = 95) tested whether decision bias toward female handball players could be predicted by spontaneous attitude toward power (vs. universalism) values. Study 5 (N = 123) examined correlations between spontaneous attitude toward power (vs. universalism) values, spontaneous importance toward power (vs. universalism) values, and spontaneous prejudice toward Black African people. Spontaneous positivity toward power (vs. universalism) values was associated with spontaneous negativity toward minorities and predicted gender bias in a decision task, whereas the explicit measures did not. These results indicate that the implicit assessment of evaluative responses attached to human values helps to model value-attitude-behavior relations. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Personality Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Bcl-2 apoptosis proteins, mitochondrial membrane curvature, and cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwee Lai, Ghee; Schmidt, Nathan; Sanders, Lori; Mishra, Abhijit; Wong, Gerard; Ivashyna, Olena; Christenson, Eric; Schlesinger, Paul; Akabori, Kiyotaka; Santangelo, Christian

    2012-02-01

    Critical interactions between Bcl-2 family proteins permeabilize the outer mitochondrial membrane, a common decision point early in the intrinsic apoptotic pathway that irreversibly commits the cell to death. However, a unified picture integrating the essential non-passive role of lipid membranes with the contested dynamics of Bcl-2 regulation remains unresolved. Correlating results between synchrotron x-ray diffraction and microscopy in cell-free assays, we report activation of pro-apoptotic Bax induces strong pure negative Gaussian membrane curvature topologically necessary for pore formation and membrane remodeling events. Strikingly, Bcl-xL suppresses not only Bax-induced pore formation, but also membrane remodeling by disparate systems including cell penetrating, antimicrobial or viral fusion peptides, and bacterial toxin, none of which have BH3 allosteric domains to mediate direct binding. We propose a parallel mode of Bcl-2 pore regulation in which Bax and Bcl-xL induce antagonistic and mutually interacting Gaussian membrane curvatures. The universal nature of curvature-mediated interactions allows synergy with direct binding mechanisms, and potentially accounts for the Bcl-2 family modulation of mitochondrial fission/fusion dynamics.

  1. BCL2 and MYC dual-hit lymphoma/leukemia.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Naoto

    2011-01-01

    Translocation of the BCL2 gene on the chromosome band 18q21.3 results in consistent expression of the Bcl2 protein, an apoptosis inhibitor. BCL2 usually translocates to the immunoglobulin (IG) heavy chain (IGH) gene as t(14;18)(q32;q21.3) and rarely to IG light chain (IGK, IGL) loci as t(2;18)(p11;q21.3) or t(18;22)(q21.3;q11). The t(14;18) translocation is observed in 70-95% of follicular lymphoma cases and 20-30% of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cases. The MYC gene on chromosome band 8q24 acts as an accelerator of cell proliferation. MYC translocates to 14q32/IGH as t(8;14)(q24;q32) or less commonly to 2p11/IGK as t(2;8)(p11;q24) or 22q11/IGL as t(8;22)(q24;q11). The 8q24/MYC translocation is detected in nearly all Burkitt lymphoma (BL) and up to 10% of DLBCL cases. Both translocations rarely occur in an identical cell and this lymphoid malignancy is termed BCL2 and MYC dual-hit lymphoma/leukemia (DHL). The pathological diagnosis in most cases of DHL with BCL2-IG and MYC-IG translocation is B-cell lymphoma, unclassifiable, with features intermediate between DLBCL and BL, although DLBCL is most common in DHL with BCL2-IG and MYC-nonIG translocation. The frequency of DHL with BCL2 and MYC translocation is estimated at around 2% of all B-cell malignancies. The condition is characterized by elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase levels, the presence of B symptoms, bone marrow involvement, advanced disease stage, extranodal involvement, and central nervous system (CNS) involvement at presentation or disease progression. Despite treatment strategies including CNS-targeted therapy, the prognosis for DHL is extremely poor. In this review, the current knowledge of the clinicopathological status of DHL is summarized and discussed.

  2. Caspase Induction and BCL2 Inhibition in Human Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Tinahones, Francisco José; Coín Aragüez, Leticia; Murri, Mora; Oliva Olivera, Wilfredo; Mayas Torres, María Dolores; Barbarroja, Nuria; Gomez Huelgas, Ricardo; Malagón, Maria M.; El Bekay, Rajaa

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Cell death determines the onset of obesity and associated insulin resistance. Here, we analyze the relationship among obesity, adipose tissue apoptosis, and insulin signaling. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The expression levels of initiator (CASP8/9) and effector (CASP3/7) caspases as well as antiapoptotic B-cell lymphoma (BCL)2 and inflammatory markers were assessed in visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissue from patients with different degrees of obesity and without insulin resistance or diabetes. Adipose tissue explants from lean subjects were cultured with TNF-α or IL-6, and the expression of apoptotic and insulin signaling components was analyzed and compared with basal expression levels in morbidly obese subjects. RESULTS SAT and VAT exhibited increased CASP3/7 and CASP8/9 expression levels and decreased BCL2 expression with BMI increase. These changes were accompanied by increased inflammatory cytokine mRNA levels and macrophage infiltration markers. In obese subjects, CASP3/7 activation and BCL2 downregulation correlated with the IRS-1/2–expression levels. Expression levels of caspases, BCL2, p21, p53, IRS-1/2, GLUT4, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B, and leukocyte antigen-related phosphatase in TNF-α– or IL-6–treated explants from lean subjects were comparable with those found in adipose tissue samples from morbidly obese subjects. These insulin component expression levels were reverted with CASP3/7 inhibition in these TNF-α– or IL-6–treated explants. CONCLUSIONS Body fat mass increase is associated with CASP3/7 and BCL2 expression in adipose tissue. Moreover, this proapoptotic state correlated with insulin signaling, suggesting its potential contribution to the development of insulin resistance. PMID:23193206

  3. Chemosensitization of Prostate Cancer by Modulating Bcl-2 Family Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Karnak, David; Xu, Liang

    2010-01-01

    A major challenge in oncology is the development of chemoresistance. This often occurs as cancer progresses and malignant cells acquire mechanisms to resist insults that would normally induce apoptosis. The onset of androgen independence in advanced prostate cancer is a prime example of this phenomenon. Overexpression of the pro-survival/anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Mcl-1 are hallmarks of this transition. Here we outline the evolution of therapeutics designed to either limit the source or disrupt the interactions of these pro-survival proteins. By either lessening the stoichiometric abundance of Bcl-2/xL/Mcl-1 in reference to their pro-apoptotic foils or freeing these pro-apoptotic proteins from their grip, these treatments aim to sensitize cells to chemotherapy by priming cells for death. DNA anti-sense and RNA interference have been effectively employed to decrease Bcl-2 family mRNA and protein levels in cell culture models of advanced prostate cancer. However, clinical studies are lagging due to in vivo delivery challenges. The burgeoning field of nanoparticle delivery holds great promise in helping to overcome the challenge of administering highly labile nucleic acid based therapeutics. On another front, small molecule inhibitors that block the hetero-dimerization of pro-survival with pro-apoptotic proteins have significant clinical advantages and have advanced farther in clinical trials with promising early results. Most recently, a peptide has been discovered that can convert Bcl-2 from a pro-survival to a pro-apoptotic protein. The future may lie in targeting multiple steps of the apoptotic pathway, including Bcl-2/xL/Mcl-1, to debilitate the survival capacity of cancer cells and make chemotherapy induced death their only option. PMID:20298153

  4. Discovery of new selective cytotoxic agents against Bcl-2 expressing cancer cells using ligand-based modeling.

    PubMed

    Aboalhaija, Nour H; Zihlif, Malek A; Taha, Mutasem O

    2016-04-25

    Bcl-2 is an anti-apoptotic protein involved in cancer resistance to cytotoxic therapies making it an interesting target for inhibitors design. Towards this end, we implemented an elaborated ligand-based computational workflow that combines exhaustive pharmacophore modeling and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis to explore the structural features required for potent Bcl-2 inhibitors employing 98 known Bcl-2 inhibitors. Genetic function algorithm (GFA) coupled with k nearest neighbor (kNN) or multiple linear regression (MLR) analyses were employed to generate predictive QSAR models based on optimal combinations of pharmacophores and physicochemical descriptors. The optimal QSAR-selected pharmacophore models were validated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and by comparison with crystallographic structures of known inhibitors co-crystallized within Bcl-2 binding pocket. Optimal QSAR models and their associated pharmacophore hypotheses were validated by identification and experimental evaluation of new selective cytotoxic compounds against Bcl-2 expressing cancer cells. The hits were retrieved from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) structural database. Several potent hits were captured. The most potent hits illustrated IC50 values of 4.2 and 2.60 μM against MDA-MB-231 cancer cell-line. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Dexamethasone treatment promotes Bcl-2 dependence in multiple myeloma resulting in sensitivity to venetoclax.

    PubMed

    Matulis, S M; Gupta, V A; Nooka, A K; Hollen, H V; Kaufman, J L; Lonial, S; Boise, L H

    2016-05-01

    Venetoclax (ABT-199), a specific inhibitor of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, is currently in phase I clinical trials for multiple myeloma. The results suggest that venetoclax is only active in a small cohort of patients therefore we wanted to determine its efficacy when used in combination. Combining venetoclax with melphalan or carfilzomib produced additive or better cell death in four of the five cell lines tested. The most striking results were seen with dexamethasone (Dex). Co-treatment of human myeloma cell lines and primary patient samples, with Dex and venetoclax, significantly increased cell death over venetoclax alone in four of the five cell lines, and in all patient samples tested. The mechanism by which this occurs is an increase in the expression of both Bcl-2 and Bim upon addition of Dex. This results in alterations in Bim binding to anti-apoptotic proteins. Dex shifts Bim binding towards Bcl-2 resulting in increased sensitivity to venetoclax. These data suggest that knowledge of drug-induced alterations of Bim-binding patterns may help inform better combination drug regimens. Furthermore, the data indicate combining this novel therapeutic with Dex could be an effective therapy for a broader range of patients than would be predicted by single-agent activity.

  6. The BCL2 Family: Key Mediators of the Apoptotic Response to Targeted Anticancer Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Hata, Aaron N; Engelman, Jeffrey A; Faber, Anthony C

    2015-05-01

    The ability of cancer cells to suppress apoptosis is critical for carcinogenesis. The BCL2 family proteins comprise the sentinel network that regulates the mitochondrial or intrinsic apoptotic response. Recent advances in our understanding of apoptotic signaling pathways have enabled methods to identify cancers that are "primed" to undergo apoptosis, and have revealed potential biomarkers that may predict which cancers will undergo apoptosis in response to specific therapies. Complementary efforts have focused on developing novel drugs that directly target antiapoptotic BCL2 family proteins. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the role of BCL2 family members in cancer development and response to therapy, focusing on targeted therapeutics, recent progress in the development of apoptotic biomarkers, and therapeutic strategies designed to overcome deficiencies in apoptosis. Apoptosis, long known to be important for response to conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy, has more recently been shown to be essential for the efficacy of targeted therapies. Approaches that increase the likelihood of a cancer to undergo apoptosis following therapy may help improve targeted treatment strategies. Cancer Discov; 5(5); 475-87. ©2015 AACR. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Protein phosphatase methylesterase-1 (PME-1) expression predicts a favorable clinical outcome in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Amanpreet; Elzagheid, Adam; Birkman, Eva-Maria; Avoranta, Tuulia; Kytölä, Ville; Korkeila, Eija; Syrjänen, Kari; Westermarck, Jukka; Sundström, Jari

    2015-12-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) accounts for high mortality. So far, there is lack of markers capable of predicting which patients are at risk of aggressive course of the disease. Protein phosphatase-2A (PP2A) inhibitor proteins have recently gained interest as markers of more aggressive disease in certain cancers. Here, we report the role of PP2A inhibitor PME-1 in CRC. PME-1 expression was assessed from a rectal cancer patient cohort by immunohistochemistry, and correlations were performed for various clinicopathological variables and patient survival. Rectal cancer patients with higher cytoplasmic PME-1 protein expression (above median) had less recurrences (P = 0.003, n = 195) and better disease-free survival (DFS) than the patients with low cytoplasmic PME-1 protein expression (below median). Analysis of PPME-1 mRNA expression from TCGA dataset of colon and rectal adenocarcinoma (COADREAD) patient cohort confirmed high PPME1 expression as an independent protective factor predicting favorable overall survival (OS) (P = 0.005, n = 396) compared to patients with low PPME1 expression. CRC cell lines were used to study the effect of PME-1 knockdown by siRNA on cell survival. Contrary to other cancer types, PME-1 inhibition in CRC cell lines did not reduce the viability of cells or the expression of active phosphorylated AKT and ERK proteins. In conclusion, PME-1 expression predicts for a favorable outcome of CRC patients. The unexpected role of PME-1 in CRC in contrast with the oncogenic role of PP2A inhibitor proteins in other malignancies warrants further studies of cancer-specific function for each of these proteins.

  8. Pseudonegative BCL2 protein expression in a t(14;18) translocation positive lymphoma cell line: a need for an alternative BCL2 antibody.

    PubMed

    Masir, Noraidah; Campbell, Lisa J; Jones, Margaret; Mason, David Y

    2010-04-01

    The t(14;18)(q32;q21) chromosomal translocation induces BCL2 protein expression in most follicular lymphomas. However, a small number of cases lack BCL2 expression despite carrying the t(14;18)(q32;q21) translocation. This study aims to explore the mechanism accounting for the lack of BCL2 protein expression when the t(14;18) translocation is present. BCL2 expression in the t(14;18) positive cell lines FL18, Karpas-422, SU-DHL-4 and SU-DHL-6, was analysed by Western blotting and by immunohistochemistry using two different antibodies. FISH analysis was performed to confirm the cytogenetic changes in the cell lines and real time quantitative PCR was used to evaluate the BCL2 mRNA level. Sequence analysis of translocated BCL2 was performed on FL18, Karpas-422, SU-DHL-4 and SU-DHL-6 cell lines. In FL18, Karpas-422, and SU-DHL-4, the BCL2 mRNA level correlated with the BCL2 protein expression. In contrast, BCL2 protein was not detected in SU-DHL-6 line using standard anti-BCL2 antibody (BCL2/124), despite the presence of the t(14;18) translocation and high level of mRNA. cDNA sequencing of translocated BCL2 showed three mutations in the SU-DHL-6 cell line, one of which resulted in an amino acid substitution (I48F) in the region recognised by the standard BCL2 antibody, whereas the other two were silent mutations at aa71 and aa72. Interestingly, when BCL2 expression was tested with an alternative antibody, E17, the protein was detected in SU-DHL-6, suggesting that the 'negativity' of SU-DHL-6 line for BCL2 using the standard antibody is spurious. Amino acid changes were found in Karpas-422 (G47D, P59L) and SU-DHL-4 (P59T, S117R) but these did not affect BCL2 detection. This study suggests that some somatic mutations of the translocated BCL2 gene may prevent epitope recognition by BCL2 antibodies, and hence cause false negative expression using the standard antibody. It is recommended that in practice all BCL2 negative cases should routinely be stained with an alternative

  9. Expression of the apoptosis-related genes BCL-2 and BAD in human breast carcinoma and their associated relationship with chemosensitivity.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bing; Sun, Xin; Shen, Hong-yan; Gao, Feng; Fan, Yuan-ming; Sun, Zhi-jun

    2010-08-07

    cells. A positive correlation was found between expression of BAD and chemosensitivity for Epirubicin. The expression of BCL-2 and BAD can be used as prognosis factors of breast cancer. Detection of the BCL-2 protein expression level, particularly, combined with the detection of the expression of BCL-2 and BAD as well as ER and PR were helpful in confirming the prognosis of breast carcinoma. The combined detection of BCL-2 and BAD may be markers for predicting the responses to anticancer drugs.

  10. VEGF expression correlates with neuronal differentiation and predicts a favorable prognosis in patients with neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Weng, Wen-Chin; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Wu, Pei-Yi; Ho, Ya-Hsuan; Liu, Yen-Lin; Wang, Bo-Jeng; Chen, Chien-Chin; Lin, Yueh-Chien; Liao, Yung-Feng; Lee, Wang-Tso; Hsu, Wen-Ming; Lee, Hsinyu

    2017-09-11

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is a childhood cancer with a low survival rate and great metastatic potential. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), an angiogenesis factor, has been found to be involved in CRT-related neuronal differentiation of NB cells. In this study, we further confirmed the role VEGF in NB through mouse xenograft model and clinical analysis from NB patients. In xenograft experiments, CRT overexpression effectively inhibited the tumor growth. In addition, the mRNA and protein levels of VEGF and differentiation marker GAP-43 were upregulated by induced CRT expression. However, no significant correlation between the expression level of VEGF and microvessel density was observed in human NB tumors, suggesting a novel mechanism of VEGF participating in NB tumorigenesis through an angiogenesis-independent pathway. In NB patients' samples, mRNA expression levels of CRT and VEGF were positively correlated. Furthermore, positive VEGF expression by immunostaining of NB tumors was found to correlate well with histological grade of differentiation and predicted a favorable prognosis. In conclusion, our findings suggest that VEGF is a favorable prognostic factor of NB and might affect NB tumor behavior through CRT-driven neuronal differentiation rather than angiogenesis that might shed light on a novel therapeutic strategy to improve the outcome of NB.

  11. Dysregulation of Reelin and Bcl-2 proteins in autistic cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Fatemi, S H; Stary, J M; Halt, A R; Realmuto, G R

    2001-12-01

    Autism is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder with potential genetic and environmental causes. Cerebellar pathology including Purkinje cell atrophy has been demonstrated previously. We hypothesized that cell migration and apoptotic mechanisms may account for observed Purkinje cell abnormalities. Reelin is an important secretory glycoprotein responsible for normal layering of the brain. Bcl-2 is a regulatory protein responsible for control of programmed cell death in the brain. Autistic and normal control cerebellar corteces matched for age, sex, and post-mortem interval (PMI) were prepared for SDS-gel electrophoresis and Western blotting using specific anti-Reelin and anti-Bcl-2 antibodies. Quantification of Reelin bands showed 43%, 44%, and 44% reductions in autistic cerebellum (mean optical density +/- SD per 30 microg protein 4.05 +/- 4.0, 1.98 +/- 2.0, 13.88 +/- 11.9 for 410 kDa, 330 kDa, and 180 kDa bands, respectively; N = 5) compared with controls (mean optical density +/- SD per 30 microg protein, 7.1 +/- 1.6, 3.5 +/- 1.0, 24.7 +/- 5.0; N = 8, p < 0.0402 for 180 kDa band). Quantification of Bcl-2 levels showed a 34% to 51% reduction in autistic cerebellum (M +/- SD per 75 microg protein 0.29 +/- 0.08; N = 5) compared with controls (M +/- SD per 75 microg protein 0.59 +/- 0.31; N = 8, p < 0.0451). Measurement of beta-actin (M +/- SD for controls 7.3 +/- 2.9; for autistics 6.77 +/- 0.66) in the same homogenates did not differ significantly between groups. These results demonstrate for the first time that dysregulation of Reelin and Bcl-2 may be responsible for some of the brain structural and behavioral abnormalities observed in autism.

  12. Bcl-2 Conformational Change as an Indicator of Chemotherapy Response

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    conformational Control change in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Immunostaining of apoptotic Bcl-2. H460 - cells were treated with or Paclitaxel without...NuBCPs target mitochondria. GFP-NuBCP and mitochondria-targeted Red Fluorescent Protein (RFP-mito) were transfected into H460 cells for 16 h. Confocal...microscopy analysis showed that in H460 cells GFP-NuBCP colocalized extensively with that of RFP-Mito, a red fluorescence protein (RFP) fused with a

  13. Statins, Bcl-2, and apoptosis: cell death or cell protection?

    PubMed

    Wood, W Gibson; Igbavboa, Urule; Muller, Walter E; Eckert, Gunter P

    2013-10-01

    Statins have proven their effectiveness in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. This class of drugs has also attracted attention as a potential treatment for dissimilar diseases such as certain types of cancers and neurodegenerative diseases. What appears to be a contradiction is that, in the case of cancer, it has been suggested that statins increase apoptosis and alter levels of Bcl-2 family members (e.g., reduce Bcl-2 and increase Bax), whereas studies mainly using noncancerous cells report opposite effects. This review examined studies reporting on the effects of statins on Bcl-2 family members, apoptosis, cell death, and cell protection. Much, but not all, of the evidence supporting the pro-apoptotic effects of statins is based on data in cancer cell lines and the use of relatively high drug concentrations. Studies indicating an anti-apoptotic effect of statins are fewer in number and generally used much lower drug concentrations and normal cells. Those conclusions are not definitive, and certainly, there is a need for additional research to determine if statin repositioning is justified for noncardiovascular diseases.

  14. Platelet count recovery after intravenous immunoglobulin predicts a favorable outcome in children with immune thrombocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Mi Hong; Kim, Sung Jin; Ahn, Hyo Seop

    2016-01-01

    Background Childhood immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is a common acquired bleeding disorder. Even though most children recover, either spontaneously or with therapy, 10-20% of newly diagnosed ITP cases have a chronic course beyond 12 months. This study evaluated whether clinical and laboratory findings can predict the response to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and progression to persistent or chronic ITP in children. Methods During the period between March 2003 and June 2015, we retrospectively analyzed 72 children, newly diagnosed with ITP, who received IVIG treatment. Peripheral blood counts were obtained at diagnosis and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after IVIG treatment. Results After 6 months of IVIG treatment, 14 of 72 patients (19.4%) had persistent ITP, and after 12 months, 7 of 40 patients (17.5%) had chronic ITP. Age at diagnosis, gender, history of viral infection, or vaccination before disease onset were not statistically correlated with platelet recovery at 6 and 12 months. However, a platelet count recovery of ≥100×103/µL at 1 and 3 months was significantly correlated with platelet recovery at 6 (P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively) and 12 (P=0.007 and P=0.004, respectively) months. Conclusion This study demonstrated that early platelet count recovery, at 1 and 3 months after IVIG treatment, predicts a short disease duration and a favorable outcome in children with newly diagnosed ITP. Further investigation in a larger group of patients is warranted to validate these findings. PMID:27382553

  15. Low preoperative albumin-globulin score predicts favorable survival in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi-qiang; Wang, De-shen; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Dong-sheng; Wang, Feng-hua; Fu, Jian-hua; Xu, Rui-hua; Li, Yu-hong

    2016-01-01

    This study retrospectively investigated the prognostic significance of the preoperative albumin-globulin score (AGS) and albumin/globulin ratio (AGR) in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). A cohort of 458 newly diagnosed ESCC patients who underwent radical esophagectomy in Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center (Guangzhou, China) between January 2006 and December 2010 were selected into this study. The optimal cut-off value was identified to be 45.6 g/L, 26.9 g/L and 1.30 for albumin (ALB), globulin (GLB) and AGR in terms of survival, respectively. Patients with low ALB levels (< 45.6 g/L) and high GLB levels (≥ 26.9 g/L) were assigned an AGS of 2, those with only one of the two abnormalities were assigned an AGS of 1, and those with neither of the two abnormalities were assigned an AGS of 0. Univariate survival analysis showed that low AGS (0) was significantly associated with favorable disease free survival (DFS) [hazard ratio (HR), 0.635; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.441–0.914; P = 0.015] and overall survival (OS) (HR, 0.578; 95% CI, 0.387–0.862; P = 0.007), and it remained an independent predictor for OS (HR, 0.630; 95% CI, 0.418–0.952; P = 0.028), but not for DFS (HR, 0.697; 95% CI, 0.479–1.061; P = 0.060) in multivariate models. High AGR (≥ 1.30) was also correlated with favorable DFS (HR, 0.626; 95% CI, 0.430–0.910; P = 0.014) and OS (HR, 0.622; 95% CI, 0.422–0.916; P = 0.016) in univariate analysis, but it failed to be an independent prognostic indicator for DFS (HR, 0.730; 95% CI, 0.494–1.078; P = 0.114) or OS (HR, 0.759; 95% CI, 0.507–1.137; P = 0.181) by multivariate analysis. Low preoperative AGS could serve as a valuable and convenient biochemical marker to predict favorable long-term survival in ESCC patients. PMID:27105522

  16. Prognostic significance of bcl-2 protein expression in aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Groupe d'Etude des Lymphomes de l'Adulte (GELA).

    PubMed

    Hermine, O; Haioun, C; Lepage, E; d'Agay, M F; Briere, J; Lavignac, C; Fillet, G; Salles, G; Marolleau, J P; Diebold, J; Reyas, F; Gaulard, P

    1996-01-01

    Little is known about the expression of bcl-2 protein in intermediate and high grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and its clinical and prognostic significance. We performed immunohistochemical analysis of bcl-2 expression in tumoral tissue sections of 348 patients with high or intermediate grade NHL. These patients were uniformly treated with adriamycin, cyclophosphamide, vindesine, bleomycin, and prednisone (ACVBP) in the induction phase of the LNH87 protocol. Fifty eight cases were excluded due to inadequate staining. Of the 290 remaining patients, 131 (45%) disclosed homogeneous positivity (high bcl-2 expression) in virtually all tumor cells, whereas 65 (23%) were negative and 94 (32%) exhibited intermediate staining. High bcl-2 expression was more frequent in B-cell NHL (109 of 214, 51%) than in T-cell NHL (6 of 35, 17%) (P = .0004), and was heterogeneously distributed among the different histological subtypes. Further analysis was performed on the 151 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (centroblastic and immunoblastic) to assess the clinical significance and potential prognostic value of bcl-2 expression in the most frequent and homogeneous immunohistological subgroup. High bcl-2 expression, found in 44% of these patients (67 of 151), was more frequently associated with III-IV stage disease (P = .002). Reduced disease-free survival (DFS) (P < .01) and overall survival (P < .05) were demonstrated in the patients with high bcl-2 expression. Indeed, the 3-year estimates of DFS and overall survival were 60% and 61%, respectively (high bcl-2 expression) versus 82% and 78%, respectively (negative/intermediate bcl-2 expression). A multivariate regression analysis confirmed the independent effect of bcl-2 protein expression on DFS. Thus bcl-2 protein expression, as demonstrated in routinely paraffin-embedded tissue, appears to be predictive of poor DFS, in agreement with the role of bcl-2 in chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. It might be considered as a new

  17. DENSpm overcame Bcl-2 mediated resistance against Paclitaxel treatment in MCF-7 breast cancer cells via activating polyamine catabolic machinery.

    PubMed

    Akyol, Zeynep; Çoker-Gürkan, Ajda; Arisan, Elif Damla; Obakan-Yerlikaya, Pınar; Palavan-Ünsal, Narçin

    2016-12-01

    The Bcl-2 mediated resistance is one of the most critical obstacle in cancer therapy. Conventional chemotherapeutics such as Paclitaxel, a commonly used in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer, is not sufficient to overcome Bcl-2 mediated drug resistance mechanism. Thus, combinational drug regimes are favored by researchers to overcome resistance phenotype against drugs. N1,N11-diethylnorspermine (DENSpm), a polyamine analogue, which is a promising drug candidate induced-cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in various cancer cells such as prostate, melanoma, colon and breast cancer cells via activated polyamine catabolism and reactive oxygen generation. Recent studies indicated the potential therapeutic role of DENSpm in phase I and II trials in breast cancer cases. Although the molecular targets of Paclitaxel in apoptotic cell death mechanism is well documented, the therapeutic effect of DENSpm and Paclitaxel in breast cancer cells has not been investigated yet. In this study, our aim was to determine the time dependent effect of DENSpm and Paclitaxel on apoptotic cell death via determination of polyamine metabolism related targets in wt and Bcl-2 overexpressing MCF-7 breast cancer cells. In our experimental study, Paclitaxel decreased cell viability in dose-dependent manner within 24h. Co-treatment of Paclitaxel (30nM) with DENSpm (20μM) further increased the cytoxicity of Paclitaxel (30nM) compared to alone Paclitaxel (30nM) treatment in MCF-7 Bcl-2+ breast cancer cells. In addition, we determined that resistance against Paclitaxel-induced apoptotic cell death in Bcl-2 overexpressed MCF-7 cells was overcome due to activation of polyamine catabolic pathway, which caused depletion of polyamines. DENSpm combinational treatment might increase the effect of low cytotoxic paclitaxel in drug-resistant breast cancer cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Viral Bcl-2 Encoded by the Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Is Vital for Virus Reactivation

    PubMed Central

    Gelgor, Anastasia; Kalt, Inna; Bergson, Shir; Brulois, Kevin F.; Jung, Jae U.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) open reading frame 16 (orf16) encodes a viral Bcl-2 (vBcl-2) protein which shares sequence and functional homology with the Bcl-2 family. Like its cellular homologs, vBcl-2 protects various cell types from apoptosis and can also negatively regulate autophagy. vBcl-2 is transcribed during lytic infection; however, its exact function has not been determined to date. By using bacterial artificial chromosome 16 (BAC16) clone carrying the full-length KSHV genome, we have generated recombinant KSHV mutants that fail to express vBcl-2 or express mCherry-tagged vBcl-2. We show that the vBcl-2 protein is expressed at relatively low levels during lytic induction and that a lack of vBcl-2 largely reduces the efficiency of KSHV reactivation in terms of lytic gene expression, viral DNA replication, and production of infectious particles. In contrast, the establishment of latency was not affected by the absence of vBcl-2. Our findings suggest an important role for vBcl-2 during initial phases of lytic reactivation and/or during subsequent viral propagation. Given the known functions of vBcl-2 in regulating apoptosis and autophagy, which involve its direct interaction with cellular proteins and thus require high levels of protein expression, it appears that vBcl-2 may have additional regulatory functions that do not depend on high levels of protein expression. IMPORTANCE The present study shows for the first time the expression of endogenous vBcl-2 protein in KSHV-infected cell lines and demonstrates the importance of vBcl-2 during the initial phases of lytic reactivation and/or during its subsequent propagation. It is suggested that vBcl-2 has additional regulatory functions beyond apoptosis and autophagy repression that do not depend on high levels of protein expression. PMID:25740992

  19. Patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of germinal center origin with BCL2 translocations have poor outcome, irrespective of MYC status: a report from an International DLBCL rituximab-CHOP Consortium Program Study.

    PubMed

    Visco, Carlo; Tzankov, Alexander; Xu-Monette, Zijun Y; Miranda, Roberto N; Tai, Yu Chuan; Li, Yan; Liu, Wei-min; d'Amore, Emanuele S G; Li, Yong; Montes-Moreno, Santiago; Dybkær, Karen; Chiu, April; Orazi, Attilio; Zu, Youli; Bhagat, Govind; Wang, Huan-You; Dunphy, Cherie H; His, Eric D; Zhao, X Frank; Choi, William W L; Zhao, Xiaoying; van Krieken, J Han; Huang, Qin; Ai, Weiyun; O'Neill, Stacey; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Ferreri, Andres J M; Kahl, Brad S; Winter, Jane N; Go, Ronald S; Dirnhofer, Stephan; Piris, Miguel A; Møller, Michael B; Wu, Lin; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Young, Ken H

    2013-02-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma can be classified by gene expression profiling into germinal center and activated B-cell subtypes with different prognoses after rituximab-CHOP. The importance of previously recognized prognostic markers, such as Bcl-2 protein expression and BCL2 gene abnormalities, has been questioned in the new therapeutic era. We analyzed Bcl-2 protein expression, and BCL2 and MYC gene abnormalities by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization in 327 patients with de novo disease treated with rituximab-CHOP. Isolated BCL2 and MYC rearrangements were not predictive of outcome in our patients as a whole, but only in those with the germinal center subtype of lymphoma. The prognostic relevance of isolated MYC rearrangements was weaker than that of BCL2 isolated translocations, but was probably limited by the rarity of the rearrangements. Seven of eight patients with double hit lymphoma had the germinal center subtype with poor outcome. The germinal center subtype patients with isolated BCL2 translocations had significantly worse outcome than the patients without BCL2 rearrangements (P=0.0002), and their outcome was similar to that of patients with the activated B-cell subtype (P=0.30), but not as bad as the outcome of patients with double hit lymphoma (P<0.0001). Bcl-2 protein overexpression was associated with inferior outcome in patients with germinal center subtype lymphoma, but multivariate analysis showed that this was dependent on BCL2 translocations. The gene expression profiling of patients with BCL2 rearrangements was unique, showing activation of pathways that were silent in the negative counterpart. BCL2 translocated germinal center subtype patients have worse prognosis after rituximab-CHOP, irrespective of MYC status, but the presence of combined gene breaks significantly overcomes the prognostic relevance of isolated lesions.

  20. Glomerular expression and elevated serum Bcl-2 and Fas proteins in lupus nephritis: preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Fathi, N A; Hussein, M R; Hassan, H I; Mosad, E; Galal, H; Afifi, N A

    2006-11-01

    Programmed cell death (apoptosis) is involved in glomerular injuries leading to glomerulonephritis. Bcl-2 and Fas are proteins that promote cell survival and death, respectively. This study tests the hypothesis that lupus nephritis is associated with alterations of Bcl-2 and Fas protein expression. Thirty-six patients with lupus nephritis and 10 controls (normal individuals) were included in this study. Bcl-2 and Fas positive cells were examined in kidney biopsies by immunohistochemistry. Bcl-2 and Fas serum levels were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In the glomeruli of normal kidneys, Bcl-2 and Fas proteins were completely absent. In lupus nephritis patients, glomerular expression of Bcl-2 and Fas was seen in mesangial cells (1.3 +/- 0.1 and 2.0 +/- 0.1 for Bcl-2 and Fas, respectively). Similarly, a statistically significantly higher Bcl-2 (217.1 +/- 85.9) and Fas (767.9 +/- 271) serum levels were found in lupus patients compared to controls (148.6 +/- 87, 550.3 +/- 91 for Bcl-2 and Fas, P < 0.05). A direct correlation between serum Bcl-2 and Fas and chronicity index was also found. Compared to normal controls, lupus nephritis is associated with glomerular expression and elevated serum levels of Bcl-2 and Fas proteins. These findings suggest possible roles for Bcl-2 and Fas in glomerular injury during evolution of lupus nephritis. The diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic ramifications of our findings are open to further investigation.

  1. Chemical parsing: Dissecting cell dependencies with a toolkit of selective BCL-2 family inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Leverson, Joel D

    2016-01-01

    The BCL-2/BCL-XL inhibitor navitoclax has shown promise for the treatment of cancer but on-target toxicities have limited its utility. Recently, the generation of selective BCL-2 family inhibitors has enabled a careful dissection of BCL-2 biology, and early work indicates that these molecules have improved therapeutic profiles for the treatment of cancer.

  2. Tumor-infiltrating CD45RO(+) Memory T Lymphocytes Predict Favorable Clinical Outcome in Solid Tumors.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guoming; Wang, Shimin

    2017-09-04

    The prognostic role of tumor-infiltrating CD45RO(+) memory T lymphocytes (CD45RO(+) T cells) in human solid tumors remains controversial. Herein, we conducted a meta-analysis including 25 published studies with 4720 patients identified from PubMed and EBSCO to assess the prognostic impact of tumor-infiltrating CD45RO(+) T cells in human solid tumors. We found that CD45RO(+) T cell infiltration was significantly associated with improved overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in all types of solid tumors. In stratified analyses, CD45RO(+) T cell infiltration significantly improved 1-year, 3-year and 5-year OS in colorectal, gastric and esophageal cancer, but only 5-year OS in hepatocellular carcinoma. And these cells were positively associated with 1-year, 3-year and 5-year DFS in hepatocellular, colorectal and esophageal cancer. In addition, high density of intratumoral CD45RO(+) T cells inversely correlated with TNM stage of solid tumor. In conclusion, CD45RO(+) memory T lymphocyte infiltration leads to a favorable clinical outcome in solid tumors, implicating that it is a valuable biomarker for prognostic prediction for human solid malignances.

  3. Factors for Predicting Favorable Outcome of Percutaneous Epidural Adhesiolysis for Lumbar Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Sang Ho; Lee, Jae Il; Cho, Hyun Seok; Shin, Jin Woo

    2017-01-01

    Background. Lower back pain is a common reason for disability and the most common cause is lumbar disc herniation. Percutaneous epidural adhesiolysis has been applied to relieve pain and increase the functional capacity of patients who present this condition. Objectives. In this study, we retrospectively evaluated the factors which predict the outcome of percutaneous epidural adhesiolysis in patients who were diagnosed with lumbar disc herniation. Methods. Electronic medical records of patients diagnosed with lumbar disc herniation who have received percutaneous epidural adhesiolysis treatment were reviewed. The primary outcome was the factors that were associated with substantial response of ≥4 points or ≥50% of pain relief in the numerical rating scale pain score 12 months after the treatment. Results. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the presence of high-intensity zone (HIZ) at magnetic resonance imaging was a predictor of substantial response to percutaneous epidural adhesiolysis for 12 months (P = 0.007). The presence of a condition involving the vertebral foramen was a predictor for unsuccessful response after 12 months (P = 0.02). Discussion and Conclusion. The presence of HIZ was a predictor of favorable long-term outcome after percutaneous epidural adhesiolysis for the treatment of lower back pain with radicular pain caused by lumbar disc herniation. PMID:28246488

  4. Identification of a novel regulatory domain in Bcl-X(L) and Bcl-2.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, B S; Minn, A J; Muchmore, S W; Fesik, S W; Thompson, C B

    1997-01-01

    Bcl-X(L), a member of the Bcl-2 family, can inhibit many forms of programed cell death. The three-dimensional structure of Bcl-X(L) identified a 60 amino acid loop lacking defined structure. Although amino acid sequence within this region is not conserved among Bcl-2 family members, structural modeling suggested that Bcl-2 also contains a large unstructured region. Compared with the full-length protein, loop deletion mutants of Bcl-X(L) and Bcl-2 displayed an enhanced ability to inhibit apoptosis. Despite enhanced function, the deletion mutants did not have significant alterations in the ability to bind pro-apoptotic proteins such as Bax. The loop deletion mutant of Bcl-2 also displayed a qualitative difference in its ability to inhibit apoptosis. Full-length Bcl-2 was unable to prevent anti-IgM-induced cell death of the immature B cell line WEHI-231. In contrast, the Bcl-2 deletion mutant protected WEHI-231 cells from death. Substantial differences were observed in the ability of WEHI-231 cells to phosphorylate the deletion mutant of Bcl-2 compared with full-length Bcl-2. Bcl-2 phosphorylation was found to be dependent on the presence of an intact loop domain. These results suggest that the loop domain in Bcl-X(L) and Bcl-2 can suppress the anti-apoptotic function of these genes and may be a target for regulatory post-translational modifications. PMID:9118958

  5. Prognostic impact of Bcl-2 depends on tumor histology and expression of MALAT-1 lncRNA in non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Lars Henning; Görlich, Dennis; Spieker, Tilmann; Rohde, Christian; Schuler, Martin; Mohr, Michael; Humberg, Julia; Sauer, Tim; Thoenissen, Nils H; Huge, Andreas; Voss, Reinhard; Marra, Alessandro; Faldum, Andreas; Müller-Tidow, Carsten; Berdel, Wolfgang E; Wiewrodt, Rainer

    2014-09-01

    Apoptosis is a crucial pathway in tumor growth and metastatic development. Apoptotic proteins regulate the underlying molecular cascades and are thought to modulate the tumor response to chemotherapy and radiation. However, the prognostic value of the expression of apoptosis regulators in localized non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is still unclear. We investigated the protein expression of apoptosis regulators Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, Mcl-1, and pp32/PHAPI, and the expression of the lncRNA MALAT-1 in tumor samples from 383 NSCLC patients (median age: 65.6 years; 77.5% male; paraffin-embedded tissue microarrays). For statistical analysis correlation tests, Log rank tests and Cox proportional hazard models were applied. Tumor histology was significantly associated with the expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-xl and Mcl-1 (all p < 0.001). Among the tested apoptotic markers only Bcl-2 demonstrated prognostic impact (hazard ratio = 0.64, p = 0.012). For NSCLC patients with non-adenocarcinoma histology, Bcl-2 expression was associated with increased overall survival (p = 0.036). Besides tumor histology, prognostic impact of Bcl-2 was also found to depend on MALAT-1 lncRNA expression. Gene expression analysis of A549 adenocarcinoma cells with differential MALAT-1 lncRNA expression demonstrated an influence on the expression of Bcl-2 and its interacting proteins. Bcl-2 expression was specifically associated with superior prognosis in localized NSCLC. An interaction of Bcl-2 with MALAT-1 lncRNA expression was revealed, which merits further investigation for risk prediction in resectable NSCLC patients.

  6. Bcl-2 and bax expression and prostate cancer outcome in men treated with radiotherapy in Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol 86-10

    SciTech Connect

    Khor, L.-Y.; De Silvio, Michelle; Li, Rile; McDonnell, Timothy J.; Hammond, M. Elizabeth H.; Sause, William T.; Pilepich, Miljenko V.; Okunieff, Paul; Sandler, Howard M.; Pollack, Alan . E-mail: Alan.Pollack@fccc.edu

    2006-09-01

    Purpose: Bcl-2 and bax are proteins with opposing roles in apoptosis regulation; yet abnormal expression of either has been associated with failure after radiotherapy (RT). In this study we examined bcl-2 and bax expression as predictive markers in men treated with radiotherapy {+-} androgen deprivation on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) protocol 86-10. Experimental Design: Suitable archival diagnostic tissue was obtained from 119 (26%) patients for bcl-2 analysis and 104 (23%) patients for bax analysis. Cox proportional hazards multivariate analysis was used to determine the relationship of abnormal bcl-2 and bax expression to the end points of local failure, distant metastasis, cause-specific mortality, and overall mortality. Bcl-2 overexpression was classified as any tumor cell cytoplasmic staining and altered bax expression was classified as greater or lesser cytoplasmic staining intensity of tumor cells as compared with adjacent normal prostate epithelium. Results: The study cohort exhibited bcl-2 overexpression in 26% (n = 30) of cases and abnormal bax expression in 47% (n = 49) of cases. A borderline significant relationship was observed between abnormal bax expression and higher Gleason score (p = 0.08). In univariate and multivariate analyses, there was no statistically significant relationship seen between abnormal bcl-2 or bax expression and outcome. Conclusions: Abnormal bcl-2 and bax expression were not related to any of the end points tested. The cohort examined was comprised of patients with locally advanced disease and it is possible that these markers may be of greater value in men with earlier-stage prostate cancer.

  7. Differential Expression of Bcl-2 Family Proteins Determines the Sensitivity of Human Follicular Lymphoma Cells to Dexamethasone-mediated and Anti-BCR-mediated Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Adem, Jemal; Ropponen, Antti; Eeva, Jonna; Eray, Mine; Nuutinen, Ulla; Pelkonen, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    Bcl-2 family comprises proapoptotic and antiapoptotic proteins. The balance between these proteins is critical for the survival of the cells. Overexpression of the antiapoptotic protein, Bcl-2, is the hallmark of follicular lymphoma (FL). High expression of Bcl-2 provides survival advantage and may facilitate chemotherapeutic resistance in FL. In the present study, we examined expression profile of Bcl-2 family proteins such as Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Bim in human FL cell lines, HF1A3 and HF28. We assessed the correlation between the expression levels of these proteins and cells' sensitivity to dexamethasone (Dex)-mediated and B-cell receptor (BCR)-mediated apoptosis. Here, we show that Dex and anti-BCR-induced synergistic apoptosis which correlated with significant downregulation of Bcl-xL, inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation and accumulation of nonphosphorylated Bim. However, HF28 cells were less sensitive than HF1A3 cells to Dex-induced and anti-BCR-induced apoptosis due to high Bcl-2 protein level. It is interesting to note that, a Bcl-2-specific inhibitor, ABT-199, sensitized HF28 cells to Dex-induced or anti-BCR-induced apoptosis. In addition, overexpression of Bcl-xL prevented Dex-mediated, anti-BCR-mediated, and ABT-199-mediated apoptosis, indicating that mitochondria were involved. In conclusion, these data show that the expression levels of Bcl-2 family proteins may serve to predict tumor response to BH3 mimetics and the sensitivity of FL cells to Dex-induced and anti-BCR-induced apoptosis. Moreover, our results show that BCR-targeted apoptosis might have therapeutic benefit against FL and B-cell lymphomas.

  8. Bax transmembrane domain interacts with prosurvival Bcl-2 proteins in biological membranes

    PubMed Central

    Andreu-Fernández, Vicente; Sancho, Mónica; Genovés, Ainhoa; Lucendo, Estefanía; Todt, Franziska; Lauterwasser, Joachim; Funk, Kathrin; Jahreis, Günther; Pérez-Payá, Enrique; Mingarro, Ismael; Edlich, Frank; Orzáez, Mar

    2017-01-01

    The Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2) protein Bax (Bcl-2 associated X, apoptosis regulator) can commit cells to apoptosis via outer mitochondrial membrane permeabilization. Bax activity is controlled in healthy cells by prosurvival Bcl-2 proteins. C-terminal Bax transmembrane domain interactions were implicated recently in Bax pore formation. Here, we show that the isolated transmembrane domains of Bax, Bcl-xL (B-cell lymphoma-extra large), and Bcl-2 can mediate interactions between Bax and prosurvival proteins inside the membrane in the absence of apoptotic stimuli. Bcl-2 protein transmembrane domains specifically homooligomerize and heterooligomerize in bacterial and mitochondrial membranes. Their interactions participate in the regulation of Bcl-2 proteins, thus modulating apoptotic activity. Our results suggest that interactions between the transmembrane domains of Bax and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins represent a previously unappreciated level of apoptosis regulation. PMID:28028215

  9. Bax transmembrane domain interacts with prosurvival Bcl-2 proteins in biological membranes.

    PubMed

    Andreu-Fernández, Vicente; Sancho, Mónica; Genovés, Ainhoa; Lucendo, Estefanía; Todt, Franziska; Lauterwasser, Joachim; Funk, Kathrin; Jahreis, Günther; Pérez-Payá, Enrique; Mingarro, Ismael; Edlich, Frank; Orzáez, Mar

    2017-01-10

    The Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2) protein Bax (Bcl-2 associated X, apoptosis regulator) can commit cells to apoptosis via outer mitochondrial membrane permeabilization. Bax activity is controlled in healthy cells by prosurvival Bcl-2 proteins. C-terminal Bax transmembrane domain interactions were implicated recently in Bax pore formation. Here, we show that the isolated transmembrane domains of Bax, Bcl-xL (B-cell lymphoma-extra large), and Bcl-2 can mediate interactions between Bax and prosurvival proteins inside the membrane in the absence of apoptotic stimuli. Bcl-2 protein transmembrane domains specifically homooligomerize and heterooligomerize in bacterial and mitochondrial membranes. Their interactions participate in the regulation of Bcl-2 proteins, thus modulating apoptotic activity. Our results suggest that interactions between the transmembrane domains of Bax and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins represent a previously unappreciated level of apoptosis regulation.

  10. MicroRNAs affect BCL-2 family proteins in the setting of cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Yi-Bing; Giffard, Rona G

    2014-11-01

    The BCL-2 family is centrally involved in the mechanism of cell death after cerebral ischemia. It is well known that the proteins of the BCL-2 family are key regulators of apoptosis through controlling mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization. Recent findings suggest that many BCL-2 family members are also directly involved in controlling transmission of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to mitochondria through a specialization called the mitochondria-associated ER membrane (MAM). Increasing evidence supports the involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs), some of them targeting BCL-2 family proteins, in the regulation of cerebral ischemia. In this mini-review, after highlighting current knowledge about the multiple functions of BCL-2 family proteins and summarizing their relationship to outcome from cerebral ischemia, we focus on the regulation of BCL-2 family proteins by miRNAs, especially miR-29 which targets multiple BCL-2 family proteins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Bcl-2 silencing attenuates hypoxia-induced apoptosis resistance in pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yongmei; Jiang, Zhen; Zeng, Zhen; Liu, Yujing; Gu, Yuchun; Ji, Yingying; Zhao, Yupeng; Li, Yingchuan

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a life-threatening disorder that ultimately causes heart failure. While the underlying causes of this condition are not well understood, previous studies suggest that the anti-apoptotic nature of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) in hypoxic environments contributes to PAH pathogenesis. In this study, we focus on the contribution of Bcl-2 and hypoxia response element (HRE) to apoptosis-resistant endothelial cells and investigate the mechanism. PMVECs obtained from either normal rats or apoptosis-resistant PMVECs obtained from PAH rats were transduced with recombinant lentiviral vectors carrying either Bcl-2-shRNA or HRE combined Bcl-2-shRNA, and then cultured these cells for 24 h under hypoxic (5% O2) or normoxic (21% O2) conditions. In normal PMVECs, Bcl-2-shRNA or HRE combined with Bcl-2-shRNA transduction successfully decreased Bcl-2 expression, while increasing apoptosis as well as caspase-3 and P53 expression in a normoxic environment. In a hypoxic environment, the effects of Bcl-2-shRNA treatment on cell apoptosis, and on Bcl-2, caspase-3, P53 expression were significantly suppressed. Conversely, HRE activation combined with Bcl-2-shRNA transduction markedly enhanced cell apoptosis and upregulated caspase-3 and P53 expression, while decreasing Bcl-2 expression. Furthermore, in apoptosis-resistant PMVECs, HRE-mediated Bcl-2 silencing effectively enhanced cell apoptosis and caspase-3 activity. The apoptosis rate was significantly depressed when Lv-HRE-Bcl-2-shRNA was combined with Lv-P53-shRNA or Lv-caspase3-shRNA transduction in a hypoxic environment. These results suggest that HRE-mediated Bcl-2 inhibition can effectively attenuate hypoxia-induced apoptosis resistance in PMVECs by downregulating Bcl-2 expression and upregulating caspase-3 and P53 expression. This study therefore reveals critical insight into potential therapeutic targets for treating PAH.

  12. Mitochondrial PKM2 regulates oxidative stress-induced apoptosis by stabilizing Bcl2

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Ji; Cao, Ruixiu; Wang, Xiongjun; Zhang, Yajuan; Wang, Pan; Gao, Hong; Li, Chen; Yang, Fan; Zeng, Rong; Wei, Ping; Li, Dawei; Li, Wenfeng; Yang, Weiwei

    2017-01-01

    Pyruvate kinase M2 isoform (PKM2) catalyzes the last step of glycolysis and plays an important role in tumor cell proliferation. Recent studies have reported that PKM2 also regulates apoptosis. However, the mechanisms underlying such a role of PKM2 remain elusive. Here we show that PKM2 translocates to mitochondria under oxidative stress. In the mitochondria, PKM2 interacts with and phosphorylates Bcl2 at threonine (T) 69. This phosphorylation prevents the binding of Cul3-based E3 ligase to Bcl2 and subsequent degradation of Bcl2. A chaperone protein, HSP90α1, is required for this function of PKM2. HSP90α1's ATPase activity launches a conformational change of PKM2 and facilitates interaction between PKM2 and Bcl2. Replacement of wild-type Bcl2 with phosphorylation-deficient Bcl2 T69A mutant sensitizes glioma cells to oxidative stress-induced apoptosis and impairs brain tumor formation in an orthotopic xenograft model. Notably, a peptide that is composed of the amino acid residues from 389 to 405 of PKM2, through which PKM2 binds to Bcl2, disrupts PKM2-Bcl2 interaction, promotes Bcl2 degradation and impairs brain tumor growth. In addition, levels of Bcl2 T69 phosphorylation, conformation-altered PKM2 and Bcl2 protein correlate with one another in specimens of human glioblastoma patients. Moreover, levels of Bcl2 T69 phosphorylation and conformation-altered PKM2 correlate with both grades and prognosis of glioma malignancy. Our findings uncover a novel mechanism through which mitochondrial PKM2 phosphorylates Bcl2 and inhibits apoptosis directly, highlight the essential role of PKM2 in ROS adaptation of cancer cells, and implicate HSP90-PKM2-Bcl2 axis as a potential target for therapeutic intervention in glioblastoma. PMID:28035139

  13. Microtubule-damaging drugs triggered bcl2 phosphorylation-requirement of phosphorylation on both serine-70 and serine-87 residues of bcl2 protein.

    PubMed

    Basu, A; Haldar, S

    1998-10-01

    Specifically anti-microtubule agents such as taxol, vincristine, vinblastine and dolastatin can trigger Bcl2 phosphorylation at G2-M phase of the cell cycle in malignant cells derived from a variety of human cancers. In this study, the status of Bcl2 phosphorylation was investigated in response to more antimicrotubule agents such as colchicine, colcemid or podophyllotoxin. Although these agents are not currently used for cancer therapy, they were able to trigger Bcl2 phosphorylation with simultaneous apoptosis in cancer cells. Previously, by using extensive site-directed mutagenesis studies we determined that mutation of serine-70 to alanine could not completely abrogate taxol induced Bcl2 phosphorylation. Studies reported here clearly indicate that serine-87 residue along with serine-70 of Bcl2 protein are necessary for microtubule damaging drug induced phosphorylation.

  14. Evaluation of p53, Caspase-3, Bcl-2, and Ki-67 markers in oral squamous cell carcinoma and premalignant epithelium in a sample from Alava Province (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Gutierrez, Carlos; Rodríguez-Gómez, Enrique; Gil-Montoya, José A.; Gómez-Font, Rafael; González-Moles, Miguel Á.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine whether alterations in the expression of p53, caspase-3 Bcl-2, and ki-67 appear early in premalignant oral epithelium and show clonal behavior. Study Design: Samples from 41 tumors with their adjacent non-tumor epithelia were immunohistochemically analyzed using monoclonal antibodies that recognize p53, caspase-3, Bcl-2, and Ki-67 Results: A statistically significant association was found between the expression in tumor and adjacent epithelium of p53, caspase-3, and Bcl-2 but not of k-67. A significant association was observed between the expression of ki-67 and p53 in both localizations. In non-tumor (premalignant) epithelium samples, there was a significant inverse relationship between the expressions of p53 and caspase-3 and a significant direct relationship between the expressions of p53 and Bcl-2. Conclusions: Alterations in these proteins appear to operate in combination with premalignant epithelia to create hyperproliferative cell states that favor the acquisition of summative oncogenic errors that confer invasive capacity. Key words:Cell cycle, apoptosis, p53, caspase-3, Bcl-2, Ki-67. PMID:23722133

  15. Hypoxia-induced Bcl-2 expression in endothelial cells via p38 MAPK pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Cui-Li; Song, Fei; Zhang, Jing; Song, Q.H.

    2010-04-16

    Angiogenesis and apoptosis are reciprocal processes in endothelial cells. Bcl-2, an anti-apoptotic protein, has been found to have angiogenic activities. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of Bcl-2 in hypoxia-induced angiogenesis in endothelial cells and to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) were exposed to hypoxia followed by reoxygenation. Myocardial ischemia and reperfusion mouse model was used and Bcl-2 expression was assessed. Bcl-2 expression increased in a time-dependent manner in response to hypoxia from 2 to 72 h. Peak expression occurred at 12 h (3- to 4-fold, p < 0.05). p38 inhibitor (SB203580) blocked hypoxia-induced Bcl-2 expression, whereas PKC, ERK1/2 and PI3K inhibitors did not. Knockdown of Bcl-2 resulted in decreased HAECs' proliferation and migration. Over-expression of Bcl-2 increased HAECs' tubule formation, whereas knockdown of Bcl-2 inhibited this process. In this model of myocardial ischemia and reperfusion, Bcl-2 expression was increased and was associated with increased p38 MAPK activation. Our results showed that hypoxia induces Bcl-2 expression in HAECs via p38 MAPK pathway.

  16. Bim/Bcl-2 balance is critical for maintaining naive and memory T cell homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Wojciechowski, Sara; Tripathi, Pulak; Bourdeau, Tristan; Acero, Luis; Grimes, H. Leighton; Katz, Jonathan D.; Finkelman, Fred D.; Hildeman, David A.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the role of the antiapoptotic molecule Bcl-2 in combating the proapoptotic molecule Bim in control of naive and memory T cell homeostasis using Bcl-2−/− mice that were additionally deficient in one or both alleles of Bim. Naive T cells were significantly decreased in Bim+/−Bcl-2−/− mice, but were largely restored in Bim−/−Bcl-2−/− mice. Similarly, a synthetic Bcl-2 inhibitor killed wild-type, but not Bim−/−, T cells. Further, T cells from Bim+/−Bcl-2−/− mice died rapidly ex vivo and were refractory to cytokine-driven survival in vitro. In vivo, naive CD8+ T cells required Bcl-2 to combat Bim to maintain peripheral survival, whereas naive CD4+ T cells did not. In contrast, Bim+/−Bcl-2−/− mice generated relatively normal numbers of memory T cells after lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. Accumulation of memory T cells in Bim+/−Bcl-2−/− mice was likely caused by their increased proliferative renewal because of the lymphopenic environment of the mice. Collectively, these data demonstrate a critical role for a balance between Bim and Bcl-2 in controlling homeostasis of naive and memory T cells. PMID:17591857

  17. MYC/BCL2 double-hit high-grade B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Shaoying; Lin, Pei; Young, Ken H; Kanagal-Shamanna, Rashmi; Yin, C Cameron; Medeiros, L Jeffrey

    2013-09-01

    Double-hit lymphoma (DHL) has been defined by others as a B-cell lymphoma with MYC/8q24 rearrangement in combination with a translocation involving another gene, such as BCL2, BCL3, or BCL6. The most common form of DHL has translocations involving MYC and BCL2, also known as MYC/BCL2 DHL. In recent years, a number of case series of MYC/BCL2 DHL have been published. Most cases of MYC/BCL2 DHL morphologically resemble diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) or B-cell lymphoma, unclassifiable, with features intermediate between DLBCL and Burkitt lymphoma. These tumors are of B-cell lineage, have a germinal center B-cell immunophenotype with a high proliferation rate, and a complex karyotype. Patients with these tumors have an aggressive clinical course and poor prognosis despite high-intensity chemotherapy. More recently, studies have suggested expanding the spectrum of MYC/BCL2 DHL to include cases that have concurrent MYC and BCL2 cytogenetic abnormalities, but not necessarily translocations. In addition, overexpression of MYC and BCL2 has been shown in an appreciable subset of DLBCL tumors. These tumors show overlap with MYC/BCL2 DHL, but are not equivalent. In this review, we discuss the clinicopathologic, immunophenotypic, cytogenetic, and prognostic features of MYC/BCL2 DHL.

  18. Bcl2L13 is a ceramide synthase inhibitor in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Samuel A.; Calvert, Andrea E.; Volpert, Giora; Kouri, Fotini M.; Hurley, Lisa A.; Luciano, Janina P.; Wu, Yongfei; Chalastanis, Alexandra; Futerman, Anthony H.; Stegh, Alexander H.

    2014-01-01

    Therapy resistance is a major limitation to the successful treatment of cancer. Here, we identify Bcl2-like 13 (Bcl2L13), an atypical member of the Bcl-2 family, as a therapy susceptibility gene with elevated expression in solid and blood cancers, including glioblastoma (GBM). We demonstrate that mitochondria-associated Bcl2L13 inhibits apoptosis induced by a wide spectrum of chemo- and targeted therapies upstream of Bcl2-associated X protein activation and mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization in vitro and promotes GBM tumor growth in vivo. Mechanistically, Bcl2L13 binds to proapoptotic ceramide synthases 2 (CerS2) and 6 (CerS6) via a unique C-terminal 250-aa sequence located between its Bcl-2 homology and membrane anchor domains and blocks homo- and heteromeric CerS2/6 complex formation and activity. Correspondingly, CerS2/6 activity and Bcl2L13 abundance are inversely correlated in GBM tumors. Thus, our genetic and functional studies identify Bcl2L13 as a regulator of therapy susceptibility and point to the Bcl2L13–CerS axis as a promising target to enhance responses of therapy-refractory cancers toward conventional and targeted regimens currently in clinical use. PMID:24706805

  19. Topographic distribution of bcl-2 protein in feline tissues in health and neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Madewell, B R; Gandour-Edwards, R; Edwards, B F; Walls, J E; Griffey, S M

    1999-11-01

    The bcl-2 family of genes encodes proteins that influence apoptosis. In the present immunohistochemical study, the topographic distribution of bcl-2 protein was examined in healthy feline fetal, neonatal, and adult tissues, a feline renal cell line, and feline tumors obtained from a veterinary hospital. The topographic distribution of bcl-2 in healthy tissues was similar to that described in human tissues. In lymphoid tissues, follicular mantle cells strongly expressed bcl-2. In complex and differentiating epithelium, bcl-2 expression was detected in stem cell and proliferation zones. Bcl-2 expression was also detected in lower crypts of the intestine and in skin basal layers. The feline Crandell kidney cells expressed bcl-2 diffusely throughout the cytoplasm. Of 180 tumors examined, bcl-2 was expressed almost uniformly in cutaneous basal cell tumors, thyroid adenomas, and mammary carcinomas and in 50% of the lymphomas examined. Bcl-2 may play a role in blocking apoptotic cell death in a broad range of normal feline tissues, whereas dysregulated bcl-2 may extend the life of certain tumors or render certain tumors resistant to therapy because most chemotherapeutic and radiotherapeutic agents eliminate tumor cells by triggering apoptosis.

  20. Attenuation of both apoptotic and necrotic actions of cadmium by Bcl-2.

    PubMed Central

    Ishido, Masami; Ohtsubo, Rieko; Adachi, Tatsumi; Kunimoto, Manabu

    2002-01-01

    We examined the effects of cadmium on the bcl-2 family of proteins--bcl-2, bax, bad, and bcl-xS/L--in cadmium-induced cytotoxicity. Addition of 10 microM cadmium to cultured porcine kidney LLC-PK(1) cells caused apoptosis. Western blot analyses revealed that cadmium markedly increased endogenous bcl-2 protein (to 3-4 times the level in wild-type cells) earlier than metallothionein induction, but that the metal did not enhance the induction of bax, bad, or bcl-xS proteins. Cadmium also induced the transcript of bcl-2, with the amount of bcl-2 reaching a maximum at 1-2 hr of exposure; this increase occurred earlier than cadmium-induced increase in the protooncogene such as c-myc. A cadmium-induced increase in endogenous bcl-2 protein was also seen in rat primary thymocytes. Overexpression of the bcl-2 protein by gene transfection prevented cadmium-induced apoptosis. Following the detection of apoptosis, lactate dehydrogenase release in the culture medium (a marker of necrosis) was observed, and this release was also inhibited by overexpression of bcl-2. Electron microscopic observations also supported the fact that cadmium induced apoptotic chromatin condensation at an early stage of exposure, followed by necrotic features of the cells, both of which were also inhibited by overexpression of bcl-2 proteins. Thus, our data demonstrated that both apoptotic and necrotic actions of cadmium were attenuated by bcl-2. PMID:11781163

  1. Bcl2L13 is a ceramide synthase inhibitor in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Samuel A; Calvert, Andrea E; Volpert, Giora; Kouri, Fotini M; Hurley, Lisa A; Luciano, Janina P; Wu, Yongfei; Chalastanis, Alexandra; Futerman, Anthony H; Stegh, Alexander H

    2014-04-15

    Therapy resistance is a major limitation to the successful treatment of cancer. Here, we identify Bcl2-like 13 (Bcl2L13), an atypical member of the Bcl-2 family, as a therapy susceptibility gene with elevated expression in solid and blood cancers, including glioblastoma (GBM). We demonstrate that mitochondria-associated Bcl2L13 inhibits apoptosis induced by a wide spectrum of chemo- and targeted therapies upstream of Bcl2-associated X protein activation and mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization in vitro and promotes GBM tumor growth in vivo. Mechanistically, Bcl2L13 binds to proapoptotic ceramide synthases 2 (CerS2) and 6 (CerS6) via a unique C-terminal 250-aa sequence located between its Bcl-2 homology and membrane anchor domains and blocks homo- and heteromeric CerS2/6 complex formation and activity. Correspondingly, CerS2/6 activity and Bcl2L13 abundance are inversely correlated in GBM tumors. Thus, our genetic and functional studies identify Bcl2L13 as a regulator of therapy susceptibility and point to the Bcl2L13-CerS axis as a promising target to enhance responses of therapy-refractory cancers toward conventional and targeted regimens currently in clinical use.

  2. Bcl-2 associated with positive symptoms of schizophrenic patients in an acute phase.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Meng-Chang; Liou, Chia-Wei; Lin, Tsu-Kung; Lin, I-Mei; Huang, Tiao-Lai

    2013-12-30

    B cell lymphoma protein-2 (Bcl-2) may contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia in the brain. The aim of this study was to investigate the serum levels of Bcl-2 in schizophrenic patients in an acute phase, and evaluate Bcl-2 level changes after antipsychotic treatment. We consecutively enrolled 41 schizophrenia patients in an acute phase; 28 were followed up with a 4-week antipsychotic treatment. Serum Bcl-2 levels were measured with assay kits. All patients were evaluated by examining the correlation between Bcl-2 levels and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scores, using Pearson correlation coefficients. In schizophrenic patients in an acute phase, positive PANSS subscores were significantly negatively correlated with Bcl-2 levels. In addition, we found Bcl-2 levels had a significantly negative correlation with PANSS total scores and positive subscores in male patients in an acute phase. Using the paired t-test, we found no significant changes in Bcl-2 levels in schizophrenia patients who had received the 4-week treatment with antipsychotic drugs (n=28). In conclusion, our results suggest that Bcl-2 might be an indicator of schizophrenia severity in the acute phase. In addition, Bcl-2 levels might be associated with positive symptoms in male patients with schizophrenia.

  3. BCL2L2 — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    From NCBI Gene: This gene encodes a member of the BCL-2 protein family. The proteins of this family form hetero- or homodimers and act as anti- and pro-apoptotic regulators. Expression of this gene in cells has been shown to contribute to reduced cell apoptosis under cytotoxic conditions. Studies of the related gene in mice indicated a role in the survival of NGF- and BDNF-dependent neurons. Mutation and knockout studies of the mouse gene demonstrated an essential role in adult spermatogenesis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Read-through transcription also exists between this gene and the neighboring downstream PABPN1 (poly(A) binding protein, nuclear 1) gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010

  4. The Bcl-2 family: roles in cell survival and oncogenesis.

    PubMed

    Cory, Suzanne; Huang, David C S; Adams, Jerry M

    2003-11-24

    Apoptosis, the cell-suicide programme executed by caspases, is critical for maintaining tissue homeostasis, and impaired apoptosis is now recognized to be a key step in tumorigenesis. Whether a cell should live or die is largely determined by the Bcl-2 family of anti- and proapoptotic regulators. These proteins respond to cues from various forms of intracellular stress, such as DNA damage or cytokine deprivation, and interact with opposing family members to determine whether or not the caspase proteolytic cascade should be unleashed. This review summarizes current views of how these proteins sense stress, interact with their relatives, perturb organelles such as the mitochondrion and endoplasmic reticulum and govern pathways to caspase activation. It briefly explores how family members influence cell-cycle entry and outlines the evidence for their involvement in tumour development, both as oncoproteins and tumour suppressors. Finally, it discusses the promise of novel anticancer therapeutics that target these vital regulators.

  5. A Surface Groove Essential for Viral Bcl-2 Function During Chronic Infection In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Petros, Andrew M; Nettesheim, David; van Dyk, Linda F.; Labrada, Lucia; Speck, Samuel H; Levine, Beth

    2005-01-01

    Antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins inhibit apoptosis in cultured cells by binding BH3 domains of proapoptotic Bcl-2 family members via a hydrophobic BH3 binding groove on the protein surface. We investigated the physiological importance of the BH3 binding groove of an antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein in mammals in vivo by analyzing a viral Bcl-2 family protein. We show that the γ-herpesvirus 68 (γHV68) Bcl-2 family protein (γHV68 v-Bcl-2), which is known to inhibit apoptosis in cultured cells, inhibits both apoptosis in primary lymphocytes and Bax toxicity in yeast. Nuclear magnetic resonance determination of the γHV68 v-Bcl-2 structure revealed a BH3 binding groove that binds BH3 domain peptides from proapoptotic Bcl-2 family members Bax and Bak via a molecular mechanism shared with host Bcl-2 family proteins, involving a conserved arginine in the BH3 peptide binding groove. Mutations of this conserved arginine and two adjacent amino acids to alanine (SGR to AAA) within the BH3 binding groove resulted in a properly folded protein that lacked the capacity of the wild-type γHV68 v-Bcl-2 to bind Bax BH3 peptide and to block Bax toxicity in yeast. We tested the physiological importance of this v-Bcl-2 domain during viral infection by engineering viral mutants encoding a v-Bcl-2 containing the SGR to AAA mutation. This mutation resulted in a virus defective for both efficient reactivation of γHV68 from latency and efficient persistent γHV68 replication. These studies demonstrate an essential functional role for amino acids in the BH3 peptide binding groove of a viral Bcl-2 family member during chronic infection. PMID:16201011

  6. bcl-2 proto-oncogene expression in normal and neoplastic human myeloid cells.

    PubMed

    Delia, D; Aiello, A; Soligo, D; Fontanella, E; Melani, C; Pezzella, F; Pierotti, M A; Della Porta, G

    1992-03-01

    The present study provides immunobiochemical and molecular data on the differentiation-linked expression of the bcl-2 proto-oncogene in normal and neoplastic myeloid cells. Using a recently developed monoclonal antibody (MoAb) to the bcl-2 molecule, staining of normal bone marrow myeloblasts, promyelocytes, and myelocytes, but neither monocytes nor most polymorphonuclear cells, was demonstrated. By two-color flow cytometric analysis, bcl-2 was evidenced in CD33+ and CD33+/CD34+ myeloid cells as well as in the more primitive CD33-/CD34+ population. The leukemic cell lines HL-60, KG1, GM-1, and K562 were bcl-2 positive together with 11 of 14 acute myeloid leukemias (AML) and three of three chronic myeloid leukemias (CML) in blast crises; six of seven CML were negative. Among myelodysplastic cases, augmentation of the bcl-2 positive myeloblastic compartment was found in refractory anemia with excess of blasts (RAEB) and in transformation (RAEB-t). Western blots of myeloid leukemias and control lymphocytes extracts evidenced an anti-bcl-2 immunoreactive band of the expected size (26 Kd). Moreover, the HL-60 and KG1 cell lines, both positive for the bcl-2 protein, exhibited the appropriate size bcl-2 mRNA (7.5 Kb). These findings clearly indicate that the bcl-2 gene is operative in myeloid cells and that the anti-bcl-2 MoAb identifies its product and not a cross-reactive epitope. Induction of HL-60 differentiation toward the monocytic and granulocytic pathways was accompanied by a marked decrease in bcl-2 mRNA and protein levels; bivariate flow cytometric analysis showed that the fraction becoming bcl-2 negative was in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. These data establish that the bcl-2 proto-oncogene is expressed on myeloid cells and their progenitors and is regulated in a differentiation-linked manner.

  7. BCL-2 Antagonism to Target the Intrinsic Mitochondrial Pathway of Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Christopher J; Davids, Matthew S

    2015-11-15

    Despite significant improvements in treatment, cure rates for many cancers remain suboptimal. The rise of cytotoxic chemotherapy has led to curative therapy for a subset of cancers, though intrinsic treatment resistance is difficult to predict for individual patients. The recent wave of molecularly targeted therapies has focused on druggable-activating mutations, and is thus limited to specific subsets of patients. The lessons learned from these two disparate approaches suggest the need for therapies that borrow aspects of both, targeting biologic properties of cancer that are at once distinct from normal cells and yet common enough to make the drugs widely applicable across a range of cancer subtypes. The intrinsic mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis represents one such promising target for new therapies, and successfully targeting this pathway has the potential to alter the therapeutic landscape of therapy for a variety of cancers. Here, we discuss the biology of the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis, an assay known as BH3 profiling that can interrogate this pathway, early attempts to target BCL-2 clinically, and the recent promising results with the BCL-2 antagonist venetoclax (ABT-199) in clinical trials in hematologic malignancies. See all articles in this CCR Focus section, "Cell Death and Cancer Therapy."

  8. Intercultural Attitudes Predict Favorable Study Abroad Expectations of U.S. College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Randi I.; Goldstein, Susan B.

    2005-01-01

    This study focused on identifying intercultural attitudes associated with favorable expectations about participation in study abroad programs. A total of 282 U.S. 1st-year college students completed a questionnaire that included measures of ethnocentrism, intercultural communication apprehension, language interest and competence, prejudice,…

  9. bcl-2 Overexpression Reduces Apoptotic Photoreceptor Cell Death in Three Different Retinal Degenerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jeannie; Flannery, John G.; Lavail, Matthew M.; Steinberg, Roy H.; Xu, Jun; Simon, Melvin I.

    1996-07-01

    Apoptosis of photoreceptors occurs infrequently in adult retina but can be triggered in inherited and environmentally induced retinal degenerations. The protooncogene bcl-2 is known to be a potent regulator of cell survival in neurons. We created lines of transgenic mice overexpressing bcl-2 to test for its ability to increase photoreceptor survival. Bcl-2 increased photoreceptor survival in mice with retinal degeneration caused by a defective opsin or cGMP phosphodiesterase. Overexpression of Bcl-2 in normal photoreceptors also decreased the damaging effects of constant light exposure. Apoptosis was induced in normal photoreceptors by very high levels of bcl-2. We conclude that bcl-2 is an important regulator of photoreceptor cell death in retinal degenerations.

  10. Mito-priming as a method to engineer Bcl-2 addiction.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Jonathan; Bessou, Margaux; Riley, Joel S; Giampazolias, Evangelos; Todt, Franziska; Rochegüe, Tony; Oberst, Andrew; Green, Douglas R; Edlich, Frank; Ichim, Gabriel; Tait, Stephen W G

    2016-02-02

    Most apoptotic stimuli require mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) in order to execute cell death. As such, MOMP is subject to tight control by Bcl-2 family proteins. We have developed a powerful new technique to investigate Bcl-2-mediated regulation of MOMP. This method, called mito-priming, uses co-expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins to engineer Bcl-2 addiction. On addition of Bcl-2 targeting BH3 mimetics, mito-primed cells undergo apoptosis in a rapid and synchronous manner. Using this method we have comprehensively surveyed the efficacy of BH3 mimetic compounds, identifying potent and specific MCL-1 inhibitors. Furthermore, by combining different pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 pairings together with CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing, we find that tBID and PUMA can preferentially kill in a BAK-dependent manner. In summary, mito-priming represents a facile and robust means to trigger mitochondrial apoptosis.

  11. miR-15 and miR-16 induce apoptosis by targeting BCL2.

    PubMed

    Cimmino, Amelia; Calin, George Adrian; Fabbri, Muller; Iorio, Marilena V; Ferracin, Manuela; Shimizu, Masayoshi; Wojcik, Sylwia E; Aqeilan, Rami I; Zupo, Simona; Dono, Mariella; Rassenti, Laura; Alder, Hansjuerg; Volinia, Stefano; Liu, Chang-Gong; Kipps, Thomas J; Negrini, Massimo; Croce, Carlo M

    2005-09-27

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common human leukemia and is characterized by predominantly nondividing malignant B cells overexpressing the antiapoptotic B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2) protein. miR-15a and miR-16-1 are deleted or down-regulated in the majority of CLLs. Here, we demonstrate that miR-15a and miR-16-1 expression is inversely correlated to Bcl2 expression in CLL and that both microRNAs negatively regulate Bcl2 at a posttranscriptional level. BCL2 repression by these microRNAs induces apoptopsis in a leukemic cell line model. Therefore, miR-15 and miR-16 are natural antisense Bcl2 interactors that could be used for therapy of Bcl2-overexpressing tumors.

  12. Loss of Bak enhances lymphocytosis but does not ameliorate thrombocytopaenia in BCL-2 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Vandenberg, C J; Josefsson, E C; Campbell, K J; James, C; Lawlor, K E; Kile, B T; Cory, S

    2014-05-01

    Bax and Bak are critical effectors of apoptosis. Although both are widely expressed and usually functionally redundant, recent studies suggest that Bak has particular importance in certain cell types. Genetic and biochemical studies indicate that Bak activation is prevented primarily by Mcl-1 and Bcl-xL, whereas Bax is held in check by all pro-survival Bcl-2 homologues, including Bcl-2 itself. In this study, we have investigated whether loss of Bak or elevated Mcl-1 modulates haemopoietic abnormalities provoked by overexpression of Bcl-2. The Mcl-1 transgene had little impact, probably because the expression level was insufficient to effectively reduce Bak activation. However, loss of Bak enhanced lymphocytosis in vavP-BCL-2 transgenic mice and increased resistance of their thymocytes to some cytotoxic agents, implying that Bak-specific signals can be triggered in certain lymphoid populations. Nevertheless, lack of Bak had no significant impact on thymic abnormalities in vavP-BCL-2tg mice, which kinetic analysis suggested was due to accumulation of self-reactive thymocytes that resist deletion. Intriguingly, although Bak(-/-) mice have elevated platelet counts, Bak(-/-)vavP-BCL-2 mice, like vavP-BCL-2 littermates, were thrombocytopaenic. To clarify why, the vavP-BCL-2 platelet phenotype was scrutinised more closely. Platelet life span was found to be elevated in vavP-BCL-2 mice, which should have provoked thrombocytosis, as in Bak(-/-) mice. Analysis of bone marrow chimaeric mice suggested the low platelet phenotype was due principally to extrinsic factors. Following splenectomy, blood platelets remained lower in vavP-BCL-2 than wild-type mice. However, in Rag1(-/-) BCL-2tg mice, platelet levels were normal, implying that elevated lymphocytes are primarily responsible for BCL-2tg-induced thrombocytopaenia.

  13. Loss of Bak enhances lymphocytosis but does not ameliorate thrombocytopaenia in BCL-2 transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Vandenberg, C J; Josefsson, E C; Campbell, K J; James, C; Lawlor, K E; Kile, B T; Cory, S

    2014-01-01

    Bax and Bak are critical effectors of apoptosis. Although both are widely expressed and usually functionally redundant, recent studies suggest that Bak has particular importance in certain cell types. Genetic and biochemical studies indicate that Bak activation is prevented primarily by Mcl-1 and Bcl-xL, whereas Bax is held in check by all pro-survival Bcl-2 homologues, including Bcl-2 itself. In this study, we have investigated whether loss of Bak or elevated Mcl-1 modulates haemopoietic abnormalities provoked by overexpression of Bcl-2. The Mcl-1 transgene had little impact, probably because the expression level was insufficient to effectively reduce Bak activation. However, loss of Bak enhanced lymphocytosis in vavP-BCL-2 transgenic mice and increased resistance of their thymocytes to some cytotoxic agents, implying that Bak-specific signals can be triggered in certain lymphoid populations. Nevertheless, lack of Bak had no significant impact on thymic abnormalities in vavP-BCL-2tg mice, which kinetic analysis suggested was due to accumulation of self-reactive thymocytes that resist deletion. Intriguingly, although Bak−/− mice have elevated platelet counts, Bak−/−vavP-BCL-2 mice, like vavP-BCL-2 littermates, were thrombocytopaenic. To clarify why, the vavP-BCL-2 platelet phenotype was scrutinised more closely. Platelet life span was found to be elevated in vavP-BCL-2 mice, which should have provoked thrombocytosis, as in Bak−/− mice. Analysis of bone marrow chimaeric mice suggested the low platelet phenotype was due principally to extrinsic factors. Following splenectomy, blood platelets remained lower in vavP-BCL-2 than wild-type mice. However, in Rag1−/− BCL-2tg mice, platelet levels were normal, implying that elevated lymphocytes are primarily responsible for BCL-2tg-induced thrombocytopaenia. PMID:24464220

  14. Glomerular expression and elevated serum Bcl-2 and Fas proteins in lupus nephritis: preliminary findings

    PubMed Central

    Fathi, N A; Hussein, M R; Hassan, H I; Mosad, E; Galal, H; Afifi, N A

    2006-01-01

    Programmed cell death (apoptosis) is involved in glomerular injuries leading to glomerulonephritis. Bcl-2 and Fas are proteins that promote cell survival and death, respectively. This study tests the hypothesis that lupus nephritis is associated with alterations of Bcl-2 and Fas protein expression. Thirty-six patients with lupus nephritis and 10 controls (normal individuals) were included in this study. Bcl-2 and Fas positive cells were examined in kidney biopsies by immunohistochemistry. Bcl-2 and Fas serum levels were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In the glomeruli of normal kidneys, Bcl-2 and Fas proteins were completely absent. In lupus nephritis patients, glomerular expression of Bcl-2 and Fas was seen in mesangial cells (1·3 ± 0·1 and 2·0 ± 0·1 for Bcl-2 and Fas, respectively). Similarly, a statistically significantly higher Bcl-2 (217·1 ± 85·9) and Fas (767·9 ± 271) serum levels were found in lupus patients compared to controls (148·6 ± 87, 550·3 ± 91 for Bcl-2 and Fas, P < 0·05). A direct correlation between serum Bcl-2 and Fas and chronicity index was also found. Compared to normal controls, lupus nephritis is associated with glomerular expression and elevated serum levels of Bcl-2 and Fas proteins. These findings suggest possible roles for Bcl-2 and Fas in glomerular injury during evolution of lupus nephritis. The diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic ramifications of our findings are open to further investigation. PMID:17034587

  15. Antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein as a potential target for cancer therapy: A mini review.

    PubMed

    Jagani, Hitesh; Kasinathan, Narayanan; Meka, Sreenivasa Reddy; Josyula, Venkata Rao

    2016-08-01

    Bcl-2, an antiapoptotic protein, is considered as a potential target in cancer treatment since its oncogenic potential has been proven and is well documented. Antisense technology and RNA interference (RNAi) have been used to reduce the expression of the Bcl-2 gene in many types of cancer cells and are effective as adjuvant therapy along with the chemotherapeutic agents. The lack of appropriate delivery systems is considered to be the main hurdle associated with the RNAi. In this review, we discuss the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein, its oncogenic potential, and various approaches utilized to target Bcl-2 including suitable delivery systems employed for successful delivery of siRNA.

  16. Protection against Fatal Sindbis Virus Encephalitis by Beclin, a Novel Bcl-2-Interacting Protein

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xiao Huan; Kleeman, Linda K.; Jiang, Hui Hui; Gordon, Gerald; Goldman, James E.; Berry, Gail; Herman, Brian; Levine, Beth

    1998-01-01

    bcl-2, the prototypic cellular antiapoptotic gene, decreases Sindbis virus replication and Sindbis virus-induced apoptosis in mouse brains, resulting in protection against lethal encephalitis. To investigate potential mechanisms by which Bcl-2 protects against central nervous system Sindbis virus infection, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen to identify Bcl-2-interacting gene products in an adult mouse brain library. We identified a novel 60-kDa coiled-coil protein, Beclin, which we confirmed interacts with Bcl-2 in mammalian cells, using fluorescence resonance energy transfer microscopy. To examine the role of Beclin in Sindbis virus pathogenesis, we constructed recombinant Sindbis virus chimeras that express full-length human Beclin (SIN/beclin), Beclin lacking the putative Bcl-2-binding domain (SIN/beclinΔBcl-2BD), or Beclin containing a premature stop codon near the 5′ terminus (SIN/beclinstop). The survival of mice infected with SIN/beclin was significantly higher (71%) than the survival of mice infected with SIN/beclinΔBcl-2BD (9%) or SIN/beclinstop (7%) (P < 0.001). The brains of mice infected with SIN/beclin had fewer Sindbis virus RNA-positive cells, fewer apoptotic cells, and lower viral titers than the brains of mice infected with SIN/beclinΔBcl-2BD or SIN/beclinstop. These findings demonstrate that Beclin is a novel Bcl-2-interacting cellular protein that may play a role in antiviral host defense. PMID:9765397

  17. Bcl2-low-expressing MCF7 cells undergo necrosis rather than apoptosis upon staurosporine treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Poliseno, Laura; Bianchi, Laura; Citti, Lorenzo; Liberatori, Sabrina; Mariani, Laura; Salvetti, Alessandra; Evangelista, Monica; Bini, Luca; Pallini, Vitaliano; Rainaldi, Giuseppe

    2004-01-01

    We present a ribozyme-based strategy for studying the effects of Bcl2 down-regulation. The anti-bcl2 hammerhead ribozyme Rz-bcl2 was stably transfected into MCF7 cancer cells and the cleavage of Bcl2 mRNA was demonstrated using a new assay for cleavage product detection, while Western blot analysis showed a concomitant depletion of Bcl2 protein. Rz-bcl2-expressing cells were more sensitive to staurosporine than control cells. Moreover, both molecular and cellular read-outs indicated that staurosporine-induced cell death was necrosis rather than apoptosis in these cells. The study of the effects of Bcl2 down-regulation was extended to the global MCF7 protein expression profile, exploiting a proteomic approach. Two reference electro-pherograms of Rz-bcl2-transfected cells, one with the ribozyme in a catalytically active form and the other with the ribozyme in a catalytically inactive form, were obtained. When comparing the two-dimensional maps, 53 differentially expressed spots were found, four of which were identified by MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization-time-of-flight) MS as calreticulin, nucleophosmin, phosphoglycerate kinase and pyruvate kinase. How the up-regulation of these proteins might help to explain the modification of Bcl2 activity is discussed. PMID:14748742

  18. A novel role for Bcl-2 in regulation of cellular calcium extrusion.

    PubMed

    Ferdek, Pawel E; Gerasimenko, Julia V; Peng, Shuang; Tepikin, Alexei V; Petersen, Ole H; Gerasimenko, Oleg V

    2012-07-10

    The antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 plays important roles in Ca(2+) signaling by influencing inositol triphosphate receptors and regulating Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release. Here we investigated whether Bcl-2 affects Ca(2+) extrusion in pancreatic acinar cells. We specifically blocked the Ca(2+) pumps in the endoplasmic reticulum and assessed the rate at which the cells reduced an elevated cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration after a period of enhanced Ca(2+) entry. Because external Ca(2+) was removed and endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pumps were blocked, Ca(2+) extrusion was the only process responsible for recovery. Cells lacking Bcl-2 restored the basal cytosolic Ca(2+) level much faster than control cells. The enhanced Ca(2+) extrusion in cells from Bcl-2 knockout (Bcl-2 KO) mice was not due to increased Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange activity, because removal of external Na(+) did not influence the Ca(2+) extrusion rate. Overexpression of Bcl-2 in the pancreatic acinar cell line AR42J decreased Ca(2+) extrusion, whereas silencing Bcl-2 expression (siRNA) had the opposite effect. Loss of Bcl-2, while increasing Ca(2+) extrusion, dramatically decreased necrosis and promoted apoptosis induced by oxidative stress, whereas specific inhibition of Ca(2+) pumps in the plasma membrane (PMCA) with caloxin 3A1 reduced Ca(2+) extrusion and increased necrosis. Bcl-2 regulates PMCA function in pancreatic acinar cells and thereby influences cell fate.

  19. Bcl2-low-expressing MCF7 cells undergo necrosis rather than apoptosis upon staurosporine treatment.

    PubMed

    Poliseno, Laura; Bianchi, Laura; Citti, Lorenzo; Liberatori, Sabrina; Mariani, Laura; Salvetti, Alessandra; Evangelista, Monica; Bini, Luca; Pallini, Vitaliano; Rainaldi, Giuseppe

    2004-05-01

    We present a ribozyme-based strategy for studying the effects of Bcl2 down-regulation. The anti-bcl2 hammerhead ribozyme Rz-bcl2 was stably transfected into MCF7 cancer cells and the cleavage of Bcl2 mRNA was demonstrated using a new assay for cleavage product detection, while Western blot analysis showed a concomitant depletion of Bcl2 protein. Rz-bcl2-expressing cells were more sensitive to staurosporine than control cells. Moreover, both molecular and cellular read-outs indicated that staurosporine-induced cell death was necrosis rather than apoptosis in these cells. The study of the effects of Bcl2 down-regulation was extended to the global MCF7 protein expression profile, exploiting a proteomic approach. Two reference electro-pherograms of Rz-bcl2-transfected cells, one with the ribozyme in a catalytically active form and the other with the ribozyme in a catalytically inactive form, were obtained. When comparing the two-dimensional maps, 53 differentially expressed spots were found, four of which were identified by MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization-time-of-flight) MS as calreticulin, nucleophosmin, phosphoglycerate kinase and pyruvate kinase. How the up-regulation of these proteins might help to explain the modification of Bcl2 activity is discussed.

  20. Anticancer drugs exert differential apoptotic and cytotoxic effects on glioblastoma primary cultures with various EGFR and bcl-2 profiles.

    PubMed

    Pédeboscq, Stéphane; L'Azou, Béatrice; Passagne, Isabelle; De Giorgi, Francesca; Ichas, François; Liguoro, Dominique; Pometan, Jean-Paul; Cambar, Jean

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the apoptotic and cytotoxic effects induced on glioblastoma cells by various anticancer agents that possess different mechanisms of action (alkylating drugs, anti-EGFR (Epidermal Growth Factor receptor), proteasome inhibitor). Primary cell cultures were obtained from patients who underwent surgery for their glioblastoma. The cytotoxic effects of drugs were determined by MTT (dimethylthiazolyl diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay and apoptosis was evaluated by measuring mitochondrial potential by flow cytometry. Biological markers (EGFR, bcl-2) were studied by a immunoblotting technique to find out predictive markers of response. We found a large interindividual sensitivity, thus confirming the interest of the primary cultures. New proteasome inhibitor bortezomib had considerable cytotoxic and apoptotic potential in glioblastoma, even at very low concentrations. Moreover, the characterization of patients' cells for EGFR and bcl-2 status could constitute an interest, with the evaluation of other markers, in the study of expected chemotherapy response.

  1. [Clinical significance of bcl-2 protein expression and classification algorithm in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Liu, Cui-ling; Wang, Xiao-yan; Xue, Xue-min; Gao, Zi-fen

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the clinical significance of bcl-2 protein expression and three classification algorithms including Hans model, Chan model and Muris model in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Two-hundred and thirty-seven cases were collected. Standard two-step EnVision method of immunohistochemical staining was used to assess the expression of Ki-67, CD3, CD45RO, CD20, CD79a, bcl-2, bcl-6, CD10, MUM-1, GCET-1, and FOXP-1. The phenotypic classifications were assessed according to the standard of the three models. The male (131 cases) to female (106 cases) ratio was about 1.24:1, the average age was 52.6 years. Seventy-five cases (31.6%, 75/237) showed primarily lymph node involvement. Gastrointestinal tract (71 cases) was the most commonly involved extra-nodal organ. All cases expressed one or more pan B cell markers such as CD20 (99.1%, 231/233). All patients with complete clinical follow-up data survived from 1 - 120 months. The expression of bcl-2 protein indicated an adverse prognosis (P = 0.019). Two-hundred and thirty cases were classified according to Hans model, with ninety five GCB cases and one-hundred and thirty five non-GCB cases. Survival analysis showed no difference between GCB and non-GCB subtypes (P = 0.102). According to the Chan's algorithm, sixty eight case of one-hundred and eighty one were belong to GCB group, with one-hundred and thirteen non-GCB cases. GCB subtype showed much better prognosis than non-GCB subtype according to survival analysis (P = 0.031). Additionally, bcl-2 protein expression in non-GCB subtype showed the worst survival. In Muris' model, 154 of 218 cases were classified as Group 1, while 64 cases were classified as Group 2. Group 1 showed better prognosis than Group 2 (P < 0.05). Non-GCB group is the more common type of DLBCL in China. High expression of bcl-2 protein is detected in the non-GCB group. Not all subgroups classified with different classification models indicate different prognosis. Bcl-2

  2. Time-Based Partitioning Model for Predicting Neurologically Favorable Outcome among Adults with Witnessed Bystander Out-of-Hospital CPA

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Toshikazu; Tokuda, Yasuharu; Cook, E. Francis

    2011-01-01

    Background Optimal acceptable time intervals from collapse to bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) for neurologically favorable outcome among adults with witnessed out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) have been unclear. Our aim was to assess the optimal acceptable thresholds of the time intervals of CPR for neurologically favorable outcome and survival using a recursive partitioning model. Methods and Findings From January 1, 2005 through December 31, 2009, we conducted a prospective population-based observational study across Japan involving consecutive out-of-hospital CPA patients (N = 69,648) who received a witnessed bystander CPR. Of 69,648 patients, 34,605 were assigned to the derivation data set and 35,043 to the validation data set. Time factors associated with better outcomes: the better outcomes were survival and neurologically favorable outcome at one month, defined as category one (good cerebral performance) or two (moderate cerebral disability) of the cerebral performance categories. Based on the recursive partitioning model from the derivation dataset (n = 34,605) to predict the neurologically favorable outcome at one month, 5 min threshold was the acceptable time interval from collapse to CPR initiation; 11 min from collapse to ambulance arrival; 18 min from collapse to return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC); and 19 min from collapse to hospital arrival. Among the validation dataset (n = 35,043), 209/2,292 (9.1%) in all patients with the acceptable time intervals and 1,388/2,706 (52.1%) in the subgroup with the acceptable time intervals and pre-hospital ROSC showed neurologically favorable outcome. Conclusions Initiation of CPR should be within 5 min for obtaining neurologically favorable outcome among adults with witnessed out-of-hospital CPA. Patients with the acceptable time intervals of bystander CPR and pre-hospital ROSC within 18 min could have 50% chance of neurologically favorable outcome. PMID:22194860

  3. Non-apoptotic functions of BCL-2 family proteins.

    PubMed

    Gross, Atan; Katz, Samuel G

    2017-02-24

    The BCL-2 family proteins are major regulators of the apoptosis process, but the mechanisms by which they regulate this process are only partially understood. It is now well documented that these proteins play additional non-apoptotic roles that are likely to be related to their apoptotic roles and to provide important clues to cracking their mechanisms of action. It seems that these non-apoptotic roles are largely related to the activation of cellular survival pathways designated to maintain or regain cellular survival, but, if unsuccessful, will switch over into a pro-apoptotic mode. These non-apoptotic roles span a wide range of processes that include the regulation of mitochondrial physiology (metabolism, electron transport chain, morphology, permeability transition), endoplasmic reticulum physiology (calcium homeostasis, unfolded protein response (UPR)), nuclear processes (cell cycle, DNA damage response (DDR)), whole-cell metabolism (glucose and lipid), and autophagy. Here we review all these different non-apoptotic roles, make an attempt to link them to the apoptotic roles, and present many open questions for future research directions in this fascinating field.Cell Death and Differentiation advance online publication, 24 February 2017; doi:10.1038/cdd.2017.22.

  4. BCL2 translocation frequency rises with age in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.; Hernandez, A.M.; Shibata, D.; Cortopassi, G.A.

    1994-09-13

    The background frequency of t(14;18) (q32;q21) chromosomal translocations at the locus associated with B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 (BCL2) was determined from a survey of the peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) of 53 living individuals and from tissues of 31 autopsies by using a nested PCR assay. The translocation was detected in 55% of PBLs and 35% of autopsied spleens with a frequency of between less than 1 to 853 translocations per million cells. Translocations copurified with B lymphocytes. The frequency of translocations significantly increased with age in PBLs and spleens, as does human risk for lymphoma. Average translocation frequency was more than 40 times greater in the spleen and 13 times greater in the peripheral blood in the oldest individuals (61 yr and older) compared with the youngest individuals (20 yr or younger). Particular t(14;18)-bearing clones persisted over a period of 5 months in two individuals. These findings demonstrate that clones harboring the oncogenic t(14;18) chromosomal translocation are commonly present in normal humans, that such clones are long-lived, and that they rise in frequency with age. A multihit model of lymphomagenesis involving t(14;18) translocation followed by antigen stimulation is proposed. 49 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Structural biology of the Bcl-2 family and its mimicry by viral proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kvansakul, M; Hinds, M G

    2013-01-01

    Intrinsic apoptosis in mammals is regulated by protein–protein interactions among the B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) family. The sequences, structures and binding specificity between pro-survival Bcl-2 proteins and their pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 homology 3 motif only (BH3-only) protein antagonists are now well understood. In contrast, our understanding of the mode of action of Bax and Bak, the two necessary proteins for apoptosis is incomplete. Bax and Bak are isostructural with pro-survival Bcl-2 proteins and also interact with BH3-only proteins, albeit weakly. Two sites have been identified; the in-groove interaction analogous to the pro-survival BH3-only interaction and a site on the opposite molecular face. Interaction of Bax or Bak with activator BH3-only proteins and mitochondrial membranes triggers a series of ill-defined conformational changes initiating their oligomerization and mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization. Many actions of the mammalian pro-survival Bcl-2 family are mimicked by viruses. By expressing proteins mimicking mammalian pro-survival Bcl-2 family proteins, viruses neutralize death-inducing members of the Bcl-2 family and evade host cell apoptosis during replication. Remarkably, structural elements are preserved in viral Bcl-2 proteins even though there is in many cases little discernible sequence conservation with their mammalian counterparts. Some viral Bcl-2 proteins are dimeric, but they have distinct structures to those observed for mammalian Bcl-2 proteins. Furthermore, viral Bcl-2 proteins modulate innate immune responses regulated by NF-κB through an interface separate from the canonical BH3-binding groove. Our increasing structural understanding of the viral Bcl-2 proteins is leading to new insights in the cellular Bcl-2 network by exploring potential alternate functional modes in the cellular context. We compare the cellular and viral Bcl-2 proteins and discuss how alterations in their structure, sequence and binding specificity

  6. Activation of the Proapoptotic Bcl-2 Protein Bax by a Small Molecule Induces Tumor Cell Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guoping; Zhu, Yanglong; Eno, Colins O.; Liu, Yanlong; DeLeeuw, Lynn; Burlison, Joseph A.; Chaires, Jonathan B.; Trent, John O.

    2014-01-01

    The proapoptotic Bcl-2 protein Bax by itself is sufficient to initiate apoptosis in almost all apoptotic paradigms. Thus, compounds that can facilitate disruptive Bax insertion into mitochondrial membranes have potential as cancer therapeutics. In our study, we have identified small-molecule compounds predicted to associate with the Bax hydrophobic groove by a virtual-screen approach. Among these, one lead compound (compound 106) promotes Bax-dependent but not Bak-dependent apoptosis. Importantly, this compound alters Bax protein stability in vitro and promotes the insertion of Bax into mitochondria, leading to Bax-dependent permeabilization of the mitochondrial outer membrane. Furthermore, as a single agent, compound 106 inhibits the growth of transplanted tumors, probably by inducing apoptosis in tumors. Our study has revealed a compound that activates Bax and induces Bax-dependent apoptosis, which may lead to the development of new therapeutic agents for cancer. PMID:24421393

  7. Bcl-2 in combination to myeloid antigen expression in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia and prognostic outcome.

    PubMed

    Amirghofran, Zahra; Daneshbod, Yahya; Gholijani, Naser

    2009-01-01

    The present study was performed to find the importance of two myeloid (CD13 and CD33) antigens aberrantly expressed on the blasts of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients and Bcl-2 expression in relation to clinical and biological features and treatment outcome. Bone marrow or peripheral blood samples of 50 patients were assessed for the expression of markers by immunostaining methods. Twenty-one patients (42%) showed more than 20% positivity for Bcl-2. Aberrant expression of myeloid antigens was found in 14% of cases. The expression of Bcl-2 was associated with shorter survival (p = 0.009). A significant correlation between expression of myeloid antigens (MY) and survival and complete remission duration was found. The mean survival was 656 + 301 days for MY+ cases and 1009 +/- 230 days for MY- patients (p < 0.0001). Expression of Bcl-2 in combination to myeloid antigens was associated with a poorer outcome. Survival of MY+ patients expressing Bcl-2 was shorter than MY- Bcl-2+ and MY+ Bcl-2- ALL cases (p = 0.038). In conclusion, results of this study indicated the prognostic value of Bcl-2 and myeloid antigen expression in ALL patients. Presence of these markers together on the leukemic cells was associated with a poorer response to therapy and may implicate modified therapeutic strategies in the patients.

  8. Bax/bcl-2: cellular modulator of apoptosis in feline skin and basal cell tumours.

    PubMed

    Madewell, B R; Gandour-Edwards, R; Edwards, B F; Matthews, K R; Griffey, S M

    2001-01-01

    Bcl-2 and bax are two members of the BCL-2 gene family that play a prominent role in the regulation of apoptosis. Bax and bcl-2 expression were examined immunohistochemically in normal (healthy) feline skin and in 24 benign feline cutaneous basal cell tumours. The tumours were also examined for cellular proliferation by measurement of reactivity for the proliferation marker Ki-67, and for apoptosis by in-situ labelling for fragmented DNA. Bcl-2 was detected in normal basal epithelium and in 23 of 24 basal cell tumours. Bax was detected in both basal and suprabasal epithelium, but in only seven of 24 tumours. For tumours that expressed both bax and bcl-2, the bax:bcl-2 ratio was low. Neither bax nor bcl-2 expression was detected in 14 feline cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas. Basal cell tumours showed modest cellular proliferation (median, 17.5% Ki-67- reactive cells), but few (less than 1%) apoptotic cells. The slow, indolent growth of feline cutaneous basal cells in these benign skin tumours may be a response, at least in part, to opposing regulatory expressions of bcl-2 and bax.

  9. Differential sensitivity of skeletal and fusimotor neurons to Bcl-2-mediated apoptosis during neuromuscular development.

    PubMed

    Hui, K; Kucera, J; Henderson, J T

    2008-04-01

    Proper development of the nervous system requires that a carefully controlled balance be maintained between both proliferation and neuronal survival. The process of programmed cell death is believed to play a key role in regulating levels of neuronal survival, in large part through the action of antiapoptotic proteins, such as Bcl-2. Consistent with this, Bcl-2 has been shown to be a key regulator of apoptotic signaling in post-mitotic neurons. However, we still know remarkably little regarding the role that Bcl-2 plays in regulating the survival of specific motor neuron populations. In the present study, we have examined somatic motor neurons of the lumbar spinal cord, and branchiomotor neurons of the facial nucleus in bcl-2-null mice to determine the differential dependence among motor neuron populations with respect to Bcl-2-mediated survival. Examination of neuronal and axon number, axonal area, and the distribution of axonal loss in bcl-2-null mice demonstrates that, in contrast to the great majority of alpha motor neurons, gamma motor neurons exhibit a unique dependence upon bcl-2 for survival. These results demonstrate, for the first time, the connection between Bcl-2 expression, motor neuron survival, and the establishment of different motor populations.

  10. Mechanism of apoptosis induction by inhibition of the anti-apoptotic BCL-2 proteins.

    PubMed

    Chipuk, Jerry E; Fisher, John C; Dillon, Christopher P; Kriwacki, Richard W; Kuwana, Tomomi; Green, Douglas R

    2008-12-23

    Normal cellular lifespan is contingent upon preserving outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) integrity, as permeabilization promotes apoptosis. BCL-2 family proteins control mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) by regulating the activation of the pro-apoptotic BCL-2 effector molecules, BAX and BAK. Sustainable cellular stress induces proteins (e.g., BID, BIM, and cytosolic p53) capable of directly activating BAX and/or BAK, but these direct activators are sequestered by the anti-apoptotic BCL-2 proteins (e.g., BCL-2, BCL-xL, and MCL-1). In the event of accumulated or marked cellular stress, a coordinated effort between previously sequestered and nascent BH3-only proteins inhibits the anti-apoptotic BCL-2 repertoire to promote direct activator protein-mediated MOMP. We examined the effect of ABT-737, a BCL-2 antagonist, and PUMA, a BH3-only protein that inhibits the entire anti-apoptotic BCL-2 repertoire, with cells and mitochondria that sequestered direct activator proteins. ABT-737 and PUMA cooperated with sequestered direct activator proteins to promote MOMP and apoptosis, which in the absence of ABT-737 or PUMA did not influence OMM integrity or cellular survival. Our data show that the induction of apoptosis by inhibition of the anti-apoptotic BCL-2 repertoire requires "covert" levels of direct activators of BAX and BAK at the OMM.

  11. Superstition predicts favorable weight change in an open-placebo trial: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Rekhviashvili, Nino; Gupta, Sumati

    2015-09-01

    Given the difficulty of losing weight via adhering to healthy lifestyle choices, this study sought to understand how a placebo may elicit favorable weight change. Specifically, we examined if superstition may be related to increased responsiveness to an open-placebo. In this pilot study of 25 undergraduate participants, it was hypothesized that individuals with higher levels of superstition may be more responsive to a 3-week open-placebo weight change trial. Participants were given once-daily saltine crackers to use as open-placebos for weight change in their preferred direction (gain or loss). The weight of each participant was measured before and after the 3-week open-placebo period. A Pearson's r correlation showed a significant positive relationship between superstition and placebo responsiveness, determined by weight gain or loss in the preferred direction, r (25) = 0.493, p < 0.05. We hope these preliminary results engender future research on open-placebo uses for weight management.

  12. Prediction of the most favorable configuration in the ACBP-membrane interaction based on electrostatic calculations.

    PubMed

    Vallejo, Diego F; Zamarreño, Fernando; Guérin, Diego M A; Grigera, J Raul; Costabel, Marcelo D

    2009-03-01

    Acyl-CoA binding proteins (ACBPs) are highly conserved 10 kDa cytosolic proteins that bind medium- and long-chain acyl-CoA esters. They act as intracellular carriers of acyl-CoA and play a role in acyl-CoA metabolism, gene regulation, acyl-CoA-mediated cell signaling, transport-mediated lipid synthesis, membrane trafficking and also, ACBPs were indicated as a possible inhibitor of diazepam binding to the GABA-A receptor. To estimate the importance of the non-specific electrostatic energy in the ACBP-membrane interaction, we computationally modeled the interaction of HgACBP with both anionic and neutral membranes. To compute the Free Electrostatic Energy of Binding (dE), we used the Finite Difference Poisson Boltzmann Equation (FDPB) method as implemented in APBS. In the most energetically favorable orientation, ACBP brings charged residues Lys18 and Lys50 and hydrophobic residues Met46 and Leu47 into membrane surface proximity. This conformation suggests that these four ACBP amino acids are most likely to play a leading role in the ACBP-membrane interaction and ligand intake. Thus, we propose that long range electrostatic forces are the first step in the interaction mechanism between ACBP and membranes.

  13. Clinical significance of bax/bcl-2 ratio in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Del Principe, Maria Ilaria; Dal Bo, Michele; Bittolo, Tamara; Buccisano, Francesco; Rossi, Francesca Maria; Zucchetto, Antonella; Rossi, Davide; Bomben, Riccardo; Maurillo, Luca; Cefalo, Mariagiovanna; De Santis, Giovanna; Venditti, Adriano; Gaidano, Gianluca; Amadori, Sergio; de Fabritiis, Paolo; Gattei, Valter; Del Poeta, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    In chronic lymphocytic leukemia the balance between the pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic members of the bcl-2 family is involved in the pathogenesis, chemorefractoriness and clinical outcome. Moreover, the recently proposed anti-bcl-2 molecules, such as ABT-199, have emphasized the potential role of of bcl-2 family proteins in the context of target therapies. We investigated bax/bcl-2 ratio by flow cytometry in 502 patients and identified a cut off of 1.50 to correlate bax/bcl-2 ratio with well-established clinical and biological prognosticators. Bax/bcl-2 was 1.50 or over in 263 patients (52%) with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Higher bax/bcl-2 was associated with low Rai stage, lymphocyte doubling time over 12 months, beta-2 microglobulin less than 2.2 mg/dL, soluble CD23 less than 70 U/mL and a low risk cytogenetic profile (P<0.0001). On the other hand, lower bax/bcl-2 was correlated with unmutated IGHV (P<0.0001), mutated NOTCH1 (P<0.0001) and mutated TP53 (P=0.00007). Significant shorter progression-free survival and overall survival were observed in patients with lower bax/bcl-2 (P<0.0001). Moreover, within IGHV unmutated (168 patients) and TP53 mutated (37 patients) subgroups, higher bax/bcl-2 identified cases with significant longer PFS (P=0.00002 and P=0.039). In multivariate analysis of progression-free survival and overall survival, bax/bcl-2 was an independent prognostic factor (P=0.0002 and P=0.002). In conclusion, we defined the prognostic power of bax/bcl-2 ratio, as determined by a flow cytometric approach, and highlighted a correlation with chemoresistance and outcome in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Finally, the recently proposed new therapies employing bcl-2 inhibitors prompted the potential use of bax/bcl-2 ratio to identify patients putatively resistant to these molecules. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  14. Predicting favorable conditions for early leaf spot of peanut using output from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model.

    PubMed

    Olatinwo, Rabiu O; Prabha, Thara V; Paz, Joel O; Hoogenboom, Gerrit

    2012-03-01

    Early leaf spot of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), a disease caused by Cercospora arachidicola S. Hori, is responsible for an annual crop loss of several million dollars in the southeastern United States alone. The development of early leaf spot on peanut and subsequent spread of the spores of C. arachidicola relies on favorable weather conditions. Accurate spatio-temporal weather information is crucial for monitoring the progression of favorable conditions and determining the potential threat of the disease. Therefore, the development of a prediction model for mitigating the risk of early leaf spot in peanut production is important. The specific objective of this study was to demonstrate the application of the high-resolution Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for management of early leaf spot in peanut. We coupled high-resolution weather output of the WRF, i.e. relative humidity and temperature, with the Oklahoma peanut leaf spot advisory model in predicting favorable conditions for early leaf spot infection over Georgia in 2007. Results showed a more favorable infection condition in the southeastern coastline of Georgia where the infection threshold were met sooner compared to the southwestern and central part of Georgia where the disease risk was lower. A newly introduced infection threat index indicates that the leaf spot threat threshold was met sooner at Alma, GA, compared to Tifton and Cordele, GA. The short-term prediction of weather parameters and their use in the management of peanut diseases is a viable and promising technique, which could help growers make accurate management decisions, and lower disease impact through optimum timing of fungicide applications.

  15. Predicting favorable conditions for early leaf spot of peanut using output from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olatinwo, Rabiu O.; Prabha, Thara V.; Paz, Joel O.; Hoogenboom, Gerrit

    2012-03-01

    Early leaf spot of peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.), a disease caused by Cercospora arachidicola S. Hori, is responsible for an annual crop loss of several million dollars in the southeastern United States alone. The development of early leaf spot on peanut and subsequent spread of the spores of C. arachidicola relies on favorable weather conditions. Accurate spatio-temporal weather information is crucial for monitoring the progression of favorable conditions and determining the potential threat of the disease. Therefore, the development of a prediction model for mitigating the risk of early leaf spot in peanut production is important. The specific objective of this study was to demonstrate the application of the high-resolution Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for management of early leaf spot in peanut. We coupled high-resolution weather output of the WRF, i.e. relative humidity and temperature, with the Oklahoma peanut leaf spot advisory model in predicting favorable conditions for early leaf spot infection over Georgia in 2007. Results showed a more favorable infection condition in the southeastern coastline of Georgia where the infection threshold were met sooner compared to the southwestern and central part of Georgia where the disease risk was lower. A newly introduced infection threat index indicates that the leaf spot threat threshold was met sooner at Alma, GA, compared to Tifton and Cordele, GA. The short-term prediction of weather parameters and their use in the management of peanut diseases is a viable and promising technique, which could help growers make accurate management decisions, and lower disease impact through optimum timing of fungicide applications.

  16. Computationally designed high specificity inhibitors delineate the roles of BCL2 family proteins in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Stephanie; Procko, Erik; Margineantu, Daciana; Lee, Erinna F; Shen, Betty W; Zelter, Alex; Silva, Daniel-Adriano; Chawla, Kusum; Herold, Marco J; Garnier, Jean-Marc; Johnson, Richard; MacCoss, Michael J; Lessene, Guillaume; Davis, Trisha N; Stayton, Patrick S; Stoddard, Barry L; Fairlie, W Douglas; Hockenbery, David M; Baker, David

    2016-01-01

    Many cancers overexpress one or more of the six human pro-survival BCL2 family proteins to evade apoptosis. To determine which BCL2 protein or proteins block apoptosis in different cancers, we computationally designed three-helix bundle protein inhibitors specific for each BCL2 pro-survival protein. Following in vitro optimization, each inhibitor binds its target with high picomolar to low nanomolar affinity and at least 300-fold specificity. Expression of the designed inhibitors in human cancer cell lines revealed unique dependencies on BCL2 proteins for survival which could not be inferred from other BCL2 profiling methods. Our results show that designed inhibitors can be generated for each member of a closely-knit protein family to probe the importance of specific protein-protein interactions in complex biological processes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20352.001 PMID:27805565

  17. Bisdemethoxycurcumin enhances X-ray-induced apoptosis possibly through p53/Bcl-2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Enomoto, Atsushi; Yamada, Junko; Morita, Akinori; Miyagawa, Kiyoshi

    2017-03-01

    Bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC), which is isolated from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa, has anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic activities. Here we found that BDMC enhanced X-ray-induced apoptosis in human T-cell leukemia MOLT-4 cells. Knockdown of p53 significantly attenuated the radiosensitizing effect of BDMC. However, BDMC did not enhance X-ray-mediated activation of the p53 signaling pathway via p53's transactivation or mitochondrial translocation. On the other hand, BDMC promoted the X-ray-induced dephosphorylation at Ser 70 in Bcl-2's flexible loop regulatory domain and Bcl-2 binding to p53. Overexpressing Bcl-2 completely blocked the BDMC's radiosensitization effect. Our results indicate that BDMC stimulates the dephosphorylation and p53-binding activity of Bcl-2 and suggest that BDMC may induce a neutralization of Bcl-2's anti-apoptotic function, thereby enhancing X-ray-induced apoptosis.

  18. Computationally designed high specificity inhibitors delineate the roles of BCL2 family proteins in cancer.

    PubMed

    Berger, Stephanie; Procko, Erik; Margineantu, Daciana; Lee, Erinna F; Shen, Betty W; Zelter, Alex; Silva, Daniel-Adriano; Chawla, Kusum; Herold, Marco J; Garnier, Jean-Marc; Johnson, Richard; MacCoss, Michael J; Lessene, Guillaume; Davis, Trisha N; Stayton, Patrick S; Stoddard, Barry L; Fairlie, W Douglas; Hockenbery, David M; Baker, David

    2016-11-02

    Many cancers overexpress one or more of the six human pro-survival BCL2 family proteins to evade apoptosis. To determine which BCL2 protein or proteins block apoptosis in different cancers, we computationally designed three-helix bundle protein inhibitors specific for each BCL2 pro-survival protein. Following in vitro optimization, each inhibitor binds its target with high picomolar to low nanomolar affinity and at least 300-fold specificity. Expression of the designed inhibitors in human cancer cell lines revealed unique dependencies on BCL2 proteins for survival which could not be inferred from other BCL2 profiling methods. Our results show that designed inhibitors can be generated for each member of a closely-knit protein family to probe the importance of specific protein-protein interactions in complex biological processes.

  19. Yeast as a tool for studying proteins of the Bcl-2 family

    PubMed Central

    Polčic, Peter; Jaká, Petra; Mentel, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Permeabilization of the outer mitochondrial membrane that leads to the release of cytochrome c and several other apoptogenic proteins from mitochondria into cytosol represents a commitment point of apoptotic pathway in mammalian cells. This crucial event is governed by proteins of the Bcl-2 family. Molecular mechanisms, by which Bcl-2 family proteins permeabilize mitochondrial membrane, remain under dispute. Although yeast does not have apparent homologues of these proteins, when mammalian members of Bcl-2 family are expressed in yeast, they retain their activity, making yeast an attractive model system, in which to study their action. This review focuses on using yeast expressing mammalian proteins of the Bcl-2 family as a tool to investigate mechanisms, by which these proteins permeabilize mitochondrial membranes, mechanisms, by which pro- and antiapoptotic members of this family interact, and involvement of other cellular components in the regulation of programmed cell death by Bcl-2 family proteins. PMID:28357280

  20. Anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family proteins in acute neural injury

    PubMed Central

    Anilkumar, Ujval; Prehn, Jochen H. M.

    2014-01-01

    Cells under stress activate cell survival and cell death signaling pathways. Cell death signaling frequently converges on mitochondria, a process that is controlled by the activities of pro- and anti-apoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) proteins. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on the control of neuronal survival, development and injury by anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family proteins. We discuss overlapping and differential effects of the individual family members BCL-2, BCL-extra long (BCL-XL), myeloid cell leukemia 1 (MCL-1), and BCL2-like 2 (BCL-W) in the control of survival during development and pathophysiological processes such as trophic factor withdrawal, ischemic injury, excitotoxicity, oxidative stress and energy stress. Finally we discuss recent evidence that several anti-apoptotic BCL-2 proteins influence mitochondrial bioenergetics and control neuronal Ca2+ homeostasis independent of their classical role in cell death signaling. PMID:25324720

  1. Yeast as a tool for studying proteins of the Bcl-2 family.

    PubMed

    Polčic, Peter; Jaká, Petra; Mentel, Marek

    2015-03-02

    Permeabilization of the outer mitochondrial membrane that leads to the release of cytochrome c and several other apoptogenic proteins from mitochondria into cytosol represents a commitment point of apoptotic pathway in mammalian cells. This crucial event is governed by proteins of the Bcl-2 family. Molecular mechanisms, by which Bcl-2 family proteins permeabilize mitochondrial membrane, remain under dispute. Although yeast does not have apparent homologues of these proteins, when mammalian members of Bcl-2 family are expressed in yeast, they retain their activity, making yeast an attractive model system, in which to study their action. This review focuses on using yeast expressing mammalian proteins of the Bcl-2 family as a tool to investigate mechanisms, by which these proteins permeabilize mitochondrial membranes, mechanisms, by which pro- and antiapoptotic members of this family interact, and involvement of other cellular components in the regulation of programmed cell death by Bcl-2 family proteins.

  2. B-cell lymphomas with concurrent MYC and BCL2 abnormalities other than translocations behave similarly to MYC/BCL2 double-hit lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Li, Shaoying; Seegmiller, Adam C; Lin, Pei; Wang, Xuan J; Miranda, Roberto N; Bhagavathi, Sharathkumar; Medeiros, L Jeffrey

    2015-02-01

    Large B-cell lymphomas with IGH@BCL2 and MYC rearrangement, known as double-hit lymphoma (DHL), are clinically aggressive neoplasms with a poor prognosis. Some large B-cell lymphomas have concurrent abnormalities of MYC and BCL2 other than coexistent translocations. Little is known about patients with these lymphomas designated here as atypical DHL. We studied 40 patients of atypical DHL including 21 men and 19 women, with a median age of 60 years. Nine (23%) patients had a history of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. There were 30 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), 7 B-cell lymphoma, unclassifiable, with features intermediate between DLBCL and Burkitt lymphoma, and 3 DLBCL with coexistent follicular lymphoma. CD10, BCL2, and MYC were expressed in 28/39 (72%), 33/35 (94%), and 14/20 (70%) cases, respectively. Patients were treated with standard (n=14) or more aggressive chemotherapy regimens (n=17). We compared the atypical DHL group with 76 patients with DHLand 35 patients with DLBCL lacking MYC and BCL2 abnormalities. The clinicopathologic features and therapies were similar between patients with atypical and typical DHL. The overall survival of patients with atypical double-hit lymphoma was similar to that of patients with double-hit lymphoma (P=0.47) and significantly worse than that of patients with DLBCL with normal MYC and BCL2 (P=0.02). There were some minor differences. Cases of atypical double-hit lymphoma more often have DLBCL morphology (P<0.01), less frequently expressed CD10 (P<0.01), and patients less often had an elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase level (P=0.01). In aggregate, these results support expanding the category of MYC/BCL2 DHL to include large B-cell lymphomas with coexistent MYC and BCL2 abnormalities other than concurrent translocations.

  3. Expression of pro-apoptotic Bax and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins in human retinoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Singh, Lata; Pushker, Neelam; Saini, Neeru; Sen, Seema; Sharma, Anjana; Bakhshi, Sameer; Chawla, Bhavna; Kashyap, Seema

    2015-04-01

    Regulation of apoptosis is a complex process that involves a number of genes, including Bcl-2, Bcl-x, Bax and other Bcl-2 family members. The aim of the present study is to assess the expression of Bcl- 2 and Bax in retinoblastoma, and correlate them with clinical and histopathological parameters. The expression of Bcl-2 and Bax proteins were examined using immunohistochemistry, Western blotting and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in a series of 60 prospective cases of primary retinoblastoma tissues. Immunohistochemistry showed expression of Bcl-2 in 40/60 (66.6%), whereas Bax expression was found only in 18/60 (30%) cases, and these correlated with mRNA expression. The Western blotting results also correlated well with the immunohistochemical expression of Bcl-2 (25 kDa) and Bax (21 kDa) proteins. Bcl-2 was expressed in 96% (24/25) of invasive tumours and in 45.7% (16/35) of non-invasive tumours. Expression of Bcl-2 significantly correlated with tumour invasiveness (P = 0.0274) and poor differentiation (P = 0.0163), whereas loss of Bax correlated with massive choroidal invasion and Pathological Tumor-Node-Metastasis (pTNM) (P = 0.0341). However, no correlation was found between Bax and Bcl-2 expression. Our findings suggest that these apoptotic regulatory proteins may serve as poor prognostic markers and can be used as a therapeutic target for the treatment of invasive retinoblastoma. Further functional studies are required to explore the role of Bax and Bcl-2 in retinoblastoma. © 2014 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  4. Prosurvival Bcl-2 family members affect autophagy only indirectly, by inhibiting Bax and Bak

    PubMed Central

    Lindqvist, Lisa M.; Heinlein, Melanie; Huang, David C. S.; Vaux, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Antiapoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family members such as Bcl-2, myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl-1), and B-cell lymphoma-X large (Bcl-xL) are proposed to inhibit autophagy by directly binding to the BH3 domain of Beclin 1/Atg6. However, these Bcl-2 family proteins also block the proapoptotic activity of Bcl-2–associated X (Bax) and Bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer (Bak), and many inducers of autophagy also cause cell death. Therefore, when the mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis pathway is functional, interpretation of such experiments is complicated. To directly test the impact of the endogenous antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members on autophagy in the absence of apoptosis, we inhibited their activity in cells lacking the essential cell death mediators Bax and Bak. We also used inducible lentiviral vectors to overexpress Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, or Mcl-1 in cells and subjected them to treatments that promote autophagy. In the absence of Bax and Bak, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Mcl-1 had no detectable effect on autophagy or cell death in myeloid or fibroblast cell lines. On the other hand, when Bax and Bak were present, inhibiting the prosurvival Bcl-2 family members stimulated autophagy, but this correlated with increased cell death. In addition, inhibition of autophagy induced by amino acid starvation, etoposide, or interleukin-3 withdrawal did not affect cell death in the absence of Bax and Bak. These results demonstrate that the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members do not directly inhibit components of the autophagic pathway but instead affect autophagy indirectly, owing to their inhibition of Bax and Bak. PMID:24912196

  5. Prosurvival Bcl-2 family members affect autophagy only indirectly, by inhibiting Bax and Bak.

    PubMed

    Lindqvist, Lisa M; Heinlein, Melanie; Huang, David C S; Vaux, David L

    2014-06-10

    Antiapoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family members such as Bcl-2, myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl-1), and B-cell lymphoma-X large (Bcl-xL) are proposed to inhibit autophagy by directly binding to the BH3 domain of Beclin 1/Atg6. However, these Bcl-2 family proteins also block the proapoptotic activity of Bcl-2-associated X (Bax) and Bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer (Bak), and many inducers of autophagy also cause cell death. Therefore, when the mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis pathway is functional, interpretation of such experiments is complicated. To directly test the impact of the endogenous antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members on autophagy in the absence of apoptosis, we inhibited their activity in cells lacking the essential cell death mediators Bax and Bak. We also used inducible lentiviral vectors to overexpress Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, or Mcl-1 in cells and subjected them to treatments that promote autophagy. In the absence of Bax and Bak, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Mcl-1 had no detectable effect on autophagy or cell death in myeloid or fibroblast cell lines. On the other hand, when Bax and Bak were present, inhibiting the prosurvival Bcl-2 family members stimulated autophagy, but this correlated with increased cell death. In addition, inhibition of autophagy induced by amino acid starvation, etoposide, or interleukin-3 withdrawal did not affect cell death in the absence of Bax and Bak. These results demonstrate that the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members do not directly inhibit components of the autophagic pathway but instead affect autophagy indirectly, owing to their inhibition of Bax and Bak.

  6. Immunohistochemically detectable bcl-2 expression in colorectal carcinoma: correlation with tumour stage and patient survival.

    PubMed Central

    Ofner, D.; Riehemann, K.; Maier, H.; Riedmann, B.; Nehoda, H.; Tötsch, M.; Böcker, W.; Jasani, B.; Schmid, K. W.

    1995-01-01

    The bcl-2 gene encodes for a mitochondrial membrane proto-oncoprotein, the expression of which is known to suppress programmed cell death (apoptosis). In the present study the prognostic value of bcl-2 proto-oncoprotein was immunohistochemically investigated in a series of 104 colorectal carcinomas. The bcl-2 staining patterns were semiquantitatively assessed and correlated with the pTNM stage, Dukes' classification, lymphocytic infiltration (Jass classification) and tumour grade as well as parameters not associated with prognosis (gender, age, tumour site, histological tumour type). Statistical analysis was carried out using the Kaplan-Meier method, the log-rank test, hazard ratios and their confidence intervals. Fifty-five out of 104 cases completely lacked immunohistochemical bcl-2 expression. Fewer than 5% of bcl-2-positive cells were found in 25, 5-50% in 17 and more than 50% in five cases. The extent of bcl-2 expression by tumour cells decreased significantly with respect to increasing tumour size (P < 0.05), decreasing lymphocytic infiltration (P < 0.05) and chance of poor clinical outcome (P < 0.05), but not with worsening of Dukes stages. In multivariate analysis (Cox regression model) bcl-2 expression remained as an independent prognostic parameter with Dukes' classification as stratification factor (P < 0.001). Although the biological functions of bcl-2 protein are not yet well understood, our results provide further evidence that bcl-2 oncoprotein appears to be associated with favourable clinical outcome. Thus immunohistochemical bcl-2 phenotyping of colorectal carcinoma may contribute in future to the clinical management of these patients. Images Figure 1 PMID:7547253

  7. Early complete response during chemotherapy predicts favorable outcome in patients with primary CNS lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Pels, Hendrik; Juergens, Annika; Schirgens, Isabell; Glasmacher, Axel; Schulz, Holger; Engert, Andreas; Schackert, Gabriele; Reichmann, Heinz; Kroschinsky, Frank; Vogt-Schaden, Marlies; Egerer, Gerlinde; Bode, Udo; Deckert, Martina; Fimmers, Rolf; Urbach, Horst; Schmidt-Wolf, Ingo G H; Schlegel, Uwe

    2010-07-01

    In primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), 2 international prognostic scores have been developed to estimate the outcome according to certain "prognostic groups". However, these scores do not predict the individual course of a single patient under therapy. In this analysis, we addressed the question of whether early tumor remission in patients still under therapy, according to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) criteria, helps to predict long-term outcome. Eighty-eight patients treated with 6 polychemotherapy cycles within a pilot/phase II trial underwent MRI scanning within 72 hours prior to initiation of therapy, after the second chemotherapy cycle, and after completion of chemotherapy. Response was assessed by contrast-enhanced MRI of the brain according to the Macdonald criteria. Median follow-up was 42 months (range, 0-124 months). Patients achieving a complete radiographic response after 2 courses of chemotherapy (n = 18) had a significantly longer median overall survival (OS) (not reached) and median time-to-treatment failure (TTF) (not reached) than patients with complete response (CR) after termination of treatment but with only a partial response after the second cycle (n = 24) (OS: 55 months; TTF: 32 months) (P < .01). Early complete tumor response assessed by MRI after the second of sixth scheduled chemotherapy cycles was highly predictive for both OS and TTF in patients with PCNSL treated in this series.

  8. Predicting favorable and unfavorable consequences of perceptual learning: worsening and the peak shift.

    PubMed

    Wisniewski, Matthew G

    2017-04-01

    Discrimination learning can cause improved and worsened ability to perceive differences. This subsequently affects how stimuli are associated with meanings and behaviors. Here, human listeners were trained with frequency-modulated (FM) tonal sweeps (500-1000 Hz) in a paradigm where one FM rate (8.29 octaves per second) required a 'Target' response, while a rate either slower (5.76 octaves per second) or faster (11.94 octaves per second) required a 'Non-Target' response. Training led to a shift in 'Target' responding along the FM rate dimension away from the 'Target' in a direction opposite the trained 'Non-Target'. This peak shift was paralleled by an asymmetry in acuity along the FM rate dimension in an untrained ABX task (a.k.a. match-to-sample). Performance improved relative to pre-training on trials where the 'Target' was contrasted with stimuli nearer the trained 'Non-Target'. Performance worsened on trials containing stimuli displaced along the FM dimension further from the trained 'Non-Target'. A connectionist model of perceptual learning containing non-associative representational modification and associative-based task-specific reweighting was able to simulate behavior. Simulations generated novel testable predictions regarding peak shift and worsening as a result of discrimination learning. Data have theoretical and practical consequences for predicting trends in the generalization of learned behaviors and modifiable perceptual acuities.

  9. Prognostic value of bcl-2 expression among women with breast cancer in Libya.

    PubMed

    Ermiah, Eramah; Buhmeida, Abdelbaset; Khaled, Ben Romdhane; Abdalla, Fathi; Salem, Nada; Pyrhönen, Seppo; Collan, Yrjö

    2013-06-01

    We studied the association of the immunohistochemical bcl-2 expression in Libyan breast cancer with clinicopathological variables and patient outcome. Histological samples from 170 previously untreated primary Libyan breast carcinoma patients were examined. In immunohistochemistry, the NCL-L-bcl-2-486 monoclonal antibody was used. Positive expression of bcl-2 was found in 106 patients (62.4 %). The bcl-2 expression was significantly associated with estrogen receptor (p<0.0001) and progesterone receptor positive tumors (p=0.002), small tumor size (p<0.0001), low tumor grade (p<0.0001), negative axillary lymph nodes (p<0.0001), early stages (p=0.001), and low risk of metastasis (p<0.0001). Positive expression was also associated with older patients (>50 years; p=0.04). Histological subtypes and family history of breast cancer did not have significant relationship with bcl-2. Patients with positive expression of bcl-2 had lower recurrence rate than bcl-2-negative patients and better survival after median follow-up of 47 months. Patients with high bcl-2 staining were associated with the best survival. The role of bcl-2 as an independent predictor of disease-specific survival was assessed in a multivariate survival (Cox) analysis, including age, hormonal status, recurrence, histological grade, and clinical stage variables. Bcl-2 (p<0.0001) and clinical stage (p=0.016) were independent predicators of disease-specific survival. For analysis of disease-free survival, the same variables were entered to the model and only bcl-2 proved to be an independent predictor (p=0.002). Patients with positive expression of bcl-2 were associated with low grade of malignancy, with lower recurrence rate, with lower rate of death, and with longer survival time. Bcl-2 is an independent predictor of breast cancer outcome, and it provides useful prognostic information in Libyan breast cancer. Thus, it could be used with classical clinicopathological factors to improve patient selection for

  10. Inactivation of prosurvival Bcl-2 proteins activates Bax/Bak through the outer mitochondrial membrane

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Katelyn L.; Huang, Kai; Zhang, Jingjing; Chen, Yi; Luo, Xu

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism of Bax/Bak activation remains a central question in mitochondria-dependent apoptotic signaling. While it is established that all proapoptotic Bcl-2 homology 3 (BH3)-only proteins bind and neutralize the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins, how this neutralization leads to Bax/Bak activation has been actively debated. Here, genome editing was used to generate cells deficient for all eight proapoptotic BH3-only proteins (OctaKO) and those that lack the entire Bcl-2 family (Bcl-2 allKO). Although the OctaKO cells were resistant to most apoptotic stimuli tested, they underwent Bax/Bak-dependent and p53/Rb-independent apoptosis efficiently when both Bcl-xL and Mcl-1, two anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins, were inactivated or eliminated. Strikingly, when expressed in the Bcl-2 allKO cells, both Bax and Bak spontaneously associated with the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) through their respective helix 9, and this association triggered their homo-oligomerization/activation. Together, these results strongly suggest that the OMM, not BH3-only proteins or p53/Rb, is the long-sought-after direct activator of Bax/Bak following BH3-only-mediated neutralization of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. PMID:27056669

  11. Targeting BCL-2 to enhance vulnerability to therapy in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Merino, D; Lok, S W; Visvader, J E; Lindeman, G J

    2016-04-14

    The last three decades have seen significant progress in our understanding of the role of the pro-survival protein BCL-2 and its family members in apoptosis and cancer. BCL-2 and other pro-survival family members including Mcl-1 and BCL-XL have been shown to have a key role in keeping pro-apoptotic 'effector' proteins BAK and BAX in check. They also neutralize a group of 'sensor' proteins (such as BIM), which are triggered by cytotoxic stimuli such as chemotherapy. BCL-2 proteins therefore have a central role as guardians against apoptosis, helping cancer cells to evade cell death. More recently, an increasing number of BH3 mimetics, which bind and neutralize BCL-2 and/or its pro-survival relatives, have been developed. The utility of targeting BCL-2 in hematological malignancies has become evident in early-phase studies, with remarkable clinical responses seen in heavily pretreated patients. As BCL-2 is overexpressed in ~75% of breast cancer, there has been growing interest in determining whether this new class of drug could show similar promise in breast cancer. This review summarizes our current understanding of the role of BCL-2 and its family members in mammary gland development and breast cancer, recent progress in the development of new BH3 mimetics as well as their potential for targeting estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer.

  12. Bcl-2-family proteins and hematologic malignancies: history and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Reed, John C

    2008-04-01

    BCL-2 was the first antideath gene discovered, a milestone that effectively launched a new era in cell death research. Since its discovery more than 2 decades ago, multiple members of the human Bcl-2 family of apoptosis-regulating proteins have been identified, including 6 antiapoptotic proteins, 3 structurally similar proapoptotic proteins, and several structurally diverse proapoptotic interacting proteins that operate as upstream agonists or antagonists. Bcl-2-family proteins regulate all major types of cell death, including apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy. As such, they operate as nodal points at the convergence of multiple pathways with broad relevance to biology and medicine. Bcl-2 derives its name from its original discovery in the context of B-cell lymphomas, where chromosomal translocations commonly activate the BCL-2 protooncogene, endowing B cells with a selective survival advantage that promotes their neoplastic expansion. The concept that defective programmed cell death contributes to malignancy was established by studies of Bcl-2, representing a major step forward in current understanding of tumorigenesis. Experimental therapies targeting Bcl-2 family mRNAs or proteins are currently in clinical testing, raising hopes that a new class of anticancer drugs may be near.

  13. Restrained Terminal Differentiation and Sustained Stemness in Neonatal Skin by Ha-Ras and Bcl-2.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangjun; Rodriguez-Villanueva, Julio; McDonnell, Timothy

    2017-03-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in the United States. Deregulation of bcl-2 and ras family members is commonly observed in nonmelanoma skin cancer. It has been previously demonstrated that simultaneous bcl-2 and Ha-ras gene expression in keratinocytes results in resistance to cell death induced by ultraviolet radiation and enhanced multistep skin carcinogenesis. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the central roles of Ha-Ras and Bcl-2 in maintaining epidermal homeostasis. To assess the effect of deregulated Ha-Ras and Bcl-2 on skin differentiation, we have generated skin-specific transgenic mouse model constitutively expressing both oncogenic Ha-Ras and Bcl-2. Ectopic expression of Ha-Ras and Bcl-2 in newborn double transgenic epidermal keratinocytes induced abnormal epidermal differentiation accompanied by increased cell proliferation and suppressed apoptotic cell death, which resulted in thickened and wrinkled skin morphology in neonate skins. Expression of epidermal differentiation marker cytokeratin 1 was decreased. Expression of other differentiation markers loricrin and filaggrin was also decreased and delayed to be detected only in the upper stratum granulosum, whereas the proliferative markers cytokeratin 14 and cytokeratin 6, which are expressed in constitutively proliferative basal layer and stem cell niches such as hair follicles or neoplastic lesions, respectively, were highly expressed. The abnormal expression of epidermal cytokeratins suggests that Ha-Ras and Bcl-2 suppress the terminal differentiation and sustain the stem cell-like features in epidermal keratinocytes.

  14. S-Nitrosylation of Bcl-2 Negatively Affects Autophagy in Lung Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Clayton; Iyer, Anand Krishnan V.; Kulkarni, Yogesh; Azad, Neelam

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is a catabolic cellular mechanism involving lysosomal degradation of unwanted cellular components. Interaction between Beclin-1 and Bcl-2 proteins is known to play a critical role in the initiation of autophagy. We report that malignantly transformed lung epithelial cells are resistant to autophagy and express lower basal levels of autophagic proteins, Beclin-1 and LC3-II as compared to non-tumorigenic cells. Additionally, increased levels of nitric oxide (NO) and Bcl-2 were observed in transformed cells. Nitric oxide was found to negatively regulate autophagy initiation and autophagic flux by nitrosylating Bcl-2 and stabilizing its interaction with Beclin-1, resulting in inhibition of Beclin-1 activity. An increase in the apoptotic initiator caspase-9 and the apoptosis and autophagy-associated kinase p38/MAPK in both cell types indicated possible autophagy–apoptosis crosstalk. Pre-treatments with ABT-737 (Bcl-2 inhibitor) and aminoguanidine (NO inhibitor), and transfection with a non-nitrosylable Bcl-2 cysteine double-mutant plasmid resulted in increased autophagic flux (LC3-II/p62 upregulation) corresponding with decreased S-nitrocysteine expression, thus corroborating the regulatory role of Bcl-2 S-nitrosylation in autophagy. In conclusion, our study reveals a novel mechanism of autophagy resistance via post-translational modification of Bcl-2 protein by NO, which may be critical in driving cellular tumorigenesis. PMID:26241894

  15. Solution structure of a Bcl-2 homolog from Kaposi sarcoma virus

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qiulong; Petros, Andrew M.; Virgin, Herbert W.; Fesik, Stephen W.; Olejniczak, Edward T.

    2002-01-01

    Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV) contains a gene that has functional and sequence homology to the apoptotic Bcl-2 family of proteins [Sarid, R., Sato, T., Bohenzky, R. A., Russo, J. J. & Chang, Y. (1997) Nat. Med. 3, 293–298]. The viral Bcl-2 protein promotes survival of infected cells and may contribute to the development of Kaposi sarcoma tumors [Boshoff, C. & Chang, Y. (2001) Annu. Rev. Med. 52, 453–470]. Here we describe the solution structure of the viral Bcl-2 homolog from KSHV. Comparison of the KSHV Bcl-2 structure to that of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL shows that although the overall fold is the same, there are key differences in the lengths of the helices and loops. Binding studies on peptides derived from the Bcl-2 homology region 3 of proapoptotic family members indicate that the specificity of the viral protein is very different from what was previously observed for Bcl-xL and Bcl-2, suggesting that the viral protein has evolved to have a different mechanism of action than the host proteins. PMID:11904405

  16. Effects of BCL-2 over-expression on B cells in transgenic rats and rat hybridomas.

    PubMed

    Iscache, Anne-Laure; Ménoret, Séverine; Tesson, Laurent; Rémy, Séverine; Usal, Claire; Pedros, Christophe; Saoudi, Abdelhadi; Buelow, Roland; Anegon, Ignacio

    2011-10-01

    The rat is an important biomedical experimental model that benefited from the recent development of new transgenic and knockout techniques. With the goal to optimize rat mAb production and to analyze the impact of Bcl-2 on B-cell development, we generated bcl-2 transgenic rats. Transgenic rats showed Bcl-2 over-expression in B cells, increased B cell numbers in lymphoid organs, elevated production of immunoglobulins (Igs) and prolonged B-cell survival in vitro. Transgenic rats remained healthy, reproduced normally and did not develop autoimmunity. Fusions with bcl-2 transgenic splenocytes did not result in increased hybridoma generation. A comparison of on- and off-rates of 39 mAbs generated with bcl-2 transgenic and wild-type animals revealed no significant differences. Over-expression of Bcl-2 in hybridomas did not change cell proliferation but resulted in increased Ig production. Bcl-2 transgenic rats will be a useful tool for the generation of rat mAbs, the analysis of B cells in different pathophysiological models, such as autoimmunity, cancer or organ transplantation, and the study of rat B-cell biology.

  17. Immunohistochemical expression of Bcl-2 in oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Juneja, S; Chaitanya, N Babu; Agarwal, M

    2015-01-01

    The B cell lymphoma-2 gene is a proto-oncogene whose protein product inhibits apoptosis. Its role is associated with keeping cells alive, but not by stimulating them to proliferation, as other proto-oncogenes do. Increased expression of protein product of Bcl-2 gene appears in the early phase of carcinogenesis leading to apoptosis impairment and in consequence to the progression of neoplastic changes. To evaluate and compare the expression of Bcl-2 protein in oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Sixty cases of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded archival specimens comprising of 30 cases of leukoplakia with oral epithelial dysplasia and 30 cases of OSCC were taken for immunohistochemical analysis using monoclonal antibody against anti-human Bcl-2 oncoprotein. Immunostaining for Bcl-2 protein was identified in basal and parabasal layers as granular cytoplasmic staining in oral epithelial dysplasia. In OSCC, Bcl-2 immunoreactivity was most prominent in the peripheral cells of the infiltrating tumor islands which diminished toward the center in well-differentiated and moderately differentiated OSCC, whereas stronger and more diffuse expression of Bcl-2 oncoprotein was seen in poorly differentiated OSCC. Overall positivity of 26.7% (8/30) was observed in oral epithelial dysplasia and 30% (9/30) in OSCC in this study. Altered expression of Bcl-2 oncoprotein may be an early molecular event which leads to prolonged cell survival, increased chances of accumulation of genetic alterations, and subsequent increase in malignant transformation potential.

  18. Bcl-2△21 and Ac-DEVD-CHO Inhibit Death of Wheat Microspores

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Rakesh K.; Pospíšil, Pavel; Maheshwari, Priti; Eudes, François

    2016-01-01

    Microspore cell death and low green plant production efficiency are an integral obstacle in the development of doubled haploid production in wheat. The aim of the current study was to determine the effect of anti-apoptotic recombinant human B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2△21) and caspase-3-inhibitor (Ac-DEVD-CHO) in microspore cell death in bread wheat cultivars AC Fielder and AC Andrew. Induction medium containing Bcl-2△21 and Ac-DEVD-CHO yielded a significantly higher number of viable microspores, embryo-like structures and total green plants in wheat cultivars AC Fielder and AC Andrew. Total peroxidase activity was lower in Bcl-2△21 treated microspore cultures at 96 h of treatment compared to control and Ac-DEVD-CHO. Electron paramagnetic resonance study of total microspore protein showed a different scavenging activity for Bcl-2△21 and Ac-DEVD-CHO. Bcl-2△21 scavenged approximately 50% hydroxyl radical (HO•) formed, whereas Ac-DEVD-CHO scavenged approximately 20% of HO•. Conversely, reduced caspase-3-like activities were detected in the presence of Bcl-2△21 and Ac-DEVD-CHO, supporting the involvement of Bcl-2△21 and Ac-DEVD-CHO in increasing microspore viability by reducing oxidative stress and caspase-3-like activity. Our results indicate that Bcl-2△21 and Ac-DEVD-CHO protects cells from cell death following different pathways. Bcl-2△21 prevents cell damage by detoxifying HO• and suppressing caspase-3-like activity, while Ac-DEVD-CHO inhibits the cell death pathways by modulating caspase-like activity. PMID:28082995

  19. BCL-2 and BCL-XL restrict lineage choice during hematopoietic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Haughn, Loralee; Hawley, Robert G; Morrison, Deborah K; von Boehmer, Harald; Hockenbery, David M

    2003-07-04

    Differentiation of hematopoietic cells from multipotential progenitors is regulated by multiple growth factors and cytokines. A prominent feature of these soluble factors is promotion of cell survival, in part mediated by expression of either of the anti-apoptotic proteins, BCL-2 and BCL-XL. The complex expression pattern of these frequently redundant survival factors during hematopoiesis may indicate a role in lineage determination. To investigate the latter possibility, we analyzed factor-dependent cell-Patersen (FDCP)-Mix multipotent progenitor cells in which we stably expressed BCL-2 or BCL-XL. Each factor maintained complete survival of interleukin-3 (IL-3)-deprived FDCP-Mix cells but, unexpectedly, directed FDCP-Mix cells along restricted and divergent differentiation pathways. Thus, IL-3-deprived FDCP-Mix BCL-2 cells differentiated exclusively to granulocytes and monocytes/macrophages, whereas FDCP-Mix BCL-XL cells became erythroid. FDCP-Mix BCL-2 cells grown in IL-3 were distinguished from FDCP-Mix and FDCP-Mix BCL-XL cells by a striking reduction in cellular levels of Raf-1 protein. Replacement of the BCL-2 BH4 domain with the related BCL-XL BH4 sequence resulted in a switch of FDCP-Mix BCL-2 cells to erythroid fate accompanied by persistence of Raf-1 protein expression. Moreover, enforced expression of Raf-1 redirected FDCP-Mix BCL-2 cells to an erythroid fate, and prohibited generation of myeloid cells. These results identify novel roles for BCL-2 and BCL-XL in cell fate decisions beyond cell survival. These effects are associated with differential regulation of Raf-1 expression, perhaps involving the previously identified interaction between BCL-2-BH4 and the catalytic domain of Raf-1.

  20. Developmental regulation of the Bcl-2 protein and susceptibility to cell death in B lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Merino, R; Ding, L; Veis, D J; Korsmeyer, S J; Nuñez, G

    1994-01-01

    Cell death is a prominent feature of B cell development. For example, a large population of B cells dies at the pre-B cell stage presumably due to the failure to express a functional immunoglobulin receptor. In addition, developing B cells expressing antigen receptors for self are selectively eliminated at the immature B cell stage. The molecular signals that control B cell survival are largely unknown. The product of the bcl-2 proto-oncogene may be involved as its overexpression inhibits apoptotic cell death in a variety of biological systems. However, the physiological role of the endogenous Bcl-2 protein during B cell development is undetermined. Here we show a striking developmental regulation of the Bcl-2 protein in B lymphocytes. Bcl-2 is highly expressed in CD43+ B cell precursors (pro-B cells) and mature B cells but downregulated at the pre-B and immature B cell stages of development. We found that Bcl-2 expressed by B cells is a long-lived protein with a half-life of approximately 10 h. Importantly, susceptibility to apoptosis mediated by the glucocorticoid hormone dexamethasone is stage-dependent in developing B cells and correlates with the levels of Bcl-2 protein. Furthermore, expression of a bcl-2 transgene rescued pre-B and immature B cells from dexamethasone-induced cell death, indicating that Bcl-2 can inhibit the apoptotic cell death of progenitors and early B cells. Taken together, these findings argue that Bcl-2 is a physiological signal controlling cell death during B cell development. Images PMID:8313913

  1. Prognostic significance of the bcl-2 apoptotic family of proteins in primary and recurrent cervical cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, R. A.; Caldwell, C.; Iles, R. K.; Lowe, D.; Shepherd, J. H.; Chard, T.

    1998-01-01

    bcl-2 is one of a family of genes that control the apoptotic threshold of a cell. bcl-2 protein and its anti-apoptotic homologue, mcl-1, with the pro-apoptotic protein, bax, are thought to function by forming homo- and heterotypic dimers that then control the progression to apoptosis. p53 is also involved as a down-regulator of bcl-2 and a promoter of bax. To determine the effect of these apoptotic mechanisms, we used immunohistochemistry to determine the prognostic significance of the expression of bcl-2, mcl-1, bax and p53 in primary and recurrent cervical cancer. Tissues from 46 patients with primary cervical cancer and 28 women with recurrent carcinoma were stained for bcl-2, mcl-1, bax and p53. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed using the log-rank test for differences between groups. In the primary disease group, positive staining for bcl-2 was associated with a better 5-year survival (bcl-2 +ve, 84% vs bcl-2 -ve, 53%, P = 0.03). Positive staining for p53 was associated with a survival disadvantage (p53 +ve, 4-year survival 38% vs p53 -ve, 4-year survival 78%, P = 0.02). mcl-1 and bax staining were not useful as prognostic indicators in primary disease. No marker was prognostic in recurrent disease. Positive bcl-2 staining defines a group of patients with primary disease with a good prognosis. p53, an activator of the bax promoter, identifies a group with a worse outcome. In recurrent disease, none of the markers reflected prognosis. PMID:9683295

  2. Bcl-2△21 and Ac-DEVD-CHO Inhibit Death of Wheat Microspores.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Rakesh K; Pospíšil, Pavel; Maheshwari, Priti; Eudes, François

    2016-01-01

    Microspore cell death and low green plant production efficiency are an integral obstacle in the development of doubled haploid production in wheat. The aim of the current study was to determine the effect of anti-apoptotic recombinant human B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2△21) and caspase-3-inhibitor (Ac-DEVD-CHO) in microspore cell death in bread wheat cultivars AC Fielder and AC Andrew. Induction medium containing Bcl-2△21 and Ac-DEVD-CHO yielded a significantly higher number of viable microspores, embryo-like structures and total green plants in wheat cultivars AC Fielder and AC Andrew. Total peroxidase activity was lower in Bcl-2△21 treated microspore cultures at 96 h of treatment compared to control and Ac-DEVD-CHO. Electron paramagnetic resonance study of total microspore protein showed a different scavenging activity for Bcl-2△21 and Ac-DEVD-CHO. Bcl-2△21 scavenged approximately 50% hydroxyl radical (HO(•)) formed, whereas Ac-DEVD-CHO scavenged approximately 20% of HO(•). Conversely, reduced caspase-3-like activities were detected in the presence of Bcl-2△21 and Ac-DEVD-CHO, supporting the involvement of Bcl-2△21 and Ac-DEVD-CHO in increasing microspore viability by reducing oxidative stress and caspase-3-like activity. Our results indicate that Bcl-2△21 and Ac-DEVD-CHO protects cells from cell death following different pathways. Bcl-2△21 prevents cell damage by detoxifying HO(•) and suppressing caspase-3-like activity, while Ac-DEVD-CHO inhibits the cell death pathways by modulating caspase-like activity.

  3. Metabolic reprogramming in cancer cells: glycolysis, glutaminolysis, and Bcl-2 proteins as novel therapeutic targets for cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunxia; Zhang, Guifeng; Zhao, Lei; Ma, Zhijun; Chen, Hongbing

    2016-01-20

    Nearly a century ago, Otto Warburg made the ground-breaking observation that cancer cells, unlike normal cells, prefer a seemingly inefficient mechanism of glucose metabolism: aerobic glycolysis, a phenomenon now referred to as the Warburg effect. The finding that rapidly proliferating cancer cells favors incomplete metabolism of glucose, producing large amounts of lactate as opposed to synthesizing ATP to sustain cell growth, has confounded scientists for years. Further investigation into the metabolic phenotype of cancer has expanded our understanding of this puzzling conundrum, and has opened new avenues for the development of anti-cancer therapies. Enhanced glycolytic flux is now known to allow for increased synthesis of intermediates for sustaining anabolic pathways critical for cancer cell growth. Alongside the increase in glycolysis, cancer cells transform their mitochondria into synthesis machines supported by augmented glutaminolysis, supplying lipid production, amino acid synthesis, and the pentose phosphate pathways. Inhibition of several of the key enzymes involved in these pathways has been demonstrated to effectively obstruct cancer cell growth and multiplication, sensitizing them to apoptosis. The modulation of various regulatory proteins involved in metabolic processes is central to cancerous reprogramming of metabolism. The finding that members of one of the major protein families involved in cell death regulation also aberrantly regulated in cancers, the Bcl-2 family of proteins, are also critical mediators of metabolic pathways, provides strong evidence for the importance of the metabolic shift to cancer cell survival. Targeting the anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family of proteins is proving to be a successful way to selectively target cancer cells and induce apoptosis. Further understanding of how cancer cells modify metabolic regulation to increase channeling of substrates into biosynthesis will allow for the discovery of novel drug

  4. Immunohistochemical analysis of Mcl-1 and Bcl-2 proteins in normal and neoplastic lymph nodes.

    PubMed Central

    Krajewski, S.; Bodrug, S.; Gascoyne, R.; Berean, K.; Krajewska, M.; Reed, J. C.

    1994-01-01

    The Bcl-2 protein blocks programmed cell death and becomes overproduced in many follicular non-Hodgkin's lymphomas as the result of t(14; 18) translocations involving the Bcl-2 gene. Mcl-1 is a recently discovered gene whose encoded protein has significant homology with Bcl-2 but whose function remains unknown. In this study, we compared the in vivo patterns of Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 protein production in normal and neoplastic lymph node biopsies by immunohistochemical means using specific polyclonal antisera. Intracellular Mcl-1 immunoreactivity was located primarily in the cytosol in a punctate pattern and was also seen in association with the nuclear envelope in many cases, similar to the results obtained for Bcl-2, which resides in the outer mitochondrial membrane, nuclear envelope, and endoplasmic reticulum. In 4 of 4 reactive tonsils and 28 of 28 nodes with reactive follicular hyperplasia, reciprocal patterns of Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 protein expression were observed. Bcl-2 immunostaining was highest in mantle zone lymphocytes and absent from most germinal center cells, whereas Mcl-1 immunoreactivity was highest in germinal center lymphocytes and absent from mantle zone lymphocytes. Mcl-1 was also expressed in some interfollicular lymphocytes, particularly those that had the appearance of activated lymphocytes. Similar to the patterns of Bcl-2 and mcl-1 expression seen in reactive nodes, Mcl-1 protein was largely absent from the malignant cells in 2 of 2 mantle cell lymphomas, whereas strong Bcl-2 immunostaining was found in these cells. In contrast to normal nodes, however, the neoplastic follicles of t(14;18) containing follicular non-Hodgkin's lymphomas immunostained positively for both Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 in 24 of 27 cases. Intense immunostaining for Mcl-1 was also observed in Reed-Sternberg cells in 2 of 2 cases of Hodgkin's disease but Bcl-2 immunoreactivity was present at much lower levels. These findings demonstrate that the levels of Mcl-1 and Bcl-2 proteins are

  5. Vaccinia Virus N1l Protein Resembles a B Cell Lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) Family Protein

    SciTech Connect

    Aoyagi, M.; Zhai, D.; Jin, C.; Aleshin, A.E.; Stec, B.; Reed, J.C.; Liddington, R.C.; /Burnham Inst.

    2007-07-03

    Poxviruses encode immuno-modulatory proteins capable of subverting host defenses. The poxvirus vaccinia expresses a small 14-kDa protein, N1L, that is critical for virulence. We report the crystal structure of N1L, which reveals an unexpected but striking resemblance to host apoptotic regulators of the B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) family. Although N1L lacks detectable Bcl-2 homology (BH) motifs at the sequence level, we show that N1L binds with high affinity to the BH3 peptides of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins in vitro, consistent with a role for N1L in modulating host antiviral defenses.

  6. Bax expression remains unchanged following antisense treatment directed against BCL-2.

    PubMed

    Rubenstein, Marvin; Hollowell, Courtney M P; Guinan, Patrick

    2011-09-01

    Antisense oligonucleotides (oligos) have been evaluated in both in vivo and in vitro prostate cancer models. Although most contain a single mRNA binding site, our laboratory has also evaluated bispecific types directed toward two proteins. This study evaluates the inhibition of in vitro propagating LNCaP cells employing mono- and bispecific oligos directed against bcl-2 [the second binding site was directed against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)]. Employing RT-PCR, the expression of two apoptosis regulating proteins, bcl-2 and non-targeted bax, was then evaluated. LNCaP prostate tumor cells were initially incubated for 24 h in the presence of oligos (6.25 μM) directed against bcl-2 and compared to lipofectin containing controls. Comparable and significant growth inhibition was produced by both mono- and bispecific forms. Employing RT-PCR to determine the expression of bcl-2, we found that the greatest amount of mRNA suppression approached 100% for each oligo type: monospecific MR4 (directed only against bcl-2), 100%; and bispecifics MR24 and MR42, 86 and 100%, respectively. We conclude, based upon both inhibition of in vitro growth and bcl-2 expression, that bispecific antisense oligos directed against EGFR and bcl-2 mRNAs are at least as effective as a monospecific directed solely toward bcl-2. In an effort to determine a compensatory response by cells evading apoptosis in the presence of bcl-2 suppression, the levels of mRNA encoding the non-targeted apoptosis activating protein bax were evaluated. Non-targeted protein suppression by these bispecifics has previously been demonstrated against prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA). However, in contrast to effects against bcl-2 and PSMA, no significant alteration in bax expression was produced by either oligo type. In LNCaP cells, bcl-2 suppression does not influence bax expression and, at least for this protein, there is no compensatory change in bax expression regulating apoptosis at this level

  7. High efficacy of the BCL-2 inhibitor ABT199 (venetoclax) in BCL-2 high-expressing neuroblastoma cell lines and xenografts and rational for combination with MCL-1 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Bate-Eya, Laurel T; den Hartog, Ilona J M; van der Ploeg, Ida; Schild, Linda; Koster, Jan; Santo, Evan E; Westerhout, Ellen M; Versteeg, Rogier; Caron, Huib N; Molenaar, Jan J; Dolman, M Emmy M

    2016-05-10

    The anti-apoptotic protein B cell lymphoma/leukaemia 2 (BCL-2) is highly expressed in neuroblastoma and plays an important role in oncogenesis. In this study, the selective BCL-2 inhibitor ABT199 was tested in a panel of neuroblastoma cell lines with diverse expression levels of BCL-2 and other BCL-2 family proteins. ABT199 caused apoptosis more potently in neuroblastoma cell lines expressing high BCL-2 and BIM/BCL-2 complex levels than low expressing cell lines. Effects on cell viability correlated with effects on BIM displacement from BCL-2 and cytochrome c release from the mitochondria. ABT199 treatment of mice with neuroblastoma tumors expressing high BCL-2 levels only resulted in growth inhibition, despite maximum BIM displacement from BCL-2 and the induction of a strong apoptotic response. We showed that neuroblastoma cells might survive ABT199 treatment due to its acute upregulation of the anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family protein myeloid cell leukaemia sequence 1 (MCL-1) and BIM sequestration by MCL-1. In vitro inhibition of MCL-1 sensitized neuroblastoma cell lines to ABT199, confirming the pivotal role of MCL-1 in ABT199 resistance. Our findings suggest that neuroblastoma patients with high BCL-2 and BIM/BCL-2 complex levels might benefit from combination treatment with ABT199 and compounds that inhibit MCL-1 expression.

  8. High efficacy of the BCL-2 inhibitor ABT199 (venetoclax) in BCL-2 high-expressing neuroblastoma cell lines and xenografts and rational for combination with MCL-1 inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Bate-Eya, Laurel T.; den Hartog, Ilona J.M.; van der Ploeg, Ida; Schild, Linda; Koster, Jan; Santo, Evan E.; Westerhout, Ellen M.; Versteeg, Rogier; Caron, Huib N.; Molenaar, Jan J.; Dolman, M. Emmy M.

    2016-01-01

    The anti-apoptotic protein B cell lymphoma/leukaemia 2 (BCL-2) is highly expressed in neuroblastoma and plays an important role in oncogenesis. In this study, the selective BCL-2 inhibitor ABT199 was tested in a panel of neuroblastoma cell lines with diverse expression levels of BCL-2 and other BCL-2 family proteins. ABT199 caused apoptosis more potently in neuroblastoma cell lines expressing high BCL-2 and BIM/BCL-2 complex levels than low expressing cell lines. Effects on cell viability correlated with effects on BIM displacement from BCL-2 and cytochrome c release from the mitochondria. ABT199 treatment of mice with neuroblastoma tumors expressing high BCL-2 levels only resulted in growth inhibition, despite maximum BIM displacement from BCL-2 and the induction of a strong apoptotic response. We showed that neuroblastoma cells might survive ABT199 treatment due to its acute upregulation of the anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family protein myeloid cell leukaemia sequence 1 (MCL-1) and BIM sequestration by MCL-1. In vitro inhibition of MCL-1 sensitized neuroblastoma cell lines to ABT199, confirming the pivotal role of MCL-1 in ABT199 resistance. Our findings suggest that neuroblastoma patients with high BCL-2 and BIM/BCL-2 complex levels might benefit from combination treatment with ABT199 and compounds that inhibit MCL-1 expression. PMID:27056887

  9. rno-miR-665 targets BCL2L1 (Bcl-xl) and increases vulnerability to propofol in developing astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wen-Chong; Pei, Ling

    2016-07-01

    Propofol exerts a cytotoxic influence over immature neurocytes. Our previous study revealed that clinically relevant doses of propofol accelerated apoptosis of primary cultured astrocytes of developing rodent brains via rno-miR-665 regulation. However, the role of rno-miR-665 during the growth spurt of neonatal rodent brains in vivo is still uncertain. Post-natal day 7 (P7) rats received a single injection of propofol 30 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.), and neuroapoptosis of hippocampal astrocytes was analyzed by immunofluorescence and scanning electron microscopy. The differential expression of rno-miR-665, BCL2L1 (Bcl-xl), and cleaved caspase 3 (CC3) was surveyed by qRT-PCR and western blotting. In addition, the utility of A-1155463, a highly potent and BCL2L1-selective antagonist, was aimed to assess the contribution of BCL2L1 for neuroglial survival. Following the intraventricular injection of lentivirus rno-miR-665, neuroprotection was detected by 5-point scale measurement. The single dose of propofol 30 mg/kg triggered dose-dependent apoptosis of developing hippocampal astrocytes. Meanwhile, propofol triggered both rno-miR-665 and CC3, and depressed BCL2L1, which was predicted as one target gene of rno-miR-665. Combination treatment with A-1155463 and propofol induced lower mRNA and protein levels of BCL2L1 and more CC3 activation than propofol treatment alone in vivo. The lentivirus-mediated knockdown of rno-miR-665 elevated BCL2L1 and attenuated CC3 levels, whereas up-regulation of rno-miR-665 suppressed BCL2L1 and induced CC3 expression in vivo. More importantly, rno-miR-665 antagomir infusion improved neurological outcomes of pups receiving propofol during the brain growth spurt. Rno-miR-665, providing a potential target for alternative therapeutics for pediatric anesthesia, is susceptible to propofol by negatively targeting antiapoptotic BCL2L1. Relatively little is known about the association between exposure of astrocytes to brief propofol

  10. BCL2L10 inhibits growth and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma both in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yun; Wang, Jia; Han, Jing; Xie, Xiao-Li; Ji, Cheng-Guang; Yin, Jie; Chen, Lei; Wang, Cun-Kai; Jiang, Xiao-Yu; Qi, Wei; Jiang, Hui-Qing

    2017-03-01

    BCL2L10 is an apoptosis-related member of the BCL-2 protein family. The role of BCL2L10 in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is poorly understood. This study was aimed to investigate the function and underlying mechanisms of BCL2L10 in HCC. BCL2L10 expression in human HCC and corresponding adjacent normal tissues was investigated by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot. The biological functions of BCL2L10 in HCC cell lines were determined by cell viability, colony formation, cell apoptosis, cell cycle, and cell metastasis assays, and in vivo by tumorigenicity and lung metastasis assays in nude mice. Human cancer pathway PCR array was employed to explore the genes regulated by BCL2L10 in HCC. BCL2L10 was down-regulated in human HCC tissues compared to their adjacent non-tumor tissues. Ectopic expression of BCL2L10 in HepG2 and Huh7 cells suppressed cell growth as evidenced by cell viability and colony formation assay, and induced cell apoptosis. HCC cells transfected with BCL2L10 revealed an increased cell proportion arrested at G2/M phase, concomitant with a reduction in the cell proportion in S-phase as compared with control cells. Additional, BCL2L10 repressed cell migration and angiogenesis. Over-expression of BCL2L10 also restrained the tumorigenecity and lung metastasis capacity in nude mice. The activation of JAK-STAT3 signaling was suppressed by BCL2L10 in HCC. BCL2L10 was down-regulated in human HCC tissues compared to adjacent normal tissues. BCL2L10 suppressed HCC progression through inhibiting cell growth and metastasis. Thus, BCL2L10 functions as a tumor-suppressor in HCC. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes promote cytarabine-induced acute myeloid leukemia cell apoptosis via inhibiting Bcl-2 expression

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Rui; Fan, Fang-Yi; Yi, Hai; Fu, Li; Zeng, Yan; Wang, Yi; Miao, Xiao-Juan; Shuai, Yan-Rong; He, Guang-Cui; Su, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains difficult to cure due to its drug tolerance and refractoriness. Immunotherapy is a growing area of cancer research, which has been applied for the treatment of numerous types of cancer, including leukemia. The present study generated AML cell-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in vitro and investigated the effect of combining CTL treatment with one of the most commonly used drugs for the treatment of hematological malignancies, cytarabine, on AML cell apoptosis. Firstly, it was observed that monocyte-depleted peripheral blood lymphocytes from healthy donors could be used to generate large numbers of CD3+CD8+ CTLs through immune stimulation. These CD3+CD8+ CTLs could effectively recognize and induce the apoptosis of human Kasumi-3 AML cells. In addition, cytarabine-induced AML cell apoptosis was enhanced by CTL treatment. Western blotting revealed that Bcl-2 expression was downregulated in AML cells following cytarabine and CTL treatment, indicating that the synergistic effect of this treatment on AML cell apoptosis is due to the downregulation of Bcl-2. These results highlight the potential application of CTL immunotherapy for the treatment of AML. Further studies optimizing the specificity and potency of CTLs, and identifying favorable combinations with other chemotherapeutic drug are required. PMID:28810561

  12. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes promote cytarabine-induced acute myeloid leukemia cell apoptosis via inhibiting Bcl-2 expression.

    PubMed

    Deng, Rui; Fan, Fang-Yi; Yi, Hai; Fu, Li; Zeng, Yan; Wang, Yi; Miao, Xiao-Juan; Shuai, Yan-Rong; He, Guang-Cui; Su, Yi

    2017-08-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains difficult to cure due to its drug tolerance and refractoriness. Immunotherapy is a growing area of cancer research, which has been applied for the treatment of numerous types of cancer, including leukemia. The present study generated AML cell-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in vitro and investigated the effect of combining CTL treatment with one of the most commonly used drugs for the treatment of hematological malignancies, cytarabine, on AML cell apoptosis. Firstly, it was observed that monocyte-depleted peripheral blood lymphocytes from healthy donors could be used to generate large numbers of CD3(+)CD8(+) CTLs through immune stimulation. These CD3(+)CD8(+) CTLs could effectively recognize and induce the apoptosis of human Kasumi-3 AML cells. In addition, cytarabine-induced AML cell apoptosis was enhanced by CTL treatment. Western blotting revealed that Bcl-2 expression was downregulated in AML cells following cytarabine and CTL treatment, indicating that the synergistic effect of this treatment on AML cell apoptosis is due to the downregulation of Bcl-2. These results highlight the potential application of CTL immunotherapy for the treatment of AML. Further studies optimizing the specificity and potency of CTLs, and identifying favorable combinations with other chemotherapeutic drug are required.

  13. Expression of Bcl-2 and Bax protein in normal pineal gland in children and young adult.

    PubMed

    Marcol, Wiesław; Kotulska, Katarzyna; Larysz-Brysz, Magdalena; Malinowska-Kołodziej, Izabela; Mandera, Marek; Lewin-Kowalik, Joanna

    2006-01-01

    The Bcl family contains both pro and antiapoptotic proteins participating in the regulation of neuronal cell death in several pathological conditions. However, very little is known about physiological profiles of Bcl-2/Bax expression in normal brain. In this study, we examined expression profile of Bcl-2 and Bax proteins in normal pineal gland in children. The material for analysis was obtained by biopsy of pineal parenchyma during surgery of pineal cysts. All specimens were labeled immunohistochemically and analyzed by means of confocal laser scanning microscope. We found only few Bcl-2 expressing (0.7%) and no Bax-immunopositive (0.0%) pinealocytes. Bcl-2-positive cells were mature neurons, neither young ones nor glia.

  14. A Potent and Highly Efficacious Bcl-2/Bcl-xL Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    McEachern, Donna; Yang, Chao-Yie; Meagher, Jennifer; Stuckey, Jeanne; Wang, Shaomeng

    2013-01-01

    Our previously reported Bcl-2/Bcl-xL inhibitor, 4, effectively inhibited tumor growth but failed to achieve complete regression in vivo. We have now performed extensive modifications on its pyrrole core structure, which has culminated in the discovery of 32 (BM-1074). Compound 32 binds to Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL proteins with Ki values of < 1 nM and inhibits cancer cell growth with IC50 values of 1-2 nM in four small-cell lung cancer cell lines sensitive to potent and specific Bcl-2/Bcl-xL inhibitors. Compound 32 is capable of achieving rapid, complete and durable tumor regression in vivo at a well-tolerated dose-schedule. Compound 32 is the most potent and efficacious Bcl-2/Bcl-xL inhibitor reported to date. PMID:23448298

  15. Bcl2 is not required for the development and maintenance of leukemia stem cells in mice

    PubMed Central

    González-Herrero, Inés; Vicente-Dueñas, Carolina; Orfao, Alberto; Flores, Teresa; Jiménez, Rafael; Cobaleda, César; Sánchez-García, Isidro

    2010-01-01

    The existence of leukemia stem cells (LSCs) responsible for tumor maintenance has been firmly established. Therefore, therapeutic targeting of these LSCs may have a profound impact on cancer eradication. The anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2 has been proposed as a therapeutic target, but its role in LSC biology has not been investigated. In order to understand the role of Bcl2 in LSC generation and maintenance, we have taken advantage of our Sca1-BCRABLp210 mouse model of human chronic myeloid leukemia and bcl2 gene-targeted mice. This study provides genetic evidence that the inhibition of Bcl2 is not critical for the generation, selection or maintenance of the tumor initiating and maintaining cells in mice. PMID:20299524

  16. Enforced BCL2 expression in B-lymphoid cells prolongs antibody responses and elicits autoimmune disease.

    PubMed Central

    Strasser, A; Whittingham, S; Vaux, D L; Bath, M L; Adams, J M; Cory, S; Harris, A W

    1991-01-01

    The biological functions of the BCL2 gene were investigated in transgenic mice harboring human BCL2 cDNA under the control of an immunoglobulin heavy chain enhancer (E mu). Mice of a representative transgenic strain, E mu-bcl-2-22, had a great excess of B lymphocytes, immunoglobulin-secreting cells, and serum immunoglobulins, attributable to increased longevity of B-lineage cells. Pre-B and plasma cells as well as B cells exhibited prolonged survival in culture. Immunized animals produced an amplified and protracted antibody response. Within the first year of life, most mice spontaneously produced antibodies to nuclear antigens, and 60% developed kidney disease, diagnosed as immune complex glomerulonephritis. Thus E mu-bcl-2-22 mice constitute a transgenic model for a systemic autoimmune disease resembling the human disorder systemic lupus erythematosus. Images PMID:1924327

  17. Cross talk between cell death and cell cycle progression: BCL-2 regulates NFAT-mediated activation.

    PubMed Central

    Linette, G P; Li, Y; Roth, K; Korsmeyer, S J

    1996-01-01

    BCL-2-deficient T cells demonstrate accelerated cell cycle progression and increased apoptosis following activation. Increasing the levels of BCL-2 retarded the G0-->S transition, sustained the levels of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1, and repressed postactivation death. Proximal signal transduction events and immediate early gene transcription were unaffected. However, the transcription and synthesis of interleukin 2 and other delayed early cytokines were markedly attenuated by BCL-2. In contrast, a cysteine protease inhibitor that also blocks apoptosis had no substantial affect upon cytokine production. InterleUkin 2 expression requires several transcription factors of which nuclear translocation of NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T cells) and NFAT-mediated transactivation were impaired by BCL-2. Thus, select genetic aberrations in the apoptotic pathway reveal a cell autonomous coregulation of activation. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 7 PMID:8790367

  18. Bcl-2/Bax protein and mRNA expression in yak (Bos grunniens) placentomes.

    PubMed

    Fan, JiangFeng; Yu, SiJiu; Cui, Yan; Xu, Gengquan; Wang, Libin; Pan, Yangyang; He, Honghong

    2017-07-29

    Placental function is complex and influenced by various factors; furthermore, it depends on a delicate balance between cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and cell death. Bcl-2 and Bax proteins are key apoptosis regulators and are considered to play an important role in the maintenance of both dynamic balance and integrity of many tissues. Changes in Bcl-2 and Bax expressions have been described during different developmental stages in normal human placentas. Studies furthermore indicated several pathological placental changes to be related to abnormal Bcl-2 and Bax expressions. In the present study, we investigated both expression and distribution of Bcl-2 and Bax in yak placentas. For this, we collected placentas of 35 yaks at different stages of pregnancy as well as cotyledonary villi of four postpartum yaks. Protein and mRNA expressions of both Bcl-2 and Bax were investigated via immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and real-time PCR. Immunoreactive Bcl-2 protein was mainly localized near the fetal villous trophoblast at various gestational stages and post-partum. The Positive Index (PI) of Bcl-2 protein expression significantly decreased with increasing gestational age. Early during pregnancy (≤2 months), the Bax protein was widely distributed in the fetal villous trophoblast layer, the maternal caruncular crypt epithelium, and the stroma. Subsequently, the Bax protein distribution gradually concentrated in the fetal villous trophoblast layer. The staining intensity of Bax increased from the 3rd month to the prepartum of gestation. The PI reached a minimum of 9.4 ± 2.2 in fetal chorionic villi (FCV) and 1.3 ± 0.8 in maternal caruncular crypts (MCC) of the three months group. Both Bcl-2 and Bax had maximum immunoreactivity in the fetal villous trophoblast layer of placentas collected form postpartum yaks (with PIs of 36.6 ± 5.7 and 38.2 ± 4.8, respectively). Protein and mRNA expression of Bcl-2 and Bax investigated via Western blot and real

  19. Regulatory effect of Bcl-2 in ultraviolet radiation-induced apoptosis of the mouse crystalline lens

    PubMed Central

    DONG, YUCHEN; ZHENG, YAJUAN; XIAO, JUN; ZHU, CHAO; ZHAO, MEISHENG

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the role of Bcl-2 during the process of apoptosis in the mouse crystalline lens. In total, 12 normal mice served as the control group and 12 Bcl-2 knockout (K.O) mice served as the experimental group. The mouse crystalline lens was sampled for the detection of Bcl-2 and caspase-3 expression following exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used to determine Bcl-2 expression in the groups of normal mice receiving UV radiation or not receiving UV radiation. Samples of the murine crystalline lens were microscopically harvested and analyzed using western blotting. Apoptosis was detected using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Furthermore, caspase 3 activity was examined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits, and RT-qPCR was used to analyze caspase-3 expression levels. The results of the present study demonstrated that there was no statistically significant difference in the level of Bcl-2 gene transcription between the two groups. In addition, UV radiation did not change the macrostructure of the crystalline lens in the group of normal mice or the group of Bcl-2 K.O mice. The results of the TUNEL assay indicated that the normal-UV group exhibited a more significant apoptosis level compared with the Bcl-2 K.O-UV group. Furthermore, the mRNA expression level of caspase-3 in the normal-UV group was significantly higher compared with the normal-nonUV group (P<0.05), while the levels in the Bcl-2 K.O-UV group were significantly higher compared with the Bcl-2 K.O and normal-nonUV groups (P<0.05). In addition, the mRNA expression level of caspase-3 was significantly higher in the normal-UV, as compared with the Bcl-2 K.O-UV group (P<0.05), and the variation trends in caspase-3 activity were consistent. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that Bcl-2 may have an important role in the

  20. Methioninase gene therapy with selenomethionine induces apoptosis in bcl-2-overproducing lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Norio; Gupta, Anshu; Xu, Mingxu; Miki, Kenji; Tsujimoto, Yoshihide; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Tomita, Katsuro; Moossa, A R; Hoffman, R M

    2003-06-01

    We have previously shown that the toxic pro-oxidant methylselenol is released from selenomethionine (SeMET) by cancer cells transformed with the adenoviral methionine alpha,gamma-lyase (methioninase, MET) gene cloned from Pseudomonas putida. Methylselenol damaged the mitochondria via oxidative stress, and caused cytochrome c release into the cytosol thereby activating caspase enzymes and thereby apoptosis. However, gene therapy strategies are less effective if tumor cells overexpress the antiapoptotic mitochondrial protein bcl-2. In this study, we investigated whether rAdMET/SeMET was effective against bcl-2-overproducing A549 lung cancer cells. We established two clones of the human lung cancer A549 cell line that show moderate and high expression levels of bcl-2, respectively, compared to the parent cell line, which has very low bcl-2 expression. Staurosporine-induced apoptosis was inhibited in the bcl-2-overproducing clones as well as in the parental cell line. In contrast to staurosporine, apoptosis was induced in the bcl-2-overproducing clones as well as the parental cell line by AdMET/SeMET. Apoptosis in the rAdMET-SeMET-treated cells was determined by fragmentation of nuclei, and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to the cytosol. A strong bystander effect of AdMET/SeMET was observed on A549 cells as well as the bcl-2-overproducing clones. rAdMET/SeMET prodrug gene therapy is therefore a promising novel strategy effective against bcl-2 overexpression, which has blocked other gene therapy strategies.

  1. Quantification of protein copy number in single mitochondria: The Bcl-2 family proteins.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chaoxiang; Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Shuyue; Zhu, Shaobin; Xu, Jingyi; Zheng, Yan; Han, Jinyan; Zeng, Jin-Zhang; Yan, Xiaomei

    2015-12-15

    Bcl-2 family proteins, represented by antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and proapoptotic protein Bax, are key regulators of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway. To build a quantitative model of how Bcl-2 family protein interactions control mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization and subsequent cytochrome c release, it is essential to know the number of proteins in individual mitochondria. Here, we report an effective method to quantify the copy number and distribution of proteins in single mitochondria via immunofluorescent labeling and sensitive detection by a laboratory-built high sensitivity flow cytometer (HSFCM). Mitochondria isolated from HeLa cells were stained with Alexa Fluor 488 (AF488)-labeled monoclonal antibodies specifically targeting Bcl-2 or Bax and with nucleic acid dye. A series of fluorescent nanospheres with fluorescence intensity calibrated in the unit of molecules of equivalent soluble fluorochrome (MESF)-AF488 were used to construct a calibration curve for converting the immunofluorescence of a single mitochondrion to the number of antibodies bound to it and then to the number of proteins per mitochondrion. Under the normal condition, the measured mean copy numbers were 1300 and 220 per mitochondrion for Bcl-2 and Bax, respectively. A significant variation in protein copy number was identified, which ranged from 130 to 6000 (2.5-97.5%) for Bcl-2 and from 65 to 700 (2.5-97.5%) for Bax, respectively. We observed an approximately 4.4 fold increase of Bax copy number per mitochondrion upon 9h of apoptosis stimulation while the abundance of Bcl-2 remained almost unchanged. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of Bcl-2 family protein copy number and variance in single mitochondria. Collectively, we demonstrate that the HSFCM-based immunoassay provides a rapid and sensitive method for determining protein copy number distribution in single mitochondria.

  2. Expression of COX-2 and Bcl-2 in primary fallopian tube carcinoma: correlations with clinicopathologic features.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Sun, Guo-Ping; Zou, Yan-Feng; Wu, Qiang; Wu, Hong-Yang; Wu, Ji-Feng; Zhou, Jia-De; Chen, Ke; Zhang, Xiu-Shan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of COX-2 and Bcl-2 in primary fallopian tube carcinoma (PFTC), as well as their correlations with clinicopathologic features. We studied a cohort of 33 patients with a pathological diagnosis of PFTC. Thirty normal tubal tissues used for controls were obtained from patients diagnosed with uterine myomas. Expression analysis for COX-2 and Bcl-2 was performed using the immunohistochemical technique. The rate of preoperative diagnosis was 18.2%. With a median survival of 61.0 months (95% CI: 43.2 to 78.8 months), the estimated five-year overall survival rate in the 33 patients was 39.0%. Increased expression of COX-2 and Bcl-2 was observed in tumor specimens compared to normal controls (p = 0.026; p = 0.003). The expression rate of COX-2 in node-positive tumors was significantly higher than that of node-negative tumors (p = 0.024). Moreover, the expression rate of COX-2 was statistically significantly higher in patients with infiltration through the serosa (p = 0.019). Positive significant associations were observed between Bcl-2 staining index and FIGO stage (p = 0.015), and between Bcl-2 staining and lymph node metastasis (p = 0.010). There was a significant correlation between COX-2 expression and Bcl-2 staining index (r = 0.517, p = 0.002). We conclude that COX-2 and Bcl-2 may potentially be useful prognostic markers for PFTC. The exact molecular mechanism for correlations between COX-2 and Bcl-2 remains to be elucidated.

  3. Bcl-2 promotes malignant progression in a PDGF-B-dependent murine model of oligodendroglioma

    PubMed Central

    Doucette, Tiffany; Fuller, Gregory N.; Yang, Yuhui; Suki, Dima; Zhang, Wei; Fults, Daniel W.

    2011-01-01

    A significant subset of gliomas arises after activation of the pro-proliferative platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) pathway. The progression of low-grade gliomas to more malignant tumors may be due to oncogenic cellular programs combining with those suppressing apoptosis. Anti-apoptotic genes are overexpressed in a variety of cancers and the anti-apoptotic gene, BCL2, is associated with treatment resistance and tumor recurrence in gliomas. However, the impact of anti-apoptotic gene expression to tumor formation and progression is unclear. We overexpressed Bcl-2 in a PDGFB-dependent mouse model of oligodendroglioma, a common glioma subtype, to assess its effect in vivo. We hypothesized that the anti-apoptotic effect would complement the pro-proliferative effect of PDGFB to promote tumor formation and progression to anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO). Here, we show that co-expression of PDGFB and Bcl-2 results in a higher overall tumor formation rate compared to PDGFB alone. Co-expression of PDGFB and Bcl-2 promotes progression to AO with prominent foci of necrosis, a feature of high-grade gliomas. Median tumor latency was shorter in mice injected with PDGFB and Bcl-2 compared to those injected with PDGFB alone. Although independent expression of Bcl-2 was insufficient to induce tumors, suppression of apoptosis (detected by cleaved caspase-3 expression) was more pronounced in AOs induced by PDGFB and Bcl-2 compared to those induced by PDGFB alone. Tumor cell proliferation (detected by phosphohistone H3 activity) was also more robust in high-grade tumors induced by PDGFB and Bcl-2. Our results indicate that suppressed apoptosis enhances oligodendroglioma formation and engenders a more malignant phenotype. PMID:21171016

  4. MYC/BCL2 protein coexpression contributes to the inferior survival of activated B-cell subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and demonstrates high-risk gene expression signatures: a report from The International DLBCL Rituximab-CHOP Consortium Program

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shimin; Xu-Monette, Zijun Y.; Tzankov, Alexander; Green, Tina; Wu, Lin; Balasubramanyam, Aarthi; Liu, Wei-min; Visco, Carlo; Li, Yong; Miranda, Roberto N.; Montes-Moreno, Santiago; Dybkaer, Karen; Chiu, April; Orazi, Attilio; Zu, Youli; Bhagat, Govind; Richards, Kristy L.; Hsi, Eric D.; Choi, William W. L.; Zhao, Xiaoying; van Krieken, J. Han; Huang, Qin; Huh, Jooryung; Ai, Weiyun; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Ferreri, Andrés J. M.; Zhou, Fan; Slack, Graham W.; Gascoyne, Randy D.; Tu, Meifeng; Variakojis, Daina; Chen, Weina; Go, Ronald S.; Piris, Miguel A.; Møller, Michael B.; Medeiros, L. Jeffrey; Young, Ken H.

    2013-01-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is stratified into prognostically favorable germinal center B-cell (GCB)–like and unfavorable activated B-cell (ABC)–like subtypes based on gene expression signatures. In this study, we analyzed 893 de novo DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone). We show that MYC/BCL2 protein coexpression occurred significantly more commonly in the ABC subtype. Patients with the ABC or GCB subtype of DLBCL had similar prognoses with MYC/BCL2 coexpression and without MYC/BCL2 coexpression. Consistent with the notion that the prognostic difference between the 2 subtypes is attributable to MYC/BCL2 coexpression, there is no difference in gene expression signatures between the 2 subtypes in the absence of MYC/BCL2 coexpression. DLBCL with MYC/BCL2 coexpression demonstrated a signature of marked downregulation of genes encoding extracellular matrix proteins, those involving matrix deposition/remodeling and cell adhesion, and upregulation of proliferation-associated genes. We conclude that MYC/BCL2 coexpression in DLBCL is associated with an aggressive clinical course, is more common in the ABC subtype, and contributes to the overall inferior prognosis of patients with ABC-DLBCL. In conclusion, the data suggest that MYC/BCL2 coexpression, rather than cell-of-origin classification, is a better predictor of prognosis in patients with DLBCL treated with R-CHOP. PMID:23449635

  5. MYC/BCL2 protein coexpression contributes to the inferior survival of activated B-cell subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and demonstrates high-risk gene expression signatures: a report from The International DLBCL Rituximab-CHOP Consortium Program.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shimin; Xu-Monette, Zijun Y; Tzankov, Alexander; Green, Tina; Wu, Lin; Balasubramanyam, Aarthi; Liu, Wei-min; Visco, Carlo; Li, Yong; Miranda, Roberto N; Montes-Moreno, Santiago; Dybkaer, Karen; Chiu, April; Orazi, Attilio; Zu, Youli; Bhagat, Govind; Richards, Kristy L; Hsi, Eric D; Choi, William W L; Zhao, Xiaoying; van Krieken, J Han; Huang, Qin; Huh, Jooryung; Ai, Weiyun; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Ferreri, Andrés J M; Zhou, Fan; Slack, Graham W; Gascoyne, Randy D; Tu, Meifeng; Variakojis, Daina; Chen, Weina; Go, Ronald S; Piris, Miguel A; Møller, Michael B; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Young, Ken H

    2013-05-16

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is stratified into prognostically favorable germinal center B-cell (GCB)-like and unfavorable activated B-cell (ABC)-like subtypes based on gene expression signatures. In this study, we analyzed 893 de novo DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone). We show that MYC/BCL2 protein coexpression occurred significantly more commonly in the ABC subtype. Patients with the ABC or GCB subtype of DLBCL had similar prognoses with MYC/BCL2 coexpression and without MYC/BCL2 coexpression. Consistent with the notion that the prognostic difference between the 2 subtypes is attributable to MYC/BCL2 coexpression, there is no difference in gene expression signatures between the 2 subtypes in the absence of MYC/BCL2 coexpression. DLBCL with MYC/BCL2 coexpression demonstrated a signature of marked downregulation of genes encoding extracellular matrix proteins, those involving matrix deposition/remodeling and cell adhesion, and upregulation of proliferation-associated genes. We conclude that MYC/BCL2 coexpression in DLBCL is associated with an aggressive clinical course, is more common in the ABC subtype, and contributes to the overall inferior prognosis of patients with ABC-DLBCL. In conclusion, the data suggest that MYC/BCL2 coexpression, rather than cell-of-origin classification, is a better predictor of prognosis in patients with DLBCL treated with R-CHOP.

  6. Methylation of CpG sites in BCL2 major breakpoint region and the increase of BCL2/JH translocation with aging.

    PubMed

    Martin-Guerrero, Idoia; de Prado, Elena; Ardanaz, Maite; Martin-Arruti, Maialen; Garcia-Orad, Cristina; Guerra, Isabel; Ruiz, Irune; Zabalza, Iñaki; Garcia-Orad, Africa

    2015-10-01

    The BCL2 breakage mechanism has been shown to be highly dependent on DNA methylation at the major breakpoint region (MBR) CpG sites. We recently described an increased frequency of BCL2/ JH translocation with aging. It is known that methylation levels change with aging. The present study aimed to determine whether methylation alterations at CpG sites of BCL2 MBR were the cause of increased breakages with aging. We analyzed the methylation levels of three CpG sites on the region by pyrosequencing and studied if methylation levels and/or polymorphisms affecting CpG sites were associated with an increase of translocations. We observed that although the methylation levels of MBR CpG sites were higher in individuals with BCL2/JH translocation, in contrast to our expectations, these levels decreased with the age. Moreover, we show that polymorphisms at those CpG sites leading to absence of methylation seem to be a protective factor for the apparition of translocations.

  7. MLL-Rearranged Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemias Activate BCL-2 through H3K79 Methylation and Are Sensitive to the BCL-2-Specific Antagonist ABT-199.

    PubMed

    Benito, Juliana M; Godfrey, Laura; Kojima, Kensuke; Hogdal, Leah; Wunderlich, Mark; Geng, Huimin; Marzo, Isabel; Harutyunyan, Karine G; Golfman, Leonard; North, Phillip; Kerry, Jon; Ballabio, Erica; Chonghaile, Triona Ní; Gonzalo, Oscar; Qiu, Yihua; Jeremias, Irmela; Debose, LaKiesha; O'Brien, Eric; Ma, Helen; Zhou, Ping; Jacamo, Rodrigo; Park, Eugene; Coombes, Kevin R; Zhang, Nianxiang; Thomas, Deborah A; O'Brien, Susan; Kantarjian, Hagop M; Leverson, Joel D; Kornblau, Steven M; Andreeff, Michael; Müschen, Markus; Zweidler-McKay, Patrick A; Mulloy, James C; Letai, Anthony; Milne, Thomas A; Konopleva, Marina

    2015-12-29

    Targeted therapies designed to exploit specific molecular pathways in aggressive cancers are an exciting area of current research. Mixed Lineage Leukemia (MLL) mutations such as the t(4;11) translocation cause aggressive leukemias that are refractory to conventional treatment. The t(4;11) translocation produces an MLL/AF4 fusion protein that activates key target genes through both epigenetic and transcriptional elongation mechanisms. In this study, we show that t(4;11) patient cells express high levels of BCL-2 and are highly sensitive to treatment with the BCL-2-specific BH3 mimetic ABT-199. We demonstrate that MLL/AF4 specifically upregulates the BCL-2 gene but not other BCL-2 family members via DOT1L-mediated H3K79me2/3. We use this information to show that a t(4;11) cell line is sensitive to a combination of ABT-199 and DOT1L inhibitors. In addition, ABT-199 synergizes with standard induction-type therapy in a xenotransplant model, advocating for the introduction of ABT-199 into therapeutic regimens for MLL-rearranged leukemias. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. MLL-Rearranged Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemias Activate BCL-2 through H3K79 Methylation and Are Sensitive to the BCL-2-Specific Antagonist ABT-199

    PubMed Central

    Benito, Juliana M.; Godfrey, Laura; Kojima, Kensuke; Hogdal, Leah; Wunderlich, Mark; Geng, Huimin; Marzo, Isabel; Harutyunyan, Karine G.; Golfman, Leonard; North, Phillip; Kerry, Jon; Ballabio, Erica; Chonghaile, Triona Ní; Gonzalo, Oscar; Qiu, Yihua; Jeremias, Irmela; Debose, LaKiesha; O’Brien, Eric; Ma, Helen; Zhou, Ping; Jacamo, Rodrigo; Park, Eugene; Coombes, Kevin R.; Zhang, Nianxiang; Thomas, Deborah A.; O’Brien, Susan; Kantarjian, Hagop M.; Leverson, Joel D.; Kornblau, Steven M.; Andreeff, Michael; Müschen, Markus; Zweidler-McKay, Patrick A.; Mulloy, James C.; Letai, Anthony; Milne, Thomas A.; Konopleva, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Summary Targeted therapies designed to exploit specific molecular pathways in aggressive cancers are an exciting area of current research. Mixed Lineage Leukemia (MLL) mutations such as the t(4;11) translocation cause aggressive leukemias that are refractory to conventional treatment. The t(4;11) translocation produces an MLL/AF4 fusion protein that activates key target genes through both epigenetic and transcriptional elongation mechanisms. In this study, we show that t(4;11) patient cells express high levels of BCL-2 and are highly sensitive to treatment with the BCL-2-specific BH3 mimetic ABT-199. We demonstrate that MLL/AF4 specifically upregulates the BCL-2 gene but not other BCL-2 family members via DOT1L-mediated H3K79me2/3. We use this information to show that a t(4;11) cell line is sensitive to a combination of ABT-199 and DOT1L inhibitors. In addition, ABT-199 synergizes with standard induction-type therapy in a xenotransplant model, advocating for the introduction of ABT-199 into therapeutic regimens for MLL-rearranged leukemias. PMID:26711339

  9. IRBIT controls apoptosis by interacting with the Bcl-2 homolog, Bcl2l10, and by promoting ER-mitochondria contact

    PubMed Central

    Bonneau, Benjamin; Ando, Hideaki; Kawaai, Katsuhiro; Hirose, Matsumi; Takahashi-Iwanaga, Hiromi; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    IRBIT is a molecule that interacts with the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-binding pocket of the IP3 receptor (IP3R), whereas the antiapoptotic protein, Bcl2l10, binds to another part of the IP3-binding domain. Here we show that Bcl2l10 and IRBIT interact and exert an additive inhibition of IP3R in the physiological state. Moreover, we found that these proteins associate in a complex in mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs) and that their interplay is involved in apoptosis regulation. MAMs are a hotspot for Ca2+ transfer between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria, and massive Ca2+ release through IP3R in mitochondria induces cell death. We found that upon apoptotic stress, IRBIT is dephosphorylated, becoming an inhibitor of Bcl2l10. Moreover, IRBIT promotes ER mitochondria contact. Our results suggest that by inhibiting Bcl2l10 activity and promoting contact between ER and mitochondria, IRBIT facilitates massive Ca2+ transfer to mitochondria and promotes apoptosis. This work then describes IRBIT as a new regulator of cell death. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19896.001 PMID:27995898

  10. FBXO10 deficiency and BTK activation upregulate BCL2 expression in mantle cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Y; Bouchlaka, MN; Wolff, J; Grindle, KM; Lu, L; Qian, S; Zhong, X; Pflum, N; Jobin, P; Kahl, BS; Eickhoff, JC; Wuerzberger-Davis, SM; Miyamoto, S; Thomas, CJ; Yang, DT; Capitini, CM; Rui, L

    2016-01-01

    Targeting Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) by ibrutinib is an effective treatment for patients with relapsed/refractory mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). However, both primary and acquired resistance to ibrutinib have developed in a significant number of these patients. A combinatory strategy targeting multiple oncogenic pathways is critical to enhance the efficacy of ibrutinib. Here, we focus on the BCL2 anti-apoptotic pathway. In a tissue microarray of 62 MCL samples, BCL2 expression positively correlated with BTK expression. Increased levels of BCL2 were shown to be due to a defect in protein degradation because of no or little expression of the E3 ubiquitin ligase FBXO10, as well as transcriptional upregulation through BTK-mediated canonical nuclear factor-κB activation. RNA-seq analysis confirmed that a set of anti-apoptotic genes (for example, BCL2, BCL-XL and DAD1) was downregulated by BTK short hairpin RNA. The downregulated genes also included those that are critical for B-cell growth and proliferation, such as BCL6, MYC, PIK3CA and BAFF-R. Targeting BCL2 by the specific inhibitor ABT-199 synergized with ibrutinib in inhibiting growth of both ibrutinib-sensitive and -resistant cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest co-targeting of BTK and BCL2 as a new therapeutic strategy in MCL, especially for patients with primary resistance to ibrutinib. PMID:27157620

  11. Bcl-2 Inhibits the Innate Immune Response during Early Pathogenesis of Murine Congenital Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Jeudy, Sheila; Wardrop, Katherine E.; Alessi, Amy; Dominov, Janice A.

    2011-01-01

    Laminin α2 (LAMA2)-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy is a severe, early-onset disease caused by abnormal levels of laminin 211 in the basal lamina leading to muscle weakness, transient inflammation, muscle degeneration and impaired mobility. In a Lama2-deficient mouse model for this disease, animal survival is improved by muscle-specific expression of the apoptosis inhibitor Bcl-2, conferred by a MyoD-hBcl-2 transgene. Here we investigated early disease stages in this model to determine initial pathological events and effects of Bcl-2 on their progression. Using quantitative immunohistological and mRNA analyses we show that inflammation occurs very early in Lama2-deficient muscle, some aspects of which are reduced or delayed by the MyoD-hBcl-2 transgene. mRNAs for innate immune response regulators, including multiple Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and the inflammasome component NLRP3, are elevated in diseased muscle compared with age-matched controls expressing Lama2. MyoD-hBcl-2 inhibits induction of TLR4, TLR6, TLR7, TLR8 and TLR9 in Lama2-deficient muscle compared with non-transgenic controls, and leads to reduced infiltration of eosinophils, which are key death effector cells. This congenital disease model provides a new paradigm for investigating cell death mechanisms during early stages of pathogenesis, demonstrating that interactions exist between Bcl-2, a multifunctional regulator of cell survival, and the innate immune response. PMID:21850221

  12. Bcl-2high mantle cell lymphoma cells are sensitized to acadesine with ABT-199

    PubMed Central

    Montraveta, Arnau; Xargay-Torrent, Sílvia; Rosich, Laia; López-Guerra, Mònica; Roldán, Jocabed; Rodríguez, Vanina; Lee-Vergés, Eriong; de Frías, Mercè; Campàs, Clara; Campo, Elias; Roué, Gaël; Colomer, Dolors

    2015-01-01

    Acadesine is a nucleoside analogue with known activity against B-cell malignancies. Herein, we showed that in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) cells acadesine induced caspase-dependent apoptosis through turning on the mitochondrial apoptotic machinery. At the molecular level, the compound triggered the activation of the AMPK pathway, consequently modulating known downstream targets, such as mTOR and the cell motility-related vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP). VASP phosphorylation by acadesine was concomitant with a blockade of CXCL12-induced migration. The inhibition of the mTOR cascade by acadesine, committed MCL cells to enter in apoptosis by a translational downregulation of the antiapoptotic Mcl-1 protein. In contrast, Bcl-2 protein levels were unaffected by acadesine and MCL samples expressing high levels of Bcl-2 tended to have a reduced response to the drug. Targeting Bcl-2 with the selective BH3-mimetic agent ABT-199 sensitized Bcl-2 high MCL cells to acadesine. This effect was validated in vivo, where the combination of both agents displayed a more marked inhibition of tumor outgrowth than each drug alone. These findings support the notions that antiapoptotic proteins of the Bcl-2 family regulate MCL cell sensitivity to acadesine and that the combination of this agent with Bcl-2 inhibitors might be an interesting therapeutic option to treat MCL patients. PMID:26110568

  13. BCL2-BH4 antagonist BDA-366 suppresses human myeloma growth

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Jiusheng; Park, Dongkyoo; Wang, Mengchang; Nooka, Ajay; Deng, Qiaoya; Matulis, Shannon; Kaufman, Jonathan; Lonial, Sagar; Boise, Lawrence H.; Galipeau, Jacques; Deng, Xingming

    2016-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a heterogeneous plasma cell malignancy and remains incurable. B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL2) protein correlates with the survival and the drug resistance of myeloma cells. BH3 mimetics have been developed to disrupt the binding between BCL2 and its pro-apoptotic BCL2 family partners for the treatment of MM, but with limited therapeutic efficacy. We recently identified a small molecule BDA-366 as a BCL2 BH4 domain antagonist, converting it from an anti-apoptotic into a pro-apoptotic molecule. In this study, we demonstrated that BDA-366 induces robust apoptosis in MM cell lines and primary MM cells by inducing BCL2 conformational change. Delivery of BDA-366 substantially suppressed the growth of human MM xenografts in NOD-scid/IL2Rγnull mice, without significant cytotoxic effects on normal hematopoietic cells or body weight. Thus, BDA-366 functions as a novel BH4-based BCL2 inhibitor and offers an entirely new tool for MM therapy. PMID:27049723

  14. Inducible functional expression of Bcl-2 in human astrocytes derived from NTera-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Ozdener, Hakan

    2007-01-15

    Astrocytes provide structural support for neurons and may also play important roles in both neuroprotection and neurodegeneration. We, here report that human astrocytes derived from on NTera-2 (NT2) cell line expressing a functional anti-apoptotic protein bcl-2 under the control of a tetracycline responsive promoter using the Tet-On and Tet-Off expression systems. NT2 cells were transfected with the Tet On or Tet Off vectors followed by pTRE carrying human bcl-2. Drug resistant cells were differentiated into astrocytes under retinoic acid exposure. These astrocyte lines were found to express astrocyte specific markers such glial fibrillary acidic protein and chemokine receptors (CCR5, CXCR4) but not CCR3 and CD4. Furthermore, NT2 astrocytes expressing bcl-2 showed rapid response to doxycycline presence in the Tet On and Tet off system. The inducible expression of bcl-2 was found to be tightly regulated by doxycycline concentration in the NT2 astrocytes. We also showed that the induction of bcl-2 expression prevented NT2 astrocytes from camptothecin-induced cellular damage. These results indicate that this system may be useful for the study of specific effects of bcl-2 gene expression on astrocyte function(s) and cellular damage.

  15. Oxidative stress-mediated down-regulation of bcl-2 promoter in hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Pugazhenthi, Subbiah; Nesterova, Albina; Jambal, Purevsuren; Audesirk, Gerald; Kern, Marcey; Cabell, Leigh; Eves, Eva; Rosner, Marsha R; Boxer, Linda M; Reusch, Jane E-B

    2003-03-01

    Generation of oxidative stress/reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the causes of neuronal apoptosis. We have examined the effects of ROS at the transcriptional level in an immortalized hippocampal neuronal cell line (H19-7) and in rat primary hippocampal neurons. Treatment of H19-7 cells with hydrogen peroxide (150 micro m) resulted in a 40% decrease in Bcl-2 protein and a parallel decrease in bcl-2 mRNA levels. H19-7 cells overexpressing bcl-2 were found to be resistant to ROS-induced apoptosis. We had previously shown that bcl-2 promoter activity is positively regulated by the transcription factor cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) in neurons. In the present study, we demonstrate that ROS decreases the activity of luciferase reporter gene driven by a cyclic AMP response element site containing bcl-2 promoter. Exposure of neurons to ROS for 6 h resulted in basal and fibroblast growth factor-2-stimulated phosphorylation/activation of CREB. Chronic 24 h treatment with ROS led to a significant (p < 0.01) decrease in CREB protein and CREB mRNA levels. Adenoviral overexpression of wild type CREB in H19-7 cells resulted in significant (p < 0.01) protection against ROS-induced apoptosis through up-regulation of Bcl-2 expression whereas dominant negative CREB exaggerated the injury. These findings demonstrate that loss of CREB function contributes to oxidative stress-induced neuronal dysfunction.

  16. A plant Bcl-2-associated athanogene is proteolytically activated to confer fungal resistance

    PubMed Central

    Kabbage, Mehdi; Kessens, Ryan; Dickman, Martin B.

    2016-01-01

    The Bcl-2-associated athanogene (BAG) family is a multifunctional group of proteins involved in numerous cellular functions ranging from apoptosis to tumorigenesis. These proteins are evolutionarily conserved and encode a characteristic region known as the BAG domain. BAGs function as adapter proteins forming complexes with signaling molecules and molecular chaperones. In humans, a role for BAG proteins has been suggested in tumor growth, HIV infection, and neurodegenerative diseases; as a result, the BAGs are attractive targets for therapeutic interventions, and their expression in cells may serve as a predictive tool for disease development. The Arabidopsis genome contains seven homologs of BAG family proteins (Figure 1), including four with a domain organization similar to animal BAGs (BAG1-4). The remaining three members (BAG5-7) contain a predicted calmodulin-binding motif near the BAG domain, a feature unique to plant BAG proteins that possibly reflects divergent mechanisms associated with plant-specific functions. As reported for animal BAGs, plant BAGs also regulate several stress and developmental processes (Figure 2). The recent article by Li et al. focuses on the role of BAG6 in plant innate immunity. This study shows that BAG6 plays a key role in basal plant defense against fungal pathogens. Importantly, this work further shows that BAG6 is proteolytically activated to induce autophagic cell death and resistance in plants. This finding underscores the importance of proteases in the execution of plant cell death, yet little is known about proteases and their substrates in plants. PMID:28358147

  17. BCL-2 inhibition with ABT-737 prolongs survival in an NRAS/BCL-2 mouse model of AML by targeting primitive LSK and progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Beurlet, Stephanie; Omidvar, Nader; Gorombei, Petra; Krief, Patricia; Le Pogam, Carole; Setterblad, Niclas; de la Grange, Pierre; Leboeuf, Christophe; Janin, Anne; Noguera, Maria-Elena; Hervatin, Florence; Sarda-Mantel, Laure; Konopleva, Marina; Andreeff, Michael; Tu, Andrea W.; Fan, Alice C.; Felsher, Dean W.; Whetton, Anthony; Pla, Marika; West, Robert; Fenaux, Pierre; Chomienne, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) transforms into an acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) with associated increased bone marrow (BM) blast infiltration. Using a transgenic mouse model, MRP8[NRASD12/hBCL-2], in which the NRAS:BCL-2 complex at the mitochondria induces MDS progressing to AML with dysplastic features, we studied the therapeutic potential of a BCL-2 homology domain 3 mimetic inhibitor, ABT-737. Treatment significantly extended lifespan, increased survival of lethally irradiated secondary recipients transplanted with cells from treated mice compared with cells from untreated mice, with a reduction of BM blasts, Lin-/Sca-1+/c-Kit+, and progenitor populations by increased apoptosis of infiltrating blasts of diseased mice assessed in vivo by technicium-labeled annexin V single photon emission computed tomography and ex vivo by annexin V/7-amino actinomycin D flow cytometry, terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling, caspase 3 cleavage, and re-localization of the NRAS:BCL-2 complex from mitochondria to plasma membrane. Phosphoprotein analysis showed restoration of wild-type (WT) AKT or protein kinase B, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and mitogen-activated protein kinase patterns in spleen cells after treatment, which showed reduced mitochondrial membrane potential. Exon specific gene expression profiling corroborates the reduction of leukemic cells, with an increase in expression of genes coding for stem cell development and maintenance, myeloid differentiation, and apoptosis. Myelodysplastic features persist underscoring targeting of BCL-2-mediated effects on MDS–AML transformation and survival of leukemic cells. PMID:23943652

  18. BAX and BAK1 are dispensable for ABT-737-induced dissociation of the BCL2-BECN1 complex and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Pedro, Jose Manuel Bravo-San; Wei, Yongjie; Sica, Valentina; Maiuri, Maria Chiara; Zou, Zhongju; Kroemer, Guido; Levine, Beth

    2015-01-01

    Disruption of the complex of BECN1 with BCL2 or BCL2L1/BCL-XL is an essential switch that turns on cellular autophagy in response to environmental stress or treatment with BH3 peptidomimetics. Recently, it has been proposed that BCL2 and BCL2L1/BCL-XL may inhibit autophagy indirectly through a mechanism dependent on the proapoptotic BCL2 family members, BAX and BAK1. Here we report that the BH3 mimetic, ABT-737, induces autophagy in parallel with disruption of BCL2-BECN1 binding in 2 different apoptosis-deficient cell types lacking BAX and BAK1, namely in mouse embryonic fibroblasts cells and in human colon cancer HCT116 cells. We conclude that the BH3 mimetic ABT-737 induces autophagy through a BAX and BAK1-independent mechanism that likely involves disruption of BECN1 binding to antiapoptotic BCL2 family members.

  19. Aspirin-induced Bcl-2 translocation and its phosphorylation in the nucleus trigger apoptosis in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Bo-Hwa; Chakraborty, Goutam; Baek, Kwanghee; Yoon, Ho Sup

    2013-10-11

    Here, we report that B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) is a novel target molecule of aspirin in breast cancer cells. Aspirin influenced the formation of a complex by Bcl-2 and FKBP38 and induced the nuclear translocation of Bcl-2 and its phosphorylation. These events inhibited cancer cell proliferation and subsequently enhanced MCF-7 breast cancer cell apoptosis. Bcl-2 knockdown using small interfering RNA (siRNA) delayed apoptotic cell death, which correlated with increased proliferation following aspirin exposure. In contrast, Bcl-2 overexpression enhanced the onset of aspirin-induced apoptosis, which was also associated with a significant increase in Bcl-2 phosphorylation in the nucleus. Therefore, this study may provide novel insight into the molecular mechanism of aspirin, particularly its anticancer effects in Bcl-2- and estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells.

  20. Aspirin-induced Bcl-2 translocation and its phosphorylation in the nucleus trigger apoptosis in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Bo-Hwa; Chakraborty, Goutam; Baek, Kwanghee; Yoon, Ho Sup

    2013-01-01

    Here, we report that B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) is a novel target molecule of aspirin in breast cancer cells. Aspirin influenced the formation of a complex by Bcl-2 and FKBP38 and induced the nuclear translocation of Bcl-2 and its phosphorylation. These events inhibited cancer cell proliferation and subsequently enhanced MCF-7 breast cancer cell apoptosis. Bcl-2 knockdown using small interfering RNA (siRNA) delayed apoptotic cell death, which correlated with increased proliferation following aspirin exposure. In contrast, Bcl-2 overexpression enhanced the onset of aspirin-induced apoptosis, which was also associated with a significant increase in Bcl-2 phosphorylation in the nucleus. Therefore, this study may provide novel insight into the molecular mechanism of aspirin, particularly its anticancer effects in Bcl-2- and estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells. PMID:24113271

  1. A poxvirus Bcl-2-like gene family involved in regulation of host immune response: sequence similarity and evolutionary history

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Poxviruses evade the immune system of the host through the action of viral encoded inhibitors that block various signalling pathways. The exact number of viral inhibitors is not yet known. Several members of the vaccinia virus A46 and N1 families, with a Bcl-2-like structure, are involved in the regulation of the host innate immune response where they act non-redundantly at different levels of the Toll-like receptor signalling pathway. N1 also maintains an anti-apoptotic effect by acting similarly to cellular Bcl-2 proteins. Whether there are related families that could have similar functions is the main subject of this investigation. Results We describe the sequence similarity existing among poxvirus A46, N1, N2 and C1 protein families, which share a common domain of approximately 110-140 amino acids at their C-termini that spans the entire N1 sequence. Secondary structure and fold recognition predictions suggest that this domain presents an all-alpha-helical fold compatible with the Bcl-2-like structures of vaccinia virus proteins N1, A52, B15 and K7. We propose that these protein families should be merged into a single one. We describe the phylogenetic distribution of this family and reconstruct its evolutionary history, which indicates an extensive gene gain in ancestral viruses and a further stabilization of its gene content. Conclusions Based on the sequence/structure similarity, we propose that other members with unknown function, like vaccinia virus N2, C1, C6 and C16/B22, might have a similar role in the suppression of host immune response as A46, A52, B15 and K7, by antagonizing at different levels with the TLR signalling pathways. PMID:20230632

  2. Apoptosis in differentiating C2C12 muscle cells selectively targets Bcl-2-deficient myotubes.

    PubMed

    Schöneich, Christian; Dremina, Elena; Galeva, Nadezhda; Sharov, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Muscle cell apoptosis accompanies normal muscle development and regeneration, as well as degenerative diseases and aging. C2C12 murine myoblast cells represent a common model to study muscle differentiation. Though it was already shown that myogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells is accompanied by enhanced apoptosis in a fraction of cells, either the cell population sensitive to apoptosis or regulatory mechanisms for the apoptotic response are unclear so far. In the current study we characterize apoptotic phenotypes of different types of C2C12 cells at all stages of differentiation, and report here that myotubes of differentiated C2C12 cells with low levels of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 expression are particularly vulnerable to apoptosis even though they are displaying low levels of pro-apoptotic proteins Bax, Bak and Bad. In contrast, reserve cells exhibit higher levels of Bcl-2 and high resistance to apoptosis. The transfection of proliferating myoblasts with Bcl-2 prior to differentiation did not protect against spontaneous apoptosis accompanying differentiation of C2C12 cells but led to Bcl-2 overexpression in myotubes and to significant protection from apoptotic cell loss caused by exposure to hydrogen peroxide. Overall, our data advocate for a Bcl-2-dependent mechanism of apoptosis in differentiated muscle cells. However, downstream processes for spontaneous and hydrogen peroxide induced apoptosis are not completely similar. Apoptosis in differentiating myoblasts and myotubes is regulated not through interaction of Bcl-2 with pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins such as Bax, Bak, and Bad.

  3. Apoptosis in differentiating C2C12 muscle cells selectively targets Bcl-2-deficient myotubes

    PubMed Central

    Schoneich, Christian; Dremina, Elena; Galeva, Nadezhda; Sharov, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Muscle cell apoptosis accompanies normal muscle development and regeneration, as well as degenerative diseases and aging. C2C12 murine myoblast cells represent a common model to study muscle differentiation. Though it was already shown that myogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells is accompanied by enhanced apoptosis in a fraction of cells, either the cell population sensitive to apoptosis or regulatory mechanisms for the apoptotic response are unclear so far. In the current study we characterize apoptotic phenotypes of different types of C2C12 cells at all stages of differentiation, and report here that myotubes of differentiated C2C12 cells with low levels of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 expression are particularly vulnerable to apoptosis even though they are displaying low levels of pro-apoptotic proteins Bax, Bak and Bad. In contrast, reserve cells exhibit higher levels of Bcl-2 and high resistance to apoptosis. The transfection of proliferating myoblasts with Bcl-2 prior to differentiation did not protect against spontaneous apoptosis accompanying differentiation of C2C12 cell but led to Bcl-2 overexpression in myotubes and to significant protection from apoptotic cell loss caused by exposure to hydrogen peroxide. Overall, our data advocate for a Bcl-2-dependent mechanism of apoptosis in differentiated muscle cells. However, downstream processes for spontaneous and hydrogen peroxide induced apoptosis are not completely similar. Apoptosis in differentiating myoblasts and myotubes is regulated not through interaction of Bcl-2 with pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins such as Bax, Bak, and Bad. PMID:24129924

  4. Skin-Derived Precursors against UVB-Induced Apoptosis via Bcl-2 and Nrf2 Upregulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Jianqiao

    2016-01-01

    Bcl-2 and Nrf2 are critical factors in protecting cells against UVB-induced apoptosis. Hair-follicle-bulge stem cells could resist ionization through Bcl-2 upregulation. Skin-derived precursors (SKPs) dwelling on the bulge may be against UVB irradiation. Initially, SKPs were isolated and identified. Then, SKPs were exposed to UVB and grew in medium for 24 hours. CCK-8 assay, TUNEL, and Ki67 staining evaluated cells apoptosis/proliferation, while SA-βgal staining evaluated cells senescence and pH2AX immunostaining evaluated DNA damage. Meanwhile, Bcl-2, Nrf2, HO-1, Bax, and Bak expressions were assessed by qRT-PCR and western blot. Two weeks later, floating spheres appeared and were identified as SKPs. After UVB radiation, SKPs maintained spherical colonies and outnumbered unirradiated ones, showing high Ki67 expression and low TUNEL, SA-βgal, and pH2AX expression. Fibroblasts (FBs), however, displayed deformation, senescence, and reduction, with increased TUNEL, SA-βgal, and pH2AX expression. Moreover, Bcl-2 and Nrf2 mRNA expression were significantly higher than Bak and Bax in irradiated SKPs. Conversely, Bcl-2 and Nrf2 mRNA levels greatly decreased compared with Bax and Bak in irradiated FBs. Interestingly, SKPs showed higher protein levels of Bcl-2, Nrf2, and HO-1 than FBs. SKPs exert a beneficial effect on resisting UVB-induced apoptosis, which may be associated with Bcl-2 and Nrf2 upregulation. PMID:27635399

  5. Posttranslational regulation of BCL2 levels in cerebellar granule cells: A mechanism of neuronal survival.

    PubMed

    Lossi, Laura; Gambino, Graziana; Ferrini, Francesco; Alasia, Silvia; Merighi, Adalberto

    2009-11-01

    Apoptosis can be modulated by K(+) and Ca(2+) inside the cell and/or in the extracellular milieu. In murine organotypic cultures, membrane potential-regulated Ca(2+) signaling through calcineurin phosphatase has a pivotal role in development and maturation of cerebellar granule cells (CGCs). P8 cultures were used to analyze the levels of expression of B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) protein, and, after particle-mediated gene transfer in CGCs, to study the posttranslational modifications of BCL2 fused to a fluorescent tag in response to a perturbation of K(+)/Ca(2+) homeostasis. There are no changes in Bcl2 mRNA after real time PCR, whereas the levels of the fusion protein (monitored by calculating the density of transfected CGCs under the fluorescence microscope) and of BCL2 (inWestern blotting) are increased. After using a series of agonists/antagonists for ion channels at the cell membrane or the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and drugs affecting protein synthesis/degradation, accumulation of BCL2 was related to a reduction in posttranslational cleavage by macroautophagy. The ER functionally links the [K(+)](e) and [Ca(2+)](i) to the BCL2 content in CGCs along two different pathways. The first, triggered by elevated [K(+)](e) under conditions of immaturity, is independent of extracellular Ca(2+) and operates via IP3 channels. The second leads to influx of extracellular Ca(2+) following activation of ryanodine channels in the presence of physiological [K(+)](e), when CGCs are maintained in mature status. This study identifies novel mechanisms of neuroprotection in immature and mature CGCs involving the posttranslational regulation of BCL2.

  6. AP-2α-dependent regulation of Bcl-2/Bax expression affects apoptosis in the trophoblast.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Jia, Liting; Cui, Shihong; Shi, Ying; Chang, Aimin; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Zhan

    2012-12-01

    Enhanced apoptosis of the cytotrophoblast in early pregnancy is associated with a high risk of preeclampsia. We and others have previously reported that the transcriptional factor, activator protein AP-2α, suppressed trophoblast migration and invasion. However, it is not clear whether AP-2α affects apoptosis in trophoblast cells and whether it regulates expression of apoptosis-related factors Bcl-2 and Bax. We analyzed the expression of AP-2α, Bcl-2 and Bax in placental tissues in severe preeclamptic pregnancies and normotensive pregnancies using immunohistochemistry and real time-PCR. Further, apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometric analysis in the human trophoblastic cell line, BeWo cells, in which AP-2α expression was transiently overexpressed or down-regulated by siRNA. There was significantly higher expression of AP-2α and Bax, but lower expression of Bcl-2 in severe preeclampsia placentas as compared to the control placentas. Overexpression of AP-2α in BeWo cells led to an increased rate of apoptosis, whereas apoptosis was decreased when AP-2α expression was reduced. Furthermore, overexpression of AP-2α increased Bax expression and decreased Bcl-2 expression, whereas down-regulation of AP-2α expression resulted in a decrease in Bax expression and an increase in Bcl-2 expression. AP-2α regulates expression of Bcl-2 and Bax and apoptosis in BeWo cells. These results suggest that AP-2α-mediated regulation of Bcl-2 and Bax regulation influences apoptosis which in turn leads to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia.

  7. Inhibition of Antiapoptotic BCL-XL, BCL-2, and MCL-1 Proteins by Small Molecule Mimetics

    PubMed Central

    Dalafave, D.S.; Prisco, G.

    2010-01-01

    Informatics and computational design methods were used to create new molecules that could potentially bind antiapoptotic proteins, thus promoting death of cancer cells. Apoptosis is a cellular process that leads to the death of damaged cells. Its malfunction can cause cancer and poor response to conventional chemotherapy. After being activated by cellular stress signals, proapoptotic proteins bind antiapoptotic proteins, thus allowing apoptosis to go forward. An excess of antiapoptotic proteins can prevent apoptosis. Designed molecules that mimic the roles of proapoptotic proteins can promote the death of cancer cells. The goal of our study was to create new putative mimetics that could simultaneously bind several antiapoptotic proteins. Five new small molecules were designed that formed stable complexes with BCL-2, BCL-XL, and MCL-1 antiapoptotic proteins. These results are novel because, to our knowledge, there are not many, if any, small molecules known to bind all three proteins. Drug-likeness studies performed on the designed molecules, as well as previous experimental and preclinical studies on similar agents, strongly suggest that the designed molecules may indeed be promising drug candidates. All five molecules showed “drug-like” properties and had overall drug-likeness scores between 81% and 96%. A single drug based on these mimetics should cost less and cause fewer side effects than a combination of drugs each aimed at a single protein. Computer-based molecular design promises to accelerate drug research by predicting potential effectiveness of designed molecules prior to laborious experiments and costly preclinical trials. PMID:20838611

  8. Structural Mechanism for Regulation of Bcl-2 protein Noxa by phosphorylation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karim, Christine B.; Michel Espinoza-Fonseca, L.; James, Zachary M.; Hanse, Eric A.; Gaynes, Jeffrey S.; Thomas, David D.; Kelekar, Ameeta

    2015-09-01

    We showed previously that phosphorylation of Noxa, a 54-residue Bcl-2 protein, at serine 13 (Ser13) inhibited its ability to promote apoptosis through interactions with canonical binding partner, Mcl-1. Using EPR spectroscopy, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and binding assays, we offer evidence that a structural alteration caused by phosphorylation partially masks Noxa’s BH3 domain, inhibiting the Noxa-Mcl-1 interaction. EPR of unphosphorylated Noxa, with spin-labeled amino acid TOAC incorporated within the BH3 domain, revealed equilibrium between ordered and dynamically disordered states. Mcl-1 further restricted the ordered component for non-phosphorylated Noxa, but left the pSer13 Noxa profile unchanged. Microsecond MD simulations indicated that the BH3 domain of unphosphorylated Noxa is housed within a flexible loop connecting two antiparallel β-sheets, flanked by disordered N- and C-termini and Ser13 phosphorylation creates a network of salt-bridges that facilitate the interaction between the N-terminus and the BH3 domain. EPR showed that a spin label inserted near the N-terminus was weakly immobilized in unphosphorylated Noxa, consistent with a solvent-exposed helix/loop, but strongly constrained in pSer13 Noxa, indicating a more ordered peptide backbone, as predicted by MD simulations. Together these studies reveal a novel mechanism by which phosphorylation of a distal serine inhibits a pro-apoptotic BH3 domain and promotes cell survival.

  9. MicroRNAs expression in ox-LDL treated HUVECs: MiR-365 modulates apoptosis and Bcl-2 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, Bing; Xiao, Bo; Liang, Desheng; Xia, Jian; Li, Ye; Yang, Huan

    2011-06-24

    Highlights: {yields} We evaluated the role of miRNAs in ox-LDL induced apoptosis in ECs. {yields} We found 4 up-regulated and 11 down-regulated miRNAs in apoptotic ECs. {yields} Target genes of the dysregulated miRNAs regulate ECs apoptosis and atherosclerosis. {yields} MiR-365 promotes ECs apoptosis via suppressing Bcl-2 expression. {yields} MiR-365 inhibitor alleviates ECs apoptosis induced by ox-LDL. -- Abstract: Endothelial cells (ECs) apoptosis induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is thought to play a critical role in atherosclerosis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of noncoding RNAs that posttranscriptionally regulate the expression of genes involved in diverse cell functions, including differentiation, growth, proliferation, and apoptosis. However, whether miRNAs are associated with ox-LDL induced apoptosis and their effect on ECs is still unknown. Therefore, this study evaluated potential miRNAs and their involvement in ECs apoptosis in response to ox-LDL stimulation. Microarray and qRT-PCR analysis performed on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) exposed to ox-LDL identified 15 differentially expressed (4 up- and 11 down-regulated) miRNAs. Web-based query tools were utilized to predict the target genes of the differentially expressed miRNAs, and the potential target genes were classified into different function categories with the gene ontology (GO) term and KEGG pathway annotation. In particular, bioinformatics analysis suggested that anti-apoptotic protein B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) is a target gene of miR-365, an apoptomir up-regulated by ox-LDL stimulation in HUVECs. We further showed that transfection of miR-365 inhibitor partly restored Bcl-2 expression at both mRNA and protein levels, leading to a reduction of ox-LDL-mediated apoptosis in HUVECs. Taken together, our findings indicate that miRNAs participate in ox-LDL-mediated apoptosis in HUVECs. MiR-365 potentiates ox-LDL-induced ECs apoptosis by regulating the

  10. Bcl-2/Bcl-xL inhibition increases the efficacy of MEK inhibition alone and in combination with PI3 kinase inhibition in lung and pancreatic tumor models.

    PubMed

    Tan, Nguyen; Wong, Maureen; Nannini, Michelle A; Hong, Rebecca; Lee, Leslie B; Price, Stephen; Williams, Karen; Savy, Pierre Pascal; Yue, Peng; Sampath, Deepak; Settleman, Jeffrey; Fairbrother, Wayne J; Belmont, Lisa D

    2013-06-01

    Although mitogen-activated protein (MAP)-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK) inhibition is predicted to cause cell death by stabilization of the proapoptotic BH3-only protein BIM, the induction of apoptosis is often modest. To determine if addition of a Bcl-2 family inhibitor could increase the efficacy of a MEK inhibitor, we evaluated a panel of 53 non-small cell lung cancer and pancreatic cancer cell lines with the combination of navitoclax (ABT-263), a Bcl-2/Bcl-xL (BCL2/BCL2L1) antagonist, and a novel MAP kinase (MEK) inhibitor, G-963. The combination is synergistic in the majority of lines, with an enrichment of cell lines harboring KRAS mutations in the high synergy group. Cells exposed to G-963 arrest in G1 and a small fraction undergo apoptosis. The addition of navitoclax to G-963 does not alter the kinetics of cell-cycle arrest, but greatly increases the percentage of cells that undergo apoptosis. The G-963/navitoclax combination was more effective than either single agent in the KRAS mutant H2122 xenograft model; BIM stabilization and PARP cleavage were observed in tumors, consistent with the mechanism of action observed in cell culture. Addition of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K, PIK3CA) inhibitor GDC-0941 to this treatment combination increases cell killing compared with double- or single-agent treatment. Taken together, these data suggest the efficacy of agents that target the MAPK and PI3K pathways can be improved by combination with a Bcl-2 family inhibitor. ©2013 AACR

  11. miRNA-181b increases the sensitivity of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells to gemcitabine in vitro and in nude mice by targeting BCL-2.

    PubMed

    Cai, Baobao; An, Yong; Lv, Nan; Chen, Jianmin; Tu, Min; Sun, Jie; Wu, Pengfei; Wei, Jishu; Jiang, Kuirong; Miao, Yi

    2013-05-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a highly lethal disease and is usually resistant to chemotherapy. MicroRNA‑181b (miR-181b) has been reported to be associated with chemoresistance in various types of cancer. In this study, we investigated the effects of miR-181b on the chemosensitivity of PDAC cells to gemcitabine and the underlying molecular events. miR-181b mimics and inhibitors were synthesized for transient gene transfection in vitro. Lentivirus carrying miR-181b mimics were used to infect PDAC cells for nude mouse xenograft assays by implanting infected PDAC cells into recipient mice. Cell viability was determined by MTT assays, while gene expression was assessed using qRT-PCR, western blot analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). miR-181b targeting BCL-2 expression was assessed by a dual-luciferase activity assay. The data showed that miRNA-181b expression sensitized PDAC cells to gemcitabine treatment. Although gemcitabine-resistant PDAC cell sublines (SW1990/GR and CFPAC-1/GR) expressed higher levels of miRNA-181b, gemcitabine induced higher levels of apoptosis in PDAC cells transfected with miRNA-181b mimics. The nude mouse xenograft assay data showed that miR-181b transfection also sensitized the cells to gemcitabine treatment in vivo. Molecularly, bioinformatics data predicted that miR-181b was able to bind to BCL-2 mRNA 3'UTR. The dual luciferase activity assay revealed that miRNA-181b downregulated BCL-2 expression. The results from western blot analysis showed a reduced BCL-2 expression following miR-181b transfection but an enhanced caspase-3 activity in miRNA-181b mimic-transfected PDAC cells. This study demonstrates that miRNA-181b sensitizes PDAC cells to gemcitabine by targeting BCL-2.

  12. A synthetic peptide targeting the BH4 domain of Bcl-2 induces apoptosis in multiple myeloma and follicular lymphoma cells alone or in combination with agents targeting the BH3-binding pocket of Bcl-2.

    PubMed

    Lavik, Andrew R; Zhong, Fei; Chang, Ming-Jin; Greenberg, Edward; Choudhary, Yuvraj; Smith, Mitchell R; McColl, Karen S; Pink, John; Reu, Frederic J; Matsuyama, Shigemi; Distelhorst, Clark W

    2015-09-29

    Bcl-2 inhibits apoptosis by two distinct mechanisms but only one is targeted to treat Bcl-2-positive malignancies. In this mechanism, the BH1-3 domains of Bcl-2 form a hydrophobic pocket, binding and inhibiting pro-apoptotic proteins, including Bim. In the other mechanism, the BH4 domain mediates interaction of Bcl-2 with inositol 1,4, 5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs), inhibiting pro-apoptotic Ca2+ signals. The current anti-Bcl-2 agents, ABT-263 (Navitoclax) and ABT-199 (Venetoclax), induce apoptosis by displacing pro-apoptotic proteins from the hydrophobic pocket, but do not inhibit Bcl-2-IP3R interaction. Therefore, to target this interaction we developed BIRD-2 (Bcl-2 IP3 Receptor Disruptor-2), a decoy peptide that binds to the BH4 domain, blocking Bcl-2-IP3R interaction and thus inducing Ca2+-mediated apoptosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia, multiple myeloma, and follicular lymphoma cells, including cells resistant to ABT-263, ABT-199, or the Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor Ibrutinib. Moreover, combining BIRD-2 with ABT-263 or ABT-199 enhances apoptosis induction compared to single agent treatment. Overall, these findings provide strong rationale for developing novel therapeutic agents that mimic the action of BIRD-2 in targeting the BH4 domain of Bcl-2 and disrupting Bcl-2-IP3R interaction.

  13. Bicalutamide-induced hypoxia potentiates RUNX2-mediated Bcl-2 expression resulting in apoptosis resistance

    PubMed Central

    Browne, G; Nesbitt, H; Ming, L; Stein, G S; Lian, J B; McKeown, S R; Worthington, J

    2012-01-01

    Background: We have previously shown that hypoxia selects for more invasive, apoptosis-resistant LNCaP prostate cancer cells, with upregulation of the osteogenic transcription factor RUNX2 and the anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2 detected in the hypoxia-selected cells. Following this observation, we questioned through what biological mechanism this occurs. Methods: We examined the effect of hypoxia on RUNX2 expression and the role of RUNX2 in the regulation of Bcl-2 and apoptosis resistance in prostate cancer. Results: Hypoxia increased RUNX2 expression in vitro, and bicalutamide-treated LNCaP tumours in mice (previously shown to have increased tumour hypoxia) exhibited increased RUNX2 expression. In addition, RUNX2-overexpressing LNCaP cells showed increased cell viability, following bicalutamide and docetaxel treatment, which was inhibited by RUNX2 siRNA; a range of assays demonstrated that this was due to resistance to apoptosis. RUNX2 expression was associated with increased Bcl-2 levels, and regulation of Bcl-2 by RUNX2 was confirmed through chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) binding and reporter assays. Moreover, a Q-PCR array identified other apoptosis-associated genes upregulated in the RUNX2-overexpressing LNCaP cells. Conclusion: This study establishes a contributing mechanism for progression of prostate cancer cells to a more apoptosis-resistant and thus malignant phenotype, whereby increased expression of RUNX2 modulates the expression of apoptosis-associated factors, specifically Bcl-2. PMID:23073173

  14. Nicotine increases the resistance of lung cancer cells to cisplatin through enhancing Bcl-2 stability

    PubMed Central

    Nishioka, T; Luo, L-Y; Shen, L; He, H; Mariyannis, A; Dai, W; Chen, C

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nicotine is able to activate mitogenic signalling pathways, which promote cell growth or survival as well as increase chemoresistance of cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Methods: In this study, we used immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation methods to test the ubiquitination and degradation of Bcl-2 affected by nicotine in lung cancer cells. Apoptotic assay was also used to measure the antagonising effect of nicotine on cisplatin-mediated cytotoxicity. Results: We demonstrated that the addition of nicotine greatly attenuated Bcl-2 ubiquitination and degradation, which further desensitised lung cancer cells to cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity. In this process, Bcl-2 was persistently phosphorylated in the cells cotreated with nicotine and cisplatin. Furthermore, Akt was proven to be responsible for sustained activation of Bcl-2 by nicotine, which further antagonised cisplatin-mediated apoptotic signalling. Conclusions: Our study suggested that nicotine activates its downstream signalling to interfere with the ubiquitination process and prevent Bcl-2 from being degraded in lung cancer cells, resulting in the increase of chemoresistance. PMID:24548862

  15. Bcl-2 expression is associated with poor prognosis of solitary plasmacytoma of bone.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shanqi; Zhi, Yaqin; Yang, Hongliang; Yu, Yong; Wang, Yafei; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Guowen; Zhang, Lianyu; Sun, Baocun; Zhang, Yizhuo

    2014-03-01

    Solitary plasmacytoma of bone (SPB) is a rare tumor that represents a minority of patients with plasma cell localized malignancy characterized by a single osteolytic bone lesion. The molecular mechanism underlying the genesis of SPB has remained enigmatic. Signal transducers and activators of transcription-3 (STAT3) is often activated in human cancers and is implicated in tumorigenesis. In the present work, the immunohistochemical expression of pSTAT3 (the active isoform of STAT3) and its potential downstream mediators (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, c-Myc, cyclin D1, VEGF, cIAP-2, Mcl-1, and survivin) were examined, clinical features were investigated, and relative prognostic factors were analyzed. Positive expression of Bcl-2 was observed in 46.7 % (14/30) of patients, c-Myc in 36.7 % (11/30), and cyclin D1 in 23.3 % (7/30). By univariate analysis, Bcl-2 expression was found to be closely associated with shorter overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival. Bcl-2 and c-Myc positive expression were also found to be a factor that affect time to progression to multiple myeloma. In conclusion, results showed Bcl-2 expression to be a clinically significant prognostic indicator for SPB patients and constitutive activated STAT3 may not be the sole primary regulatory mechanism.

  16. bcl-2 transgene expression can protect neurons against developmental and induced cell death.

    PubMed Central

    Farlie, P G; Dringen, R; Rees, S M; Kannourakis, G; Bernard, O

    1995-01-01

    The bcl-2 protooncogene, which protects various cell types from apoptotic cell death, is expressed in the developing and adult nervous system. To explore its role in regulation of neuronal cell death, we generated transgenic mice expressing Bcl-2 under the control of the neuron-specific enolase promoter, which forced expression uniquely in neurons. Sensory neurons isolated from dorsal root ganglia of newborn mice normally require nerve growth factor for their survival in culture, but those from the bcl-2 transgenic mice showed enhanced survival in its absence. Furthermore, apoptotic death of motor neurons after axotomy of the sciatic nerve was inhibited in these mice. The number of neurons in two neuronal populations from the central and peripheral nervous system was increased by 30%, indicating that Bcl-2 expression can protect neurons from cell death during development. The generation of these transgenic mice suggests that Bcl-2 may play an important role in survival of neurons both during development and throughout adult life. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:7753817

  17. Bcl-2 induces pro-oxidant state by engaging mitochondrial respiration in tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Z X; Pervaiz, S

    2007-09-01

    Mitochondrial respiration, the key process behind cellular energy production, is critical for cell proliferation, growth and survival. However, the regulation of mitochondrial respiratory function in tumor cells is not well understood. In this study, we propose a model whereby tumor cells possess the capacity to fine-tune the balance between energy demands and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) status, to maintain a milieu optimal for survival. This is achieved through the moderation of mitochondrial respiration, depending on the ROS context within the organelle, with the main players being Bcl-2 and cytochrome c oxidase (COX). We report a higher level of COX activity, oxygen consumption and mitochondrial respiration in tumor cells overexpressing Bcl-2. Transient overexpression, gene silencing and pharmacological inhibition of Bcl-2 corroborate these findings. Interestingly, Bcl-2 is also able to regulate mitochondrial respiration and COX activity in the face of mounting ROS levels, triggered by mitochondrial complex inhibitors. In this respect, it is plausible to suggest that Bcl-2 may be able to create an environment, most suited for survival by adjusting mitochondrial respiration accordingly to meet energy requirements, without incurring an overwhelming, detrimental increase in intracellular ROS.

  18. Expression of COX-2 and bcl-2 in oral lichen planus lesions and lichenoid reactions

    PubMed Central

    Arreaza, Alven J; Rivera, Helen; Correnti, María

    2014-01-01

    Oral lichen planus and lichenoid reactions are autoimmune type inflammatory conditions of the oral mucosa with similar clinical and histological characteristics. Recent data suggest that oral lichenoid reactions (OLR) present a greater percentage of malignant transformation than oral lichen planus (OLP). Objective To compare the expression of bcl-2 and COX-2 in OLP and OLR. Methods The study population consisted of 65 cases; 34 cases diagnosed as OLR and 31 as OLP. A retrospective study was done, and bcl-2 and COX-2 expression was semiquantitatively analysed. Results Fifty-three per cent (18/34) of the ORL samples tested positive for COX-2, whereas in the OLP group, 81% of the samples (25/31) immunostained positive for COX-2. The Fisher’s exact test for the expression of COX-2 revealed that there are significant differences between the two groups, P = 0.035. With respect to the expression of the bcl-2 protein, 76% (26/34) of the samples were positive in OLR, while 97% (30/31) were positive in the group with OLP. The Fisher’s exact test for the expression of bcl-2 revealed that there are significant statistical differences between the two groups, P = 0.028. Conclusions The expression of bcl-2 and COX-2 was more commonly expressed in OLP when compared with OLR. PMID:24834112

  19. Preferential control of induced regulatory T cell homeostasis via a Bim/Bcl-2 axis.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Szymczak-Workman, A L; Gravano, D M; Workman, C J; Green, D R; Vignali, D A A

    2012-02-09

    Apoptosis has an essential role in controlling T cell homeostasis, especially during the contraction phase of an immune response. However, its contribution to the balance between effector and regulatory populations remains unclear. We found that Rag1(-/-) hosts repopulated with Bim(-/-) conventional CD4(+) T cells (Tconv) resulted in a larger induced regulatory T cell (iTreg) population than mice given wild-type (WT) Tconv. This appears to be due to an increased survival advantage of iTregs compared with activated Tconv in the absence of Bim. Downregulation of Bcl-2 expression and upregulation of Bim expression were more dramatic in WT iTregs than activated Tconv in the absence of IL-2 in vitro. The iTregs generated following Tconv reconstitution of Rag1(-/-) hosts exhibited lower Bcl-2 expression and higher Bim/Bcl-2 ratio than Tconv, which indicates that iTregs were in an apoptosis-prone state in vivo. A significant proportion of the peripheral iTreg pool exhibits low Bcl-2 expression indicating increased sensitivity to apoptosis, which may be a general characteristic of certain Treg subpopulations. In summary, our data suggest that iTregs and Tconv differ in their sensitivity to apoptotic stimuli due to their altered ratio of Bim/Bcl-2 expression. Modulating the apoptosis pathway may provide novel therapeutic approaches to alter the balance between effector T cells and Tregs.

  20. Protect and serve: Bcl-2 proteins as guardians and rulers of cancer cell survival

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Frédérique; de Carné Trécesson, Sophie; Bertin-Ciftci, Joséphine; Juin, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    It is widely accepted that anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members promote cancer cell survival by binding to their pro-apoptotic counterparts, thereby preventing mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) and cytotoxic caspase activation. Yet, these proteins do not only function as guardians of mitochondrial permeability, preserving it, and maintaining cell survival in the face of acute or chronic stress, they also regulate non-apoptotic functions of caspases and biological processes beyond MOMP from diverse subcellular localizations and in complex with numerous binding partners outside of the Bcl-2 family. In particular, some of the non-canonical effects and functions of Bcl-2 homologs lead to an interplay with E2F-1, NFκB, and Myc transcriptional pathways, which themselves influence cancer cell growth and survival. We thus propose that, by feedback loops that we currently have only hints of, Bcl-2 proteins may act as rulers of survival signaling, predetermining the apoptotic threshold that they also directly scaffold. This underscores the robustness of the control exerted by Bcl-2 homologs over cancer cell survival, and implies that small molecules compounds currently used in the clinic to inhibit their mitochondrial activity may be not always be fully efficient to override this control. PMID:23974114

  1. Two Independent Positive Feedbacks and Bistability in the Bcl-2 Apoptotic Switch

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Haizhu; Sun, Tingzhe; Shen, Pingping

    2008-01-01

    Background The complex interplay between B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family proteins constitutes a crucial checkpoint in apoptosis. Its detailed molecular mechanism remains controversial. Our former modeling studies have selected the ‘Direct Activation Model’ as a better explanation for experimental observations. In this paper, we continue to extend this model by adding interactions according to updating experimental findings. Methodology/Principal Findings Through mathematical simulation we found bistability, a kind of switch, can arise from a positive (double negative) feedback in the Bcl-2 interaction network established by anti-apoptotic group of Bcl-2 family proteins. Moreover, Bax/Bak auto-activation as an independent positive feedback can enforce the bistability, and make it more robust to parameter variations. By ensemble stochastic modeling, we also elucidated how intrinsic noise can change ultrasensitive switches into gradual responses. Our modeling result agrees well with recent experimental data where bimodal Bax activation distributions in cell population were found. Conclusions/Significance Along with the growing experimental evidences, our studies successfully elucidate the switch mechanism embedded in the Bcl-2 interaction network and provide insights into pharmacological manipulation of Bcl-2 apoptotic switch as further cancer therapies. PMID:18213378

  2. [Mechanism and clinical significance of anti-apoptotic gene bcl-2 expression in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Li-ping; Wen, Yi-lei; Ma, Yun; Wang, Gui-qiu; Li, Ying; Wang, Jin; Xu, Li-li; Zhang, Xue-mei

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the molecular mechanism and prognostication of bcl-2 protein expression in different subgroups of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma(DLBCL) in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. Immunohistochemical stains for CD10, bcl-6, MUM-1, bcl-2 and NF-κB were performed in 214 cases of DLBCL. The Hans immunologic classification was applied to classify DLBCL into GCB and non-GCB subgroups. Using a dual-probe fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) assay, IgH/bcl-2 gene translocation and bcl-2 amplification were analyzed. In 214 cases of DLBCL, 30.8% (66/214) of cases were GCB and 69.2% (148/214) were non-GCB. Twenty-seven point three percent (18/66) of GCB subgroups and 59.5% (88/148) of non-GCB subgroups had bcl-2 protein expression, with a significant difference (P < 0.01). IgH/bcl-2 translocation was positive in 3.7% (8/214) of cases, even majority of them (6/8) was found in GCB subgroup, while represented only 9.1% of GCB case. There was a significant difference (P = 0.02) in bcl-2 gene amplification between GCB (27/66, 40.9%) and non-GCB subgroup (86/148, 58.1%). Among non-GCB cases, the expression of bcl-2 was correlated with that of NF-κB expression and bcl-2 gene amplification (r = 0.216 and 0.219, respectively, P < 0.05). No similar correlation was observed in GCB cases. The overall survival time of bcl-2-positive patients (31.4 ± 3.8) months was shorter than that of bcl-2-negative patients (40.2 ± 4.2) months. In conjunction with immunophenotypes and clinical stages, the bcl-2 positive patients had a 1.89 times higher risk than that of the bcl-2 negative patients. Majority of the cases were prognostically unfavorable non-GCB subgroups among DLBCL, which were characterized by high frequency of bcl-2 gene amplification and low frequency of IgH/bcl-2 translocation. The anti-apoptotic gene bcl-2 was frequently expressed in non-GCB subgroups and closely related to the gene amplification and NF-κB activation. bcl-2 positive patients had more short

  3. Removal of the BH4 Domain from Bcl-2 Protein Triggers an Autophagic Process that Impairs Tumor Growth12

    PubMed Central

    Trisciuoglio, Daniela; De Luca, Teresa; Desideri, Marianna; Passeri, Daniela; Gabellini, Chiara; Scarpino, Stefania; Liang, Chengyu; Orlandi, Augusto; Del Bufalo, Donatella

    2013-01-01

    Here, we show that forced expression of a B-cell lymphoma 2 (bcl-2) protein lacking residues 1 to 36 at the N-terminal, including the entire Bcl-2 homology 4 (BH4) domain, determines reduction of in vitro and in vivo human melanoma growth. Noteworthy, melanoma cells in vivo exhibit markedly increased autophagy, as response to expression of bcl-2 protein deleted of its BH4 domain. This observation led to the identification of a novel gain of function for bcl-2 protein lacking the BH4 domain. In particular, upon different autophagic stimuli in vitro, overexpression of bcl-2 protein deleted of BH4 domain induces autophagosome accumulation, conversion of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3B-II, reduced expression of p62/SQSTM1 protein, and thereby enhanced autophagic flux. The relevance of Beclin-1 is evidenced by the fact that 1) the autophagy-promoting and growth-inhibiting properties are partially rescued by Beclin-1 knockdown in cells expressing bcl-2 protein lacking the BH4 domain, 2) Beclin-1 only interacts with wild-type but not with deleted bcl-2, and 3) BH4 domain removal from bcl-2 protein does not influence in vitro and in vivo growth of tumor cells expressing low levels of endogenous Beclin-1. These results provide new insight into molecular mechanism of bcl-2 functions and represent a rationale for the development of agents interfering with the BH4 domain of bcl-2 protein. PMID:23479509

  4. Antisense bcl-2 treatment increases programmed cell death in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Koty, P P; Zhang, H; Levitt, M L

    1999-02-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a genetically regulated pathway that is altered in many cancers. This process is, in part, regulated by the ratio of PCD inducers (Bax) or inhibitors (Bcl-2). An abnormally high ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax prevents PCD, thus contributing to resistance to chemotherapeutic agents, many of which are capable of inducing PCD. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells demonstrate resistance to these PCD-inducing agents. If Bcl-2 prevents NSCLC cells from entering the PCD pathway, then reducing the amount of endogenous Bcl-2 product may allow these cells to spontaneously enter the PCD pathway. Our purpose was to determine the effects of bcl-2 antisense treatment on the levels of programmed cell death in NSCLC cells. First, we determined whether bcl-2 and bax mRNA were expressed in three morphologically distinct NSCLC cell lines: NCI-H226 (squamous), NCI-H358 (adenocarcinoma), and NCI-H596 (adenosquamous). Cells were then exposed to synthetic antisense bcl-2 oligonucleotide treatment, after which programmed cell death was determined, as evidenced by DNA fragmentation. Bcl-2 protein expression was detected immunohistochemically. All three NSCLC cell lines expressed both bcl-2 and bax mRNA and had functional PCD pathways. Synthetic antisense bcl-2 oligonucleotide treatment resulted in decreased Bcl-2 levels, reduced cell proliferation, decreased cell viability, and increased levels of spontaneous PCD. This represents the first evidence that decreasing Bcl-2 in three morphologically distinct NSCLC cell lines allows the cells to spontaneously enter a PCD pathway. It also indicates the potential therapeutic use of antisense bcl-2 in the treatment of NSCLC.

  5. Crosstalk among Bcl-2 family members in B-CLL: seliciclib acts via the Mcl-1/Noxa axis and gradual exhaustion of Bcl-2 protection.

    PubMed

    Hallaert, D Y H; Spijker, R; Jak, M; Derks, I A M; Alves, N L; Wensveen, F M; de Boer, J P; de Jong, D; Green, S R; van Oers, M H J; Eldering, E

    2007-11-01

    Seliciclib (R-roscovitine) is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor in clinical development. It triggers apoptosis by inhibiting de novo transcription of the short-lived Mcl-1 protein, but it is unknown how this leads to Bax/Bak activation that is required for most forms of cell death. Here, we studied the effects of seliciclib in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL), a malignancy with aberrant expression of apoptosis regulators. Although seliciclib-induced Mcl-1 degradation within 4 h, Bax/Bak activation occurred between 16 and 20 h. During this period, no transcriptional changes in apoptosis-related genes occurred. In untreated cells, prosurvival Mcl-1 was engaged by the proapoptotic proteins Noxa and Bim. Upon drug treatment, Bim was quickly released. The contribution of Noxa and Bim as a specific mediator of seliciclib-induced apoptosis was demonstrated via RNAi. Significantly, 16 h after seliciclib treatment, there was accumulation of Bcl-2, Bim and Bax in the 'mitochondria-rich' insoluble fraction of the cell. This suggests that after Mcl-1 degradation, the remaining apoptosis neutralizing capacity of Bcl-2 is gradually overwhelmed, until Bax forms large multimeric pores in the mitochondria. These data demonstrate in primary leukemic cells hierarchical binding and crosstalk among Bcl-2 members, and suggest that their functional interdependence can be exploited therapeutically.

  6. YMO1 suppresses invasion and metastasis by inhibiting RhoC signaling and predicts favorable prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Rui-Min; Pei, Lei; Fang, Feng; Xu, Jiang-Feng; Yang, Hao; Zuo, Chao-Hui; Zhou, Jian-Hua; Luo, Geng-Qiu; Yang, Lian-Yue

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that 4.1 proteins, which are deregulated in many cancers, contribute to cell adhesion and motility. Yurt/Mosaic eyes-like 1 (YMO1) is a member of 4.1 protein family but it is unclear whether YMO1 plays a role in tumor invasion. This study aimed to investigate the effects of YMO1 on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and attempted to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. YMO1 expression in HCC tissues and its correlation with clinicopathological features and postoperative prognosis was analyzed. The results showed that YMO1 was down-regulated in the highly metastatic HCC cell line and in human tumor tissues. Underexpression of YMO1 indicated poor prognosis of HCC patients. Restoration of YMO1 expression caused a significant decrease in cell migration and invasiveness in vitro. In vivo study showed that YMO1 reduced liver tumor invasion and metastasis in xenograft mice. YMO1 directly inhibited RhoC activation. YMO1 expression in HCC was regulated by PAX5. Analysis of YMO1 expression levels in human HCC patients revealed a significant correlation of YMO1 expression with PAX5 and RhoC. Our findings revealed that YMO1 predicts favorable prognosis and the data suggest that YMO1 suppresses tumor invasion and metastasis by inhibiting RhoC activity. PMID:27487132

  7. Conjugated linoleic acid induces apoptosis of murine mammary tumor cells via Bcl-2 loss

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Lihui; Ip, Clement; Lisafeld, Barbara; Ip, Margot M.

    2007-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a powerful anticancer agent in a number of tumor model systems; however, its precise mechanism of action remains elusive. Here, we report that t10,c12 CLA, a component of synthetic CLA supplements, induced apoptosis and G1 arrest of p53 mutant TM4t murine mammary tumor cells. Furthermore, t10,c12-CLA induced a time- and concentration-dependent cleavage of caspases-3 and -9, and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytosol. Levels of Bcl-2 protein were decreased both in total cellular lysates and in mitochondria after t10,c12-CLA treatment; however, there was no significant change in Bax or Bak. Overexpression of Bcl-2 attenuated apoptosis in response to t10,c12-CLA treatment. These results demonstrate that t10,c12-CLA triggers apoptosis of p53 mutant murine mammary tumor cells through the mitochondrial pathway by targeting Bcl-2. PMID:17400188

  8. Autonomous proliferation and bcl-2 expression involving haematopoietic cells in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Bincoletto, C.; Saad, S. T.; Soares da Silva, E.; Queiroz, M. L.

    1998-01-01

    In this work, we investigated the autonomous proliferation, bcl-2 expression and number of apoptotic cells in the bone marrow of patients with confirmed diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Normal bone marrow cells obtained from donors of the Clinical Hospital of this university were used as a control. The autonomous proliferation, evaluated by clonal culture without exogenous growth factor, and the number of apoptotic cells in bone marrow kept for 10 days in liquid cultures at 37 degrees C and 5% carbon dioxide, were significantly greater in MDS patients than in control subjects (P = 0.001, Wilcoxon). However, bcl-2 expression, measured by immunocytochemistry, was significantly lower in MDS patients than in normal individuals (P = 0.002, Wilcoxon). These results suggest that the high proliferation activity in MDS patients may be counteracted by the high level of medullar cell death, which might be related to the lower bcl-2 expression. PMID:9744502

  9. [Study on histology and the expression of Bax and Bcl-2 after cerebral contusion in rats].

    PubMed

    Chen, L

    2000-11-01

    To set up the experimental model of focal cerebral contusions in rats, and to study the histology and the expression of Bax and Bcl-2 after cerebral catusions. It was found that neurons and astrocytes around the wound area were changed morphologically and that polymorphonuclear leucocytes were present at 12-24 h after injury. A lot of foamy cells and astrocytes having a big dark nucleus appeared around the wound area on the 4th day after injury. On the 8-10th day, liquefaction necrosis was seen in areas of contusions. On the 12-14th day, the contusion focus healed up and became cystiform or glial node. Meantime, lots of astrocytes, capillary vessel and hemosiderin were observed. The expression of Bax and Bcl-2 increased after injury. There existed a relationship between increased Bax/Bcl-2 and different intervals after brain injury.

  10. Embedded Together: The Life and Death Consequences of Interaction of the Bcl-2 Family with Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Leber, Brian; Lin, Jialing; Andrews, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Permeabilization of the outer mitochondrial membrane is the point of no return in most programmed cell deaths. This critical step is mainly regulated by the various protein-protein and protein-membrane interactions of the Bcl-2 family proteins. The two main models for regulation of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization, direct activation and displacement do not account for all of the experimental data and both largely neglect the importance of the membrane. We propose the embedding together model to emphasize the critical importance of Bcl-2 family protein interactions with and within membranes. The embedding together model proposes that both pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins engage in similar dynamic interactions that are governed by membrane dependent conformational changes and culminate in either aborted or productive membrane permeabilization depending on the final oligomeric state of pro-apoptotic Bax and/or Bak. PMID:17453159

  11. [Effect of clofarabine on proliferation and Bcl-2 expression of NB4 cells].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-Bo; Zhang, Mei; Li, Cheng-Liang; He, Peng-Cheng

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the effect of clofarabine on proliferation of NB4 cells and its possible mechanism. MTT method was used to detect proliferation of NB4 cells treated with clofarabine 0.01 - 0.1 µmol/L for 48 h. The treated with clofarabine 0.01 - 0.1 µmol/L for 24 h, apoptosis rate and Bcl-2 expression of NB4 cells were measured by flow cytometry and Western blot respectively. The results showed that clofarabine inhibited proliferation of NB4 cells in a concentration-depended manner (r = 0.78). After treated with clofarabine for 24 h, apoptosis rate of NB4 cells increased and Bcl-2 expression in NB4 cells decreased obviously (P < 0.05). It is concluded that clofarabine inhibits proliferation of NB4 cells, which may be related with the down-regulation of Bcl-2 and induction of apoptosis.

  12. Bcl-2 proteins and autophagy regulate mitochondrial dynamics during programmed cell death in the Drosophila ovary

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, Elizabeth A.; Blute, Todd A.; Brachmann, Carrie Baker; McCall, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    The Bcl-2 family has been shown to regulate mitochondrial dynamics during cell death in mammals and C. elegans, but evidence for this in Drosophila has been elusive. Here, we investigate the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics during germline cell death in the Drosophila melanogaster ovary. We find that mitochondria undergo a series of events during the progression of cell death, with remodeling, cluster formation and uptake of clusters by somatic follicle cells. These mitochondrial dynamics are dependent on caspases, the Bcl-2 family, the mitochondrial fission and fusion machinery, and the autophagy machinery. Furthermore, Bcl-2 family mutants show a striking defect in cell death in the ovary. These data indicate that a mitochondrial pathway is a major mechanism for activation of cell death in Drosophila oogenesis. PMID:21177345

  13. Apoptotic machinery: the Bcl-2 family proteins in the role of inspectors and superintendents.

    PubMed

    Tichý, Ales

    2006-01-01

    Programmed cell death, apoptosis, plays an integral role in a variety of biological events, e.g. morphogenesis, removal of unwanted or harmful cells, tissue homeostasis etc. Members of the Bcl-2 family have been described as the key players in the regulation of the apoptotic process. This family consists of proteins that prevent apoptosis (Bcl-2-like) and two structurally distinct subgroups (Bax-like and BH3-only) that on the contrary promote cell death. Majority of their response is concentrated to the mitochondrial level. In this paper, besides reviewing some new information in this field we focused on how they interact among each other and on the way they sense and influence the death signals from the environment. Here, we compare Bcl-2 family to inspectors and superintendents since they supervise the manufacturing process of cell death and they determine whether the cell will die or it will resist and survive.

  14. Bcl-2 family proteins in breast development and cancer: could Mcl-1 targeting overcome therapeutic resistance?

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Michelle M.; Cook, Rebecca S.

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis, cell death executed by caspases, is essential to normal breast development and homeostasis. Pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic signals are tightly regulated in normal breast epithelial cells. Dysregulation of this balance is required for breast tumorigenesis and increases acquired resistance to treatments, including molecularly targeted therapies, radiation and chemotherapies. The pro-apoptotic or anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members interact with each other to maintain mitochondrial integrity and regulate cellular commitment to apoptosis. Among the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members, Mcl-1 is uniquely regulated by numerous oncogenic signaling pathways. This review will focus on the role of Bcl-2 family proteins in normal breast development, breast tumorigenesis and acquired resistance to breast cancer treatment strategies, while highlighting Mcl-1 as a promising target to improve breast cancer tumor cell killing. PMID:25784482

  15. Regulation of mitochondrial nutrient and energy metabolism by BCL-2 family proteins

    PubMed Central

    Giménez-Cassina, Alfredo; Danial, Nika N.

    2015-01-01

    Cells have evolved a highly integrated network of mechanisms to coordinate cellular survival/death, proliferation, differentiation, and repair with metabolic states. It is, therefore, not surprising that proteins with canonical roles in cell death/survival also modulate nutrient and energy metabolism and vice versa. The finding that many BCL-2 (B cell lymphoma 2) proteins reside at mitochondria or can translocate to this organelle has long motivated investigation into their involvement in normal mitochondrial physiology and metabolism. These endeavors have led to the discovery of homeostatic roles for BCL-2 proteins beyond apoptosis. Here, we predominantly focus on recent findings that link select BCL-2 proteins to carbon substrate utilization at the level of mitochondrial fuel choice, electron transport, and metabolite import independent of their cell death regulatory function. PMID:25748272

  16. Quinacrine induces apoptosis in human leukemia K562 cells via p38 MAPK-elicited BCL2 down-regulation and suppression of ERK/c-Jun-mediated BCL2L1 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Changchien, Jung-Jung; Chen, Ying-Jung; Huang, Chia-Hui; Cheng, Tian-Lu; Lin, Shinne-Ren; Chang, Long-Sen

    2015-04-01

    Although previous studies have revealed the anti-cancer activity of quinacrine, its effect on leukemia is not clearly resolved. We sought to explore the cytotoxic effect and mechanism of quinacrine action in human leukemia K562 cells. Quinacrine induced K562 cell apoptosis accompanied with ROS generation, mitochondrial depolarization, and down-regulation of BCL2L1 and BCL2. Upon exposure to quinacrine, ROS-mediated p38 MAPK activation and ERK inactivation were observed in K562 cells. Quinacrine-induced cell death and mitochondrial depolarization were suppressed by the p38MAPK inhibitor SB202190 and constitutively active MEK1 over-expression. Activation of p38 MAPK was shown to promote BCL2 degradation. Further, ERK inactivation suppressed c-Jun-mediated transcriptional expression of BCL2L1. Over-expression of BCL2L1 and BCL2 attenuated quinacrine-evoked mitochondrial depolarization and rescued the viability of quinacrine-treated cells. Taken together, our data indicate that quinacrine-induced K562 cell apoptosis is mediated through mitochondrial alterations triggered by p38 MAPK-mediated BCL2 down-regulation and suppression of ERK/c-Jun-mediated BCL2L1 expression. - Highlights: • Quinacrine induces K562 cell apoptosis via down-regulation of BCL2 and BCL2L1. • Quinacrine induces p38 MAPK activation and ERK inactivation in K562 cells. • Quinacrine elicits p38 MAPK-mediated BCL2 down-regulation. • Quinacrine suppresses ERK/c-Jun-mediated BCL2L1 expression.

  17. Connecting mitochondrial dynamics and life-or-death events via Bcl-2 family proteins.

    PubMed

    Aouacheria, Abdel; Baghdiguian, Stephen; Lamb, Heather M; Huska, Jason D; Pineda, Fernando J; Hardwick, J Marie

    2017-04-28

    The morphology of a population of mitochondria is the result of several interacting dynamical phenomena, including fission, fusion, movement, elimination and biogenesis. Each of these phenomena is controlled by underlying molecular machinery, and when defective can cause disease. New understanding of the relationships between form and function of mitochondria in health and disease is beginning to be unraveled on several fronts. Studies in mammals and model organisms have revealed that mitochondrial morphology, dynamics and function appear to be subject to regulation by the same proteins that regulate apoptotic cell death. One protein family that influences mitochondrial dynamics in both healthy and dying cells is the Bcl-2 protein family. Connecting mitochondrial dynamics with life-death pathway forks may arise from the intersection of Bcl-2 family proteins with the proteins and lipids that determine mitochondrial shape and function. Bcl-2 family proteins also have multifaceted influences on cells and mitochondria, including calcium handling, autophagy and energetics, as well as the subcellular localization of mitochondrial organelles to neuronal synapses. The remarkable range of physical or functional interactions by Bcl-2 family proteins is challenging to assimilate into a cohesive understanding. Most of their effects may be distinct from their direct roles in apoptotic cell death and are particularly apparent in the nervous system. Dual roles in mitochondrial dynamics and cell death extend beyond BCL-2 family proteins. In this review, we discuss many processes that govern mitochondrial structure and function in health and disease, and how Bcl-2 family proteins integrate into some of these processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Clinical significance of Cox-2, Survivin and Bcl-2 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu; Zhu, Jiang; Gou, Hongfeng; Cao, Dan; Jiang, Ming; Hou, Mei

    2011-09-01

    Cox-2, Survivin and Bcl-2 are frequently overexpressed in numerous types of cancers. They are known to be the important regulators of apoptosis. This study was designed to investigate the correlation between the clinical characteristics and the expression of Cox-2, Survivin and Bcl-2 in hepatocellular carcinoma. A total of 63 postoperative hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) samples, 10 adjacent non-tumor samples and 10 normal liver samples were immunochemically detected for the expression of Cox-2, Survivin and Bcl-2. A median follow-up of 4 years for the 63 HCC patients was conducted. Univariate tests and multivariate Cox regression were performed for statistical analysis. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze the survival. Positive expression of Cox-2 (84.3%) and Survivin (77.8%) was detected significantly more frequently in the HCC samples than in the normal liver tissues (30% and 0, respectively). Bcl-2 was highly expressed in the adjacent non-tumor tissue. Cox-2 was positively correlative to Survivin. Survivin and Bcl-2 were significantly associated with the pathological grade of HCC (P<0.05). Expression of both Cox-2 and Survivin was significantly associated with the poor overall survival (OS) (P=0.0141, P=0.0039). Furthermore, multivariate analysis confirmed the independent prognostic value of Survivin expression, along with tumor size and hepatic function. Cox-2 and Survivin were highly expressed in the HCC tissue. Survivin and Bcl-2 were significantly associated with the pathological grade of HCC. The expression of Survivin was an independent prognostic factor for HCC after a hepatectomy. Treatment that inhibits Survivin may be a promising targeted approach in HCC.

  19. CD40 ligand, Bcl-2 and apoptosis in B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Ola A; Omran, Alaa A; Elnaggar, Amina M; Fathy, Ayman

    2009-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a haematopoetic neoplasm caused primarily by defects in apoptosis mechanisms and complicated by progressive marrow failure, immunosupression and increased resistance to chemotherapy. The CD40-CD40 ligand (CD40L) interaction has been shown to significantly increase antigen presentation in normal and malignant B-cells and it is a powerful regulator of cell survival. Bcl-2 expression is common in CLL and is associated with decreased overall survival. Our objective was to asses CD40 ligand (CD154) and Bcl-2 expressions and their correlation with clinical and laboratory features in CLL patients. This study was conducted on 40 subjects, including 10 healthy volunteers as the control group and 30 patients presented with de novo chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), all of them were subjected to thorough history taking, full clinical examinations, routine laboratory investigations and flowcytometric assessment of CD40L and Bcl-2 on lymphocytes. There was a highly significant increase in TLC, absolute lymphocytic count, serum LDH, B2-microglobulin and Bcl-2 expression (P<0.001); there was a significant increase in CD40L expression (P<0.05); whereas there was a highly significant decrease in hemoglobin concentration and platelets count between the study group (P<0.001). There was no significant difference as regard direct Coombs' test between both groups. There was no significant relation between CD154 expression and clinical findings, Rai staging system and other laboratory parameters. CD40L expression is increased with staging of Modified Rai staging system but not reaching the significant level. There was no significant correlation between CD154 expression and some of clinical and laboratory parameters, whereas there was only significantly negative correlation between Bcl-2 expression and both haemoglobin concentration and platelets count (P<0.001). Combination of Bcl-2 antisense oligonucleotide with conventional chemotherapeutic drugs

  20. Mechanisms of anti-leukemic activity of the Bcl-2 homology domain-3 mimetic S1.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yubo; Li, Zhiqiang; Song, Ting; Xue, Zuguang; Zhang, Zhichao

    2013-09-01

    Most of leukemia exhibits inherent overexpressed Bcl-2-like proteins. Small molecule S1 is a BH3 mimetic discovered by our previous studies. The aim of this study is to dissect the details of apoptosis signaling induced by S1 in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) cells and to provide a molecular basis for the use of S1 in AML treatment. The anti-leukemic activity of S1 was evaluated in three cultured AML cell lines and eight patient samples. S1 induced apoptosis via an intrinsic apoptosis pathway by the disruption of protein-protein interactions of Bcl-2 family members and triggered the activation of Bax and Bak in AML cells. For the first time, we report that S1 can release pro-apoptotic protein from Bcl-XL and selectively inhibits colony formation of primary AML cells. Bak activation and release determined S1 sensitivity in AML cells. Furthermore, S1-induced apoptosis was largely reduced in cells with shRNA-mediated downregulation of Bak but not Bax. The combination of S1 with PD98059 can inhibit Bcl-2 phosphorylation and enhance Bak release from Bcl-2. Our study identified Bak as a key mediator of S1-induced intrinsic apoptosis in AML cells. Moreover, our data suggest that Bcl-2 phosphorylation plays an anti-apoptotic role in S1-induced apoptosis. This study could contribute not only to the future clinical development of S1, but also the rational use of other pan-Bcl-2 inhibitors, alone or in combination with kinase inhibitor-based strategies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Gambogic acid is an antagonist of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2-family proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Dayong; Jin, Chaofang; Shiau, Chung-wai; Kitada, Shinichi; Satterthwait, Arnold C; Reed, John C.

    2008-01-01

    The natural product Gambogic acid (GA) has been reported to have cytotoxic activity against tumor cells in culture, and was identified as an active compound in a cell-based high-throughput screening (HTS) assay for activators of caspases, proteases involved in apoptosis. Using the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2-family protein, Bfl-1, as a target for screening of a library of natural products, we identified GA as a competitive inhibitor that displaced BH3 peptides from Bfl-1 in a fluorescent polarization assay (FPA). Analysis of competition for BH3 peptide binding revealed that GA inhibits all 6 human Bcl-2-family proteins to various extents, with Mcl-1 and Bcl-B the most potently inhibited (concentrations required for 50% inhibition [IC50] <1 μM). Competition for BH3 peptide binding was also confirmed using a time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) assay. GA functionally inhibited the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2-family proteins, as demonstrated by experiments using isolated mitochondria in which recombinant purified Bcl-2-family proteins suppress SMAC release in vitro, showing that GA neutralizes their suppressive effects on mitochondria in a concentration-dependent manner. GA killed tumor cell lines via an apoptotic mechanism, whereas analogs of GA with greatly reduced potency at BH3 peptide displacement showed little or no cytotoxic activity. However, GA retained cytotoxic activity against bax−/− bak−/− cells in which anti-apoptotic Bcl-2-family proteins lack a cytoprotective phenotype, implying that GA also has additional targets that contribute to its cytotoxic mechanism. Altogether, the findings suggest that suppression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2-family proteins may be among the cytotoxic mechanisms by which GA kills tumor cells. PMID:18566235

  2. Cyclophilin D interacts with Bcl2 and exerts an anti-apoptotic effect.

    PubMed

    Eliseev, Roman A; Malecki, Jonathan; Lester, Tobias; Zhang, Yu; Humphrey, John; Gunter, Thomas E

    2009-04-10

    Cyclophilin D (CypD) is a mitochondrial immunophilin and a key positive regulator of the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT). Several reports have shown that CypD is overexpressed in various tumors, where it has an anti-apoptotic effect. Because the MPT is a cell death-inducing phenomenon, we hypothesized that the anti-apoptotic effect of CypD is independent of the MPT but is due to its interaction with some key apoptosis regulator, such as Bcl2. Our data indicate that CypD indeed interacts with Bcl2 as confirmed with co-immunoprecipitation, pulldown, and mammalian two-hybrid assays. A cyclophilin D inhibitor, cyclosporine A, disrupts the CypD-Bcl2 interaction. CypD enhances the limiting effect of Bcl2 on the tBid-induced release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, which is not mediated via the MPT. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments confirm that CypD has a limiting effect on cytochrome c release from mitochondria and that such an effect of CypD is cyclosporine A- and Bcl2-dependent. On a cellular level, overexpression or knockdown of CypD respectively decreases or increases cytochrome c release from mitochondria and overall cell sensitivity to apoptosis progressing via the "intrinsic" pathway. Therefore, we here describe a novel function of CypD as a Bcl2 collaborator and an inhibitor of cytochrome c release from mitochondria independent of the MPT. This function of CypD may explain the anti-apoptotic effect of this protein observed in various cancer cells. The fact that some tumors overexpress CypD suggests that this may be an additional mechanism of suppression of apoptosis in cancer.

  3. Bcl-2 Allows Effector and Memory CD8+ T Cells To Tolerate Higher Expression of Bim

    PubMed Central

    Kurtulus, Sema; Tripathi, Pulak; Moreno-Fernandez, Maria E.; Sholl, Allyson; Katz, Jonathan D.; Grimes, H. Leighton; Hildeman, David A.

    2014-01-01

    As acute infections resolve, most effector CD8+ T cells die, whereas some persist and become memory T cells. Recent work showed that subsets of effector CD8+ T cells, identified by reciprocal expression of killer cell lectin-like receptor G1 (KLRG1) and CD127, have different lifespans. Similar to previous reports, we found that effector CD8+ T cells reported to have a longer lifespan (i.e., KLRG1lowCD127high) have increased levels of Bcl-2 compared with their shorter-lived KLRG1highCD127low counterparts. Surprisingly, we found that these effector KLRG1lowCD127high CD8+ T cells also had increased levels of Bim compared with KLRG1highCD127low cells. Similar effects were observed in memory cells, in which CD8+ central memory T cells expressed higher levels of Bim and Bcl-2 than did CD8+ effector memory T cells. Using both pharmacologic and genetic approaches, we found that survival of both subsets of effector and memory CD8+ T cells required Bcl-2 to combat the proapoptotic activity of Bim. Interestingly, inhibition or absence of Bcl-2 led to significantly decreased expression of Bim in surviving effector and memory T cells. In addition, manipulation of Bcl-2 levels by IL-7 or IL-15 also affected expression of Bim in effector CD8+ T cells. Finally, we found that Bim levels were significantly increased in effector CD8+ T cells lacking Bax and Bak. Together, these data indicate that cells having the highest levels of Bim are selected against during contraction of the response and that Bcl-2 determines the level of Bim that effector and memory T cells can tolerate. PMID:21451108

  4. Therapeutic potential of a peptide targeting BCL-2 cell guardians in cancer.

    PubMed

    Adams, Jerry M

    2012-06-01

    A promising approach to cancer therapy is to elicit apoptosis with "BH3 mimetic" drugs, which target proteins of the BCL-2 family. As of yet, however, such drugs can target only certain BCL-2 family proteins. Hence, in this issue of the JCI, LaBelle et al. assess instead the therapeutic potential of a "stapled" BH3 peptide from the BIM protein, which inactivates all its prosurvival relatives. The peptide killed cultured hematologic tumor cells and abated growth of a leukemia xenograft, without perturbing the hematopoietic compartment. Hence, such peptides might eventually provide a new way to treat refractory leukemias.

  5. BCL-2: Long and winding path from discovery to therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Schenk, Robyn L; Strasser, Andreas; Dewson, Grant

    2017-01-15

    In 1988, the BCL-2 protein was found to promote cancer by limiting cell death rather than enhancing proliferation. This discovery set the wheels in motion for an almost 30 year journey involving many international research teams that has recently culminated in the approval for a drug, ABT-199/venetoclax/Venclexta that targets this protein in the treatment of cancer. This review will describe the long and winding path from the discovery of this protein and understanding the fundamental process of apoptosis that BCL-2 and its numerous homologues control, through to its exploitation as a drug target that is set to have significant benefit for cancer patients.

  6. Differential expression of Bcl-2 and Bax during gastric ischemia-reperfusion of rats

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Wei-Li; Wang, Guang-Ming; Shi, Yue; Wu, Jin-Xia; Qi, You-Jian; Zhang, Jian-Fu; Sun, Hong; Yan, Chang-Dong

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in gastric ischemia-reperfusion (GI-R) and involvement of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 activation. METHODS: The GI-R model was established by ligature of the celiac artery for 30 min and reperfusion in Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were assigned to groups in accordance with their evaluation period: control, 0, 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 24, 48, and 72 h. Expression and distribution of Bcl-2 and Bax proteins were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and western blotting in gastric tissue samples after sacrifice. RESULTS: Compared with controls, the percentage of positive cells and protein levels of Bcl-2 decreased in the early phases of reperfusion, reached its minimum at 1 h (P < 0.05); it then increased, reaching its peak at 24 h of reperfusion (P < 0.05). The pattern of Bax expression was opposite to that of Bcl-2. Bax expression increased after reperfusion, with its peak at 1 h of reperfusion (P < 0.05), and then it decreased gradually to a minimum at 24 h after reperfusion (P < 0.05). On the other hand, inhibition of activation of ERK1/2 induced by PD98059, a specific upstream MEK inhibitor, had significant effects on Bcl-2 and Bax in GI-R. Compared with GI-R treatment only at 3 h of reperfusion, PD98059 reduced the number of Bcl-2 positive cells (0.58% of R3h group, P < 0.05) and Bcl-2 protein level (74% of R3h group, P < 0.05) but increased the number of Bax-positive cells (1.33-fold vs R3h group, P < 0.05) and Bax protein level (1.35-fold of R3h group, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: These results indicated that the Bcl-2 and Bax played a pivotal role in the gastric mucosal I-R injury and repair by activation of ERK1/2. PMID:21483632

  7. Diminishing Apoptosis by Deletion of Bax or Overexpression of Bcl-2 Does Not Protect against Infectious Prion Toxicity In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Steele, Andrew D.; King, Oliver D.; Jackson, Walker S.; Hetz, Claudio A.; Borkowski, Andrew W.; Thielen, Peter; Wollmann, Robert; Lindquist, Susan

    2008-01-01

    B-cell lymphoma protein 2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), key antiapoptotic and proapoptotic proteins, respectively, have important roles in acute and chronic models of neurologic disease. Several studies have implicated Bax and Bcl-2 in mediating neurotoxicity in prion diseases. To determine whether diminishing apoptotic cell death is protective in an infectious prion disease model we inoculated mice that either were null for proapoptotic Bax or overexpressed antiapoptotic Bcl-2. Interestingly, genetic manipulation of apoptosis did not lessen the clinical severity of disease. Moreover, some disease parameters, such as behavioral alterations and death, occurred slightly earlier in mice that are null for Bax or overexpress Bcl-2. These results suggest that Bax and Bcl-2 mediated apoptotic pathways are not the major contributing factor to the clinical or pathological features of infectious prion disease. PMID:18032675

  8. Expression of p63 and Bcl-2 in Malignant Thyroid Tumors and their Correlation with other Diagnostic Immunocytochemical Markers

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Shyama; Khurana, Nita; Kakar, Arun Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Bcl-2 is a marker recently studied in thyroid tumours and proposed to have prognostic significance. p63 is expressed in a proportion of papillary thyroid carcinoma cases and may have a role in tumour progression. Aim To study expression of Bcl2 and p63 in thyroid tumours and correlation of Bcl-2 with diagnostic markers including Thyroglobulin, Calcitonin and Carcinoembryonic antigen. Materials and Methods Cytology smears of 35 cases of thyroid cancer were studied over a period of 18 months. In 20 cases histopathology was available. Immunocytochemistry for Bcl-2 and p63 was done, and diagnostic markers were applied as and when required. Results p63 showed focal nuclear expression in 46.1% of papillary thyroid carcinoma cases, and was negative in all other tumours. Bcl-2 was positive in 88.9% of follicular carcinomas, 100% of papillary carcinomas and 83.3% of medullary carcinoma cases, and showed focal weak expression in 40% of Anaplastic Carcinoma (ATC) cases, thereby signifying down regulation (p-value = 0.001). There was significant down regulation of Thyroglobulin (Tg) in ATC vs well differentiated follicular derived tumours (p-value ≤ 0.016). Positive correlation was noted between expression of Bcl-2 and Calcitonin (0.93) and Bcl-2 and Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) (0.89), and weak positive correlation (0.65) between Tg and Bcl-2. Conclusion Bcl-2 is downregulated in anaplastic carcinomas as compared to well differentiated thyroid tumours, and shows correlation with differentiation associated tumour antigens. Thus, loss of Bcl-2 was associated with loss of differentiation in thyroid tumours. Anaplastic carcinoma as such is associated with worse prognosis and loss of Bcl-2 may be partly responsible for the same. p63 is specific but less sensitive marker for PTC. Further studies are required to determine the role of Bcl-2 and p63 in thyroid tumours. PMID:27630849

  9. SOX2 expression is associated with FGFR fusion genes and predicts favorable outcome in lung squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shanbo; Pan, Yunjian; Wang, Rui; Li, Yuan; Cheng, Chao; Shen, Xuxia; Li, Bin; Zheng, Difan; Sun, Yihua; Chen, Haiquan

    2015-01-01

    SOX2 is a gene that encodes for a transcription factor, which functions as an activator or suppressor of gene transcription. SOX2 amplification and overexpression have been found in various types of tumors and play important roles in cancer cells. The aim of the study was to evaluate SOX2 expression and amplification in lung squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and to determine the relationship with main clinicopathologic features, patient prognosis, and common driver mutations. SOX2 protein levels were measured by immunohistochemistry, while SOX2 copy numbers were measured by fluorescence in situ hybridization in resected samples from 162 Chinese lung SCC patients. All patients were also analyzed for mutations in EGFR, HER2, BRAF, PIK3CA, NFE2L2, and FGFR fusion genes. Clinical characteristics, including age, sex, smoking status, stage, relapse-free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS), were collected. SOX2 overexpression and amplification were observed in 58.6% and 45.9% of lung SCCs. Lung SCC patients with SOX2 overexpression were significantly associated with absence of malignant tumor family history (P=0.021), FGFR fusion gene (P=0.046), longer RFS (P=0.041), and OS (P=0.025). No correlation was found between SOX2 gene amplification and main clinicopathologic features, patient prognosis, or common driver mutations. SOX2 overexpression and amplification are common in lung SCCs. SOX2 over-expression was associated with FGFR fusion genes and predicted favorable outcome in lung SCCs. The underlying relationship of SOX2 and FGFR still needs further investigation.

  10. The role of middle latency evoked potentials in early prediction of favorable outcomes among patients with severe ischemic brain injuries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Miao; Su, Ying Ying

    2014-10-15

    To explore the role of middle latency evoked potentials (EPs) as predictors for favorable outcome in patients with severe ischemic brain injuries by comparing the prognostic ability of short latency somatosensory and auditory evoked potentials (SLSEP and BAEP) with middle latency somatosensory and auditory evoked potentials (MLSEP and MLAEP). MLSEP, MLAEP, SLSEP and BAEP were recorded in 112 patients with severe ischemic brain injuries (Glasgow Coma Scale ≤ 8). Among them, 83 patients suffered from cerebral ischemic stroke and 29 suffered from anoxic-ischemic encephalopathy after cardiopulmonary resuscitation between 1 and 7 days after the onset of stroke. Outcomes were reviewed 6 months later using the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS). A GOS score of 4-5 was considered as a good outcome while a score of 1-3 was considered as poor. By using the prognostic authenticity analysis of predictors for good outcome, at least unilateral N20 of the SLSEP exit and at least unilateral N60 of the MLSEP exit showed the highest sensitivity which was 100% (95% CI: 86.7%-100%). The bilateral normal N60 showed a high specificity of 97.5% (95% CI: 90.4%-99.6%). It also showed the highest positive likelihood ratio of 6.25% (95% CI: 1.28%-30.59%), which was superior to N20 of SLSEP, V of BAEP, and Pa of MLAEP. The analysis demonstrated that the area under the curve for MLSEP grading was the highest (0.838) compared to that of SLSEP grading (0.784), MLAEP grading (0.659) and BAEP grading (0.621). Compared with using N20 of SLSEP analysis alone, adding MLSEP improves the outcome prediction in patients with severe ischemic brain injuries. When an outcome is uncertain after initial evaluation using short-latency EPs, MLSEP is valuable to be used from the first week to further improve prognostication in these patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. miR-143 Induces the Apoptosis of Prostate Cancer LNCap Cells by Suppressing Bcl-2 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhiwei; Luo, Yizhao; Qiu, Mingxing

    2017-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer has become a serious threat to the life of patients. microRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate the growth and apoptosis of cells. We aimed to investigate the regulation and mechanism of microRNA (miR-143) in the proliferation and apoptosis of prostate cancer LNCap cells. Material/Methods miR-143 and control scramble miRNA were synthesized and respectively transfected into LNCap cells. The proliferation and apoptosis were detected by MTT assay, flow cytometry, and caspase-3 activity assay. The intracellular expression of Bcl-2 was determined by Western blot. Further, LNCap cells were transfected with small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting Bcl-2 (siBcl-2) or plasmid expressing Bcl-2, followed by transfection of miR-143 or control miRNA. Bcl-2 expression was detected by Western blot, and cell apoptosis was measured by caspase-3 activity assay. Results Transfection of miR-143 significantly inhibited the proliferation of LNCap cells (P=0.0073), increased the percentage of externalized phosphatidylserine (P=0.0042), activated the caspase-3 (P=0.0012), and decreased the expression of Bcl-2 (P=0.012) when compared with the control miRNA group. The expression of Bcl-2 was significantly reduced after siBcl-2 transfection. The apoptosis in the siBcl-2+miR-143 group was significantly increased compared with that in the miR-143 group (P=0.036), whereas there was no significant difference in the apoptosis between the siBcl-2+miRNA and miRNA groups. The expression of Bcl-2 was obviously higher after the transfection of Bcl-2-expressing plasmid. The apoptosis in Bcl-2+miR-143 group was significantly reduced compared with the miR-143 group (P=0.031), whereas no significant difference in the apoptosis was detected between the miRNA and Bcl-2+miRNA groups. Conclusions Transfection of miR-143 induces the apoptosis of prostate cancer LNCap cells by down-regulating Bcl-2 expression, suggesting that Bcl-2 might be a potential therapeutic

  12. Bcl2 is a critical regulator of bile acid homeostasis by dictating Shp and lncRNA H19 function

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuxia; Liu, Chune; Barbier, Olivier; Smalling, Rana; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Lee, Sangmin; Delker, Don; Zou, An; Hagedorn, Curt H.; Wang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Bile acid (BA) metabolism is tightly controlled by nuclear receptor signaling to coordinate regulation of BA synthetic enzymes and transporters. Here we reveal a molecular cascade consisting of the antiapoptotic protein BCL2, nuclear receptor Shp, and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) H19 to maintain BA homeostasis. Bcl2 was overexpressed in liver of C57BL/6J mice using adenovirus mediated gene delivery for two weeks. Hepatic overexpression of Bcl2 caused drastic accumulation of serum BA and bilirubin levels and dysregulated BA synthetic enzymes and transporters. Bcl2 reactivation triggered severe liver injury, fibrosis and inflammation, which were accompanied by a significant induction of H19. Bcl2 induced rapid SHP protein degradation via the activation of caspase-8 pathway. The induction of H19 in Bcl2 overexpressed mice was contributed by a direct loss of Shp transcriptional repression. H19 knockdown or Shp re-expression largely rescued Bcl2-induced liver injury. Strikingly different than Shp, the expression of Bcl2 and H19 was hardly detectable in adult liver but was markedly increased in fibrotic/cirrhotic human and mouse liver. We demonstrated for the first time a detrimental effect of Bcl2 and H19 associated with cholestatic liver fibrosis and an indispensable role of Shp to maintain normal liver function. PMID:26838806

  13. Expanding the Cancer Arsenal with Targeted Therapies: Disarmament of the Antiapoptotic Bcl-2 Proteins by Small Molecules.

    PubMed

    Yap, Jeremy L; Chen, Lijia; Lanning, Maryanna E; Fletcher, Steven

    2017-02-09

    A hallmark of cancer is the evasion of apoptosis, which is often associated with the upregulation of the antiapoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family of proteins. The prosurvival function of the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins is manifested by capturing and neutralizing the proapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins via their BH3 death domains. Accordingly, strategies to antagonize the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins have largely focused on the development of low-molecular-weight, synthetic BH3 mimetics ("magic bullets") to disrupt the protein-protein interactions between anti- and proapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. In this way, apoptosis has been reactivated in malignant cells. Moreover, several such Bcl-2 family inhibitors are presently being evaluated for a range of cancers in clinical trials and show great promise as new additions to the cancer armamentarium. Indeed, the selective Bcl-2 inhibitor venetoclax (Venclexta) recently received FDA approval for the treatment of a specific subset of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. This review focuses on the major developments in the field of Bcl-2 inhibitors over the past decade, with particular emphasis on binding modes and, thus, the origins of selectivity for specific Bcl-2 family members.

  14. Involvement of PI3K and MAPK Signaling in bcl-2-induced Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression in Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Trisciuoglio, Daniela; Iervolino, Angela; Zupi, Gabriella; Del Bufalo, Donatella

    2005-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that bcl-2 overexpression in tumor cells exposed to hypoxia increases the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene through the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1). In this article, we demonstrate that exposure of bcl-2 overexpressing melanoma cells to hypoxia induced phosphorylation of AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 proteins. On the contrary, no modulation of these pathways by bcl-2 was observed under normoxic conditions. When HIF-1α expression was reduced by RNA interference, AKT and ERK1/2 phosphorylation were still induced by bcl-2. Pharmacological inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathways reduced the induction of VEGF and HIF-1 in response to bcl-2 overexpression in hypoxia. No differences were observed between control and bcl-2-overexpressing cells in normoxia, in terms of VEGF protein secretion and in response to PI3K and MAPK inhibitors. We also demonstrated that RNA interference-mediated down-regulation of bcl-2 expression resulted in a decrease in the ERK1/2 phosphorylation and VEGF secretion only in bcl-2-overexpressing cell exposed to hypoxia but not in control cells. In conclusion, our results indicate, for the first time, that bcl-2 synergizes with hypoxia to promote expression of angiogenesis factors in melanoma cells through both PI3K- and MAPK-dependent pathways. PMID:15987743

  15. Bcl-rambo, a novel Bcl-2 homologue that induces apoptosis via its unique C-terminal extension.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, T; Holler, N; Micheau, O; Martinon, F; Tinel, A; Hofmann, K; Tschopp, J

    2001-06-01

    The Bcl-2 family of proteins plays a central regulatory role in apoptosis. We have identified a novel, widely expressed Bcl-2 member which we have named Bcl-rambo. Bcl-rambo shows overall structural homology to the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 members containing conserved Bcl-2 homology (BH) motifs 1, 2, 3, and 4. Unlike Bcl-2, however, the C-terminal membrane anchor region is preceded by a unique 250 amino acid insertion containing two tandem repeats. No interaction of Bcl-rambo with either anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2, Bcl-x(L), Bcl-w, A1, MCL-1, E1B-19K, and BHRF1) or pro-apoptotic (Bax, Bak, Bik, Bid, Bim, and Bad) members of the Bcl-2 family was observed. In mammalian cells, Bcl-rambo was localized to mitochondria, and its overexpression induces apoptosis that is specifically blocked by the caspase inhibitors, IAPs, whereas inhibitors controlling upstream events of either the 'death receptor' (FLIP, FADD-DN) or the 'mitochondrial' pro-apoptotic pathway (Bcl-x(L)) had no effect. Surprisingly, the Bcl-rambo cell death activity was induced by its membrane-anchored C-terminal domain and not by the Bcl-2 homology region. Thus, Bcl-rambo constitutes a novel type of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 member that triggers cell death independently of its BH motifs.

  16. Targeted antisense radiotherapy and dose fractionation using a (177)Lu-labeled anti-bcl-2 peptide nucleic acid-peptide conjugate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dijie; Balkin, Ethan R; Jia, Fang; Ruthengael, Varyanna C; Smith, C Jeffrey; Lewis, Michael R

    2015-09-01

    failure in humans with NHL. We have developed a (177)Lu-DOTA-anti-bcl-2-PNA-Tyr(3)-octreotate conjugate for targeted antisense radiotherapy, in which down-regulation of bcl-2 and delivery of cytotoxic radiation occur simultaneously. Our previous studies have shown highly specific inhibition of bcl-2 protein, additive in vitro cytotoxic effects on human lymphoma cells, and favorable biodistribution and dosimetric properties. Lutetium-177 targeted antisense radiotherapy demonstrates a significant advantage over conventional (177)Lu-peptide receptor radionuclide therapy in a mouse model of NHL. Our preclinical studies identified an effective combination of antisense and radionuclide therapy, with the goal of future clinical trials in patients. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. B cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2) homology domain 3 (BH3) mimetics demonstrate differential activities dependent upon the functional repertoire of pro- and anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family proteins.

    PubMed

    Renault, Thibaud T; Elkholi, Rana; Bharti, Archana; Chipuk, Jerry E

    2014-09-19

    The B cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2) family is the key mediator of cellular sensitivity to apoptosis during pharmacological interventions for numerous human pathologies, including cancer. There is tremendous interest to understand how the proapoptotic BCL-2 effector members (e.g. BCL-2-associated X protein, BAX) cooperate with the BCL-2 homology domain only (BH3-only) subclass (e.g. BCL-2 interacting mediator of death, BIM; BCL-2 interacting-domain death agonist, BID) to induce mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) and apoptosis and whether these mechanisms may be pharmacologically exploited to enhance the killing of cancer cells. Indeed, small molecule inhibitors of the anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family members have been designed rationally. However, the success of these "BH3 mimetics" in the clinic has been limited, likely due to an incomplete understanding of how these drugs function in the presence of multiple BCL-2 family members. To increase our mechanistic understanding of how BH3 mimetics cooperate with multiple BCL-2 family members in vitro, we directly compared the activity of several BH3-mimetic compounds (i.e. ABT-263, ABT-737, GX15-070, HA14.1, TW-37) in biochemically defined large unilamellar vesicle model systems that faithfully recapitulate BAX-dependent mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization. Our investigations revealed that the presence of BAX, BID, and BIM differentially regulated the ability of BH3 mimetics to derepress proapoptotic molecules from anti-apoptotic proteins. Using mitochondria loaded with fluorescent BH3 peptides and cells treated with inducers of cell death, these differences were supported. Together, these data suggest that although the presence of anti-apoptotic BCL-2 proteins primarily dictates cellular sensitivity to BH3 mimetics, additional specificity is conferred by proapoptotic BCL-2 proteins. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. BRCA1 involved in regulation of Bcl-2 expression and apoptosis susceptibility to ionizing radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, YanLing; Wang, Bing; Zhang, Hong; Li, Ning; Tanaka, Kaoru; Zhou, Xin; Chen, RuPing; Zhang, Xin

    2011-05-01

    BRCA1 has been proposed to be tightly linked to the resistance of tumor cells to ionizing radiation. The pathway leading to this phenomenon is not yet clear. In this work, we investigated the role of BRCA1 in the apoptosis regulation in response to carbon ion irradiation. We utilized three different cancer cell lines with various states for BRCA1 and p53 to identify the relationship between endogenous BRCA1 and the apoptosis-related genes, and determine whether p53 function would affect the role of BRCA1 in apoptosis regulation. By Western blot analysis, we found that Bax expressions were not significantly changed after irradiation in all of three cell lines. However, Bcl-2 expression showed an up-regulation by endogenous BRCA1 regardless of p53 status. Moreover, the changes in Bcl-2 protein were due to the increase in the transcriptional levels of Bcl-2 mRNA, based on real-time PCR assay. At the same time, BRCA1-deficient cells showed a greater apoptosis susceptibility to irradiation when compared with BRCA1-proficient cells. The results suggest that BRCA1 might exert p53-independent regulative activities for Bcl-2, which seems account for the low apoptosis susceptibility in BRCA1-proficient carcinomas.

  19. Apoptosis and expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in eutopic endometrium from women with endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Meresman, G F; Vighi, S; Buquet, R A; Contreras-Ortiz, O; Tesone, M; Rumi, L S

    2000-10-01

    To evaluate and compare spontaneous apoptosis and Bcl-2 and Bax expression in eutopic endometrium from women with and without endometriosis. Apoptosis and Bcl-2 and Bax expression were examined in eutopic endometrium from women with and without endometriosis. Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental-CONICET, Department of Gynecology and Department of Gynecological Pathology, Clínicas University Hospital, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Women with untreated endometriosis (n = 14) and controls (n = 16). Collection of endometrial samples during diagnostic or therapeutic laparoscopy. Apoptotic cells were detected with use of the dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay; Bcl-2 and Bax expressions were assessed with use of immunohistochemical techniques. Spontaneous apoptosis was significantly lower in eutopic endometrium from patients with endometriosis, compared with healthy controls (2.26 +/- 0.53 and 9.37 +/- 1.69 apoptotic cells/field, respectively) and was independent of cycle phase. An increased expression of Bcl-2 protein was found in proliferative eutopic endometrium from patients with endometriosis. Bax expression was absent in proliferative endometrium, whereas there was an increase in its expression in secretory endometrium from both patients and controls. Women with endometriosis show decreased number of apoptotic cells in eutopic endometrium. The abnormal survival of endometrial cells may result in their continuing growth into ectopic locations.

  20. Cannabinoids Regulate Bcl-2 and Cyclin D2 Expression in Pancreatic β Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Seok; Rho, Jun Gi; Shin, Jung Jae; Song, Woo Keun; Lee, Eun Kyung; Egan, Josephine M.; Kim, Wook

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports have shown that cannabinoid 1 receptors (CB1Rs) are expressed in pancreatic β cells, where they induce cell death and cell cycle arrest by directly inhibiting insulin receptor activation. Here, we report that CB1Rs regulate the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and cell cycle regulator cyclin D2 in pancreatic β cells. Treatment of MIN6 and βTC6 cells with a synthetic CB1R agonist, WIN55,212–2, led to a decrease in the expression of Bcl-2 and cyclin D2, in turn inducing cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase and caspase-3-dependent apoptosis. Additionally, genetic deletion and pharmacological blockade of CB1Rs after injury in mice led to increased levels of Bcl-2 and cyclin D2 in pancreatic β cells. These findings provide evidence for the involvement of Bcl-2 and cyclin D2 mediated by CB1Rs in the regulation of β-cell survival and growth, and will serve as a basis for developing new therapeutic interventions to enhance β-cell function and growth in diabetes. PMID:26967640

  1. Impact of bone marrow stromal cells on Bcl-2 family members in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Viralkumar; Balakrishnan, Kumudha; Wierda, William G.; Gandhi, Varsha

    2014-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common form of adult leukemia in the western world. High levels of Bcl-2 family anti-apoptotic proteins are responsible for apoptotic-resistance. Besides anti-apoptotic proteins, microenvironment provides substantial surviving signals to CLL leukemic cells. However, the in-depth-knowledge on the role of individual Bcl-2 family members in the context of microenvironment is still limited. We performed a comprehensive analysis of transcripts and proteins of 18 Bcl-2 family members using “apoptosis array micro fluidic card” in primary cells before and after stromal co-cultures. Our data showed that, 5 of 6 anti-apoptotic members (excluding Bcl-b), 2 of 3 pro-apoptotic members (excluding Bok) and 6 of 9 BH3-only members were present at detectable mRNA levels in CLL cells. Importantly, stromal mediated extended survival of CLL cells was in strong association with elevated global transcription. Upon co-culturing with stromal cells, there was early response of increase in anti- (2/5) and pro-apoptotic protein (3/8) transcripts on day 1, while increase in anti-apoptotic proteins were observed on day 3, with no significant change in pro-apoptotic proteins. Our study revealed a differential pattern of expression of both transcripts and proteins following stromal co-cultures, proposing significance of Bcl-2 family members in stromal microenvironment. PMID:23837491

  2. Toxocara-induced hepatic inflammation: immunohistochemical characterization of lymphocyte subpopulations and Bcl-2 expression.

    PubMed

    Othman, Ahmad A; Ashour, Dalia S; Mohamed, Dareen A

    2013-05-01

    Toxocariasis is a soil-transmitted helminthic disease due to infection of humans by larvae of Toxocara canis (T. canis). It is one of the most commonly reported zoonotic infections in the world. The aim of this study was to characterize the key immune cells and activity of Bcl-2 in hepatic inflammation during the course of experimental infection by T. canis. Mice experimentally infected with T. canis were divided into two groups: mice with primary infection by Toxocara, and those infected after sensitization by Toxocara excretory-secretory antigen. CD4+, CD8+, and Bcl-2-expressing T lymphocytes were identified in the liver by immunohistochemistry at different durations post-infection. Recruitment of both CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes within the inflammatory reaction in the liver was observed, with difference in count and localization. These cells were detected within and around Toxocara-induced granulomas as well as in isolated inflammatory foci in the portal tracts or within the hepatic parenchyma. The antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 showed no significant change at different periods post-infection. On the other hand, immunization of mice with Toxocara excretory-secretory antigen prior to experimental infection caused earlier and more pronounced recruitment of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to the liver and enhanced expression of Bcl-2. Moreover, CD8+ cells became more diffuse within the inflammatory infiltrate. These results suggest a dynamic change in key immune cells according to the duration of infection as well as the immune status of the host.

  3. [Influence of TIEG1 on apoptosis of HL-60 cells and expression of Bcl-2/Bax].

    PubMed

    Yao, Kun; Yang, Ying; Hu, Rong; Miao, Miao; Liao, Ai-Jun; Yang, Wei; Liu, Zhuo-Gang

    2013-06-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the influence of TIEG1 on apoptosis of HL-60 cells and the expression of Bcl-2/Bax. Different concentration of TIEG1 were used to treat HL-60 cells, the cell growth inhibition rate was detected by MTT method. After treating HL-60 cells with 12.03 ng/ml TIEG1, cell apoptosis was detected with flow cytometry. Bcl-2 and Bax was detected with RT-PCR. The results showed that TIEG1 had inhibitory effect on HL-60 cell proliferation, and in time-and dose-dependent manners. The more obvious inhibitory effect was observed in HL-60 cells treated with TIEG1 of 12.03 ng/ml. During the course of cell apoptosis, Bax expression increased, but Bcl-2 expression decreased (P < 0.05). It is concluded that TIEG1 inhibits HL-60 cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in time and dose-dependent manners. During the course of HL-60 cells apoptosis induced by TIEG1, Bcl-2/Bax are associated with HL-60 cell apoptosis induced by TIEG1.

  4. miR-204 targets Bcl-2 expression and enhances responsiveness of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sacconi, A; Biagioni, F; Canu, V; Mori, F; Di Benedetto, A; Lorenzon, L; Ercolani, C; Di Agostino, S; Cambria, A M; Germoni, S; Grasso, G; Blandino, R; Panebianco, V; Ziparo, V; Federici, O; Muti, P; Strano, S; Carboni, F; Mottolese, M; Diodoro, M; Pescarmona, E; Garofalo, A; Blandino, G

    2012-01-01

    Micro RNAs (miRs) are small non-coding RNAs aberrantly expressed in human tumors. Here, we aim to identify miRs whose deregulated expression leads to the activation of oncogenic pathways in human gastric cancers (GCs). Thirty nine out of 123 tumoral and matched uninvolved peritumoral gastric specimens from three independent European subsets of patients were analyzed for the expression of 851 human miRs using Agilent Platform. The remaining 84 samples were used to validate miRs differentially expressed between tumoral and matched peritumoral specimens by qPCR. miR-204 falls into a group of eight miRs differentially expressed between tumoral and peritumoral samples. Downregulation of miR-204 has prognostic value and correlates with increased staining of Bcl-2 protein in tumoral specimens. Ectopic expression of miR-204 inhibited colony forming ability, migration and tumor engraftment of GC cells. miR-204 targeted Bcl-2 messenger RNA and increased responsiveness of GC cells to 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin treatment. Ectopic expression of Bcl-2 protein counteracted miR-204 pro-apoptotic activity in response to 5-fluorouracil. Altogether, these findings suggest that modulation of aberrant expression of miR-204, which in turn releases oncogenic Bcl-2 protein activity might hold promise for preventive and therapeutic strategies of GC. PMID:23152059

  5. Meiotic recombination between yeast artificial chromosomes yields a single clone containing the entire BCL2 protooncogene.

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, G A; Green, E D; Young, R L; Jockel, J I; Domer, P H; Korsmeyer, S J

    1990-01-01

    The common translocation found in human follicular lymphoma, t(14;18)(q32;q21), results in deregulation of the BCL2 protoonocogene. The isolation of the intact gene would provide an essential substrate to analyze the molecular basis of this malignancy. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis suggested that this three-exon gene was several hundred kilobases (kb) long. Therefore, a library of yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) clones was screened to isolate the intact BCL2 gene. Two clones, yA85B6 (200 kb) and yB206A6 (700 kb), were isolated by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays specific for exon I/II and exon III, respectively. However, neither YAC contained the entire BCL2 locus. Since the two YACs were found to overlap by 60 kb, we sought to take advantage of the high recombination frequency in yeast and induce physical recombination between the two clones. Cells containing each YAC were mated and induced to undergo meiotic division and sporulation. Analysis of the resulting tetrads revealed a spore containing a single recombinant YAC of 800 kb. PCR assays and Southern blotting demonstrated that this recombined YAC contained the entire approximately 230-kb BCL2 gene. Furthermore, probe order was conserved and there was no evidence of overt rearrangements or deletions. These results indicate the feasibility of reconstructing large genomic segments with overlapping YAC clones to study genes spanning hundreds of kilobases. Images PMID:2263642

  6. Distinct regions of the interleukin-7 receptor regulate different Bcl2 family members.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qiong; Li, Wen Qing; Hofmeister, Robert R; Young, Howard A; Hodge, David R; Keller, Jonathan R; Khaled, Annette R; Durum, Scott K

    2004-07-01

    The antiapoptotic function of the interleukin-7 (IL-7) receptor is related to regulation of three members of the Bcl2 family: synthesis of Bcl2, phosphorylation of Bad, and cytosolic retention of Bax. Here we show that, in an IL-7-dependent murine T-cell line, different regions of the IL-7 receptor initiate the signal transduction pathways that regulate these proteins. Both Box1 and Y449 are required to signal Bcl2 synthesis and Bax cytosolic retention. This suggests a sequential model in which Jak1, which binds to Box1, is first activated and then phosphorylates Y449, leading to Bcl2 and Bax regulation, accounting for approximately 90% of the survival function. Phosphorylation of Bad required Box1 but not Y449, suggesting that Jak1 also initiates an additional signaling cascade that accounts for approximately 10% of the survival function. Stat5 was activated from the Y449 site but only partially accounted for the survival signal. Proliferation required both Y449 and Box1. Thymocyte development in vivo showed that deletion of Y449 eliminated 90% of alphabeta T-cell development and completely eliminated gammadelta T-cell development, whereas deleting Box 1 completely eliminated both alphabeta and gammadelta T-cell development. Thus the IL-7 receptor controls at least two distinct pathways, in addition to Stat5, that are required for cell survival.

  7. The Vaccinia Virus-Encoded Bcl-2 Homologues Do Not Act as Direct Bax Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Postigo, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Many viruses, including members of several poxvirus genera, encode inhibitors that block apoptosis by simultaneously binding the proapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins Bak and Bax. The Orthopoxvirus vaccinia virus encodes the Bcl-2-like F1 protein, which sequesters Bak but not Bax. However, N1, a potent virulence factor, is reported to be antiapoptotic and to interact with Bax. Here we investigated whether vaccinia virus inhibits Bak/Bax-dependent apoptosis via the cooperative action of F1 and N1. We found that Western Reserve (WR) and ΔN1L viruses inhibited drug- and infection-induced apoptosis equally. Meanwhile, infections with ΔF1L or ΔN1L/F1L virus resulted in similar levels of Bax activation and apoptosis. Outside the context of infection, N1 did not block drug- or Bax-induced cell death or interact with Bax. In addition to F1 and N1, vaccinia virus encodes further structural homologs of Bcl-2 proteins that are conserved in orthopoxviruses, including A46, A52, B14, C1, C6, C16/B22, K7, and N2. However, we found that these do not associate with Bax or inhibit drug-induced cell death. Based on our findings that N1 is not an antiapoptotic protein, we propose that the F1 orthologs represent the only orthopoxvirus Bcl-2 homolog to directly inhibit the Bak/Bax checkpoint. PMID:22013032

  8. Bovine herpesvirus type 5 infection regulates Bax/BCL-2 ratio.

    PubMed

    Garcia, A F; Novais, J B; Antello, T F; Silva-Frade, C; Ferrarezi, M C; Flores, E F; Cardoso, T C

    2013-09-23

    Bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5) is an α-herpesvirus that causes neurological disease in young cattle and is also occasionally involved in reproductive disorders. Although there have been many studies of the apoptotic pathways induced by viruses belonging to the family Herpesviridae, there is little information about the intrinsic programmed cell death pathway in host-BoHV-5 interactions. We found that BoHV-5 is able to replicate in both mesenchymal and epithelial cell lines, provoking cytopathology that is characterized by cellular swelling and cell fusion. Viral antigens were detected in infected cells by immunofluorescence assay at 48 to 96 h post-infection (p.i.). At 48 to 72 h p.i., anti-apoptotic BCL-2 antigens were found at higher levels than Bax antigens; the latter is considered a pro-apoptotic protein. Infected cells had increased BCL-2 phenotype cells from 48 to 96 h p.i., based on flow cytometric analysis. At 48 to 96 h p.i., Bax mRNA was not expressed in any of the infected cell monolayers. In contrast, BCL-2 mRNA was found at high levels at all p.i. in both types of cells. BoHV-5 replication apparently modulates BCL-2 expression and gene transcription, enhancing production of virus progeny.

  9. Chemoprevention of intestinal tumorigenesis by nabumetone: induction of apoptosis and Bcl-2 downregulation.

    PubMed

    Roy, H K; Karoski, W J; Ratashak, A; Smyrk, T C

    2001-05-18

    Treatment of MIN mice with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, nabumetone, resulted in a dose-dependent suppression of intestinal tumorigenesis. In both the uninvolved MIN mouse colonic epithelium and HT-29 colon cancer cells, nabumetone downregulated the anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2, with concomitant induction of apoptosis, suggesting a potential mechanism for colon cancer chemoprevention.

  10. Neuroendocrine Differentiation in Breast Cancer: Clinicopathological Significance of Bcl-2 Positive Solid Papillary Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Okubo, Takuji; Okubo, Yoshimi; Ishiwatari, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Solid papillary carcinoma (SPC) is considered a rare malignant breast tumor. Maluf and Koerner first reported this disease entity as a special type of ductal carcinoma in situ with several characteristic histopathological features, including low-grade cellular atypia, intracellular or extracellular mucin deposition, and solid papillary growth pattern, as well as neuroendocrine differentiation. The present paper describes a case of SPC with bcl-2 expression, which is known as a marker for malignancy of neuroendocrine tumors. Interestingly, despite bcl-2 expression being a poor prognostic indicator of neuroendocrine tumors, the patient with this tumor has achieved long-term survival (approximately 6 years) at the time of writing this report. Because previous investigators reported that bcl-2 expression might play a role in the inhibition of the development of breast cancer, we suggest that bcl-2 expression might reflect a good prognosis in patients with SPC, rather than being a poor prognostic indicator, as it is in several types of neuroendocrine tumor. However, to confirm this hypothesis, further investigation is required. PMID:28105053

  11. Detection of p53 and Bcl-2 expression in cutaneous hemangioma through the quantum dot technique.

    PubMed

    Tang, Tian; Zhang, Duan-Lian

    2017-05-01

    Hemangioma is one of the most common types of infantile vascular benign tumor. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and tumor protein p53 (p53) in the proliferation and apoptosis of hemangioma cells. A total of 38 paraffin-embedded hemangioma specimens (16 males and 22 females) and another 5 paraffin-embedded healthy surrounding tissue samples, collected between January 2007 and December 2010, were obtained from the Department of Pathology at Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University (Wuhan, China). Immunohistochemistry, hematoxylin and eosin staining, and quantum dot double staining were used to detect the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), Bcl-2 and p53 in hemangioma and healthy surrounding skin tissue samples. All hemangioma specimens were classified into proliferative or the involuting stage hemangioma according to Mulliken's criteria and their expression of PCNA. The results of the quantum dot double staining were analyzed using a multi-spectral imaging system. One-way analysis of the variance and the Student-Newman-Keuls q test were performed to statistically analyze the data. There were 24 cases of proliferative stage and 14 cases of involuting stage hemangioma among the specimens. Immunohistochemical analysis results indicated a high expression of Bcl-2 and p53 in proliferative stage hemangioma tissue samples, and low expression in involuting stage hemangioma and healthy tissue samples. Statistical analysis of the results from quantum dot double staining demonstrated that the expression of Bcl-2 and p53 in proliferative hemangioma was significantly increased compared with that in involuting stage specimens (P<0.05) and healthy tissue samples (P<0.05). No significant difference in Bcl-2 and p53 expression was identified between the involuting hemangioma and healthy surrounding tissue samples. The higher expression of Bcl-2 and p53 in proliferative hemangioma suggests that Bcl-2 may cause an

  12. Propofol-induced rno-miR-665 targets BCL2L1 and influences apoptosis in rodent developing hippocampal astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wen-Chong; Liang, Zuo-Di; Pei, Ling

    2015-12-01

    Propofol exerts neurotoxic effects on the developing mammalian brains, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs that modulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. However, in specific types of neurocytes, the detailed functions of miRNAs were not entirely understood. We investigated the potential role of miRNAs in astrocyte pathogenesis caused by propofol. We performed genome-wide microRNA expression profiling in immature cultured hippocampal astrocytes by microarray analysis and predicted their targets and functions using bioinformatics tools. The functional effects of one differentially expressed miRNA were examined experimentally in relation to astrocyte viability. The results showed that 13 miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed after both short-term exposure to high-concentration propofol (10 μg/ml for 1h) and long-term exposure to low-concentration propofol (0.9 μg/ml for 48 h), including rno-miR-665, differing significantly between the 2. Bioinformatics predicted putative binding sites for rno-miR-665 existing in the 3'-untranslated region of Bcl-2-like protein 1 BCL2L1 (Bcl-xl) mRNA. Moreover, such relationship was assessed by luciferase reporter assay, qRT-PCR and western blot. Rno-miR-665 which was significantly up-regulated by propofol can suppress BCL2L1 and elevate cleaved caspase-3 expression in immature astrocytes in vitro. Apoptosis of developing hippocampal astrocytes was thus significantly influenced by propofol or rno-miR-665, or both. Taken together, rno-miR-665 is involved in the neurotoxicity induced by propofol via a caspase-3 mediated mechanism by negatively regulating BCL2L1. It might act as an alternative therapeutic target for treatment of neurological disorders in peadiatric prolonged anesthesia or sedation with propofol clinically.

  13. Effects of cadmium on Bcl-2/ Bax expression ratio in rat cortex brain and hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Mahdavi, S; Khodarahmi, P; Roodbari, N H

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the underlying mechanism of neurotoxicity of cadmium, we examined the effects of intraperitoneal injection of cadmium on messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2) and Bax (Bcl2-associated x) genes and caspase-3/7 activation in rat hippocampus and frontal cortex. Twenty-eight male Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g were randomly divided into four groups. Control group received saline and three other groups received cadmium at doses of 1, 2 and 4 mg/kg (body weight) for 15 successive days. One day after the last injection, the hippocampus and frontal cortex were dissected and removed and then the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax genes was evaluated using real-time polymerase chain reaction and apoptotic studies was done using caspase-3/7 activation assay. Cadmium reduced the mRNA level of Bcl-2 in the control group at doses of 1 ( p < 0.01), 2 and 4 mg/kg ( p < 0.001) in rat hippocampus and cortex cells. The mRNA level of Bax increased significantly compared to the control group at the doses of 1 ( p < 0.05), 2 and 4 mg/kg ( p < 0.001) in rat hippocampus. The mRNA level of Bax was increased significantly compared to the control group at the doses of 2 and 4 mg/kg ( p < 0.001) in rat cortex cells. Cadmium increased caspase-3/7 activity at doses of 1, 2 and 4 mg/kg in rat hippocampus. Caspase-3/7 activity was increased significantly at dose of 4 mg/kg in rat cortex. This decreased Bcl-2/Bax mRNA ratio induces cell apoptosis. Apoptotic effect of cadmium may be through the mitochondrial pathway by the activation of caspase-3/7.

  14. Autophagy blockade sensitizes the anticancer activity of CA-4 via JNK-Bcl-2 pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yangling; Luo, Peihua; Wang, Jincheng; Dai, Jiabin; Yang, Xiaochun; Wu, Honghai; Yang, Bo He, Qiaojun

    2014-01-15

    Combretastatin A-4 (CA-4) has already entered clinical trials of solid tumors over ten years. However, the limited anticancer activity and dose-dependent toxicity restrict its clinical application. Here, we offered convincing evidence that CA-4 induced autophagy in various cancer cells, which was demonstrated by acridine orange staining of intracellular acidic vesicles, the degradation of p62, the conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and GFP-LC3 punctate fluorescence. Interestingly, CA-4-mediated apoptotic cell death was further potentiated by pretreatment with autophagy inhibitors (3-methyladenine and bafilomycin A1) or small interfering RNAs against the autophagic genes (Atg5 and Beclin 1). The enhanced anticancer activity of CA-4 and 3-MA was further confirmed in the SGC-7901 xenograft tumor model. These findings suggested that CA-4-elicited autophagic response played a protective role that impeded the eventual cell death while autophagy inhibition was expected to improve chemotherapeutic efficacy of CA-4. Meanwhile, CA-4 treatment led to phosphorylation/activation of JNK and JNK-dependent phosphorylation of Bcl-2. Importantly, JNK inhibitor or JNK siRNA inhibited autophagy but promoted CA-4-induced apoptosis, indicating a key requirement of JNK-Bcl-2 pathway in the activation of autophagy by CA-4. We also identified that pretreatment of Bcl-2 inhibitor (ABT-737) could significantly enhance anticancer activity of CA-4 due to inhibition of autophagy. Taken together, our data suggested that the JNK-Bcl-2 pathway was considered as the critical regulator of CA-4-induced protective autophagy and a potential drug target for chemotherapeutic combination. - Highlights: • Autophagy inhibition could be a potential for combretastatin A-4 antitumor efficacy. • The JNK-Bcl-2 pathway plays a critical role in CA-4-induced autophagy. • ABT-737 enhances CA-4 anticancer activity due to inhibition of autophagy.

  15. Increased expression of Bcl-2 during mucous cell metaplasia induced by endotoxin and ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Tesfaigzi, J.; Ray, L.M.; Hotchkiss, J.A.

    1995-12-01

    Apoptosis or programmed cell death is accompanied by characteristic morphological changes that distinguish apoptosis from other forms of cell death. These changes include DNA fragmentation, chromatin condensation, cell shrinkage, cell surface pseudopodia, and finally the cellular collapse into membrane-enclosed apoptotic bodies which are rapidly engulfed by macrophages or neighboring cells. Although the morphological features of apoptotic cells are well studied, the biochemical events that control apoptosis are not understood. Programmed cell death is triggered by a variety of pathways that are initiated by different stimuli including noxious agents, DNA damage, the activation of TNF receptors, or the withdrawl of growth factors. The central process of programmed cell death involves a cascade of biochemical events that begins with the initiation of a family of cysteine proteases, including the interleukin-1-{Beta}-converting enzyme, CPP-32, and Apopain. The ratio of Bax, a death-inducer gene, to Bcl-2, an apoptosis suppressor gene, determines whether or not the main apoptotic pathyway is blocked. Apoptosis is suppressed if the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax is > 1, and cells undergo apoptosis if the ratio is < 1. The overexpression of Bcl-2 has been shown to block the apoptotic program triggered by a variety of agents. Therefore, Bcl-2 must be involved in blocking the central pathway of the cell death program. In conclusion, this study showed that high levels of Bcl-2 were detected in some mucous cells at specific time points during mucous cell metaplasia, and this expression was reduced at later time points or was absent after remodeling of this epithelium.

  16. Neuroprotective effects of Bcl-2 overexpression on nerve cells of rats with acute cerebral infarction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H R; Peng, J H; Zhu, G Y; Xu, R X

    2015-07-13

    We aimed to investigate the influence of lentiviral-mediated Bcl-2 overexpression in cerebral tissues of rats with acute cerebral infarction. Forty-five rats were randomly divided into sham, model, and treatment groups. The sham and model groups were administered a control lentiviral vector via the intracranial arteries 10 days before surgery, while the treatment group received lentivirus encoding a Bcl-2 overexpression vector. We induced cerebral artery infarction using a suture-occlusion method and analyzed the cerebral expression levels of apoptosis-related genes (caspase-3, Bax), total cerebral apoptosis, range of cerebral tissue infarction, and changes in nerve cell function after 72 h. The Bcl-2-encoding lentivirus was well expressed in rat cerebral tissues. The treatment group had significantly higher expression levels of Bcl-2 than the other two groups. After cerebral infarction, the model group had significantly increased expression levels of caspase-3 and Bax protein in cerebral tissues than the sham (P < 0.05). Expression of these apoptosis-related proteins in the treatment group was obviously lower than that in the model group (P < 0.05), but significantly higher than in the sham group (P < 0.05). Compared to sham, neuronal apoptosis levels and infarction range of cerebral tissues was increased in the model and treatment groups; however, these values in the treatment group were significantly lower than that in the model group (P < 0.05). Importantly, the treatment group had significantly decreased neurological impairment scores (P < 0.05). In conclusion, Bcl-2 over-expression can decrease neuronal apoptosis in rat cerebral tissue, and thus is neuroprotective after cerebral ischemia.

  17. Characterization of apoptosis and autophagy through Bcl-2 and Beclin-1 immunoexpression in gestational trophoblastic disease.

    PubMed

    Wargasetia, Teresa Liliana; Shahib, Nurhalim; Martaadisoebrata, Djamhoer; Dhianawaty, Diah; Hernowo, Bethy

    2015-07-01

    The pathogenesis of Gestational Trophoblastic Disease (GTD) is not clearly known. In this study, immunoexpression of proteins Bcl-2 and Beclin-1 in trophoblastic lesions and normal trophoblastic tissue was conducted to study the mechanism of apoptotic and autophagic cell death that is expected to complete the study of GTD pathogenesis. Bcl-2 and Beclin-1 immunoexpression were studied on complete hydatidiform mole, partial hydatidiform mole, invasive mole, choriocarcinoma and normal placenta slides. The average total scores of Bcl-2 immunoexpression had a decreasing value, starting from partial hydatidiform mole (3.09), complete hydatidiform mole (2.36), invasive mole (1.18) to choriocarcinoma (0) when compared to normal placenta (6). The results showed no significant difference in Beclin-1 immunoexpression total score between complete hydatidiform mole, partial hydatidiform mole and invasive mole, namely that the value of the average total score of Beclin-1 was low (2.27, 2.45 and 2.36), but on the contrary choriocarcinoma showed an increasing strong Beclin-1 expression with the average total score of 4.57. Bcl-2 expression decreases in line with the excessive proliferation of trophoblast cells in hydatidiform mole and leads to malignancy in invasive mole and choriocarcinoma. The decreased expression of Beclin-1 that leads to autophagy defects in complete hydatidiform mole, partial hydatidiform mole and invasive mole shows the role of autophagy as tumor suppressor, whereas strong Beclin-1 expression shows the survival role of autophagy in choriocarcinoma. The change of Bcl-2 activity as antiapoptosis and Beclin-1 as proautophagy plays a role in pathogenesis of GTD.

  18. Contribution of apoptosis-associated signaling pathways to epileptogenesis: lessons from Bcl-2 family knockouts.

    PubMed

    Henshall, David C; Engel, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Neuronal cell death is a pathophysiological consequence of many brain insults that trigger epilepsy and has been implicated as a causal factor in epileptogenesis. Seizure-induced neuronal death features excitotoxic necrosis and apoptosis-associated signaling pathways, including activation of multiple members of the Bcl-2 gene family. The availability of mice in which individual Bcl-2 family members have been deleted has provided the means to determine whether they have causal roles in neuronal death and epileptogenesis in vivo. Studies show that multiple members of the Bcl-2 family are activated following status epilepticus and the seizure and damage phenotypes of eight different knockouts of the Bcl-2 family have now been characterized. Loss of certain pro-apoptotic members, including Puma, protected against seizure-induced neuronal death whereas loss of anti-apoptotic Mcl-1 and Bcl-w enhanced hippocampal damage. Notably, loss of two putatively pro-apoptotic members, Bak and Bmf, resulted in more seizure-damage while deletion of Bid had no effect, indicating the role of certain Bcl-2 family proteins in epileptic brain injury is distinct from their contributions following other stressors or in non-CNS tissue. Notably, Puma-deficient mice develop fewer spontaneous seizures after status epilepticus suggesting neuroprotection may preserve functional inhibition, either directly by preserving neuronal networks or indirectly, for example by limiting reactive gliosis and pro-inflammatory responses to neuronal death. Together, these studies support apoptosis-associated molecular mechanisms controlling neuronal death as a component of epileptogenesis which might be targetable to protect against seizure-damage, cognitive deficits and mitigate the severity of syndrome following epilepsy-precipitating injuries to the brain.

  19. Bax and Bcl-2 are focally overexpressed in the normal epithelium of cancerous prostates.

    PubMed

    Tolonen, Teemu T; Tommola, Satu; Jokinen, Samuli; Parviainen, Tiina; Martikainen, Paula M

    2007-01-01

    Development of prostate cancer is connected with a disturbance of apoptosis. Prostate cancer is multifocal, suggesting that the control of apoptosis is impaired at multiple foci. We wanted to know whether apoptosis is generally disturbed in cancerous prostates and if changes in apoptotic control could be detected even in the absence of any morphologically visible changes. Therefore, we compared expression of two common apoptotic markers, Bax and Bcl-2, in normal epithelium of cancerous prostates and controls. We also evaluated the expression of these proteins in hyperplasia, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), carcinomas of different Gleason grades and capsular perineural invasion. The tissue material was obtained from radical prostatectomies, transurethral resection chips and autopsies. Individual tissue arrays were done for each patient. The intensity of Bax and Bcl-2 immunostaining was estimated semiquantitatively. The data were analyzed using a linear mixed-models analysis as well as dichotomized staining indices. Normal epithelium of cancerous prostates contained foci with high expression of Bax and Bcl-2. The expression of Bax in Gleason grades 3-5 carcinoma was significantly higher than that in Gleason grade 2, and was highest in foci with perineural invasion. The expression of Bcl-2 was strongest in PIN foci. Expression of Bax and Bcl-2 in normal epithelium of cancerous prostates suggests that increases in these indirect markers may reflect altered apoptotic control in these foci. Further studies are needed to show whether these changes represent the earliest step of the multifocal carcinogenetic process. Control of apoptosis seems to be involved and modulated during local progression of prostate cancer.

  20. Effect of bcl-2 overexpression in mice on ovotoxicity caused by 4-vinylcyclohexene

    SciTech Connect

    Flaws, Jodi A.; Marion, Samuel L.; Miller, Kimberly P.; Christian, Patricia J.; Babus, Janice K.; Hoyer, Patricia B. . E-mail: hoyer@u.arizona.edu

    2006-08-15

    The occupational chemical 4-vinylcyclohexene (VCH) destroys small preantral ovarian follicles in mice following repeated daily dosing. The cell survival gene bcl-2 is thought to protect against follicular death during embryogenesis because primordial follicle numbers in newborn bcl-2 overexpressing (OE) mice are greater than in wild-type (WT) controls. Thus, this study was designed to determine if overexpression of bcl-2 protects against VCH-induced follicle loss during embryonic development. Pregnant bcl-2 OE or WT mice were dosed (p.o.) daily with VCH (500 mg/kg) or sesame oil (vehicle control) on days 8-18 of pregnancy. Ovaries were collected from moms and female pups on pup postnatal day (PND) 8. Nonpregnant OE and WT females were also treated with VCH (500 mg/kg p.o.) or vehicle and evaluated in the same manner. As previously reported, ovaries from PND8 OE female pups contained 50% more primordial follicles than WT pups (P < 0.05). Unlike WT pups, relative to vehicle controls, in utero exposure to VCH resulted in a reduction in primordial (25% of control), primary (38% of control), and secondary (33% of control) follicles in ovaries of OE pups (P < 0.05). VCH had no significant effect on follicle numbers in OE or WT moms. Conversely, in nonpregnant adults, VCH did not affect WT mice but caused loss of primordial (55% of control), primary (51% of control), and secondary (69% of control) follicles in OE mice (P < 0.05). These results demonstrate that bcl-2 overexpression does not protect against, but instead increases susceptibility to VCH-induced follicle loss in transplacentally exposed or in nonpregnant mice.

  1. MicroRNA-206 Inhibited the Progression of Glioblastoma Through BCL-2.

    PubMed

    Hao, Wenjiong; Luo, Wei; Bai, Mangmang; Li, Jian; Bai, Xiaobin; Guo, Jie; Wu, Jinsong; Wang, Maode

    2016-12-01

    Gliomas are the most common type of brain tumor and have a poor prognosis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, endogenous, and non-coding RNAs that play crucial roles in cell proliferation, survival, and invasion. Deregulated expression of miR-206 has been investigated in many cancers. However, the role of miR-206 in glioblastoma is still unclear. In the present study, we found that the expression of miR-206 was decreased in cancer tissues compared with normal tissues. However, the expression level of BCL-2 was higher in cancer tissues than that in normal tissues (all p < 0.001). Statistically, the expression level of BCL-2 was inversely correlated with the miR-206. In addition, the overall survival of glioblastoma patients with lower miR-206 expression was significantly shorter than those with high miR-206 expression (p < 0.001). Besides, the expression of miR-206 was also decreased in U87 and U251 cells. In vitro assays showed that ectopic miR-206 expression affected the proliferation, cell cycle, and invasion in U87 and U251 cells. Importantly, we identified BCL-2 as a direct target of miR-206 in U87 and U251 cells using luciferase assay. Overexpression of BCL-2 partially attenuated the miR-206-mediated cell proliferation. In vivo, overexpression of miR-206 suppressed the progression of glioblastoma cells using mice xenograft model. In conclusion, this study suggested that miR-206 could act as a tumor suppressor gene through inhibiting BCL-2 in the development of glioblastoma.

  2. Characterization of apoptosis and autophagy through Bcl-2 and Beclin-1 immunoexpression in gestational trophoblastic disease

    PubMed Central

    Wargasetia, Teresa Liliana; Shahib, Nurhalim; Martaadisoebrata, Djamhoer; Dhianawaty, Diah; Hernowo, Bethy

    2015-01-01

    Background: The pathogenesis of Gestational Trophoblastic Disease (GTD) is not clearly known. Objective: In this study, immunoexpression of proteins Bcl-2 and Beclin-1 in trophoblastic lesions and normal trophoblastic tissue was conducted to study the mechanism of apoptotic and autophagic cell death that is expected to complete the study of GTD pathogenesis. Materials and Methods: Bcl-2 and Beclin-1 immunoexpression were studied on complete hydatidiform mole, partial hydatidiform mole, invasive mole, choriocarcinoma and normal placenta slides. Results: The average total scores of Bcl-2 immunoexpression had a decreasing value, starting from partial hydatidiform mole (3.09), complete hydatidiform mole (2.36), invasive mole (1.18) to choriocarcinoma (0) when compared to normal placenta (6). The results showed no significant difference in Beclin-1 immunoexpression total score between complete hydatidiform mole, partial hydatidiform mole and invasive mole, namely that the value of the average total score of Beclin-1 was low (2.27, 2.45 and 2.36), but on the contrary choriocarcinoma showed an increasing strong Beclin-1 expression with the average total score of 4.57. Conclusion: Bcl-2 expression decreases in line with the excessive proliferation of trophoblast cells in hydatidiform mole and leads to malignancy in invasive mole and choriocarcinoma. The decreased expression of Beclin-1 that leads to autophagy defects in complete hydatidiform mole, partial hydatidiform mole and invasive mole shows the role of autophagy as tumor suppressor, whereas strong Beclin-1 expression shows the survival role of autophagy in choriocarcinoma. The change of Bcl-2 activity as antiapoptosis and Beclin-1 as proautophagy plays a role in pathogenesis of GTD. PMID:26494988

  3. Addition of rituximab to a CEOP regimen improved the outcome in the treatment of non-germinal center immunophenotype diffuse large B cell lymphoma cells with high Bcl-2 expression.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Yimamu, Maimaitili; Wang, Xiaomin; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Mao, Min; Fu, Ling; Aisimitula, Aihemaitijiang; Nie, Yuling; Huang, Qin

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cells can be sub-classified into germinal center B cells (GCB) and non-GCB immunophenotypes. In the present study, we treated 161 newly diagnosed DLBCL patients with cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (CEOP) regimen with or without rituximab, and retrospectively investigated DLBCL sub-classifications combined with assessment of B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) expression level for their utility in the prediction of clinical efficacy. Survival analyses showed that non-GCB patients treated with R-CEOP regimen had significantly higher 5-year OS rates than the CEOP group (P = 0.033), while no statistically significant difference was observed between R-CEOP and CEOP treatments in GCB patients (P = 0.317). Prognosis was poorest for high Bcl-2 expressing non-GCB subgroup patients treated with CEOP, compared with Bcl-2 negative non-GCB CEOP patients (P = 0.044). In the R-CEOP group, Bcl-2 expression had no significant effect on prognosis for both GCB and non-GCB patients. The addition of rituximab to CEOP chemotherapy negates the adverse prognostic influence of Bcl-2 protein expression on overall survival in non-GCB DLBCL.

  4. The Bcl-2 homology domain 3 (BH3) mimetic ABT-737 reveals the dynamic regulation of bad, a proapoptotic protein of the Bcl-2 family, by Bcl-xL.

    PubMed

    Ezzoukhry, Zakaria; Louandre, Christophe; François, Catherine; Saidak, Zuzana; Godin, Corinne; Mazière, Jean-Claude; Galmiche, Antoine

    2011-06-01

    The proteins of the B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family are important regulators of apoptosis under normal and pathological conditions. Chemical compounds that block the antiapoptotic proteins of this family have been introduced, such as 4-[4-[(4'-Chloro[1,1'-biphenyl]-2-yl)methyl]-1-piperazinyl]-N-[[4-[[(1R)-3-(dimethylamino)-1-[(phenylthio)methyl]propyl]amino]-3-nitrophenyl]sulfonyl]benzamide (ABT-737), a BH3-mimetic that neutralizes Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. In this study, we used ABT-737 to explore the dynamic regulation of Bcl-2 proteins in living cells of different origins. Using ABT-737 as well as RNA interference or the application of growth factors, we examined the impact of the functional availability of the antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-2-extra large (Bcl-xL) on the Bcl-2 network. We report that ABT-737 increases the expression of Bcl-2-associated death promoter (Bad), a proapoptotic partner of the proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. Our observations indicate that Bad overexpression induced by ABT-737 results from the control of its normally rapid protein turnover, leading to the stabilization of this protein. We demonstrate the relevance of Bad post-translational regulation by Bcl-xL to the physiological setting using RNA interference against Bcl-xL as well as the application of epidermal growth factor, a growth factor that promotes the dissociation of Bad from Bcl-xL. Our results highlight a new facet of the mode of action of the antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL consisting of the regulation of the stability of the protein Bad. Finally, our results shed light on the mode of action of ABT-737, currently the best characterized inhibitor of the antiapoptotic proteins of the Bcl-2 family, and bear important implications regarding its use as an anticancer drug.

  5. 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyride neurotoxicity is attenuated in mice overexpressing Bcl-2.

    PubMed

    Yang, L; Matthews, R T; Schulz, J B; Klockgether, T; Liao, A W; Martinou, J C; Penney, J B; Hyman, B T; Beal, M F

    1998-10-15

    The proto-oncogene Bcl-2 rescues cells from a wide variety of insults. Recent evidence suggests that Bcl-2 protects against free radicals and that it increases mitochondrial calcium-buffering capacity. The neurotoxicity of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3, 6-tetrahydropyride (MPTP) is thought to involve both mitochondrial dysfunction and free radical generation. We therefore investigated MPTP neurotoxicity in both Bcl-2 overexpressing mice and littermate controls. MPTP-induced depletion of dopamine and loss of [3H]mazindol binding were significantly attenuated in Bcl-2 overexpressing mice. Protection was more profound with an acute dosing regimen than with daily MPTP administration over 5 d. 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) levels after MPTP administration were similar in Bcl-2 overexpressing mice and littermates. Bcl-2 blocked MPP+-induced activation of caspases. MPTP-induced increases in free 3-nitrotyrosine levels were blocked in Bcl-2 overexpressing mice. These results indicate that Bcl-2 overexpression protects against MPTP neurotoxicity by mechanisms that may involve both antioxidant activity and inhibition of apoptotic pathways.

  6. Bcl-2 protects against FCCP-induced apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Dispersyn, G; Nuydens, R; Connors, R; Borgers, M; Geerts, H

    1999-08-05

    This report addresses the relation between Bcl-2 and mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)) in apoptotic cell death. Rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells are differentiated into neuron-like cells with nerve growth factor (NGF). It is known that Bcl-2 can attenuate apoptosis induced by deprivation of neurotrophic factor. The protective effect of Bcl-2 has been correlated with preservation of DeltaPsi(m). Protonophores, such as carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP), collapse the proton gradient across the mitochondrial inner membrane, resulting in a complete abolition of the mitochondrial membrane potential. Based on the analysis of morphology, of phosphatidylserine exposure and of nuclear fragmentation we conclude that FCCP induces apoptosis in PC12 cells, which can be prevented by overexpression of Bcl-2. To determine whether the cytoprotective effect of Bcl-2 is due to stabilization of DeltaPsi(m), we investigated the effect of Bcl-2 on changes in DeltaPsi(m), induced by FCCP in PC12 cells. We showed that treatment with FCCP induced a reduction in DeltaPsi(m), as assessed with the lipophilic cationic membrane potential-sensitive dye JC-1, and that Bcl-2 protects against FCCP-induced changes in NGF differentiated PC12 cells. Our data indicate that Bcl-2 protects against FCCP-induced cell death by stabilizing DeltaPsi(m).

  7. Proliferative activity, apoptosis and expression of oestrogen receptor and Bcl-2 oncoprotein in canine mammary gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Yang, W-Y; Liu, C-H; Chang, C-J; Lee, C-C; Chang, K-J; Lin, C-T

    2006-01-01

    Samples of 39 canine mammary gland tumours (MGTs) were examined immunohistochemically for oestrogen receptor (ER-alpha), Bcl-2 protein and Ki67 antigen, and by TUNEL assay for apoptosis. ER-alpha was expressed by 80% (31/39) of the tumours, including all of the 15 benign tumours and 67% (16/42) of the malignant tumours. ER-alpha expression was greater in the benign than in the malignant tumours (P<0.01). Bcl-2 protein was detected in 62% (24/39) of the MGTs, of which 67% (10/15) were benign and 58% (14/24) malignant. No significant difference in Bcl-2 expression between benign and malignant tumours was detected. The Ki67 and TUNEL indices were greater in malignant than in benign tumours (P<0.01). Correlation analysis suggested that ER-alpha and Bcl-2 expression were related, but this observation lacked statistical significance. The levels of cell proliferation and apoptosis did not appear to be significantly correlated with the expression of Bcl-2. A positive relationship was apparent between cell proliferation and apoptosis, whilst a negative correlation between ER-alpha and cell proliferation was demonstrated. In conclusion, the suggestion of a positive correlation between ER-alpha and Bcl-2 in canine MGTs indicates that ER may be the regulator of Bcl-2 protein, as in human breast cancer. In contrast to cell proliferation and apoptosis, ER-alpha and Bcl-2 expression were greater in benign MGTs than in their malignant counterparts.

  8. hnRNP L binds to CA repeats in the 3'UTR of bcl-2 mRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Dong-Hyoung; Lim, Mi-Hyun; Youn, Dong-Ye; Jung, Seung Eun; Ahn, Young Soo; Tsujimoto, Yoshihide; Lee, Jeong-Hwa

    2009-05-08

    We previously reported that the CA-repeat sequence in the 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) of bcl-2 mRNA is involved in the decay of bcl-2 mRNA. However, the trans-acting factor for the CA element in bcl-2 mRNA remains unidentified. The heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein L (hnRNP L), an intron splicing factor, has been reported to bind to CA repeats and CA clusters in the 3'UTR of several genes. We reported herein that the CA repeats of bcl-2 mRNA have the potential to form a distinct ribonuclear protein complex in cytoplasmic extracts of MCF-7 cells, as evidenced by RNA electrophoretic mobility shift assays (REMSA). A super-shift assay using the hnRNP L antibody completely shifted the complex. Immunoprecipitation with the hnRNP L antibody and MCF-7 cells followed by RT-PCR revealed that hnRNP L interacts with endogenous bcl-2 mRNA in vivo. Furthermore, the suppression of hnRNP L in MCF-7 cells by the transfection of siRNA for hnRNP L resulted in a delay in the degradation of RNA transcripts including CA repeats of bcl-2 mRNA in vitro, suggesting that the interaction between hnRNPL and CA repeats of bcl-2 mRNA participates in destabilizing bcl-2 mRNA.

  9. The BCL-2 5′ Untranslated Region Contains an RNA G-Quadruplex-Forming Motif That Modulates Protein Expression†

    PubMed Central

    Shahid, Ramla; Bugaut, Anthony; Balasubramanian, Shankar

    2011-01-01

    The BCL-2 gene encodes a 25 kDa membrane protein that plays critical roles in the control of apoptosis. The regulation of BCL-2 gene expression is highly complex and occurs both transcriptionally and posttranscriptionally. In particular, the 5′ upstream region of BCL-2 contains a number of elements that control its expression. We have identified a highly conserved 25-nucleotide G-rich sequence (BCL2Q), with potential to fold into a RNA G-quadruplex structure, located 42 nucleotides upstream of the translation start site of human BCL-2. In this study, we used a series of biophysical experiments to show that the BCL2Q sequence folds into a stable RNA G-quadruplex in vitro, and we conducted functional luciferase reporter-based assays, in a cell-free lysate and in three types of human cell lines, to demonstrate that the BCL2Q sequence modulates protein expression in the context of the 493-nucleotide native 5′ untranslated region of BCL-2. PMID:20726580

  10. Downregulation of autophagy by Bcl-2 promotes MCF7 breast cancer cell growth independent of its inhibition of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Oh, S; Xiaofei, E; Ni, D; Pirooz, S D; Lee, J-Y; Lee, D; Zhao, Z; Lee, S; Lee, H; Ku, B; Kowalik, T; Martin, S E; Oh, B-H; Jung, J U; Liang, C

    2011-03-01

    The anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein, which confers oncogenic transformation and drug resistance in most human cancers, including breast cancer, has recently been shown to effectively counteract autophagy by directly targeting Beclin1, an essential autophagy mediator and tumor suppressor. However, it remains unknown whether autophagy inhibition contributes to Bcl-2-mediated oncogenesis. Here, by using a loss-of-function mutagenesis study, we show that Bcl-2-mediated antagonism of autophagy has a critical role in enhancing the tumorigenic properties of MCF7 breast cancer cells independent of its anti-apoptosis activity. A Bcl-2 mutant defective in apoptosis inhibition but competent for autophagy suppression promotes MCF7 breast cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo as efficiently as wild-type Bcl-2. The growth-promoting activity of this Bcl-2 mutant is strongly correlated with its suppression of Beclin1-dependent autophagy, leading to sustained p62 expression and increased DNA damage in xenograft tumors, which may directly contribute to tumorigenesis. Thus, the anti-autophagic property of Bcl-2 is a key feature of Bcl-2-mediated oncogenesis and may in some contexts, serve as an attractive target for breast and other cancer therapies.

  11. MiR-34a-3p alters proliferation and apoptosis of meningioma cells in vitro and is directly targeting SMAD4, FRAT1 and BCL2.

    PubMed

    Werner, Tamara V; Hart, Martin; Nickels, Ruth; Kim, Yoo-Jin; Menger, Michael D; Bohle, Rainer M; Keller, Andreas; Ludwig, Nicole; Meese, Eckart

    2017-03-23

    Micro (mi)RNAs are short, noncoding RNAs and deregulation of miRNAs and their targets are implicated in tumor generation and progression in many cancers. Meningiomas are mostly benign, slow growing tumors of the central nervous system with a small percentage showing a malignant phenotype.Following in silico prediction of potential targets of miR-34a-3p, SMAD4, FRAT1, and BCL2 have been confirmed as targets by dual luciferase assays with co-expression of miR-34a-3p and reporter gene constructs containing the respective 3'UTRs. Disruption of the miR-34a-3p binding sites in the 3'UTRs resulted in loss of responsiveness to miR-34a-3p overexpression. In meningioma cells, overexpression of miR-34a-3p resulted in decreased protein levels of SMAD4, FRAT1 and BCL2, while inhibition of miR-34a-3p led to increased levels of these proteins as confirmed by Western blotting. Furthermore, deregulation of miR-34a-3p altered cell proliferation and apoptosis of meningioma cells in vitro.We show that SMAD4, FRAT1 and BCL2 are direct targets of miR-34a-3p and that deregulation of miR-34a-3p alters proliferation and apoptosis of meningioma cells in vitro. As part of their respective signaling pathways, which are known to play a role in meningioma genesis and progression, deregulation of SMAD4, FRAT1 and BCL2 might contribute to the aberrant activation of these signaling pathways leading to increased proliferation and inhibition of apoptosis in meningiomas.

  12. Comparative analysis between RQ-PCR and digital droplet PCR of BCL2/IGH gene rearrangement in the peripheral blood and bone marrow of early stage follicular lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Cavalli, Marzia; De Novi, Lucia Anna; Della Starza, Irene; Cappelli, Luca Vincenzo; Nunes, Vittorio; Pulsoni, Alessandro; Del Giudice, Ilaria; Guarini, Anna; Foà, Robin

    2017-05-01

    BCL2/IGH rearrangements were analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) at diagnosis in paired peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM) samples from 67 patients with stage I/II follicular lymphoma (FL). Real time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR) and digital droplet PCR (ddPCR) were performed in cases with a major breakpoint region (MBR+) at diagnosis and after localized radiotherapy and rituximab administration in order to investigate the applicability of ddPCR. The overall ddPCR/RQ-PCR concordance was 81·9% (113/138 samples) and 97·5% in the 40/138 with quantifiable disease (RQ-PCR≥10(-5) ). At baseline, ddPCR allowed the recovery of a MBR+ marker in 8/18 (44·4%) samples that resulted MBR-negative/minor cluster region-negative/minor BCL2-negative by qualitative PCR. Moreover, the tumour burden at diagnosis significantly predicted progression-free survival (PSF) only when quantified by ddPCR. Paired PB and BM samples analysis demonstrated a high concordance in the detection of BCL2/IGH+ cells by qualitative and quantitative methods; in particular, 40/62 samples were positive by ddPCR (25 PB+/BM+; 9 PB+/BM-; 6 PB-/BM+), with 34/40 (85%) identified by the study of PB only. In conclusion, in localized FL, ddPCR is a promising tool for monitoring minimal residual disease (MRD) that is at least comparable to RQ-PCR and potentially more accurate. PB is a suitable source for serial BCL2/IGH MRD assessments, regardless of the methodology utilized. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Use of cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β and total tau protein to predict favorable surgical outcomes in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Tarnaris, Andrew; Toma, Ahmed K; Chapman, Miles D; Keir, Geoff; Kitchen, Neil D; Watkins, Laurence D

    2011-07-01

    The prognostic value of CSF biomarkers in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) has not been adequately studied to date. The aim of this study was to identify CSF markers of favorable surgical outcome in patients with iNPH undergoing the insertion of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Ventricular CSF was collected intraoperatively from 22 patients with iNPH and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to analyze the levels of amyloid-β 1-42 (Aβ(1-42)) and total tau protein. The Black grading scale was used to assess outcomes at 6 months. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were obtained and discriminant function analysis was undertaken to provide sensitivity and specificity figures for each marker as well as their combination. The mean age of the patients was 71.45 years (± 9.5 years [SD]). Follow-up was achieved in 21 patients. Seventeen patients had a favorable outcome and 4 patients had unfavorable outcome at 6 months. An Aβ(1-42) level of 180 pg/ml had a sensitivity of 35% and a specificity of 20% for predicting a favorable outcome at 6 months. A total tau level of 767 pg/ml will have a sensitivity of 17% and a specificity of 20% for predicting a favorable outcome at 6 months. A combination of Aβ(1-42) and total tau levels predicted favorable outcomes with a sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 82.4%. In this pilot study a combination of Aβ(1-42) levels and total tau protein levels predicted favorable surgical outcomes at 6 months with adequate accuracy to be of clinical use. Further study in a larger group with longer follow-up is warranted.

  14. Bcl-2 overexpression does not promote axonal regeneration of the entorhino-hippocampal connections in vitro after axotomy.

    PubMed

    Solé, Marta; Fontana, Xavier; Gavín, Rosalina; Soriano, Eduardo; del Río, José Antonio

    2004-09-10

    CNS lesions trigger cell death in injured neurons and glia. Genes of the bcl-2 family play crucial roles in the control of apoptosis and cell survival in the CNS. Recently, it has been suggested that overexpression of bcl-2 induces axonal elongation and regeneration in vitro and in vivo. Here, we analyze the regenerative potential of bcl-2 overexpression in the axotomized entorhino-hippocampal connection in organotypic slice cocultures. Our results show that in slice cocultures from bcl-2-overexpressing mice, there is a decrease in the number of dead neurons in the entorhinal cortex. In addition, axonal regeneration is not enhanced after axotomy. Thus, in the entorhino-hippocampal formation in vitro, bcl-2 overexpression rescues neurons from axotomy-induced cell death but fails to enhance the regeneration of the entorhino-hippocampal connection.

  15. Age- and area-dependent distinct effects of ethanol on Bax and Bcl-2 expression in prenatal rat brain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hae Young; Naha, Nibedita; Kim, Jong Hun; Jo, Mi Ja; Min, Kwan Sik; Seong, Hwan Hoo; Shin, Dong Hoon; Kim, Myeong Ok

    2008-09-01

    Cell proliferation and differentiation are critical processes in a developing fetal rat brain, during which programmed cell death (PCD) also plays an important role. One of the decisive factors for PCD is Bcl-2 family proteins, where Bax induces cell death, whereas Bcl-2 acts as an inhibitor of PCD. As maternal drinking is known to cause fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) or malformation of the fetal brain during pregnancy, the objective of the present study was to investigate whether maternal ethanol exposure alters the PCD-related Bax and Bcl-2 protein expression during fetal brain development. Pregnant female rats were orally treated with 10% ethanol and the subsequent expressions of the Bax and Bcl-2 proteins examined in the fetal brain, including the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain, from gestational day (GD) 15.5 to GD 19.5, using Western blots, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry. With regard to the ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax proteins (Bcl-2/Bax), the Bax protein was dominant in the forebrain and midbrain of the control GD 15.5 fetuses, except for the hindbrain, when compared with the respective ethanol-treated groups. Moreover, Bcl-2 became dominant in the midbrain of the control GD 17.5 fetuses when compared with the ethanoltreated group, representing an alternation of the natural PCD process by ethanol. Furthermore, a differential expression of the Bcl-2 and Bax proteins was found in the differentiating and migrating zones of the cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, and cerebellum. Thus, when taken together, the present results suggest that ethanol affects PCD in the cell differentiation and migration zones of the prenatal rat brain by modulating Bax and Bcl-2 expression in an age- and area-dependent manner. Therefore, this is the first evidence that ethanol may alter FAS-associated embryonic brain development through the alteration of Bax and Bcl-2 expression.

  16. Predictive Factors of Survival and 6-Month Favorable Outcome of Very Severe Head Trauma Patients; a Historical Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Vathanalaoha, Karin; Oearsakul, Thakul; Tunthanathip, Thara

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Very severe head trauma cases, defined as Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores of less than 6, have a higher mortality rate and poorer outcome. The purpose of this study was to recognize factors associated with survival and 6-month favorable outcome of very severe head trauma patients presenting to emergency department. Methods: In this historical cohort study, the authors retrospectively reviewed medical records of head trauma patients who were admitted to the emergency department with post-resuscitation GCS scores of less than 6. Both univariate and multivariate analyses were used to test the association between various parameters with survival and 6-month outcome. Results: 103 cases with the mean age of 39 ± 16.5 years were studied (80% male). The overall survival rate was 41.7% and the rate of 6-month favorable outcome was 28.2%. In multivariate analysis, brisk pupil light reaction on admission and patent basal cistern on brain computed tomography (CT) scan were significant factors associated with both survival (OR 5.20, 95% CI 1.57-17.246, p = 0.007 and OR 3.65, 95% CI 1.22-10.91, p=0.02 respectively) and favorable outcome (OR 4.07, 95% CI 1.35-12.24, p=0.01 and OR 3.54, 95% CI 1.22-10.26, p 0.02), respectively. Conclusion: Based on the results of present study, the survival rate of patients with very severe head trauma (GCS < 6) was 41.7%. The strong predictors of survival and 6-month favorable outcome of these patients were brisk pupillary reactivity and patent cistern on brain CT scan. It seems that very severe head trauma patients still have a reasonable chance to survive and aggressive management should be continued. PMID:28286831

  17. Multimodal interaction with BCL-2 family proteins underlies the proapoptotic activity of PUMA BH3.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Amanda L; Gavathiotis, Evripidis; LaBelle, James L; Braun, Craig R; Opoku-Nsiah, Kwadwo A; Bird, Gregory H; Walensky, Loren D

    2013-07-25

    PUMA is a proapoptotic BCL-2 family member that drives the apoptotic response to a diversity of cellular insults. Deciphering the spectrum of PUMA interactions that confer its context-dependent proapoptotic properties remains a high priority goal. Here, we report the synthesis of PUMA SAHBs, structurally stabilized PUMA BH3 helices that, in addition to broadly targeting antiapoptotic proteins, directly bind to proapoptotic BAX. NMR, photocrosslinking, and biochemical analyses revealed that PUMA SAHBs engage an α1/α6 trigger site on BAX to initiate its functional activation. We further demonstrated that a cell-permeable PUMA SAHB analog induces apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells and, like expressed PUMA protein, engages BCL-2, MCL-1, and BAX. Thus, we find that PUMA BH3 is a dual antiapoptotic inhibitor and proapoptotic direct activator, and its mimetics may serve as effective pharmacologic triggers of apoptosis in resistant human cancers.

  18. A balanced translocation disrupting BCL2L10 and PNLDC1 segregates with affective psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Bouwkamp, Christian G.; Kievit, Anneke J. A.; Olgiati, Simone; Breedveld, Guido J.; Coesmans, Michiel; Bonifati, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Affective psychoses are a group of severe psychiatric disorders, including schizoaffective disorder and bipolar I disorder, together affecting ∼1% of the population. Despite their high heritability, the molecular genetics and neurobiology of affective psychosis remain largely elusive. Here, we describe the identification of a structural genetic variant segregating with affective psychosis in a family with multiple members suffering from bipolar I disorder or schizoaffective disorder, bipolar type. A balanced translocation involving chromosomes 6 and 15 was detected by karyotyping and fluorescence in‐situ hybridization (FISH). Using whole‐genome sequencing, we rapidly delineated the translocation breakpoints as corresponding intragenic events disrupting BCL2L10 and PNLDC1. These data warrant further consideration for BCL2L10 and PNLDC1 as novel candidates for affective psychosis. © 2016 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27260655

  19. Down-regulation of Bcl-2 in rat substantia nigra after focal cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Arango-Dávila, Cesar A; Cardona-Gomez, Gloria P; Gallego-Gomez, Juan C; Garcia-Segura, Luis M; Pimienta, Hernán J

    2004-06-28

    After occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in rats, a robust neuronal loss occurs in the ipsilateral substantia nigra reticulata. In this study we have assessed whether degeneration of the substantia nigra is accompanied by changes in the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Neuronal loss was assessed by neuronal nuclei (NeuN) immunoreactivity. A significant decrease of Bcl-2 expression was observed in the substantia nigra 12, 24 and 72 h after middle cerebral artery occlusion. These results suggest that the secondary neuronal loss in the substantia nigra could be related with the modification of proteins regulating programmed cell death. Exo-focal cell death may explain the appearance of neuropsychiatric symptoms that are not correlated with the primary site of lesion.

  20. Autophagy regulates the post-translational cleavage of BCL-2 and promotes neuronal survival.

    PubMed

    Lossi, Laura; Gambino, Graziana; Salio, Chiara; Merighi, Adalberto

    2010-05-18

    B-cell lymphoma 2 protein (BCL-2) is one of the more widely investigated anti-apoptotic protein in mammals, and its levels are critical for protecting from programmed cell death. We report here that the cellular content of BCL-2 is regulated at post-translational level along the autophagy/lysosome pathways in organotypic cultures of post-natal mouse cerebellar cortex. Specifically this mechanism appears to be effective in the cerebellar granule cells (CGCs) that are known to undergo massive programmed cell death (apoptosis) during post-natal maturation. By the use of specific agonists/antagonist of calcium channels at the endoplasmic reticulum it was possible to understand the pivotal role of calcium release from intracellular stores in CGC neuroprotection. The more general significance of these findings is supported by a very recent study Niemann-Pick transgenic mice.

  1. Lantana camara Induces Apoptosis by Bcl-2 Family and Caspases Activation.

    PubMed

    Han, Eun Byeol; Chang, Bo Yoon; Jung, Young Suk; Kim, Sung Yeon

    2015-04-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide, and the second most fatal cancer in women after lung cancer. Because there are instances of cancer resistance to existing therapies, studies focused on the identification of novel therapeutic drugs are very important. In this study, we identified a natural anticancer agent from Lantana camara, a flowering plant species of the genus Verbena. The extract obtained from the L. camara exhibited cell death properties in the human breast cancer cell line, MCF-7. We found that the apoptosis induced by treatment with the L. camara extract was regulated by the Bcl-2 family. Bid and Bax was increased and Bcl-2 was decreased by L. camara extract. L. camara extract modulated cleavage of caspase-8, and caspase-9, as well as poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Our results support the potential use of the L. camara extract as an anti-breast cancer drug.

  2. Protection against hydrogen peroxide cytotoxicity in rat-1 fibroblasts provided by the oncoprotein Bcl-2: maintenance of calcium homoeostasis is secondary to the effect of Bcl-2 on cellular glutathione.

    PubMed Central

    Rimpler, M M; Rauen, U; Schmidt, T; Möröy, T; de Groot, H

    1999-01-01

    The oncoprotein Bcl-2 protects cells against apoptosis, but the exact molecular mechanism that underlies this function has not yet been identified. Studying H2O2-induced cell injury in Rat-1 fibroblast cells, we observed that Bcl-2 had a protective effect against the increase in cytosolic calcium concentration and subsequent cell death. Furthermore, overexpression of Bcl-2 resulted in an alteration of cellular glutathione status: the total amount of cellular glutathione was increased by about 60% and the redox potential of the cellular glutathione pool was maintained in a more reduced state during H2O2 exposure compared with non-Bcl-2-expressing controls. In our cytotoxicity model, disruption of cellular glutathione homoeostasis closely correlated with the pathological elevation of cytosolic calcium concentration. Stabilization of the glutathione pool by Bcl-2, N-acetylcysteine or glucose delayed the cytosolic calcium increase and subsequent cell death, whereas depletion of glutathione by dl-buthionine-(S, R)-sulphoximine, sensitized Bcl-2-transfected cells towards cytosolic calcium increase and cell death. We therefore suggest that the protection exerted by Bcl-2 against H2O2-induced cytosolic calcium elevation and subsequent cell death is secondary to its effect on the cellular glutathione metabolism. PMID:10229685

  3. Upregulation of Bax and Bcl-2 following prenatal cocaine exposure induces apoptosis in fetal rat brain.

    PubMed

    Xiao, DaLiao; Zhang, Lubo

    2008-01-01

    Cocaine abuse during pregnancy has been associated with numerous adverse perinatal outcomes. The present study was to determine whether prenatal cocaine exposure induced apoptosis and the possible role of Bcl-2 family genes in the programming cell death in fetal rat brain. Pregnant rats were treated with cocaine subcutaneously (30 & 60 mg/kg/day) from day 15 to 21 of gestation. Then the fetal and maternal brains were isolated. Cocaine produced a dose-dependent decrease in fetal brain weight and brain/body weight ratio (P<0.05). Apoptotic nuclei in fetal brain were increased from 2.6 +/- 0.1 (control) to 8.1+/- 0.6 (low dose) and 10.4 +/- 0.2% (high dose) (P<0.05). In accordance, cocaine dose dependently increased activities of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 (% of control) in the fetal brain by 177%, 155%, 174%, respectively, at 30 mg/kg/day, and by 191%, 176%, 274%, respectively, at 60 mg/kg/day. In contrast, cocaine showed no effect on caspase activities in the maternal brain. Cocaine produced a dose-dependent increase in both Bcl-2 and Bax protein expression in the fetal brain, and increased the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 at dose of 30 mg/kg/day (P<0.05). Our study has demonstrated that prenatal cocaine exposure induces apoptosis in the fetal brain, and suggested that up-regulating Bax/Bcl-2 gene expression may be involved in cocaine-induced apoptosis. The increased apoptosis of neuronal cells in the fetal brain is likely to play a key role in cocaine-induced neuronal defects during fetal development.

  4. Response of yeast to the regulated expression of proteins in the Bcl-2 family.

    PubMed Central

    Polcic, Peter; Forte, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The mechanisms by which pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family of proteins promote the release of mitochondrial factors like cytochrome c, subsequently activating the apoptotic cascade, or by which anti-apoptotic family members block this release, are still not understood. When expressed in yeast, Bcl-2 family members act directly upon conserved mitochondrial components that correspond to their apoptotic substrates in mammalian cells. Here we describe a system in which the levels of representative pro- and anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family can be regulated independently in yeast. Using this system, we have focused on the action of the anti-apoptotic family member Bcl-x(L), and have defined the quantitative relationships that underlie the antagonistic action of this protein on the lethal consequences of expression of the pro-apoptotic family member Bax. This system has also allowed us to demonstrate biochemically that Bcl-x(L) has two actions at the level of the mitochondrion. Bcl-x(L) is able to inhibit the stable integration of Bax into mitochondrial membranes, as well as hinder the action of Bax that does become stably integrated into these membranes. Taken together, our results suggest that both the functional and biochemical actions of Bcl-x(L) may be based on the ability of this molecule to disrupt the interaction of Bax with a resident mitochondrial target that is required for Bax action. Finally, we confirm that VDAC (voltage-dependent anion channel) is not required for the functional responses observed following the expression of either pro- or anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family. PMID:12780347

  5. SS-A/Ro52 promotes apoptosis by regulating Bcl-2 production

    SciTech Connect

    Jauharoh, Siti Nur Aisyah; Saegusa, Jun; Sugimoto, Takeshi; Ardianto, Bambang; Kasagi, Shimpei; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Kurimoto, Chiyo; Tokuno, Osamu; Nakamachi, Yuji; Kumagai, Shunichi; Kawano, Seiji

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ro52{sup low} HeLa cells are resistant to apoptosis upon various stimulations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ro52 is upregulated by IFN-{alpha}, etoposide, or IFN-{gamma} and anti-Fas Ab. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ro52-mediated apoptosis is independent of p53. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ro52 selectively regulates Bcl-2 expression. -- Abstract: SS-A/Ro52 (Ro52), an autoantigen in systemic autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjoegren's syndrome, has E3 ligase activity to ubiquitinate proteins that protect against viral infection. To investigate Ro52's role during stress, we transiently knocked it down in HeLa cells by siRo52 transfection. We found that Ro52{sup low} HeLa cells were significantly more resistant to apoptosis than wild-type HeLa cells when stimulated by H{sub 2}O{sub 2}- or diamide-induced oxidative stress, IFN-{alpha}, IFN-{gamma} and anti-Fas antibody, etoposide, or {gamma}-irradiation. Furthermore, Ro52-mediated apoptosis was not influenced by p53 protein level in HeLa cells. Depleting Ro52 in HeLa cells caused Bcl-2, but not other Bcl-2 family molecules, to be upregulated. Taken together, our data showed that Ro52 is a universal proapoptotic molecule, and that its proapoptotic effect does not depend on p53, but is exerted through negative regulation of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. These findings shed light on a new physiological role for Ro52 that is important to intracellular immunity.

  6. MiR-16 modulate temozolomide resistance by regulating BCL-2 in human glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Jing; Chen, Qianxue

    2015-01-01

    Temozolomide (TMZ) with radiotherapy is the current standard of care for newly diagnosed glioma. However, glioma patients who are treated with the drug often develop resistance to it and some other drugs. Recently studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in drug resistance. In present study, we first examined the sensitivity to temozolomide in six glioma cell lines, and established a resistant variant, U251MG/TR cells from TMZ-sensitive glioma cell line, U251MG. We then performed a comprehensive analysis of miRNA expressions in U251MG/TR and parental cells using cancer microRNA PCR Array. Among the downregulated microRNAs was miR-16, members of miR-15/16 family, whose expression was further validated by qRT-PCR in U251MG/TR and U251MG cells. The selective microRNA, miR-16 mimics or inhibitor was respectively transfected into U251MG/TR cells and AM38 cell. We found that treatment with the mimics of miR-16 greatly decreased the sensitivity of U251MG/TR cells to temozolomide, while sensitivity to these drugs was increased by treatment with the miR-16 inhibitor. In addition, the downregulation of miR-16 in temozolomide-sensitive AM38 cells was concurrent with the upregulation of Bcl-2 protein. Conversely, overexpression of miR-16 in temozolomide-resistant cells inhibited Bcl-2 expression and decreased temozolomide resistance. In conclusion, MiR-16 mediated temozolomide-resistance in glioma cells by modulation of apoptosis via targeting Bcl-2, which suggesting that miR-16 and Bcl-2 would be potential therapeutic targets for glioma therapy.

  7. Influence of p53 and bcl-2 on chemosensitivity in benign and malignant prostatic cell lines.

    PubMed

    Serafin, Antonio M; Bohm, Lothar

    2005-01-01

    The administration of cancer chemotherapeutic agents results in an increase in the apoptotic cells in the tumor: therefore, it has been assumed that anticancer drugs exhibit their cytotoxic effects via apoptotic signaling pathways. Characteristics that confer sensitivity to drug-induced apoptosis are, a functional p53 protein and expression of the apoptosis-promoting protein, bax. The role of p53 and bax/bcl-2 in drug-induced apoptosis was assessed in six prostate cell lines, 1532T, 1535T, 1542T, 1542N, BPH-1 and LNCaP using TD(50) concentrations of etoposide, vinblastine and estramustine. Cell death was monitored morphologically by fluorescent microscopy, and by flow cytometry (Annexin-V assay). Apoptotic morphology was rather low and ranged from 0.1% to 12.1%, 3.0% to 6.0% and 0.1% to 8.5% for etoposide, estramustine and vinblastine, respectively. Annexin-V binding and flow cytometry indicated apoptotic propensities of 0% to 4%, 0% to 3% and 0% to 5%, respectively. The percentage of cells responding to drug-induced apoptosis was, on average, higher in the tumor cell lines than in the normal cell lines, but showed no correlation with p53 status. The percentage of cells showing necrosis, assessed by Annexin binding and Propidium Iodide permeability in aqueous medium, tended to be much higher, and was found to be at the level of 5% to 30%. Immunoblotting demonstrated that bax and bcl-2 proteins were expressed at a basal level in all cell lines, but did not increase after exposure to TD(50) doses of the three drugs. The ratio of bax and bcl-2, measured by laser scanning densitometry, was not altered by the drug-induced DNA damage. The results suggest that apoptosis is not a major mechanism of drug-induced cell death in prostate cell lines and appears to be independent of p53 status and bax/bcl-2 expression.

  8. Effect of curcumin on Bcl-2 and Bax expression in nude mice prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiayi; Ning, Jianping; Peng, Linlin; He, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a common malignant tumor in urinary system. Curcumin has curative effect on many kinds of cancers and can inhibit prostate cancer (PC)-3 cells proliferation. This study aimed to explore the curcumin induced prostate cancer cell apoptosis and apoptosis related proteins Bcl-2 and Bax expression. PC-3 cells were injected subcutaneously to the nude mice to establish the tumor model. The nude mice were randomly divided into group C (normal saline), group B (6% polyethylene glycol and 6% anhydrous ethanol), group H, M, L (100 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg, and 25 mg/kg curcumin). The tumor volume was measured every 6 days to draw the tumor growth curve. The mice were killed at the 30(th) day after injection to weight the tumor. TUNEL assay was applied to determine cell apoptosis. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect Bcl-2 and Bax expression. The tumor volume and weight in group H, M, L were significantly lower than the control group (C, B) (P<0.05), and the inhibitory rate increased following the curcumin dose increase. Compared with the control group, Bcl-2 expression in group H, M, L gradually decreased, while Bax protein expression increased (P<0.05). The cell apoptosis rate showed no statistical difference between group B and C, while it increased in curcumin group H, M, and L (P<0.05). Curcumin could inhibit PC-3 growth, decrease tumor volume, reduce tumor weight, and induce cell apoptosis under the skin of nude mice by up-regulating Bax and down-regulating Bcl-2.

  9. Effect of curcumin on Bcl-2 and Bax expression in nude mice prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jiayi; Ning, Jianping; Peng, Linlin; He, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a common malignant tumor in urinary system. Curcumin has curative effect on many kinds of cancers and can inhibit prostate cancer (PC)-3 cells proliferation. This study aimed to explore the curcumin induced prostate cancer cell apoptosis and apoptosis related proteins Bcl-2 and Bax expression. PC-3 cells were injected subcutaneously to the nude mice to establish the tumor model. The nude mice were randomly divided into group C (normal saline), group B (6% polyethylene glycol and 6% anhydrous ethanol), group H, M, L (100 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg, and 25 mg/kg curcumin). The tumor volume was measured every 6 days to draw the tumor growth curve. The mice were killed at the 30th day after injection to weight the tumor. TUNEL assay was applied to determine cell apoptosis. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect Bcl-2 and Bax expression. The tumor volume and weight in group H, M, L were significantly lower than the control group (C, B) (P<0.05), and the inhibitory rate increased following the curcumin dose increase. Compared with the control group, Bcl-2 expression in group H, M, L gradually decreased, while Bax protein expression increased (P<0.05). The cell apoptosis rate showed no statistical difference between group B and C, while it increased in curcumin group H, M, and L (P<0.05). Curcumin could inhibit PC-3 growth, decrease tumor volume, reduce tumor weight, and induce cell apoptosis under the skin of nude mice by up-regulating Bax and down-regulating Bcl-2. PMID:26464676

  10. Prometaphase arrest-dependent phosphorylation of Bcl-2 and Bim reduces the association of Bcl-2 with Bak or Bim, provoking Bak activation and mitochondrial apoptosis in nocodazole-treated Jurkat T cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Cho Rong; Jun, Do Youn; Lee, Ji Young; Kim, Young Ho

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of Jurkat T cells with the microtubule-depolymerizing agent nocodazole (NOC) caused prometaphase arrest and apoptosis. NOC-induced mitochondrial apoptotic events including Bak activation, Δψm loss, cytochrome c release, and caspase cascade activation were blocked by Bcl-2 overexpression. However, mitotic arrest, Cdc25C activation, upregulation of cyclin B1 levels, Cdk1 activation, Bcl-2 phosphorylation at Thr-56 and Ser-70, and Bim phosphorylation were retained. The treatment of Jurkat T cells concomitantly with NOC and the G1/S-blocking agent hydroxyurea resulted in G1/S arrest and complete abrogation of all apoptotic events. The association of Bcl-2 with Bim or Bak declined after the prometaphase arrest-dependent phosphorylation of Bcl-2 and Bim, whereas the association of Bcl-2 with Bax remained relatively constant. Although Bax was redistributed from the cytosol to the mitochondria, resulting in an increase in the mitochondrial level of Bax following NOC treatment, the subcellular localization of Bcl-2, Bim, Bak and apoptosis-inducing factor was confined to the mitochondrial fraction irrespective of NOC treatment. Experiments using selective caspase inhibitors showed that mitochondria-dependent activation of caspase-9 and -3 was crucial for NOC-induced apoptosis. NOC-induced phosphorylation of Bcl-2 and Bim, Δψm loss, and mitochondria-dependent apoptotic events were significantly suppressed by a Cdk1 inhibitor roscovitine, but not by the JNK inhibitor SP600125 or the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580. These results show that the prometaphase arrest-dependent phosphorylation of Bcl-2 and Bim, which was mediated by Cdk1, could reduce the association of Bcl-2 with Bak or Bim to allow Bak activation and mitochondrial apoptotic events in Jurkat T cells exposed to NOC.

  11. p53, cathepsin D, Bcl-2 are joint prognostic indicators of breast cancer metastatic spreading.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Emanuela; Cimadamore, Alessia; Simeone, Pasquale; Vacca, Giovanna; Lattanzio, Rossano; Botti, Gerardo; Gatta, Valentina; D'Aurora, Marco; Simionati, Barbara; Piantelli, Mauro; Alberti, Saverio

    2016-08-18

    Traditional prognostic indicators of breast cancer, i.e. lymph node diffusion, tumor size, grading and estrogen receptor expression, are inadequate predictors of metastatic relapse. Thus, additional prognostic parameters appear urgently needed. Individual oncogenic determinants have largely failed in this endeavour. Only a few individual tumor growth drivers, e.g. mutated p53, Her-2, E-cadherin, Trops, did reach some prognostic/predictive power in clinical settings. As multiple factors are required to drive solid tumor progression, clusters of such determinants were expected to become stronger indicators of tumor aggressiveness and malignant progression than individual parameters. To identify such prognostic clusters, we went on to coordinately analyse molecular and histopathological determinants of tumor progression of post-menopausal breast cancers in the framework of a multi-institutional case series/case-control study. A multi-institutional series of 217 breast cancer cases was analyzed. Twenty six cases (12 %) showed disease relapse during follow-up. Relapsed cases were matched with a set of control patients by tumor diameter, pathological stage, tumor histotype, age, hormone receptors and grading. Histopathological and molecular determinants of tumor development and aggressiveness were then analyzed in relapsed versus non-relapsed cases. Stepwise analyses and model structure fitness assessments were carried out to identify clusters of molecular alterations with differential impact on metastatic relapse. p53, Bcl-2 and cathepsin D were shown to be coordinately associated with unique levels of relative risk for disease relapse. As many Ras downstream targets, among them matrix metalloproteases, are synergistically upregulated by mutated p53, whole-exon sequence analyses were performed for TP53, Ki-RAS and Ha-RAS, and findings were correlated with clinical phenotypes. Notably, TP53 insertion/deletion mutations were only detected in relapsed cases

  12. Xanthorrhizol induced DNA fragmentation in HepG2 cells involving Bcl-2 family proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Tee, Thiam-Tsui; Cheah, Yew-Hoong; Meenakshii, Nallappan; Mohd Sharom, Mohd Yusof; Azimahtol Hawariah, Lope Pihie

    2012-04-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We isolated xanthorrhizol, a sesquiterpenoid compound from Curcuma xanthorrhiza. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Xanthorrhizol induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells as observed using SEM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Apoptosis in xanthorrhizol-treated HepG2 cells involved Bcl-2 family proteins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA fragmentation was observed in xanthorrhizol-treated HepG2 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA fragmentation maybe due to cleavage of PARP and DFF45/ICAD proteins. -- Abstract: Xanthorrhizol is a plant-derived pharmacologically active sesquiterpenoid compound isolated from Curcuma xanthorrhiza. Previously, we have reported that xanthorrhizol inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 human hepatoma cells by inducing apoptotic cell death via caspase activation. Here, we attempt to further elucidate the mode of action of xanthorrhizol. Apoptosis in xanthorrhizol-treated HepG2 cells as observed by scanning electron microscopy was accompanied by truncation of BID; reduction of both anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-X{sub L} expression; cleavage of PARP and DFF45/ICAD proteins and DNA fragmentation. Taken together, these results suggest xanthorrhizol as a potent antiproliferative agent on HepG2 cells by inducing apoptosis via Bcl-2 family members. Hence we proposed that xanthorrhizol could be used as an anti-liver cancer drug for future studies.

  13. Photoreactive stapled peptides to identify and characterize BCL-2 family interaction sites by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Susan; Braun, Craig R; Bird, Gregory H; Walensky, Loren D

    2014-01-01

    Protein interactions dictate a myriad of cellular activities that maintain health or cause disease. Dissecting these binding partnerships, and especially their sites of interaction, fuels the discovery of signaling pathways, disease mechanisms, and next-generation therapeutics. We previously applied all-hydrocarbon peptide stapling to chemically restore α-helical shape to bioactive motifs that become unfolded when taken out of context from native signaling proteins. For example, we developed stabilized alpha-helices of BCL-2 domains (SAHBs) to dissect and target protein interactions of the BCL-2 family, a critical network that regulates the apoptotic pathway. SAHBs are α-helical surrogates that bind both stable and transient physiologic interactors and have effectively uncovered novel sites of BCL-2 family protein interaction. To leverage stapled peptides for proteomic discovery, we describe our conversion of SAHBs into photoreactive agents that irreversibly capture their protein targets and facilitate rapid identification of the peptide helix binding sites. We envision that the development of photoreactive stapled peptides will accelerate the discovery of novel and unanticipated protein interactions and how they impact health and disease.

  14. HAMLET triggers apoptosis but tumor cell death is independent of caspases, Bcl-2 and p53.

    PubMed

    Hallgren, O; Gustafsson, L; Irjala, H; Selivanova, G; Orrenius, S; Svanborg, C

    2006-02-01

    HAMLET (Human alpha-lactalbumin Made Lethal to Tumor cells) triggers selective tumor cell death in vitro and limits tumor progression in vivo. Dying cells show features of apoptosis but it is not clear if the apoptotic response explains tumor cell death. This study examined the contribution of apoptosis to cell death in response to HAMLET. Apoptotic changes like caspase activation, phosphatidyl serine externalization, chromatin condensation were detected in HAMLET-treated tumor cells, but caspase inhibition or Bcl-2 over-expression did not prolong cell survival and the caspase response was Bcl-2 independent. HAMLET translocates to the nuclei and binds directly to chromatin, but the death response was unrelated to the p53 status of the tumor cells. p53 deletions or gain of function mutations did not influence the HAMLET sensitivity of tumor cells. Chromatin condensation was partly caspase dependent, but apoptosis-like marginalization of chromatin was also observed. The results show that tumor cell death in response to HAMLET is independent of caspases, p53 and Bcl-2 even though HAMLET activates an apoptotic response. The use of other cell death pathways allows HAMLET to successfully circumvent fundamental anti-apoptotic strategies that are present in many tumor cells.

  15. Acute caffeine administration decreased NOS and Bcl2 expression in rat skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Corsetti, Giovanni; Pasini, Evasio; Assanelli, Deodato; Saligari, Elisa; Adobati, Massimo; Bianchi, Rossella

    2007-02-01

    Caffeine (Caf) is largely used to delay fatigue, improving physical activity. However, its role remains elusive, and there are no hemodynamic or immunohistochemical data regarding its effects on skeletal muscle. We studied the hemodynamic and NOS expression of Bax/Bcl2 in skeletal muscle after single Caf administration. Thirty-two male rats were divided into six groups: the first was iv-injected with Caf (16mg/kg), the second with Caf+L-NAME, the third with Caf+L-arg, the fourth with Caf+L-NAME+L-arg, fifth with saline. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) was monitored for 30', then the animals were killed. The sixth group was injected with Caf and killed after 2h. The quadriceps were isolated and processed by immunohistochemistry. We found that Caf increased MAP temporarily, while Caf+L-NAME increased it for a longer period. In untreated muscle, all NOS isoforms was expressed with different intensity and localisation, and Bcl2 was strongly expressed among the myofibrils. In Caf and Caf+L-NAME treated animals, NOS expression was lost; Bcl2 expression decreased among myofibrils but increased inside the subsarcolemma. The L-arg administration reversed these Caf and L-NAME effects. Two hours after Caf, NOS expression increased. We concluded that improved physical performance could be related to Caf's ability to interfere with the endogenous muscular synthesis of NO.

  16. Germinal center reentries of BCL2-overexpressing B cells drive follicular lymphoma progression

    PubMed Central

    Sungalee, Stéphanie; Mamessier, Emilie; Morgado, Ester; Grégoire, Emilie; Brohawn, Philip Z.; Morehouse, Christopher A.; Jouve, Nathalie; Monvoisin, Céline; Menard, Cédric; Debroas, Guilhaume; Faroudi, Mustapha; Mechin, Violaine; Navarro, Jean-Marc; Drevet, Charlotte; Eberle, Franziska C.; Chasson, Lionel; Baudimont, Fannie; Mancini, Stéphane J.; Tellier, Julie; Picquenot, Jean-Michel; Kelly, Rachel; Vineis, Paolo; Ruminy, Philippe; Chetaille, Bruno; Jaffe, Elaine S.; Schiff, Claudine; Hardwigsen, Jean; Tice, David A.; Higgs, Brandon W.; Tarte, Karin; Nadel, Bertrand; Roulland, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that memory B cells can reenter and reengage germinal center (GC) reactions, opening the possibility that multi-hit lymphomagenesis gradually occurs throughout life during successive immunological challenges. Here, we investigated this scenario in follicular lymphoma (FL), an indolent GC-derived malignancy. We developed a mouse model that recapitulates the FL hallmark t(14;18) translocation, which results in constitutive activation of antiapoptotic protein B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) in a subset of B cells, and applied a combination of molecular and immunofluorescence approaches to track normal and t(14;18)+ memory B cells in human and BCL2-overexpressing B cells in murine lymphoid tissues. BCL2-overexpressing B cells required multiple GC transits before acquiring FL-associated developmental arrest and presenting as GC B cells with constitutive activation–induced cytidine deaminase (AID) mutator activity. Moreover, multiple reentries into the GC were necessary for the progression to advanced precursor stages of FL. Together, our results demonstrate that protracted subversion of immune dynamics contributes to early dissemination and progression of t(14;18)+ precursors and shapes the systemic presentation of FL patients. PMID:25384217

  17. Axotomized neonatal motoneurons overexpressing the bcl2 proto-oncogene retain functional electrophysiological properties.

    PubMed Central

    Alberi, S; Raggenbass, M; de Bilbao, F; Dubois-Dauphin, M

    1996-01-01

    Bcl2 overexpression prevents axotomy-induced neuronal death of neonatal facial motoneurons, as defined by morphological criteria. However, the functional properties of these surviving lesioned transgenic neurons are unknown. Using transgenic mice overexpressing the protein Bcl2, we have investigated the bioelectrical properties of transgenic facial motoneurons from 7 to 20 days after neonatal unilateral axotomy using brain-stem slices and whole cell patch-clamp recording. Nonaxotomized facial motoneurons from wild-type and transgenic mice had similar properties; they had an input resistance of 38 +/- 6 M omega and fired repetitively after injection of positive current pulses. When cells were voltage-clamped at or near their resting membrane potential, alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA), N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA), or vasopressin generated sustained inward currents. In transgenic axotomized mice, facial motoneurons could be found located ipsilaterally to the lesion; they had an input resistance of 150 +/- 30 M omega, indicating that they were smaller in size, fired repetitively, and were also responsive to AMPA, NMDA, and vasopressin. Morphological measurements achieved 1 week after the lesion have shown that application of brain-derived neurotrophic factor prevented the reduction in size of axotomized transgenic motoneurons. These data indicate that Bcl2 not only prevents morphological apoptotic death of axotomized neonatal transgenic motoneurons but also permits motoneurons to conserve functional electrophysiological properties. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8633001

  18. Bcl-2 family genetic profiling reveals microenvironment-specific determinants of chemotherapeutic response.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, Justin R; Gilbert, Luke A; Meacham, Corbin E; Ricks, Jennifer L; Jiang, Hai; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Hemann, Michael T

    2011-09-01

    The Bcl-2 family encompasses a diverse set of apoptotic regulators that are dynamically activated in response to various cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic stimuli. An extensive variety of cell culture experiments have identified effects of growth factors, cytokines, and drugs on Bcl-2 family functions, but in vivo studies have tended to focus on the role of one or two particular members in development and organ homeostasis. Thus, the ability of physiologically relevant contexts to modulate canonical dependencies that are likely to be more complex has yet to be investigated systematically. In this study, we report findings derived from a pool-based shRNA assay that systematically and comprehensively interrogated the functional dependence of leukemia and lymphoma cells upon various Bcl-2 family members across many diverse in vitro and in vivo settings. This approach permitted us to report the first in vivo loss of function screen for modifiers of the response to a front-line chemotherapeutic agent. Notably, our results reveal an unexpected role for the extrinsic death pathway as a tissue-specific modifier of therapeutic response. In particular, our findings show that particular tissue sites of tumor dissemination play critical roles in demarcating the nature and extent of cancer cell vulnerabilities and mechanisms of chemoresistance. ©2011 AACR.

  19. Boolean network-based model of the Bcl-2 family mediated MOMP regulation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) is one of the most important points in the majority of apoptotic signaling cascades and it is controlled by a network of interactions between the members of the Bcl-2 family. Methods To understand the role of individual members of this family within the MOMP regulation, we have constructed a Boolean network-based model of interactions between the Bcl-2 proteins. Results Computational simulations have revealed the existence of trapping states which, independently from the incoming stimuli, block the occurrence of MOMP. Our results emphasize the role of the antiapoptotic protein Mcl-1 in the majority of these configurations. We demonstrate here the importance of the Bid and Bim for activation of effectors Bax and Bak, and the irreversibility of this activation. The model further points to the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-w as a key factor preventing Bax activation. Conclusions In spite of relative simplicity, the Boolean network-based model provides useful insight into main functioning logic of the Bcl-2 switch, consistent with experimental findings. PMID:23767791

  20. Bcl-2:Beclin 1 complex: multiple, mechanisms regulating autophagy/apoptosis toggle switch.

    PubMed

    Marquez, Rebecca T; Xu, Liang

    2012-01-01

    Cancer cells have developed novel mechanisms for evading chemotherapy-induced apoptosis and autophagy-associated cell death pathways. Upon the discovery that chemotherapeutics could target these cell death pathways in a manner that was not mutually exclusive, new discoveries about the interrelationship between these two pathways are emerging. Key proteins originally thought to be "autophagy-related proteins" are now found to be involved in either inducing or inhibiting apoptosis. Similarly, apoptosis inhibiting proteins can also block autophagy-associated cell death. One example is the complex formed by the autophagy protein, Beclin 1, and anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, which leads to inhibition of autophagy-associated cell death. Researchers have been investigating additional mechanisms that form/disrupt this complex in order to better design chemotherapeutics. This review will highlight the role Bcl-2 and Beclin 1 play in cancer development and drug resistance, as well as the role the Bcl-2:Beclin 1 complex in the switch between autophagy and apoptosis.

  1. Bcl-2/MDM2 Dual Inhibitors Based on Universal Pyramid-Like α-Helical Mimetics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ziqian; Song, Ting; Feng, Yingang; Guo, Zongwei; Fan, Yudan; Xu, Wenjie; Liu, Lu; Wang, Anhui; Zhang, Zhichao

    2016-04-14

    No α-helical mimetic that exhibits Bcl-2/MDM2 dual inhibition has been rationally designed due to the different helicities of the α-helixes at their binding interfaces. Herein, we extracted a one-turn α-helix-mimicking ortho-triarene unit from o-phenylene foldamers. Linking benzamide substrates with a rotatable C-N bond, we constructed a novel semirigid pyramid-like scaffold that could support its two-turn α-helix mimicry without aromatic stacking interactions and could adopt the different dihedral angles of the key residues of p53 and BH3-only peptides. On the basis of this universal scaffold, a series of substituent groups were installed to capture the key residues of both p53TAD and BimBH3 and balance the differences of the bulks between them. Identified by FP, ITC, and NMR spectroscopy, a compound 6e (zq-1) that directly binds to Mcl-1, Bcl-2, and MDM2 with balanced submicromolar affinities was obtained. Cell-based experiments demonstrated its antitumor ability through Bcl-2/MDM2 dual inhibition simultaneously.

  2. Ghrelin Administration Increases the Bax/Bcl-2 Gene Expression Ratio in the Heart of Chronic Hypoxic Rats.

    PubMed

    Aliparasti, Mohammad Reza; Alipour, Mohammad Reza; Almasi, Shohreh; Feizi, Hadi

    2015-06-01

    Programmed cell death or apoptosis, is a biochemical procedure that initiates due to some conditions, including hypoxia. Bax and Bcl-2 are among the agents that regulate apoptosis. The amplification of the first one triggers the initiation of apoptosis, and the second one prevents it. Ghrelin is an endogenous peptide that antiapoptosis is its new effect. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of ghrelin on the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Twenty four wistar rats were divided randomly in three groups; control, hypoxic + saline and hypoxic + ghrelin. Hypoxic animals lived in O2 11% for 2 weeks and received either saline or ghrelin subcutaneously daily. The bax and Bcl-2 gene expression were measured by Real-Time RT-PCR. Chronic hypoxia increased the Bax gene expression significantly compared with normal animals (P = 0.008), but the Bcl-2 was not affected by hypoxia. The Bax/Bcl-2 ratio also amplified significantly (P=0.005). Ghrelin administration significantly increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in the hypoxic animals compared to the hypoxic + saline and normal groups (p=0.042 and P= 0.001, respectively). In the present study, animals' treatment with ghrelin leads to an increment of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, which indicates a controversy related to cardioprotection of ghrelin.

  3. Cooperation of ETV6/RUNX1 and BCL2 enhances immunoglobulin production and accelerates glomerulonephritis in transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Eva; Schlederer, Michaela; Scheicher, Ruth; Horvath, Jaqueline; Aigner, Petra; Schiefer, Ana-Iris; Kain, Renate; Regele, Heinz; Hoermann, Gregor; Steiner, Günter; Kenner, Lukas; Sexl, Veronika; Villunger, Andreas; Moriggl, Richard; Stoiber, Dagmar

    2016-01-01

    The t(12;21) translocation generating the ETV6/RUNX1 fusion gene represents the most frequent chromosomal rearrangement in childhood leukemia. Presence of ETV6/RUNX1 alone is usually not sufficient for leukemia onset, and additional genetic alterations have to occur in ETV6/RUNX1-positive cells to cause transformation. We have previously generated an ETV6/RUNX1 transgenic mouse model where the expression of the fusion gene is restricted to CD19-positive B cells. Since BCL2 family members have been proposed to play a role in leukemogenesis, we investigated combined effects of ETV6/RUNX1 with exogenous expression of the antiapoptotic protein BCL2 by crossing ETV6/RUNX1 transgenic animals with Vav-BCL2 transgenic mice. Strikingly, co-expression of ETV6/RUNX1 and BCL2 resulted in significantly shorter disease latency in mice, indicating oncogene cooperativity. This was associated with faster development of follicular B cell lymphoma and exacerbated immune complex glomerulonephritis. ETV6/RUNX1-BCL2 double transgenic animals displayed increased B cell numbers and immunoglobulin titers compared to Vav-BCL2 transgenic mice. This led to pronounced deposition of immune complexes in glomeruli followed by accelerated development of immune complex glomerulonephritis. Thus, our study reveals a previously unrecognized synergism between ETV6/RUNX1 and BCL2 impacting on malignant disease and autoimmunity. PMID:26919255

  4. Expression and purification of full-length anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 using cell-free protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Anders; Wallgren, Marcus; Karlsson, B Göran; Gröbner, Gerhard

    2011-06-01

    The anti-apoptotic B cell CLL/lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) protein is a key player in the regulation of programmed cell death and is linked to various types of cancer and their resistance to drug treatment. Biophysical and structural studies of the full-length intact Bcl-2 have been hampered due to difficulties in expression and severe solubility problems, precluding isolation of this hydrophobic membrane protein. Therefore, previous work has so far mainly been carried out using structurally modified Bcl-2 variants, lacking the transmembrane region. Thus, biophysical information regarding the full-length protein is still missing. Here, a protocol is presented for expression and purification of preparative amounts of the full-length human isoform 2 of Bcl-2 (Bcl-2(2)). A batch-based cell-free expression system, using extract isolated from Escherichia coli (E. coli) was employed to produce recombinant protein encoded by an optimized gene sequence. Presence of polyoxyethylene-(20)-cetyl-ether (Brij-58) in the reaction mixture and subsequently in the immobilized metal-affinity purification steps was crucial to keep Bcl-2(2) soluble. The obtained yield was 0.25-0.3mg per ml of cell-free reaction. Far-UV circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy confirmed the α-helical structure of the purified protein, characteristic for members of the Bcl-2 protein family. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Ghrelin Administration Increases the Bax/Bcl-2 Gene Expression Ratio in the Heart of Chronic Hypoxic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Aliparasti, Mohammad Reza; Alipour, Mohammad Reza; Almasi, Shohreh; Feizi, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Programmed cell death or apoptosis, is a biochemical procedure that initiates due to some conditions, including hypoxia. Bax and Bcl-2 are among the agents that regulate apoptosis. The amplification of the first one triggers the initiation of apoptosis, and the second one prevents it. Ghrelin is an endogenous peptide that antiapoptosis is its new effect. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of ghrelin on the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Methods: Twenty four wistar rats were divided randomly in three groups; control, hypoxic + saline and hypoxic + ghrelin. Hypoxic animals lived in O2 11% for 2 weeks and received either saline or ghrelin subcutaneously daily. The bax and Bcl-2 gene expression were measured by Real-Time RT-PCR. Results: Chronic hypoxia increased the Bax gene expression significantly compared with normal animals (P = 0.008), but the Bcl-2 was not affected by hypoxia. The Bax/Bcl-2 ratio also amplified significantly (P=0.005). Ghrelin administration significantly increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in the hypoxic animals compared to the hypoxic + saline and normal groups (p=0.042 and P= 0.001, respectively). Conclusion: In the present study, animals’ treatment with ghrelin leads to an increment of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, which indicates a controversy related to cardioprotection of ghrelin. PMID:26236657

  6. The B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2)-inhibitors, ABT-737 and ABT-263, are substrates for P-glycoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Vogler, Meike; Dickens, David; Dyer, Martin J.S.; Owen, Andrew; Pirmohamed, Munir; Cohen, Gerald M.

    2011-05-06

    Highlights: {yields} The BCL2-inhibitor ABT-263 is a substrate for P-glycoprotein. {yields} Apoptosis is inhibited by P-glycoprotein expression. {yields} Overexpression of P-glycoprotein may contribute to resistance to ABT-263 or ABT-737. -- Abstract: Inhibition of BCL2 proteins is one of the most promising new approaches to targeted cancer therapy resulting in the induction of apoptosis. Amongst the most specific BCL2-inhibitors identified are ABT-737 and ABT-263. However, targeted therapy is often only effective for a limited amount of time because of the occurrence of drug resistance. In this study, the interaction of BCL2-inhibitors with the drug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein was investigated. Using {sup 3}H labelled ABT-263, we found that cells with high P-glycoprotein activity accumulated less drug. In addition, cells with increased P-glycoprotein expression were more resistant to apoptosis induced by either ABT-737 or ABT-263. Addition of tariquidar or verapamil sensitized the cells to BCL2-inhibitor treatment, resulting in higher apoptosis. Our data suggest that the BCL2-inhibitors ABT-737 and ABT-263 are substrates for P-glycoprotein. Over-expression of P-glycoprotein may be, at least partly, responsible for resistance to these BCL2-inhibitors.

  7. Inter- and intratumoral heterogeneity of BCL2 correlates with IgH expression and prognosis in follicular lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Barreca, A; Martinengo, C; Annaratone, L; Righi, L; Chiappella, A; Ladetto, M; Demurtas, A; Chiusa, L; Stacchini, A; Crosetto, N; van Oudenaarden, A; Chiarle, R

    2014-01-01

    Most follicular lymphomas (FLs) are genetically defined by the t(14;18)(q32;q21) translocation that juxtaposes the BCL2 gene to the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) 3' regulatory regions (IgH-3'RRs). Despite this recurrent translocation, FL cases are heterogeneous in terms of intratumoral clonal diversity for acquired mutations and variations in the tumor microenvironment. Here we describe an additional mechanism that contributes to inter- and intratumoral heterogeneity in FLs. By applying a novel single-molecule RNA fluorescence-based in situ hybridization (FISH) technique to detect mRNA molecules of BCL2 and IgH in single cells, we found marked heterogeneity in the number of BCL2 mRNA transcripts within individual lymphoma cells. Moreover, BCL2 mRNA molecules correlated with IgH mRNA molecules in individual cells both in t(14;18) lymphoma cell lines and in patient samples. Consistently, a strong correlation between BCL2 and IgH protein levels was found in a series of 205 primary FL cases by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Inter- and intratumoral heterogeneity of BCL2 expression determined resistance to drugs commonly used in FL treatment and affected overall survival of FL patients. These data demonstrate that BCL2 and IgH expressions are heterogeneous and coregulated in t(14;18)-translocated cells, and determine the response to therapy in FL patients. PMID:25303368

  8. Canonical Bcl-2 motifs of the Na+/K+ pump revealed by the BH3 mimetic chelerythrine: early signal transducers of apoptosis?

    PubMed

    Lauf, Peter K; Heiny, Judith; Meller, Jarek; Lepera, Michael A; Koikov, Leonid; Alter, Gerald M; Brown, Thomas L; Adragna, Norma C

    2013-01-01

    Chelerythrine [CET], a protein kinase C [PKC] inhibitor, is a prop-apoptotic BH3-mimetic binding to BH1-like motifs of Bcl-2 proteins. CET action was examined on PKC phosphorylation-dependent membrane transporters (Na+/K+ pump/ATPase [NKP, NKA], Na+-K+-2Cl+ [NKCC] and K+-Cl- [KCC] cotransporters, and channel-supported K+ loss) in human lens epithelial cells [LECs]. K+ loss and K+ uptake, using Rb+ as congener, were measured by atomic absorption/emission spectrophotometry with NKP and NKCC inhibitors, and Cl- replacement by NO3ˉ to determine KCC. 3H-Ouabain binding was performed on a pig renal NKA in the presence and absence of CET. Bcl-2 protein and NKA sequences were aligned and motifs identified and mapped using PROSITE in conjunction with BLAST alignments and analysis of conservation and structural similarity based on prediction of secondary and crystal structures. CET inhibited NKP and NKCC by >90% (IC50 values ~35 and ~15 μM, respectively) without significant KCC activity change, and stimulated K+ loss by ~35% at 10-30 μM. Neither ATP levels nor phosphorylation of the NKA α1 subunit changed. 3H-ouabain was displaced from pig renal NKA only at 100 fold higher CET concentrations than the ligand. Sequence alignments of NKA with BH1- and BH3-like motifs containing pro-survival Bcl-2 and BclXl proteins showed more than one BH1-like motif within NKA for interaction with CET or with BH3 motifs. One NKA BH1-like motif (ARAAEILARDGPN) was also found in all P-type ATPases. Also, NKA possessed a second motif similar to that near the BH3 region of Bcl-2. Findings support the hypothesis that CET inhibits NKP by binding to BH1-like motifs and disrupting the α1 subunit catalytic activity through conformational changes. By interacting with Bcl-2 proteins through their complementary BH1- or BH3-like-motifs, NKP proteins may be sensors of normal and pathological cell functions, becoming important yet unrecognized signal transducers in the initial phases of apoptosis. CET

  9. Maintenance of the HIV reservoir is antagonized by selective BCL2 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Cummins, Nathan W; Sainski-Nguyen, Amy M; Natesampillai, Sekar; Aboulnasr, Fatma; Kaufmann, Scott; Badley, Andrew D

    2017-03-22

    Decay of the HIV reservoir is slowed over time in part by expansion of the pool of HIV infected cells. This expansion reflects homeostatic proliferation of infected cells by IL-7 or antigenic stimulation, as well as new rounds of infection of susceptible target cells. As novel therapies are being developed to accelerate the decay of the latent HIV reservoir, it will be important to identify interventions that prevent expansion and/or repopulation of the latent HIV reservoir. Our previous studies showed that HIV protease cleaves the host protein procaspase 8 to generate Casp8p41, which can bind and activate BAK to induce apoptosis of infected cells. In circumstances where expression of the anti-apoptotic protein BCL2 is high, Casp8p41 instead binds BCL2, and cell death does not occur. This effect can be overcome by treating cells with the clinically approved BCL2 antagonist venetoclax, which prevents Casp8p41 from binding BCL2, thereby allowing Casp8p41 to bind BAK and kill the infected cell. Herein we assess whether the events that maintain the HIV reservoir are also antagonized by venetoclax. Using the J-Lat 10.6 model of persistent infection, we demonstrate that proliferation and HIV expression is countered by venetoclax, which causes preferential killing of the HIV expressing cells. Similarly, during new rounds of infection of primary CD4 T cells, venetoclax causes selective killing of HIV infected cells, resulting in decreased number of HIV DNA containing cells.IMPORTANCE Cure of HIV infection requires an intervention that reduces HIV reservoir size. A variety of approaches are being tested for their ability to impact HIV reservoir size. Even if successful, however, these approaches will need to be combined with additional complementary approaches that prevent replenishment or repopulation of the HIV reservoir. Our previous studies have shown that the FDA approved BCL2 antagonist venetoclax has a beneficial effect on the HIV reservoir size following HIV

  10. Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Enhanced Bcl-2 Expression Promote Liver Recovery in a Rat Model of Hepatic Cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Shizhu; Li, Hulun; Han, Mingzi; Ruan, Mengting; Liu, Zishuai; Zhang, Feifei; Zhang, Chunwei; Choi, Yongsub; Liu, Bingrong

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation has emerged as an option for the treatment of chronic hepatic cirrhosis, while its therapeutic efficacy could be improved. The bcl-2 gene is anti-apoptotic and can help cell survival and proliferation. Therefore, we explored whether transplanted MSCs with enhanced bcl-2 expression may be beneficial in the treatment of experimental cirrhosis in rats. MSCs were isolated from rat bone marrow, expanded in vitro and transfected with adeno-associated virus (AAV) engineered the bcl-2 gene (AAV-bcl-2). Rats with cirrhosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) were treated with AAV-bcl-2 infected BMSCs-AAV-bcl-2, with the cells traced in vivo post transplantation. Liver pathology and function were evaluated 7, 14, 21, and 28 days post transplantation, respectively. On day 7 post transplantation, the infused AAV-bcl-2 had integrated into the hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) that expressed albumin (ALB), Cytokeratin 18 (CK18), and hepatocytes nuclear factor 4a (HNF4a). On day 28 post transplantation, rats in the cirrhosis + BMSCs-AAV-bcl-2 group showed the most dense HLCs, highest mRNA and protein levels of ALB, CK18, and HNF4a, compared to the other groups. Their liver function recovered most rapidly in 4 week observation, while histological sign of cirrhosis remained at the end of this period. BMSCs over expressing bcl-2 gene showed better survival, and enhanced the differentiation into hepatocytes-like cells, and appeared to promote the recovery of liver function in rats with experimental cirrhosis. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Bcl-2 overexpression in type II epithelial cells does not prevent hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Métrailler-Ruchonnet, Isabelle; Pagano, Alessandra; Carnesecchi, Stéphanie; Khatib, Karim; Herrera, Pedro; Donati, Yves; Bron, Camille; Barazzone, Constance

    2010-09-01

    Bcl-2 is an anti-apoptotic molecule preventing oxidative stress damage and cell death. We have previously shown that Bcl-2 is able to prevent hyperoxia-induced cell death when overexpressed in a murine fibrosarcoma cell line L929. We hypothesized that its specific overexpression in pulmonary epithelial type II cells could prevent hyperoxia-induced lung injury by protecting the epithelial side of the alveolo-capillary barrier. In the present work, we first showed that in vitro Bcl-2 can rescue murine pulmonary epithelial cells (MLE12) from oxygen-induced cell apoptosis, as shown by analysis of LDH release, annexin V/propidium staining, and caspase-3 activity. We then generated transgenic mice overexpressing specifically Bcl-2 in lung epithelial type II cells under surfactant protein C (SP-C) promoter (Tg-Bcl-2) and exposed them to hyperoxia. Bcl-2 did not hinder hyperoxia-induced mitochondria and DNA oxidative damage of type II cell in vivo. Accordingly, lung damage was identical in both Tg-Bcl-2 and littermate mice strains, as measured by lung weight, bronchoalveolar lavage, and protein content. Nevertheless, we observed a significant lower number of TUNEL-positive cells in type II cells isolated from Tg-Bcl-2 mice exposed to hyperoxia compared with cells isolated from littermate mice. In summary, these results show that although Bcl-2 overexpression is able to prevent hyperoxia-induced cell death at single cell level in vitro and ex vivo, it is not sufficient to prevent cell death of parenchymal cells and to protect the lung from acute damage in mice.

  12. Expression heterogeneity research of ITGB3 and BCL-2 in lung adenocarcinoma tissue and adenocarcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Xia, Zong-Jiang; Hu, Wei; Wang, Yue-Bin; Zhou, Kun; Sun, Guo-Ju

    2014-06-01

    To analyze expression heterogeneity of Integrin beta 3 (ITGB3) and B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) in lung adenocarcinoma tissue and adenocarcinoma cell line and further provide theoretical direction for molecular biological research of lung adenocarcinoma. Tissue microarray was used to observe relation among expression, heterogeneitpy and clinical characteristics of ITGB3 and BCL-2 in lung cancer. ITGB3 and BCL-2 increased significantly in A549 cells in CAFs group withβ-actin as control; the expression level of BCL-2 also increased in ITGB3 transfected cells with GFP plasmid transfected A549 cells as control; immunohistochemistry staining showed that positive rates of ITGB3, ITGB1 and BCL-2 in normal lung tissues were 0, the positive rates in lung adenocarcinoma were 7.04%, 84.51% and 4.23%, respectively; in the results of immunohistochemistry staining, the expression of Girdin protein in lung adenocarcinoma was homogeneous, however protein expression of ITGB3, ITGB1 and BCL-2 showed different patterns in the same location with significant heterogeneity; majority of ITGB3, ITGB1 or BCL-2 positive tissue showed heterogeneity that expression in trailing edge was higher than that of trailing edge in lung adenocarcinoma tissue, the patients with BCL-2 heterogeneity showed higher lymph node metastasis ratio and lower clinical stage (P<0.05); and the expression of ITGB3 and the clinical characteristics of patients were not significant related (P>0.05). Expression of ITGB3 and BCL-2 in lung adenocarcinoma and adenocarcinoma cell line showed heterogeneity that expression in trailing edge was higher than that of trailing edge, which may play an important role in promoting tumor lymph node metastasis and vascular invasion, and provides a new research direction for exploration of lung adenocarcinoma metastasis mechanism. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Unidirectional crosstalk between Bcl-xL and Bcl-2 enhances the angiogenic phenotype of endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Karl, E; Zhang, Z; Dong, Z; Neiva, K G; Soengas, M S; Koch, A E; Polverini, P J; Núñez, G; Nör, J E

    2007-09-01

    Expression of Bcl-x(L) correlates with the clinical outcomes of patients with cancer. While the role of Bcl-2 in angiogenesis is becoming increasingly evident, the function of Bcl-x(L) in angiogenesis is unclear. Here, we showed that epidermal growth factor (EGF) induces in vitro capillary sprouting and Bcl-x(L) expression in primary endothelial cells. Bcl-x(L)-transduced human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMEC-Bcl-x(L)), but not empty vector control cells, spontaneously organize into capillary-like sprouts. Searching for a mechanism to explain these responses, we observed that Bcl-x(L) induced expression of the pro-angiogenic chemokines CXC ligand-1 (CXCL1) and CXC ligand-8 (CXCL8), and that blockade of CXC receptor-2 (CXCR2) signaling inhibited spontaneous sprouting of HDMEC-Bcl-x(L). Bcl-x(L) led to Bcl-2 upregulation, but Bcl-2 did not upregulate Bcl-x(L), suggesting the existence of a unidirectional crosstalk from Bcl-x(L) to Bcl-2. EGF and Bcl-x(L) activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK pathway resulting in upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a known inducer of Bcl-2 in endothelial cells. Inhibition of VEGF receptor signaling in HDMEC-Bcl-x(L) prevented Bcl-2 upregulation and demonstrated the function of a VEGF-mediated autocrine loop. Bcl-2 downregulation by RNAi blocked CXCL1 and CXCL8 expression downstream of Bcl-x(L), and markedly decreased angiogenesis in vivo. We conclude that Bcl-x(L) functions as a pro-angiogenic signaling molecule controlling Bcl-2 and VEGF expression. These results emphasize a complex interplay between Bcl-2 family members beyond their classical roles in apoptosis.

  14. Latent membrane protein of Epstein-Barr virus induces cellular phenotypes independently of expression of Bcl-2.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, J M; Veis, D; Korsmeyer, S J; Sugden, B

    1993-01-01

    The stable expression of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein (LMP) in certain EBV-negative Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines correlates with an increased expression of the oncogene Bcl-2 (S. Henderson, M. Rowe, C. Gregory, D. Croom-Carter, F. Wang, R. Longnecker, E. Kieff, and A. Rickinson, Cell 65:1107-1115, 1991). This finding is consistent with a model in which Bcl-2 contributes to the immortalization of B cells mediated by EBV. We therefore asked whether the expression of Bcl-2 protein correlates with the induction of three cellular phenotypes induced by or associated with LMP. The expression of Bcl-2 in primary B cells infected with the B95-8 strain of EBV varied between 1 and 1.8 times that in uninfected cells when 50% of the cells were infected, expressed LMP, and incorporated 20-fold more [3H]thymidine than did uninfected cells. This finding indicates that induced proliferation of these primary cells is not sufficient to induce Bcl-2. We found that BALB/c 3T3 cells and their derivatives transformed by LMP do not express Bcl-2 detectably. The expression of LMP at high levels in lymphoid cells is cytotoxic and correlates with an increased expression of Bcl-2 following stable selection for the introduced LMP gene; 2 days after transfection, control vector- and LMP-transfected populations, however, express equal levels of Bcl-2 protein. We also analyzed transient expression of LMP in an EBV-negative Burkitt's lymphoma cell line. Infection of BJAB cells with the B95-8 strain of EBV results in an increase in Bcl-2 expression with a time course similar to that of LMP expression, and LMP alone transiently induces an increase in Bcl-2 expression in these cells. We interpret these observations to indicate that increased expression of Bcl-2 is unlikely to contribute to the ability of EBV to immortalize primary B cells and that both the transformation of rodent cells and the cytotoxicity mediated by LMP are independent of Bcl-2. Images PMID:8394449

  15. Identification of the Essential Role of Viral Bcl-2 for Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Lytic Replication

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Qiming; Chang, Brian; Lee, Patrick; Brulois, Kevin F.; Ge, Jianning; Shi, Mude; Rodgers, Mary A.; Feng, Pinghui; Oh, Byung-Ha; Liang, Chengyu

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) evades host defenses through tight suppression of autophagy by targeting each step of its signal transduction: by viral Bcl-2 (vBcl-2) in vesicle nucleation, by viral FLIP (vFLIP) in vesicle elongation, and by K7 in vesicle maturation. By exploring the roles of KSHV autophagy-modulating genes, we found, surprisingly, that vBcl-2 is essential for KSHV lytic replication, whereas vFLIP and K7 are dispensable. Knocking out vBcl-2 from the KSHV genome resulted in decreased lytic gene expression at the mRNA and protein levels, a lower viral DNA copy number, and, consequently, a dramatic reduction in the amount of progeny infectious viruses, as also described in the accompanying article (A. Gelgor, I. Kalt, S. Bergson, K. F. Brulois, J. U. Jung, and R. Sarid, J Virol 89:5298–5307, 2015). More importantly, the antiapoptotic and antiautophagic functions of vBcl-2 were not required for KSHV lytic replication. Using a comprehensive mutagenesis analysis, we identified that glutamic acid 14 (E14) of vBcl-2 is critical for KSHV lytic replication. Mutating E14 to alanine totally blocked KSHV lytic replication but showed little or no effect on the antiapoptotic and antiautophagic functions of vBcl-2. Our study indicates that vBcl-2 harbors at least three important and genetically separable functions to modulate both cellular signaling and the virus life cycle. IMPORTANCE The present study shows for the first time that vBcl-2 is essential for KSHV lytic replication. Removal of the vBcl-2 gene results in a lower level of KSHV lytic gene expression, impaired viral DNA replication, and consequently, a dramatic reduction in the level of progeny production. More importantly, the role of vBcl-2 in KSHV lytic replication is genetically separated from its antiapoptotic and antiautophagic functions, suggesting that the KSHV Bcl-2 carries a novel function in viral lytic replication. PMID:25740994

  16. A179L, a viral Bcl-2 homologue, targets the core Bcl-2 apoptotic machinery and its upstream BH3 activators with selective binding restrictions for Bid and Noxa

    PubMed Central

    Galindo, Inmaculada; Hernaez, Bruno; Díaz-Gil, Gema; Escribano, Jose M.; Alonso, Covadonga

    2008-01-01

    Several large DNA viruses encode Bcl-2 protein homologues involved in the regulation of the cellular apoptosis cascade. This regulation often involves the interaction of these viral proteins with diverse cellular Bcl-2 family members. We have identified the specific interactions of A179L, an African swine fever virus (ASFV) Bcl-2 homologue, with the active forms of the porcine BH3-only Bid protein (truncated Bid p13 and p15). Transient expression of ASFV A179L gene in Vero cells prevented apoptosis induced by these active forms of Bid protein. Interestingly, A179L protein was able to interact, also with the main core Bcl-2 proapoptotic proteins Bax and Bak, and with several BH3-only proteins with selective binding restrictions for full length Bid and Noxa. These results suggest a fine regulation for A179L action in the suppression of apoptosis in infected cells which is essential for efficient virus replication. PMID:18329683

  17. The Bcl-2 homology domain 3 (BH3)-only proteins Bim and bid are functionally active and restrained by anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins in healthy liver.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Takahiro; Hikita, Hayato; Kawaguchi, Tsukasa; Saito, Yoshinobu; Tanaka, Satoshi; Shigekawa, Minoru; Shimizu, Satoshi; Li, Wei; Miyagi, Takuya; Kanto, Tatsuya; Hiramatsu, Naoki; Tatsumi, Tomohide; Takehara, Tetsuo

    2013-10-18

    An intrinsic pathway of apoptosis is regulated by the B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) family proteins. We previously reported that a fine rheostatic balance between the anti- and pro-apoptotic multidomain Bcl-2 family proteins controls hepatocyte apoptosis in the healthy liver. The Bcl-2 homology domain 3 (BH3)-only proteins set this rheostatic balance toward apoptosis upon activation in the diseased liver. However, their involvement in healthy Bcl-2 rheostasis remains unknown. In the present study, we focused on two BH3-only proteins, Bim and Bid, and we clarified the Bcl-2 network that governs hepatocyte life and death in the healthy liver. We generated hepatocyte-specific Bcl-xL- or Mcl-1-knock-out mice, with or without disrupting Bim and/or Bid, and we examined hepatocyte apoptosis under physiological conditions. We also examined the effect of both Bid and Bim disruption on the hepatocyte apoptosis caused by the inhibition of Bcl-xL and Mcl-1. Spontaneous hepatocyte apoptosis in Bcl-xL- or Mcl-1-knock-out mice was significantly ameliorated by Bim deletion. The disruption of both Bim and Bid completely prevented hepatocyte apoptosis in Bcl-xL-knock-out mice and weakened massive hepatocyte apoptosis via the additional in vivo knockdown of mcl-1 in these mice. Finally, the hepatocyte apoptosis caused by ABT-737, which is a Bcl-xL/Bcl-2/Bcl-w inhibitor, was completely prevented in Bim/Bid double knock-out mice. The BH3-only proteins Bim and Bid are functionally active but are restrained by the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins under physiological conditions. Hepatocyte integrity is maintained by the dynamic and well orchestrated Bcl-2 network in the healthy liver.

  18. Nestin predicts a favorable prognosis in early ampullary adenocarcinoma and functions as a promoter of metastasis in advanced cancer.

    PubMed

    Shan, Yan-Shen; Chen, Yi-Ling; Lai, Ming-Derg; Hsu, Hui-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Nestin exhibits stemness characteristics and is overexpressed in several types of cancers. Downstream signaling of nestin [cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) and Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1)] functions in cancer to modulate cellular behaviors. We studied the function of nestin in ampullary adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemistry (IHC), reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and cDNA microarray of nestin in ampullary adenocarcinoma was compared with normal duodenum. CDK5 and Rac1 were assessed by western blotting. We hypothesized that nestin/CDK5/Rac1 signaling behaves different in early and advanced cancer. We found that the presence of nestin mRNA was increased in the early stages of cancer (T2N0 or T3N0) and advanced cancer with lymph node metastasis (T4N1). A total of 102 patients were enrolled in the IHC staining. Weak nestin expression was correlated with favorable characteristics of cancer, decreased incidence of local recurrence and lower risk of recurrence within 12 months after surgery. Patients with weak nestin expression had the most favorable recurrence‑free survival rates. Patients with mild to strong nestin expression exhibited an advanced behavior of cancer and increased possibility of cancer recurrence. The reciprocal expression of nestin and RAC1 were explored using a cDNA microarray analysis in the early stages of ampullary adenocarcinoma. Increased level of CDK5 with simultaneously decreased expression of Rac1 was detected by western blotting of ampullary adenocarcinoma in patients without cancer recurrence. The activation of multiple oncogenic pathways, combined with the stemness characteristics of nestin, formed a complex network in advanced ampullary adenocarcinoma. Our study demonstrated that nestin performs a dual role in ampullary adenocarcinoma. Appropriate amount of nestin enhances CDK5 function to suppress Rac1 and excessive nestin/CDK5 participates in multiple oncogenic pathways to promote cancer invasiveness

  19. Same difference: A pilot study of cyclin D1, bcl-2, AMACR, and ALDH-1 identifies significant differences in expression between primary colon adenocarcinoma and its metastases.

    PubMed

    Oakley, Gerard J; Denning, Krista L; Graffeo, Vincent; Griswold, Doreen C; Davis, Adam R; Brown, Linda G

    2016-11-01

    Tumor heterogeneity implies the possibility of significantly different expression of key pathways between primary and metastatic clones. Colon adenocarcinoma is one of the few tumors where current practice includes resection of primary and isolated organ metastases simultaneously without neoadjuvant therapy. We performed a pilot study on 28 cases of colon adenocarcinoma resected simultaneously with metastases in patients with no history of neoadjuvant therapy. We assayed matched primary and metastatic tumors from each patient with common diagnostic antibodies to Bcl-2, Cyclin D1, AMACR, and ALDH-1 by immunohistochemistry with semi-quantitative interpretation on archived formalin fixed, paraffin embedded samples. We were powered for large, consistent differences between primary and metastatic expression, and found 21 of 28 had a significant difference in expression of at least one of the four proteins, accounting for multiplicity of testing. Cyclin D1 had significantly more cases with differential metastatic:primary expression than would be expected by chance alone (p-value 0.0043), favoring higher expression in the metastatic sample. Bcl-2 and ALDH-1 had trends in this direction (p-value 0.078 each). Proportionately more cases with significant differences were identified when a liver metastasis was tested. We conclude differences in expression between metastatic and primary colon adenocarcinoma within the same patient exist, and may have therapeutic and biomarker testing consequences.

  20. MicroRNA-190b confers radio-sensitivity through negative regulation of Bcl-2 in gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changzheng; Qiao, Chuanhu

    2017-04-01

    To determine the role of miR-190b in radio-sensitivity of gastric cancer (GC). In radio-resistant GC cells, down-regulation of miR-190b and up-regulation of Bcl-2 were observed. The protein expression of Bcl-2 was negatively regulated by miR-190b. Overexpression of miR-190b significantly decreased cell viability and enhanced radio-sensitivity of GC cells. Of note, these effects of miR-190b on GC cells radio-sensitivity were abolished by Bcl-2. miR-190b confers radio-sensitivity of GC cells, possibly via negative regulation of Bcl-2.

  1. TR4 orphan nuclear receptor functions as an apoptosis modulator via regulation of Bcl-2 gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Eungseok; Ma, Wen-Lung; Lin, Din-Lii; Inui, Shigeki; Chen, Yuh-Ling; Chang, Chawnshang . E-mail: chang@urmc.rochester.edu

    2007-09-21

    While Bcl-2 plays an important role in cell apoptosis, its relationship to the orphan nuclear receptors remains unclear. Here we report that mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells prepared from TR4-deficient (TR4{sup -} {sup /-}) mice are more susceptible to UV-irradiation mediated apoptosis compared to TR4-Wildtype (TR4 {sup +/+}) littermates. Substantial increasing TR4{sup -} {sup /-} MEF apoptosis to UV-irradiation was correlated to the down-regulation of Bcl-2 RNA and protein expression and collaterally increased caspase-3 activity. Furthermore, this TR4-induced Bcl-2 gene expression can be suppressed by co-transfection with TR4 coregulators, such as androgen receptor (AR) and receptor-interacting protein 140 (RIP140) in a dose-dependent manner. Together, our results demonstrate that TR4 might function as an apoptosis modulator through induction of Bcl-2 gene expression.

  2. Isolated Follicles Enriched for Centroblasts and Lacking t(14;18)/BCL2 in Lymphoid Tissue: Diagnostic and Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Gratzinger, Dita; Jones, Carol D.; Zehnder, James L.; Bangs, Charles D.; Cherry, Athena; Warnke, Roger A.; Natkunam, Yasodha

    2016-01-01

    We sought to address the significance of isolated follicles that exhibit atypical morphologic features that may be mistaken for lymphoma in a background of reactive lymphoid tissue. Seven cases that demonstrated centroblast-predominant isolated follicles and absent BCL2 staining in otherwise-normal lymph nodes were studied. Four of seven cases showed clonal B-cell proliferations amid a polyclonal B cell background; all cases lacked the IGH-BCL2 translocation and BCL2 protein expression. Although three patients had invasive breast carcinoma at other sites, none were associated with systemic lymphoma up to 44 months after diagnosis. The immunoarchitectural features of these highly unusual cases raise the question of whether a predominance of centroblasts and/or absence of BCL2 expression could represent a precursor lesion or atypical reactive phenomenon. Differentiating such cases from follicular lymphoma or another mimic is critical, lest patients with indolent proliferations be exposed to unnecessarily aggressive treatment. PMID:26991267

  3. Drug-induced destabilization of bcl-2 mRNA: a new approach for inducing apoptosis in tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Otake, Yoko; Sengupta, Tapas K; Bandyopadhyay, Sumita; Spicer, Eleanor K; Fernandes, Daniel J

    2004-06-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) of some mRNAs is a molecular hotspot for pathology. The 3' UTR of bcl-2 mRNA contains several AU-rich elements (AREs) that promote mRNA destabilization. Recent studies have demonstrated that the protein, nucleolin, binds to an ARE in bcl-2 mRNA, thereby protecting this mRNA from nuclease degradation. All-trans retinoic acid, taxol and okadiac acid induce downregulation or inactivation of nucleolin, which destabilizes bcl-2 mRNA and triggers apoptosis. The ARE instability elements in bcl-2 mRNA are potential therapeutic targets for inducing apoptosis and overcoming drug resistance in cancer cells.

  4. Tumor-infiltrating macrophages express interleukin-25 and predict a favorable prognosis in patients with gastric cancer after radical resection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jinqing; Liao, Yuan; Ding, Tong; Wang, Bo; Yu, Xingjuan; Chu, Yifan; Xu, Jing; Zheng, Limin

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-25 (IL-25) is a recently identified member of the proinflammatory IL-17 cytokine family; however, its role in human tumors remains largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the cellular source and clinical significance of IL-25 in gastric cancer (GC) in situ. The results demonstrated that macrophages (Mφs) were the primary IL-25-expressing cells (IL-25+) in GC in situ. Moreover, IL-25+ cells were highly enriched in the intra-tumoral (IT) region of GC tissues (p < 0.001). The production of IL-25 in Mφs exposed to culture supernatant from gastric cancer cell line SGC7901 in vitro was induced by transforming growth factor-β1, and their density in the IT region was positively associated with those of other effector immune cells, namely, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and CD103+T cells (p < 0.01). This suggested that macrophages might produce IL-25 to create an antitumor micromilieu in GC tissues. The level of IL-25+IT cells was positively associated with histological grade (p < 0.001) and found to be an independent predictor of favorable survival (p = 0.024) in patients with GC after radical resection. These findings suggest that IL-25+IT cells may be a novel therapeutic target in those patients. PMID:26840565

  5. Induction of bcl-2 expression by phosphorylated CREB proteins during B-cell activation and rescue from apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, B E; Mochon, E; Boxer, L M

    1996-01-01

    Engagement of surface immunoglobulin on mature B cells leads to rescue from apoptosis and to proliferation. Levels of bcl-2 mRNA and protein increase with cross-linking of surface immunoglobulin. We have located the major positive regulatory region for control of bcl-2 expression in B cells in the 5'-flanking region. The positive region can be divided into an upstream and a downstream regulatory region. The downstream regulatory region contains a cyclic AMP-responsive element (CRE). We show by antibody supershift experiments and UV cross-linking followed by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis that both CREB and ATF family members bind to this region in vitro. Mutations of the CRE site that result in loss of CREB binding also lead to loss of functional activity of the bcl-2 promoter in transient-transfection assays. The presence of an active CRE site in the bcl-2 promoter implies that the regulation of bcl-2 expression is linked to a signal transduction pathway in B cells. Treatment of the mature B-cell line BAL-17 with either anti-immunoglobulin M or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate leads to an increase in bcl-2 expression that is mediated by the CRE site. Treatment of the more immature B-cell line, Ramos, with phorbol esters rescues the cells from calcium-dependent apoptosis. bcl-2 expression is increased following phorbol ester treatment, and the increased expression is dependent on the CRE site. These stimuli result in phosphorylation of CREB at serine 133. The phosphorylation of CREB that results in activation is mediated by protein kinase C rather than by protein kinase A. Although the CRE site is necessary, optimal induction of bcl-2 expression requires participation of the upstream regulatory element, suggesting that phosphorylation of CREB alters its interaction with the upstream regulatory element. The CRE site in the bcl-2 promoter appears to play a major role in the induction of bcl-2 expression during the activation of mature B cells and during

  6. Association of Bax Expression and Bcl2/Bax Ratio with Clinical and Molecular Prognostic Markers in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Vucicevic, Ksenija; Jakovljevic, Vladimir; Colovic, Natasa; Tosic, Natasa; Kostic, Tatjana; Glumac, Irena; Pavlovic, Sonja; Karan-Djurasevic, Teodora; Colovic, Milica

    2016-04-01

    In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), in vivo apoptotic resistance of malignant B lymphocytes results, in part, from the intrinsic defects of their apoptotic machinery. These include genetic alterations and aberrant expression of many apoptosis regulators, among which the Bcl2 family members play a central role. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of pro-apoptotic Bax gene expression and Bcl2/Bax ratio with the clinical features of CLL patients as well as with molecular prognostic markers, namely the mutational status of rearranged immunoglobulin heavy variable (IGHV) genes and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene expression. We analyzed the expression of Bax mRNA and Bcl2/Bax mRNA ratio in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 58 unselected CLL patients and 10 healthy controls by the quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. We detected significant Bax gene overexpression in CLL samples compared to non-leukemic samples (p=0.003), as well as an elevated Bcl2/Bax ratio (p=<0.001). Regarding the association with prognostic markers, the Bcl2/Bax ratio showed a negative correlation to lymphocyte doubling time (r=-0.307; p=0.0451), while high-level Bax expression was associated with LPL-positive status (p=0.035). Both the expression of Bax and Bcl2/Bax ratio were higher in patients with unmutated vs. mutated IGHV rearrangements, but this difference did not reach statistical significance. Our results suggest that dysregulated expression of Bcl2 and Bax, which leads to a high Bcl2/Bax ratio in leukemic cells, contributes to the pathogenesis and clinical course of CLL.

  7. Association of Bax Expression and Bcl2/Bax Ratio with Clinical and Molecular Prognostic Markers in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Vucicevic, Ksenija; Jakovljevic, Vladimir; Colovic, Natasa; Tosic, Natasa; Kostic, Tatjana; Glumac, Irena; Pavlovic, Sonja; Colovic, Milica

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), in vivo apoptotic resistance of malignant B lymphocytes results, in part, from the intrinsic defects of their apoptotic machinery. These include genetic alterations and aberrant expression of many apoptosis regulators, among which the Bcl2 family members play a central role. Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the association of pro-apoptotic Bax gene expression and Bcl2/Bax ratio with the clinical features of CLL patients as well as with molecular prognostic markers, namely the mutational status of rearranged immunoglobulin heavy variable (IGHV) genes and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene expression. Methods We analyzed the expression of Bax mRNA and Bcl2/Bax mRNA ratio in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 58 unselected CLL patients and 10 healthy controls by the quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Results We detected significant Bax gene overexpression in CLL samples compared to non-leukemic samples (p=0.003), as well as an elevated Bcl2/Bax ratio (p=<0.001). Regarding the association with prognostic markers, the Bcl2/Bax ratio showed a negative correlation to lymphocyte doubling time (r=-0.307; p=0.0451), while high-level Bax expression was associated with LPL-positive status (p=0.035). Both the expression of Bax and Bcl2/Bax ratio were higher in patients with unmutated vs. mutated IGHV rearrangements, but this difference did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions Our results suggest that dysregulated expression of Bcl2 and Bax, which leads to a high Bcl2/Bax ratio in leukemic cells, contributes to the pathogenesis and clinical course of CLL. PMID:28356875

  8. Bcl-2 confers survival in cisplatin treated cervical cancer cells: circumventing cisplatin dose-dependent toxicity and resistance.

    PubMed

    Leisching, Gina; Loos, Benjamin; Botha, Matthys; Engelbrecht, Anna-Mart

    2015-10-16

    Cisplatin is the main chemotherapeutic drug for the treatment of cervical cancers, however resistance to cisplatin is increasingly common and therefore has limited the efficacy and use of this drug in the clinic. Dose-dependent toxicity poses an additional challenge since patients suffer long-term and often permanent side-effects after treatment. Bcl-2 up-regulation has been implicated in the resistance to cisplatin in a variety of cancer cell lines, however its role in cervical cancer is confounding. A low, non-cytotoxic concentration of cisplatin was used in the treatment of HeLa and CaSki cells. Bcl-2 expression was determined through Western blotting and immunocytochemistry before and after treatment with cisplatin. To assess the reliance of the cervical cancer cells on Bcl-2 in the presence of cisplatin, Bcl-2 knock-down was achieved through RNA interference, where after apoptosis was assessed through PARP cleavage (Western blotting), Caspase activity (Caspase-Glo(©)) and PI inclusion analysis (Flow cytometry). Finally, pre-malignant and malignant cervical tissue was analysed for the presence of Bcl-2 through Western blotting and immunofluorescence. Cervical cancer cells upregulate Bcl-2 when treated with a non-cytotoxic concentration of cisplatin, which when silenced, effectively enhanced cisplatin sensitivity, and therefore significantly induced apoptosis. Analysis of the expression profile of Bcl-2 in cervical tissue revealed its up-regulation in cervical carcinoma, which agrees with results obtained from the in vitro data. Our data strongly suggest that utilising a lower dose of cisplatin is feasible when combined with Bcl-2 silencing as an adjuvant treatment, thereby improving both the dose-dependent toxicity, as well as cervical cancer resistance.

  9. Induction of apoptosis in HepG2 cells by solanine and Bcl-2 protein.

    PubMed

    Ji, Y B; Gao, S Y; Ji, C F; Zou, X

    2008-01-17

    The nightshade (Solanum nigrum Linn.) has been widely used in Chinese traditional medicine as a remedy for the treatment of digestive system cancer. The anti-tumor activity of solanine, a steroid alkaloid isolated from the nightshade has been demonstrated. To observe the effect of anti-tumor and mechanism of solanine. The MTT assay was used to evaluate the IC(50) on the three digestive system tumor cell lines. The effect on the morphology was observed with a laser confocal microscopy; the rate of apoptosis and the cell cycle were measured using flow cytometry (FCM); the expression of Bcl-2 protein was measured by Western blot. The results show that the IC(50) for HepG(2), SGC-7901, and LS-174 were 14.47, >50, and >50 microg/ml, respectively; the morphology of cells in the negative control was normal; for the treated groups, typical signs for apoptosis were found. The rate of apoptosis in HepG(2) cells induced by solanine was found to be 6.0, 14.4, 17.3, 18.9, and 32.2%, respectively. Observation of the cell cycle showed that cells in the G(2)/M phases disappeared while the number of cells in the S phase increased significantly for treated groups. Western blot showed that solanine decreased the expression of Bcl-2 protein. Therefore, the target of solanine in inducing apoptosis in HepG(2) cells seems to be mediated by the inhibition in the expression of Bcl-2 protein.

  10. Telomerase activity, estrogen receptors (α, β), Bcl-2 expression in human breast cancer and treatment response

    PubMed Central

    Murillo-Ortiz, Blanca; Astudillo-De la Vega, Horacio; Castillo-Medina, Sebastian; Malacara, JM; Benitez-Bribiesca, Luis

    2006-01-01

    Background The mechanism for maintaining telomere integrity is controlled by telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein enzyme that specifically restores telomere sequences, lost during replication by means of an intrinsic RNA component as a template for polymerization. Among the telomerase subunits, hTERT (human telomerase reverse transcriptase) is expressed concomitantly with the activation of telomerase. The role of estrogens and their receptors in the transcriptional regulation of hTERT has been demonstrated. The current study determines the possible association between telomerase activity, the expression of both molecular forms of estrogen receptor (ERα and ERβ) and the protein bcl-2, and their relative associations with clinical parameters. Methods Tissue samples from 44 patients with breast cancer were used to assess telomerase activity using the TRAP method and the expression of ERα, ERβ and bcl-2 by means of immunocytochemical techniques. Results Telomerase activity was detected in 59% of the 44 breast tumors examined. Telomerase activity ranged from 0 to 49.93 units of total product generated (TPG). A correlation was found between telomerase activity and differentiation grade (p = 0.03). The only significant independent marker of response to treatment was clinical stage. We found differences between the frequency of expression of ERα (88%) and ERβ (36%) (p = 0.007); bcl-2 was expressed in 79.5% of invasive breast carcinomas. We also found a significant correlation between low levels of telomerase activity and a lack of ERβ expression (p = 0.03). Conclusion Lower telomerase activity was found among tumors that did not express estrogen receptor beta. This is the first published study demonstrating that the absence of expression of ERβ is associated with low levels of telomerase activity. PMID:16911782

  11. Berberine Inhibits Doxorubicin-Triggered Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis via Attenuating Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Increasing Bcl-2 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Xiuxiu; Yu, Xiaohui; Wang, Yiyang; Wang, Faqiang; Li, Hongmei; Wang, Yanping; Lu, Daxiang; Qi, Renbin; Wang, Huadong

    2012-01-01

    Cardiomyocyte apoptosis is an important event in doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiac injury. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protection of berberine (Ber) against DOX- triggered cardiomyocyte apoptosis in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes and rats. In neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, Ber attenuated DOX-induced cellular injury and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. However, Ber has no significant effect on viability of MCF-7 breast cancer cells treated with DOX. Ber reduced caspase-3 and caspase-9, but not caspase-8 activity in DOX-treated cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, Ber decreased adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα) and p53 phosphorylation at 2 h, cytosolic cytochrome c and mitochondrial Bax levels and increased Bcl-2 level at 6 h in DOX-stimulated cardiomyocytes. Pretreatment with compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, also suppressed p53 phosphorylation and apoptosis in DOX-treated cardiomyocytes. DOX stimulation for 30 min led to a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and a rise in the AMP/ATP ratio. Ber markedly reduced DOX-induced mitochondrial membrane potential loss and an increase in the AMP/ATP ratio at 1 h and 2 h post DOX exposure. In in vivo experiments, Ber significantly improved survival, increased stroke volume and attenuated myocardial injury in DOX-challenged rats. TUNEL and Western blot assays showed that Ber not only decreased myocardial apoptosis, caspase-3 activation, AMPKα and p53 phosphorylation, but also increased Bcl-2 expression in myocardium of rats exposed to DOX for 84 h. These findings indicate that Ber attenuates DOX-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis via protecting mitochondria, inhibiting an increase in the AMP/ATP ratio and AMPKα phosphorylation as well as elevating Bcl-2 expression, which offer a novel mechanism responsible for protection of Ber against DOX-induced cardiomyopathy. PMID:23077597

  12. MRP- and BCL-2-mediated drug resistance in human SCLC: effects of apoptotic sphingolipids in vitro.

    PubMed

    Khodadadian, M; Leroux, M E; Auzenne, E; Ghosh, S C; Farquhar, D; Evans, R; Spohn, W; Zou, Y; Klostergaard, J

    2009-10-01

    Multidrug-resistance-associated protein (MRP) and BCL-2 contribute to drug resistance expressed in SCLC. To establish whether MRP-mediated drug resistance affects sphingolipid (SL)-induced apoptosis in SCLC, we first examined the human SCLC cell line, UMCC-1, and its MRP over-expressing, drug-resistant subline, UMCC-1/VP. Despite significantly decreased sensitivity to doxorubicin (Dox) and to the etoposide, VP-16, the drug-selected line was essentially equally as sensitive to treatment with exogenous ceramide (Cer), sphingosine (Sp) or dimethyl-sphingosine (DMSP) as the parental line. Next, we observed that high BCL-2-expressing human H69 SCLC cells, that were approximately 160-fold more sensitive to Dox than their combined BCL-2 and MRP-over-expressing (H69AR) counterparts, were only approximately 5-fold more resistant to DMSP. Time-lapse fluorescence microscopy of either UMCC cell line treated with DMSP-Coumarin revealed comparable extents and kinetics of SL uptake, further ruling out MRP-mediated effects on drug uptake. DMSP potentiated the cytotoxic activity of VP-16 and Taxol, but not Dox, in drug-resistant UMCC-1/VP cells. However, this sensitization did not appear to involve DMSP-mediated effects on the function of MRP in drug export; nor did DMSP strongly shift the balance of pro-apoptotic Sps and anti-apoptotic Sp-1-Ps in these cells. We conclude that SL-induced apoptosis markedly overcomes or bypasses MRP-mediated drug resistance relevant to SCLC and may suggest a novel therapeutic approach to chemotherapy for these tumors.

  13. Zerumbone induced apoptosis in liver cancer cells via modulation of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio

    PubMed Central

    Sharifah Sakinah, SA; Tri Handayani, S; Azimahtol Hawariah, LP

    2007-01-01

    Background Zerumbone is a cytotoxic component isolated from Zingiber zerumbet Smith, a herbal plant which is also known as lempoyang. This new anticancer bioactive compound from Z. zerumbet was investigated for its activity and mechanism in human liver cancer cell lines. Results Zerumbone significantly showed an antiproliferative activity upon HepG2 cells with an IC50 of 3.45 ± 0.026 μg/ml. Zerumbone was also found to inhibit the proliferation of non-malignant Chang Liver and MDBK cell lines. However the IC50 obtained was higher compared to the IC50 for HepG2 cells (> 10 μg/ml). The extent of DNA fragmentation was evaluated by the Tdt-mediated dUTP nick end labelling assay which showed that, zerumbone significantly increased apoptosis in HepG2 cells in a time-course manner. In detail, the apoptotic process triggered by zerumbone involved the up-regulation of pro-apoptotic Bax protein and the suppression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein expression. The changes that occurred in the levels of this antagonistic proteins Bax/Bcl-2, was independent of p53 since zerumbone did not affect the levels of p53 although this protein exists in a functional form. Western blotting analysis for Bax protein was further confirmed qualitatively with an immunoassay that showed the distribution of Bax protein in zerumbone-treated cells. Conclusion Therefore, zerumbone was found to induce the apoptotic process in HepG2 cells through the up and down regulation of Bax/Bcl-2 protein independently of functional p53 activity. PMID:17407577

  14. Activation of Bcl-2-Caspase-9 Apoptosis Pathway in the Testis of Asthmatic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Junjuan; Ding, Zhaolei; Sheng, Jianhui; Li, Juan; Tan, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background Apoptosis plays a critical role in controlling the proliferation and differentiation of germ cells during spermatogenesis. Dysregulation of the fine-tuned balance may lead to the onset of testicular diseases. In this study, we investigated the activation status of apoptosis pathways in the testicular tissues under the background of an asthmatic mouse model. Methods Ten BALB/c mice were divided into two groups: the acute asthma group and the control group. In the acute asthma group, ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized mice were challenged with aerosolized OVA for 7 days, while the control group was treated with physiological saline. After that, both epididymis and testis were collected to determine the sperm count and motility. Apoptosis in the testis was evaluated by DNA ladder, immunochemistry and further by PCR array of apoptosis-related genes. Finally, the cleavage of caspase-3 and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) was determined by western blot and the enzymatic activities of caspase-9 and 3/7 were assessed using Caspase-Glo kits. Results Compared with control mice, significant decreases in the body weight, testis weight, sperm count and motility were seen in the experimental group. DNA ladder and immunochemistry showed significant increase in apoptotic index of the asthmatic testis, whereas a decrease in mRNA expression of Bcl-2 and increases in Bax, BNIP3, caspase-9, and AIF were observed in the asthma group. Furthermore, protein levels of AIF were significantly upregulated, while the translational expression of Bcl-2 was downregulated markedly. Consistently, caspase-9 activity in the testis of asthma mice was significantly higher than that of the control group. Conclusion Collectively, these results showed that Bcl-2-caspase-9 apoptosis pathway was clearly activated in the testis of asthmatic mice with the increased expression of apoptosis-related genes and proteins. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that asthma could lead to the

  15. Activation of Bcl-2-Caspase-9 Apoptosis Pathway in the Testis of Asthmatic Mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenyuan; Guo, Guifang; Li, Junjuan; Ding, Zhaolei; Sheng, Jianhui; Li, Juan; Tan, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Apoptosis plays a critical role in controlling the proliferation and differentiation of germ cells during spermatogenesis. Dysregulation of the fine-tuned balance may lead to the onset of testicular diseases. In this study, we investigated the activation status of apoptosis pathways in the testicular tissues under the background of an asthmatic mouse model. Ten BALB/c mice were divided into two groups: the acute asthma group and the control group. In the acute asthma group, ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized mice were challenged with aerosolized OVA for 7 days, while the control group was treated with physiological saline. After that, both epididymis and testis were collected to determine the sperm count and motility. Apoptosis in the testis was evaluated by DNA ladder, immunochemistry and further by PCR array of apoptosis-related genes. Finally, the cleavage of caspase-3 and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) was determined by western blot and the enzymatic activities of caspase-9 and 3/7 were assessed using Caspase-Glo kits. Compared with control mice, significant decreases in the body weight, testis weight, sperm count and motility were seen in the experimental group. DNA ladder and immunochemistry showed significant increase in apoptotic index of the asthmatic testis, whereas a decrease in mRNA expression of Bcl-2 and increases in Bax, BNIP3, caspase-9, and AIF were observed in the asthma group. Furthermore, protein levels of AIF were significantly upregulated, while the translational expression of Bcl-2 was downregulated markedly. Consistently, caspase-9 activity in the testis of asthma mice was significantly higher than that of the control group. Collectively, these results showed that Bcl-2-caspase-9 apoptosis pathway was clearly activated in the testis of asthmatic mice with the increased expression of apoptosis-related genes and proteins. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that asthma could lead to the activation of the mitochondrial apoptosis

  16. Telmisartan induces apoptosis and regulates Bcl-2 in human renal cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Leitão Oliveira, Ana Luiza CS; de Melo Silveira, Raniere Fagundes; de Oliveira Rocha, Hugo Alexandre; de França Cavalcanti, Pedro; de Araújo, Aurigena Antunes

    2015-01-01

    It has been well-characterized that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) physiologically regulates systemic arterial pressure. However, RAS signaling has also been shown to increase cell proliferation during malignancy, and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are able to decrease pro-survival signaling by inhibiting anti-apoptotic molecules and suppressing caspase activity. In this study, the apoptotic effects of telmisartan, a type of ARB, was evaluated using a non-cancerous human renal cell line (HEK) and a human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell line (786). Both types of cells were treated with telmisartan for 4 h, 24 h, and 48 h, and then were assayed for levels of apoptosis, caspase-3, and Bcl-2 using MTT assays, flow cytometry, and immunostaining studies. Analysis of variance was used to identify significant differences between these data (P < 0.05). Following the treatment of 786 cells with 100 µM and 200 µM telmisartan, a marked inhibition of cell proliferation was observed. 50 µM cisplatin also caused high inhibition of these cells. Moreover, these inhibitions were both concentration- and time-dependent (P < 0.05). Various apoptotic effects were also observed compared with control cells at the 24 h and 48 h timepoints assayed (P < 0.001). Furthermore, positive caspase-3 staining and down-regulation of Bcl-2 were detected, consistent with induction of cell death. In contrast, treatment of HEK cells with telmisartan did not produce an apoptotic effect compared with control cells at the 24 h timepoint (P > 0.05). Treatment with cisplatin promoted in HEK cells high index of apoptosis (P < 0.001). Taken together, these results suggest that telmisartan induces apoptosis via down-regulation of Bcl-2 and involvement of caspase-3 in human RCC cells. PMID:25125501

  17. [Clinical features in DLBCL and translocation BCL2/c-MYC "double hit" lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Škunca, Željka; Domimis, Mara; Plninc-Peraica, Ana; Jakšić, Branimir

    2014-06-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is classified as lymphoma and various entities using the gene expression of proteins are classified into three groups. The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical, biological, immunophenotypic and cytogenetic features of DLBCL with translocation t (14; 18) and 8q24/c-MYC. Eleven DLBCL patients with dual translation were monitored during the 2000-2009 period. The characteristics of these patients included morphological, immunohistochemical and cytogenetic analysis. Study results showed that all patients had aggressive characteristics, presence of B symptoms (64%), general patient condition according to ECOG scale ≥ 2 (55%), elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase activity (73%), clinical stage III and IV (82%), extranodal involvement of the disease (73%), and IPI ≥ 2 (73%). Partial remission was achieved in 73% of all patients and all patients (73%) died within a short time. Patients were treated with CHOP and similar protocols (COP, CVP, CNOP), with the addition of MabThera. Immunophenotyping was performed and determined expression of the CD20, CD3, CD10, BCL6 and MUM1 markers. The cytogenetic analysis/fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed complex karyotype changes. Thus, we analyzed the presence of BCL2, BCL6 and c-MYC genes and found eight patients to have BCL2 and c-MYC translocation genes, while three had translocation of the BCL6 and c-MYC genes. Despite appropriate therapy, the patient prognosis is poor. The median survival in these patients was 1.85 years. DLBCL with BCL2 and c-MYC rearrangement of the subgroups of lymphoma is associated with very poor survival. The presence of these two translocations has an aggressive clinical course.

  18. Prevalence of BCL-2/J(H) Translocation in Healthy African Americans.

    PubMed

    Colon-Otero, Gerardo; Van Wier, Scott A; Ahmann, Greg J; Braggio, Esteban; Albertie, Monica L; Weis, Jennifer A; Ailawadhi, Sikander; Cerhan, James R; Vishnu, Prakash; Jorgensen, Matthew S; Foran, James M; Thomas, Colleen S; Fonseca, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    The translocation t(14;18)(q32;q21) (BCL-2/J(H)) is present in over 80 % of all follicular lymphomas and is detectable in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of healthy individuals. The prevalence of this translocation has not been studied in African Americans (AAs). Given the higher incidence of follicular lymphomas in whites compared to AAs in the United States (USA), we hypothesized that the translocation prevalence in the blood of AAs would be lower. DNA was isolated from PBL from blood samples collected from participants from FL. Polymerase chain reaction was performed on the BCL-2/J(H) major (MBC) and minor breakpoint cluster (mBC) regions. Eight of the 77 (10.4 %) blood samples from AA participants were positive for MBC (95 % CI, 4.6-19.5 %), and three (3.9 %) were positive for mBC (95 % CI, 0.81-10.97 %) of BCL-2/J(H), with a total of 11 (14.3 %) participants with positive samples (95 % CI, 7.35-24.13 %). In 167 white patient samples, 22 (13.2 %; 95 % CI, 8.44-19.26 %) were positive for MBC, and five (3.0 %; 95 % CI, 0.98-6.85 %) were positive for mBC, with a total of 25 (15 %) participants with positive samples (CI, 9.93-21.30 %). The prevalence of t(14;18)(q32;q21) is not significantly different among AAs and whites from the USA. The lower prevalence of follicular lymphomas in AAs compared with whites is likely a result of differences in secondary molecular alterations involved in follicular lymphoma development. This study is the first report of prevalence of t(14;18) in an AA cohort.

  19. Mast cells expressing interleukin 17 in the muscularis propria predict a favorable prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Li, Lian; Liao, Yuan; Li, Jinqing; Yu, Xingjuan; Zhang, Yi; Xu, Jing; Rao, Huilan; Chen, Shupeng; Zhang, Lanjun; Zheng, Limin

    2013-10-01

    The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 17 (IL-17) is considered to play a crucial role in diverse human tumors; however, its role in disease progression remains controversial. This study investigated the cellular source and distribution of IL-17 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in situ and determined its prognostic value. Immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy were used to identify IL-17-expressing cells in ESCC tissues, paying particular attention to their anatomic localization. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression models were applied to estimate overall survival in 215 ESCC patients with long-term follow-up (>10 years). The results showed that mast cells, but not T cells or macrophages, were the predominant cell type expressing IL-17 in ESCC tissues. Unexpectedly, these IL-17(+) cells were highly enriched in the muscularis propria rather than the corresponding tumor nest (p < 0.0001). The density of IL-17(+) cells in muscularis propria was inversely associated with tumor invasion (p = 0.016) and served as an independent predictor of favorable survival (p = 0.007). Moreover, the levels of IL-17(+) cells in muscularis propria were positively associated with the density of effector CD8(+) T cells and activated macrophages in the same area (both p < 0.0001). This finding suggested that mast cells may play a significant role in tumor immunity by releasing IL-17 at a previously unappreciated location, the muscularis propria, in ESCC tissues, which could serve as a potential prognostic marker and a novel therapeutic target for ESCC.

  20. Immunohistochemical study of p21 and Bcl-2 in leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sutariya, Rakesh V; Manjunatha, Bhari Sharanesha

    2016-11-01

    Oral Squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) results from genetic damage, leading to uncontrolled cell proliferation of damaged cells and the cell death. In the course of its progression, visible changes are taking place at the cellular level (atypical) and the resultant at the tissue level (epithelial dysplasia). The Aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the expressions of intensity of p21 and Bcl-2 in Leukoplakia, oralsubmucous fibrosis (OSMF) and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Total 60 cases, 30 cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma, 15 cases of oral submucous fibrosis and 15 cases of Leukoplakia were evaluated immunohistochemically for p21 and Bcl-2 expression. p21 showed positive expression in 13 (86.67%) cases out of 15 cases of OSMF, 12 (80%) cases of leukoplakia out of 15 cases and 24 (80%) cases out of 30 cases of OSCC. The Bcl-2 expression was positive in 13 (86.67%) cases of OSMF, all cases of Leukoplakia and 25 (83.33%) cases of OSCC. No statistical significance was noted in the expression of p21 and Bcl-2 positive expression between OSMF, Leukoplakia and OSCC. Statistical analysis for comparison of intensity of p21 expression in different grades of OSCC showed no significance. Statistical significance difference was found between the expressions of Bcl-2 in moderately and poorly differentiated SCC. The intensity of p21 and Bcl-2 expressions in different grades of OSCC indicates a key role in progression of oral neoplasia.

  1. Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibition increases BCL-2 dependence and enhances sensitivity to venetoclax in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Deng, J; Isik, E; Fernandes, S M; Brown, J R; Letai, A; Davids, M S

    2017-02-14

    Although the BTK inhibitor ibrutinib has transformed the management of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), it does not induce substantial apoptosis in vitro, and as such the mechanisms underlying its ability to kill CLL cells are not well understood. Acalabrutinib, a more specific BTK inhibitor now in development, also appears to be highly effective in CLL, but the connection of its mechanism with CLL cell death is also unclear. Using dynamic BH3 profiling, we analyzed alterations in the function of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway induced by ibrutinib and acalabrutinib. We studied CLL patient samples treated ex vivo with both drugs, as well as primary samples from CLL patients on clinical trials of both drugs. We found that BTK inhibition enhances mitochondrial BCL-2 dependence without significantly altering overall mitochondrial priming. Enhancement of BCL-2 dependence was accompanied by an increase in the pro-apoptotic protein BIM. In contrast, treatment with the selective BCL-2 inhibitor venetoclax enhanced overall mitochondrial priming without increasing BCL-2 dependence. Pre-treatment of CLL cells with either BTK inhibitor, whether ex vivo or in vivo in patients, enhanced killing by venetoclax. Our data suggest that BTK inhibition enhances mitochondrial BCL-2 dependence, supporting the ongoing development of clinical trials combining BTK and BCL-2 inhibition.Leukemia advance online publication, 14 February 2017; doi:10.1038/leu.2017.32.

  2. Expression of CD34 and bcl-2 in phyllodes tumours, fibroadenomas and spindle cell lesions of the breast.

    PubMed

    Moore, T; Lee, A H

    2001-01-01

    Strong expression of CD34 and bcl-2 has been described in solitary fibrous tumours. It has been proposed that these lesions arise from long-lived mesenchymal cells. We tested the hypothesis that spindle cell lesions of the breast arise from similar mesenchymal cells in the mammary stroma. Sections of phyllodes tumours (26), fibroadenomas (15), myofibroblastomas (two), pseudoangiomatous hyperplasia (five) and myoid hamartoma (one) were stained immunohistochemically for CD34 and bcl-2. Conventional mammary carcinoma is known to be CD34-negative: we therefore stained 11 spindle cell carcinomas and one adenosquamous carcinoma. The mammary stroma, particularly around lobules, stained for CD34. All the lesions (except the carcinomas) showed spindle cell staining for CD34. There was more staining in fibroadenomas than in phyllodes tumours (especially malignant tumours). The staining in phyllodes tumours was typically patchy. In some there was increased or decreased staining adjacent to the epithelium. There were occasional spindle cells positive for bcl-2 in the normal perilobular stroma. bcl-2 was frequently expressed in spindle cells in fibroadenomas, phyllodes tumours and pseudoangiomatous hyperplasia, and rarely in the other lesions. The combined expression of CD34 and bcl-2 suggests that fibroadenomas, phyllodes tumours and pseudoangiomatous hyperplasia may arise from long-lived bcl-2-positive mesenchymal cells in the breast in a manner similar to that proposed for solitary fibrous tumours. The absence of CD34 staining in spindle cell carcinomas is of potential diagnostic value in the distinction from malignant phyllodes tumours in difficult cases.

  3. Bad, a heterodimeric partner for Bcl-XL and Bcl-2, displaces Bax and promotes cell death.

    PubMed

    Yang, E; Zha, J; Jockel, J; Boise, L H; Thompson, C B; Korsmeyer, S J

    1995-01-27

    To extend the mammalian cell death pathway, we screened for further Bcl-2 interacting proteins. Both yeast two-hybrid screening and lambda expression cloning identified a novel interacting protein, Bad, whose homology to Bcl-2 is limited to the BH1 and BH2 domains. Bad selectively dimerized with Bcl-xL as well as Bcl-2, but not with Bax, Bcl-xs, Mcl-1, A1, or itself. Bad binds more strongly to Bcl-xL than Bcl-2 in mammalian cells, and it reversed the death repressor activity of Bcl-xL, but not that of Bcl-2. When Bad dimerized with Bcl-xL, Bax was displaced and apoptosis was restored. When approximately half of Bax was heterodimerized, death was inhibited. The susceptibility of a cell to a death signal is determined by these competing dimerizations in which levels of Bad influence the effectiveness of Bcl-2 versus Bcl-xL in repressing death.

  4. Association of BCL2-938C>A genetic polymorphism with glioma risk in Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Qian, Chunfa; Wang, Linxiong; Teng, Hong; Zhang, Li

    2014-03-01

    Glioma is the most common type of primary brain malignancy in adults. The anti-apoptotic protein B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of glioma. This study aimed to evaluate the potential association between BCL2-938C>A genetic polymorphism and glioma susceptibility. This case-control study was conducted in Chinese Han populations consisting of 248 glioma cases and 252 cancer-free controls. The BCL2-938C>A genetic polymorphism was detected by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and verified using DNA sequencing methods. Our data suggested that the genotype/allele of BCL2-938C>A polymorphism were statistically associated with the increased risk of glioma where the risk of glioma for genotype AA or allele A is significantly higher than wild genotype CC (odds ratio (OR) = 2.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.21-4.10, p = 0.009) or allele C (OR = 1.39, 95% CI 1.06-1.82, p = 0.016), respectively. In addition, the BCL2-938AA genotype was significantly more common in patients with glioblastoma and in patients with grade IV glioma. Our findings indicate that the BCL2-938C>A polymorphism is associated with the susceptibility to glioma in Chinese Han populations and might be used as molecular markers for evaluating glioma risk.

  5. Simultaneous Detection of Tumor Cell Apoptosis Regulators Bcl-2 and Bax through a Dual-Signal-Marked Electrochemical Immunosensor.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shiwei; Wang, Yingying; Zhu, Jun-Jie

    2016-03-01

    B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) are often used to monitor the apoptosis of tumor cells and evaluate cancer drug effect. In this work, a novel sandwich-type dual-signal-marked electrochemical biosensor was fabricated for simultaneous detection of Bcl-2 and Bax proteins. Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) layers were used as substrate to immobilize Bcl-2 and Bax antibodies for further capturing target antigens. CdSeTe@CdS quantum dots (QDs) and Ag nanoclusters (NCs) with antibody modification and mesoporous silica amplification were used as signal probes, which were proportional to the amount of Bcl-2 and Bax antigens. Mesoporous SiO2 can provide a larger surface area, more effectively charged by ethylene imine polymer or poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) to adsorb more probes. The Bcl-2 and Bax proteins were determined indirectly by the detection of oxidation peak currents of Cd and Ag using anodic stripping voltammetry, showing a good linear relationship in the protein concentration range from 1 ng/mL to 250 ng/mL. The detection limit of trace protein level was ∼0.5 fmol. The biosensor was further introduced to investigate Bcl-2 and Bax expressions from nilotinib-treated chronic myeloid leukemia K562 cells. With the increase of drug dosage and incubation time, the up-regulation for Bax and down-regulation for Bcl-2 were observed, which indicated that the apoptosis level of K562 cells could be regulated by Bcl-2 family. The ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 was further calculated for evaluation of its drug effect and apoptosis level. The limited cell amount for detection reached less than 1 × 10(3) cells, much lower than traditional methods. Furthermore, completely independent detection step and stable acid solutions containing Ag(+) and Cd(2+) for long-time storage contribute to reducing the error from the sample differences and avoiding the potential errors from the photodegradation of fluorescent probes, enzymolysis of DNA, or inactivation of

  6. Human Cytomegalovirus Promotes Survival of Infected Monocytes via a Distinct Temporal Regulation of Cellular Bcl-2 Family Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Collins-McMillen, Donna; Kim, Jung Heon; Nogalski, Maciej T.; Stevenson, Emily V.; Caskey, Joshua R.; Cieply, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Monocytes play a key role in the hematogenous dissemination of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) to target organ systems. To infect monocytes and reprogram them to deliver infectious virus, HCMV must overcome biological obstacles, including the short life span of monocytes and their antiviral proapoptotic response to infection. We have shown that virally induced upregulation of cellular Mcl-1 promotes early survival of HCMV-infected monocytes, allowing cells to overcome an early apoptotic checkpoint at around 48 h postinfection (hpi). Here, we demonstrate an HCMV-dependent shift from Mcl-1 as the primary antiapoptotic player to the related protein, Bcl-2, later during infection. Bcl-2 was upregulated in HCMV-infected monocytes beginning at 48 hpi. Treatment with the Bcl-2 antagonist ABT-199 only reduced the prosurvival effects of HCMV in target monocytes beginning at 48 hpi, suggesting that Mcl-1 controls survival prior to 48 hpi, while Bcl-2 promotes survival after 48 hpi. Although Bcl-2 was upregulated following viral binding/signaling through cellular integrins (compared to Mcl-1, which is upregulated through binding/activation of epidermal growth factor receptor [EGFR]), it functioned similarly to Mcl-1, adopting the early role of Mcl-1 in preventing caspase-3 cleavage/activation. This distinct, HCMV-induced shift from Mcl-1 to Bcl-2 occurs in response to a cellular upregulation of proapoptotic Bax, as small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of Bax reduced the upregulation of Bcl-2 in infected monocytes and rescued the cells from the apoptotic effects of Bcl-2 inhibition. Our data demonstrate a distinct survival strategy whereby HCMV induces a biphasic regulation of cellular Bcl-2 proteins to promote host cell survival, leading to viral dissemination and the establishment of persistent HCMV infection. IMPORTANCE Hematogenous dissemination of HCMV via infected monocytes is a crucial component of the viral survival strategy and is required for the

  7. From molecular PDT damage to cellular PDT responses: attempts at bridging the gap on the role of Bcl-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usuda, Jitsuo; Xue, Liang-yan; Chiu, Song-mao; Azizuddin, Kashif; Morris, Rachel L.; Mulvihill, John; Oleinick, Nancy L.

    2003-06-01

    Expression of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and/or Bcl-xL is greatly elevated in many advanced cancers, especially those resistant to standard therapies, such as radiation or chemotherapy. It has been suggested that those two proteins would be attractive targets for the development of new cancer treatments. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with photosensitizers that localize in or target mitochondria, such as the phthalocyanine Pc 4, specifically attack the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, generating a variety of oxidized, complexed, and cleaved photoproducts. The closely related protein Bcl-xL is also a target of Pc 4-PDT. In a recent study employing transient transfection of an expression vector encoding deletion mutants of Bcl-2, we identified the membrane anchorage regions of the protein that are required to form the photosensitive target. In spite of the demonstrated photodamage to Bcl-2 (and Bcl-xL), how the photodamage translates into changes in the sensitivity of cells to PDT-induced apoptosis or other modes of cell death is not clear, and it also remains unclear how elevated amounts of anti-apoptotic proteins in tumors might make them more or less responsive to PDT. In the present study, we have studied the PDT response of MCF7 human breast cancer cells overexpressing wild-type Bcl-2 or certain deletion mutants either in a transient or stable mode. We show that cells expressing modestly elevated amounts (<10-fold increase) of Bcl-2 and in which the pro-apoptotic protein Bax is not upregulated do not differ from the parental cells with respect to PDT-induced cell killing. In contrast, cells expressing higher amounts (>50-fold increase) of Bcl-2 or certain mutants are made significantly more resistant to the induction of apoptosis and the loss of clonogenicity upon exposure to Pc 4-PDT. In the presence of high levels of Bcl-2, extensive photodamage requires higher PDT doses. We conclude that Pc 4-PDT targets Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, eliminating one mechanism that

  8. BCL-2 and Bax Expression in Skin Flaps Treated with Finasteride or Azelaic Acid.

    PubMed

    Ayatollahi, Seyyed Abdulmajid; Ajami, Marjan; Reyhanfard, Hamed; Asadi, Yasin; Nassiri-Kashani, Mansour; Rashighi Firoozabadi, Mehdi; Davoodi, Sayed Hossein; Habibi, Esmaeil; Pazoki-Toroudi, Hamidreza

    2012-01-01

    Despite all modern surgical techniques, skin flap that is considered as the main method in most reconstructive surgeries puts the skin tissue at danger of necrosis and apoptosis derived from ischemia. Therefore, finding a treatment for decreasing the apoptosis derived from flap ischemia will be useful in clinic. In present study, we evaluated the effect of azelaic acid 20% and finasteride on expression of BCL-2 and bax proteins after the skin flap surgery. For this purpose, 21 rats were entered in three groups including control, azelaic acid 20% and finasteride, all experienced skin flap surgery and then flap tissue was assessed for determining the expression of proteins in 5 slices prepared from each rat that were graded between - to +++ scales. Both azelaic acid and finasteride increased the expression of BCL-2 protein (p < 0.05) and decrease the expression of bax protein (p < 0.05). These results suggested an antiapoptotic role for finasteride and azelaic acid in preserving the flap after the ischemia reperfusion insult.

  9. BCL-2 and Bax Expression in Skin Flaps Treated with Finasteride or Azelaic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Ayatollahi, Seyyed Abdulmajid; Ajami, Marjan; Reyhanfard, Hamed; Asadi, Yasin; Nassiri-Kashani, Mansour; Rashighi Firoozabadi, Mehdi; Davoodi, Sayed Hossein; Habibi, Esmaeil; Pazoki-Toroudi, Hamidreza

    2012-01-01

    Despite all modern surgical techniques, skin flap that is considered as the main method in most reconstructive surgeries puts the skin tissue at danger of necrosis and apoptosis derived from ischemia. Therefore, finding a treatment for decreasing the apoptosis derived from flap ischemia will be useful in clinic. In present study, we evaluated the effect of azelaic acid 20% and finasteride on expression of BCL-2 and bax proteins after the skin flap surgery. For this purpose, 21 rats were entered in three groups including control, azelaic acid 20% and finasteride, all experienced skin flap surgery and then flap tissue was assessed for determining the expression of proteins in 5 slices prepared from each rat that were graded between – to +++ scales. Both azelaic acid and finasteride increased the expression of BCL-2 protein (p < 0.05) and decrease the expression of bax protein (p < 0.05). These results suggested an antiapoptotic role for finasteride and azelaic acid in preserving the flap after the ischemia reperfusion insult. PMID:24250563

  10. Crebbp loss cooperates with Bcl2 overexpression to promote lymphoma in mice

    PubMed Central

    García-Ramírez, Idoia; Tadros, Saber; González-Herrero, Inés; Martín-Lorenzo, Alberto; Rodríguez-Hernández, Guillermo; Moore, Dalia; Ruiz-Roca, Lucía; Blanco, Oscar; Alonso-López, Diego; Rivas, Javier De Las; Hartert, Keenan; Duval, Romain; Klinkebiel, David; Bast, Martin; Vose, Julie; Lunning, Matthew; Fu, Kai; Greiner, Timothy; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando; Jiménez, Rafael; Criado, Francisco Javier García; Cenador, María Begoña García; Brindle, Paul; Vicente-Dueñas, Carolina; Alizadeh, Ash; Sánchez-García, Isidro

    2017-01-01

    CREBBP is targeted by inactivating mutations in follicular lymphoma (FL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Here, we provide evidence from transgenic mouse models that Crebbp deletion results in deficits in B-cell development and can cooperate with Bcl2 overexpression to promote B-cell lymphoma. Through transcriptional and epigenetic profiling of these B cells, we found that Crebbp inactivation was associated with broad transcriptional alterations, but no changes in the patterns of histone acetylation at the proximal regulatory regions of these genes. However, B cells with Crebbp inactivation showed high expression of Myc and patterns of altered histone acetylation that were localized to intragenic regions, enriched for Myc DNA binding motifs, and showed Myc binding. Through the analysis of CREBBP mutations from a large cohort of primary human FL and DLBCL, we show a significant difference in the spectrum of CREBBP mutations in these 2 diseases, with higher frequencies of nonsense/frameshift mutations in DLBCL compared with FL. Together, our data therefore provide important links between Crebbp inactivation and Bcl2 dependence and show a role for Crebbp inactivation in the induction of Myc expression. We suggest this may parallel the role of CREBBP frameshift/nonsense mutations in DLBCL that result in loss of the protein, but may contrast the role of missense mutations in the lysine acetyltransferase domain that are more frequently observed in FL and yield an inactive protein. PMID:28288979

  11. Crebbp loss cooperates with Bcl2 overexpression to promote lymphoma in mice.

    PubMed

    García-Ramírez, Idoia; Tadros, Saber; González-Herrero, Inés; Martín-Lorenzo, Alberto; Rodríguez-Hernández, Guillermo; Moore, Dalia; Ruiz-Roca, Lucía; Blanco, Oscar; Alonso-López, Diego; Rivas, Javier De Las; Hartert, Keenan; Duval, Romain; Klinkebiel, David; Bast, Martin; Vose, Julie; Lunning, Matthew; Fu, Kai; Greiner, Timothy; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando; Jiménez, Rafael; Criado, Francisco Javier García; Cenador, María Begoña García; Brindle, Paul; Vicente-Dueñas, Carolina; Alizadeh, Ash; Sánchez-García, Isidro; Green, Michael R

    2017-05-11

    CREBBP is targeted by inactivating mutations in follicular lymphoma (FL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Here, we provide evidence from transgenic mouse models that Crebbp deletion results in deficits in B-cell development and can cooperate with Bcl2 overexpression to promote B-cell lymphoma. Through transcriptional and epigenetic profiling of these B cells, we found that Crebbp inactivation was associated with broad transcriptional alterations, but no changes in the patterns of histone acetylation at the proximal regulatory regions of these genes. However, B cells with Crebbp inactivation showed high expression of Myc and patterns of altered histone acetylation that were localized to intragenic regions, enriched for Myc DNA binding motifs, and showed Myc binding. Through the analysis of CREBBP mutations from a large cohort of primary human FL and DLBCL, we show a significant difference in the spectrum of CREBBP mutations in these 2 diseases, with higher frequencies of nonsense/frameshift mutations in DLBCL compared with FL. Together, our data therefore provide important links between Crebbp inactivation and Bcl2 dependence and show a role for Crebbp inactivation in the induction of Myc expression. We suggest this may parallel the role of CREBBP frameshift/nonsense mutations in DLBCL that result in loss of the protein, but may contrast the role of missense mutations in the lysine acetyltransferase domain that are more frequently observed in FL and yield an inactive protein. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  12. Dual targeting of MDM2 and BCL2 as a therapeutic strategy in neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Van Goethem, Alan; Yigit, Nurten; Moreno-Smith, Myrthala; Vasudevan, Sanjeev A; Barbieri, Eveline; Speleman, Frank; Shohet, Jason; Vandesompele, Jo; Van Maerken, Tom

    2017-08-22

    Wild-type p53 tumor suppressor activity in neuroblastoma tumors is hampered by increased MDM2 activity, making selective MDM2 antagonists an attractive therapeutic strategy for this childhood malignancy. Since monotherapy in cancer is generally not providing long-lasting clinical responses, we here aimed to identify small molecule drugs that synergize with idasanutlin (RG7388). To this purpose we evaluated 15 targeted drugs in combination with idasanutlin in three p53 wild type neuroblastoma cell lines and identified the BCL2 inhibitor venetoclax (ABT-199) as a promising interaction partner. The venetoclax/idasanutlin combination was consistently found to be highly synergistic in a diverse panel of neuroblastoma cell lines, including cells with high MCL1 expression levels. A more pronounced induction of apoptosis was found to underlie the synergistic interaction, as evidenced by caspase-3/7 and cleaved PARP measurements. Mice carrying orthotopic xenografts of neuroblastoma cells treated with both idasanutlin and venetoclax had drastically lower tumor weights than mice treated with either treatment alone. In conclusion, these data strongly support the further evaluation of dual BCL2/MDM2 targeting as a therapeutic strategy in neuroblastoma.

  13. Targeting BCL-2 and ABL/LYN in Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Jessica T; Rowley, Joelle S J; Eide, Christopher A; Traer, Elie; Hayes-Lattin, Brandon; Loriaux, Marc; Spurgeon, Stephen E; Druker, Brian J; Tyner, Jeffrey W; Chang, Bill H

    2016-08-31

    Treatment of Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph(+)ALL) remains a challenge. Although the addition of targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) to standard cytotoxic therapy has greatly improved upfront treatment, treatment-related morbidity and mortality remain high. TKI monotherapy provides only temporary responses and renders patients susceptible to the development of TKI resistance. Thus, identifying agents that could enhance the activity of TKIs is urgently needed. Recently, a selective inhibitor of B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2), ABT-199 (venetoclax), has shown impressive activity against hematologic malignancies. We demonstrate that the combination of TKIs with venetoclax is highly synergistic in vitro, decreasing cell viability and inducing apoptosis in Ph(+)ALL. Furthermore, the multikinase inhibitors dasatinib and ponatinib appear to have the added advantage of inducing Lck/Yes novel tyrosine kinase (LYN)-mediated proapoptotic BCL-2-like protein 11 (BIM) expression and inhibiting up-regulation of antiapoptotic myeloid cell leukemia 1 (MCL-1), thereby potentially overcoming the development of venetoclax resistance. Evaluation of the dasatinib-venetoclax combination for the treatment of primary Ph(+)ALL patient samples in xenografted immunodeficient mice confirmed the tolerability of this drug combination and demonstrated its superior antileukemic efficacy compared to either agent alone. These data suggest that the combination of dasatinib and venetoclax has the potential to improve the treatment of Ph(+)ALL and should be further evaluated for patient care.

  14. Quercetin inhibits human breast cancer cell proliferation and induces apoptosis via Bcl-2 and Bax regulation.

    PubMed

    Duo, Jian; Ying, Guo-Guang; Wang, Guo-Wen; Zhang, Li

    2012-06-01

    Breast cancer is a disease in which cancer cells form in the tissues of the breast. The present study aimed to explore the effect of the flavonoid compound quercetin on the growth and apoptosis of human breast cancer cells. Varying concentrations (12.5, 25, 50, 100, 200 µM) of quercetin were applied to cultured MCF-7 human breast cancer cells for defined lengths of time. At 50 to 200 µM doses, quercetin significantly inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 cells assessed by MTT colorimetry, in both dose- and time-dependent manners (P<0.05). The compound also increased apoptosis after 48 h of exposure (P<0.05). Furthermore, following quercetin treatment Bcl-2 expression decreased significantly while Bax expression increased significantly (P<0.05). In brief, quercetin inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. The mechanisms behind these effects may stem from the downregulation of Bcl-2 protein expression and upregulation of Bax expression.

  15. Natural pyrethrins induces apoptosis in human hepatocyte cells via Bax- and Bcl-2-mediated mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yun; Zong, Mimi; Xu, Wenping; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Bo; Yang, Mingjun; Tao, Liming

    2017-01-25

    Natural pyrethrins have been widely used for pest control in organic farming and for residential indoor pest managements. Although the specific mechanisms underlying their activity are incompletely understood, natural pesticides are considered the safest based on their target specificity and rapid degradation in the environment. Here, we used in vitro bioassays to characterize the cytotoxic effects of natural pyrethrins and attempted to delineate the cellular and molecular mechanisms of their cytotoxicity against human hepatocytes. The results demonstrate that natural pyrethrins reduce cell viability and enhance apoptosis in HepG2 cells. In addition, the current data indicate that natural pyrethrins cause a reduction in the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), increase reactive oxygen species production, and up-regulate the Bax/Bcl-2 expression, leading to the release of cytochrome-c into the cytosol, activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Taken together, the results indicate that natural pyrethrins has potentially exert adverse effects on human health by inducing caspase-dependent apoptosis in hepatocytes through Bax- and Bcl-2-mediated mitochondrial pathway.

  16. Sequence and partial functional analysis of canine Bcl-2 family proteins.

    PubMed

    de Brot, S; Schade, B; Croci, M; Dettwiler, M; Guscetti, F

    2016-02-01

    Dogs present with spontaneous neoplasms biologically similar to human cancers. Apoptotic pathways are deregulated during cancer genesis and progression and are important for therapy. We have assessed the degree of conservation of a set of canine Bcl-2 family members with the human and murine orthologs. To this end, seven complete canine open reading frames were cloned in this family, four of which are novel for the dog, their sequences were analyzed, and their functional interactions were studied in yeasts. We found a high degree of overall and domain sequence homology between canine and human proteins. It was slightly higher than between murine and human proteins. Functional interactions between canine pro-apoptotic Bax and Bak and anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL, Bcl-w, and Mcl-1 were recapitulated in yeasts. Our data provide support for the notion that systems based on canine-derived proteins might faithfully reproduce Bcl-2 family member interactions known from other species and establish the yeast as a useful tool for functional studies with canine proteins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Regulation of mitochondrial ceramide distribution by members of the BCL-2 family[S

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tejia; Barclay, Lauren; Walensky, Loren D.; Saghatelian, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis is an intricately regulated cellular process that proceeds through different cell type- and signal-dependent pathways. In the mitochondrial apoptotic program, mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization by BCL-2 proteins leads to the release of apoptogenic factors, caspase activation, and cell death. In addition to protein components of the mitochondrial apoptotic machinery, an interesting role for lipids and lipid metabolism in BCL-2 family-regulated apoptosis is also emerging. We used a comparative lipidomics approach to uncover alterations in lipid profile in the absence of the proapoptotic proteins BAX and BAK in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). We detected over 1,000 ions in these experiments and found changes in an ion with an m/z of 534.49. Structural elucidation of this ion through tandem mass spectrometry revealed that this molecule is a ceramide with a 16-carbon N-acyl chain and sphingadiene backbone (d18:2/16:0 ceramide). Targeted LC/MS analysis revealed elevated levels of additional sphingadiene-containing ceramides (d18:2-Cers) in BAX, BAK-double knockout MEFs. Elevated d18:2-Cers are also found in immortalized baby mouse kidney epithelial cells lacking BAX and BAK. These results support the existence of a distinct biochemical pathway for regulating ceramides with different backbone structures and suggest that sphingadiene-containing ceramides may have functions that are distinct from the more common sphingosine-containing species. PMID:26059977

  18. Heavy smokers have higher bcl-2 mutation frequency and risk for lymphoma than non-smokers

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.; Cortopassi, G.A.; Bell, D.A.

    1994-09-01

    Early detection of cells carrying somatic mutations at oncogenic loci could prove useful for identifying individuals at high risk for cancer and permit intervention prior to the onset of clinically recognizable disease. We have determined the frequency of rare t(14;18)(q32;q21) translocations at the bcl-2 proto-oncogene locus in the peripheral blood of 85 smokers and 35 nonsmokers using a sensitive nested PCR assay. The identical translocation occurs in 85% of follicular lymphoma tumors, and about 50% of all non-Hodgkin`s Lymphoma. Smokers with the highest exposure had a 3.6-fold higher mutation frequency relative to the nonsmokers. Logistic regression analysis showed that of the variables tested (age, race, sex, current smoking, years of smoking, and pack-years), the cumulative smoking measure (pack-years) was the best predictor of t(14;18) frequency (p=0.004). These observations are consistent with two recent epidemiological studies showing 2.3-fold and 3.8-fold increased risk for Non-Hodgkins lymphoma among heavy smokers. The results support the hypothesis that smokers have an increased burden of lymphocytes bearing bcl-2 mutations which raises their individual risk for future lymphoid tumors. We speculate that the increased frequency of oncogenic translocations in smokers may result either from the mutagenic or antigenic activity of cigarette smoke.

  19. Expression of apoptosis regulatory proteins p53, bcl-2 and bax in recurrent aphthous ulceration.

    PubMed

    Pinto Rodrigues, J F N; Fujiyama Oshima, C T; Ribeiro Paiotti, A P; Franco, M; Miki Ihara, S S; Ribeiro, D A

    2012-10-01

    Recurrent aphthous ulceration (RAU) is considered to be an acute inflammatory disease of unknown pathogenesis. Apoptosis may represent an important event in the control of inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate apoptosis process in RAU using immunohistochemistry. We studied the expression and location of p53, bcl-2 and bax in ulcerated lesions clinically diagnosed as RAU (n = 12) and compared it with that of oral clinically normal mucosa (n = 6) and of other inflammatory chronic disease such as oral fibrous inflammatory hyperplasia (FIH; n = 18). Significant statistically differences (n < 0.05) in p53 expression were noticed in RAU when compared with normal mucosa. No significant statistically differences (P > 0.05) were noticed between FIH and RAU. Bcl-2 and bax did not show remarkable differences between groups. Taken together, the data suggest that RAU induces p53 immunoexpression. Therefore, the protein might be related to the aetiopathogenesis of the ulcerated oral lesions. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2011 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  20. SAHA treatment overcomes the anti-apoptotic effects of Bcl-2 and is associated with the formation of mature PML nuclear bodies in human leukemic U937 cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jee Suk; Jeong, Seung Hun; Soung, Young Hwa; Kim, Tae Hyun; Choi, Hong Jo; Park, Bong Soo; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Yoo, Young Hyun

    2009-09-14

    Bcl-2 protects tumor cells from the apoptotic effects of various antineoplastic agents. Increased expression of Bcl-2 has been associated with poor response to chemotherapy in various malignancies, including leukemia. Therefore, bypassing the resistance conferred by anti-apoptotic factors such as Bcl-2 represents an attractive therapeutic strategy against cancer cells, including leukemic cells. We undertook this study to examine whether SAHA (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid) overcomes the resistance by Bcl-2 in human leukemic cells, with a specific focus on the involvement of PML-NBs. Experiments were conducted with Bcl-2-overexpressing human leukemic U937 cells. Since we previously demonstrated that overexpression of Bcl-2 attenuates resveratrol-induced apoptosis in human leukemic U937 cells, resveratrol-treated U937 cells were used as