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Sample records for bcr loci relative

  1. Mapping of four distinct BCR-related loci to chromosome region 22q11: order of BCR loci relative to chronic myelogenous leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia breakpoints

    SciTech Connect

    Croce, C.M.; Huebner, K.; Isobe, M.; Fainstain, E.; Lifshitz, B.; Shtivelman, E.; Canaani, E.

    1987-10-01

    A probe derived from the 3' region of the BCR gene (breakpoint cluster region gene) detects four distinct loci in the human genome. One of the loci corresponds to the complete BCR gene, whereas the other contain a 3' segment of the gene. After HindIII cleavage of human DNA, these four loci are detected as 23-, 19-, 13-, and 9-kikobase-pair fragments, designated BCR4, BCR3, BCR2, and BCR1, respectively, with BCR1 deriving from the original complete BCR gene. All four BCR loci segregate 100% concordantly with human chromosome 22 in a rodent-human somatic cell hybrid panel and are located at chromosome region 22q11.2 by chromosomal in situ hybridization. The BCR2 and BCR4 loci are amplified in leukemia cell line K562 cells, indicating that they fall within the amplification unit that includes immunoglobulin lambda light chain locus (IGL) and ABL locus on the K562 Philadelphia chromosome (Ph/sup 1/). Similarly, in mouse-human hybrids retaining a Ph/sup 1/ chromosome derived from an acute lymphoblastic leukemia-in the absence of the 9q/sup +/ and 22, only BCR2 and BCR4 loci are retained. Thus, the order of loci on chromosome 22 is centromere ..-->.. BCR2, BCR4, and IGL ..-->.. BCR1 ..-->.. BCR3 ..-->.. SIS, possibly eliminating BCR2 and BCR4 loci as candidate targets for juxtaposition to the ABL gene in the acute lymphoblastic leukemia Ph/sup 1/ chromosome.

  2. Duplication of the bcr and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase genes.

    PubMed Central

    Heisterkamp, N; Groffen, J

    1988-01-01

    The Philadelphia (Ph') translocation involves rearrangement of the bcr gene located on chromosome 22. Hybridization experiments revealed the presence of multiple bcr gene-related loci within the human genome. Two of these were molecularly cloned and characterized. Both loci contain exons and introns corresponding to the 3' region of the bcr gene. Restriction enzyme and DNA sequence analysis indicate a very high degree of conservation between bcr and the two related genomic sequences. Both bcr-related loci are located on chromosome 22, one centromeric, the other telomeric, of the bcr gene. Within the two bcr related genomic sequences, fragments or the complete coding sequences of an unrelated gene were found to be present. This gene was identified; it encodes gamma-glutamyl transferase, an enzyme involved in the glutathione metabolism. Images PMID:2901712

  3. Expression of BCR-ABL1 oncogene relative to ABL1 gene changes overtime in chronic myeloid leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Manu; Milani, Lili; Hermansson, Monica; Simonsson, Bengt; Markevaern, Berit; Syvaenen, Ann Christine; Barbany, Gisela

    2008-02-15

    Using a quantitative single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay we have investigated the changes in the expression of the BCR-ABL1 oncogene relative to the wild-type ABL1 and BCR alleles in cells from chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients not responding to therapy. The results show a progressive increase in the BCR-ABL1 oncogene expression at the expense of decreased expression of the ABL1 allele, not involved in the fusion. No relative changes in the expression of the two BCR alleles were found. These results demonstrate that allele-specific changes in gene expression, with selective, progressive silencing of the wild-type ABL1 allele in favor of the oncogenic BCR-ABL1 allele occur in CML patients with therapy-resistant disease.

  4. Seven new loci associated with age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Fritsche, Lars G; Chen, Wei; Schu, Matthew; Yaspan, Brian L; Yu, Yi; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Zack, Donald J; Arakawa, Satoshi; Cipriani, Valentina; Ripke, Stephan; Igo, Robert P; Buitendijk, Gabriëlle H S; Sim, Xueling; Weeks, Daniel E; Guymer, Robyn H; Merriam, Joanna E; Francis, Peter J; Hannum, Gregory; Agarwal, Anita; Armbrecht, Ana Maria; Audo, Isabelle; Aung, Tin; Barile, Gaetano R; Benchaboune, Mustapha; Bird, Alan C; Bishop, Paul N; Branham, Kari E; Brooks, Matthew; Brucker, Alexander J; Cade, William H; Cain, Melinda S; Campochiaro, Peter A; Chan, Chi-Chao; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Chew, Emily Y; Chin, Kimberly A; Chowers, Itay; Clayton, David G; Cojocaru, Radu; Conley, Yvette P; Cornes, Belinda K; Daly, Mark J; Dhillon, Baljean; Edwards, Albert O; Evangelou, Evangelos; Fagerness, Jesen; Ferreyra, Henry A; Friedman, James S; Geirsdottir, Asbjorg; George, Ronnie J; Gieger, Christian; Gupta, Neel; Hagstrom, Stephanie A; Harding, Simon P; Haritoglou, Christos; Heckenlively, John R; Holz, Frank G; Hughes, Guy; Ioannidis, John P A; Ishibashi, Tatsuro; Joseph, Peronne; Jun, Gyungah; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Katsanis, Nicholas; N Keilhauer, Claudia; Khan, Jane C; Kim, Ivana K; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Kovach, Jaclyn L; Kozak, Igor; Lee, Clara J; Lee, Kristine E; Lichtner, Peter; Lotery, Andrew J; Meitinger, Thomas; Mitchell, Paul; Mohand-Saïd, Saddek; Moore, Anthony T; Morgan, Denise J; Morrison, Margaux A; Myers, Chelsea E; Naj, Adam C; Nakamura, Yusuke; Okada, Yukinori; Orlin, Anton; Ortube, M Carolina; Othman, Mohammad I; Pappas, Chris; Park, Kyu Hyung; Pauer, Gayle J T; Peachey, Neal S; Poch, Olivier; Priya, Rinki Ratna; Reynolds, Robyn; Richardson, Andrea J; Ripp, Raymond; Rudolph, Guenther; Ryu, Euijung; Sahel, José-Alain; Schaumberg, Debra A; Scholl, Hendrik P N; Schwartz, Stephen G; Scott, William K; Shahid, Humma; Sigurdsson, Haraldur; Silvestri, Giuliana; Sivakumaran, Theru A; Smith, R Theodore; Sobrin, Lucia; Souied, Eric H; Stambolian, Dwight E; Stefansson, Hreinn; Sturgill-Short, Gwen M; Takahashi, Atsushi; Tosakulwong, Nirubol; Truitt, Barbara J; Tsironi, Evangelia E; Uitterlinden, André G; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vijaya, Lingam; Vingerling, Johannes R; Vithana, Eranga N; Webster, Andrew R; Wichmann, H-Erich; Winkler, Thomas W; Wong, Tien Y; Wright, Alan F; Zelenika, Diana; Zhang, Ming; Zhao, Ling; Zhang, Kang; Klein, Michael L; Hageman, Gregory S; Lathrop, G Mark; Stefansson, Kari; Allikmets, Rando; Baird, Paul N; Gorin, Michael B; Wang, Jie Jin; Klaver, Caroline C W; Seddon, Johanna M; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Iyengar, Sudha K; Yates, John R W; Swaroop, Anand; Weber, Bernhard H F; Kubo, Michiaki; Deangelis, Margaret M; Léveillard, Thierry; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Haines, Jonathan L; Farrer, Lindsay A; Heid, Iris M; Abecasis, Gonçalo R

    2013-04-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common cause of blindness in older individuals. To accelerate the understanding of AMD biology and help design new therapies, we executed a collaborative genome-wide association study, including >17,100 advanced AMD cases and >60,000 controls of European and Asian ancestry. We identified 19 loci associated at P < 5 × 10(-8). These loci show enrichment for genes involved in the regulation of complement activity, lipid metabolism, extracellular matrix remodeling and angiogenesis. Our results include seven loci with associations reaching P < 5 × 10(-8) for the first time, near the genes COL8A1-FILIP1L, IER3-DDR1, SLC16A8, TGFBR1, RAD51B, ADAMTS9 and B3GALTL. A genetic risk score combining SNP genotypes from all loci showed similar ability to distinguish cases and controls in all samples examined. Our findings provide new directions for biological, genetic and therapeutic studies of AMD.

  5. BCR-ABL1: Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... BCR is almost always in the major breakpoint cluster region (M-BCR), leading to the production of ... is called p210). Breaks in the minor breakpoint cluster region (m-BCR) leads to a shorter fusion ...

  6. Changes in the proteome associated with the action of Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase are not related to transcriptional regulation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Duncan L; Evans, Caroline A; Pierce, Andrew; Gaskell, Simon J; Whetton, Anthony D

    2002-11-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a hematopoietic stem cell disease, the hallmark of which is the Bcr-Abl protein tyrosine kinase (PTK). Without intervention the disease progresses from a benign chronic phase to a rapidly fatal blast crisis. To identify the molecular mechanisms underlying disease progression we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis on a model we have previously described using the expression of a conditional mutant of Bcr-Abl PTK in a multipotent stem cell line, FDCP-Mix. Long term exposure of FDCP-Mix cells to Bcr-Abl mimics disease progression in CML. Four major differences were observed as a consequence of long term exposure to the Bcr-Abl PTK compared with cells exposed short term. The proteins were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry-generated peptide mass fingerprint data and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-generated sequence information. Leukotriene A4 hydrolase, an enzyme known to be deregulated in CML, was found to be up-regulated. Annexin VI, vacuolar ATP synthase catalytic subunit A, and mortalin were found to be down-regulated. Poly(A) PCR cDNA analysis showed there was no correlation between the protein expression changes and mRNA levels. Western blot analysis also indicated no change in the levels of mortalin or leukotriene A4 hydrolase, indicating that post-translational events may modify protein content of the specific spots. Leukotriene B4 levels (product of leukotriene A4 hydrolase) were, however, reduced in cells exposed long term to Bcr-Abl activity. This study demonstrates the potential of proteomic analysis to define novel effects of oncogenes.

  7. Seven New Loci Associated with Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common cause of blindness in older individuals. To accelerate understanding of AMD biology and help design new therapies, we executed a collaborative genomewide association study, examining >17,100 advanced AMD cases and >60,000 controls of European and Asian ancestry. We identified 19 genomic loci associated with AMD with p<5×10−8 and enriched for genes involved in regulation of complement activity, lipid metabolism, extracellular matrix remodeling and angiogenesis. Our results include 7 loci reaching p<5×10−8 for the first time, near the genes COL8A1/FILIP1L, IER3/DDR1, SLC16A8, TGFBR1, RAD51B, ADAMTS9/MIR548A2, and B3GALTL. A genetic risk score combining SNPs from all loci displayed similar good ability to distinguish cases and controls in all samples examined. Our findings provide new directions for biological, genetic and therapeutic studies of AMD. PMID:23455636

  8. Thousands of microsatellite loci from the venomous coralsnake Micrurus fulvius and variability of select loci across populations and related species.

    PubMed

    Castoe, Todd A; Streicher, Jeffrey W; Meik, Jesse M; Ingrasci, Matthew J; Poole, Alexander W; de Koning, A P Jason; Campbell, Jonathan A; Parkinson, Christopher L; Smith, Eric N; Pollock, David D

    2012-11-01

    Studies of population genetics increasingly use next-generation DNA sequencing to identify microsatellite loci in nonmodel organisms. There are, however, relatively few studies that validate the feasibility of transitioning from marker development to experimental application across populations and species. North American coralsnakes of the Micrurus fulvius species complex occur in the United States and Mexico, and little is known about their population structure and phylogenetic relationships. This absence of information and population genetics markers is particularly concerning because they are highly venomous and have important implications on human health. To alleviate this problem in coralsnakes, we investigated the feasibility of using 454 shotgun sequences for microsatellite marker development. First, a genomic shotgun library from a single individual was sequenced (approximately 7.74 megabases; 26,831 reads) to identify potentially amplifiable microsatellite loci (PALs). We then hierarchically sampled 76 individuals from throughout the geographic distribution of the species complex and examined whether PALs were amplifiable and polymorphic. Approximately half of the loci tested were readily amplifiable from all individuals, and 80% of the loci tested for variation were variable and thus informative as population genetic markers. To evaluate the repetitive landscape characteristics across multiple snakes, we also compared microsatellite content between the coralsnake and two other previously sampled snakes, the venomous copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and Burmese python (Python molurus). © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Thousands of microsatellite loci from the venomous coralsnake (Micrurus fulvius) and variability of select loci across populations and related species

    PubMed Central

    Castoe, Todd A.; Streicher, Jeffrey W.; Meik, Jesse M.; Ingrasci, Matthew J.; Poole, Alexander W.; de Koning, A.P. Jason; Campbell, Jonathan A.; Parkinson, Christopher L.; Smith, Eric N.; Pollock, David D.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of population genetics increasingly use next-generation DNA sequencing to identify microsatellite loci in non-model organisms. There are, however, relatively few studies that validate the feasibility of transitioning from marker development to experimental application across populations and species. North American coralsnakes of the Micrurus fulvius species complex occur in the United States and Mexico, and little is known about their population structure and phylogenetic relationships. This absence of information and population genetics markers is particularly concerning because they are highly venomous and have important implications on human health. To alleviate this problem in coralsnakes, we investigated the feasibility of using 454 shotgun sequences for microsatellite marker development. First, a genomic shotgun library from a single individual was sequenced (~7.74 megabases; 26,831 reads) to identify potentially amplifiable microsatellite loci (PALs). We then hierarchically sampled 76 individuals from throughout the geographic distribution of the species complex and examined whether PALs were amplifiable and polymorphic. Approximately half of the loci tested were readily amplifiable from all individuals, and 80% of the loci tested for variation were variable and thus informative as population genetic markers. To evaluate the repetitive landscape characteristics across multiple snakes, we also compared microsatellite content between the coralsnake and two other previously sampled snakes, the venomous copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and Burmese python (Python molurus). PMID:22938699

  10. The bcr1 DNA Repeat Element Is Specific to the Bacillus cereus Group and Exhibits Mobile Element Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Økstad, Ole Andreas; Tourasse, Nicolas J.; Stabell, Fredrik B.; Sundfær, Cathrine K.; Egge-Jacobsen, Wolfgang; Risøen, Per Arne; Read, Timothy D.; Kolstø, Anne-Brit

    2004-01-01

    Bacillus cereus strains ATCC 10987 and ATCC 14579 harbor a ∼155-bp repeated element, bcr1, which is conserved in B. cereus, B. anthracis, B. thuringiensis, and B. mycoides but not in B. subtilis and B. licheniformis. In this study, we show by Southern blot hybridizations that bcr1 is present in all 54 B. cereus group strains tested but absent in 11 Bacillus strains outside the group, suggesting that bcr1 may be specific and ubiquitous to the B. cereus group. By comparative analysis of the complete genome sequences of B. cereus ATCC 10987, B. cereus ATCC 14579, and B. anthracis Ames, we show that bcr1 is exclusively present in the chromosome but absent from large plasmids carried by these strains and that the numbers of full-length bcr1 repeats for these strains are 79, 54, and 12, respectively. Numerous copies of partial bcr1 elements are also present in the three genomes (91, 128, and 53, respectively). Furthermore, the genomic localization of bcr1 is not conserved between strains with respect to chromosomal position or organization of gene neighbors, as only six full-length bcr1 loci are common to at least two of the three strains. However, the intergenic sequence surrounding a specific bcr1 repeat in one of the three strains is generally strongly conserved in the other two, even in loci where bcr1 is found exclusively in one strain. This finding indicates that bcr1 either has evolved by differential deletion from a very high number of repeats in a common ancestor to the B. cereus group or is moving around the chromosome. The identification of bcr1 repeats interrupting genes in B. cereus ATCC 10987 and ATCC 14579 and the presence of a flanking TTTAT motif in each end show that bcr1 exhibits features characteristic of a mobile element. PMID:15516586

  11. The Functional Interplay Between the t(9;22)-Associated Fusion Proteins BCR/ABL and ABL/BCR in Philadelphia Chromosome-Positive Acute Lymphatic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Rafiei, Anahita; Mian, Afsar Ali; Döring, Claudia; Metodieva, Anna; Oancea, Claudia; Thalheimer, Frederic B.; Hansmann, Martin Leo; Ottmann, Oliver Gerhard; Ruthardt, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The hallmark of Philadelphia chromosome positive (Ph+) leukemia is the BCR/ABL kinase, which is successfully targeted by selective ATP competitors. However, inhibition of BCR/ABL alone is unable to eradicate Ph+ leukemia. The t(9;22) is a reciprocal translocation which encodes not only for the der22 (Philadelphia chromosome) related BCR/ABL, but also for der9 related ABL/BCR fusion proteins, which can be detected in 65% of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and 100% of patients with Ph+ acute lymphatic leukemia (ALL). ABL/BCRs are oncogenes able to influence the lineage commitment of hematopoietic progenitors. Aim of this study was to further disclose the role of p96ABL/BCR for the pathogenesis of Ph+ ALL. The co-expression of p96ABL/BCR enhanced the kinase activity and as a consequence, the transformation potential of p185BCR/ABL. Targeting p96ABL/BCR by RNAi inhibited growth of Ph+ ALL cell lines and Ph+ ALL patient-derived long-term cultures (PD-LTCs). Our in vitro and in vivo stem cell studies further revealed a functional hierarchy of p96ABL/BCR and p185BCR/ABL in hematopoietic stem cells. Co-expression of p96ABL/BCR abolished the capacity of p185BCR/ABL to induce a CML-like disease and led to the induction of ALL. Taken together our here presented data reveal an important role of p96ABL/BCR for the pathogenesis of Ph+ ALL. PMID:25919613

  12. Characterization of microsatellite loci in Yucca brevifolia (Agavaceae) and cross-amplification in related species.

    PubMed

    Flatz, Ramona; Yoder, Jeremy B; Lee-Barnes, Edyth; Smith, Christopher I

    2011-03-01

    Microsatellite primers were characterized in Yucca brevifolia for use in population genetic studies and, particularly, analyses of gene flow between varieties. We characterized 12 microsatellite loci polymorphic in Yucca brevifolia by screening primers that were developed using an SSR-enriched library or which were previously described in Yucca filamentosa. Genetic analysis of four populations resulted in the mean number of alleles per locus ranging from 10.25 to 14.58 and mean expected heterozygosity from 0.78 to 0.88. Cross-amplification of all 12 loci was attempted in six additional yucca species. These loci should prove useful for population genetic research in Yucca brevifolia, and cross-amplification of these loci in related species suggests that they may be useful in studies of hybridization and introgression between species.

  13. Genome-Wide Scan Informed by Age-Related Disease Identifies Loci for Exceptional Human Longevity.

    PubMed

    Fortney, Kristen; Dobriban, Edgar; Garagnani, Paolo; Pirazzini, Chiara; Monti, Daniela; Mari, Daniela; Atzmon, Gil; Barzilai, Nir; Franceschi, Claudio; Owen, Art B; Kim, Stuart K

    2015-12-01

    We developed a new statistical framework to find genetic variants associated with extreme longevity. The method, informed GWAS (iGWAS), takes advantage of knowledge from large studies of age-related disease in order to narrow the search for SNPs associated with longevity. To gain support for our approach, we first show there is an overlap between loci involved in disease and loci associated with extreme longevity. These results indicate that several disease variants may be depleted in centenarians versus the general population. Next, we used iGWAS to harness information from 14 meta-analyses of disease and trait GWAS to identify longevity loci in two studies of long-lived humans. In a standard GWAS analysis, only one locus in these studies is significant (APOE/TOMM40) when controlling the false discovery rate (FDR) at 10%. With iGWAS, we identify eight genetic loci to associate significantly with exceptional human longevity at FDR < 10%. We followed up the eight lead SNPs in independent cohorts, and found replication evidence of four loci and suggestive evidence for one more with exceptional longevity. The loci that replicated (FDR < 5%) included APOE/TOMM40 (associated with Alzheimer's disease), CDKN2B/ANRIL (implicated in the regulation of cellular senescence), ABO (tags the O blood group), and SH2B3/ATXN2 (a signaling gene that extends lifespan in Drosophila and a gene involved in neurological disease). Our results implicate new loci in longevity and reveal a genetic overlap between longevity and age-related diseases and traits, including coronary artery disease and Alzheimer's disease. iGWAS provides a new analytical strategy for uncovering SNPs that influence extreme longevity, and can be applied more broadly to boost power in other studies of complex phenotypes.

  14. Genome-Wide Scan Informed by Age-Related Disease Identifies Loci for Exceptional Human Longevity

    PubMed Central

    Fortney, Kristen; Dobriban, Edgar; Garagnani, Paolo; Pirazzini, Chiara; Monti, Daniela; Mari, Daniela; Atzmon, Gil; Barzilai, Nir; Franceschi, Claudio; Owen, Art B.; Kim, Stuart K.

    2015-01-01

    We developed a new statistical framework to find genetic variants associated with extreme longevity. The method, informed GWAS (iGWAS), takes advantage of knowledge from large studies of age-related disease in order to narrow the search for SNPs associated with longevity. To gain support for our approach, we first show there is an overlap between loci involved in disease and loci associated with extreme longevity. These results indicate that several disease variants may be depleted in centenarians versus the general population. Next, we used iGWAS to harness information from 14 meta-analyses of disease and trait GWAS to identify longevity loci in two studies of long-lived humans. In a standard GWAS analysis, only one locus in these studies is significant (APOE/TOMM40) when controlling the false discovery rate (FDR) at 10%. With iGWAS, we identify eight genetic loci to associate significantly with exceptional human longevity at FDR < 10%. We followed up the eight lead SNPs in independent cohorts, and found replication evidence of four loci and suggestive evidence for one more with exceptional longevity. The loci that replicated (FDR < 5%) included APOE/TOMM40 (associated with Alzheimer’s disease), CDKN2B/ANRIL (implicated in the regulation of cellular senescence), ABO (tags the O blood group), and SH2B3/ATXN2 (a signaling gene that extends lifespan in Drosophila and a gene involved in neurological disease). Our results implicate new loci in longevity and reveal a genetic overlap between longevity and age-related diseases and traits, including coronary artery disease and Alzheimer’s disease. iGWAS provides a new analytical strategy for uncovering SNPs that influence extreme longevity, and can be applied more broadly to boost power in other studies of complex phenotypes. PMID:26677855

  15. Association of eGFR-Related Loci Identified by GWAS with Incident CKD and ESRD

    PubMed Central

    Böger, Carsten A.; Gorski, Mathias; Li, Man; Hoffmann, Michael M.; Huang, Chunmei; Yang, Qiong; Teumer, Alexander; Krane, Vera; O'Seaghdha, Conall M.; Kutalik, Zoltán; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Haak, Thomas; Boes, Eva; Coassin, Stefan; Coresh, Josef; Kollerits, Barbara; Haun, Margot; Paulweber, Bernhard; Köttgen, Anna; Li, Guo; Shlipak, Michael G.; Powe, Neil; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Dehghan, Abbas; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, André; Hofman, Albert; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Krämer, Bernhard K.; Witteman, Jacqueline; Bochud, Murielle; Siscovick, David; Rettig, Rainer; Kronenberg, Florian; Wanner, Christoph; Thadhani, Ravi I.; Heid, Iris M.

    2011-01-01

    Family studies suggest a genetic component to the etiology of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end stage renal disease (ESRD). Previously, we identified 16 loci for eGFR in genome-wide association studies, but the associations of these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for incident CKD or ESRD are unknown. We thus investigated the association of these loci with incident CKD in 26,308 individuals of European ancestry free of CKD at baseline drawn from eight population-based cohorts followed for a median of 7.2 years (including 2,122 incident CKD cases defined as eGFR <60ml/min/1.73m2 at follow-up) and with ESRD in four case-control studies in subjects of European ancestry (3,775 cases, 4,577 controls). SNPs at 11 of the 16 loci (UMOD, PRKAG2, ANXA9, DAB2, SHROOM3, DACH1, STC1, SLC34A1, ALMS1/NAT8, UBE2Q2, and GCKR) were associated with incident CKD; p-values ranged from p = 4.1e-9 in UMOD to p = 0.03 in GCKR. After adjusting for baseline eGFR, six of these loci remained significantly associated with incident CKD (UMOD, PRKAG2, ANXA9, DAB2, DACH1, and STC1). SNPs in UMOD (OR = 0.92, p = 0.04) and GCKR (OR = 0.93, p = 0.03) were nominally associated with ESRD. In summary, the majority of eGFR-related loci are either associated or show a strong trend towards association with incident CKD, but have modest associations with ESRD in individuals of European descent. Additional work is required to characterize the association of genetic determinants of CKD and ESRD at different stages of disease progression. PMID:21980298

  16. New insights into pre-BCR and BCR signalling with relevance to B cell malignancies.

    PubMed

    Rickert, Robert C

    2013-08-01

    The B cell receptor (BCR) and its precursor (pre-BCR) control B cell homeostasis, differentiation and function. Moreover, aberrant pre-BCR and BCR signalling have a central role in B cell neoplasia; for example, enhanced positive signalling or disrupted negative signalling downstream of the pre-BCR promotes B cell acute lymphocytic leukaemia. The emerging distinctions between tonic and chronic active BCR signalling have contributed to the identification of oncogenic targets downstream of BCR signalling in mature B cell neoplasms. Indeed, the encouraging results of several ongoing clinical trials that target the activity of phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ-isoform (PI3Kδ), Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) or spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) downstream of the BCR highlight the therapeutic potential of inhibiting BCR signalling.

  17. SPR Detection and Discrimination of the Oligonucleotides Related to the Normal and the Hybrid bcr-abl Genes by Two Stringency Control Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsishin, M. J.; Ushenin, Iu. V.; Rachkov, A. E.; Solatkin, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we applied two stringency control strategies for surface plasmon resonance (SPR) detection of DNA hybridization and discrimination of completely and partially complementary 24-mer sequences. These sequences are specific to the human normal bcr and the hybrid bcr-abl genes, protein products of which are responsible for some leukemia. SPR sensors based on resonance phenomena in nanoscale gold films are well suited for label-free, real-time investigations of the macromolecule interactions. Thermodynamic parameters obtained using the web server DINAMelt allowed supposing the possibility for realization (a) stringency control based on the ionic strength of the hybridization buffer and (b) stringency control based on the temperature elevation. The first one resulted in that the discrimination index of completely complementary and partially complementary oligonucleotides depending on the target concentration varied from 1.3 to 1.8 in 2 × SSC and from 2.0 to 2.9 in 0.5 × SSC. For implementation of the second stringency control strategy, SPR spectrometer measuring flow cell with built-in high-precision temperature control and regulation as well as corresponding software was created. It is shown that the duplexes formed by the immobilized probes mod-Ph and completely complementary oligonucleotides P1 remained without significant changes until ~50 °C, while the duplexes formed with partially complementary oligonucleotide Bcrex14 almost entirely disrupted at 40 °C. Thus, the absolutely effective thermodiscrimination of this pair of oligonucleotides was achieved in this temperature range (40-50 °C).

  18. Quantitative trait loci analysis of melon (Cucumis melo L.) domestication-related traits.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Aurora; Martín-Hernández, Ana Montserrat; Dolcet-Sanjuan, Ramón; Garcés-Claver, Ana; Álvarez, José María; Garcia-Mas, Jordi; Picó, Belén; Monforte, Antonio José

    2017-06-05

    Loci on LGIV, VI, and VIII of melon genome are involved in the control of fruit domestication-related traits and they are candidate to have played a role in the domestication of the crop. The fruit of wild melons is very small (20-50 g) without edible pulp, contrasting with the large size and high pulp content of cultivated melon fruits. An analysis of quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling fruit morphology domestication-related traits was carried out using an in vitro maintained F2 population from the cross between the Indian wild melon "Trigonus" and the western elite cultivar 'Piel de Sapo'. Twenty-seven QTL were identified in at least two out of the three field trials. Six of them were also being detected in BC1 and BC3 populations derived from the same cross. Ten of them were related to fruit morphological traits, 12 to fruit size characters, and 5 to pulp content. The Trigonus alleles decreased the value of the characters, except for the QTL at andromonoecious gene at linkage group (LG) II, and the QTL for pulp content at LGV. QTL genotypes accounted for a considerable degree of the total phenotypic variation, reaching up to 46%. Around 66% of the QTL showed additive gene action, 19% exhibited dominance, and 25% consisted of overdominance. The regions on LGIV, VI, and VIII included the QTL with more consistent and strong effects on domestication-related traits. QTLs on those regions were validated in BC2S1, BC2S2, and BC3 families, with "Trigonus" allele decreasing the fruit morphological traits in all cases. The validated QTL could represent loci involved in melon domestication, although further experiments as genomic variation studies across wild and cultivated genotypes would be necessary to confirm this hypothesis.

  19. Bcr1 plays a central role in the regulation of opaque cell filamentation in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Guobo; Xie, Jing; Tao, Li; Nobile, Clarissa J.; Sun, Yuan; Cao, Chengjun; Tong, Yaojun; Huang, Guanghua

    2013-01-01

    Summary The human fungal pathogen Candida albicans has at least two types of morphological transitions: white to opaque cell transitions and yeast to hyphal transitions. Opaque cells have historically not been known to undergo filamentation under standard filament-inducing conditions. Here we find that Bcr1 and its downstream regulators Cup9, Nrg1 and Czf1 and the cAMP-signaling pathway control opaque cell filamentation in C. albicans. We have shown that deletion of BCR1, CUP9, NRG1 and CZF1 results in opaque cell filamentation under standard culture conditions. Disruption of BCR1 in white cells has no obvious effect on hyphal growth, suggesting that Bcr1 is an opaque-specific regulator of filamentation under the conditions tested. Moreover, inactivation of the cAMP-signaling pathway or disruption of its downstream transcriptional regulators, FLO8 and EFG1, strikingly attenuates filamentation in opaque cells of the bcr1/bcr1 mutant. Deletion of HGC1, a downstream gene of the cAMP-signaling pathway encoding G1 cyclin-related protein, completely blocks opaque cell filamentation induced by inactivation of BCR1. These results demonstrate that Bcr1 regulated opaque cell filamentation is dependent on the cAMP-signaling pathway. This study establishes a link between the white-opaque switch and the yeast-filamentous growth transition in C. albicans. PMID:23808664

  20. Bcr1 plays a central role in the regulation of opaque cell filamentation in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Guan, Guobo; Xie, Jing; Tao, Li; Nobile, Clarissa J; Sun, Yuan; Cao, Chengjun; Tong, Yaojun; Huang, Guanghua

    2013-08-01

    The human fungal pathogen Candida albicans has at least two types of morphological transitions: white to opaque cell transitions and yeast to hyphal transitions. Opaque cells have historically not been known to undergo filamentation under standard filament-inducing conditions. Here we find that Bcr1 and its downstream regulators Cup9, Nrg1 and Czf1 and the cAMP-signalling pathway control opaque cell filamentation in C. albicans. We have shown that deletion of BCR1, CUP9, NRG1 and CZF1 results in opaque cell filamentation under standard culture conditions. Disruption of BCR1 in white cells has no obvious effect on hyphal growth, suggesting that Bcr1 is an opaque-specific regulator of filamentation under the conditions tested. Moreover, inactivation of the cAMP-signalling pathway or disruption of its downstream transcriptional regulators, FLO8 and EFG1, strikingly attenuates filamentation in opaque cells of the bcr1/bcr1 mutant. Deletion of HGC1, a downstream gene of the cAMP-signalling pathway encoding G1 cyclin-related protein, completely blocks opaque cell filamentation induced by inactivation of BCR1. These results demonstrate that Bcr1 regulated opaque cell filamentation is dependent on the cAMP-signalling pathway. This study establishes a link between the white-opaque switch and the yeast-filamentous growth transition in C. albicans. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Generalization of Associations of Kidney-Related Genetic Loci to American Indians

    PubMed Central

    Haack, Karin; Almasy, Laura; Laston, Sandra; Lee, Elisa T.; Best, Lyle G.; Fabsitz, Richard R.; MacCluer, Jean W.; Howard, Barbara V.; Umans, Jason G.; Cole, Shelley A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives CKD disproportionally affects American Indians, who similar to other populations, show genetic susceptibility to kidney outcomes. Recent studies have identified several loci associated with kidney traits, but their relevance in American Indians is unknown. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This study used data from a large, family-based genetic study of American Indians (the Strong Heart Family Study), which includes 94 multigenerational families enrolled from communities located in Oklahoma, the Dakotas, and Arizona. Individuals were recruited from the Strong Heart Study, a population-based study of cardiovascular disease in American Indians. This study selected 25 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 23 loci identified from recently published kidney-related genome-wide association studies in individuals of European ancestry to evaluate their associations with kidney function (estimated GFR; individuals 18 years or older, up to 3282 individuals) and albuminuria (urinary albumin to creatinine ratio; n=3552) in the Strong Heart Family Study. This study also examined the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the APOL1 region with estimated GFR in 1121 Strong Heart Family Study participants. GFR was estimated using the abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Equation. Additive genetic models adjusted for age and sex were used. Results This study identified significant associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms with estimated GFR in or nearby PRKAG2, SLC6A13, UBE2Q2, PIP5K1B, and WDR72 (P<2.1 × 10-3 to account for multiple testing). Single nucleotide polymorphisms in these loci explained 2.2% of the estimated GFR total variance and 2.9% of its heritability. An intronic variant of BCAS3 was significantly associated with urinary albumin to creatinine ratio. APOL1 single nucleotide polymorphisms were not associated with estimated GFR in a single variant test or haplotype analyses, and the at

  2. Generalization of associations of kidney-related genetic loci to American Indians.

    PubMed

    Franceschini, Nora; Haack, Karin; Almasy, Laura; Laston, Sandra; Lee, Elisa T; Best, Lyle G; Fabsitz, Richard R; MacCluer, Jean W; Howard, Barbara V; Umans, Jason G; Cole, Shelley A

    2014-01-01

    CKD disproportionally affects American Indians, who similar to other populations, show genetic susceptibility to kidney outcomes. Recent studies have identified several loci associated with kidney traits, but their relevance in American Indians is unknown. This study used data from a large, family-based genetic study of American Indians (the Strong Heart Family Study), which includes 94 multigenerational families enrolled from communities located in Oklahoma, the Dakotas, and Arizona. Individuals were recruited from the Strong Heart Study, a population-based study of cardiovascular disease in American Indians. This study selected 25 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 23 loci identified from recently published kidney-related genome-wide association studies in individuals of European ancestry to evaluate their associations with kidney function (estimated GFR; individuals 18 years or older, up to 3282 individuals) and albuminuria (urinary albumin to creatinine ratio; n=3552) in the Strong Heart Family Study. This study also examined the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the APOL1 region with estimated GFR in 1121 Strong Heart Family Study participants. GFR was estimated using the abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Equation. Additive genetic models adjusted for age and sex were used. This study identified significant associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms with estimated GFR in or nearby PRKAG2, SLC6A13, UBE2Q2, PIP5K1B, and WDR72 (P<2.1 × 10(-3) to account for multiple testing). Single nucleotide polymorphisms in these loci explained 2.2% of the estimated GFR total variance and 2.9% of its heritability. An intronic variant of BCAS3 was significantly associated with urinary albumin to creatinine ratio. APOL1 single nucleotide polymorphisms were not associated with estimated GFR in a single variant test or haplotype analyses, and the at-risk variants identified in individuals with African ancestry were not detected in DNA

  3. Replication of Caucasian Loci Associated with Osteoporosis-related Traits in East Asians

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Beom-Jun; Ahn, Seong Hee; Kim, Hyeon-Mok; Ikegawa, Shiro; Yang, Tie-Lin; Guo, Yan; Deng, Hong-Wen; Koh, Jung-Min

    2016-01-01

    Background Most reported genome-wide association studies (GWAS) seeking to identify the loci of osteoporosis-related traits have involved Caucasian populations. We aimed to identify the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of osteoporosis-related traits among East Asian populations from the bone mineral density (BMD)-related loci of an earlier GWAS meta-analysis. Methods A total of 95 SNPs, identified at the discovery stage of the largest GWAS meta-analysis of BMD, were tested to determine associations with osteoporosis-related traits (BMD, osteoporosis, or fracture) in Korean subjects (n=1,269). The identified SNPs of osteoporosis-related traits in Korean subjects were included in the replication analysis using Chinese (n=2,327) and Japanese (n=768) cohorts. Results A total of 17 SNPs were associated with low BMD in Korean subjects. Specifically, 9, 6, 9, and 5 SNPs were associated with the presence of osteoporosis, non-vertebral fractures, vertebral fractures, and any fracture, respectively. Collectively, 35 of the 95 SNPs (36.8%) were associated with one or more osteoporosis-related trait in Korean subjects. Of the 35 SNPs, 19 SNPs (54.3%) were also associated with one or more osteoporosis-related traits in East Asian populations. Twelve SNPs were associated with low BMD in the Chinese and Japanese cohorts. Specifically, 3, 4, and 2 SNPs were associated with the presence of hip fractures, vertebral fractures, and any fracture, respectively. Conclusions Our results identified the common SNPs of osteoporosis-related traits in both Caucasian and East Asian populations. These SNPs should be further investigated to assess whether they are true genetic markers of osteoporosis. PMID:27965945

  4. Short Communication Microsatellite loci in the tetraploid spined loach, Cobitis biwae, and cross-species amplification in four related species.

    PubMed

    Jablonska, O; Marín, A; Kowalewska, K; Fujimoto, T; Arai, K

    2016-09-23

    Fifteen microsatellite loci were identified in the tetraploid spined loach, Cobitis biwae (Teleostei: Cobitidae). Among these, 14 were polymorphic (5-31 alleles) and showed moderate to high cross-species amplification transferability in four related species, Cobitis matsubarai, Cobitis taenia, Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, and Misgurnus fossilis. The loci, described herein, will be useful for population genetics, phylogeny, parentage analysis, and detection of hybridization among Cobitis species.

  5. BCR: a new target in resistance mediated by BCR/ABL-315I?

    PubMed Central

    Haberbosch, Isabella; Rafiei, Anahita; Oancea, Claudia; Ottmann, Gerhart Oliver; Ruthardt, Martin; Mian, Afsar Ali

    2016-01-01

    Targeting BCR/ABL with Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) is a proven concept for the treatment of Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) leukemias but the “gatekeeper” mutation T315I confers resistance against all approved TKIs, with the only exception of ponatinib, a multi-targeted kinase inhibitor. Besides resistance to TKIs, T315I also confers additional features to the leukemogenic potential of BCR/ABL, involving endogenous BCR. Therefore we studied the role of BCR on BCR/ABL mutants lacking functional domains indispensable for the oncogenic activity of BCR/ABL. We used the factor independent growth of murine myeloid progenitor 32D cells and the transformation of Rat-1 fibroblasts both mediated by BCR/ABL. Here we report that T315I restores the capacity to mediate factor-independent growth and transformation potential of loss-of-function mutants of BCR/ABL. Targeting endogenous Bcr abrogated the capacity of oligomerization deficient mutant of BCR/ABL-T315I to mediate factor independent growth of 32D cells and strongly reduced their transformation potential in Rat-1 cells, as well as led to the up-regulation of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Our data show that the T315I restores the capacity of loss-of-function mutants to transform cells which is dependent on the transphosphorylation of endogenous Bcr, which becomes a putative therapeutic target to overcome resistance by T315I. PMID:27014420

  6. Five Nuclear Loci Resolve the Polyploid History of Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and Relatives

    PubMed Central

    Triplett, Jimmy K.; Wang, Yunjing; Zhong, Jinshun; Kellogg, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Polyploidy poses challenges for phylogenetic reconstruction because of the need to identify and distinguish between homoeologous loci. This can be addressed by use of low copy nuclear markers. Panicum s.s. is a genus of about 100 species in the grass tribe Paniceae, subfamily Panicoideae, and is divided into five sections. Many of the species are known to be polyploids. The most well-known of the Panicum polyploids are switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and common or Proso millet (P. miliaceum). Switchgrass is in section Virgata, along with P. tricholaenoides, P. amarum, and P. amarulum, whereas P. miliaceum is in sect. Panicum. We have generated sequence data from five low copy nuclear loci and two chloroplast loci and have clarified the origin of P. virgatum. We find that all members of sects. Virgata and Urvilleana are the result of diversification after a single allopolyploidy event. The closest diploid relatives of switchgrass are in sect. Rudgeana, native to Central and South America. Within sections Virgata and Urvilleana, P. tricholaenoides is sister to the remaining species. Panicum racemosum and P. urvilleanum form a clade, which may be sister to P. chloroleucum. Panicum amarum, P. amarulum, and the lowland and upland ecotypes of P. virgatum together form a clade, within which relationships are complex. Hexaploid and octoploid plants are likely allopolyploids, with P. amarum and P. amarulum sharing genomes with P. virgatum. Octoploid P. virgatum plants are formed via hybridization between disparate tetraploids. We show that polyploidy precedes diversification in a complex set of polyploids; our data thus suggest that polyploidy could provide the raw material for diversification. In addition, we show two rounds of allopolyploidization in the ancestry of switchgrass, and identify additional species that may be part of its broader gene pool. This may be relevant for development of the crop for biofuels. PMID:22719924

  7. Potential Susceptibility Loci Identified for Renal Cell Carcinoma by Targeting Obesity-Related Genes.

    PubMed

    Shu, Xiang; Purdue, Mark P; Ye, Yuanqing; Tu, Huakang; Wood, Christopher G; Tannir, Nizar M; Wang, Zhaoming; Albanes, Demetrius; Gapstur, Susan M; Stevens, Victoria L; Rothman, Nathaniel; Chanock, Stephen J; Wu, Xifeng

    2017-09-01

    Background: Obesity is an established risk factor for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Although genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of RCC have identified several susceptibility loci, additional variants might be missed due to the highly conservative selection.Methods: We conducted a multiphase study utilizing three independent genome-wide scans at MD Anderson Cancer Center (MDA RCC GWAS and MDA RCC OncoArray) and National Cancer Institute (NCI RCC GWAS), which consisted of a total of 3,530 cases and 5,714 controls, to investigate genetic variations in obesity-related genes and RCC risk.Results: In the discovery phase, 32,946 SNPs located at ±10 kb of 2,001 obesity-related genes were extracted from MDA RCC GWAS and analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. Proxies (R(2) > 0.8) were searched or imputation was performed if SNPs were not directly genotyped in the validation sets. Twenty-one SNPs with P < 0.05 in both MDA RCC GWAS and NCI RCC GWAS were subsequently evaluated in MDA RCC OncoArray. In the overall meta-analysis, significant (P < 0.05) associations with RCC risk were observed for SNP mapping to IL1RAPL2 [rs10521506-G: ORmeta = 0.87 (0.81-0.93), Pmeta = 2.33 × 10(-5)], PLIN2 [rs2229536-A: ORmeta = 0.87 (0.81-0.93), Pmeta = 2.33 × 10(-5)], SMAD3 [rs4601989-A: ORmeta = 0.86 (0.80-0.93), Pmeta = 2.71 × 10(-4)], MED13L [rs10850596-A: ORmeta = 1.14 (1.07-1.23), Pmeta = 1.50 × 10(-4)], and TSC1 [rs3761840-G: ORmeta = 0.90 (0.85-0.97), Pmeta = 2.47 × 10(-3)]. We did not observe any significant cis-expression quantitative trait loci effect for these SNPs in the TCGA KIRC data.Conclusions: Taken together, we found that genetic variation of obesity-related genes could influence RCC susceptibility.Impact: The five identified loci may provide new insights into disease etiology that reveal importance of obesity-related genes in RCC development. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(9); 1436-42. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. Quantitative Trait Loci and Antagonistic Associations for Two Developmentally Related Traits in the Drosophila Head

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Federico H.

    2017-01-01

    In insects, some developmentally related traits are negatively correlated. Here, we mapped Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) for traits of eye size and head capsule, in an intercontinental set of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of Drosophila melanogaster. Composite interval mapping identified QTL on all major chromosomes. Two negatively correlated traits (size of eyes and between-eyes distance) were influenced by one QTL that appeared to be antagonistic between the traits (QTL cytological range is 25F5–30A6), consistent with a negative genetic correlation between these traits of the head capsule. Comparisons of QTL across traits indicated a nonrandom distribution over the genome, with a considerable overlap between some QTL across traits. Developmentally-related traits were influenced by QTL in a pattern that is consistent both with 1) the sign of the genetic correlation between the traits and 2) a constraint in the micro-evolutionary differentiation in the traits. PMID:28130460

  9. Obesity-Related Genomic Loci Are Associated with Type 2 Diabetes in a Han Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qi; He, Jiang; Chen, Li; Zhao, Zhigang; Li, Qiang; Ge, Jiapu; Chen, Gang; Guo, Xiaohui; Lu, Juming; Weng, Jianping; Jia, Weiping; Ji, Linong; Xiao, Jianzhong; Shan, Zhongyan; Liu, Jie; Tian, Haoming; Ji, Qiuhe; Zhu, Dalong; Zhou, Zhiguang; Shan, Guangliang; Yang, Wenying

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Obesity is a well-known risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Genome-wide association studies have identified a number of genetic loci associated with obesity. The aim of this study is to examine the contribution of obesity-related genomic loci to type 2 diabetes in a Chinese population. Methods We successfully genotyped 18 obesity-related single nucleotide polymorphisms among 5338 type 2 diabetic patients and 4663 controls. Both individual and joint effects of these single nucleotide polymorphisms on type 2 diabetes and quantitative glycemic traits (assessing β-cell function and insulin resistance) were analyzed using logistic and linear regression models, respectively. Results Two single nucleotide polymorphisms near MC4R and GNPDA2 genes were significantly associated with type 2 diabetes before adjusting for body mass index and waist circumference (OR (95% CI) = 1.14 (1.06, 1.22) for the A allele of rs12970134, P = 4.75×10−4; OR (95% CI) = 1.10 (1.03, 1.17) for the G allele of rs10938397, P = 4.54×10−3). When body mass index and waist circumference were further adjusted, the association of MC4R with type 2 diabetes remained significant (P = 1.81×10−2) and that of GNPDA2 was attenuated (P = 1.26×10−1), suggesting the effect of the locus including GNPDA2 on type 2 diabetes may be mediated through obesity. Single nucleotide polymorphism rs2260000 within BAT2 was significantly associated with type 2 diabetes after adjusting for body mass index and waist circumference (P = 1.04×10−2). In addition, four single nucleotide polymorphisms (near or within SEC16B, BDNF, MAF and PRL genes) showed significant associations with quantitative glycemic traits in controls even after adjusting for body mass index and waist circumference (all P values<0.05). Conclusions This study indicates that obesity-related genomic loci were associated with type 2 diabetes and glycemic traits in the Han Chinese population. PMID:25093408

  10. Interspersed DNA repeats bcr1-bcr18 of Bacillus cereus group bacteria form three distinct groups with different evolutionary and functional patterns.

    PubMed

    Kristoffersen, Simen M; Tourasse, Nicolas J; Kolstø, Anne-Brit; Økstad, Ole Andreas

    2011-02-01

    Many short (<400 bp) interspersed sequence repeats exist in bacteria, yet little is known about their origins, mode of generation, or possible function. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of 18 different previously identified repeated DNA elements, bcr1-bcr18 (Økstad OA, Hegna I, Lindback T, Rishovd AL, Kolstø AB. 1999. Genome organization is not conserved between Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis. Microbiology. 145:621-631.; Tourasse NJ, Helgason E, Økstad OA, Hegna IK, Kolstø AB. 2006. The Bacillus cereus group: novel aspects of population structure and genome dynamics. J Appl Microbiol. 101:579-593.), in 36 sequenced genomes from the Bacillus cereus group of bacteria. This group consists of genetically closely related species with variable pathogenic specificity toward different hosts and includes among others B. anthracis, B. cereus, and B. thuringiensis. The B. cereus group repeat elements could be classified into three categories with different properties: Group A elements (bcr1-bcr3) exhibited highly variable copy numbers ranging from 4 to 116 copies per strain, showed a nonconserved chromosomal distribution pattern between strains, and displayed several features characteristic of mobile elements. Group B repeats (bcr4-bcr6) were present in 0-10 copies per strain and were associated with strain-specific genes and disruptions of genome synteny, implying a possible contribution to genome rearrangements and/or horizontal gene transfer events. bcr5, in particular, was associated with large gene clusters showing resemblance to integrons. In agreement with their potentially mobile nature or involvement in horizontal transfers, the sequences of the repeats from Groups A and B (bcr1-bcr6) followed a phylogeny different from that of the host strains. Conversely, repeats from Group C (bcr7-bcr18) had a conserved chromosomal location and orthologous gene neighbors in the investigated B. cereus group genomes, and their phylogeny matched that of the host

  11. Genetic dissection of fruiting body-related traits using quantitative trait loci mapping in Lentinula edodes.

    PubMed

    Gong, Wen-Bing; Li, Lei; Zhou, Yan; Bian, Yin-Bing; Kwan, Hoi-Shan; Cheung, Man-Kit; Xiao, Yang

    2016-06-01

    To provide a better understanding of the genetic architecture of fruiting body formation of Lentinula edodes, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) mapping was employed to uncover the loci underlying seven fruiting body-related traits (FBRTs). An improved L. edodes genetic linkage map, comprising 572 markers on 12 linkage groups with a total map length of 983.7 cM, was constructed by integrating 82 genomic sequence-based insertion-deletion (InDel) markers into a previously published map. We then detected a total of 62 QTLs for seven target traits across two segregating testcross populations, with individual QTLs contributing 5.5 %-30.2 % of the phenotypic variation. Fifty-three out of the 62 QTLs were clustered in six QTL hotspots, suggesting the existence of main genomic regions regulating the morphological characteristics of fruiting bodies in L. edodes. A stable QTL hotspot on MLG2, containing QTLs for all investigated traits, was identified in both testcross populations. QTLs for related traits were frequently co-located on the linkage groups, demonstrating the genetic basis for phenotypic correlation of traits. Meta-QTL (mQTL) analysis was performed and identified 16 mQTLs with refined positions and narrow confidence intervals (CIs). Nine genes, including those encoding MAP kinase, blue-light photoreceptor, riboflavin-aldehyde-forming enzyme and cyclopropane-fatty-acyl-phospholipid synthase, and cytochrome P450s, were likely to be candidate genes controlling the shape of fruiting bodies. The study has improved our understanding of the genetic architecture of fruiting body formation in L. edodes. To our knowledge, this is the first genome-wide QTL detection of FBRTs in L. edodes. The improved genetic map, InDel markers and QTL hotspot regions revealed here will assist considerably in the conduct of future genetic and breeding studies of L. edodes.

  12. Combination of bortezomib and mitotic inhibitors down-modulate Bcr-Abl and efficiently eliminates tyrosine-kinase inhibitor sensitive and resistant Bcr-Abl-positive leukemic cells.

    PubMed

    Bucur, Octavian; Stancu, Andreea Lucia; Goganau, Ioana; Petrescu, Stefana Maria; Pennarun, Bodvael; Bertomeu, Thierry; Dewar, Rajan; Khosravi-Far, Roya

    2013-01-01

    Emergence of resistance to Tyrosine-Kinase Inhibitors (TKIs), such as imatinib, dasatinib and nilotinib, in Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) demands new therapeutic strategies. We and others have previously established bortezomib, a selective proteasome inhibitor, as an important potential treatment in CML. Here we show that the combined regimens of bortezomib with mitotic inhibitors, such as the microtubule-stabilizing agent Paclitaxel and the PLK1 inhibitor BI2536, efficiently kill TKIs-resistant and -sensitive Bcr-Abl-positive leukemic cells. Combined treatment activates caspases 8, 9 and 3, which correlate with caspase-induced PARP cleavage. These effects are associated with a marked increase in activation of the stress-related MAP kinases p38MAPK and JNK. Interestingly, combined treatment induces a marked decrease in the total and phosphorylated Bcr-Abl protein levels, and inhibits signaling pathways downstream of Bcr-Abl: downregulation of STAT3 and STAT5 phosphorylation and/or total levels and a decrease in phosphorylation of the Bcr-Abl-associated proteins CrkL and Lyn. Moreover, we found that other mitotic inhibitors (Vincristine and Docetaxel), in combination with bortezomib, also suppress the Bcr-Abl-induced pro-survival signals and result in caspase 3 activation. These results open novel possibilities for the treatment of Bcr-Abl-positive leukemias, especially in the imatinib, dasatinib and nilotinib-resistant CML cases.

  13. Combination of Bortezomib and Mitotic Inhibitors Down-Modulate Bcr-Abl and Efficiently Eliminates Tyrosine-Kinase Inhibitor Sensitive and Resistant Bcr-Abl-Positive Leukemic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Goganau, Ioana; Petrescu, Stefana Maria; Pennarun, Bodvael; Bertomeu, Thierry; Dewar, Rajan; Khosravi-Far, Roya

    2013-01-01

    Emergence of resistance to Tyrosine-Kinase Inhibitors (TKIs), such as imatinib, dasatinib and nilotinib, in Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) demands new therapeutic strategies. We and others have previously established bortezomib, a selective proteasome inhibitor, as an important potential treatment in CML. Here we show that the combined regimens of bortezomib with mitotic inhibitors, such as the microtubule-stabilizing agent Paclitaxel and the PLK1 inhibitor BI2536, efficiently kill TKIs-resistant and -sensitive Bcr-Abl-positive leukemic cells. Combined treatment activates caspases 8, 9 and 3, which correlate with caspase-induced PARP cleavage. These effects are associated with a marked increase in activation of the stress-related MAP kinases p38MAPK and JNK. Interestingly, combined treatment induces a marked decrease in the total and phosphorylated Bcr-Abl protein levels, and inhibits signaling pathways downstream of Bcr-Abl: downregulation of STAT3 and STAT5 phosphorylation and/or total levels and a decrease in phosphorylation of the Bcr-Abl-associated proteins CrkL and Lyn. Moreover, we found that other mitotic inhibitors (Vincristine and Docetaxel), in combination with bortezomib, also suppress the Bcr-Abl-induced pro-survival signals and result in caspase 3 activation. These results open novel possibilities for the treatment of Bcr-Abl-positive leukemias, especially in the imatinib, dasatinib and nilotinib-resistant CML cases. PMID:24155950

  14. Multiple genetic loci modify susceptibility to plasmacytoma-related morbidity in Eμ-v-abl transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Symons, R. C. Andrew; Daly, Mark J.; Fridlyand, Jane; Speed, Terence P.; Cook, Wendy D.; Gerondakis, Steven; Harris, Alan W.; Foote, Simon J.

    2002-01-01

    There is a great difference in susceptibility to v-abl transgene-induced plasmacytoma between the BALB/cAn and the relatively resistant C57BL/6J mouse strains. We have used the Mapmaker/SURVIVOR algorithm to analyze genome-wide scans on over 800 transgenic F2 hybrid mice, and have mapped at least six loci on chromosomes 2, 4, 11, 17, and 18 that modify tumor-related morbidity. As in human multiple myeloma, males were found to be more prone to plasmacytomagenesis. Different loci influence tumor susceptibility in male and female mice. Survival in females may be largely controlled by a pair of interacting loci on chromosomes 2 and 17. PMID:12149518

  15. Reverse transcriptase-related proteins in telomeres and in certain chromosomal loci of Rhynchosciara (Diptera: Sciaridae).

    PubMed

    Gorab, Eduardo

    2003-04-01

    The localization of reverse transcriptase-related proteins in polytene chromosomes of dipterans was investigated using previously characterized antibodies to a recombinant polypeptide containing conserved motifs of insect reverse transcriptases. The immunoreactions were carried out with polytene chromosome squashes of eight sciarids, one chironomid and three Drosophila species. Telomeric staining was regularly observed on chromosomes of the sciarid Rhynchosciara americana under normal growth conditions. Five of eight chromosomal tips were labelled except for the heterochromatic ends that are occasionally found associated forming a chromocentre in the salivary gland. Reverse transcriptase-related proteins were detected at chromosomal tips of young larvae and remained bound to the telomeres throughout larval development. As in salivary gland chromosomes, five non-telocentric ends of the chromosomes from Malpighian tubules of R. americana appeared clearly stained with anti-reverse transcriptase. The occurrence of telomeric reverse transcriptase in R. americana correlates with the presence of RNA in addition to an unusual enrichment with homopolymeric dA/dT DNA associated with the telomeric heterochromatin. The antibodies also reacted with a few interstitial sites in chromosomes of four Rhynchosciara species, one band overlapping the histone gene locus of three species in the americana -like group. The results provide evidence for a reverse transcriptase-related protein as a constitutive component in telomeres of R. americana and also in certain interstitial loci of Rhynchosciara species in which RNA was immunologically detected in the form of RNA:DNA hybrids.

  16. Synthetic antigens reveal dynamics of BCR endocytosis during inhibitory signaling.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Adam H; Bennett, Nitasha R; Zwick, Daniel B; Hudon, Jonathan; Kiessling, Laura L

    2014-01-17

    B cells detect foreign antigens through their B cell antigen receptor (BCR). The BCR, when engaged by antigen, initiates a signaling cascade. Concurrent with signaling is endocytosis of the BCR complex, which acts to downregulate signaling and facilitate uptake of antigen for processing and display on the cell surface. The relationship between signaling and BCR endocytosis is poorly defined. Here, we explore the interplay between BCR endocytosis and antigens that either promote or inhibit B cell activation. Specifically, synthetic antigens were generated that engage the BCR alone or both the BCR and the inhibitory co-receptor CD22. The lectin CD22, a member of the Siglec family, binds sialic acid-containing glycoconjugates found on host tissues, inhibiting BCR signaling to prevent erroneous B cell activation. At low concentrations, antigens that can cocluster the BCR and CD22 promote rapid BCR endocytosis; whereas, slower endocytosis occurs with antigens that bind only the BCR. At higher antigen concentrations, rapid BCR endocytosis occurs upon treatment with either stimulatory or inhibitory antigens. Endocytosis of the BCR, in response to synthetic antigens, results in its entry into early endocytic compartments. Although the CD22-binding antigens fail to activate key regulators of antigen presentation (e.g., Syk), they also promote BCR endocytosis, indicating that inhibitory antigens can be internalized. Together, our observations support a functional role for BCR endocytosis in downregulating BCR signaling. The reduction of cell surface BCR levels in the absence of B cell activation should raise the threshold for BCR subsequent activation. The ability of the activating synthetic antigens to trigger both signaling and entry of the BCR into early endosomes suggests strategies for targeted antigen delivery.

  17. Three Major Loci Involved in Age-Related Macular Degeneration are also Associated with Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Luiz H.; Schubert, Carl; Ferrara, Daniela C.; Merriam, Joanna E.; Imamura, Yutaka; Freund, K. Bailey; Spaide, Richard F.; Yannuzzi, Lawrence A.; Allikmets, Rando

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the frequency of variants in three major age-related macular degeneration (AMD)-associated loci in patients with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) of European-American descent. Design Cross-sectional case-control association study. Participants Fifty-five patients with PCV, 368 patients with advanced AMD and 368 age- and ethnically-matched unaffected controls of European-American descent. Methods Association analysis of allele and genotype frequencies, determined by TaqMan assays, was performed for the following haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (htSNPs): risk alleles in the complement factor H (CFH) gene (Y402H and IVS14) in the ARMS2/HTRA1 locus on 10q26 (A69S) and protective alleles in CFH (IVS1 and IVS6) and in the complement factor B/complement component C2 (CFB/C2) locus (IVS10 and H9L). Main Outcome Measures Allele and genotype frequencies of the htSNPs in the CFH, CFB/C2, and ARMS2/HTRA1 loci. Results Four AMD-associated haplotype-tagging alleles (rs547154, rs1061170, rs1410996, rs10490924) in the three major loci, CFH, CFB/C2 and ARMS2/HTRA1, were statistically significantly associated also with the PCV phenotype (P<0.05). Three other alleles from the same loci (rs4151667, rs529825, rs3766404) showed a trend towards association (P<0.2), but did not reach statistical significance possibly because of the combined effects of a relatively small sample size and low minor allele frequency in the screened populations. Conclusion The PCV phenotype in Caucasian patients is associated with the major alleles/genotypes in the AMD-associated loci, suggesting that PCV and AMD are genetically similar in the tested loci. PMID:20378180

  18. Susceptibility Loci for Pigmentation and Melanoma in Relation to Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Nalls, Michael; Gao, Xiang; Huang, Xuemei; Han, Jiali; Singleton, Andrew B.; Chen, Honglei

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients have a lower risk for most types of cancer except for melanoma, which has a modest positive association with PD. Pigmentation genes has been hypothesized to contribute to this association. We therefore examined whether genetic susceptibility loci for pigmentation or melanoma were associated with PD risk in two large independent datasets. In the Parkinson’s Genes and Environment (PAGE) Study, we examined 11 SNPs identified from previous GWAS studies of pigmentation or melanoma in relation to PD among 808 PD cases and 1,623 controls; further, we also examined the colors of hair, eye, or skin, and melanoma in relation to PD. In the International Parkinson’s Disease Genomic Consortium (IPDGC), we examined a broader selection of 360 pigmentation or melanoma GWAS SNPs in relation to PD among 5,333 PD cases and 12,019 controls. All participants were non-Hispanic Whites. As expected, in the PAGE study, most SNPs were associated with one or more pigmentation phenotypes. However, neither these SNPs nor pigmentation phenotypes were associated with PD risk after Bonferroni correction with the exception of rs4911414 at the ASIP gene (P=0.001). A total of 18 PD cases (2.2%) and 26 controls (1.6%) had a diagnosis of melanoma with an odds ratio of 1.3 (95% confidence interval: 0.7-2.4). In the IPDGC analysis, none of the 360 SNPs, including rs4911414, were associated with PD risk after adjusting for multiple comparisons. In conclusion, we did not find significant associations between GWAS SNPs of pigmentation or melanoma and the risk for PD. PMID:24439955

  19. Susceptibility loci for pigmentation and melanoma in relation to Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jing; Gao, Jianjun; Nalls, Michael; Gao, Xiang; Huang, Xuemei; Han, Jiali; Singleton, Andrew B; Chen, Honglei

    2014-06-01

    Growing evidence suggests that Parkinson's disease (PD) patients have a lower risk for most types of cancer except for melanoma, which has a modest positive association with PD. Pigmentation genes have been hypothesized to contribute to this association. We therefore examined whether genetic susceptibility loci for pigmentation or melanoma was associated with PD risk in 2 large independent datasets. In the Parkinson's Genes and Environment (PAGE) study, we examined 11 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified from previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of pigmentation or melanoma in relation to PD among 808 PD cases and 1623 controls; furthermore, we also examined the colors of hair, eye, or skin and melanoma in relation to PD. In the International Parkinson's Disease Genomic Consortium (IPDGC), we examined a broader selection of 360 pigmentation or melanoma GWAS SNPs in relation to PD among 5,333 PD cases and 12,019 controls. All participants were non-Hispanic Whites. As expected, in the PAGE study, most SNPs were associated with 1 or more pigmentation phenotypes. However, neither these SNPs nor pigmentation phenotypes were associated with PD risk after Bonferroni correction with the exception of rs4911414 at the ASIP gene (p = .001). A total of 18 PD cases (2.2%) and 26 controls (1.6%) had a diagnosis of melanoma with an odds ratio of 1.3 (95% confidence interval: 0.7-2.4). In the IPDGC analysis, none of the 360 SNPs, including rs4911414, were associated with PD risk after adjusting for multiple comparisons. In conclusion, we did not find significant associations between GWAS SNPs of pigmentation or melanoma and the risk for PD.

  20. Ras activation of Erk restores impaired tonic BCR signaling and rescues immature B cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Rowland, Sarah L.; DePersis, Corinne L.; Torres, Raul M.

    2010-01-01

    B cell receptors (BCRs) generate tonic signals critical for B cell survival and early B cell development. To determine whether these signals also mediate the development of transitional and mature B cells, we examined B cell development using a mouse strain in which nonautoreactive immunoglobulin heavy and light chain–targeted B cells express low surface BCR levels. We found that reduced BCR expression translated into diminished tonic BCR signals that strongly impaired the development of transitional and mature B cells. Constitutive expression of Bcl-2 did not rescue the differentiation of BCR-low B cells, suggesting that this defect was not related to decreased cell survival. In contrast, activation of the Ras pathway rescued the differentiation of BCR-low immature B cells both in vitro and in vivo, whereas extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) inhibition impaired the differentiation of normal immature B cells. These results strongly suggest that tonic BCR signaling mediates the differentiation of immature into transitional and mature B cells via activation of Erk, likely through a pathway requiring Ras. PMID:20176802

  1. Increased BCR responsiveness in B cells from patients with chronic GVHD.

    PubMed

    Allen, Jessica L; Tata, Prasanthi V; Fore, Matthew S; Wooten, Jenna; Rudra, Sharmistha; Deal, Allison M; Sharf, Andrew; Hoffert, Todd; Roehrs, Philip A; Shea, Thomas C; Serody, Jonathan S; Richards, Kristy L; Jagasia, Madan; Lee, Stephanie J; Rizzieri, David; Horwitz, Mitchell E; Chao, Nelson J; Sarantopoulos, Stefanie

    2014-03-27

    Although B cells have emerged as important contributors to chronic graft-versus-host-disease (cGVHD) pathogenesis, the mechanisms responsible for their sustained activation remain unknown. We previously showed that patients with cGVHD have significantly increased B cell-activating factor (BAFF) levels and that their B cells are activated and resistant to apoptosis. Exogenous BAFF confers a state of immediate responsiveness to antigen stimulation in normal murine B cells. To address this in cGVHD, we studied B-cell receptor (BCR) responsiveness in 48 patients who were >1 year out from allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We found that B cells from cGVHD patients had significantly increased proliferative responses to BCR stimulation along with elevated basal levels of the proximal BCR signaling components B cell linker protein (BLNK) and Syk. After initiation of BCR signaling, cGVHD B cells exhibited increased BLNK and Syk phosphorylation compared with B cells from patients without cGVHD. Blocking Syk kinase activity prevented relative post-HSCT BCR hyper-responsiveness of cGVHD B cells. These data suggest that a lowered BCR signaling threshold in cGVHD associates with increased B-cell proliferation and activation in response to antigen. We reveal a mechanism underpinning aberrant B-cell activation in cGVHD and suggest that therapeutic inhibition of the involved kinases may benefit these patients.

  2. Increased BCR responsiveness in B cells from patients with chronic GVHD

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Jessica L.; Tata, Prasanthi V.; Fore, Matthew S.; Wooten, Jenna; Rudra, Sharmistha; Deal, Allison M.; Sharf, Andrew; Hoffert, Todd; Roehrs, Philip A.; Shea, Thomas C.; Serody, Jonathan S.; Richards, Kristy L.; Jagasia, Madan; Lee, Stephanie J.; Rizzieri, David; Horwitz, Mitchell E.; Chao, Nelson J.

    2014-01-01

    Although B cells have emerged as important contributors to chronic graft-versus-host-disease (cGVHD) pathogenesis, the mechanisms responsible for their sustained activation remain unknown. We previously showed that patients with cGVHD have significantly increased B cell–activating factor (BAFF) levels and that their B cells are activated and resistant to apoptosis. Exogenous BAFF confers a state of immediate responsiveness to antigen stimulation in normal murine B cells. To address this in cGVHD, we studied B-cell receptor (BCR) responsiveness in 48 patients who were >1 year out from allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We found that B cells from cGVHD patients had significantly increased proliferative responses to BCR stimulation along with elevated basal levels of the proximal BCR signaling components B cell linker protein (BLNK) and Syk. After initiation of BCR signaling, cGVHD B cells exhibited increased BLNK and Syk phosphorylation compared with B cells from patients without cGVHD. Blocking Syk kinase activity prevented relative post-HSCT BCR hyper-responsiveness of cGVHD B cells. These data suggest that a lowered BCR signaling threshold in cGVHD associates with increased B-cell proliferation and activation in response to antigen. We reveal a mechanism underpinning aberrant B-cell activation in cGVHD and suggest that therapeutic inhibition of the involved kinases may benefit these patients. PMID:24532806

  3. Quantitative trait loci identification and meta-analysis for rice panicle-related traits.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yahui; Huang, Ming; Tao, Xingxing; Guo, Tao; Chen, Zhiqiang; Xiao, Wuming

    2016-10-01

    Rice yield is a complex trait controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTLs). In the past three decades, thousands of QTLs for rice yield traits have been detected, but only a very small percentage has been cloned to date, as identifying the QTL genes requires a substantial investment of time and money. Meta-analysis provides a simple, reliable, and economical method for integrating information from multiple QTL studies across various environmental and genetic backgrounds, detecting consistent QTLs powerfully and estimating their genetic positions precisely. In this study, we aimed to locate consistent QTL regions associated with rice panicle traits by applying a genome-wide QTL meta-analysis approach. We first conducted a QTL analysis of 5 rice panicle traits using 172 plants in 2011 and 138 plants in 2012 from an F2 population derived from a cross between Nipponbare and H71D rice cultivators. A total of 54 QTLs were detected, and these were combined with 1085 QTLs collected from 82 previous studies to perform a meta-analysis using BioMercator v4.2. The integration of 82 maps resulted in a consensus map with 6970 markers and a total map length of 1823.1 centimorgan (cM), on which 837 QTLs were projected. These QTLs were then integrated into 87 meta-quantitative trait loci (MQTLs) by meta-analysis, and the 95 % confidence intervals (CI) of them were smaller than the mean value of the original QTLs. Also, 30 MQTLs covered 47 of the 54 QTLs detected from the cross between Nipponbare and H71D in this study. Among them, the two major and stable QTLs, spp10.1 and sd10.1, were found to be included in MQTL10.4. The three other major QTLs, pl3.1, sb2.1, and sb10.1, were included in MQTL3.3, MQTL2.2, and MQTL10.3, respectively. A total of 21 of the 87 MQTLs' phenotypic variation were >20 %. In total, 24 candidate genes were found in 15 MQTLs that spanned physical intervals <0.2 Mb, including genes that have been cloned previously, e.g., EP3, LP, MIP1, HTD1, DSH1, and Os

  4. Quantitative trait loci controlling leaf appearance and curd initiation of cauliflower in relation to temperature.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Yaser; Briggs, William; Matschegewski, Claudia; Ordon, Frank; Stützel, Hartmut; Zetzsche, Holger; Groen, Simon; Uptmoor, Ralf

    2016-07-01

    QTL regions on chromosomes C06 and C09 are involved in temperature dependent time to curd induction in cauliflower. Temperature is the main environmental factor influencing curding time of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis). Temperatures above 20-22 °C inhibit development towards curding even in many summer cultivars. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling curding time and its related traits in a wide range of different temperature regimes from 12 to 27 °C, a doubled haploid (DH) mapping population segregating for curding time was developed and days to curd initiation (DCI), leaf appearance rate (LAR), and final leaf number (FLN) were measured. The population was genotyped with 176 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. Composite interval mapping (CIM) revealed repeatedly detected QTL for DCI on C06 and C09. The estimated additive effect increased at high temperatures. Significant QTL × environment interactions (Q × E) for FLN and DCI on C06 and C09 suggest that these hotspot regions have major influences on temperature mediated curd induction. 25 % of the DH lines did not induce curds at temperatures higher than 22 °C. Applying a binary model revealed a QTL with LOD >15 on C06. Nearly all lines carrying the allele of the reliable early maturing parental line (PL) on that locus induced curds at high temperatures while only half of the DH lines carrying the allele of the unreliable PL reached the generative phase during the experiment. Large variation in LAR was observed. QTL for LAR were detected repeatedly in several environments on C01, C04 and C06. Negative correlations between LAR and DCI and QTL co-localizations on C04 and C06 suggest that LAR has also effects on development towards curd induction.

  5. [Alleles at storage protein loci in Triticum spelta L. accessions and their occurrence in related wheats].

    PubMed

    Kozub, N A; Boguslavskiĭ, R L; Sozinov, I A; Tverdokhleb, E V; Ksinias, I N; Blium, Ia B; Sozinov, A A

    2014-01-01

    Variation at eight storage protein loci was analyzed in the collection of T. spelta accessions from the National Centre of Plant Genetic Resources of Ukraine, most of which are European spelts. The analysis allowed identification of seven alleles at the Gli-B1 locus, five alleles at the Gli-A1 and Glu-B1 loci, three alleles at the Gli-A3 locus, two at the Gli-D1, Gli-B5, Glu-A1, and Glu-D1 loci. The majority of alleles are encountered among common wheat cultivars, only five alleles were specific for spelts. The high frequency of the alleles Gli-B1hs* and h encoding the 45-type gamma-gliadin in European spelts and durum wheat cultivars, as well as the occurrence of these alleles in T. dicoccum, in particular, in accessions from Switzerland and Germany, supports von Büren's hypothesis that European spelt resulted from hybridization between a tetraploid wheat with the 45-type y-gliadin and a hexaploid wheat. Analysis of genetic distances based on the genotypes at eight storage protein loci permitted differentiation of the Asian spelt accession from European spelts.

  6. BCR-ABL fusion transcript types and levels and their interaction with secondary genetic changes in determining the phenotype of Philadelphia chromosome–positive leukemias

    PubMed Central

    Luthra, Rajyalakshmi; Cortes, Jorge; Thomas, Deborah; O'Brien, Susan; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos; Hai, Seema; Ravandi, Farhad; de Lima, Marcos; Kantarjian, Hagop; Jorgensen, Jeffrey L.

    2008-01-01

    It remains unresolved how different BCR-ABL transcripts differentially drive lymphoid and myeloid proliferation in Philadelphia chromosome–positive (Ph+) leukemias. We compared BCR-ABL transcript type and level with kinase domain (KD) mutation status, genotype, and phenotype in 1855 Ph+ leukemias. Compared with e1a2/p190 BCR-ABL cases, de novo e13-e14a2/p210 Ph+ lymphoid leukemia more frequently showed CML-type background, had higher blast-normalized BCR-ABL transcript levels, and more frequent persistent BCR-ABL transcript in the absence of detectable lymphoblasts. Secondary lymphoid blast transformation of CML was exclusively due to e13/e14a2/p210 BCR-ABL but was associated, at a much higher level than p210 myeloid transformation, with acquisition of new KD mutations and/or Ph genomic amplification. In contrast, myeloid blast transformation was more frequently accompanied by new acquisition of acute myeloid leukemia-type chromosomal aberrations, particularly involving the EVI1 and RUNX1 loci. Therefore, higher kinase activity by mutation, transcriptional up-regulation or gene amplification appears required for lymphoid transformation by p210 BCR-ABL. PMID:18809762

  7. The Case for High Resolution Extended 6-Loci HLA Typing for Identifying Related Donors in the Indian Subcontinent.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Rajat Kumar; Kumari, Ankita; Sedai, Amit; Parmar, Lalith; Dhanya, Rakesh; Faulkner, Lawrence

    2017-09-01

    Three-loci low-resolution (LR) or intermediate-resolution HLA typing is generally considered adequate in the related blood and marrow transplantation (BMT) context. However, a single high-resolution (HR) mismatch may have a similar adverse impact on BMT outcome as an LR one. We sought to determine the frequency of mismatches that may go undetected when standard typing (LR or 3-loci HR) is used compared with 6-loci HR typing for related donor compatibility testing, and to assess its impact on relevant BMT outcomes. We analyzed data from a total of 2554 6-loci (HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DQB1, and -DPB1) HR sequence-based typing (full typing [FT]) from 754 patients, 1011 siblings, and 789 parents done at DKMS Germany (www.DKMS.de) between January 1, 2014, and June 21, 2016. We also studied 38 cases in which the family had undergone 3-loci HLA typing (standard typing [ST]). Patients were from India (70%), Pakistan (22%), and Sri Lanka (8%). The IMGT/HLA database (www.ebi.ac.uk/ipd/imgt/hla) was used to tease out nonpermissive DPB1 mismatches. HLA disparity-related outcomes, such as rejection and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) were assessed in a retrospective matched-pair cohort of 50 patients (25 with ST and 25 with FT) who underwent BMT for severe thalassemia from compatible related donors. We found fully matched (either 12/12 HR matches or with a single permissive DPB1 mismatch) related donors for 285 patients (38%). Of these donors, 89% were siblings and 11% were parents. The likelihood of matching on an individual locus on LR but not on HR was found to be 5%. A total of 9 donors (3%; 7 siblings and 2 parents) who would have been considered a full match by HR typing on A, B, and DRB1 alone were not a match by extended 6-loci HR typing. Five of these 9 donors had a mismatch on C or DQB1, and 4 had a nonpermissive DPB1 mismatch. In this group, 5 donors (56%) belonged to a consanguineous family, in 2 donors (22%) there was no reported consanguinity, and in 2 donors (22

  8. Growth-related quantitative trait loci in domestic and wild rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Somatic growth is a complex process that involves the action and interaction of genes and environment. A number of quantitative trait loci (QTL) previously identified for body weight and condition factor in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and two other salmonid species, were used to further investigate the genetic architecture of growth-influencing genes in this species. Relationships among previously mapped candidate genes for growth and their co-localization to identified QTL regions are reported. Furthermore, using a comparative genomic analysis of syntenic rainbow trout linkage group clusters to their homologous regions within model teleost species such as zebrafish, stickleback and medaka, inferences were made regarding additional possible candidate genes underlying identified QTL regions. Results Body weight (BW) QTL were detected on the majority of rainbow trout linkage groups across 10 parents from 3 strains. However, only 10 linkage groups (i.e., RT-3, -6, -8, -9, -10, -12, -13, -22, -24, -27) possessed QTL regions with chromosome-wide or genome-wide effects across multiple parents. Fewer QTL for condition factor (K) were identified and only six instances of co-localization across families were detected (i.e. RT-9, -15, -16, -23, -27, -31 and RT-2/9 homeologs). Of note, both BW and K QTL co-localize on RT-9 and RT-27. The incidence of epistatic interaction across genomic regions within different female backgrounds was also examined, and although evidence for interaction effects within certain QTL regions were evident, these interactions were few in number and statistically weak. Of interest, however, was the fact that these predominantly occurred within K QTL regions. Currently mapped growth candidate genes are largely congruent with the identified QTL regions. More QTL were detected in male, compared to female parents, with the greatest number evident in an F1 male parent derived from an intercross between domesticated and wild strain of

  9. Meta-analysis identifies multiple loci associated with kidney function-related traits in east Asian populations.

    PubMed

    Okada, Yukinori; Sim, Xueling; Go, Min Jin; Wu, Jer-Yuarn; Gu, Dongfeng; Takeuchi, Fumihiko; Takahashi, Atsushi; Maeda, Shiro; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Chen, Peng; Lim, Su-Chi; Wong, Tien-Yin; Liu, Jianjun; Young, Terri L; Aung, Tin; Seielstad, Mark; Teo, Yik-Ying; Kim, Young Jin; Lee, Jong-Young; Han, Bok-Ghee; Kang, Daehee; Chen, Chien-Hsiun; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Chang, Li-Ching; Fann, S-J Cathy; Mei, Hao; Rao, Dabeeru C; Hixson, James E; Chen, Shufeng; Katsuya, Tomohiro; Isono, Masato; Ogihara, Toshio; Chambers, John C; Zhang, Weihua; Kooner, Jaspal S; Albrecht, Eva; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Kubo, Michiaki; Nakamura, Yusuke; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Kato, Norihiro; He, Jiang; Chen, Yuan-Tsong; Cho, Yoon Shin; Tai, E-Shyong; Tanaka, Toshihiro

    2012-07-15

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD), impairment of kidney function, is a serious public health problem, and the assessment of genetic factors influencing kidney function has substantial clinical relevance. Here, we report a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for kidney function-related traits, including 71,149 east Asian individuals from 18 studies in 11 population-, hospital- or family-based cohorts, conducted as part of the Asian Genetic Epidemiology Network (AGEN). Our meta-analysis identified 17 loci newly associated with kidney function-related traits, including the concentrations of blood urea nitrogen, uric acid and serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate based on serum creatinine levels (eGFRcrea) (P < 5.0 × 10(-8)). We further examined these loci with in silico replication in individuals of European ancestry from the KidneyGen, CKDGen and GUGC consortia, including a combined total of ∼110,347 individuals. We identify pleiotropic associations among these loci with kidney function-related traits and risk of CKD. These findings provide new insights into the genetics of kidney function.

  10. Genome-wide association studies reveal additional related loci for fatty acid composition in a Duroc pig multigenerational population.

    PubMed

    Sato, Shuji; Uemoto, Yoshinobu; Kikuchi, Takashi; Egawa, Sachiko; Kohira, Kimiko; Saito, Tomomi; Sakuma, Hironori; Miyashita, Satoshi; Arata, Shinji; Suzuki, Keiichi

    2017-04-12

    The aim of the present study was to detect quantitative trait loci affecting fatty acid composition in back fat and intramuscular fat in a Duroc pig population comprising seventh-generation pedigrees using genome-wide association studies (GWAS). In total, 305 animals were genotyped using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) array and five selected SNPs from regions containing known candidate genes related to fatty acid synthesis or metabolism. In total, 24 genome-wide significant SNP regions were detected in 12 traits, and 76 genome-wide suggestive SNP regions were detected in 33 traits. The Sus scrofa chromosome (SSC) 7 at 10.3 Mb was significantly associated with C17:0 in intramuscular fat, while the SSC9 at 13.6 Mb was significantly associated with C14:0 in intramuscular fat. The SSC12 at 1.0 Mb was significantly associated with C14:0 in back fat and the SSC14 at 121.0 Mb was significantly associated with C18:0 in intramuscular fat. These regions not only replicated previously reported loci containing some candidate genes involved in fatty acid composition (fatty acid synthase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase) but also included several additional related loci.

  11. Discovery and Fine-Mapping of Glycaemic and Obesity-Related Trait Loci Using High-Density Imputation.

    PubMed

    Horikoshi, Momoko; Mӓgi, Reedik; van de Bunt, Martijn; Surakka, Ida; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Mahajan, Anubha; Marullo, Letizia; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Hӓgg, Sara; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Ladenvall, Claes; Ried, Janina S; Winkler, Thomas W; Willems, Sara M; Pervjakova, Natalia; Esko, Tõnu; Beekman, Marian; Nelson, Christopher P; Willenborg, Christina; Wiltshire, Steven; Ferreira, Teresa; Fernandez, Juan; Gaulton, Kyle J; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Hamsten, Anders; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Willemsen, Gonneke; Milaneschi, Yuri; Robertson, Neil R; Groves, Christopher J; Bennett, Amanda J; Lehtimӓki, Terho; Viikari, Jorma S; Rung, Johan; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Perola, Markus; Heid, Iris M; Herder, Christian; Grallert, Harald; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Roden, Michael; Hypponen, Elina; Isaacs, Aaron; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M; Karssen, Lennart C; Mihailov, Evelin; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J; de Craen, Anton J M; Deelen, Joris; Havulinna, Aki S; Blades, Matthew; Hengstenberg, Christian; Erdmann, Jeanette; Schunkert, Heribert; Kaprio, Jaakko; Tobin, Martin D; Samani, Nilesh J; Lind, Lars; Salomaa, Veikko; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Slagboom, P Eline; Metspalu, Andres; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Eriksson, Johan G; Peters, Annette; Gieger, Christian; Jula, Antti; Groop, Leif; Raitakari, Olli T; Power, Chris; Penninx, Brenda W J H; de Geus, Eco; Smit, Johannes H; Boomsma, Dorret I; Pedersen, Nancy L; Ingelsson, Erik; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stefansson, Kari; Ripatti, Samuli; Prokopenko, Inga; McCarthy, Mark I; Morris, Andrew P

    2015-07-01

    Reference panels from the 1000 Genomes (1000G) Project Consortium provide near complete coverage of common and low-frequency genetic variation with minor allele frequency ≥0.5% across European ancestry populations. Within the European Network for Genetic and Genomic Epidemiology (ENGAGE) Consortium, we have undertaken the first large-scale meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS), supplemented by 1000G imputation, for four quantitative glycaemic and obesity-related traits, in up to 87,048 individuals of European ancestry. We identified two loci for body mass index (BMI) at genome-wide significance, and two for fasting glucose (FG), none of which has been previously reported in larger meta-analysis efforts to combine GWAS of European ancestry. Through conditional analysis, we also detected multiple distinct signals of association mapping to established loci for waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (RSPO3) and FG (GCK and G6PC2). The index variant for one association signal at the G6PC2 locus is a low-frequency coding allele, H177Y, which has recently been demonstrated to have a functional role in glucose regulation. Fine-mapping analyses revealed that the non-coding variants most likely to drive association signals at established and novel loci were enriched for overlap with enhancer elements, which for FG mapped to promoter and transcription factor binding sites in pancreatic islets, in particular. Our study demonstrates that 1000G imputation and genetic fine-mapping of common and low-frequency variant association signals at GWAS loci, integrated with genomic annotation in relevant tissues, can provide insight into the functional and regulatory mechanisms through which their effects on glycaemic and obesity-related traits are mediated.

  12. Discovery and Fine-Mapping of Glycaemic and Obesity-Related Trait Loci Using High-Density Imputation

    PubMed Central

    van de Bunt, Martijn; Surakka, Ida; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Mahajan, Anubha; Marullo, Letizia; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Hӓgg, Sara; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Ladenvall, Claes; Ried, Janina S.; Winkler, Thomas W.; Willems, Sara M.; Pervjakova, Natalia; Esko, Tõnu; Beekman, Marian; Nelson, Christopher P.; Willenborg, Christina; Ferreira, Teresa; Fernandez, Juan; Gaulton, Kyle J.; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Hamsten, Anders; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Milaneschi, Yuri; Robertson, Neil R.; Groves, Christopher J.; Bennett, Amanda J.; Lehtimӓki, Terho; Viikari, Jorma S.; Rung, Johan; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Perola, Markus; Heid, Iris M.; Herder, Christian; Grallert, Harald; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Roden, Michael; Hypponen, Elina; Isaacs, Aaron; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M.; Karssen, Lennart C.; Mihailov, Evelin; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J.; de Craen, Anton J. M.; Deelen, Joris; Havulinna, Aki S.; Blades, Matthew; Hengstenberg, Christian; Erdmann, Jeanette; Schunkert, Heribert; Kaprio, Jaakko; Tobin, Martin D.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Lind, Lars; Salomaa, Veikko; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Slagboom, P. Eline; Metspalu, Andres; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Peters, Annette; Gieger, Christian; Jula, Antti; Groop, Leif; Raitakari, Olli T.; Power, Chris; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; de Geus, Eco; Smit, Johannes H.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Ingelsson, Erik; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stefansson, Kari; Ripatti, Samuli; Prokopenko, Inga; McCarthy, Mark I.; Morris, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Reference panels from the 1000 Genomes (1000G) Project Consortium provide near complete coverage of common and low-frequency genetic variation with minor allele frequency ≥0.5% across European ancestry populations. Within the European Network for Genetic and Genomic Epidemiology (ENGAGE) Consortium, we have undertaken the first large-scale meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS), supplemented by 1000G imputation, for four quantitative glycaemic and obesity-related traits, in up to 87,048 individuals of European ancestry. We identified two loci for body mass index (BMI) at genome-wide significance, and two for fasting glucose (FG), none of which has been previously reported in larger meta-analysis efforts to combine GWAS of European ancestry. Through conditional analysis, we also detected multiple distinct signals of association mapping to established loci for waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (RSPO3) and FG (GCK and G6PC2). The index variant for one association signal at the G6PC2 locus is a low-frequency coding allele, H177Y, which has recently been demonstrated to have a functional role in glucose regulation. Fine-mapping analyses revealed that the non-coding variants most likely to drive association signals at established and novel loci were enriched for overlap with enhancer elements, which for FG mapped to promoter and transcription factor binding sites in pancreatic islets, in particular. Our study demonstrates that 1000G imputation and genetic fine-mapping of common and low-frequency variant association signals at GWAS loci, integrated with genomic annotation in relevant tissues, can provide insight into the functional and regulatory mechanisms through which their effects on glycaemic and obesity-related traits are mediated. PMID:26132169

  13. GWAS of self-reported mosquito bite size, itch intensity and attractiveness to mosquitoes implicates immune-related predisposition loci.

    PubMed

    Jones, Amy V; Tilley, Mera; Gutteridge, Alex; Hyde, Craig; Nagle, Michael; Ziemek, Daniel; Gorman, Donal; Fauman, Eric B; Chen, Xing; Miller, Melissa R; Tian, Chao; Hu, Youna; Hinds, David A; Cox, Peter; Scollen, Serena

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the interaction between humans and mosquitoes is a critical area of study due to the phenomenal burdens on public health from mosquito-transmitted diseases. In this study, we conducted the first genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of self-reported mosquito bite reaction size (n = 84,724), itchiness caused by bites (n = 69,057), and perceived attractiveness to mosquitoes (n = 16,576). In total, 15 independent significant (P < 5×10-8) associations were identified. These loci were enriched for immunity-related genes that are involved in multiple cytokine signalling pathways. We also detected suggestive enrichment of these loci in enhancer regions that are active in stimulated T-cells, as well as within loci previously identified as controlling central memory T-cell levels. Egger regression analysis between the traits suggests that perception of itchiness and attractiveness to mosquitoes is driven, at least in part, by the genetic determinants of bite reaction size.Our findings illustrate the complex genetic and immunological landscapes underpinning human interactions with mosquitoes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. HVCN1 modulates BCR signal strength via regulation of BCR-dependent generation of reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Capasso, Melania; Bhamrah, Mandeep K; Henley, Tom; Boyd, Robert S; Langlais, Claudia; Cain, Kelvin; Dinsdale, David; Pulford, Karen; Kan, Mahmood; Musset, Boris; Cherny, Vladimir V; Morgan, Deri; Gascoyne, Randy D; Vigorito, Elena; DeCoursey, Thomas E; MacLennan, Ian C M; Dyer, Martin J S

    2011-01-01

    Voltage-gated proton currents regulate generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in phagocytic cells. In B cells, stimulation of the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) results in the production of ROS that participate in B cell activation, but the involvement of proton channels is unknown. We report here that the voltage-gated proton channel HVCN1 associated with the BCR complex and was internalized together with the BCR after activation. BCR-induced generation of ROS was lower in HVCN1-deficient B cells, which resulted in attenuated BCR signaling via impaired BCR-dependent oxidation of the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1. This resulted in less activation of the kinases Syk and Akt, impaired mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis, and diminished antibody responses in vivo. Our findings identify unanticipated functions for proton channels in B cells and demonstrate the importance of ROS in BCR signaling and downstream metabolism. PMID:20139987

  15. Gadd45a deficiency accelerates BCR-ABL driven chronic myelogenous leukemia.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Kaushiki; Sha, Xiaojin; Magimaidas, Andrew; Maifrede, Silvia; Skorski, Tomasz; Bhatia, Ravi; Hoffman, Barbara; Liebermann, Dan A

    2017-01-10

    The Gadd45a stress sensor gene is a member in the Gadd45 family of genes that includes Gadd45b & Gadd45g. To investigate the effect of GADD45A in the development of CML, syngeneic wild type lethally irradiated mice were reconstituted with either wild type or Gadd45a null myeloid progenitors transduced with a retroviral vector expressing the 210-kD BCR-ABL fusion oncoprotein. Loss of Gadd45a was observed to accelerate BCR-ABL driven CML resulting in the development of a more aggressive disease, a significantly shortened median mice survival time, and increased BCR-ABL expressing leukemic stem/progenitor cells (GFP+Lin- cKit+Sca+). GADD45A deficient progenitors expressing BCR-ABL exhibited increased proliferation and decreased apoptosis relative to WT counterparts, which was associated with enhanced PI3K-AKT-mTOR-4E-BP1 signaling, upregulation of p30C/EBPα expression, and hyper-activation of p38 and Stat5. Furthermore, Gadd45a expression in samples obtained from CML patients was upregulated in more indolent chronic phase CML samples and down regulated in aggressive accelerated phase CML and blast crisis CML. These results provide novel evidence that Gadd45a functions as a suppressor of BCR/ABL driven leukemia and may provide a unique prognostic marker of CML progression.

  16. Biofilm formation and genetic variability of BCR1 gene in the Candida parapsilosis complex.

    PubMed

    Treviño-Rangel, Rogelio de J; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Irám P; Rosas-Taraco, Adrián G; Hernández-Bello, Romel; González, José G; González, Gloria M

    2015-01-01

    Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis are cryptic species that belong to the C. parapsilosis complex, which has been increasingly associated to fungemia in various geographic regions, principally due to the capability of these yeasts to form biofilms on indwelling medical devices. BCR1 is one of the most studied genes related to Candida spp. biofilms. To evaluate the biofilm forming capability of a subset of 65 clinical isolates of the C. parapsilosis complex using two conventional approaches, and to look for an association between the biofilm forming phenotype and genetic variants of a fragment of BCR1. The biofilm determination was carried out by crystal violet staining and tetrazolium reduction assay. On the other hand, a segment of BCR1 gene was sequenced by Sanger methodology. C. parapsilosis sensu stricto was statistically associated with a low biofilm production phenotype, while C. orthopsilosis was significantly associated with both phenotypes (high and low biofilm producers). According to the BCR1 sequence analysis, genetic variability was detected in C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis without a particular biofilm formation phenotype association. Under the adopted experimental design, C. parapsilosis sensu stricto was associated with the low biofilm phenotype and C. orthopsilosis with both phenotypes (high and low biofilm producers). On the other hand, an association between a biofilm forming phenotype and a particular genetic variant of the analyzed BCR1 fragment was not found. Copyright © 2014 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Lead-Related Genetic Loci, Cumulative Lead Exposure and Incident Coronary Heart Disease: The Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Weisskopf, Marc G.; Sparrow, David; Schwartz, Joel; Hu, Howard; Park, Sung Kyun

    2016-01-01

    Background Cumulative exposure to lead is associated with cardiovascular outcomes. Polymorphisms in the δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), hemochromatosis (HFE), heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1), vitamin D receptor (VDR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) supergene family (GSTP1, GSTT1, GSTM1), apolipoprotein E (APOE),angiotensin II receptor-1 (AGTR1) and angiotensinogen (AGT) genes, are believed to alter toxicokinetics and/or toxicodynamics of lead. Objectives We assessed possible effect modification by genetic polymorphisms in ALAD, HFE, HMOX1, VDR, GSTP1, GSTT1, GSTM1, APOE, AGTR1 and AGT individually and as the genetic risk score (GRS) on the association between cumulative lead exposure and incident coronary heart disease (CHD) events. Methods We used K-shell-X-ray fluorescence to measure bone lead levels. GRS was calculated on the basis of 22 lead-related loci. We constructed Cox proportional hazard models to compute adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incident CHD. We applied inverse probability weighting to account for potential selection bias due to recruitment into the bone lead sub-study. Results Significant effect modification was found by VDR, HMOX1, GSTP1, APOE, and AGT genetic polymorphisms when evaluated individually. Further, the bone lead-CHD associations became larger as GRS increases. After adjusting for potential confounders, a HR of CHD was 2.27 (95%CI: 1.50–3.42) with 2-fold increase in patella lead levels, among participants in the top tertile of GRS. We also detected an increasing trend in HRs across tertiles of GRS (p-trend = 0.0063). Conclusions Our findings suggest that lead-related loci as a whole may play an important role in susceptibility to lead-related CHD risk. These findings need to be validated in a separate cohort containing bone lead, lead-related genetic loci and incident CHD data. PMID:27584680

  18. The Interface between BCR-ABL-Dependent and -Independent Resistance Signaling Pathways in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Nestal de Moraes, Gabriela; Souza, Paloma Silva; Costas, Fernanda Casal de Faria; Vasconcelos, Flavia Cunha; Reis, Flaviana Ruade Souza; Maia, Raquel Ciuvalschi

    2012-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a clonal hematopoietic disorder characterized by the presence of the Philadelphia chromosome which resulted from the reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22. The pathogenesis of CML involves the constitutive activation of the BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase, which governs malignant disease by activating multiple signal transduction pathways. The BCR-ABL kinase inhibitor, imatinib, is the front-line treatment for CML, but the emergence of imatinib resistance and other tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has called attention for additional resistance mechanisms and has led to the search for alternative drug treatments. In this paper, we discuss our current understanding of mechanisms, related or unrelated to BCR-ABL, which have been shown to account for chemoresistance and treatment failure. We focus on the potential role of the influx and efflux transporters, the inhibitor of apoptosis proteins, and transcription factor-mediated signals as feasible molecular targets to overcome the development of TKIs resistance in CML. PMID:23259070

  19. Regulation of synaptic Rac1 activity, long-term potentiation maintenance, and learning and memory by BCR and ABR Rac GTPase-activating proteins.

    PubMed

    Oh, Daeyoung; Han, Seungnam; Seo, Jinsoo; Lee, Jae-Ran; Choi, Jeonghoon; Groffen, John; Kim, Karam; Cho, Yi Sul; Choi, Han-Saem; Shin, Hyewon; Woo, Jooyeon; Won, Hyejung; Park, Soon Kwon; Kim, Soo-Young; Jo, Jihoon; Whitcomb, Daniel J; Cho, Kwangwook; Kim, Hyun; Bae, Yong Chul; Heisterkamp, Nora; Choi, Se-Young; Kim, Eunjoon

    2010-10-20

    Rho family small GTPases are important regulators of neuronal development. Defective Rho regulation causes nervous system dysfunctions including mental retardation and Alzheimer's disease. Rac1, a member of the Rho family, regulates dendritic spines and excitatory synapses, but relatively little is known about how synaptic Rac1 is negatively regulated. Breakpoint cluster region (BCR) is a Rac GTPase-activating protein known to form a fusion protein with the c-Abl tyrosine kinase in Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia. Despite the fact that BCR mRNAs are abundantly expressed in the brain, the neural functions of BCR protein have remained obscure. We report here that BCR and its close relative active BCR-related (ABR) localize at excitatory synapses and directly interact with PSD-95, an abundant postsynaptic scaffolding protein. Mice deficient for BCR or ABR show enhanced basal Rac1 activity but only a small increase in spine density. Importantly, mice lacking BCR or ABR exhibit a marked decrease in the maintenance, but not induction, of long-term potentiation, and show impaired spatial and object recognition memory. These results suggest that BCR and ABR have novel roles in the regulation of synaptic Rac1 signaling, synaptic plasticity, and learning and memory, and that excessive Rac1 activity negatively affects synaptic and cognitive functions.

  20. Regulation of Synaptic Rac1 Activity, Long-Term Potentiation Maintenance, and Learning and Memory by BCR and ABR Rac GTPase-Activating Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Daeyoung; Han, Seungnam; Seo, Jinsoo; Lee, Jae-Ran; Choi, Jeonghoon; Groffen, John; Kim, Karam; Cho, Yi Sul; Choi, Han-Saem; Shin, Hyewon; Woo, Jooyeon; Won, Hyejung; Park, Soon Kwon; Kim, Soo-Young; Jo, Jihoon; Whitcomb, Daniel J.; Cho, Kwangwook; Kim, Hyun; Bae, Yong Chul; Heisterkamp, Nora; Choi, Se-Young; Kim, Eunjoon

    2016-01-01

    Rho family small GTPases are important regulators of neuronal development. Defective Rho regulation causes nervous system dysfunctions including mental retardation and Alzheimer’s disease. Rac1, a member of the Rho family, regulates dendritic spines and excitatory synapses, but relatively little is known about how synaptic Rac1 is negatively regulated. Breakpoint cluster region (BCR) is a Rac GTPase-activating protein known to form a fusion protein with the c-Abl tyrosine kinase in Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia. Despite the fact that BCR mRNAs are abundantly expressed in the brain, the neural functions of BCR protein have remained obscure. We report here that BCR and its close relative active BCR-related (ABR) localize at excitatory synapses and directly interact with PSD-95, an abundant postsynaptic scaffolding protein. Mice deficient for BCR or ABR show enhanced basal Rac1 activity but only a small increase in spine density. Importantly, mice lacking BCR or ABR exhibit a marked decrease in the maintenance, but not induction, of long-term potentiation, and show impaired spatial and object recognition memory. These results suggest that BCR and ABR have novel roles in the regulation of synaptic Rac1 signaling, synaptic plasticity, and learning and memory, and that excessive Rac1 activity negatively affects synaptic and cognitive functions. PMID:20962234

  1. Variability with altitude of major histocompatibility complex-related microsatellite loci in goats from Southwest China.

    PubMed

    E, G X; Huang, Y F; Zhao, Y J; Na, R S

    2015-11-19

    We aimed to use microsatellite BM1258 loci of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) as an indicator of the influence of genetic diversity of immunity in goats (Dazu Black, Hechuan White, Meigu, and Tibetan goat). In total, 132 animals comprising 50 Dazu Black goats, 24 Hechuan White goats, 34 Meigu goats, and 24 Tibetan goats were examined. Collectively, 18 different alleles and 42 genotypes were found. The overall observed levels of heterozygosity showed large divergence from the expected levels in the four breeds, and an increase in the mean number of alleles of BM1258 accompanied decreasing altitude of the livestock's habitat. Our results indicate that low-altitude regions or plains were more conducive to genetic material exchange and gene flow between different populations. In addition, it seems that the breeds from low-altitude regions were less susceptible to problems introduced by commercial animals.

  2. Genome-wide association analysis identifies multiple loci related to resting heart rate

    PubMed Central

    Eijgelsheim, Mark; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Sotoodehnia, Nona; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Müller, Martina; Morrison, Alanna C.; Smith, Albert V.; Isaacs, Aaron; Sanna, Serena; Dörr, Marcus; Navarro, Pau; Fuchsberger, Christian; Nolte, Ilja M.; de Geus, Eco J.C.; Estrada, Karol; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Bis, Joshua C.; Rückert, Ina-Maria; Alonso, Alvaro; Launer, Lenore J.; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Noseworthy, Peter A.; Rice, Kenneth M.; Perz, Siegfried; Arking, Dan E.; Spector, Tim D.; Kors, Jan A.; Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Tarasov, Kirill V.; Homuth, Georg; Wild, Sarah H.; Marroni, Fabio; Gieger, Christian; Licht, Carmilla M.; Prineas, Ronald J.; Hofman, Albert; Rotter, Jerome I.; Hicks, Andrew A.; Ernst, Florian; Najjar, Samer S.; Wright, Alan F.; Peters, Annette; Fox, Ervin R.; Oostra, Ben A.; Kroemer, Heyo K.; Couper, David; Völzke, Henry; Campbell, Harry; Meitinger, Thomas; Uda, Manuela; Witteman, Jacqueline C.M.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Wichmann, H-Erich; Harris, Tamara B.; Kääb, Stefan; Siscovick, David S.; Jamshidi, Yalda; Uitterlinden, André G.; Folsom, Aaron R.; Larson, Martin G.; Wilson, James F.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Snieder, Harold; Pramstaller, Peter P.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Lakatta, Edward G.; Felix, Stephan B.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Pfeufer, Arne; Heckbert, Susan R.; Stricker, Bruno H.Ch.; Boerwinkle, Eric; O'Donnell, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Higher resting heart rate is associated with increased cardiovascular disease and mortality risk. Though heritable factors play a substantial role in population variation, little is known about specific genetic determinants. This knowledge can impact clinical care by identifying novel factors that influence pathologic heart rate states, modulate heart rate through cardiac structure and function or by improving our understanding of the physiology of heart rate regulation. To identify common genetic variants associated with heart rate, we performed a meta-analysis of 15 genome-wide association studies (GWAS), including 38 991 subjects of European ancestry, estimating the association between age-, sex- and body mass-adjusted RR interval (inverse heart rate) and ∼2.5 million markers. Results with P < 5 × 10−8 were considered genome-wide significant. We constructed regression models with multiple markers to assess whether results at less stringent thresholds were likely to be truly associated with RR interval. We identified six novel associations with resting heart rate at six loci: 6q22 near GJA1; 14q12 near MYH7; 12p12 near SOX5, c12orf67, BCAT1, LRMP and CASC1; 6q22 near SLC35F1, PLN and c6orf204; 7q22 near SLC12A9 and UfSp1; and 11q12 near FADS1. Associations at 6q22 400 kb away from GJA1, at 14q12 MYH6 and at 1q32 near CD34 identified in previously published GWAS were confirmed. In aggregate, these variants explain ∼0.7% of RR interval variance. A multivariant regression model including 20 variants with P < 10−5 increased the explained variance to 1.6%, suggesting that some loci falling short of genome-wide significance are likely truly associated. Future research is warranted to elucidate underlying mechanisms that may impact clinical care. PMID:20639392

  3. HAX1 deletion impairs BCR internalization and leads to delayed BCR-mediated apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Wolkerstorfer, Susanne; Schwaiger, Elisabeth; Rinnerthaler, Mark; Karina Gratz, Iris; Zoegg, Thomas; Brandstetter, Hans; Achatz-Straussberger, Gertrude

    2016-01-01

    Deletion of HAX1 in mice causes a severe reduction in the numbers of lymphocytes in the bone marrow and in the spleen. Additionally, B220+ B progenitor cells in the bone marrow are reduced, suggesting an important function of HAX1 in B cell development. HAX1 is thought to play a protective role in apoptotic processes; therefore, we investigated the role of HAX1 in bone marrow B progenitor cells and splenic B cells. We did not observe an effect on the survival of Hax1−/− bone marrow cells but detected enhanced survival of splenic Hax1−/− B cells upon in vitro starvation/growth-factor withdrawal. To explain this apparent inconsistency with previous reports of HAX1 function, we also studied the B cell receptor (BCR)-induced apoptosis of IgM-stimulated splenic naïve B cells and found that apoptosis decreased in these cells. We further found impaired internalization of the BCR from Hax1−/− splenic B cells after IgM crosslinking; this impaired internalization may result in decreased BCR signaling and, consequently, decreased BCR-mediated apoptosis. We measured HAX1 binding to the cytoplasmic domains of different Ig subtypes and identified KVKWI(V)F as the putative binding motif for HAX1 within the cytoplasmic domains. Because this motif can be found in almost all Ig subtypes, it is likely that HAX1 plays a general role in BCR-mediated internalization events and BCR-mediated apoptosis. PMID:25864916

  4. Analysis of immune-related loci identifies 48 new susceptibility variants for multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Beecham, Ashley H; Patsopoulos, Nikolaos A; Xifara, Dionysia K; Davis, Mary F; Kemppinen, Anu; Cotsapas, Chris; Shah, Tejas S; Spencer, Chris; Booth, David; Goris, An; Oturai, Annette; Saarela, Janna; Fontaine, Bertrand; Hemmer, Bernhard; Martin, Claes; Zipp, Frauke; D'Alfonso, Sandra; Martinelli-Boneschi, Filippo; Taylor, Bruce; Harbo, Hanne F; Kockum, Ingrid; Hillert, Jan; Olsson, Tomas; Ban, Maria; Oksenberg, Jorge R; Hintzen, Rogier; Barcellos, Lisa F; Agliardi, Cristina; Alfredsson, Lars; Alizadeh, Mehdi; Anderson, Carl; Andrews, Robert; Søndergaard, Helle Bach; Baker, Amie; Band, Gavin; Baranzini, Sergio E; Barizzone, Nadia; Barrett, Jeffrey; Bellenguez, Céline; Bergamaschi, Laura; Bernardinelli, Luisa; Berthele, Achim; Biberacher, Viola; Binder, Thomas M C; Blackburn, Hannah; Bomfim, Izaura L; Brambilla, Paola; Broadley, Simon; Brochet, Bruno; Brundin, Lou; Buck, Dorothea; Butzkueven, Helmut; Caillier, Stacy J; Camu, William; Carpentier, Wassila; Cavalla, Paola; Celius, Elisabeth G; Coman, Irène; Comi, Giancarlo; Corrado, Lucia; Cosemans, Leentje; Cournu-Rebeix, Isabelle; Cree, Bruce A C; Cusi, Daniele; Damotte, Vincent; Defer, Gilles; Delgado, Silvia R; Deloukas, Panos; di Sapio, Alessia; Dilthey, Alexander T; Donnelly, Peter; Dubois, Bénédicte; Duddy, Martin; Edkins, Sarah; Elovaara, Irina; Esposito, Federica; Evangelou, Nikos; Fiddes, Barnaby; Field, Judith; Franke, Andre; Freeman, Colin; Frohlich, Irene Y; Galimberti, Daniela; Gieger, Christian; Gourraud, Pierre-Antoine; Graetz, Christiane; Graham, Andrew; Grummel, Verena; Guaschino, Clara; Hadjixenofontos, Athena; Hakonarson, Hakon; Halfpenny, Christopher; Hall, Gillian; Hall, Per; Hamsten, Anders; Harley, James; Harrower, Timothy; Hawkins, Clive; Hellenthal, Garrett; Hillier, Charles; Hobart, Jeremy; Hoshi, Muni; Hunt, Sarah E; Jagodic, Maja; Jelčić, Ilijas; Jochim, Angela; Kendall, Brian; Kermode, Allan; Kilpatrick, Trevor; Koivisto, Keijo; Konidari, Ioanna; Korn, Thomas; Kronsbein, Helena; Langford, Cordelia; Larsson, Malin; Lathrop, Mark; Lebrun-Frenay, Christine; Lechner-Scott, Jeannette; Lee, Michelle H; Leone, Maurizio A; Leppä, Virpi; Liberatore, Giuseppe; Lie, Benedicte A; Lill, Christina M; Lindén, Magdalena; Link, Jenny; Luessi, Felix; Lycke, Jan; Macciardi, Fabio; Männistö, Satu; Manrique, Clara P; Martin, Roland; Martinelli, Vittorio; Mason, Deborah; Mazibrada, Gordon; McCabe, Cristin; Mero, Inger-Lise; Mescheriakova, Julia; Moutsianas, Loukas; Myhr, Kjell-Morten; Nagels, Guy; Nicholas, Richard; Nilsson, Petra; Piehl, Fredrik; Pirinen, Matti; Price, Siân E; Quach, Hong; Reunanen, Mauri; Robberecht, Wim; Robertson, Neil P; Rodegher, Mariaemma; Rog, David; Salvetti, Marco; Schnetz-Boutaud, Nathalie C; Sellebjerg, Finn; Selter, Rebecca C; Schaefer, Catherine; Shaunak, Sandip; Shen, Ling; Shields, Simon; Siffrin, Volker; Slee, Mark; Sorensen, Per Soelberg; Sorosina, Melissa; Sospedra, Mireia; Spurkland, Anne; Strange, Amy; Sundqvist, Emilie; Thijs, Vincent; Thorpe, John; Ticca, Anna; Tienari, Pentti; van Duijn, Cornelia; Visser, Elizabeth M; Vucic, Steve; Westerlind, Helga; Wiley, James S; Wilkins, Alastair; Wilson, James F; Winkelmann, Juliane; Zajicek, John; Zindler, Eva; Haines, Jonathan L; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Ivinson, Adrian J; Stewart, Graeme; Hafler, David; Hauser, Stephen L; Compston, Alastair; McVean, Gil; De Jager, Philip; Sawcer, Stephen J; McCauley, Jacob L

    2013-11-01

    Using the ImmunoChip custom genotyping array, we analyzed 14,498 subjects with multiple sclerosis and 24,091 healthy controls for 161,311 autosomal variants and identified 135 potentially associated regions (P < 1.0 × 10(-4)). In a replication phase, we combined these data with previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from an independent 14,802 subjects with multiple sclerosis and 26,703 healthy controls. In these 80,094 individuals of European ancestry, we identified 48 new susceptibility variants (P < 5.0 × 10(-8)), 3 of which we found after conditioning on previously identified variants. Thus, there are now 110 established multiple sclerosis risk variants at 103 discrete loci outside of the major histocompatibility complex. With high-resolution Bayesian fine mapping, we identified five regions where one variant accounted for more than 50% of the posterior probability of association. This study enhances the catalog of multiple sclerosis risk variants and illustrates the value of fine mapping in the resolution of GWAS signals.

  5. Analysis of immune-related loci identifies 48 new susceptibility variants for multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Beecham, Ashley H; Patsopoulos, Nikolaos A; Xifara, Dionysia K; Davis, Mary F; Kemppinen, Anu; Cotsapas, Chris; Shahi, Tejas S; Spencer, Chris; Booth, David; Goris, An; Oturai, Annette; Saarela, Janna; Fontaine, Bertrand; Hemmer, Bernhard; Martin, Claes; Zipp, Frauke; D’alfonso, Sandra; Martinelli-Boneschi, Filippo; Taylor, Bruce; Harbo, Hanne F; Kockum, Ingrid; Hillert, Jan; Olsson, Tomas; Ban, Maria; Oksenberg, Jorge R; Hintzen, Rogier; Barcellos, Lisa F; Agliardi, Cristina; Alfredsson, Lars; Alizadeh, Mehdi; Anderson, Carl; Andrews, Robert; Søndergaard, Helle Bach; Baker, Amie; Band, Gavin; Baranzini, Sergio E; Barizzone, Nadia; Barrett, Jeffrey; Bellenguez, Céline; Bergamaschi, Laura; Bernardinelli, Luisa; Berthele, Achim; Biberacher, Viola; Binder, Thomas M C; Blackburn, Hannah; Bomfim, Izaura L; Brambilla, Paola; Broadley, Simon; Brochet, Bruno; Brundin, Lou; Buck, Dorothea; Butzkueven, Helmut; Caillier, Stacy J; Camu, William; Carpentier, Wassila; Cavalla, Paola; Celius, Elisabeth G; Coman, Irène; Comi, Giancarlo; Corrado, Lucia; Cosemans, Leentje; Cournu-Rebeix, Isabelle; Cree, Bruce A C; Cusi, Daniele; Damotte, Vincent; Defer, Gilles; Delgado, Silvia R; Deloukas, Panos; di Sapio, Alessia; Dilthey, Alexander T; Donnelly, Peter; Dubois, Bénédicte; Duddy, Martin; Edkins, Sarah; Elovaara, Irina; Esposito, Federica; Evangelou, Nikos; Fiddes, Barnaby; Field, Judith; Franke, Andre; Freeman, Colin; Frohlich, Irene Y; Galimberti, Daniela; Gieger, Christian; Gourraud, Pierre-Antoine; Graetz, Christiane; Graham, Andrew; Grummel, Verena; Guaschino, Clara; Hadjixenofontos, Athena; Hakonarson, Hakon; Halfpenny, Christopher; Hall, Gillian; Hall, Per; Hamsten, Anders; Harley, James; Harrower, Timothy; Hawkins, Clive; Hellenthal, Garrett; Hillier, Charles; Hobart, Jeremy; Hoshi, Muni; Hunt, Sarah E; Jagodic, Maja; Jelčić, Ilijas; Jochim, Angela; Kendall, Brian; Kermode, Allan; Kilpatrick, Trevor; Koivisto, Keijo; Konidari, Ioanna; Korn, Thomas; Kronsbein, Helena; Langford, Cordelia; Larsson, Malin; Lathrop, Mark; Lebrun-Frenay, Christine; Lechner-Scott, Jeannette; Lee, Michelle H; Leone, Maurizio A; Leppä, Virpi; Liberatore, Giuseppe; Lie, Benedicte A; Lill, Christina M; Lindén, Magdalena; Link, Jenny; Luessi, Felix; Lycke, Jan; Macciardi, Fabio; Männistö, Satu; Manrique, Clara P; Martin, Roland; Martinelli, Vittorio; Mason, Deborah; Mazibrada, Gordon; McCabe, Cristin; Mero, Inger-Lise; Mescheriakova, Julia; Moutsianas, Loukas; Myhr, Kjell-Morten; Nagels, Guy; Nicholas, Richard; Nilsson, Petra; Piehl, Fredrik; Pirinen, Matti; Price, Siân E; Quach, Hong; Reunanen, Mauri; Robberecht, Wim; Robertson, Neil P; Rodegher, Mariaemma; Rog, David; Salvetti, Marco; Schnetz-Boutaud, Nathalie C; Sellebjerg, Finn; Selter, Rebecca C; Schaefer, Catherine; Shaunak, Sandip; Shen, Ling; Shields, Simon; Siffrin, Volker; Slee, Mark; Sorensen, Per Soelberg; Sorosina, Melissa; Sospedra, Mireia; Spurkland, Anne; Strange, Amy; Sundqvist, Emilie; Thijs, Vincent; Thorpe, John; Ticca, Anna; Tienari, Pentti; van Duijn, Cornelia; Visser, Elizabeth M; Vucic, Steve; Westerlind, Helga; Wiley, James S; Wilkins, Alastair; Wilson, James F; Winkelmann, Juliane; Zajicek, John; Zindler, Eva; Haines, Jonathan L; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Ivinson, Adrian J; Stewart, Graeme; Hafler, David; Hauser, Stephen L; Compston, Alastair; McVean, Gil; De Jager, Philip; Sawcer, Stephen; McCauley, Jacob L

    2013-01-01

    Using the ImmunoChip custom genotyping array, we analysed 14,498 multiple sclerosis subjects and 24,091 healthy controls for 161,311 autosomal variants and identified 135 potentially associated regions (p-value < 1.0 × 10-4). In a replication phase, we combined these data with previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from an independent 14,802 multiple sclerosis subjects and 26,703 healthy controls. In these 80,094 individuals of European ancestry we identified 48 new susceptibility variants (p-value < 5.0 × 10-8); three found after conditioning on previously identified variants. Thus, there are now 110 established multiple sclerosis risk variants in 103 discrete loci outside of the Major Histocompatibility Complex. With high resolution Bayesian fine-mapping, we identified five regions where one variant accounted for more than 50% of the posterior probability of association. This study enhances the catalogue of multiple sclerosis risk variants and illustrates the value of fine-mapping in the resolution of GWAS signals. PMID:24076602

  6. High-density genotyping of immune-related loci identifies new SLE risk variants in individuals with Asian ancestry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Celi; Molineros, Julio E; Looger, Loren L; Zhou, Xu-Jie; Kim, Kwangwoo; Okada, Yukinori; Ma, Jianyang; Qi, Yuan-Yuan; Kim-Howard, Xana; Motghare, Prasenjeet; Bhattarai, Krishna; Adler, Adam; Bang, So-Young; Lee, Hye-Soon; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Kang, Young Mo; Suh, Chang-Hee; Chung, Won Tae; Park, Yong-Beom; Choe, Jung-Yoon; Shim, Seung Cheol; Kochi, Yuta; Suzuki, Akari; Kubo, Michiaki; Sumida, Takayuki; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Lee, Shin-Seok; Kim, Young Jin; Han, Bok-Ghee; Dozmorov, Mikhail; Kaufman, Kenneth M; Wren, Jonathan D; Harley, John B; Shen, Nan; Chua, Kek Heng; Zhang, Hong; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Nath, Swapan K

    2016-03-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has a strong but incompletely understood genetic architecture. We conducted an association study with replication in 4,478 SLE cases and 12,656 controls from six East Asian cohorts to identify new SLE susceptibility loci and better localize known loci. We identified ten new loci and confirmed 20 known loci with genome-wide significance. Among the new loci, the most significant locus was GTF2IRD1-GTF2I at 7q11.23 (rs73366469, Pmeta = 3.75 × 10(-117), odds ratio (OR) = 2.38), followed by DEF6, IL12B, TCF7, TERT, CD226, PCNXL3, RASGRP1, SYNGR1 and SIGLEC6. We identified the most likely functional variants at each locus by analyzing epigenetic marks and gene expression data. Ten candidate variants are known to alter gene expression in cis or in trans. Enrichment analysis highlights the importance of these loci in B cell and T cell biology. The new loci, together with previously known loci, increase the explained heritability of SLE to 24%. The new loci share functional and ontological characteristics with previously reported loci and are possible drug targets for SLE therapeutics.

  7. The FcμR Limits Tonic BCR Signaling by Regulating IgM-BCR Expression

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Trang T. T.; Kläsener, Kathrin; Zürn, Christa; Castillo, Patricia A.; Brust-Mascher, Ingrid; Imai, Denise M.; Bevins, Charles L.; Reardon, Colin; Reth, Michael; Baumgarth, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    The IgM Fc receptor (FcμR), originally cloned as “Fas-apoptosis inhibitory molecule (FAIM3/TOSO)” can function as a cell surface receptor for secreted IgM on a variety of cell types. We report that FcμR also is expressed in the trans-Golgi network of developing B cells, where it constrains IgM- but not IgD-BCR transport. In FcμR absence, IgM-BCR surface expression was increased, resulting in enhanced tonic BCR signaling. B cell-specific FcμR-deficiency enhanced spontaneous differentiation of B-1 cells, resulting in increases in natural IgM levels, and dysregulated B-2 cell homeostasis, causing spontaneous germinal center formation, increased serum autoantibody titers, and excessive B cell accumulation. Thus, FcμR/FAIM3 is a critical regulator of B cell biology by constraining IgM-BCR transport and cell surface expression. PMID:28135254

  8. Association between serum uric acid related genetic loci and diabetic kidney disease in the Chinese type 2 diabetes patients.

    PubMed

    Yan, Dandan; Wang, Jie; Jiang, Feng; Zhang, Rong; Sun, Xue; Wang, Tao; Wang, Shiyun; Peng, Danfeng; He, Zhen; Bao, Yuqian; Hu, Cheng; Jia, Weiping

    2016-07-01

    We aimed to investigate the association between uric acid related genetic loci and DKD susceptibility in type 2 diabetes patients. Seventeen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from thirteen loci related to serum uric acid were genotyped in 2,892 type 2 diabetes patients. Associations between SNPs and uric acid, SNPs and quantitative traits related to DKD or its susceptibility were evaluated. In this study, uric acid showed a strong association with DKD (OR=1.006, p<0.0001). GCKR rs780094, SLC2A9 rs11722228, SLC2A9 rs3775948, ABCG2 rs2231142, SLC22A12 rs505802 and NRXN2 rs506338 were positively associated with serum uric acid (p=3.79E-05, 0.0002, 2.04E-10, 2.23E-09, 0.0018 and 0.0015, respectively). SLC2A9 rs11722228 and SF1 rs606458 were significantly associated with DKD (OR=0.864, p=0.0440; OR=1.223, p=0.0038). SLC2A9 rs3775948 and ABCG2 rs2231142 were associated with DKD marginally (OR=0.878, p=0.0506; OR=0.879, p=0.0698). SLC2A9 rs11722228, SLC2A9 rs3775948, ABCG2 rs2231142 and SF1 rs606458 were significantly associated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (p=0.0005, 0.0006, 0.0003, and 0.0424, respectively). Our study indicated that the uric acid related alleles of SLC2A9 rs11722228, SLC2A9 rs3775948, ABCG2 rs2231142 might affect DKD susceptibility and possibly through non-uric acid pathway in the Chinese people with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Genome-wide enrichment analysis between endometriosis and obesity-related traits reveals novel susceptibility loci

    PubMed Central

    Rahmioglu, Nilufer; Macgregor, Stuart; Drong, Alexander W.; Hedman, Åsa K.; Harris, Holly R.; Randall, Joshua C.; Prokopenko, Inga; Nyholt, Dale R.; Morris, Andrew P.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Missmer, Stacey A.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Zondervan, Krina T.

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis is a chronic inflammatory condition in women that results in pelvic pain and subfertility, and has been associated with decreased body mass index (BMI). Genetic variants contributing to the heritable component have started to emerge from genome-wide association studies (GWAS), although the majority remain unknown. Unexpectedly, we observed an intergenic locus on 7p15.2 that was genome-wide significantly associated with both endometriosis and fat distribution (waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI; WHRadjBMI) in an independent meta-GWAS of European ancestry individuals. This led us to investigate the potential overlap in genetic variants underlying the aetiology of endometriosis, WHRadjBMI and BMI using GWAS data. Our analyses demonstrated significant enrichment of common variants between fat distribution and endometriosis (P = 3.7 × 10−3), which was stronger when we restricted the investigation to more severe (Stage B) cases (P = 4.5 × 10−4). However, no genetic enrichment was observed between endometriosis and BMI (P = 0.79). In addition to 7p15.2, we identify four more variants with statistically significant evidence of involvement in both endometriosis and WHRadjBMI (in/near KIFAP3, CAB39L, WNT4, GRB14); two of these, KIFAP3 and CAB39L, are novel associations for both traits. KIFAP3, WNT4 and 7p15.2 are associated with the WNT signalling pathway; formal pathway analysis confirmed a statistically significant (P = 6.41 × 10−4) overrepresentation of shared associations in developmental processes/WNT signalling between the two traits. Our results demonstrate an example of potential biological pleiotropy that was hitherto unknown, and represent an opportunity for functional follow-up of loci and further cross-phenotype comparisons to assess how fat distribution and endometriosis pathogenesis research fields can inform each other. PMID:25296917

  10. Loci identified by genome-wide association studies influence different disease-related phenotypes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Sreekumar G; Kong, Xiangyang; Edwards, Lisa D; Cho, Michael H; Anderson, Wayne H; Coxson, Harvey O; Lomas, David A; Silverman, Edwin K

    2010-12-15

    Genome-wide association studies have shown significant associations between variants near hedgehog interacting protein HHIP, FAM13A, and cholinergic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor CHRNA3/5 with increased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in smokers; however, the disease mechanisms behind these associations are not well understood. To identify the association between replicated loci and COPD-related phenotypes in well-characterized patient populations. The relationship between these three loci and COPD-related phenotypes was assessed in the Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate End-point (ECLIPSE) cohort. The results were validated in the family-based International COPD Genetics Network (ICGN). The CHRNA3/5 locus was significantly associated with pack-years of smoking (P = 0.002 and 3 × 10⁻⁴), emphysema assessed by a radiologist using high-resolution computed tomography (P = 2 × 10⁻⁴ and 4.8 × 10⁻⁵), and airflow obstruction (P = 0.004 and 1.8 × 10⁻⁵) in the ECLIPSE and ICGN populations, respectively. However, variants in the IREB2 gene were only significantly associated with FEV₁. The HHIP locus was not associated with smoking intensity but was associated with FEV₁/FVC (P = 1.9 × 10⁻⁴ and 0.004 in the ECLIPSE and ICGN populations). The HHIP locus was also associated with fat-free body mass (P = 0.007) and with both retrospectively (P = 0.015) and prospectively (P = 0.024) collected COPD exacerbations in the ECLIPSE cohort. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the FAM13A locus were associated with lung function. The CHRNA3/5 locus was associated with increased smoking intensity and emphysema in individuals with COPD, whereas the HHIP and FAM13A loci were not associated with smoking intensity. The HHIP locus was associated with the systemic components of COPD and with the frequency of COPD exacerbations. FAM13A locus was associated with lung function.

  11. Rice and cold stress: methods for its evaluation and summary of cold tolerance-related quantitative trait loci

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Cold stress adversely affects rice (Oryza sativa L.) growth and productivity, and has so far determined its geographical distribution. Dissecting cold stress-mediated physiological changes and understanding their genetic causes will facilitate the breeding of rice for cold tolerance. Here, we review recent progress in research on cold stress-mediated physiological traits and metabolites, and indicate their roles in the cold-response network and cold-tolerance evaluation. We also discuss criteria for evaluating cold tolerance and evaluate the scope and shortcomings of each application. Moreover, we summarize research on quantitative trait loci (QTL) related to cold stress at the germination, seedling, and reproductive stages that should provide useful information to accelerate progress in breeding cold-tolerant rice. PMID:25279026

  12. Effects of established BMI-associated loci on obesity-related traits in a French representative population sample

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies have identified variants associated with obesity-related traits, such as the body mass index (BMI). We sought to determine how the combination of 31 validated, BMI-associated loci contributes to obesity- and diabetes-related traits in a French population sample. The MONA LISA Lille study (1578 participants, aged 35–74) constitutes a representative sample of the population living in Lille (northern France). Genetic variants were considered both individually and combined into a genetic predisposition score (GPS). Results Individually, 25 of 31 SNPs showed directionally consistent effects on BMI. Four loci (FTO, FANCL, MTIF3 and NUDT3) reached nominal significance (p ≤ 0.05) for their association with anthropometric traits. When considering the combined effect of the 31 SNPs, each additional risk allele of the GPS was significantly associated with an increment in the mean [95% CI] BMI of 0.13 [0.07-0.20] kg/m2 (p = 6.3x10-5) and a 3% increase in the risk of obesity (p = 0.047). The GPS explained 1% of the variance in the BMI. Furthermore, the GPS was associated with higher fasting glycaemia (p = 0.04), insulinaemia (p = 0.008), HbA1c levels (p = 0.01) and HOMA-IR scores (p = 0.0003) and a greater risk of type 2 diabetes (OR [95% CI] = 1.06 [1.00-1.11], p = 0.03). However, these associations were no longer statistically significant after adjustment for BMI. Conclusion Our results show that the GPS was associated with a higher BMI and an insulin-resistant state (mediated by BMI) in a population in northern France. PMID:24885863

  13. Effects of established BMI-associated loci on obesity-related traits in a French representative population sample.

    PubMed

    Goumidi, Louisa; Cottel, Dominique; Dallongeville, Jean; Amouyel, Philippe; Meirhaeghe, Aline

    2014-05-23

    Genome-wide association studies have identified variants associated with obesity-related traits, such as the body mass index (BMI). We sought to determine how the combination of 31 validated, BMI-associated loci contributes to obesity- and diabetes-related traits in a French population sample. The MONA LISA Lille study (1578 participants, aged 35-74) constitutes a representative sample of the population living in Lille (northern France). Genetic variants were considered both individually and combined into a genetic predisposition score (GPS). Individually, 25 of 31 SNPs showed directionally consistent effects on BMI. Four loci (FTO, FANCL, MTIF3 and NUDT3) reached nominal significance (p ≤ 0.05) for their association with anthropometric traits. When considering the combined effect of the 31 SNPs, each additional risk allele of the GPS was significantly associated with an increment in the mean [95% CI] BMI of 0.13 [0.07-0.20] kg/m2 (p = 6.3x10-5) and a 3% increase in the risk of obesity (p = 0.047). The GPS explained 1% of the variance in the BMI. Furthermore, the GPS was associated with higher fasting glycaemia (p = 0.04), insulinaemia (p = 0.008), HbA1c levels (p = 0.01) and HOMA-IR scores (p = 0.0003) and a greater risk of type 2 diabetes (OR [95% CI] = 1.06 [1.00-1.11], p = 0.03). However, these associations were no longer statistically significant after adjustment for BMI. Our results show that the GPS was associated with a higher BMI and an insulin-resistant state (mediated by BMI) in a population in northern France.

  14. High-density genotyping of immune-related loci identifies new SLE risk variants in individuals with Asian ancestry

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Celi; Molineros, Julio E.; Looger, Loren L.; Zhou, Xu-jie; Kim, Kwangwoo; Okada, Yukinori; Ma, Jianyang; Qi, Yuan-yuan; Kim-Howard, Xana; Motghare, Prasenjeet; Bhattarai, Krishna; Adler, Adam; Bang, So-Young; Lee, Hye-Soon; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Kang, Young Mo; Suh, Chang-Hee; Chung, Won Tae; Park, Yong-Beom; Choe, Jung-Yoon; Shim, Seung Cheol; Kochi, Yuta; Suzuki, Akari; Kubo, Michiaki; Sumida, Takayuki; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Lee, Shin-Seok; Kim, Young Jin; Han, Bok-Ghee; Dozmorov, Mikhail; Kaufman, Kenneth M.; Wren, Jonathan D.; Harley, John B.; Shen, Nan; Chua, Kek Heng; Zhang, Hong; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Nath, Swapan K.

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has a strong but incompletely understood genetic architecture. We conducted an association study with replication in 4,492 SLE cases and 12,675 controls from six East-Asian cohorts, to identify novel and better localize known SLE susceptibility loci. We identified 10 novel loci as well as 20 known loci with genome-wide significance. Among the novel loci, the most significant was GTF2IRD1-GTF2I at 7q11.23 (rs73366469, Pmeta=3.75×10−117, OR=2.38), followed by DEF6, IL12B, TCF7, TERT, CD226, PCNXL3, RASGRP1, SYNGR1 and SIGLEC6. We localized the most likely functional variants for each locus by analyzing epigenetic marks and gene regulation data. Ten putative variants are known to alter cis- or trans-gene expression. Enrichment analysis highlights the importance of these loci in B- and T-cell biology. Together with previously known loci, the explained heritability of SLE increases to 24%. Novel loci share functional and ontological characteristics with previously reported loci, and are possible drug targets for SLE therapeutics. PMID:26808113

  15. Conserved and Divergent Roles of Bcr1 and CFEM Proteins in Candida parapsilosis and Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Sarah L.; Guida, Alessandro; Synnott, John M.; Andes, David R.; Butler, Geraldine

    2011-01-01

    Candida parapsilosis is a pathogenic fungus that is major cause of hospital-acquired infection, predominantly due to growth as biofilms on indwelling medical devices. It is related to Candida albicans, which remains the most common cause of candidiasis disease in humans. The transcription factor Bcr1 is an important regulator of biofilm formation in vitro in both C. parapsilosis and C. albicans. We show here that C. parapsilosis Bcr1 is required for in vivo biofilm development in a rat catheter model, like C. albicans. By comparing the transcription profiles of a bcr1 deletion in both species we found that regulation of expression of the CFEM family is conserved. In C. albicans, three of the five CFEM cell wall proteins (Rbt5, Pga7 and Csa1) are associated with both biofilm formation and acquisition of iron from heme, which is an important virulence characteristic. In C. parapsilosis, the CFEM family has undergone an expansion to 7 members. Expression of three genes (CFEM2, CFEM3, and CFEM6) is dependent on Bcr1, and is induced in low iron conditions. All three are involved in the acquisition of iron from heme. However, deletion of the three CFEM genes has no effect on biofilm formation in C. parapsilosis. Our data suggest that the role of the CFEM family in iron acquisition is conserved between C. albicans and C. parapsilosis, but their role in biofilm formation is not. PMID:22145027

  16. Identification of multiple risk variants for ankylosing spondylitis through high-density genotyping of immune-related loci.

    PubMed

    Cortes, Adrian; Hadler, Johanna; Pointon, Jenny P; Robinson, Philip C; Karaderi, Tugce; Leo, Paul; Cremin, Katie; Pryce, Karena; Harris, Jessica; Lee, Seunghun; Joo, Kyung Bin; Shim, Seung-Cheol; Weisman, Michael; Ward, Michael; Zhou, Xiaodong; Garchon, Henri-Jean; Chiocchia, Gilles; Nossent, Johannes; Lie, Benedicte A; Førre, Øystein; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Laiho, Kari; Jiang, Lei; Liu, Yu; Wu, Xin; Bradbury, Linda A; Elewaut, Dirk; Burgos-Vargas, Ruben; Stebbings, Simon; Appleton, Louise; Farrah, Claire; Lau, Jonathan; Kenna, Tony J; Haroon, Nigil; Ferreira, Manuel A; Yang, Jian; Mulero, Juan; Fernandez-Sueiro, Jose Luis; Gonzalez-Gay, Miguel A; Lopez-Larrea, Carlos; Deloukas, Panos; Donnelly, Peter; Bowness, Paul; Gafney, Karl; Gaston, Hill; Gladman, Dafna D; Rahman, Proton; Maksymowych, Walter P; Xu, Huji; Crusius, J Bart A; van der Horst-Bruinsma, Irene E; Chou, Chung-Tei; Valle-Oñate, Raphael; Romero-Sánchez, Consuelo; Hansen, Inger Myrnes; Pimentel-Santos, Fernando M; Inman, Robert D; Videm, Vibeke; Martin, Javier; Breban, Maxime; Reveille, John D; Evans, David M; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Wordsworth, Bryan Paul; Brown, Matthew A

    2013-07-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis is a common, highly heritable inflammatory arthritis affecting primarily the spine and pelvis. In addition to HLA-B*27 alleles, 12 loci have previously been identified that are associated with ankylosing spondylitis in populations of European ancestry, and 2 associated loci have been identified in Asians. In this study, we used the Illumina Immunochip microarray to perform a case-control association study involving 10,619 individuals with ankylosing spondylitis (cases) and 15,145 controls. We identified 13 new risk loci and 12 additional ankylosing spondylitis-associated haplotypes at 11 loci. Two ankylosing spondylitis-associated regions have now been identified encoding four aminopeptidases that are involved in peptide processing before major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I presentation. Protective variants at two of these loci are associated both with reduced aminopeptidase function and with MHC class I cell surface expression.

  17. Identification of multiple risk variants for ankylosing spondylitis through high-density genotyping of immune-related loci

    PubMed Central

    Cortes, Adrian; Hadler, Johanna; Pointon, Jenny P; Robinson, Philip C; Karaderi, Tugce; Leo, Paul; Cremin, Katie; Pryce, Karena; Harris, Jessica; lee, Seunghun; Joo, Kyung Bin; Shim, Seung-Cheol; Weisman, Michael; Ward, Michael; Zhou, Xiaodong; Garchon, Henri-Jean; Chiocchia, Gilles; Nossent, Johannes; Lie, Benedicte A; Førre, Øystein; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Laiho, Kari; Jiang, Lei; Liu, Yu; Wu, Xin; Bradbury, Linda A; Elewaut, Dirk; Burgos-Vargas, Ruben; Stebbings, Simon; Appleton, Louise; Farrah, Claire; Lau, Jonathan; Kenna, Tony J; Haroon, Nigil; Ferreira, Manuel A; Yang, Jian; Mulero, Juan; Fernandez-Sueiro, Jose Luis; Gonzalez-Gay, Miguel A; lopez-Larrea, Carlos; Deloukas, Panos; Donnelly, Peter; Bowness, Paul; Gafney, Karl; Gaston, Hill; Gladman, Dafna D; Rahman, Proton; Maksymowych, Walter P; Xu, Huji; Crusius, J Bart A; van der Horst-Bruinsma, Irene E; Chou, Chung-Tei; Valle-Oñate, Raphael; Romero-Sánchez, Consuelo; Hansen, Inger Myrnes; Pimentel-Santos, Fernando M; Inman, Robert D; Videm, Vibeke; Martin, Javier; Breban, Maxime; Reveille, John D; Evans, David M; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Wordsworth, Bryan Paul; Brown, Matthew A

    2013-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis is a common, highly heritable inflammatory arthritis affecting primarily the spine and pelvis. In addition to HLA-B*27 alleles, 12 loci have previously been identified that are associated with ankylosing spondylitis in populations of European ancestry, and 2 associated loci have been identified in Asians. In this study, we used the Illumina Immunochip microarray to perform a case-control association study involving 10,619 individuals with ankylosing spondylitis (cases) and 15,145 controls. We identified 13 new risk loci and 12 additional ankylosing spondylitis–associated haplotypes at 11 loci. Two ankylosing spondylitis–associated regions have now been identified encoding four aminopeptidases that are involved in peptide processing before major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I presentation. Protective variants at two of these loci are associated both with reduced aminopeptidase function and with MHC class I cell surface expression. PMID:23749187

  18. Exposure to Cr(VI) induces organ dependent MSI in two loci related with photophosphorylation and with glutamine metabolism.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, E; Azevedo, R; Remédios, C; Almeida, T; Fernandes, P; Santos, C

    2013-03-15

    Chromium (Cr), as a mutagenic agent in plants, has received less attention than other metal pollutants. To understand if Cr induces microsatellite instability (MSI), Pisum sativum seedlings were exposed for 28 days to different concentrations of Cr(VI) up to 2000mgL(-1), and the genetic instability of ten microsatellites (SSRs) was analyzed. In plants exposed to Cr(VI) up to 1000mg L(-1), MSI was never observed. However, roots exposed to 2000mgL(-1) displayed MSI in two of the loci analyzed, corresponding to a mutation rate of 8.3%. SSR2 (inserted in the locus for plastid photosystem I 24kDa light harvesting protein) and SSR6 (inserted in the locus for P. sativum glutamine synthetase) from Cr(VI)-treated roots presented alleles with, respectively, less 6bp and more 3bp than the corresponding controls. This report demonstrates that: (a) SSRs technique is sensitive to detect Cr-induced mutagenicity in plants, being Cr-induced-MSI dose and organ dependent (roots are more sensitive); (b) two Cr-sensitive loci are related with thylakoid photophosphorylation and with glutamine synthetase, respectively; (c) despite MSI is induced by Cr(VI), it only occurs in plants exposed to concentrations higher than 1000mgL(-1) (values rarely found in real scenarios). Considering these data, we also discuss the known functional changes induced by Cr(VI) in photosynthesis and in glutamine synthetase activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Obesity-Susceptibility Loci and Their Influence on Adiposity-Related Traits in Transition from Adolescence to Adulthood - The HUNT Study

    PubMed Central

    Cuypers, Koenraad Frans; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Kvaløy, Kirsti; Kulle, Bettina; Romundstad, Pål; Holmen, Turid Lingaas

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Obesity-susceptibility loci have been related to adiposity traits in adults and may affect body fat estimates in adolescence. There are indications that different sets of obesity-susceptibility loci influence level of and change in obesity-related traits from adolescence to adulthood. Objectives To investigate whether previously reported obesity-susceptible loci in adults influence adiposity traits in adolescence and change in BMI and waist circumference (WC) from adolescence into young adulthood. We also examined whether physical activity modifies the effects of these genetic loci on adiposity-related traits. Methods Nine obesity-susceptibility variants were genotyped in 1 643 adolescents (13–19 years old) from the HUNT study, Norway, who were followed-up into young adulthood. Lifestyle was assessed using questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were taken. The effects of genetic variants individually and combined in a genetic predisposition score (GPS) on obesity-related traits were studied cross-sectionally and longitudinally. A modifying effect of physical activity was tested. Results The GPS was significantly associated to BMI (B: 0.046 SD/allele [0.020, 0.073], p = 0.001) in adolescence and in young adulthood (B: 0.041 SD/allele [0.015, 0.067], p = 0.002) as it was to waist circumference (WC). The GPS was not associated to change in BMI (p = 0.762) or WC (p = 0.726). We found no significant interaction effect between the GPS and physical activity. Conclusions Our observations suggest that obesity-susceptibility loci established in adults affect BMI and WC already in adolescence. However, an association with change in adiposity-related traits from adolescence to adulthood could not be verified for these loci. Neither could an attenuating effect of physical activity on the association between the obesity-susceptibility genes and body fat estimates be revealed. PMID:23094032

  20. Identification of chloroplast genome loci suitable for high-resolution phylogeographic studies of Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott (Araceae) and closely related taxa.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ibrar; Matthews, Peter J; Biggs, Patrick J; Naeem, Muhammad; McLenachan, Patricia A; Lockhart, Peter J

    2013-09-01

    Recently, we reported the chloroplast genome-wide association of oligonucleotide repeats, indels and nucleotide substitutions in aroid chloroplast genomes. We hypothesized that the distribution of oligonucleotide repeat sequences in a single representative genome can be used to identify mutational hotspots and loci suitable for population genetic, phylogenetic and phylogeographic studies. Using information on the location of oligonucleotide repeats in the chloroplast genome of taro (Colocasia esculenta), we designed 30 primer pairs to amplify and sequence polymorphic loci. The primers have been tested in a range of intra-specific to intergeneric comparisons, including ten taro samples (Colocasia esculenta) from diverse geographical locations, four other Colocasia species (C. affinis, C. fallax, C. formosana, C. gigantea) and three other aroid genera (represented by Remusatia vivipara, Alocasia brisbanensis and Amorphophallus konjac). Multiple sequence alignments for the intra-specific comparison revealed nucleotide substitutions (point mutations) at all 30 loci and microsatellite polymorphisms at 14 loci. The primer pairs reported here reveal levels of genetic variation suitable for high-resolution phylogeographic and evolutionary studies of taro and other closely related aroids. Our results confirm that information on repeat distribution can be used to identify loci suitable for such studies, and we expect that this approach can be used in other plant groups.

  1. A screening-based approach to circumvent tumor microenvironment-driven intrinsic resistance to BCR-ABL+ inhibitors in Ph+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Singh, Harpreet; Shelat, Anang A; Singh, Amandeep; Boulos, Nidal; Williams, Richard T; Guy, R Kiplin

    2014-01-01

    Signaling by the BCR-ABL fusion kinase drives Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ ALL) and chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Despite their clinical activity in many patients with CML, the BCR-ABL kinase inhibitors (BCR-ABL-KIs) imatinib, dasatinib, and nilotinib provide only transient leukemia reduction in patients with Ph+ ALL. While host-derived growth factors in the leukemia microenvironment have been invoked to explain this drug resistance, their relative contribution remains uncertain. Using genetically defined murine Ph+ ALL cells, we identified interleukin 7 (IL-7) as the dominant host factor that attenuates response to BCR-ABL-KIs. To identify potential combination drugs that could overcome this IL-7-dependent BCR-ABL-KI-resistant phenotype, we screened a small-molecule library including Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs. Among the validated hits, the well-tolerated antimalarial drug dihydroartemisinin (DHA) displayed potent activity in vitro and modest in vivo monotherapy activity against engineered murine BCR-ABL-KI-resistant Ph+ ALL. Strikingly, cotreatment with DHA and dasatinib in vivo strongly reduced primary leukemia burden and improved long-term survival in a murine model that faithfully captures the BCR-ABL-KI-resistant phenotype of human Ph+ ALL. This cotreatment protocol durably cured 90% of treated animals, suggesting that this cell-based screening approach efficiently identified drugs that could be rapidly moved to human clinical testing.

  2. A screening based approach to circumvent tumor microenvironment-driven intrinsic resistance to BCR-ABL+ inhibitors in Ph+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Harpreet; Shelat, Anang A.; Singh, Amandeep; Boulos, Nidal; Williams, Richard T.; Guy, R. Kiplin

    2014-01-01

    Signaling by the BCR-ABL fusion kinase drives Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ ALL) and chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Despite their clinical activity in many patients with CML, the BCR-ABL kinase inhibitors (BCR-ABL-KIs) imatinib, dasatinib, and nilotinib provide only transient leukemia reduction in patients in Ph+ ALL. While host-derived growth factors present in the leukemia microenvironment have been invoked to explain this drug resistance, their relative contribution remains uncertain. Using genetically-defined murine Ph+ ALL cells, we identified Interleukin 7 (IL-7) as the dominant host-factor that attenuates response to BCR-ABL-KIs. To identify potential combination drugs that could overcome this IL-7-dependent BCR-ABL-KI-resistant phenotype, we screened a small molecule library including FDA-approved drugs. Among the validated hits, the well-tolerated anti-malarial drug dihydroartemisinin (DHA) displayed potent activity in vitro and modest in vivo monotherapy activity against engineered murine BCR-ABL-KI–resistant Ph+ ALL. Strikingly, co-treatment with DHA and dasatinib in vivo strongly reduced primary leukemia burden and improved long-term survival in a murine model that faithfully captures the BCR-ABL-KI-resistant phenotype of human Ph+ ALL. This co-treatment protocol durably cured 90% of treated animals, suggesting that this cell-based screening approach efficiently identified drugs that could be rapidly moved to human clinical testing PMID:23989453

  3. Identification of heterotic loci associated with yield-related traits in Chinese common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.).

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiaojin; Wu, Shuang; Tian, Feng; Xin, Xiaoyun; Zha, Xiaojun; Dong, Xianxin; Fu, Yongcai; Wang, Xiangkun; Yang, Jinshui; Sun, Chuanqing

    2011-07-01

    Many rice breeding programs have currently reached yield plateaus as a result of limited genetic variability in parental strains. Dongxiang common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) is the progenitor of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) and serves as an important gene pool for the genetic improvement of rice cultivars. In this study, heterotic loci (HLs) associated with six yield-related traits were identified in wild and cultivated rice and investigated using a set of 265 introgression lines (ILs) of O. rufipogon Griff. in the background of the Indica high-yielding cultivar Guichao 2 (O. sativa L.). Forty-two HLs were detected by a single point analysis of mid-parent heterosis values from test cross F(1) offspring, and 30 (71.5%) of these HLs showed significantly positive effects, consistent with the superiority shown by the F(1) test cross population in the six yield-related traits under study. Genetic mapping of hsp11, a locus responsible for the number of spikelets per panicle, confirmed the utility of these HLs. The results indicate that favorable HLs capable of improving agronomic traits are available. The identification of HLs between wild rice and cultivated rice could lead to a new strategy for the application of heterosis in rice breeding.

  4. Phenome-Wide Association Study to Explore Relationships between Immune System Related Genetic Loci and Complex Traits and Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Anurag; Basile, Anna O.; Bradford, Yuki; Kuivaniemi, Helena; Tromp, Gerard; Carey, David; Gerhard, Glenn S.; Crowe, James E.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Pendergrass, Sarah A.

    2016-01-01

    We performed a Phenome-Wide Association Study (PheWAS) to identify interrelationships between the immune system genetic architecture and a wide array of phenotypes from two de-identified electronic health record (EHR) biorepositories. We selected variants within genes encoding critical factors in the immune system and variants with known associations with autoimmunity. To define case/control status for EHR diagnoses, we used International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) diagnosis codes from 3,024 Geisinger Clinic MyCode® subjects (470 diagnoses) and 2,899 Vanderbilt University Medical Center BioVU biorepository subjects (380 diagnoses). A pooled-analysis was also carried out for the replicating results of the two data sets. We identified new associations with potential biological relevance including SNPs in tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and ankyrin-related genes associated with acute and chronic sinusitis and acute respiratory tract infection. The two most significant associations identified were for the C6orf10 SNP rs6910071 and “rheumatoid arthritis” (ICD-9 code category 714) (pMETAL = 2.58 x 10−9) and the ATN1 SNP rs2239167 and “diabetes mellitus, type 2” (ICD-9 code category 250) (pMETAL = 6.39 x 10−9). This study highlights the utility of using PheWAS in conjunction with EHRs to discover new genotypic-phenotypic associations for immune-system related genetic loci. PMID:27508393

  5. Quantitative trait loci analysis of flowering time related traits identified in recombinant inbred lines of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    PubMed

    Andargie, Mebeasealassie; Pasquet, Remy S; Muluvi, Geoffrey M; Timko, Michael P

    2013-05-01

    Flowering time is a major adaptive trait in plants and an important selection criterion in the breeding for genetic improvement of crop species. QTLs for the time of flower opening and days to flower were identified in a cross between a short duration domesticated cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) variety, 524B, and a relatively long duration wild accession, 219-01. A set of 159 F7 lines was grown under greenhouse conditions and scored for the flowering time associated phenotypes of time of flower opening and days to flower. Using a LOD threshold of 2.0, putative QTLs were identified and placed on a linkage map consisting of 202 SSR markers and four morphological loci. A total of five QTLs related to the time of flower opening were identified, accounting for 8.8%-29.8% of the phenotypic variation. Three QTLs for days to flower were detected, accounting for 5.7%-18.5% of the phenotypic variation. The major QTL of days to flower and time of flower opening were both mapped on linkage group 1. The QTLs identified in this study provide a strong foundation for further validation and fine mapping for developing an efficient way to restrain the gene flow between the cultivated and wild plants.

  6. Identification and validation of seven new loci showing differential DNA methylation related to serum lipid profile: an epigenome-wide approach. The REGICOR study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lipid traits (total, low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides) are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. DNA methylation is not only an inherited but also modifiable epigenetic mark that has been related to cardiovascular risk factors. Our aim was to identify loci s...

  7. Quantitative trait loci analysis and genome-wide comparison for silique related traits in Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaodong; Chen, Li; Wang, Aina; Wang, Hao; Tian, Jianhua; Zhao, Xiaoping; Chao, Hongbo; Zhao, Yajun; Zhao, Weiguo; Xiang, Jun; Gan, Jianping; Li, Maoteng

    2016-03-22

    Yield of rapeseed is determined by three components: silique number, seed number per silique and thousand seed weight. Seed number per silique and thousand seed weight are influenced by silique length, seed density, silique breadth, silique thickness and silique volume. Some QTLs for silique traits have been reported in B. napus, however, no studies have focused on the six agronomic traits (seed number per silique, silique length, silique breadth, silique thickness, seed density and silique volume) simultaneously, and the genetic determinism of such complex traits have not been fully elucidated. In this study, the six silique traits were evaluated using 348 lines of a doubled haploid population, the KN population. The results showed that 2, 4, 1, 1 and 2 QTLs explaining > 10 % of phenotypic variation were obtained for silique length, silique breadth, silique thickness, seed number per silique and silique volume, respectively. Notably, three major effect QTLs (cqSB-C6-1, cqSB-C6-2 and cqSV-C6-3) were identified in at least three environments, and 17 unique QTLs controlling at least two traits were obtained. A high-density consensus map containing 1225 markers was constructed for QTL comparison by combining the KN map with other five published maps. The comparative results revealed that 14, 13 and 11 QTLs for silique breadth, silique thickness and silique volume might be the potential new QTLs because few QTLs for these traits were reported in B. napus. In addition, potential new QTLs for silique length (11), seed number per silique (6) and seed density (5) were also identified. Twenty-five candidate genes underlying 27 QTLs for silique related traits were obtained. This study constructed QTL analysis in B. napus, and obtained 60 consensus QTLs for six silique related traits. The potential new QTLs will enhance our understanding of the genetic control of silique traits, and the stable QTLs provided the targets for improving seed yield in future. These findings

  8. Independent prognostic value of BCR-ABL1-like signature and IKZF1 deletion, but not high CRLF2 expression, in children with B-cell precursor ALL

    PubMed Central

    van der Veer, Arian; Waanders, Esmé; Pieters, Rob; Willemse, Marieke E.; Van Reijmersdal, Simon V.; Russell, Lisa J.; Harrison, Christine J.; Evans, William E.; van der Velden, Vincent H. J.; Hoogerbrugge, Peter M.; Van Leeuwen, Frank; Escherich, Gabriele; Horstmann, Martin A.; Mohammadi Khankahdani, Leila; Rizopoulos, Dimitris; De Groot-Kruseman, Hester A.; Sonneveld, Edwin; Kuiper, Roland P.

    2013-01-01

    Most relapses in childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) are not predicted using current prognostic features. Here, we determined the co-occurrence and independent prognostic relevance of 3 recently identified prognostic features: BCR-ABL1-like gene signature, deletions in IKZF1, and high CRLF2 messenger RNA expression (CRLF2-high). These features were determined in 4 trials representing 1128 children with ALL: DCOG ALL-8, ALL9, ALL10, and Cooperative ALL (COALL)-97/03. BCR-ABL1-like, IKZF1-deleted, and CRLF2-high cases constitute 33.7% of BCR-ABL1–negative, MLL wild-type BCP-ALL cases, of which BCR-ABL1-like and IKZF1 deletion (co)occurred most frequently. Higher cumulative incidence of relapse was found for BCR-ABL1-like and IKZF1-deleted, but not CRLF2-high, cases relative to remaining BCP-ALL cases, reflecting the observations in each of the cohorts analyzed separately. No relapses occurred among cases with CRLF2-high as single feature, whereas 62.9% of all relapses in BCR-ABL1–negative, MLL wild-type BCP-ALL occurred in cases with BCR-ABL1-like signature and/or IKZF1 deletion. Both the BCR-ABL1-like signature and IKZF1 deletions were prognostic features independent of conventional prognostic markers in a multivariate model, and both remained prognostic among cases with intermediate minimal residual disease. The BCR-ABL1-like signature and an IKZF1 deletion, but not CRLF2-high, are prognostic factors and are clinically of importance to identify high-risk patients who require more intensive and/or alternative therapies. PMID:23974192

  9. Candidate Gene Association Study of BMI-Related Loci, Weight, and Adiposity in Old Age

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Most genome-wide association studies are confined to middle-aged populations. It is unclear whether associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and obesity persist in old age. We aimed to relate 10 body mass index (BMI)–associated SNPs to weight, BMI, % fat, visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue in Health ABC and AGES-Reykjavik comprising 4,846 individuals of European Ancestry, and 1,139 African Americans over age 65. SNPs were scaled using effect estimates from candidate SNPs. In Health ABC, a SNP near GNPDA2 was modestly associated with weight and SAT area (p = .008, p = .001). Risk score (sum of scaled SNPs) was associated with weight, BMI, and SAT area (p < .0001 for all), but neither GNPDA2 nor risk score was associated with weight, BMI, visceral adippose tissue, subcutaneous adipose tissue, or % fat in AGES-Reykjavik. In African Americans, a SNP near SEC16B was weakly associated with weight (p = .04). In this sample of older adults, no BMI-associated SNPs were associated with weight or adiposity. PMID:23160366

  10. Drought-related secondary metabolites of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) leaves and their metabolomic quantitative trait loci.

    PubMed

    Piasecka, Anna; Sawikowska, Aneta; Kuczyńska, Anetta; Ogrodowicz, Piotr; Mikołajczak, Krzysztof; Krystkowiak, Karolina; Gudyś, Kornelia; Guzy-Wróbelska, Justyna; Krajewski, Paweł; Kachlicki, Piotr

    2017-03-01

    Determining the role of plant secondary metabolites in stress conditions is problematic due to the diversity of their structures and the complexity of their interdependence with different biological pathways. Correlation of metabolomic data with the genetic background provides essential information about the features of metabolites. LC-MS analysis of leaf metabolites from 100 barley recombinant inbred lines (RILs) revealed that 98 traits among 135 detected phenolic and terpenoid compounds significantly changed their level as a result of drought stress. Metabolites with similar patterns of change were grouped in modules, revealing differences among RILs and parental varieties at early and late stages of drought. The most significant changes in stress were observed for ferulic and sinapic acid derivatives as well as acylated glycosides of flavones. The tendency to accumulate methylated compounds was a major phenomenon in this set of samples. In addition, the polyamine derivatives hordatines as well as terpenoid blumenol C derivatives were observed to be drought related. The correlation of drought-related compounds with molecular marker polymorphisms resulted in the definition of metabolomic quantitative trait loci in the genomic regions of single-nucleotide polymorphism 3101-111 and simple sequence repeat Bmag0692 with multiple linkages to metabolites. The associations pointed to genes related to the defence response and response to cold, heat and oxidative stress, but not to genes related to biosynthesis of the compounds. We postulate that the significant metabolites have a role as antioxidants, regulators of gene expression and modulators of protein function in barley during drought. © 2016 The Authors. The Plant Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Experimental Biology.

  11. QTL mapping in eggplant reveals clusters of yield-related loci and orthology with the tomato genome.

    PubMed

    Portis, Ezio; Barchi, Lorenzo; Toppino, Laura; Lanteri, Sergio; Acciarri, Nazzareno; Felicioni, Nazzareno; Fusari, Fabio; Barbierato, Valeria; Cericola, Fabio; Valè, Giampiero; Rotino, Giuseppe Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    In spite of its widespread cultivation and nutritional and economic importance, the eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) genome has not been extensively explored. A lack of knowledge of the patterns of inheritance of key agronomic traits has hindered the exploitation of marker technologies to accelerate its genetic improvement. An already established F2 intraspecific population of eggplant bred from the cross '305E40' x '67/3' was phenotyped for 20 agronomically relevant traits at two sites. Up to seven quantitative trait loci (QTL) per trait were identified and the percentage of the phenotypic variance (PV) explained per QTL ranged from 4 to 93%. Not all the QTL were detectable at both sites, but for each trait at least one major QTL (PV explained ≥ 10%) was identified. Although no detectable QTL x environment interaction was found, some QTL identified were location-specific. Many of the fruit-related QTL clustered within specific chromosomal regions, reflecting either linkage and/or pleiotropy. Evidence for putative tomato orthologous QTL/genes was obtained for several of the eggplant QTL. Information regarding the inheritance of key agronomic traits was obtained. Some of the QTL, along with their respective linked markers, may be useful in the context of marker-assisted breeding.

  12. QTL Mapping in Eggplant Reveals Clusters of Yield-Related Loci and Orthology with the Tomato Genome

    PubMed Central

    Portis, Ezio; Barchi, Lorenzo; Toppino, Laura; Lanteri, Sergio; Acciarri, Nazzareno; Felicioni, Nazzareno; Fusari, Fabio; Barbierato, Valeria; Cericola, Fabio; Valè, Giampiero; Rotino, Giuseppe Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    In spite of its widespread cultivation and nutritional and economic importance, the eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) genome has not been extensively explored. A lack of knowledge of the patterns of inheritance of key agronomic traits has hindered the exploitation of marker technologies to accelerate its genetic improvement. An already established F2 intraspecific population of eggplant bred from the cross ‘305E40’ x ‘67/3’ was phenotyped for 20 agronomically relevant traits at two sites. Up to seven quantitative trait loci (QTL) per trait were identified and the percentage of the phenotypic variance (PV) explained per QTL ranged from 4 to 93%. Not all the QTL were detectable at both sites, but for each trait at least one major QTL (PV explained ≥10%) was identified. Although no detectable QTL x environment interaction was found, some QTL identified were location-specific. Many of the fruit-related QTL clustered within specific chromosomal regions, reflecting either linkage and/or pleiotropy. Evidence for putative tomato orthologous QTL/genes was obtained for several of the eggplant QTL. Information regarding the inheritance of key agronomic traits was obtained. Some of the QTL, along with their respective linked markers, may be useful in the context of marker-assisted breeding. PMID:24586828

  13. Nanoscale organization and dynamics of the siglec CD22 cooperate with the cytoskeleton in restraining BCR signalling.

    PubMed

    Gasparrini, Francesca; Feest, Christoph; Bruckbauer, Andreas; Mattila, Pieta K; Müller, Jennifer; Nitschke, Lars; Bray, Dennis; Batista, Facundo D

    2016-02-01

    Receptor organization and dynamics at the cell membrane are important factors of signal transduction regulation. Using super-resolution microscopy and single-particle tracking, we show how the negative coreceptor CD22 works with the cortical cytoskeleton in restraining BCR signalling. In naïve B cells, we found endogenous CD22 to be highly mobile and organized into nanodomains. The landscape of CD22 and its lateral diffusion were perturbed either in the absence of CD45 or when the CD22 lectin domain was mutated. To understand how a relatively low number of CD22 molecules can keep BCR signalling in check, we generated Brownian dynamic simulations and supported them with ex vivo experiments. This combined approach suggests that the inhibitory function of CD22 is influenced by its nanoscale organization and is ensured by its fast diffusion enabling a "global BCR surveillance" at the plasma membrane. © 2015 The Authors.

  14. Effect of Chinese Medicine Danshen and Indian Ayurvedic Medicine Bark of Arjuna Tree on a Relatively New LOCI Digoxin Assay for Application on the Vista 1500 Analyzer.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Amitava; Sengupta, Tamal K; Johnson, Myrtle

    2015-07-01

    Danshen is a traditional Chinese medicine and bark of Arjuna tree is an Ayurvedic medicine both indicated as heart tonic. Interference of Danshen in serum digoxin immunoassays has been reported but potential interference of extract of bark of Arjuna tree has not been reported. We studied potential interferences of Danshen and bark of Arjuna tree on a relatively new LOCI digoxin assay for application on the Vista 1500 analyzer (Siemens Diagnostics). Aliquots of drug-free serum were supplemented with ethyl acetate extract of Danshen (two different brands studied) or aqueous or ethyl alcohol extract of bark of Arjuna tree and apparent digoxin concentrations were measured by the LOCI digoxin assay. In another experiment, aliquots of serum pool containing digoxin were further supplemented with Danshen or bark of Arjuna tree extract and digoxin concentrations were measured again using LOCI digoxin assay. Little apparent digoxin concentration was observed when aliquots of drug-free serum pools were supplemented with Danshen or bark of Arjuna tree extract. When aliquots of serum digoxin pool were further supplemented with these extract, we observed statistically significant negative interference but such differences may not be clinically significant. We conclude that LOCI digoxin assay is virtually free from interferences of Danshen and extract of bark of Arjuna tree. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Bidirectional (negative/positive) interference of oleandrin and oleander extract on a relatively new Loci digoxin assay using Vista 1500 analyzer.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Amitava; Welsh, Kerry J; Hwang, Shen-An; Johnson, Myrtle; Actor, Jeffrey K

    2014-01-01

    Oleander interferes with serum digoxin measurements using various immunoassays. The potential interference of oleander and its active ingredient, oleandrin, with a relatively new homogenous sequential chemiluminescent digoxin assay based on luminescent oxygen channeling technology (LOCI digoxin assay, Siemens Diagnostics) has not been previously reported. Aliquots of a digoxin-free serum pool were supplemented with increasing concentrations of oleandrin, or with oleander extract, followed by measuring the apparent digoxin concentrations using the LOCI digoxin assay using Vista 1500 analyzer. Mice were fed oleandrin or oleander extract, and their blood digoxin levels at 1 and 2 h were measured with the LOCI digoxin assay. In addition, two digoxin serum pools were prepared by combining sera of patients receiving digoxin; aliquots of both pools were supplemented with oleandrin or oleander extract and digoxin concentrations were again measured. Attempts to overcome this interference were made by measuring free digoxin concentration using a third digoxin pool. Significant apparent digoxin concentrations were observed after supplementing aliquots of the drug-free serum pool with oleandrin or oleander extract. Mice fed with oleandrin or oleander extract also showed apparent digoxin levels 1 and 2 h after feeding. Digoxin values were also falsely lower or elevated (bidirectional interference) when aliquots of digoxin serum pools were further supplemented with oleandrin or oleander extract depending on concentration; this interference was not eliminated by free digoxin monitoring. Oleandrin interferes with LOCI digoxin assay. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Analysis of heterosis and quantitative trait loci for kernel shape related traits using triple testcross population in maize.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lu; Ge, Min; Zhao, Han; Zhang, Tifu

    2015-01-01

    Kernel shape related traits (KSRTs) have been shown to have important influences on grain yield. The previous studies that emphasize kernel length (KL) and kernel width (KW) lack a comprehensive evaluation of characters affecting kernel shape. In this study, materials of the basic generations (B73, Mo17, and B73 × Mo17), 82 intermated B73 × Mo17 (IBM) individuals, and the corresponding triple testcross (TTC) populations were used to evaluate heterosis, investigate correlations, and characterize the quantitative trait loci (QTL) for six KSRTs: KL, KW, length to width ratio (LWR), perimeter length (PL), kernel area (KA), and circularity (CS). The results showed that the mid-parent heterosis (MPH) for most of the KSRTs was moderate. The performance of KL, KW, PL, and KA exhibited significant positive correlation with heterozygosity but their Pearson's R values were low. Among KSRTs, the strongest significant correlation was found between PL and KA with R values was up to 0.964. In addition, KW, PL, KA, and CS were shown to be significant positive correlation with 100-kernel weight (HKW). 28 QTLs were detected for KSRTs in which nine were augmented additive, 13 were augmented dominant, and six were dominance × additive epistatic. The contribution of a single QTL to total phenotypic variation ranged from 2.1% to 32.9%. Furthermore, 19 additive × additive digenic epistatic interactions were detected for all KSRTs with the highest total R2 for KW (78.8%), and nine dominance × dominance digenic epistatic interactions detected for KL, LWR, and CS with the highest total R2 (55.3%). Among significant digenic interactions, most occurred between genomic regions not mapped with main-effect QTLs. These findings display the complexity of the genetic basis for KSRTs and enhance our understanding on heterosis of KSRTs from the quantitative genetic perspective.

  17. Analysis of Heterosis and Quantitative Trait Loci for Kernel Shape Related Traits Using Triple Testcross Population in Maize

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Lu; Ge, Min; Zhao, Han; Zhang, Tifu

    2015-01-01

    Kernel shape related traits (KSRTs) have been shown to have important influences on grain yield. The previous studies that emphasize kernel length (KL) and kernel width (KW) lack a comprehensive evaluation of characters affecting kernel shape. In this study, materials of the basic generations (B73, Mo17, and B73 × Mo17), 82 intermated B73 × Mo17 (IBM) individuals, and the corresponding triple testcross (TTC) populations were used to evaluate heterosis, investigate correlations, and characterize the quantitative trait loci (QTL) for six KSRTs: KL, KW, length to width ratio (LWR), perimeter length (PL), kernel area (KA), and circularity (CS). The results showed that the mid-parent heterosis (MPH) for most of the KSRTs was moderate. The performance of KL, KW, PL, and KA exhibited significant positive correlation with heterozygosity but their Pearson’s R values were low. Among KSRTs, the strongest significant correlation was found between PL and KA with R values was up to 0.964. In addition, KW, PL, KA, and CS were shown to be significant positive correlation with 100-kernel weight (HKW). 28 QTLs were detected for KSRTs in which nine were augmented additive, 13 were augmented dominant, and six were dominance × additive epistatic. The contribution of a single QTL to total phenotypic variation ranged from 2.1% to 32.9%. Furthermore, 19 additive × additive digenic epistatic interactions were detected for all KSRTs with the highest total R2 for KW (78.8%), and nine dominance × dominance digenic epistatic interactions detected for KL, LWR, and CS with the highest total R2 (55.3%). Among significant digenic interactions, most occurred between genomic regions not mapped with main-effect QTLs. These findings display the complexity of the genetic basis for KSRTs and enhance our understanding on heterosis of KSRTs from the quantitative genetic perspective. PMID:25919458

  18. Using a physiological framework for improving the detection of quantitative trait loci related to nitrogen nutrition in Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Delphine; Burstin, Judith; Aubert, Grégoire; Huguet, Thierry; Ben, Cécile; Prosperi, Jean-Marie; Salon, Christophe; Munier-Jolain, Nathalie

    2012-03-01

    Medicago truncatula is used as a model plant for exploring the genetic and molecular determinants of nitrogen (N) nutrition in legumes. In this study, our aim was to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling plant N nutrition using a simple framework of carbon/N plant functioning stemming from crop physiology. This framework was based on efficiency variables which delineated the plant's efficiency to take up and process carbon and N resources. A recombinant inbred line population (LR4) was grown in a glasshouse experiment under two contrasting nitrate concentrations. At low nitrate, symbiotic N(2) fixation was the main N source for plant growth and a QTL with a large effect located on linkage group (LG) 8 affected all the traits. Significantly, efficiency variables were necessary both to precisely localize a second QTL on LG5 and to detect a third QTL involved in epistatic interactions on LG2. At high nitrate, nitrate assimilation was the main N source and a larger number of QTL with weaker effects were identified compared to low nitrate. Only two QTL were common to both nitrate treatments: a QTL of belowground biomass located at the bottom of LG3 and another one on LG6 related to three different variables (leaf area, specific N uptake and aboveground:belowground biomass ratio). Possible functions of several candidate genes underlying QTL of efficiency variables could be proposed. Altogether, our results provided new insights into the genetic control of N nutrition in M. truncatula. For instance, a novel result for M. truncatula was identification of two epistatic interactions in controlling plant N(2) fixation. As such this study showed the value of a simple conceptual framework based on efficiency variables for studying genetic determinants of complex traits and particularly epistatic interactions.

  19. Candidate genes in quantitative trait loci associated with absolute and relative kidney weight in rats with Inherited Stress Induced Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The kidney mass is significantly increased in hypertensive ISIAH rats with Inherited Stress Induced Arterial Hypertension as compared with normotensive WAG rats. The QTL/microarray approach was carried out to determine the positional candidate genes in the QTL for absolute and relative kidney weight. Results Several known and predicted genes differentially expressed in ISIAH and WAG kidney were mapped to genetic loci associated with the absolute and relative kidney weight in 6-month old F2 hybrid (ISIAHxWAG) males. The knowledge-driven filtering of the list of candidates helped to suggest several positional candidate genes, which may be related to the structural and mass changes in hypertensive ISIAH kidney. In the current study, we showed that all loci found for absolute and relative kidney weight didn't overlap with significant or suggestive loci for arterial blood pressure level. So, the genes differentially expressed in ISIAH and WAG kidneys and located in these QTL regions associated with absolute and relative kidney weight shouldn't substantially influence the BP level in the 6 month-old ISIAH rats. However, in some cases, small effects may be suggested. Conclusions The further experimental validation of causative genes and detection of polymorphisms will provide opportunities to advance our understanding of the underlying nature of structural and mass changes in hypertensive ISIAH kidney. PMID:25707311

  20. Genomewide meta-analysis identifies loci associated with IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels with impact on age-related traits.

    PubMed

    Teumer, Alexander; Qi, Qibin; Nethander, Maria; Aschard, Hugues; Bandinelli, Stefania; Beekman, Marian; Berndt, Sonja I; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Broer, Linda; Cappola, Anne; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Chanock, Stephen; Chen, Ming-Huei; Chen, Tai C; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Chung, Jonathan; Del Greco Miglianico, Fabiola; Eriksson, Joel; Ferrucci, Luigi; Friedrich, Nele; Gnewuch, Carsten; Goodarzi, Mark O; Grarup, Niels; Guo, Tingwei; Hammer, Elke; Hayes, Richard B; Hicks, Andrew A; Hofman, Albert; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J; Hu, Frank; Hunter, David J; Husemoen, Lise L; Isaacs, Aaron; Jacobs, Kevin B; Janssen, Joop A M J L; Jansson, John-Olov; Jehmlich, Nico; Johnson, Simon; Juul, Anders; Karlsson, Magnus; Kilpelainen, Tuomas O; Kovacs, Peter; Kraft, Peter; Li, Chao; Linneberg, Allan; Liu, Yongmei; Loos, Ruth J F; Lorentzon, Mattias; Lu, Yingchang; Maggio, Marcello; Magi, Reedik; Meigs, James; Mellström, Dan; Nauck, Matthias; Newman, Anne B; Pollak, Michael N; Pramstaller, Peter P; Prokopenko, Inga; Psaty, Bruce M; Reincke, Martin; Rimm, Eric B; Rotter, Jerome I; Saint Pierre, Aude; Schurmann, Claudia; Seshadri, Sudha; Sjögren, Klara; Slagboom, P Eline; Strickler, Howard D; Stumvoll, Michael; Suh, Yousin; Sun, Qi; Zhang, Cuilin; Svensson, Johan; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tare, Archana; Tönjes, Anke; Uh, Hae-Won; van Duijn, Cornelia M; van Heemst, Diana; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Völker, Uwe; Willems, Sara M; Ohlsson, Claes; Wallaschofski, Henri; Kaplan, Robert C

    2016-10-01

    The growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis can be manipulated in animal models to promote longevity, and IGF-related proteins including IGF-I and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) have also been implicated in risk of human diseases including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer. Through genomewide association study of up to 30 884 adults of European ancestry from 21 studies, we confirmed and extended the list of previously identified loci associated with circulating IGF-I and IGFBP-3 concentrations (IGF1, IGFBP3, GCKR, TNS3, GHSR, FOXO3, ASXL2, NUBP2/IGFALS, SORCS2, and CELSR2). Significant sex interactions, which were characterized by different genotype-phenotype associations between men and women, were found only for associations of IGFBP-3 concentrations with SNPs at the loci IGFBP3 and SORCS2. Analyses of SNPs, gene expression, and protein levels suggested that interplay between IGFBP3 and genes within the NUBP2 locus (IGFALS and HAGH) may affect circulating IGF-I and IGFBP-3 concentrations. The IGF-I-decreasing allele of SNP rs934073, which is an eQTL of ASXL2, was associated with lower adiposity and higher likelihood of survival beyond 90 years. The known longevity-associated variant rs2153960 (FOXO3) was observed to be a genomewide significant SNP for IGF-I concentrations. Bioinformatics analysis suggested enrichment of putative regulatory elements among these IGF-I- and IGFBP-3-associated loci, particularly of rs646776 at CELSR2. In conclusion, this study identified several loci associated with circulating IGF-I and IGFBP-3 concentrations and provides clues to the potential role of the IGF axis in mediating effects of known (FOXO3) and novel (ASXL2) longevity-associated loci. © 2016 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Dense genotyping of immune-related susceptibility loci reveals new insights into the genetics of psoriatic arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Bowes, John; Budu-Aggrey, Ashley; Huffmeier, Ulrike; Uebe, Steffen; Steel, Kathryn; Hebert, Harry L.; Wallace, Chris; Massey, Jonathan; Bruce, Ian N.; Bluett, James; Feletar, Marie; Morgan, Ann W.; Marzo-Ortega, Helena; Donohoe, Gary; Morris, Derek W.; Helliwell, Philip; Ryan, Anthony W.; Kane, David; Warren, Richard B.; Korendowych, Eleanor; Alenius, Gerd-Marie; Giardina, Emiliano; Packham, Jonathan; McManus, Ross; FitzGerald, Oliver; McHugh, Neil; Brown, Matthew A.; Ho, Pauline; Behrens, Frank; Burkhardt, Harald; Reis, Andre; Barton, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a chronic inflammatory arthritis associated with psoriasis and, despite the larger estimated heritability for PsA, the majority of genetic susceptibility loci identified to date are shared with psoriasis. Here, we present results from a case–control association study on 1,962 PsA patients and 8,923 controls using the Immunochip genotyping array. We identify eight loci passing genome-wide significance, secondary independent effects at three loci and a distinct PsA-specific variant at the IL23R locus. We report two novel loci and evidence of a novel PsA-specific association at chromosome 5q31. Imputation of classical HLA alleles, amino acids and SNPs across the MHC region highlights three independent associations to class I genes. Finally, we find an enrichment of associated variants to markers of open chromatin in CD8+ memory primary T cells. This study identifies key insights into the genetics of PsA that could begin to explain fundamental differences between psoriasis and PsA. PMID:25651891

  2. Factors influencing the false positive and negative rates of BCR-ABL fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Chase, A; Grand, F; Zhang, J G; Blackett, N; Goldman, J; Gordon, M

    1997-04-01

    BCR-ABL fluorescence in situ hybridization has a useful role to play in experimental and clinical investigations of chronic myeloid leukaemia. However, the interpretation of results is complicated by variability in the false positive rate (FPR) and false negative rate (FNR). We therefore examined the effects on FNR and FPR of three factors, namely, the criteria used for defining a fusion signal, nucleus size, and the genomic position of the ABL breakpoint. We established two different criteria for BCR-ABL positivity: by criterion A cells were scored as positive when BCR and ABL signals were overlapping or touching and by criterion B cells were positive if they satisfied criterion A or if the signals were separated by up to one signal diameter. We measured nucleus size and Philadelphia (Ph) positivity in 573 cells from normal persons and 787 cells from the Ph+ SD-1 cell line and related results to FNRs and FPRs. We also assessed the FNR in Ph+ CFU-GM colonies from five patients with different ABL breakpoints. We showed that each of these factors influenced the FNR and FPR. The less strict criterion (B) for Ph positivity increased the FPR but reduced the FNR, the FPR increased as the nucleus size decreased, and the FNR was greatest in CML cells with a 5' ABL breakpoint. We conclude that these factors should be considered when evaluating the results of FISH studies to detect the BCR-ABL fusion gene and that analogous factors may influence results of FISH studies directed at other fusion genes.

  3. Development of resistance to dasatinib in Bcr/Abl-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Fei; Stoddart, Sonia; Müschen, Markus; Kim, Yong-mi; Groffen, John; Heisterkamp, Nora

    2010-01-01

    Dasatinib is a potent dual Abl/Src inhibitor approved for treatment of Ph-positive leukemias. At a once-daily dose and a relatively short half-life of 3-5 hours, tyrosine kinase inhibition is not sustained. However, transient inhibition of K562 leukemia cells with a high-dose pulse of dasatinib or long-term treatment with a lower dose was reported to irreversibly induce apoptosis. Here, the effect of dasatinib on treatment of Bcr/Abl-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells was evaluated in the presence of stromal support. Dasatinib eradicated Bcr/Abl ALL cells, caused significant apoptosis and eliminated tyrosine phosphorylation on Bcr/Abl, Src, Crkl and Stat-5. However, treatment of mouse ALL cells with lower doses of dasatinib over an extended period of time allowed the emergence of viable drug-resistant cells. Interestingly, dasatinib treatment increased cell surface expression of CXCR4, which is important for survival of B-lineage cells, but this did not promote survival. Combined treatment of cells with dasatinib and a CXCR4 inhibitor resulted in enhanced cell death. These results do not support the concept that long-term treatment with low dose dasatinib monotherapy will be effective in causing irreversible apoptosis in Ph-positive ALL, but suggest that combined treatment with dasatinib and drugs such as AMD3100 may be effective. PMID:20111071

  4. Altered BCR signalling quality predisposes to autoimmune disease and a pre-diabetic state

    PubMed Central

    Königsberger, Sebastian; Prodöhl, Jan; Stegner, David; Weis, Vanessa; Andreas, Martin; Stehling, Martin; Schumacher, Theresa; Böhmer, Ruben; Thielmann, Ina; van Eeuwijk, Judith M M; Nieswandt, Bernhard; Kiefer, Friedemann

    2012-01-01

    The spleen tyrosine kinase family members Syk and Zap-70 are pivotal signal transducers downstream of antigen receptors and exhibit overlapping expression patterns at early lymphocytic developmental stages. To assess their differential kinase fitness in vivo, we generated mice, which carry a Zap-70 cDNA knock-in controlled by intrinsic Syk promoter elements that disrupts wild-type Syk expression. Kinase replacement severely compromised Erk1/2-mediated survival and proper selection of developing B cells at central and peripheral checkpoints, demonstrating critical dependence on BCR signalling quality. Furthermore, ITAM- and hemITAM-mediated activation of platelets and neutrophils was completely blunted, while surprisingly FcγR-mediated phagocytosis in macrophages was retained. The alteration in BCR signalling quality resulted in preferential development and survival of marginal zone B cells and prominent autoreactivity, causing the generation of anti-insulin antibodies and age-related glomerulonephritis. Development of concomitant fasting glucose intolerance in knock-in mice highlights aberrant B cell selection as a potential risk factor for type 1 diabetes, and suggests altered BCR signalling as a mechanism to cause biased cellular and Ig repertoire selection, ultimately contributing to B cell-mediated autoimmune predisposition. PMID:22728826

  5. Flow Cytometric Immunobead Assay for Detection of BCR-ABL1 Fusion Proteins in Chronic Myleoid Leukemia: Comparison with FISH and PCR Techniques.

    PubMed

    Recchia, Anna Grazia; Caruso, Nadia; Bossio, Sabrina; Pellicanò, Mariavaleria; De Stefano, Laura; Franzese, Stefania; Palummo, Angela; Abbadessa, Vincenzo; Lucia, Eugenio; Gentile, Massimo; Vigna, Ernesto; Caracciolo, Clementina; Agostino, Antolino; Galimberti, Sara; Levato, Luciano; Stagno, Fabio; Molica, Stefano; Martino, Bruno; Vigneri, Paolo; Di Raimondo, Francesco; Morabito, Fortunato

    2015-01-01

    Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) is characterized by a balanced translocation juxtaposing the Abelson (ABL) and breakpoint cluster region (BCR) genes. The resulting BCR-ABL1 oncogene leads to increased proliferation and survival of leukemic cells. Successful treatment of CML has been accompanied by steady improvements in our capacity to accurately and sensitively monitor therapy response. Currently, measurement of BCR-ABL1 mRNA transcript levels by real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR) defines critical response endpoints. An antibody-based technique for BCR-ABL1 protein recognition could be an attractive alternative to RQ-PCR. To date, there have been no studies evaluating whether flow-cytometry based assays could be of clinical utility in evaluating residual disease in CML patients. Here we describe a flow-cytometry assay that detects the presence of BCR-ABL1 fusion proteins in CML lysates to determine the applicability, reliability, and specificity of this method for both diagnosis and monitoring of CML patients for initial response to therapy. We show that: i) CML can be properly diagnosed at onset, (ii) follow-up assessments show detectable fusion protein (i.e. relative mean fluorescent intensity, rMFI%>1) when BCR-ABL1IS transcripts are between 1-10%, and (iii) rMFI% levels predict CCyR as defined by FISH analysis. Overall, the FCBA assay is a rapid technique, fully translatable to the routine management of CML patients.

  6. Conservation and distribution of the benzalkonium chloride resistance cassette bcrABC in Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Vikrant; Elhanafi, Driss; Kathariou, Sophia

    2013-10-01

    Analysis of a panel of 116 Listeria monocytogenes strains of diverse serotypes and sources (clinical, environment of food processing plants, and food) revealed that all but one of the 71 benzalkonium chloride-resistant (BC(r)) isolates harbored bcrABC, previously identified on a large plasmid (pLM80) of the 1998-1999 hot dog outbreak strain H7858. In contrast, bcrABC was not detected among BC-susceptible (BC(s)) isolates. The bcrABC sequences were highly conserved among strains of different serotypes, but variability was noted in sequences flanking bcrABC. The majority of the BC(r) isolates had either the pLM80-type of organization of the bcrABC region or appeared to harbor bcrABC on the chromosome, adjacent to novel sequences. Transcription of bcrABC was induced by BC (10 μg/ml) in strains of different serotypes and diverse bcrABC region organization. These findings reveal widespread dissemination of bcrABC across BC(r) L. monocytogenes strains regardless of serotype and source, while also suggesting possible mechanisms of bcrABC dissemination across L. monocytogenes genomes.

  7. Conservation and Distribution of the Benzalkonium Chloride Resistance Cassette bcrABC in Listeria monocytogenes

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Vikrant; Elhanafi, Driss

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of a panel of 116 Listeria monocytogenes strains of diverse serotypes and sources (clinical, environment of food processing plants, and food) revealed that all but one of the 71 benzalkonium chloride-resistant (BCr) isolates harbored bcrABC, previously identified on a large plasmid (pLM80) of the 1998-1999 hot dog outbreak strain H7858. In contrast, bcrABC was not detected among BC-susceptible (BCs) isolates. The bcrABC sequences were highly conserved among strains of different serotypes, but variability was noted in sequences flanking bcrABC. The majority of the BCr isolates had either the pLM80-type of organization of the bcrABC region or appeared to harbor bcrABC on the chromosome, adjacent to novel sequences. Transcription of bcrABC was induced by BC (10 μg/ml) in strains of different serotypes and diverse bcrABC region organization. These findings reveal widespread dissemination of bcrABC across BCr L. monocytogenes strains regardless of serotype and source, while also suggesting possible mechanisms of bcrABC dissemination across L. monocytogenes genomes. PMID:23892748

  8. Adherence to BCR-ABL Inhibitors: Issues for CML Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Jabbour, Elias; Saglio, Giuseppe; Radich, Jerald; Kantarjian, Hagop

    2015-01-01

    Treatment for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) has improved substantially in the last 20 years, especially since the introduction of oral BCR-ABL inhibitors a decade ago. However, for patients to reap the benefits of BCR-ABL inhibitors, they must likely be on therapy for the remainder of their lives. In this situation, adherence to medication becomes a concern. Adherence to therapy for chronic health conditions, including CML, has been demonstrated to be poor. Studies have shown nonadherence in CML to be common in one-third or more of patients, and 100% adherence is rare. Furthermore, evidence suggests that reduced adherence to BCR-ABL inhibitors is associated with reduced efficacy and increased healthcare costs. Factors that can cause nonadherence, including dose, toxicity, time from diagnosis to prescription, and the number of concomitant medications, should be addressed and monitored by the physician. To maximize adherence, CML treatment should be individualized to the patient and simplified as appropriate. PMID:22633166

  9. Genetic variants near TIMP3 and high-density lipoprotein–associated loci influence susceptibility to age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Stambolian, Dwight; Edwards, Albert O.; Branham, Kari E.; Othman, Mohammad; Jakobsdottir, Johanna; Tosakulwong, Nirubol; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Campochiaro, Peter A.; Klein, Michael L.; Tan, Perciliz L.; Conley, Yvette P.; Kanda, Atsuhiro; Kopplin, Laura; Li, Yanming; Augustaitis, Katherine J.; Karoukis, Athanasios J.; Scott, William K.; Agarwal, Anita; Kovach, Jaclyn L.; Schwartz, Stephen G.; Postel, Eric A.; Brooks, Matthew; Baratz, Keith H.; Brown, William L.; Brucker, Alexander J.; Orlin, Anton; Brown, Gary; Ho, Allen; Regillo, Carl; Donoso, Larry; Tian, Lifeng; Kaderli, Brian; Hadley, Dexter; Hagstrom, Stephanie A.; Peachey, Neal S.; Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Gotoh, Norimoto; Yamashiro, Kenji; Ferris, Frederick; Fagerness, Jesen A.; Reynolds, Robyn; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Kim, Ivana K.; Miller, Joan W.; Cortón, Marta; Carracedo, Angel; Sanchez-Salorio, Manuel; Pugh, Elizabeth W.; Doheny, Kimberly F.; Brion, Maria; DeAngelis, Margaret M.; Weeks, Daniel E.; Zack, Donald J.; Chew, Emily Y.; Heckenlively, John R.; Yoshimura, Nagahisa; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Francis, Peter J.; Katsanis, Nicholas; Seddon, Johanna M.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Gorin, Michael B.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Swaroop, Anand; Johnson, Robert N.; Ai, Everett; McDonald, H. Richard; Stolarczuk, Margaret; Pavan, Peter Reed; Billiris, Karina K.; Iyer, Mohan; Menosky, Matthew M.; Pautler, Scott E.; Millard, Sharon M.; Hubbard, Baker; Aaberg, Thomas; DuBois, Lindy; Lyon, Alice; Anderson-Nelson, Susan; Jampol, Lee M.; Weinberg, David V.; Muñana, Annie; Rozenbajgier, Zuzanna; Orth, David; Cohen, Jack; MacCumber, Matthew; MacCumber, Matthew; Figliulo, Celeste; Porcz, Liz; Folk, James; Boldt, H. Culver; Russell, Stephen R.; Ivins, Rachel; Hinz, Connie J.; Barr, Charles C.; Bloom, Steve; Jaegers, Ken; Kritchman, Brian; Whittington, Greg; Heier, Jeffrey; Frederick, Albert R.; Morley, Michael G.; Topping, Trexler; Davis, Heather L.; Bressler, Susan B.; Bressler, Neil M.; Doll, Warren; Trese, Michael; Capone, Antonio; Garretson, Bruce R.; Hassan, Tarek S.; Ruby, Alan J.; Osentoski, Tammy; McCannel, Colin A.; Ruszczyk, Margaret J.; Grand, Gilbert; Blinder, Kevin; Holekamp, Nancy M.; Joseph, Daniel P.; Shah, Gaurav; Nobel, Ginny S.; Antoszyk, Andrew N.; Browning, David J.; Stallings, Alison H; Singerman, Lawrence J.; Miller, David; Novak, Michael; Pendergast, Scott; Zegarra, Hernando; Schura, Stephanie A.; Smith-Brewer, Sheila; Davidorf, Frederick H.; Chambers, Robert; Chorich, Louis; Salerno, Jill; Dreyer, Richard F.; Ma, Colin; Kopfer, Marcia R.; Klein, Michael L.; Wilson, David J.; Nolte, Susan K.; Grunwald, Juan E.; Brucker, Alexander J.; Dunaief, Josh; Fine, Stuart L.; Maguire, Albert M.; Stoltz, Robert A.; McRay, Monique N.; Fish, Gary Edd; Anand, Rajiv; Spencer, Rand; Arnwine, Jean; Chandra, Suresh R.; Altaweel, Michael; Blodi, Barbara; Gottlieb, Justin; Ip, Michael; Nork, T. Michael; Perry-Raymond, Jennie; Fine, Stuart L.; Maguire, Maureen G.; Brightwell-Arnold, Mary; Harkins, Sandra; Peskin, Ellen; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Kurinij, Natalie

    2010-01-01

    We executed a genome-wide association scan for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in 2,157 cases and 1,150 controls. Our results validate AMD susceptibility loci near CFH (P < 10−75), ARMS2 (P < 10−59), C2/CFB (P < 10−20), C3 (P < 10−9), and CFI (P < 10−6). We compared our top findings with the Tufts/Massachusetts General Hospital genome-wide association study of advanced AMD (821 cases, 1,709 controls) and genotyped 30 promising markers in additional individuals (up to 7,749 cases and 4,625 controls). With these data, we identified a susceptibility locus near TIMP3 (overall P = 1.1 × 10−11), a metalloproteinase involved in degradation of the extracellular matrix and previously implicated in early-onset maculopathy. In addition, our data revealed strong association signals with alleles at two loci (LIPC, P = 1.3 × 10−7; CETP, P = 7.4 × 10−7) that were previously associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) levels in blood. Consistent with the hypothesis that HDL metabolism is associated with AMD pathogenesis, we also observed association with AMD of HDL-c—associated alleles near LPL (P = 3.0 × 10−3) and ABCA1 (P = 5.6 × 10−4). Multilocus analysis including all susceptibility loci showed that 329 of 331 individuals (99%) with the highest-risk genotypes were cases, and 85% of these had advanced AMD. Our studies extend the catalog of AMD associated loci, help identify individuals at high risk of disease, and provide clues about underlying cellular pathways that should eventually lead to new therapies. PMID:20385819

  10. Berry and phenology-related traits in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): From Quantitative Trait Loci to underlying genes

    PubMed Central

    Costantini, Laura; Battilana, Juri; Lamaj, Flutura; Fanizza, Girolamo; Grando, Maria Stella

    2008-01-01

    Background The timing of grape ripening initiation, length of maturation period, berry size and seed content are target traits in viticulture. The availability of early and late ripening varieties is desirable for staggering harvest along growing season, expanding production towards periods when the fruit gets a higher value in the market and ensuring an optimal plant adaptation to climatic and geographic conditions. Berry size determines grape productivity; seedlessness is especially demanded in the table grape market and is negatively correlated to fruit size. These traits result from complex developmental processes modified by genetic, physiological and environmental factors. In order to elucidate their genetic determinism we carried out a quantitative analysis in a 163 individuals-F1 segregating progeny obtained by crossing two table grape cultivars. Results Molecular linkage maps covering most of the genome (2n = 38 for Vitis vinifera) were generated for each parent. Eighteen pairs of homologous groups were integrated into a consensus map spanning over 1426 cM with 341 markers (mainly microsatellite, AFLP and EST-derived markers) and an average map distance between loci of 4.2 cM. Segregating traits were evaluated in three growing seasons by recording flowering, veraison and ripening dates and by measuring berry size, seed number and weight. QTL (Quantitative Trait Loci) analysis was carried out based on single marker and interval mapping methods. QTLs were identified for all but one of the studied traits, a number of them steadily over more than one year. Clusters of QTLs for different characters were detected, suggesting linkage or pleiotropic effects of loci, as well as regions affecting specific traits. The most interesting QTLs were investigated at the gene level through a bioinformatic analysis of the underlying Pinot noir genomic sequence. Conclusion Our results revealed novel insights into the genetic control of relevant grapevine features. They

  11. Conversion, correction, and International Scale standardization: results From a Multicenter External Quality Assessment Study for BCR-ABL1 testing.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Michael; Patton, Simon J; Grossi, Alberto; Clark, Jordan; Paz, Maria Fe; Labourier, Emmanuel

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring BCR-ABL1 expression levels relative to clinically validated response criteria on the International Scale (IS) is vital in the optimal management of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia, yet significant variability remains across laboratories worldwide. To assess method performance, interlaboratory precision, and different IS standardization modalities in representative laboratories performing routine BCR-ABL1 testing. Fifteen blinded test specimens with 5-level nominal BCR-ABL1 to ABL1 IS percentage ratios ranging from 5% to 0.0005% and 4-level secondary IS reference panels, the ARQ IS Calibrator Panels, were tested by relative quantitative polymerase chain reaction in 15 laboratories in 5 countries. Both raw and IS percentage ratios calculated by using local conversion factors (CFs) or analytic correction parameters (CPs) were collected and analyzed. A total of 670 valid positive results were generated. BCR-ABL1 detection was associated with variable ABL1 quality metric passing rates (P < .001) and reached at least 0.01% in 13 laboratories. Intralaboratory precision was within 2.5-fold for all sample levels combined with a relative mean difference greater than 5-fold across laboratories. International Scale accuracy was increased by using both the CF and CP standardization methods. Classification agreement for major molecular response status was 90% after CF conversion and 93% after CP correction, with precision improved by 3-fold for the CP method. Despite preanalytic and analytic differences between laboratories, conversion and correction are effective IS standardization methods. Validated secondary reference materials can facilitate global diffusion of the IS without the need to perform sample exchange and improve the accuracy and precision of BCR-ABL1 quantitative measurements, including at low levels of residual disease.

  12. Comparison of competitive-nested PCR and real-time PCR in detecting BCR-ABL fusion transcripts in chronic myeloid leukemia patients.

    PubMed

    Guo, J Q; Lin, H; Kantarjian, H; Talpaz, M; Champlin, R; Andreeff, M; Glassman, A; Arlinghaus, R B

    2002-12-01

    Real-time RT-PCR has great advantages for estimating transcript levels in a variety of situations. These include relative rapid assay times (hours), reliability and ease of performing replicate analyses. In contrast, competitive PCR is a very labor-intensive procedure requiring a few days to generate useful data. We compared the same samples from CML patients by both methods. Importantly, we used the Bcr-Abl junction plasmid DNA, which is used as a competitor in the manual competitive PCR assay, to generate a standard curve for the real-time assay. This permitted reporting the real-time data as the number of BCR-ABL transcripts per microg of total RNA, which is the same format used for the competitive PCR assay. In this study, a total of 435 peripheral blood and marrow samples from 285 CML patients were analyzed by RT-PCR; these patients were undergoing therapy by STI-571, interferon, and bone marrow transplantation treatment. Most samples also had assay values for the Philadelphia chromosome (Ph), FISH and Western blotting for the Bcr-Abl oncoprotein. Our findings indicated that the real-time assay was less sensitive than the manual competitive RT-PCR assay (t = 5.118; P < 0.001). Of interest, the transcript levels in cell line mixtures with various ratios of K562/KG-1 (BCR-ABL positive/negative) cells were also significantly higher with the competitive RT-PCR assays than real-time RT-PCR, except for levels of BCR-ABL below 200 transcripts per microg of RNA. In both patient and cell line experiments, dividing the BCR-ABL transcripts by the total ABL transcripts virtually eliminated the difference between real-time BCR-ABL transcript values and quantitative competitive BCR-ABL transcript values, indicating that both BCR-ABL and ABL transcripts were underestimated by the real-time assay. In addition, the increased sensitivity of the nested, competitive RT-PCR was readily apparent in patients with minimal residual disease, which by the real-time were negative in the

  13. Dense genotyping of immune-related loci implicates host responses to microbial exposure in Behçet's disease susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Masaki; Mizuki, Nobuhisa; Meguro, Akira; Ombrello, Michael J; Kirino, Yohei; Satorius, Colleen; Le, Julie; Blake, Mary; Erer, Burak; Kawagoe, Tatsukata; Ustek, Duran; Tugal-Tutkun, Ilknur; Seyahi, Emire; Ozyazgan, Yilmaz; Sousa, Inês; Davatchi, Fereydoun; Francisco, Vânia; Shahram, Farhad; Abdollahi, Bahar Sadeghi; Nadji, Abdolhadi; Shafiee, Niloofar Mojarad; Ghaderibarmi, Fahmida; Ohno, Shigeaki; Ueda, Atsuhisa; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki; Gadina, Massimo; Oliveira, Sofia A; Gül, Ahmet; Kastner, Daniel L; Remmers, Elaine F

    2017-03-01

    We analyzed 1,900 Turkish Behçet's disease cases and 1,779 controls genotyped with the Immunochip. The most significantly associated SNP was rs1050502, a tag SNP for HLA-B*51. In the Turkish discovery set, we identified three new risk loci, IL1A-IL1B, IRF8, and CEBPB-PTPN1, with genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10(-8)) by direct genotyping and ADO-EGR2 by imputation. We replicated the ADO-EGR2, IRF8, and CEBPB-PTPN1 loci by genotyping 969 Iranian cases and 826 controls. Imputed data in 608 Japanese cases and 737 controls further replicated ADO-EGR2 and IRF8, and meta-analysis additionally identified RIPK2 and LACC1. The disease-associated allele of rs4402765, the lead marker at IL1A-IL1B, was associated with both decreased IL-1α and increased IL-1β production. ABO non-secretor genotypes for two ancestry-specific FUT2 SNPs showed strong disease association (P = 5.89 × 10(-15)). Our findings extend the list of susceptibility genes shared with Crohn's disease and leprosy and implicate mucosal factors and the innate immune response to microbial exposure in Behçet's disease susceptibility.

  14. BCR-ABL-transformed GMP as myeloid leukemic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Minami, Yosuke; Stuart, Scott A.; Ikawa, Tomokatsu; Jiang, Yong; Banno, Asoka; Hunton, Irina C.; Young, Dennis J.; Naoe, Tomoki; Murre, Cornelis; Jamieson, Catriona H. M.; Wang, Jean Y. J.

    2008-01-01

    During blast crisis of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), abnormal granulocyte macrophage progenitors (GMP) with nuclear β-catenin acquire self-renewal potential and may function as leukemic stem cells (Jamieson et al. N Engl J Med, 2004). To develop a mouse model for CML-initiating GMP, we expressed p210BCR-ABL in an established line of E2A-knockout mouse BM cells that retain pluripotency in ex vivo culture. Expression of BCR-ABL in these cells reproducibly stimulated myeloid expansion in culture and generated leukemia-initiating cells specifically in the GMP compartment. The leukemogenic GMP displayed higher levels of β-catenin activity than either the nontransformed GMP or the transformed nonGMP, both in culture and in transplanted mouse BM. Although E2A-deficiency may have contributed to the formation of leukemogenic GMP, restoration of E2A-function did not reverse BCR-ABL-induced transformation. These results provide further evidence that BCR-ABL-transformed GMP with abnormal β-catenin activity can function as leukemic stem cells. PMID:19004799

  15. Genetic basis of delay discounting in frequent gamblers: examination of a priori candidates and exploration of a panel of dopamine-related loci

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Joshua C; MacKillop, James

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Delay discounting is a behavioral economic index of impulsivity that reflects preferences for small immediate rewards relative to larger delayed rewards. It has been consistently linked to pathological gambling and other forms of addictive behavior, and has been proposed to be a behavioral characteristic that may link genetic variation and risk of developing addictive disorders (i.e., an endophenotype). Studies to date have revealed significant associations with polymorphisms associated with dopamine neurotransmission. The current study examined associations between delay discounting and both previously linked variants and a novel panel of dopamine-related variants in a sample of frequent gamblers. Methods Participants were 175 weekly gamblers of European ancestry who completed the Monetary Choice Questionnaire to assess delay discounting preferences and provided a DNA via saliva. Results In a priori tests, two loci previously associated with delayed reward discounting (rs1800497 and rs4680) were not replicated, however, the long form of DRD4 VNTR was significantly associated with lower discounting of delayed rewards. Exploratory analysis of the dopamine-related panel revealed 11 additional significant associations in genes associated with dopamine synthesis, breakdown, reuptake, and receptor function (DRD3, SLC6A3, DDC, DBH, and SLC18A2). An aggregate genetic risk score from the nominally significant loci accounted for 17% of the variance in discounting. Mediational analyses largely supported the presence of indirect effects between the associated loci, delay discounting, and pathological gambling severity. Conclusions These findings do not replicate previously reported associations but identify several novel candidates and provide preliminary support for a systems biology approach to understand the genetic basis of delay discounting. PMID:25365808

  16. Identification and validation of seven new loci showing differential DNA methylation related to serum lipid profile: an epigenome-wide approach. The REGICOR study.

    PubMed

    Sayols-Baixeras, S; Subirana, I; Lluis-Ganella, C; Civeira, F; Roquer, J; Do, A N; Absher, D; Cenarro, A; Muñoz, D; Soriano-Tárraga, C; Jiménez-Conde, J; Ordovas, J M; Senti, M; Aslibekyan, S; Marrugat, J; Arnett, D K; Elosua, R

    2016-10-15

    Lipid traits (total, low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides) are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. DNA methylation is not only an inherited but also modifiable epigenetic mark that has been related to cardiovascular risk factors. Our aim was to identify loci showing differential DNA methylation related to serum lipid levels. Blood DNA methylation was assessed using the Illumina Human Methylation 450 BeadChip. A two-stage epigenome-wide association study was performed, with a discovery sample in the REGICOR study (n = 645) and validation in the Framingham Offspring Study (n = 2,542). Fourteen CpG sites located in nine genes (SREBF1, SREBF2, PHOSPHO1, SYNGAP1, ABCG1, CPT1A, MYLIP, TXNIP and SLC7A11) and 2 intergenic regions showed differential methylation in association with lipid traits. Six of these genes and 1 intergenic region were new discoveries showing differential methylation related to total cholesterol (SREBF2), HDL-cholesterol (PHOSPHO1, SYNGAP1 and an intergenic region in chromosome 2) and triglycerides (MYLIP, TXNIP and SLC7A11). These CpGs explained 0.7%, 9.5% and 18.9% of the variability of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides in the Framingham Offspring Study, respectively. The expression of the genes SREBF2 and SREBF1 was inversely associated with methylation of their corresponding CpGs (P-value = 0.0042 and 0.0045, respectively) in participants of the GOLDN study (n = 98). In turn, SREBF1 expression was directly associated with HDL cholesterol (P-value = 0.0429). Genetic variants in SREBF1, PHOSPHO1, ABCG1 and CPT1A were also associated with lipid profile. Further research is warranted to functionally validate these new loci and assess the causality of new and established associations between these differentially methylated loci and lipid metabolism.

  17. Identification of domestication-related loci associated with flowering time and seed size in soybean with the RAD-seq genotyping method.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ling; Wang, Shi-Bo; Jian, Jianbo; Geng, Qing-Chun; Wen, Jia; Song, Qijian; Wu, Zhenzhen; Li, Guang-Jun; Liu, Yu-Qin; Dunwell, Jim M; Zhang, Jin; Feng, Jian-Ying; Niu, Yuan; Zhang, Li; Ren, Wen-Long; Zhang, Yuan-Ming

    2015-03-23

    Flowering time and seed size are traits related to domestication. However, identification of domestication-related loci/genes of controlling the traits in soybean is rarely reported. In this study, we identified a total of 48 domestication-related loci based on RAD-seq genotyping of a natural population comprising 286 accessions. Among these, four on chromosome 12 and additional two on chromosomes 11 and 15 were associated with flowering time, and four on chromosomes 11 and 16 were associated with seed size. Of the five genes associated with flowering time and the three genes associated with seed size, three genes Glyma11g18720, Glyma11g15480 and Glyma15g35080 were homologous to Arabidopsis genes, additional five genes were found for the first time to be associated with these two traits. Glyma11g18720 and Glyma05g28130 were co-expressed with five genes homologous to flowering time genes in Arabidopsis, and Glyma11g15480 was co-expressed with 24 genes homologous to seed development genes in Arabidopsis. This study indicates that integration of population divergence analysis, genome-wide association study and expression analysis is an efficient approach to identify candidate domestication-related genes.

  18. A Meta-Analysis of Thyroid-Related Traits Reveals Novel Loci and Gender-Specific Differences in the Regulation of Thyroid Function

    PubMed Central

    Volpato, Claudia B.; Wilson, Scott G.; Cappola, Anne R.; Bos, Steffan D.; Deelen, Joris; den Heijer, Martin; Freathy, Rachel M.; Lahti, Jari; Liu, Chunyu; Lopez, Lorna M.; Nolte, Ilja M.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Trompet, Stella; Arnold, Alice; Bandinelli, Stefania; Beekman, Marian; Böhringer, Stefan; Brown, Suzanne J.; Buckley, Brendan M.; Camaschella, Clara; de Craen, Anton J. M.; Davies, Gail; de Visser, Marieke C. H.; Ford, Ian; Forsen, Tom; Frayling, Timothy M.; Fugazzola, Laura; Gögele, Martin; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Hermus, Ad R.; Hofman, Albert; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J.; Jensen, Richard A.; Kajantie, Eero; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Lim, Ee M.; Masciullo, Corrado; Mariotti, Stefano; Minelli, Cosetta; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Netea-Maier, Romana T.; Palotie, Aarno; Persani, Luca; Piras, Maria G.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Räikkönen, Katri; Richards, J. Brent; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Sala, Cinzia; Sabra, Mona M.; Sattar, Naveed; Shields, Beverley M.; Soranzo, Nicole; Starr, John M.; Stott, David J.; Sweep, Fred C. G. J.; Usala, Gianluca; van der Klauw, Melanie M.; van Heemst, Diana; van Mullem, Alies; H.Vermeulen, Sita; Visser, W. Edward; Walsh, John P.; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.; Widen, Elisabeth; Zhai, Guangju; Cucca, Francesco; Deary, Ian J.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fox, Caroline S.; Jukema, J. Wouter; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Schlessinger, David; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Slagboom, Eline P.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Vaidya, Bijay; Visser, Theo J.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Meulenbelt, Ingrid; Rotter, Jerome I.; Spector, Tim D.; Hicks, Andrew A.; Toniolo, Daniela; Sanna, Serena; Peeters, Robin P.; Naitza, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid hormone is essential for normal metabolism and development, and overt abnormalities in thyroid function lead to common endocrine disorders affecting approximately 10% of individuals over their life span. In addition, even mild alterations in thyroid function are associated with weight changes, atrial fibrillation, osteoporosis, and psychiatric disorders. To identify novel variants underlying thyroid function, we performed a large meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for serum levels of the highly heritable thyroid function markers TSH and FT4, in up to 26,420 and 17,520 euthyroid subjects, respectively. Here we report 26 independent associations, including several novel loci for TSH (PDE10A, VEGFA, IGFBP5, NFIA, SOX9, PRDM11, FGF7, INSR, ABO, MIR1179, NRG1, MBIP, ITPK1, SASH1, GLIS3) and FT4 (LHX3, FOXE1, AADAT, NETO1/FBXO15, LPCAT2/CAPNS2). Notably, only limited overlap was detected between TSH and FT4 associated signals, in spite of the feedback regulation of their circulating levels by the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Five of the reported loci (PDE8B, PDE10A, MAF/LOC440389, NETO1/FBXO15, and LPCAT2/CAPNS2) show strong gender-specific differences, which offer clues for the known sexual dimorphism in thyroid function and related pathologies. Importantly, the TSH-associated loci contribute not only to variation within the normal range, but also to TSH values outside the reference range, suggesting that they may be involved in thyroid dysfunction. Overall, our findings explain, respectively, 5.64% and 2.30% of total TSH and FT4 trait variance, and they improve the current knowledge of the regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis function and the consequences of genetic variation for hypo- or hyperthyroidism. PMID:23408906

  19. A meta-analysis of thyroid-related traits reveals novel loci and gender-specific differences in the regulation of thyroid function.

    PubMed

    Porcu, Eleonora; Medici, Marco; Pistis, Giorgio; Volpato, Claudia B; Wilson, Scott G; Cappola, Anne R; Bos, Steffan D; Deelen, Joris; den Heijer, Martin; Freathy, Rachel M; Lahti, Jari; Liu, Chunyu; Lopez, Lorna M; Nolte, Ilja M; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Tanaka, Toshiko; Trompet, Stella; Arnold, Alice; Bandinelli, Stefania; Beekman, Marian; Böhringer, Stefan; Brown, Suzanne J; Buckley, Brendan M; Camaschella, Clara; de Craen, Anton J M; Davies, Gail; de Visser, Marieke C H; Ford, Ian; Forsen, Tom; Frayling, Timothy M; Fugazzola, Laura; Gögele, Martin; Hattersley, Andrew T; Hermus, Ad R; Hofman, Albert; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J; Jensen, Richard A; Kajantie, Eero; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Lim, Ee M; Masciullo, Corrado; Mariotti, Stefano; Minelli, Cosetta; Mitchell, Braxton D; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Netea-Maier, Romana T; Palotie, Aarno; Persani, Luca; Piras, Maria G; Psaty, Bruce M; Räikkönen, Katri; Richards, J Brent; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Sala, Cinzia; Sabra, Mona M; Sattar, Naveed; Shields, Beverley M; Soranzo, Nicole; Starr, John M; Stott, David J; Sweep, Fred C G J; Usala, Gianluca; van der Klauw, Melanie M; van Heemst, Diana; van Mullem, Alies; Vermeulen, Sita H; Visser, W Edward; Walsh, John P; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Widen, Elisabeth; Zhai, Guangju; Cucca, Francesco; Deary, Ian J; Eriksson, Johan G; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fox, Caroline S; Jukema, J Wouter; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Pramstaller, Peter P; Schlessinger, David; Shuldiner, Alan R; Slagboom, Eline P; Uitterlinden, André G; Vaidya, Bijay; Visser, Theo J; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Meulenbelt, Ingrid; Rotter, Jerome I; Spector, Tim D; Hicks, Andrew A; Toniolo, Daniela; Sanna, Serena; Peeters, Robin P; Naitza, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid hormone is essential for normal metabolism and development, and overt abnormalities in thyroid function lead to common endocrine disorders affecting approximately 10% of individuals over their life span. In addition, even mild alterations in thyroid function are associated with weight changes, atrial fibrillation, osteoporosis, and psychiatric disorders. To identify novel variants underlying thyroid function, we performed a large meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for serum levels of the highly heritable thyroid function markers TSH and FT4, in up to 26,420 and 17,520 euthyroid subjects, respectively. Here we report 26 independent associations, including several novel loci for TSH (PDE10A, VEGFA, IGFBP5, NFIA, SOX9, PRDM11, FGF7, INSR, ABO, MIR1179, NRG1, MBIP, ITPK1, SASH1, GLIS3) and FT4 (LHX3, FOXE1, AADAT, NETO1/FBXO15, LPCAT2/CAPNS2). Notably, only limited overlap was detected between TSH and FT4 associated signals, in spite of the feedback regulation of their circulating levels by the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Five of the reported loci (PDE8B, PDE10A, MAF/LOC440389, NETO1/FBXO15, and LPCAT2/CAPNS2) show strong gender-specific differences, which offer clues for the known sexual dimorphism in thyroid function and related pathologies. Importantly, the TSH-associated loci contribute not only to variation within the normal range, but also to TSH values outside the reference range, suggesting that they may be involved in thyroid dysfunction. Overall, our findings explain, respectively, 5.64% and 2.30% of total TSH and FT4 trait variance, and they improve the current knowledge of the regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis function and the consequences of genetic variation for hypo- or hyperthyroidism.

  20. Disparate evolution of prion protein domains and the distinct origin of Doppel- and prion-related loci revealed by fish-to-mammal comparisons.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Milla, Eric; Oidtmann, Birgit; Panagiotidis, Cynthia H; Baier, Michael; Sklaviadis, Theodoros; Hoffmann, Rudolf; Zhou, Yi; Solis, Gonzalo P; Stuermer, Claudia A O; Málaga-Trillo, Edward

    2006-02-01

    Prions result from the misfolding and selective accumulation of the host-encoded prion protein (PrP) in the brain. Despite intensive research on mammalian models, basic questions about the biological role of PrP and the evolutionary origin of prion disease remain unanswered. Following our previous identification of novel fish PrP homologues, here we generated new fish PrP sequences and performed genomic analysis to demonstrate the existence of two homologous PrP loci in bony fish, which display extensive molecular variation and are highly expressed in adult and developing fish brains. The fish PrP genomic regions contain PrP-related loci directly downstream of each PrP locus, suggesting an independent origin of prion-related proteins in fish and mammals. Our structural prediction analysis uncovers a conserved molecular "bauplan" for all vertebrate PrPs. The C- and N-terminal protein domains have evolved independently from one another, the former having retained its basic globular structure despite high sequence divergence and the latter having undergone differential expansion-degeneration cycles in its repetitive domains. Our evolutionary analysis redefines fundamental concepts on the functional significance of PrP domains and opens up new possibilities for the experimental analysis of prion misfolding and neurodegeneration in a non-mammalian model like the zebrafish.

  1. Transforming and Tumorigenic Activity of JAK2 by Fusion to BCR: Molecular Mechanisms of Action of a Novel BCR-JAK2 Tyrosine-Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Ormazábal, Cristina; Santos-Roncero, Matilde; Galán-Díez, Marta; Steegmann, Juan Luis; Figuera, Ángela; Arranz, Eva; Vizmanos, José Luis; Bueren, Juan A.; Río, Paula; Fernández-Ruiz, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations in tumors frequently produce fusion genes coding for chimeric proteins with a key role in oncogenesis. Recent reports described a BCR-JAK2 fusion gene in fatal chronic and acute myeloid leukemia, but the functional behavior of the chimeric protein remains uncharacterized. We used fluorescence in situ hybridization and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays to describe a BCR-JAK2 fusion gene from a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The patient has been in complete remission for six years following treatment and autologous transplantation, and minimal residual disease was monitored by real-time RT-PCR. BCR-JAK2 codes for a protein containing the BCR oligomerization domain fused to the JAK2 tyrosine-kinase domain. In vitro analysis of transfected cells showed that BCR-JAK2 is located in the cytoplasm. Transduction of hematopoietic Ba/F3 cells with retroviral vectors carrying BCR-JAK2 induced IL-3-independent cell growth, constitutive activation of the chimeric protein as well as STAT5 phosphorylation and translocation to the nuclei, where Bcl-xL gene expression was elicited. Primary mouse progenitor cells transduced with BCR-JAK2 also showed increased proliferation and survival. Treatment with the JAK2 inhibitor TG101209 abrogated BCR-JAK2 and STAT5 phosphorylation, decreased Bcl-xL expression and triggered apoptosis of transformed Ba/F3 cells. Therefore, BCR-JAK2 is a novel tyrosine-kinase with transforming activity. It deregulates growth factor-dependent proliferation and cell survival, which can be abrogated by the TG101209 inhibitor. Moreover, transformed Ba/F3 cells developed tumors when injected subcutaneously into nude mice, thus proving the tumorigenic capacity of BCR-JAK2 in vivo. Together these findings suggest that adult and pediatric patients with BCR-ABL-negative leukemia and JAK2 overexpression may benefit from targeted therapies. PMID:22384256

  2. Relative contribution of type 1 and type 2 diabetes loci to the genetic etiology of adult-onset, non-insulin-requiring autoimmune diabetes.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Rajashree; Chesi, Alessandra; Cousminer, Diana L; Hawa, Mohammad I; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Hodge, Kenyaita M; Guy, Vanessa C; Hakonarson, Hakon; Mauricio, Didac; Schloot, Nanette C; Yderstræde, Knud B; Voight, Benjamin F; Schwartz, Stanley; Boehm, Bernhard O; Leslie, Richard David; Grant, Struan F A

    2017-04-25

    In adulthood, autoimmune diabetes can present as non-insulin-requiring diabetes, termed as 'latent autoimmune diabetes in adults' (LADA). In this study, we investigated established type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) genetic loci in a large cohort of LADA cases to assess where LADA is situated relative to these two well-characterized, classic forms of diabetes. We tested the association of T1D and T2D GWAS-implicated loci in 978 LADA cases and 1057 non-diabetic controls of European ancestry using a linear mixed model. We then compared the associations of T1D and T2D loci between LADA and T1D and T2D cases, respectively. We quantified the difference in genetic risk between each given disease at each locus, and also calculated genetic risk scores to quantify how genetic liability to T1D and T2D distinguished LADA cases from controls. Overall, our results showed that LADA is genetically more similar to T1D, with the exception of an association at the T2D HNF1A locus. Several T1D loci were associated with LADA, including the major histocompatibility complex region, as well as at PTPN22, SH2B3, and INS. Contrary to previous studies, the key T2D risk allele at TCF7L2 (rs7903146-T) had a significantly lower frequency in LADA cases, suggesting that this locus does not play a role in LADA etiology. When constrained on antibody status, the similarity between LADA and T1D became more apparent; however, the HNF1A and TCF7L2 observations persisted. LADA is genetically closer to T1D than T2D, although the genetic load of T1D risk alleles is less than childhood-onset T1D, particularly at the major histocompatibility complex region, potentially accounting for the later disease onset. Our results show that the genetic spectrum of T1D extends into adult-onset diabetes, where it can clinically masquerade as T2D. Furthermore, T2D genetic risk plays a small role in LADA, with a degree of evidence for the HNF1A locus, highlighting the potential for genetic risk scores to

  3. Quantitative trait loci for the monoamine-related traits heart rate and headless behavior in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Ashton, K; Wagoner, A P; Carrillo, R; Gibson, G

    2001-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster appears to be well suited as a model organism for quantitative pharmacogenetic analysis. A genome-wide deficiency screen for haploinsufficient effects on prepupal heart rate identified nine regions of the genome that significantly reduce (five deficiencies) or increase (four deficiencies) heart rate across a range of genetic backgrounds. Candidate genes include several neurotransmitter receptor loci, particularly monoamine receptors, consistent with results of prior pharmacological manipulations of heart rate, as well as genes associated with paralytic phenotypes. Significant genetic variation is also shown to exist for a suite of four autonomic behaviors that are exhibited spontaneously upon decapitation, namely, grooming, grasping, righting, and quivering. Overall activity levels are increased by application of particular concentrations of the drugs octopamine and nicotine, but due to high environmental variance both within and among replicate vials, the significance of genetic variation among wild-type lines for response to the drugs is difficult to establish. An interval mapping design was also used to map two or three QTL for each behavioral trait in a set of recombinant inbred lines derived from the laboratory stocks Oregon-R and 2b. PMID:11139509

  4. Integrated analysis of phenome, genome, and transcriptome of hybrid rice uncovered multiple heterosis-related loci for yield increase

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dayong; Huang, Zhiyuan; Song, Shuhui; Xin, Yeyun; Mao, Donghai; Lv, Qiming; Zhou, Ming; Tian, Dongmei; Tang, Mingfeng; Wu, Qi; Liu, Xue; Chen, Tingting; Song, Xianwei; Fu, Xiqin; Zhao, Bingran; Liang, Chengzhi; Li, Aihong; Liu, Guozhen; Li, Shigui; Hu, Songnian; Cao, Xiaofeng; Yu, Jun; Yuan, Longping; Chen, Caiyan; Zhu, Lihuang

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid rice is the dominant form of rice planted in China, and its use has extended worldwide since the 1970s. It offers great yield advantages and has contributed greatly to the world’s food security. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying heterosis have remained a mystery. In this study we integrated genetics and omics analyses to determine the candidate genes for yield heterosis in a model two-line rice hybrid system, Liang-you-pei 9 (LYP9) and its parents. Phenomics study revealed that the better parent heterosis (BPH) of yield in hybrid is not ascribed to BPH of all the yield components but is specific to the BPH of spikelet number per panicle (SPP) and paternal parent heterosis (PPH) of effective panicle number (EPN). Genetic analyses then identified multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for these two components. Moreover, a number of differentially expressed genes and alleles in the hybrid were mapped by transcriptome profiling to the QTL regions as possible candidate genes. In parallel, a major QTL for yield heterosis, rice heterosis 8 (RH8), was found to be the DTH8/Ghd8/LHD1 gene. Based on the shared allelic heterozygosity of RH8 in many hybrid rice cultivars, a common mechanism for yield heterosis in the present commercial hybrid rice is proposed. PMID:27663737

  5. Integrated analysis of phenome, genome, and transcriptome of hybrid rice uncovered multiple heterosis-related loci for yield increase.

    PubMed

    Li, Dayong; Huang, Zhiyuan; Song, Shuhui; Xin, Yeyun; Mao, Donghai; Lv, Qiming; Zhou, Ming; Tian, Dongmei; Tang, Mingfeng; Wu, Qi; Liu, Xue; Chen, Tingting; Song, Xianwei; Fu, Xiqin; Zhao, Bingran; Liang, Chengzhi; Li, Aihong; Liu, Guozhen; Li, Shigui; Hu, Songnian; Cao, Xiaofeng; Yu, Jun; Yuan, Longping; Chen, Caiyan; Zhu, Lihuang

    2016-10-11

    Hybrid rice is the dominant form of rice planted in China, and its use has extended worldwide since the 1970s. It offers great yield advantages and has contributed greatly to the world's food security. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying heterosis have remained a mystery. In this study we integrated genetics and omics analyses to determine the candidate genes for yield heterosis in a model two-line rice hybrid system, Liang-you-pei 9 (LYP9) and its parents. Phenomics study revealed that the better parent heterosis (BPH) of yield in hybrid is not ascribed to BPH of all the yield components but is specific to the BPH of spikelet number per panicle (SPP) and paternal parent heterosis (PPH) of effective panicle number (EPN). Genetic analyses then identified multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for these two components. Moreover, a number of differentially expressed genes and alleles in the hybrid were mapped by transcriptome profiling to the QTL regions as possible candidate genes. In parallel, a major QTL for yield heterosis, rice heterosis 8 (RH8), was found to be the DTH8/Ghd8/LHD1 gene. Based on the shared allelic heterozygosity of RH8 in many hybrid rice cultivars, a common mechanism for yield heterosis in the present commercial hybrid rice is proposed.

  6. Polymorphic microsatellite loci from an indigenous Asian fungus-growing termite, Macrotermes gilvus (Blattodea: Termitidae) and cross amplification in related taxa.

    PubMed

    Singham, G Veera; Vargo, Edward L; Booth, Warren; Othman, Ahmad Sofiman; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2012-04-01

    The fungus-growing termite, Macrotermes gilvus (Hagen), an indigenous species from Southeast Asia distributed from Myanmar to Indonesia and the Philippines, offers great potential as an ecological model system to elucidate the effects of geography on gene flow within this region. We used next generation sequencing (Roche 454 pyrosequencing) to identify microsatellite markers from the genomic DNA of M. gilvus. A modest sequencing volume generated 34,122 reads, with 1,212 (3.6%) reads contains microsatellites with di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-, and hexa-nucleotide repeat motifs. Thirty-seven loci were selected for primer development and tested for polymorphism across 22 colonies of M. gilvus. Eleven loci were found to be polymorphic with 2-4 alleles per locus. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged between 0.091-0.727 and 0.090-0.540, respectively. Cross taxa amplification was successful across a panel of four related termite species and four multiplex groups were designed for future population genetic studies. These markers will open new avenues for the study of phylogeography and population genetics of this fungus-growing termite. This study also has effectively demonstrated the use of 454 pyrosequencing for the rapid development of informative microsatellite markers from a termite genome.

  7. Zebrafish Models of BCR-ABL-Induced Leukemogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    ORGANIZATION: Dana-Farber Cancer Institute Boston, MA 02115 REPORT DATE: October 2005 TYPE OF REPORT: Final PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical Research...NUMBER Sf. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Dana-Farber Cancer Institute...stable transgenic zebrafish models for BCR-ABL induced leukemia will establish the necessary groundwork that will be valuable in conducting future

  8. Systems-wide analysis of BCR signalosomes and downstream phosphorylation and ubiquitylation

    PubMed Central

    Satpathy, Shankha; Wagner, Sebastian A; Beli, Petra; Gupta, Rajat; Kristiansen, Trine A; Malinova, Dessislava; Francavilla, Chiara; Tolar, Pavel; Bishop, Gail A; Hostager, Bruce S; Choudhary, Chunaram

    2015-01-01

    B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling is essential for the development and function of B cells; however, the spectrum of proteins involved in BCR signaling is not fully known. Here we used quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics to monitor the dynamics of BCR signaling complexes (signalosomes) and to investigate the dynamics of downstream phosphorylation and ubiquitylation signaling. We identify most of the previously known components of BCR signaling, as well as many proteins that have not yet been implicated in this system. BCR activation leads to rapid tyrosine phosphorylation and ubiquitylation of the receptor-proximal signaling components, many of which are co-regulated by both the modifications. We illustrate the power of multilayered proteomic analyses for discovering novel BCR signaling components by demonstrating that BCR-induced phosphorylation of RAB7A at S72 prevents its association with effector proteins and with endo-lysosomal compartments. In addition, we show that BCL10 is modified by LUBAC-mediated linear ubiquitylation, and demonstrate an important function of LUBAC in BCR-induced NF-κB signaling. Our results offer a global and integrated view of BCR signaling, and the provided datasets can serve as a valuable resource for further understanding BCR signaling networks. PMID:26038114

  9. Correlations and comparisons of quantitative trait loci with family per se and testcross performance for grain yield and related traits in maize.

    PubMed

    Peng, Bo; Li, Yongxiang; Wang, Yang; Liu, Cheng; Liu, Zhizhai; Zhang, Yan; Tan, Weiwei; Wang, Di; Shi, Yunsu; Sun, Baocheng; Song, Yanchun; Wang, Tianyu; Li, Yu

    2013-03-01

    Simultaneous improvement in grain yield and related traits in maize hybrids and their parents (inbred lines) requires a better knowledge of genotypic correlations between family per se performance (FP) and testcross performance (TP). Thus, to understand the genetic basis of yield-related traits in both inbred lines and their testcrosses, two F (2:3) populations (including 230 and 235 families, respectively) were evaluated for both FP and TP of eight yield-related traits in three diverse environments. Genotypic correlations between FP and TP, [Formula: see text] (FP, TP), were low (0-0.16) for grain yield per plant (GYPP) and kernel number per plant (KNPP) in the two populations, but relatively higher (0.32-0.69) for the other six traits with additive effects as the primary gene action. Similar results were demonstrated by the genotypic correlations between observed and predicted TP values based on quantitative trait loci positions and effects for FP, [Formula: see text] (M (FP), Y (TP)). A total of 88 and 35 QTL were detected with FP and TP, respectively, across all eight traits in the two populations. However, the genotypic variances explained by the QTL detected in the cross-validation analysis were much lower than those in the whole data set for all traits. Several common QTL between FP and TP that accounted for large phenotypic variances were clustered in four genomic regions (bin 1.10, 4.05-4.06, 9.02, and 10.04), which are promising candidate loci for further map-based cloning and improvement in grain yield in maize. Compared with publicly available QTL data, these QTL were also detected in a wide range of genetic backgrounds and environments in maize. These results imply that effective selection based on FP to improve TP could be achieved for traits with prevailing additive effects.

  10. Unequal Recombination and Evolution of the Mating-Type (MAT) Loci in the Pathogenic Fungus Grosmannia clavigera and Relatives

    PubMed Central

    Tsui, Clement K.-M.; DiGuistini, Scott; Wang, Ye; Feau, Nicolas; Dhillon, Braham; Bohlmann, Jörg; Hamelin, Richard C.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual reproduction in fungi is regulated by the mating-type (MAT) locus where recombination is suppressed. We investigated the evolution of MAT loci in eight fungal species belonging to Grosmannia and Ophiostoma (Sordariomycetes, Ascomycota) that include conifer pathogens and beetle symbionts. The MAT1-2 idiomorph/allele was identified from the assembled and annotated Grosmannia clavigera genome, and the MAT locus is flanked by genes coding for cytoskeleton protein (SLA) and DNA lyase. The synteny of these genes is conserved and consistent with other members in Ascomycota. Using sequences from SLA and flanking regions, we characterized the MAT1-1 idiomorph from other isolates of G. clavigera and performed dotplot analysis between the two idiomorphs. Unexpectedly, the MAT1-2 idiomorph contains a truncated MAT1-1-1 gene upstream of the MAT1-2-1 gene that bears the high-mobility-group domain. The nucleotide and amino acid sequence of the truncated MAT1-1-1 gene is similar to its homologous copy in the MAT1-1 idiomorph in the opposite mating-type isolate, except that positive selection is acting on the truncated gene and the alpha(α)-box that encodes the transcription factor has been deleted. The MAT idiomorphs sharing identical gene organization were present in seven additional species in the Ophiostomatales, suggesting that the presence of truncated MAT1-1-1 gene is a general pattern in this order. We propose that an ancient unequal recombination event resulted in the ancestral MAT1-1-1 gene integrated into the MAT1-2 idiomorph and surviving as the truncated MAT1-1-1 genes. The α-box domain of MAT1-1-1 gene, located at the same MAT locus adjacent to the MAT1-2-1 gene, could have been removed by deletion after recombination due to mating signal interference. Our data confirmed a 1:1 MAT/sex ratio in two pathogen populations, and showed that all members of the Ophiostomatales studied here including those that were previously deemed asexual have the potential to

  11. A pyramid breeding of eight grain-yield related quantitative trait loci based on marker-assistant and phenotype selection in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Zong, Guo; Wang, Ahong; Wang, Lu; Liang, Guohua; Gu, Minghong; Sang, Tao; Han, Bin

    2012-07-20

    1000-Grain weight and spikelet number per panicle are two important components for rice grain yield. In our previous study, eight quantitative trait loci (QTLs) conferring spikelet number per panicle and 1000-grain weight were mapped through sequencing-based genotyping of 150 rice recombinant inbred lines (RILs). In this study, we validated the effects of four QTLs from Nipponbare using chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs), and pyramided eight grain yield related QTLs. The new lines containing the eight QTLs with positive effects showed increased panicle and spikelet size as compared with the parent variety 93-11. We further proposed a novel pyramid breeding scheme based on marker-assistant and phenotype selection (MAPS). This scheme allowed pyramiding of as many as 24 QTLs at a single hybridization without massive cross work. This study provided insights into the molecular basis of rice grain yield for direct wealth for high-yielding rice breeding. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. A BCR-ABL Kinase Activity-Independent Signaling Pathway in Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    myeloproliferative disease in mice receiving P210 bcr/abl-transduced bone marrow. Blood. 1998;92:3780-3792. 17. Zhang X, Ren R. Bcr-Abl efficiently induces a... myeloproliferative disease and production of excess interleukin-3 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in mice: a novel model for chronic...Xu L, et al. Efficient and rapid induction of a chronic myelogenous leukemia-like myeloproliferative disease in mice receiving P210 bcr/abl-transduced

  13. Janus kinase 2 mutations in cases with BCR-ABL-negative chronic myeloproliferative disorders from Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Yildiz, Ismail; Yokuş, Osman; Gedik, Habip

    2017-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to investigate the frequency of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) mutations in cases with chronic myeloproliferative disorders (CMDs), and the relationship between the presence of JAK2 mutation and leukocytosis and splenomegaly, retrospectively. Materials and Methods: Patients, who were diagnosed with BCR-ABL-negative CMDs according to diagnosis criteria of the World Health Organization and followed up at the hematology clinic between 2013 and 2015, were investigated in terms of the frequency of JAK2 mutation in cases with CMDs, and the relationship between the presence of JAK2 mutation and leukocytosis and splenomegaly, retrospectively. Results: In total, 100 patients, who were diagnosed with BCR-ABL-negative CMDs, were evaluated retrospectively. The mean age of the patients with JAK2 positivity was significantly higher compared to patients with negative. JAK2-positivity rates in the age groups were significantly different. Gender, diagnosis, splenomegaly, and leukocytosis were not statistically different for JAK2 positivity between the groups. Conclusion: JAK2 V617F mutation is more commonly seen in older age as a risk for complications related to CDMS. Splenomegaly and leukocytosis are not associated with JAK2 V617F mutation. PMID:28182037

  14. Curcumin affects components of the chromosomal passenger complex and induces mitotic catastrophe in apoptosis-resistant Bcr-Abl-expressing cells.

    PubMed

    Wolanin, Kamila; Magalska, Adriana; Mosieniak, Grazyna; Klinger, Rut; McKenna, Sharon; Vejda, Susanne; Sikora, Ewa; Piwocka, Katarzyna

    2006-07-01

    The Bcr-Abl oncoprotein plays a major role in the development and progression of chronic myeloid leukemia and is a determinant of chemotherapy resistance occurring during the blast crisis phase of the disease. The aim of this article was to investigate the possibility of combating the resistance to apoptosis caused by Bcr-Abl by inducing an alternative cell death process. As a model of chronic myeloid leukemia, we employed Bcr-Abl-transfected mouse progenitor 32D cells with low and high Bcr-Abl expression levels corresponding to drug-sensitive and drug-resistant cells, respectively. The drug curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a known potent inducer of cell death in many cancer cells, was investigated for efficacy with Bcr-Abl-expressing cells. Curcumin strongly inhibited cell proliferation and affected cell viability by inducing apoptotic symptoms in all tested cells; however, apoptosis was a relatively late event. G(2)-M cell cycle arrest, together with increased mitotic index and cellular and nuclear morphology resembling those described for mitotic catastrophe, was observed and preceded caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation. Mitosis-arrested cells displayed abnormal chromatin organization, multipolar chromosome segregation, aberrant cytokinesis, and multinucleated cells-morphologic changes typical of mitotic catastrophe. We found that the mitotic cell death symptoms correlated with attenuated expression of survivin, a member of the chromosomal passenger complex, and mislocalization of Aurora B, the partner of survivin in the chromosomal passenger complex. Inhibition of survivin expression with small interfering RNA exhibited similar mitotic disturbances, thus implicating survivin as a major, albeit not the only, target for curcumin action. This study shows that curcumin can overcome the broad resistance to cell death caused by expression of Bcr-Abl and suggests that curcumin may be a promising agent for new combination regimens for drug-resistant chronic myeloid

  15. 9;22 translocation and bcr rearrangements in chronic myelocytic leukemia patients among atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, K; Takechi, M; Hong, J; Shigeta, C; Oguma, N; Kamada, N; Takimoto, Y; Kuramoto, A; Dohy, H; Kyo, T

    1989-12-01

    To elucidate the mechanism of leukemia induced by radiation, we studied both chromosome abnormalities and bcr rearrangements of seven CML patients with a history of atomic bomb exposure and 14 CML patients without the exposure. All patients, irrespective of radiation exposure, had 9;22 translocation and rearrangement of the bcr gene in the leukemic cells. Further analysis of breakpoints within the bcr gene demonstrated no distinct difference between the exposed and the non-exposed groups. The present study suggests that formation of the chimeric bcr-abl gene and its genetic products may play an important role in the development of leukemia in either radiation-induced or de novo CML.

  16. Characterization of a reference material for BCR-ABL (M-BCR) mRNA quantitation by real-time amplification assays: towards new standards for gene expression measurements.

    PubMed

    Saldanha, J; Silvy, M; Beaufils, N; Arlinghaus, R; Barbany, G; Branford, S; Cayuela, J-M; Cazzaniga, G; Gonzalez, M; Grimwade, D; Kairisto, V; Miyamura, K; Lawler, M; Lion, T; Macintyre, E; Mahon, F-X; Muller, M C; Ostergaard, M; Pfeifer, H; Saglio, G; Sawyers, C; Spinelli, O; van der Velden, V H J; Wang, J Q; Zoi, K; Patel, V; Phillips, P; Matejtschuk, P; Gabert, J

    2007-07-01

    Monitoring of BCR-ABL transcripts has become established practice in the management of chronic myeloid leukemia. However, nucleic acid amplification techniques are prone to variations which limit the reliability of real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR) for clinical decision making, highlighting the need for standardization of assays and reporting of minimal residual disease (MRD) data. We evaluated a lyophilized preparation of a leukemic cell line (K562) as a potential quality control reagent. This was found to be relatively stable, yielding comparable respective levels of ABL, GUS and BCR-ABL transcripts as determined by RQ-PCR before and after accelerated degradation experiments as well as following 5 years storage at -20 degrees C. Vials of freeze-dried cells were sent at ambient temperature to 22 laboratories on four continents, with RQ-PCR analyses detecting BCR-ABL transcripts at levels comparable to those observed in primary patient samples. Our results suggest that freeze-dried cells can be used as quality control reagents with a range of analytical instrumentations and could enable the development of urgently needed international standards simulating clinically relevant levels of MRD.

  17. Joint effects of diabetic-related genomic loci on the therapeutic efficacy of oral anti-diabetic drugs in Chinese type 2 diabetes patients

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Miao; Zhang, Rong; Jiang, Feng; Wang, Jie; Peng, Danfeng; Yan, Jing; Wang, Shiyun; Wang, Tao; Bao, Yuqian; Hu, Cheng; Jia, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Previous pharmacogenomic studies of oral anti-diabetic drugs have primarily focused on the effect of a single site. This study aimed to examine the joint effects of multiple loci on repaglinide or rosiglitazone efficacy in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. A total of 209 newly diagnosed T2DM patients were randomly assigned to treatment with repaglinide or rosiglitazone for 48 weeks. The reductions in fasting glucose (ΔFPG), 2h glucose (Δ2hPG) and glycated hemoglobin (ΔHbA1c) levels were significantly associated with genetic score that was constructed using the sum of the effect alleles both in the repaglinide (P = 0.0011, 0.0002 and 0.0067, respectively) and rosiglitazone cohorts (P = 0.0002, 0.0014 and 0.0164, respectively) after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index and dosage. Survival analyses showed a trend towards a greater attainment rate of target HbA1c level in individuals with a high genetic score in the repaglinide cohort and rosiglitazone cohort (Plog-rank = 0.0815 and 0.0867, respectively) when the attainment of treatment targets were defined as more than 20% decrease of FPG, 2hPG, and HbA1c levels after treatment. In conclusion, we identified the joint effects of several T2DM-related loci on the efficacy of oral anti-diabetic drugs; moreover, we built a model to predict the drug efficacy. PMID:26983698

  18. Genetic localization of diuron- and mucidin-resistant mutants relative to a group of loci of the mitochondrial DNA controlling coenzyme QH2-cytochrome c reductase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Colson, A M; Slonimski, P P

    1979-01-02

    Diuron-resistance, DIU (Colson et al., 1977), antimycin-resistance, ANA (Michaelis, 1976; Burger et al., 1976), funiculosin-resistance, FUN (Pratje and Michaelis, 1977; Burger et al., 1977) and mucidin-resistance, MUC (Subik et al., 1977) are each coded by a pair of genetic loci on the mit DNA of S. cerevisiae. In the present paper, these respiratiory-competent, drug-resistant loci are localized relative to respiratory-deficient BOX mutants deficient in coenzyme QH2-cytochrome c reductase (Kotylak and Slonimski, 1976, 1977) using deletion and recombination mapping. Three drug-resistant loci possessing distinct mutated allelic forms are distinguished. DIU1 is allelic or closely linked to ANA2, FUN1 and BOX1; DIU2 is allelic or closely linked to ANA1, MUC1 and BOX4/5; MUC2 is allelic to BOX6. The high recombinant frequencies observed between the three loci (13% on the average for 33 various combinations analyzed) suggest the existence of either three genes coding for three distinct polypeptides or of a single gene coding for a single polypeptide but subdivided into three easily separable segments. The resistance of the respiratory-chain observed in vitro in the drug-resistant mutants and the allelism relationships between respiratory-competent, drug-resistant loci and coQH2-cyt c reductase deficient, BOX, loci strongly suggest that each of the three drug-resistant loci codes for a structural gene-product which is essential for the normal coQH2-cyt c reductase activity and is obviously a good candidate for a gene product of the drug-resistant loci mapped in this paper. Polypeptide length modifications of cytochrome b were observed in mutants deficient in the coQH2-cyt c red and localized at the BOX1, BOX4 and BOX6 genetic loci (Claisse et al., 1977, 1978) which are precisely the loci allelic to drug resistant mutants as shown in the present work. Taken together these two sets of data provide a strong evidence in favor of the idea that there exist three non contiguous

  19. Measurement of adherence to BCR-ABL inhibitor therapy in chronic myeloid leukemia: current situation and future challenges

    PubMed Central

    Noens, Lucien; Hensen, Marja; Kucmin-Bemelmans, Izabela; Lofgren, Christina; Gilloteau, Isabelle; Vrijens, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    BCR-ABL inhibitors for treating chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase have transformed a previously incurable malignancy into a manageable condition. However, suboptimal medication adherence has been observed with these agents affecting clinical outcomes and healthcare costs. In order to raise awareness of the problem of adherence, and before developing pragmatic strategies to enhance medication adherence, a deep understanding of the best approaches for measuring adherence in chronic myeloid leukemia patients and identifying non-adherence is required. A systematic literature review on the prevalence, measurement methods, consequences and risk factors for non-adherence to BCR-ABL inhibitors and adherence-enhancing interventions was performed and critically appraised. Of the 19 included articles, 9 were retrospective. Average adherence varied from 19% to almost 100% of the proportion of prescribed drug taken, but it was measured through various different methods and within different study groups. Suboptimal adherence was associated with a negative impact on both clinical and economic outcomes. There is a lack of supportive evidence demonstrating a difference in adherence across BCR-ABL inhibitors and even contradictory results between the 2nd generation inhibitors. Drug-related adverse events and forgetfulness were common reasons for intentional and unintentional non-adherence, respectively, but further research is required to identify additional reasons behind non-adherence or patients at risk of non-adherence. Non-adherence in chronic myeloid leukemia patients treated with BCR-ABL inhibitors is common and associated with critical outcomes. However, this review highlights important existing gaps, reveals inconsistent definitions, and a lack of standardized methods for measuring adherence in chronic myeloid leukemia. All require further investigation. PMID:24598855

  20. Optimisation of beryllium-7 gamma analysis following BCR sequential extraction.

    PubMed

    Taylor, A; Blake, W H; Keith-Roach, M J

    2012-03-30

    The application of cosmogenic (7)Be as a sediment tracer at the catchment-scale requires an understanding of its geochemical associations in soil to underpin the assumption of irreversible adsorption. Sequential extractions offer a readily accessible means of determining the associations of (7)Be with operationally defined soil phases. However, the subdivision of the low activity concentrations of fallout (7)Be in soils into geochemical fractions can introduce high gamma counting uncertainties. Extending analysis time significantly is not always an option for batches of samples, owing to the on-going decay of (7)Be (t(1/2)=53.3 days). Here, three different methods of preparing and quantifying (7)Be extracted using the optimised BCR three-step scheme have been evaluated and compared with a focus on reducing analytical uncertainties. The optimal method involved carrying out the BCR extraction in triplicate, sub-sampling each set of triplicates for stable Be analysis before combining each set and coprecipitating the (7)Be with metal oxyhydroxides to produce a thin source for gamma analysis. This method was applied to BCR extractions of natural (7)Be in four agricultural soils. The approach gave good counting statistics from a 24 h analysis period (~10% (2σ) where extract activity >40% of total activity) and generated statistically useful sequential extraction profiles. Total recoveries of (7)Be fell between 84 and 112%. The stable Be data demonstrated that the extraction procedure had a high reproducibility (<1% RSD), thus gamma counting uncertainties dominated the overall uncertainty. In addition, extractions of soil equilibrated with stable Be at a concentration below the Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) of the soil demonstrated that doubling the soil:solution ratio to enhance the mass of soil used in a sequential extraction scheme affects the apparent distribution of approximately 10% of the total Be. At high concentration, stable Be was found to be a poor proxy for

  1. Bcr1 Functions Downstream of Ssd1 To Mediate Antimicrobial Peptide Resistance in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sook-In; Finkel, Jonathan S.; Solis, Norma V.; Chaili, Siyang; Mitchell, Aaron P.; Yeaman, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    In order to colonize the host and cause disease, Candida albicans must avoid being killed by host defense peptides. Previously, we determined that the regulatory protein Ssd1 governs antimicrobial peptide resistance in C. albicans. Here, we sought to identify additional genes whose products govern susceptibility to antimicrobial peptides. We discovered that a bcr1Δ/Δ mutant, like the ssd1Δ/Δ mutant, had increased susceptibility to the antimicrobial peptides, protamine, RP-1, and human β defensin-2. Homozygous deletion of BCR1 in the ssd1Δ/Δ mutant did not result in a further increase in antimicrobial peptide susceptibility. Exposure of the bcr1Δ/Δ and ssd1Δ/Δ mutants to RP-1 induced greater loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and increased plasma membrane permeability than with the control strains. Therefore, Bcr1 and Ssd1 govern antimicrobial peptide susceptibility and likely function in the same pathway. Furthermore, BCR1 mRNA expression was downregulated in the ssd1Δ/Δ mutant, and the forced expression of BCR1 in the ssd1Δ/Δ mutant partially restored antimicrobial peptide resistance. These results suggest that Bcr1 functions downstream of Ssd1. Interestingly, overexpression of 11 known Bcr1 target genes in the bcr1Δ/Δ mutant failed to restore antimicrobial peptide resistance, suggesting that other Bcr1 target genes are likely responsible for antimicrobial peptide resistance. Collectively, these results demonstrate that Bcr1 functions downstream of Ssd1 to govern antimicrobial peptide resistance by maintaining mitochondrial energetics and reducing membrane permeabilization. PMID:23314964

  2. UAP56 is a novel interacting partner of Bcr in regulating vascular smooth muscle cell DNA synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Sahni, Abha; Wang, Nadan; Alexis, Jeffrey D.

    2012-04-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UAP56 is an important regulator of DNA synthesis in vascular smooth muscle cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UAP56 binds to Bcr. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interaction between Bcr and UAP56 is critical for Bcr induced DNA synthesis. -- Abstract: Bcr is a serine/threonine kinase that is a critical regulator of vascular smooth muscle cell inflammation and proliferation. We have previously demonstrated that Bcr acts in part via phosphorylation and inhibition of PPAR{gamma}. We have identified the RNA helicase UAP56 as another substrate of Bcr. In this report we demonstrate that knockdown of UAP56 blocks Bcr induced DNA synthesis in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). We also found that over expression of Bcr increased the expression of cyclin E and decreased the expression of p27. Knockdown of UAP56 reversed the effect of Bcr on cyclin E and p27 expression. Furthermore, we found that Bcr binds to UAP56 and demonstrate that binding of UAP56 to Bcr is critical for Bcr induced DNA synthesis in VSMC. Our data identify UAP56 as an important binding partner of Bcr and a novel target for inhibiting vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation.

  3. A whole genome scan to detect quantitative trait loci for gestation length and sow maternal ability related traits in a White Duroc × Erhualian F2 resource population.

    PubMed

    Chen, C Y; Guo, Y M; Zhang, Z Y; Ren, J; Huang, L S

    2010-06-01

    Gestation length and maternal ability are important to improve the sow reproduction efficiency and their offspring survival. To map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for gestation length and maternal ability related traits including piglet survival rate and average body weight of piglets at weaning, more than 200 F2 sows from a White Duroc × Erhualian resource population were phenotyped. A genome-wide scan was performed with 194 microsatellite markers covering the whole pig genome. QTL analysis was carried out using a composite regression interval mapping method via QTL express. The results showed that total number of born piglets was significantly correlated with gestation length (r = -0.13, P < 0.05). Three QTL were detected on pig chromosome (SSC)2, 8 and 12 for gestation length. The QTL on SSC2 achieved the 5% genome-wide significant level and the QTL on SSC8 was consistent with previous reports. Four suggestive QTL were identified for maternal ability related traits including 1 QTL for survival rate of piglets at weaning on SSC8, 3 QTL for average body weight of piglet at weaning on SSC3, 11 and 13.

  4. Heterosis for biomass-related traits in Arabidopsis investigated by quantitative trait loci analysis of the triple testcross design with recombinant inbred lines.

    PubMed

    Kusterer, Barbara; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Utz, H Friedrich; Schön, Chris C; Muminovic, Jasmina; Meyer, Rhonda C; Altmann, Thomas; Melchinger, Albrecht E

    2007-11-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana has emerged as a leading model species in plant genetics and functional genomics including research on the genetic causes of heterosis. We applied a triple testcross (TTC) design and a novel biometrical approach to identify and characterize quantitative trait loci (QTL) for heterosis of five biomass-related traits by (i) estimating the number, genomic positions, and genetic effects of heterotic QTL, (ii) characterizing their mode of gene action, and (iii) testing for presence of epistatic effects by a genomewide scan and marker x marker interactions. In total, 234 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of Arabidopsis hybrid C24 x Col-0 were crossed to both parental lines and their F1 and analyzed with 110 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. QTL analyses were conducted using linear transformations Z1, Z2, and Z3 calculated from the adjusted entry means of TTC progenies. With Z1, we detected 12 QTL displaying augmented additive effects. With Z2, we mapped six QTL for augmented dominance effects. A one-dimensional genome scan with Z3 revealed two genomic regions with significantly negative dominance x additive epistatic effects. Two-way analyses of variance between marker pairs revealed nine digenic epistatic interactions: six reflecting dominance x dominance effects with variable sign and three reflecting additive x additive effects with positive sign. We conclude that heterosis for biomass-related traits in Arabidopsis has a polygenic basis with overdominance and/or epistasis being presumably the main types of gene action.

  5. Mutant alleles at the rugosus loci in pea affect seed moisture sorption isotherms and the relations between seed longevity and moisture content.

    PubMed

    Lyall, T W; Ellis, R H; John, P; Hedley, C L; Wang, T L

    2003-01-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) mutant near-isogenic lines (RRrbrb, rrRbRb, rrrbrb) with lower starch but higher lipid contents, brought about by lesions in the starch biosynthetic pathway, had seed moisture sorption isotherms displaced below that of the wild type (RRRbRb). The negative logarithmic relationship between seed longevity and seed storage moisture content (%, f.wt basis), determined in hermetic storage at 65 degrees C, also differed: longevity in the mutant near-isogenic lines was poorer and less sensitive to moisture content than in the wild type (i.e. C(W) was lower). The low-moisture-content limit (m(c)) to this relation also differed, being lower in the mutant near-isogenic lines (5.4-5.9%) than in the wild type (6.1%). In contrast, all four near-isogenic lines showed no difference (P >0.25) in the negative semi-logarithmic relationship between equilibrium relative humidity (ERH) and seed longevity. It is concluded that the effect of these alleles at the r and rb loci on seed longevity was largely indirect; a consequence of their effect on seed composition and hence on moisture sorption isotherms. However, this explanation could not be invoked at moisture contents below m(c) where differences in longevity remained substantial (RRRbRb double that of rrrbrb). Hence, these mutant alleles affected seed longevity directly at very low moisture contents.

  6. Bcr-Abl-Mediated Protection from Apoptosis Downstream of Mitochondrial Cytochrome c Release

    PubMed Central

    Deming, Paula B.; Schafer, Zachary T.; Tashker, Jessica S.; Potts, Malia B.; Deshmukh, Mohanish; Kornbluth, Sally

    2004-01-01

    Bcr-Abl, activated in chronic myelogenous leukemias, is a potent cell death inhibitor. Previous reports have shown that Bcr-Abl prevents apoptosis through inhibition of mitochondrial cytochrome c release. We report here that Bcr-Abl also inhibits caspase activation after the release of cytochrome c. Bcr-Abl inhibited caspase activation by cytochrome c added to cell-free lysates and prevented apoptosis when cytochrome c was microinjected into intact cells. Bcr-Abl acted posttranslationally to prevent the cytochrome c-induced binding of Apaf-1 to procaspase 9. Although Bcr-Abl prevented interaction of endogenous Apaf-1 with the recombinant prodomain of caspase 9, it did not affect the association of endogenous caspase 9 with the isolated Apaf-1 caspase recruitment domain (CARD) or Apaf-1 lacking WD-40 repeats. These data suggest that Apaf-1 recruitment of caspase 9 is faulty in the presence of Bcr-Abl and that cytochrome c/dATP-induced exposure of the Apaf-1 CARD is likely defective. These data provide a novel locus of Bcr-Abl antiapoptotic action and suggest a distinct mechanism of apoptosomal inhibition. PMID:15542838

  7. Characterization of microsatellite loci in the myco-heterotrophic plant Monotropa hypopitys (Ericaceae) and amplification in related taxa.

    PubMed

    Klooster, M R; Hoenle, A W; Culley, T M

    2009-01-01

    The myco-heterotroph Monotropa hypopitys is a perennial, circumboreally distributed herb of significant importance in studies of nonphotosynthetic plant biology. To address a deficiency in our knowledge of myco-heterotroph population genetics, 11 microsatellite markers were developed using a cost-effective, nonradioactive protocol. Multiplex reactions revealed polymorphism in the red and yellow colour forms of M. hypopitys with an average of 2.69 alleles per primer. Many primers additionally amplified in the congener Monotropa uniflora and five other closely related genera. This is the first report of microsatellite primer development and amplification in the Monotropoideae (Ericaceae). © 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Coexpression Network Analysis in Abdominal and Gluteal Adipose Tissue Reveals Regulatory Genetic Loci for Metabolic Syndrome and Related Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Min, Josine L.; Nicholson, George; Halgrimsdottir, Ingileif; Almstrup, Kristian; Petri, Andreas; Barrett, Amy; Travers, Mary; Rayner, Nigel W.; Mägi, Reedik; Pettersson, Fredrik H.; Broxholme, John; Neville, Matt J.; Wills, Quin F.; Cheeseman, Jane; Allen, Maxine; Holmes, Chris C.; Spector, Tim D.; Fleckner, Jan; McCarthy, Mark I.; Karpe, Fredrik; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Zondervan, Krina T.

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is highly prevalent and has considerable public health impact, but its underlying genetic factors remain elusive. To identify gene networks involved in MetS, we conducted whole-genome expression and genotype profiling on abdominal (ABD) and gluteal (GLU) adipose tissue, and whole blood (WB), from 29 MetS cases and 44 controls. Co-expression network analysis for each tissue independently identified nine, six, and zero MetS–associated modules of coexpressed genes in ABD, GLU, and WB, respectively. Of 8,992 probesets expressed in ABD or GLU, 685 (7.6%) were expressed in ABD and 51 (0.6%) in GLU only. Differential eigengene network analysis of 8,256 shared probesets detected 22 shared modules with high preservation across adipose depots (DABD-GLU = 0.89), seven of which were associated with MetS (FDR P<0.01). The strongest associated module, significantly enriched for immune response–related processes, contained 94/620 (15%) genes with inter-depot differences. In an independent cohort of 145/141 twins with ABD and WB longitudinal expression data, median variability in ABD due to familiality was greater for MetS–associated versus un-associated modules (ABD: 0.48 versus 0.18, P = 0.08; GLU: 0.54 versus 0.20, P = 7.8×10−4). Cis-eQTL analysis of probesets associated with MetS (FDR P<0.01) and/or inter-depot differences (FDR P<0.01) provided evidence for 32 eQTLs. Corresponding eSNPs were tested for association with MetS–related phenotypes in two GWAS of >100,000 individuals; rs10282458, affecting expression of RARRES2 (encoding chemerin), was associated with body mass index (BMI) (P = 6.0×10−4); and rs2395185, affecting inter-depot differences of HLA-DRB1 expression, was associated with high-density lipoprotein (P = 8.7×10−4) and BMI–adjusted waist-to-hip ratio (P = 2.4×10−4). Since many genes and their interactions influence complex traits such as MetS, integrated analysis of genotypes and

  9. p185BCR/ABL has a lower sensitivity than p210BCR/ABL to the allosteric inhibitor GNF-2 in Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphatic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Mian, Afsar A.; Metodieva, Anna; Najajreh, Yousef; Ottmann, Oliver G.; Mahajna, Jamal; Ruthardt, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Background The t(9;22) translocation leads to the formation of the chimeric breakpoint cluster region/c-abl oncogene 1 (BCR/ABL) fusion gene on der22, the Philadelphia chromosome. The p185BCR/ABL or the p210BCR/ABL fusion proteins are encoded as a result of the translocation, depending on whether a “minor” or “major” breakpoint occurs, respectively. Both p185BCR/ABL and p210BCR/ABL exhibit constitutively activated ABL kinase activity. Through fusion to BCR the ABL kinase in p185BCR/ABL and p210BCR/ABL “escapes” the auto-inhibition mechanisms of c-ABL, such as allosteric inhibition. A novel class of compounds including GNF-2 restores allosteric inhibition of the kinase activity and the transformation potential of BCR/ABL. Here we investigated whether there are differences between p185BCR/ABL and p210BCR/ABL regarding their sensitivity towards allosteric inhibition by GNF-2 in models of Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphatic leukemia. Design and Methods We investigated the anti-proliferative activity of GNF-2 in different Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphatic leukemia models, such as cell lines, patient-derived long-term cultures and factor-dependent lymphatic Ba/F3 cells expressing either p185BCR/ABL or p210BCR/ABL and their resistance mutants. Results The inhibitory effects of GNF-2 differed constantly between p185BCR/ABL and p210BCR/ABL expressing cells. In all three Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphatic leukemia models, p210BCR/ABL-transformed cells were more sensitive to GNF-2 than were p185BCR/ABL-positive cells. Similar results were obtained for p185BCR/ABL and the p210BCR/ABL harboring resistance mutations. Conclusions Our data provide the first evidence of a differential response of p185BCR/ABL- and p210BCR/ABL- transformed cells to allosteric inhibition by GNF-2, which is of importance for the treatment of patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphatic leukemia. PMID:22058195

  10. Joint Analysis of Nuclear and Mitochondrial Variants in Age-Related Macular Degeneration Identifies Novel Loci TRPM1 and ABHD2/RLBP1

    PubMed Central

    Persad, Patrice J.; Heid, Iris M.; Weeks, Daniel E.; Baird, Paul N.; de Jong, Eiko K.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Scott, William K.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Presently, 52 independent nuclear single nucleotide polymorphisms (nSNPs) have been associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) but their effects do not explain all its variance. Genetic interactions between the nuclear and mitochondrial (mt) genome may unearth additional genetic loci previously unassociated with AMD risk. Methods Joint effects of nSNPs and selected mtSNPs were analyzed by two degree of freedom (2df) joint tests of association in the International AMD Genomics Consortium (IAMDGC) dataset (17,832 controls and 16,144 advanced AMD cases of European ancestry). Subjects were genotyped on the Illumina HumanCoreExome array. After imputation using MINIMAC and the 1000 Genomes Project Phase I reference panel, pairwise linkage disequilibrium pruning, and quality control, 3.9 million nSNPs were analyzed for interaction with mtSNPs chosen based on association in this dataset or publications: A4917G, T5004C, G12771A, and C16069T. Results Novel locus TRPM1 was identified with genome-wide significant joint effects (P < 5.0 × 10−8) of two intronic TRPM1 nSNPs and AMD-associated nonsynonymous MT-ND2 mtSNP A4917G. Stratified analysis by mt allele identified an association only in 4917A (major allele) carriers (P = 4.4 × 10−9, odds ratio [OR] = 0.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.87–0.93). Intronic and intergenic ABHD2/RLBP1 nSNPs demonstrated genome-wide significant joint effects (2df joint test P values from 1.8 × 10−8 to 4.9 × 10−8) and nominally statistically significant interaction effects with MT-ND5 synonymous mtSNP G12771A. Although a positive association was detected in both strata, the association was stronger in 12771A subjects (P = 0.0020, OR = 2.17, 95% CI = 1.34–3.60). Conclusions These results show that joint tests of main effects and gene–gene interaction reveal associations at some novel loci that were missed when considering main effects alone. PMID:28813576

  11. Tyrosinase and tyrosinase related protein 1 alleles specify domestic cat coat color phenotypes of the albino and brown loci.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Küntzel, A; Eizirik, E; O'Brien, S J; Menotti-Raymond, M

    2005-01-01

    The genes encoding enzymes of the tyrosinase family are strong candidates for coat color variation in mammals. To investigate their influence in domestic cat coat color, we determined the complete nucleotide coding sequence of the domestic cat genes tyrosinase (TYR)--a plausible candidate gene for the albino (C) locus, and tyrosinase related protein 1 (TYRP1)--a candidate gene for the brown (B) locus. Sequence variants between individuals exhibiting variation in pigmentation were submitted to association studies. In TYR, two nonsynonymous substitutions encoding TYR-G301R and TYR-G227W were associated with the siamese and burmese phenotypes of the albino locus, respectively. TYRP1 was mapped on chromosome D4 within 5 cM of a highly polymorphic microsatellite, previously found to be fixed in a cat breed selected for the chocolate (b) allele of the B locus, which reinforced TYRP1 as a candidate gene for the B locus in the domestic cat. Two DNA polymorphisms, one leading to a TYRP1-A3G substitution in the signal peptide and another to an in-frame insertion TYRP1-421ins17/18 caused by a donor splice site mutation in intron 6, were associated with the chocolate (b) allele. A premature UAG stop codon at position 100 of TYRP1 was associated with a second allele of the B locus, cinnamon (b(l)). The results provide very strong evidence that the specific nucleotide variants of feline TYR (chromosome D1) are causative of the siamese (c(s)) and burmese (c(b)) alleles of the albino locus, as well as nucleotide variants of TYRP1 (chromosome D4) as specifying the chocolate (b) and cinnamon (b(l)) alleles of the B locus.

  12. A Genome-Wide Association Study Suggests Novel Loci Associated with a Schizophrenia-Related Brain-Based Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Hass, Johanna; Walton, Esther; Kirsten, Holger; Liu, Jingyu; Priebe, Lutz; Wolf, Christiane; Karbalai, Nazanin; Gollub, Randy; White, Tonya; Roessner, Veit; Müller, Kathrin U.; Paus, Tomas; Smolka, Michael N.; Schumann, Gunter; Scholz, Markus; Cichon, Sven; Calhoun, Vince; Ehrlich, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia and their siblings typically show subtle changes of brain structures, such as a reduction of hippocampal volume. Hippocampal volume is heritable, may explain a variety of cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia and is thus considered an intermediate phenotype for this mental illness. The aim of our analyses was to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) related to hippocampal volume without making prior assumptions about possible candidate genes. In this study, we combined genetics, imaging and neuropsychological data obtained from the Mind Clinical Imaging Consortium study of schizophrenia (n = 328). A total of 743,591 SNPs were tested for association with hippocampal volume in a genome-wide association study. Gene expression profiles of human hippocampal tissue were investigated for gene regions of significantly associated SNPs. None of the genetic markers reached genome-wide significance. However, six highly correlated SNPs (rs4808611, rs35686037, rs12982178, rs1042178, rs10406920, rs8170) on chromosome 19p13.11, located within or in close proximity to the genes NR2F6, USHBP1, and BABAM1, as well as four SNPs in three other genomic regions (chromosome 1, 2 and 10) had p-values between 6.75×10−6 and 8.3×10−7. Using existing data of a very recently published GWAS of hippocampal volume and additional data of a multicentre study in a large cohort of adolescents of European ancestry, we found supporting evidence for our results. Furthermore, allelic differences in rs4808611 and rs8170 were highly associated with differential mRNA expression in the cis-acting region. Associations with memory functioning indicate a possible functional importance of the identified risk variants. Our findings provide new insights into the genetic architecture of a brain structure closely linked to schizophrenia. In silico replication, mRNA expression and cognitive data provide additional support for the relevance of our findings. Identification of

  13. Construction of the First High-Density Genetic Linkage Map and Analysis of Quantitative Trait Loci for Growth-Related Traits in Sinonovacula constricta.

    PubMed

    Niu, Donghong; Du, Yunchao; Wang, Ze; Xie, Shumei; Nguyen, Haideng; Dong, Zhiguo; Shen, Heding; Li, Jiale

    2017-07-19

    The razor clam (Sinonovacula constricta) is an important aquaculture species, for which a high-density genetic linkage map would play an important role in marker-assisted selection (MAS). In this study, we constructed a high-density genetic map and detected quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for Sinonovacula constricta with an F1 cross population by using the specific locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) method. A total of 315,553 SLAF markers out of 467.71 Mreads were developed. The final linkage map was composed of 7516 SLAFs (156.60-fold in the parents and 20.80-fold in each F1 population on average). The total distance of the linkage map was 2383.85 cM, covering 19 linkage groups with an average inter-marker distance of 0.32 cM. The proportion of gaps less than 5.0 cM was on average 96.90%. A total of 16 suggestive QTLs for five growth-related traits (five QTLs for shell height, six QTLs for shell length, three QTLs for shell width, one QTL for total body weight, and one QTL for soft body weight) were identified. These QTLs were distributed on five linkage groups, and the regions showed overlapping on LG9 and LG13. In conclusion, the high-density genetic map and QTLs for S. constricta provide a valuable genetic resource and a basis for MAS.

  14. Quantitative Trait Loci for Yield and Yield-Related Traits in Spring Barley Populations Derived from Crosses between European and Syrian Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Krystkowiak, Karolina; Sawikowska, Aneta; Frohmberg, Wojciech; Górny, Andrzej; Kędziora, Andrzej; Jankowiak, Janusz; Józefczyk, Damian; Karg, Grzegorz; Andrusiak, Joanna; Krajewski, Paweł; Szarejko, Iwona; Surma, Maria; Adamski, Tadeusz; Guzy-Wróbelska, Justyna; Kuczyńska, Anetta

    2016-01-01

    In response to climatic changes, breeding programmes should be aimed at creating new cultivars with improved resistance to water scarcity. The objective of this study was to examine the yield potential of barley recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from three cross-combinations of European and Syrian spring cultivars, and to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for yield-related traits in these populations. RILs were evaluated in field experiments over a period of three years (2011 to 2013) and genotyped with simple sequence repeat (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers; a genetic map for each population was constructed and then one consensus map was developed. Biological interpretation of identified QTLs was achieved by reference to Ensembl Plants barley gene space. Twelve regions in the genomes of studied RILs were distinguished after QTL analysis. Most of the QTLs were identified on the 2H chromosome, which was the hotspot region in all three populations. Syrian parental cultivars contributed alleles decreasing traits' values at majority of QTLs for grain weight, grain number, spike length and time to heading, and numerous alleles increasing stem length. The phenomic and molecular approaches distinguished the lines with an acceptable grain yield potential combining desirable features or alleles from their parents, that is, early heading from the Syrian breeding line (Cam/B1/CI08887//CI05761) and short plant stature from the European semidwarf cultivar (Maresi). PMID:27227880

  15. Quantitative Trait Loci for Yield and Yield-Related Traits in Spring Barley Populations Derived from Crosses between European and Syrian Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Mikołajczak, Krzysztof; Ogrodowicz, Piotr; Gudyś, Kornelia; Krystkowiak, Karolina; Sawikowska, Aneta; Frohmberg, Wojciech; Górny, Andrzej; Kędziora, Andrzej; Jankowiak, Janusz; Józefczyk, Damian; Karg, Grzegorz; Andrusiak, Joanna; Krajewski, Paweł; Szarejko, Iwona; Surma, Maria; Adamski, Tadeusz; Guzy-Wróbelska, Justyna; Kuczyńska, Anetta

    2016-01-01

    In response to climatic changes, breeding programmes should be aimed at creating new cultivars with improved resistance to water scarcity. The objective of this study was to examine the yield potential of barley recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from three cross-combinations of European and Syrian spring cultivars, and to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for yield-related traits in these populations. RILs were evaluated in field experiments over a period of three years (2011 to 2013) and genotyped with simple sequence repeat (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers; a genetic map for each population was constructed and then one consensus map was developed. Biological interpretation of identified QTLs was achieved by reference to Ensembl Plants barley gene space. Twelve regions in the genomes of studied RILs were distinguished after QTL analysis. Most of the QTLs were identified on the 2H chromosome, which was the hotspot region in all three populations. Syrian parental cultivars contributed alleles decreasing traits' values at majority of QTLs for grain weight, grain number, spike length and time to heading, and numerous alleles increasing stem length. The phenomic and molecular approaches distinguished the lines with an acceptable grain yield potential combining desirable features or alleles from their parents, that is, early heading from the Syrian breeding line (Cam/B1/CI08887//CI05761) and short plant stature from the European semidwarf cultivar (Maresi).

  16. Anaerobic Biochemical Reactor (BCR) Treatment Of Mining-Influenced Water (MIW) - Investigation Of Metal Removal Efficiency and Ecotoxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    BCR have been successful at removing a high percentage of metals from MIW, while BCR effluent toxicity has not been examined previously in the field. This study examined 4 active pilot BCR systems for removal of metals and toxicity. Removal efficiency for Al, As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb...

  17. Ibrutinib inhibits pre-BCR(+) B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia progression by targeting BTK and BLK.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ekaterina; Hurtz, Christian; Koehrer, Stefan; Wang, Zhiqiang; Balasubramanian, Sriram; Chang, Betty Y; Müschen, Markus; Davis, R Eric; Burger, Jan A

    2017-03-02

    Targeting B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling is a successful therapeutic strategy in mature B-cell malignancies. Precursor BCR (pre-BCR) signaling, which is critical during normal B lymphopoiesis, also plays an important role in pre-BCR(+) B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). Here, we investigated the activity and mechanism of action of the BTK inhibitor ibrutinib in preclinical models of B-ALL. Pre-BCR(+) ALL cells were exquisitely sensitive to ibrutinib at therapeutically relevant drug concentrations. In pre-BCR(+) ALL, ibrutinib thwarted autonomous and induced pre-BCR signaling, resulting in deactivation of PI3K/Akt signaling. Ibrutinib modulated the expression of pre-BCR regulators (PTPN6, CD22, CD72, and PKCβ) and substantially reduced BCL6 levels. Ibrutinib inhibited ALL cell migration toward CXCL12 and beneath marrow stromal cells and reduced CD44 expression. CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing revealed that both BTK and B lymphocyte kinase (BLK) are relevant targets of ibrutinib in pre-BCR(+) ALL. Consequently, in mouse xenograft models of pre-BCR(+) ALL, ibrutinib treatment significantly prolonged survival. Combination treatment of ibrutinib with dexamethasone or vincristine demonstrated synergistic activity against pre-BCR(+) ALL. These data corroborate ibrutinib as a promising targeted agent for pre-BCR(+) ALL and highlight the importance of ibrutinib effects on alternative kinase targets.

  18. Anaerobic Biochemical Reactor (BCR) Treatment Of Mining-Influenced Water (MIW) - Investigation Of Metal Removal Efficiency and Ecotoxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    BCR have been successful at removing a high percentage of metals from MIW, while BCR effluent toxicity has not been examined previously in the field. This study examined 4 active pilot BCR systems for removal of metals and toxicity. Removal efficiency for Al, As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb...

  19. Grouper (Epinephelus coioides) BCR signaling pathway was involved in response against Cryptocaryon irritans infection.

    PubMed

    Mo, Ze-Quan; Yang, Man; Wang, Hai-Qing; Xu, Yang; Huang, Mian-Zhi; Lao, Guo-Feng; Li, Yan-Wei; Li, An-Xing; Luo, Xiao-Chun; Dan, Xue-Ming

    2016-10-01

    B cell antigen receptor (BCR) plays a crucial role in B cell development and antibody production. It comprises membrane immunoglobulin non-covalently associated with CD79a/CD79b heterodimer. After B cell activation, initial extracellular signals are transduced by BCR complex and amplified by two protein tyrosine kinases, LYN and SYK, which then trigger various pathways. In the present study, we cloned grouper genes for BCR accessory molecules, EcCD79a (669 bp) and EcCD79b (639 bp), as well as two protein tyrosine kinases, EcLYN (1482 bp) and EcSYK (1854 bp). Homology analysis showed that all four molecules had a relatively high amino acid identity compared with those in other animals. Among them, they all shared the highest identity with Takifugu rubripes (EcCD79a 49%, EcCD79b 52%, EcLYN 82% and EcSYK 77%). The conserved features and important functional residues were analyzed. Together with IgM and IgT, tissue distribution analysis showed that all six molecules were mainly expressed in immune organs, particularly systematic immune organs. In groupers infected with Cryptocaryon irritans, up-regulation of EcCD79a and b, EcIgM and EcIgT were not seen in the early stage skin and gill until 14-21 days. Up-regulation of EcCD79a was seen in head kidney at most time points, while EcCD79a and b were only significantly up-regulated in day 14 spleen. Significant up-regulation of EcIgT were seen in day 21 head kidney and day 1, day14 spleen. Significant up-regulation of EcIgM were seen in day 1 head kidney and 12 h spleen. In addition, two protein kinase genes, EcLYN and EcSYK, were up-regulated in the skin at most time points, which suggested that B cells may be activated at the skin local infection site.

  20. Dense genotyping of immune-related loci identifies variants associated with clearance of HPV among HIV-positive women in the HIV epidemiology research study (HERS).

    PubMed

    Sudenga, Staci L; Wiener, Howard W; King, Caroline C; Rompalo, Anne M; Cu-Uvin, Susan; Klein, Robert S; Shah, Keerti V; Sobel, Jack D; Jamieson, Denise J; Shrestha, Sadeep

    2014-01-01

    Persistent high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is a necessary and causal factor of cervical cancer. Most women naturally clear HPV infections; however, the biological mechanisms related to HPV pathogenesis have not been clearly elucidated. Host genetic factors that specifically regulate immune response could play an important role. All HIV-positive women in the HIV Epidemiology Research Study (HERS) with a HR-HPV infection and at least one follow-up biannual visit were included in the study. Cervicovaginal lavage samples were tested for HPV using type-specific HPV hybridization assays. Type-specific HPV clearance was defined as two consecutive HPV-negative tests after a positive test. DNA from participants was genotyped for 196,524 variants within 186 known immune related loci using the custom ImmunoChip microarray. To assess the influence of each single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) with HR-HPV clearance, the Cox proportional hazards model with the Wei-Lin-Weissfeld approach was used, adjusting for CD4+ count, low risk HPV (LR-HPV) co-infection, and relevant confounders. Three analytical models were performed: race-specific (African Americans (n = 258), European Americans (n = 87), Hispanics (n = 55), race-adjusted combined analysis, and meta-analysis of pooled independent race-specific analyses. Women were followed for a median time of 1,617 days. Overall, three SNPs (rs1112085, rs11102637, and rs12030900) in the MAGI-3 gene and one SNP (rs8031627) in the SMAD3 gene were associated with HR-HPV clearance (p<10(-6)). A variant (rs1633038) in HLA-G were also significantly associated in African American. Results from this study support associations of immune-related genes, having potential biological mechanism, with differential cervical HR-HPV infection outcomes.

  1. Tactile perception of nonpainful unpleasantness in relation to perceived roughness: effects of inter-element spacing and speed of relative motion of rigid 2-D raised-dot patterns at two body loci.

    PubMed

    Kitada, Ryo; Sadato, Norihiro; Lederman, Susan J

    2012-01-01

    Rigid surfaces consisting of spatially jittered 2-D raised-dot patterns with different inter-element spacings were moved back and forth across the skin at three different speeds (10-fold range). Within each psychophysical experiment, participants numerically estimated the perceived magnitude of either unpleasantness (nonpainful) or roughness of 2-D raised-dot surfaces applied to two stationary body sites (experiment 1: fingers; experiment 2: forearm). The psychophysical functions for the two types of perceptual judgment were highly similar at both body loci; more specifically, the perceived magnitude of unpleasantness and roughness both increased monotonically as a power function of increasing inter-element spacing, with the rate of growth declining at the upper end of the continuum. These results suggest that inter-element spacing is a critical determinant of the perceived magnitude of unpleasantness (nonpainful), as well as of roughness. Each perceptual judgment also increased as a function of increasing relative speed at both body loci. However, the magnitude of this effect was significantly greater for perceived unpleasantness than for perceived roughness; conversely, the speed effect was significantly greater on the forearm than on the fingers. Several possible explanations for these findings are considered.

  2. A 41-kilodalton protein is a potential substrate for the p210bcr-abl protein-tyrosine kinase in chronic myelogenous leukemia cells.

    PubMed Central

    Freed, E; Hunter, T

    1992-01-01

    Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is characterized by a translocation involving the c-abl protein-tyrosine kinase gene. A chimeric mRNA is formed containing sequences from a chromosome 22 gene (bcr) at its 5' end and all but the variable exon 1 of c-abl sequence. The product of this mRNA, p210bcr-abl, has constitutively high protein-tyrosine kinase activity. We examined K562 cells and other lines established from CML patients for the presence of phosphotyrosine (P-Tyr)-containing proteins which might be p210bcr-abl substrates. Two-dimensional gel separation of 32P-labeled proteins followed by phosphoamino acid analysis of 25 phosphoproteins, which comprised the major alkali-stable phosphoproteins, indicated that three related proteins of 41 kDa are the most prominent P-Tyr-containing proteins detected by this method. The 41-kDa phosphoproteins are found in two other CML lines that we examined but not in lines of similar lineage isolated from patients with distinct leukemic disease. A protein that comigrates with the major form of pp41 (pp41A) and contains P-Tyr is also found in murine fibroblasts and B-lymphoid cells transformed by Abelson murine leukemia virus, which encodes the v-abl protein, and in platelet-derived growth factor-treated fibroblasts, in which it has been described previously. We analyzed three pairs of Epstein-Barr virus-immortalized B-cell lines from individual CML patients and found that only the lines in which active p210bcr-abl was present contained detectable pp41. We also performed immunoblotting with anti-P-Tyr antibodies on the same CML cell lines and detected at least four other putative substrates of p210bcr-abl, which were undetected with use of the two-dimensional gel technique. Images PMID:1545812

  3. Activation of a novel Bcr/Abl destruction pathway by WP1130 induces apoptosis of chronic myelogenous leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Bartholomeusz, Geoffrey A; Talpaz, Moshe; Kapuria, Vaibhav; Kong, Ling Yuan; Wang, Shimei; Estrov, Zeev; Priebe, Waldemar; Wu, Ji; Donato, Nicholas J

    2007-04-15

    Imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) is effective therapy against Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemia, but resistance develops in all phases of the disease. Bcr/Abl point mutations and other alterations reduce the kinase inhibitory activity of imatinib mesylate; thus, agents that target Bcr/Abl through unique mechanisms may be needed. Here we describe the activity of WP1130, a small molecule that specifically and rapidly down-regulates both wild-type and mutant Bcr/Abl protein without affecting bcr/abl gene expression in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) cells. Loss of Bcr/Abl protein correlated with the onset of apoptosis and reduced phosphorylation of Bcr/Abl substrates. WP1130 did not affect Hsp90/Hsp70 ratios within the cells and did not require the participation of the proteasomal pathway for loss of Bcr/Abl protein. WP1130 was more effective in reducing leukemic versus normal hematopoietic colony formation and strongly inhibited colony formation of cells derived from patients with T315I mutant Bcr/Abl-expressing CML in blast crisis. WP1130 suppressed the growth of K562 heterotransplanted tumors as well as both wild-type Bcr/Abl and T315I mutant Bcr/Abl-expressing BaF/3 cells transplanted into nude mice. Collectively, our results demonstrate that WP1130 reduces wild-type and T315I mutant Bcr/Abl protein levels in CML cells through a unique mechanism and may be useful in treating CML.

  4. Measurements of plutonium, 237Np, and 137Cs in the BCR 482 lichen reference material

    DOE PAGES

    Lavelle, Kevin B.; Miller, Jeffrey L.; Hanson, Susan K.; ...

    2015-10-01

    Select anthropogenic radionuclides were measured in lichen reference material, BCR 482. This material was originally collected in Axalp, Switzerland in 1991 and is composed of the epiphytic lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea. Samples from three separate bottles of BCR 482 were analyzed for uranium, neptunium, and plutonium isotopes by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and analyzed for cesium-137 by gamma-ray spectrometry. The isotopic composition of the radionuclides measured in BCR 482 suggests contributions from both global fallout resulting from historical nuclear weapons testing and more volatile materials released following the Chernobyl accident.

  5. Prevalence of CKD and Its Relationship to eGFR-Related Genetic Loci and Clinical Risk Factors in the SardiNIA Study Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer; Masala, Marco; Piras, Doloretta; Atzeni, Alice; Pilia, Maria G.; Ferreli, Liana; Balaci, Lenuta; Curreli, Nicolò; Delitala, Alessandro; Loi, Francesco; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Schlessinger, David; Cucca, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of CKD and of renal failure vary worldwide, yet parallel increases in leading risk factors explain only part of the differential prevalence. We measured CKD prevalence and eGFR, and their relationship with traditional and additional risk factors, in a Sardinian founder population cohort. The eGFR was calculated using equations from the CKD Epidemiology Collaboration and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease studies. With use of the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes guidelines, a cross-sectional analysis of 4842 individuals showed that CKD prevalence was 15.1%, including 3.6% of patients in the high-risk and 0.46% in the very-high-risk categories. Longitudinal analyses performed on 4074 of these individuals who completed three visits with an average follow-up of 7 years revealed that, consistent with other populations, average eGFR slope was −0.79 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year, but 11.4% of the participants had an eGFR decline >2.3 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year (fast decline). A genetic score was generated from 13 reported eGFR- and CKD-related loci, and univariable and multivariable analyses were applied to assess the relationship between clinical, ultrasonographic, and genetic variables with three outcomes: CKD, change in eGFR, and fast eGFR decline. Genetic risk score, older age, and female sex independently correlated with each outcome. Diabetes was associated with CKD prevalence, whereas hypertension and hyperuricemia correlated more strongly with fast eGFR decline. Diabetes, hypertension, hyperuricemia, and high baseline eGFR were associated with a decline of eGFR. Along with differential health practices, population variations in this spectrum of risk factors probably contributes to the variable CKD prevalence worldwide. PMID:24511125

  6. Characterization of microsatellite loci isolated in trumpeter swan (Cygnus buccinator)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    John, J. St; Ransler, F.A.; Quinn, T.W.; Oyler-McCance, S.J.

    2006-01-01

    Primers for 16 microsatellite loci were developed for the trumpeter swan (Cygnus buccinator), a species recovering from a recent population bottleneck. In a screen of 158 individuals, the 16 loci were found to have levels of variability ranging from two to seven alleles. No loci were found to be linked, although two loci repeatedly revealed significant departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Amplification in the closely related tundra swan (Cygnus columbianus) was successful for all except one locus. These microsatellite loci will be applicable for population genetic analyses and ultimately aid in management efforts. ?? 2006 The Authors.

  7. New alternative splicing BCR/ABL-OOF shows an oncogenic role by lack of inhibition of BCR GTPase activity and an increased of persistence of Rac activation in chronic myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Panuzzo, Cristina; Volpe, Gisella; Rocchietti, Elisa Cibrario; Casnici, Claudia; Crotta, Katia; Crivellaro, Sabrina; Carrà, Giovanna; Lorenzatti, Roberta; Peracino, Barbara; Torti, Davide; Morotti, Alessandro; Camacho-Leal, Maria Pilar; Defilippi, Paola; Marelli, Ornella; Saglio, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    In Chronic Myeloid Leukemia 80% of patients present alternative splice variants involving BCR exons 1, 13 or 14 and ABL exon 4, with a consequent impairment in the reading frame of the ABL gene. Therefore BCR/ABL fusion proteins (BCR/ABL-OOF) are characterized by an in-frame BCR portion followed by an amino acids sequence arising from the out of frame (OOF) reading of the ABL gene. The product of this new transcript contains the characteristic BCR domains while lacking the COOH-terminal Rho GTPase GAP domain. The present work aims to characterize the protein functionality in terms of cytoskeleton (re-)modelling, adhesion and activation of canonical oncogenic signalling pathways. Here, we show that BCR/ABL-OOF has a peculiar endosomal localization which affects EGF receptor activation and turnover. Moreover, we demonstrate that BCR/ABL-OOF expression leads to aberrant cellular adhesion due to the activation of Rac GTPase, increase in cellular proliferation, migration and survival. When overexpressed in a BCR/ABL positive cell line, BCR/ABL-OOF induces hyperactivation of Rac signaling axis offering a therapeutic window for Rac-targeted therapy. Our data support a critical role of BCR/ABL-OOF in leukemogenesis and identify a subset of patients that may benefit from Rac-targeted therapies. PMID:26682280

  8. An integration of genome-wide association study and gene expression profiling to prioritize the discovery of novel susceptibility Loci for osteoporosis-related traits.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Zillikens, M Carola; Wilson, Scott G; Farber, Charles R; Demissie, Serkalem; Soranzo, Nicole; Bianchi, Estelle N; Grundberg, Elin; Liang, Liming; Richards, J Brent; Estrada, Karol; Zhou, Yanhua; van Nas, Atila; Moffatt, Miriam F; Zhai, Guangju; Hofman, Albert; van Meurs, Joyce B; Pols, Huibert A P; Price, Roger I; Nilsson, Olle; Pastinen, Tomi; Cupples, L Adrienne; Lusis, Aldons J; Schadt, Eric E; Ferrari, Serge; Uitterlinden, André G; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Spector, Timothy D; Karasik, David; Kiel, Douglas P

    2010-06-10

    Osteoporosis is a complex disorder and commonly leads to fractures in elderly persons. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have become an unbiased approach to identify variations in the genome that potentially affect health. However, the genetic variants identified so far only explain a small proportion of the heritability for complex traits. Due to the modest genetic effect size and inadequate power, true association signals may not be revealed based on a stringent genome-wide significance threshold. Here, we take advantage of SNP and transcript arrays and integrate GWAS and expression signature profiling relevant to the skeletal system in cellular and animal models to prioritize the discovery of novel candidate genes for osteoporosis-related traits, including bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN), as well as geometric indices of the hip (femoral neck-shaft angle, NSA; femoral neck length, NL; and narrow-neck width, NW). A two-stage meta-analysis of GWAS from 7,633 Caucasian women and 3,657 men, revealed three novel loci associated with osteoporosis-related traits, including chromosome 1p13.2 (RAP1A, p = 3.6x10(-8)), 2q11.2 (TBC1D8), and 18q11.2 (OSBPL1A), and confirmed a previously reported region near TNFRSF11B/OPG gene. We also prioritized 16 suggestive genome-wide significant candidate genes based on their potential involvement in skeletal metabolism. Among them, 3 candidate genes were associated with BMD in women. Notably, 2 out of these 3 genes (GPR177, p = 2.6x10(-13); SOX6, p = 6.4x10(-10)) associated with BMD in women have been successfully replicated in a large-scale meta-analysis of BMD, but none of the non-prioritized candidates (associated with BMD) did. Our results support the concept of our prioritization strategy. In the absence of direct biological support for identified genes, we highlighted the efficiency of subsequent functional characterization using publicly available expression profiling relevant to the

  9. Asymptotic unbounded root loci - Formulas and computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sastry, S. S.; Desoer, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    A new geometric way of computing the asymptotic behavior of unbounded root loci of a strictly proper linear time-invariant control system as loop gain goes to infinity is presented. Properties of certain restricted linear maps and nested restrictions of linear maps are developed, and formulas are obtained for the leading coefficient of the asymptotic values of the unbounded multivariable root loci are obtained in terms of eigenvalues of those maps. Published results and a certain simple null structure assumption are used to relate these asymptotic values to the structure at infinity of the Smith-McMillan form of the open loop transfer function. Explicit matrix formulas for the more abstract derived formulas are given and additional geometric insights are developed with orthogonal projections and singular value decomposition. Formulas for the pivots of the unbounded root loci are calculated and shown to have the same form as the coefficients of the unbounded asymptotic root loci.

  10. Asymptotic unbounded root loci - Formulas and computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sastry, S. S.; Desoer, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    A new geometric way of computing the asymptotic behavior of unbounded root loci of a strictly proper linear time-invariant control system as loop gain goes to infinity is presented. Properties of certain restricted linear maps and nested restrictions of linear maps are developed, and formulas are obtained for the leading coefficient of the asymptotic values of the unbounded multivariable root loci are obtained in terms of eigenvalues of those maps. Published results and a certain simple null structure assumption are used to relate these asymptotic values to the structure at infinity of the Smith-McMillan form of the open loop transfer function. Explicit matrix formulas for the more abstract derived formulas are given and additional geometric insights are developed with orthogonal projections and singular value decomposition. Formulas for the pivots of the unbounded root loci are calculated and shown to have the same form as the coefficients of the unbounded asymptotic root loci.

  11. Expression of BCR/ABL and BCL-2 in myeloid progenitors leads to myeloid leukemias

    PubMed Central

    Jaiswal, Siddhartha; Traver, David; Miyamoto, Toshihiro; Akashi, Koichi; Lagasse, Eric; Weissman, Irving L.

    2003-01-01

    Chronic myelogenous leukemia is a myeloproliferative disorder (MPD) that, over time, progresses to acute leukemia. Both processes are closely associated with the t(9;22) chromosomal translocation that creates the BCR/ABL fusion gene in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and their progeny. Chronic myelogenous leukemia is therefore classified as an HSC disorder in which a clone of multipotent HSCs is likely to be malignantly transformed, although direct evidence for malignant t(9;22)+ HSCs is lacking. To test whether HSC malignancy is required, we generated hMRP8p210BCR/ABL transgenic mice in which expression of BCR/ABL is absent in HSCs and targeted exclusively to myeloid progenitors and their myelomonocytic progeny. Four of 13 BCR/ABL transgenic founders developed a chronic MPD, but only one progressed to blast crisis. To address whether additional oncogenic events are required for progression to acute disease, we crossed hMRP8p210BCR/ABL mice to apoptosis-resistant hMRP8BCL-2 mice. Of 18 double-transgenic animals, 9 developed acute myeloid leukemias that were transplantable to wild-type recipients. Taken together, these data indicate that a MPD can arise in mice without expression of BCR/ABL in HSCs and that additional mutations inhibiting programmed cell death may be critical in the transition of this disease to blast-crisis leukemia. PMID:12890867

  12. Comparison of different antisense oligonucleotides against the BCR/ABL junction in chronic myelogenous leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kaebisch, A; Seay, U; Wicker, S; Weber, C; Lohmeyer, J; Ortigao, J; Pralle, H

    1996-05-01

    The activity of the BCR/ABL hybrid gene is associated with a growth advantage of the chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) stem cell. Suppression of BCR/ABL hybrid gene expression can be a valuable tool for leukemic cell purging. Antisense oligonucleotides (ODNs) have the capacity to specifically downregulate gene expression. Data reported on the effect they have on BCR/ABL hybrid gene expression are controversial. We present data illustrating that prolongation of ODN half-life by means of chemical or sequence modification has only limited specific growth suppressive effect on BCR/ABL-positive clonogenic cells in vitro. Compared to unmodified phosphodiester ODNs (PO-ODNs) spanning the BCR/ABL junctions, modified ODNs with either a 3'-GC-clamp (GC-ODNs) or ODNs with one 3'-inverted nucleotide (3'-3' ODNs) to prevent 3'-exonuclease degradation, showed significantly prolonged extra- and intracellular half lives and different subcellular distributions in CML cell lines. In clonogenic assays from patients with CML, the modified ODNs were to some extent able to reduce colonies expressing BCR/ABL (GC-ODNs >3'-3'-ODNs >PO-ODNs). This difference did not become significant statistically. We demonstrate a substantially diminished hybridization efficacy of the modified antisense ODNs used, which may serve as a possible explanation for the failure to augment the leukemic cell purging efficacy.

  13. Charting the molecular network of the drug target Bcr-Abl

    PubMed Central

    Brehme, Marc; Hantschel, Oliver; Colinge, Jacques; Kaupe, Ines; Planyavsky, Melanie; Köcher, Thomas; Mechtler, Karl; Bennett, Keiryn L.; Superti-Furga, Giulio

    2009-01-01

    The tyrosine kinase Bcr-Abl causes chronic myeloid leukemia and is the cognate target of tyrosine kinase inhibitors like imatinib. We have charted the protein–protein interaction network of Bcr-Abl by a 2-pronged approach. Using a monoclonal antibody we have first purified endogenous Bcr-Abl protein complexes from the CML K562 cell line and characterized the set of most tightly-associated interactors by MS. Nine interactors were subsequently subjected to tandem affinity purifications/MS analysis to obtain a molecular interaction network of some hundred cellular proteins. The resulting network revealed a high degree of interconnection of 7 “core” components around Bcr-Abl (Grb2, Shc1, Crk-I, c-Cbl, p85, Sts-1, and SHIP-2), and their links to different signaling pathways. Quantitative proteomics analysis showed that tyrosine kinase inhibitors lead to a disruption of this network. Certain components still appear to interact with Bcr-Abl in a phosphotyrosine-independent manner. We propose that Bcr-Abl and other drug targets, rather than being considered as single polypeptides, can be considered as complex protein assemblies that remodel upon drug action. PMID:19380743

  14. Liposomal bortezomib is active against chronic myeloid leukemia by disrupting the Sp1-BCR/ABL axis

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Na; Yan, Fei; Wu, Lai-Chu; Al-Kali, Aref; Litzow, Mark R.; Peng, Yong; Lee, Robert J.; Liu, Shujun

    2016-01-01

    The abundance of the BCR/ABL protein critically contributes to CML pathogenesis and drug resistance. However, understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying BCR/ABL gene regulation remains incomplete. While BCR/ABL kinase inhibitors have shown unprecedented efficacy in the clinic, most patients relapse. In this study, we demonstrated that the Sp1 oncogene functions as a positive regulator for BCR/ABL expression. Inactivation of Sp1 by genetic and pharmacological approaches abrogated BCR/ABL expression, leading to suppression of BCR/ABL kinase signaling and CML cell proliferation. Because of potential adverse side effects of bortezomib (BORT) in imatinib-refractory CML patients, we designed a transferrin (Tf)-targeted liposomal formulation (Tf-L-BORT) for BORT delivery. Cellular uptake assays showed that BORT was efficiently delivered into K562 cells, with the highest efficacy obtained in Tf-targeted group. After administered into mice, L-BORT exhibited slower clearance with less toxicity compared to free BORT. Furthermore, L-BORT exposure significantly blocked BCR/ABL kinase activities and sensitized CML cell lines, tumor cells and doxorubicin (DOX) resistant cells to DOX. This occurred through the more pronounced inhibition of BCR/ABL activity by L-BORT and DOX. Collectively, these findings highlight the therapeutic relevance of disrupting BCR/ABL protein expression and strongly support the utilization of L-BORT alone or in combination with DOX to treat CML patients with overexpressing BCR/ABL. PMID:27144331

  15. Different BCR/Abl protein suppression patterns as a converging trait of chronic myeloid leukemia cell adaptation to energy restriction.

    PubMed

    Bono, Silvia; Lulli, Matteo; D'Agostino, Vito Giuseppe; Di Gesualdo, Federico; Loffredo, Rosa; Cipolleschi, Maria Grazia; Provenzani, Alessandro; Rovida, Elisabetta; Dello Sbarba, Persio

    2016-12-20

    BCR/Abl protein drives the onset and progression of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML). We previously showed that BCR/Abl protein is suppressed in low oxygen, where viable cells retain stem cell potential. This study addressed the regulation of BCR/Abl protein expression under oxygen or glucose shortage, characteristic of the in vivo environment where cells resistant to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKi) persist. We investigated, at transcriptional, translational and post-translational level, the mechanisms involved in BCR/Abl suppression in K562 and KCL22 CML cells. BCR/abl mRNA steady-state analysis and ChIP-qPCR on BCR promoter revealed that BCR/abl transcriptional activity is reduced in K562 cells under oxygen shortage. The SUnSET assay showed an overall reduction of protein synthesis under oxygen/glucose shortage in both cell lines. However, only low oxygen decreased polysome-associated BCR/abl mRNA significantly in KCL22 cells, suggesting a decreased BCR/Abl translation. The proteasome inhibitor MG132 or the pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk extended BCR/Abl expression under oxygen/glucose shortage in K562 cells. Glucose shortage induced autophagy-dependent BCR/Abl protein degradation in KCL22 cells. Overall, our results showed that energy restriction induces different cell-specific BCR/Abl protein suppression patterns, which represent a converging route to TKi-resistance of CML cells. Thus, the interference with BCR/Abl expression in environment-adapted CML cells may become a useful implement to current therapy.

  16. Gene-centric Meta-analysis in 87,736 Individuals of European Ancestry Identifies Multiple Blood-Pressure-Related Loci

    PubMed Central

    Tragante, Vinicius; Barnes, Michael R.; Ganesh, Santhi K.; Lanktree, Matthew B.; Guo, Wei; Franceschini, Nora; Smith, Erin N.; Johnson, Toby; Holmes, Michael V.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Karczewski, Konrad J.; Almoguera, Berta; Barnard, John; Baumert, Jens; Chang, Yen-Pei Christy; Elbers, Clara C.; Farrall, Martin; Fischer, Mary E.; Gaunt, Tom R.; Gho, Johannes M.I.H.; Gieger, Christian; Goel, Anuj; Gong, Yan; Isaacs, Aaron; Kleber, Marcus E.; Leach, Irene Mateo; McDonough, Caitrin W.; Meijs, Matthijs F.L.; Melander, Olle; Nelson, Christopher P.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Pankratz, Nathan; Price, Tom S.; Shaffer, Jonathan; Shah, Sonia; Tomaszewski, Maciej; van der Most, Peter J.; Van Iperen, Erik P.A.; Vonk, Judith M.; Witkowska, Kate; Wong, Caroline O.L.; Zhang, Li; Beitelshees, Amber L.; Berenson, Gerald S.; Bhatt, Deepak L.; Brown, Morris; Burt, Amber; Cooper-DeHoff, Rhonda M.; Connell, John M.; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Curtis, Sean P.; Davey-Smith, George; Delles, Christian; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Guo, Xiuqing; Haiqing, Shen; Hastie, Claire E.; Hofker, Marten H.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Kim, Daniel S.; Kirkland, Susan A.; Klein, Barbara E.; Klein, Ronald; Li, Yun R.; Maiwald, Steffi; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; O’Brien, Eoin T.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Palmas, Walter; Parsa, Afshin; Penninx, Brenda W.; Pettinger, Mary; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Ranchalis, Jane E.; M Ridker, Paul; Rose, Lynda M.; Sever, Peter; Shimbo, Daichi; Steele, Laura; Stolk, Ronald P.; Thorand, Barbara; Trip, Mieke D.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Verschuren, W. Monique; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wyatt, Sharon; Young, J. Hunter; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Bezzina, Connie R.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Casas, Juan P.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chasman, Daniel I.; Davidson, Karina W.; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Dominiczak, Anna F.; FitzGerald, Garret A.; Gums, John G.; Fornage, Myriam; Hakonarson, Hakon; Halder, Indrani; Hillege, Hans L.; Illig, Thomas; Jarvik, Gail P.; Johnson, Julie A.; Kastelein, John J.P.; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kumari, Meena; März, Winfried; Murray, Sarah S.; O’Connell, Jeffery R.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Pankow, James S.; Rader, Daniel J.; Redline, Susan; Reilly, Muredach P.; Schadt, Eric E.; Kottke-Marchant, Kandice; Snieder, Harold; Snyder, Michael; Stanton, Alice V.; Tobin, Martin D.; Uitterlinden, André G.; van der Harst, Pim; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Watkins, Hugh; Johnson, Andrew D.; Reiner, Alex P.; Zhu, Xiaofeng; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Levy, Daniel; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Keating, Brendan J.

    2014-01-01

    Blood pressure (BP) is a heritable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. To investigate genetic associations with systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and pulse pressure (PP), we genotyped ∼50,000 SNPs in up to 87,736 individuals of European ancestry and combined these in a meta-analysis. We replicated findings in an independent set of 68,368 individuals of European ancestry. Our analyses identified 11 previously undescribed associations in independent loci containing 31 genes including PDE1A, HLA-DQB1, CDK6, PRKAG2, VCL, H19, NUCB2, RELA, HOXC@ complex, FBN1, and NFAT5 at the Bonferroni-corrected array-wide significance threshold (p < 6 × 10−7) and confirmed 27 previously reported associations. Bioinformatic analysis of the 11 loci provided support for a putative role in hypertension of several genes, such as CDK6 and NUCB2. Analysis of potential pharmacological targets in databases of small molecules showed that ten of the genes are predicted to be a target for small molecules. In summary, we identified previously unknown loci associated with BP. Our findings extend our understanding of genes involved in BP regulation, which may provide new targets for therapeutic intervention or drug response stratification. PMID:24560520

  17. Gene-centric meta-analysis in 87,736 individuals of European ancestry identifies multiple blood-pressure-related loci.

    PubMed

    Tragante, Vinicius; Barnes, Michael R; Ganesh, Santhi K; Lanktree, Matthew B; Guo, Wei; Franceschini, Nora; Smith, Erin N; Johnson, Toby; Holmes, Michael V; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Karczewski, Konrad J; Almoguera, Berta; Barnard, John; Baumert, Jens; Chang, Yen-Pei Christy; Elbers, Clara C; Farrall, Martin; Fischer, Mary E; Gaunt, Tom R; Gho, Johannes M I H; Gieger, Christian; Goel, Anuj; Gong, Yan; Isaacs, Aaron; Kleber, Marcus E; Mateo Leach, Irene; McDonough, Caitrin W; Meijs, Matthijs F L; Melander, Olle; Nelson, Christopher P; Nolte, Ilja M; Pankratz, Nathan; Price, Tom S; Shaffer, Jonathan; Shah, Sonia; Tomaszewski, Maciej; van der Most, Peter J; Van Iperen, Erik P A; Vonk, Judith M; Witkowska, Kate; Wong, Caroline O L; Zhang, Li; Beitelshees, Amber L; Berenson, Gerald S; Bhatt, Deepak L; Brown, Morris; Burt, Amber; Cooper-DeHoff, Rhonda M; Connell, John M; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Curtis, Sean P; Davey-Smith, George; Delles, Christian; Gansevoort, Ron T; Guo, Xiuqing; Haiqing, Shen; Hastie, Claire E; Hofker, Marten H; Hovingh, G Kees; Kim, Daniel S; Kirkland, Susan A; Klein, Barbara E; Klein, Ronald; Li, Yun R; Maiwald, Steffi; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; O'Brien, Eoin T; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Palmas, Walter; Parsa, Afshin; Penninx, Brenda W; Pettinger, Mary; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Ranchalis, Jane E; M Ridker, Paul; Rose, Lynda M; Sever, Peter; Shimbo, Daichi; Steele, Laura; Stolk, Ronald P; Thorand, Barbara; Trip, Mieke D; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Verschuren, W Monique; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wyatt, Sharon; Young, J Hunter; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Bezzina, Connie R; Boerwinkle, Eric; Casas, Juan P; Caulfield, Mark J; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chasman, Daniel I; Davidson, Karina W; Doevendans, Pieter A; Dominiczak, Anna F; FitzGerald, Garret A; Gums, John G; Fornage, Myriam; Hakonarson, Hakon; Halder, Indrani; Hillege, Hans L; Illig, Thomas; Jarvik, Gail P; Johnson, Julie A; Kastelein, John J P; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kumari, Meena; März, Winfried; Murray, Sarah S; O'Connell, Jeffery R; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Pankow, James S; Rader, Daniel J; Redline, Susan; Reilly, Muredach P; Schadt, Eric E; Kottke-Marchant, Kandice; Snieder, Harold; Snyder, Michael; Stanton, Alice V; Tobin, Martin D; Uitterlinden, André G; van der Harst, Pim; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Samani, Nilesh J; Watkins, Hugh; Johnson, Andrew D; Reiner, Alex P; Zhu, Xiaofeng; de Bakker, Paul I W; Levy, Daniel; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Munroe, Patricia B; Keating, Brendan J

    2014-03-06

    Blood pressure (BP) is a heritable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. To investigate genetic associations with systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and pulse pressure (PP), we genotyped ~50,000 SNPs in up to 87,736 individuals of European ancestry and combined these in a meta-analysis. We replicated findings in an independent set of 68,368 individuals of European ancestry. Our analyses identified 11 previously undescribed associations in independent loci containing 31 genes including PDE1A, HLA-DQB1, CDK6, PRKAG2, VCL, H19, NUCB2, RELA, HOXC@ complex, FBN1, and NFAT5 at the Bonferroni-corrected array-wide significance threshold (p < 6 × 10(-7)) and confirmed 27 previously reported associations. Bioinformatic analysis of the 11 loci provided support for a putative role in hypertension of several genes, such as CDK6 and NUCB2. Analysis of potential pharmacological targets in databases of small molecules showed that ten of the genes are predicted to be a target for small molecules. In summary, we identified previously unknown loci associated with BP. Our findings extend our understanding of genes involved in BP regulation, which may provide new targets for therapeutic intervention or drug response stratification. Copyright © 2014 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Genomic amplification of BCR/ABL1 and a region downstream of ABL1 in chronic myeloid leukaemia: a FISH mapping study of CML patients and cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) is characterized by the expression of the BCR/ABL1 fusion gene, a constitutively activated tyrosine kinase that commonly results from the formation of the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome after a t(9;22)(q34;q11) or variant rearrangement. The duplication of the Ph chromosome is a recurring abnormality acquired during disease progression, whereas intrachromosomal amplification of BCR/ABL1 is a rare phenomenon and has been associated with imatinib therapy resistance. Archival bone marrow chromosome suspensions from 19 CML patients known to carry more than 1 copy of BCR/ABL1 and 10 CML cell lines were analyzed by fluorescent in situ hybridization with a panel of probes from 9q34.1-qter to investigate whether they carried two identical copies of the Ph chromosome or, instead, one or both Ph contained cryptic imbalances of some regions. Results A duplication of the entire Ph chromosome with no further events involving the derivative 22 was found in 12 patients. In contrast, a sideline with either 1 or 2 isochromosomes of the Ph chromosome was identified in 6 patients but none of the cell lines. In one of the patients a translocation between the distal end of one arm of the isoderivative chromosome 22 and a third chromosome was revealed. 2 patients were found to carry marker structures harbouring high copy number gains of BCR/ABL1 fusion along with a variable part of 9q34 region downstream of ABL1 breakpoint, similarly to the markers present in the imatinib resistant cell line K562. We identified the following regions of amplification: 9q34.1 → q34.2 and 9q34.1 → qter, with a common minimum amplified region of 682 Kb. One of the patients had 5 BCR/ABL1 positive clones with variable level of 9q34 amplifications on a variety of structures, from an isoderivative 22 to tandem duplications. Conclusions These data confirm that the intrachromosomal genomic amplification of BCR/ABL1 that occurs in some CML patients during disease

  19. Do Nomograms Designed to Predict Biochemical Recurrence (BCR) Do a Better Job of Predicting More Clinically Relevant Prostate Cancer Outcomes than BCR? A Report from the SEARCH Database Group

    PubMed Central

    Teeter, Anna E.; Presti, Joseph C.; Aronson, William J.; Terris, Martha K.; Kane, Christopher J.; Amling, Christopher L.; Freedland, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the ability of various postoperative nomograms to predict prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) and to validate that they could predict aggressive biochemical recurrence (BCR). Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), grade, and stage are the classic triad used to predict BCR after radical prostatectomy (RP). Multiple nomograms use these to predict risk of BCR. A previous study showed that several nomograms could predict aggressive BCR (prostate-specific antigen doubling time [PSADT] <9 months) more accurately than BCR. However, it remains unknown if they can predict more definitive endpoints, such as PCSM. METHODS We performed Cox analyses to examine the ability of 4 postoperative nomograms, the Duke Prostate Center (DPC) nomogram, the Kattan postoperative nomogram, the Johns Hopkins Hospital (JHH) nomogram, and the joint Center for Prostate Disease Research(CPDR)/Cancer of the Prostate Strategic Urologic Research Endeavor (CaPSURE) nomogram to predict BCR and PCSM among 1778 men in the Shared Equal Access Regional Cancer Hospital (SEARCH) database who underwent RP between 1990 and 2009. We also compared their ability to predict BCR and aggressive BCR in a subset of men. We calculated the c-index for each nomogram to determine its predictive accuracy for estimating actual outcomes. RESULTS We found that each nomogram could predict aggressive BCR and PCSM in a statistically significant manner and that they all predicted PCSM more accurately than they predicted BCR (ie, with higher c-index values). CONCLUSION Currently available nomograms used to predict BCR accurately predict PCSM and other more clinically relevant endpoints. Moreover, not only do they significantly predict PCSM, but do so with generally greater accuracy than BCR. PMID:23806388

  20. Problems in the application of the three-step BCR sequential extraction to low amounts of sediments: an alternative validated route.

    PubMed

    Ciceri, Elena; Giussani, Barbara; Pozzi, Andrea; Dossi, Carlo; Recchia, Sandro

    2008-07-30

    Poor recoveries are obtained if the BCR three-step sequential extraction is applied to 100 mg specimens rather than to 1 g. It is observed that analytes are lost during each phase separation which is carried out via centrifugation and can be hardly quantitatively performed on 100 mg sediment specimens. An alternative procedure, which is carried out on a single empty SPE column and involves separation by filtration, is developed to solve this problem. The proposed method is validated on 100 mg samples of certified sediment (BCR-701), but could be potentially used for even lower sediment specimens. Problems related to pH stability during step 2 and its influence on recoveries is also reported.

  1. Frequency of rare BCR-ABL1 fusion transcripts in chronic myeloid leukemia patients.

    PubMed

    Arun, A K; Senthamizhselvi, A; Mani, S; Vinodhini, K; Janet, N B; Lakshmi, K M; Abraham, A; George, B; Srivastava, A; Srivastava, V M; Mathews, V; Balasubramanian, P

    2017-06-01

    The hallmark of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is the presence of Philadelphia chromosome, its resultant fusion transcript (BCR-ABL1), and fusion protein (p210). Alternate breakpoints in BCR (m-bcr, μ-bcr, and others) or ABL1 result in the expression of few rare fusion transcripts (e19a2, e1a2, e13a3, e14a3) and fusion proteins (p190, p200, p225) whose exact clinical significance remains to be determined. Our study was designed to determine the type and frequency of BCR-ABL1 fusion transcripts in 1260 CML patients and to analyze the prognosis and treatment response in patients harboring rare BCR-ABL1 fusion transcripts. The frequency of various BCR-ABL1 fusion transcripts was as follows: e14a2 (60%), e13a2 (34.3%), e1a2 (1.2%), e1a2 + e13a2 (2.0%), e1a2 + e14a2 (1.8%), e19a2 (0.3%), and e14a3 (0.3%). CML patients with e1a2 transcripts had higher rates of disease progression, resistance, or suboptimal response to imatinib and failed to achieve major molecular response. Characterization of the specific fusion transcript in CML patients is important owing to the difference in prognosis and response to therapy in addition to the conventional need for monitoring treatment response. CML patients with e1a2 transcripts have to be closely monitored due to the high incidence of disease progression and treatment resistance/failure. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Modeling the influence of stromal microenvironment in the selection of ENU-induced BCR-ABL1 mutants by tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Aggoune, Djamel; Tosca, Lucie; Sorel, Nathalie; Bonnet, Marie-Laure; Dkhissi, Fatima; Tachdjian, Gérard; Bennaceur-Griscelli, Annelise; Chomel, Jean-Claude; Turhan, Ali G

    2014-01-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have profoundly changed the natural history of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). However, acquired resistance to imatinib, dasatinib or nilotinib (1(st) and 2(nd) generation TKIs), due in part to BCR-ABL1 kinase mutations, has been largely described. These drugs are ineffective on the T315I gatekeeper substitution, which remains sensitive to 3(rd) generation TKI ponatinib. It has recently been suggested that the hematopoietic niche could protect leukemic cells from targeted therapy. In order to investigate the role of a stromal niche in mutation-related resistance, we developed a niche-based cell mutagenesis assay. For this purpose, ENU (N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea)-exposed UT-7 cells expressing non-mutated or T315I-mutated BCR-ABL1 were cultured with or without murine MS-5 stromal cells and in the presence of imatinib, dasatinib, nilotinib, or ponatinib. In the assays relative to 1(st) and 2(nd) generation TKIs, which were performed on non-mutated BCR-ABL1 cells, our data highlighted the increasing efficacy of the latter, but did not reveal any substantial effect of the niche. In ponatinib assays performed on both non-mutated and T315I-mutated BCR-ABL1 cells, an increased number of resistant clones were observed in the presence of MS-5. Present data suggested that T315I mutants need either compound mutations (e.g. E255K/T315I) or a stromal niche to escape from ponatinib. Using array-comparative genomic hybridization experiments, we found an increased number of variations (involving some recurrent chromosome regions) in clones cultured on MS-5 feeder. Overall, our study suggests that the hematopoietic niche could play a crucial role in conferring resistance to ponatinib, by providing survival signals and favoring genetic instability.

  3. Modeling the influence of stromal microenvironment in the selection of ENU-induced BCR-ABL1 mutants by tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Aggoune, Djamel; Tosca, Lucie; Sorel, Nathalie; Bonnet, Marie-Laure; Dkhissi, Fatima; Tachdjian, Gérard; Bennaceur-Griscelli, Annelise; Chomel, Jean-Claude; Turhan, Ali G

    2014-01-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have profoundly changed the natural history of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). However, acquired resistance to imatinib, dasatinib or nilotinib (1st and 2nd generation TKIs), due in part to BCR-ABL1 kinase mutations, has been largely described. These drugs are ineffective on the T315I gatekeeper substitution, which remains sensitive to 3rd generation TKI ponatinib. It has recently been suggested that the hematopoietic niche could protect leukemic cells from targeted therapy. In order to investigate the role of a stromal niche in mutation-related resistance, we developed a niche-based cell mutagenesis assay. For this purpose, ENU (N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea)-exposed UT-7 cells expressing non-mutated or T315I-mutated BCR-ABL1 were cultured with or without murine MS-5 stromal cells and in the presence of imatinib, dasatinib, nilotinib, or ponatinib. In the assays relative to 1st and 2nd generation TKIs, which were performed on non-mutated BCR-ABL1 cells, our data highlighted the increasing efficacy of the latter, but did not reveal any substantial effect of the niche. In ponatinib assays performed on both non-mutated and T315I–mutated BCR-ABL1 cells, an increased number of resistant clones were observed in the presence of MS-5. Present data suggested that T315I mutants need either compound mutations (e.g. E255K/T315I) or a stromal niche to escape from ponatinib. Using array-comparative genomic hybridization experiments, we found an increased number of variations (involving some recurrent chromosome regions) in clones cultured on MS-5 feeder. Overall, our study suggests that the hematopoietic niche could play a crucial role in conferring resistance to ponatinib, by providing survival signals and favoring genetic instability. PMID:25593988

  4. Interactions of Dietary Whole-Grain Intake With Fasting Glucose– and Insulin-Related Genetic Loci in Individuals of European Descent

    PubMed Central

    Nettleton, Jennifer A.; McKeown, Nicola M.; Kanoni, Stavroula; Lemaitre, Rozenn N.; Hivert, Marie-France; Ngwa, Julius; van Rooij, Frank J.A.; Sonestedt, Emily; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Ye, Zheng; Tanaka, Tosh

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Whole-grain foods are touted for multiple health benefits, including enhancing insulin sensitivity and reducing type 2 diabetes risk. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with fasting glucose and insulin concentrations in individuals free of diabetes. We tested the hypothesis that whole-grain food intake and genetic variation interact to influence concentrations of fasting glucose and insulin. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Via meta-analysis of data from 14 cohorts comprising ∼48,000 participants of European descent, we studied interactions of whole-grain intake with loci previously associated in GWAS with fasting glucose (16 loci) and/or insulin (2 loci) concentrations. For tests of interaction, we considered a P value <0.0028 (0.05 of 18 tests) as statistically significant. RESULTS Greater whole-grain food intake was associated with lower fasting glucose and insulin concentrations independent of demographics, other dietary and lifestyle factors, and BMI (β [95% CI] per 1-serving-greater whole-grain intake: −0.009 mmol/l glucose [−0.013 to −0.005], P < 0.0001 and −0.011 pmol/l [ln] insulin [−0.015 to −0.007], P = 0.0003). No interactions met our multiple testing–adjusted statistical significance threshold. The strongest SNP interaction with whole-grain intake was rs780094 (GCKR) for fasting insulin (P = 0.006), where greater whole-grain intake was associated with a smaller reduction in fasting insulin concentrations in those with the insulin-raising allele. CONCLUSIONS Our results support the favorable association of whole-grain intake with fasting glucose and insulin and suggest a potential interaction between variation in GCKR and whole-grain intake in influencing fasting insulin concentrations. PMID:20693352

  5. Targeting the SH2-Kinase Interface in Bcr-Abl Inhibits Leukemogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Grebien, Florian; Hantschel, Oliver; Wojcik, John; Kaupe, Ines; Kovacic, Boris; Wyrzucki, Arkadiusz M.; Gish, Gerald D.; Cerny-Reiterer, Sabine; Koide, Akiko; Beug, Hartmut; Pawson, Tony; Valent, Peter; Koide, Shohei; Superti-Furga, Giulio

    2012-10-25

    Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is caused by the constitutively active tyrosine kinase Bcr-Abl and treated with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) imatinib. However, emerging TKI resistance prevents complete cure. Therefore, alternative strategies targeting regulatory modules of Bcr-Abl in addition to the kinase active site are strongly desirable. Here, we show that an intramolecular interaction between the SH2 and kinase domains in Bcr-Abl is both necessary and sufficient for high catalytic activity of the enzyme. Disruption of this interface led to inhibition of downstream events critical for CML signaling and, importantly, completely abolished leukemia formation in mice. Furthermore, disruption of the SH2-kinase interface increased sensitivity of imatinib-resistant Bcr-Abl mutants to TKI inhibition. An engineered Abl SH2-binding fibronectin type III monobody inhibited Bcr-Abl kinase activity both in vitro and in primary CML cells, where it induced apoptosis. This work validates the SH2-kinase interface as an allosteric target for therapeutic intervention.

  6. PAK-dependent STAT5 serine phosphorylation is required for BCR-ABL-induced leukemogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Berger, A; Hoelbl-Kovacic, A; Bourgeais, J; Hoefling, L; Warsch, W; Grundschober, E; Uras, I Z; Menzl, I; Putz, E M; Hoermann, G; Schuster, C; Fajmann, S; Leitner, E; Kubicek, S; Moriggl, R; Gouilleux, F; Sexl, V

    2014-01-01

    The transcription factor STAT5 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 5) is frequently activated in hematological malignancies and represents an essential signaling node downstream of the BCR-ABL oncogene. STAT5 can be phosphorylated at three positions, on a tyrosine and on the two serines S725 and S779. We have investigated the importance of STAT5 serine phosphorylation for BCR-ABL-induced leukemogenesis. In cultured bone marrow cells, expression of a STAT5 mutant lacking the S725 and S779 phosphorylation sites (STAT5SASA) prohibits transformation and induces apoptosis. Accordingly, STAT5SASA BCR-ABL+ cells display a strongly reduced leukemic potential in vivo, predominantly caused by loss of S779 phosphorylation that prevents the nuclear translocation of STAT5. Three distinct lines of evidence indicate that S779 is phosphorylated by group I p21-activated kinase (PAK). We show further that PAK-dependent serine phosphorylation of STAT5 is unaffected by BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment. Interfering with STAT5 phosphorylation could thus be a novel therapeutic approach to target BCR-ABL-induced malignancies. PMID:24263804

  7. LIME acts as a transmembrane adapter mediating BCR-dependent B-cell activation.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Eunseon; Lee, Hyunsook; Yun, Yungdae

    2006-02-15

    Assembly of a signaling complex around the transmembrane adapter LAT is essential for the transmission of T-cell receptor (TCR)-mediated signaling. However, a LAT-like molecule responsible for the initial activation events in B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling has not yet been identified. Here, we show that LIME is a transmembrane adaptor required for BCR-mediated B-cell activation. LIME was found to be expressed in mouse splenic B cells. Upon BCR cross-linking, LIME was tyrosine phosphorylated by Lyn and associated with Lyn, Grb2, PLC-gamma2, and PI3K. Reduction of LIME expression by the introduction of siRNA resulted in the disruption of BCR-mediated activation of MAPK, calcium flux, NF-AT, PI3K, and NF-kappaB. Taken together, these results establish that LIME is an essential transmembrane adaptor linking BCR ligation to the downstream signaling events that lead to B-cell activation.

  8. Vav3 collaborates with p190-BCR-ABL in lymphoid progenitor leukemogenesis, proliferation, and survival

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Kyung Hee; Sanchez-Aguilera, Abel; Shen, Shuhong; Sengupta, Amitava; Madhu, Malav N.; Ficker, Ashley M.; Dunn, Susan K.; Kuenzi, Ashley M.; Arnett, Jorden L.; Santho, Rebecca A.; Agirre, Xabier; Perentesis, John P.; Deininger, Michael W.; Zheng, Yi; Bustelo, Xose R.; Williams, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy, the prognosis for p190-BCR-ABL+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia remains poor. In the present study, we present the cellular and molecular roles of the Rho GTPase guanine nucleotide exchange factor Vav in lymphoid leukemogenesis and explore the roles of Vav proteins in BCR-ABL–dependent signaling. We show that genetic deficiency of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Vav3 delays leukemogenesis by p190-BCR-ABL and phenocopies the effect of Rac2 deficiency, a downstream effector of Vav3. Compensatory up-regulation of expression and activation of Vav3 in Vav1/Vav2–deficient B-cell progenitors increases the transformation ability of p190-BCR-ABL. Vav3 deficiency induces apoptosis of murine and human leukemic lymphoid progenitors, decreases the activation of Rho GTPase family members and p21-activated kinase, and is associated with increased Bad phosphorylation and up-regulation of Bax, Bak, and Bik. Finally, Vav3 activation only partly depends on ABL TK activity, and Vav3 deficiency collaborates with tyrosine kinase inhibitors to inhibit CrkL activation and impair leukemogenesis in vitro and in vivo. We conclude that Vav3 represents a novel specific molecular leukemic effector for multitarget therapy in p190-BCR-ABL–expressng acute lymphoblastic leukemia. PMID:22692505

  9. RT-PCR is a more accurate diagnostic tool for detection of BCR-ABL rearrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Zehnbauer, B.A.; Allen, A.P.; McGrath, S.D.

    1994-09-01

    Detection of the Philadelphia chromosome (Ph1) or genomic Southern hybridization for clonal gene rearrangement (GSH-R) has provided very specific identification of BCR-ABL gene rearrangement. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is diagnostic for patterns of BCR-ABL expression which are undetected by GSH-R and/or Ph1 and provides increased sensitivity both at diagnosis and in detection of minimal residual leukemia. Fifty-three specimens (of 150 tested from 119 consecutive leukemia patients) were RT-PCR positive for BCR-ABL gene expression confirmed by hybridization of PCR products with b{sub 3}a{sub 2}, b{sub 2}a{sub 2}, or e{sub 1}a{sub 2} junction-specific oligonucleotides. In 6 cases of CML with GSH-R{sup {minus}}at diagnosis, RT-PCR provided specific BCR-ABL identification. Deletion of BCR regions, low mitotic index, or e{sub 1}a{sub 2} expression caused failure to detect GSH-R or Ph1 translocation.

  10. A derivative of epigallocatechin-3-gallate induces apoptosis via SHP-1-mediated suppression of BCR-ABL and STAT3 signalling in chronic myelogenous leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ji Hoon; Yun, Miyong; Choo, Eun-Jeong; Kim, Sun-Hee; Jeong, Myoung-Seok; Jung, Deok-Beom; Lee, Hyemin; Kim, Eun-Ok; Kato, Nobuo; Kim, Bonglee; Srivastava, Sanjay K; Kaihatsu, Kunihiro; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is a component of green tea known to have chemo-preventative effects on several cancers. However, EGCG has limited clinical application, which necessitates the development of a more effective EGCG prodrug as an anticancer agent. Experimental Approach Derivatives of EGCG were evaluated for their stability and anti-tumour activity in human chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) K562 and KBM5 cells. Key Results EGCG-mono-palmitate (EGCG-MP) showed most prolonged stability compared with other EGCG derivatives. EGCG-MP exerted greater cytotoxicity and apoptosis in K562 and KBM5 cells than the other EGCG derivatives. EGCG-MP induced Src-homology 2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase 1 (SHP-1) leading decreased oncogenic protein BCR-ABL and STAT3 phosphorylation in CML cells, compared with treatment with EGCG. Furthermore, EGCG-MP reduced phosphorylation of STAT3 and survival genes in K562 cells, compared with EGCG. Conversely, depletion of SHP-1 or application of the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor pervanadate blocked the ability of EGCG-MP to suppress phosphorylation of BCR-ABL and STAT3, and the expression of survival genes downstream of STAT3. In addition, EGCG-MP treatment more effectively suppressed tumour growth in BALB/c athymic nude mice compared with untreated controls or EGCG treatment. Immunohistochemistry revealed increased caspase 3 and SHP-1 activity and decreased phosphorylation of BCR-ABL in the EGCG-MP-treated group relative to that in the EGCG-treated group. Conclusions and Implications EGCG-MP induced SHP-1-mediated inhibition of BCR-ABL and STAT3 signalling in vitro and in vivo more effectively than EGCG. This derivative may be a potent chemotherapeutic agent for CML treatment. PMID:25825203

  11. Efficacy and safety of radotinib in chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients with resistance or intolerance to BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Hyun; Menon, Hari; Jootar, Saengsuree; Saikia, Tapan; Kwak, Jae-Yong; Sohn, Sang-Kyun; Park, Joon Seong; Jeong, Seong Hyun; Kim, Hyeoung Joon; Kim, Yeo-Kyeoung; Oh, Suk Joong; Kim, Hawk; Zang, Dae Young; Chung, Joo Seop; Shin, Ho Jin; Do, Young Rok; Kim, Jeong-A; Kim, Dae-Young; Choi, Chul Won; Park, Sahee; Park, Hye Lin; Lee, Gong Yeal; Cho, Dae Jin; Shin, Jae Soo; Kim, Dong-Wook

    2014-07-01

    Radotinib (IY5511HCL), a novel and selective BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has shown pre-clinical and phase I activity and safety in chronic myeloid leukemia. This phase II study investigated the efficacy and safety of radotinib in Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic phase-chronic myeloid leukemia patients with resistance and/or intolerance to BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Patients received radotinib 400 mg twice daily for 12 cycles based on results from the phase I trial. The primary end point was rate of major cytogenetic response by 12 months. A total of 77 patients were enrolled. Major cytogenetic response was achieved in 50 (65%; cumulative 75%) patients, including 36 (47%) patients with complete cytogenetic response by 12 months. Median time to major cytogenetic response and complete cytogenetic response were 85 days and 256 days, respectively. Major cytogenetic response and complete cytogenetic response rates were similar between imatinib-resistant and imatinib-intolerant patients, but were higher in patients without BCR-ABL1 mutations. Overall and progression-free survival rates at 12 months were 96.1% and 86.3%, respectively. All newly-occurring or worsening grade 3/4 hematologic abnormalities included thrombocytopenia (24.7%) and anemia (5.2%); grade 3/4 drug-related non-hematologic adverse events included fatigue (3.9%), asthenia (3.9%), and nausea (2.6%). The most common biochemistry abnormality was hyperbilirubinemia (grade 3/4 23.4%), and 12 of 18 cases were managed with dose modification. Study findings suggest radotinib is effective and well tolerated in chronic phase-chronic myeloid leukemia patients with resistance and/or intolerance to BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors and may represent a promising alternative for these patients. (clinicaltrials.gov identifier: 01602952).

  12. UV Differentially Induces Oxidative Stress, DNA Damage and Apoptosis in BCR-ABL1-Positive Cells Sensitive and Resistant to Imatinib.

    PubMed

    Synowiec, Ewelina; Hoser, Grazyna; Wojcik, Katarzyna; Pawlowska, Elzbieta; Skorski, Tomasz; Błasiak, Janusz

    2015-08-05

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells express the active BCR-ABL1 protein, which has been targeted by imatinib in CML therapy, but resistance to this drug is an emerging problem. BCR-ABL1 induces endogenous oxidative stress promoting genomic instability and imatinib resistance. In the present work, we investigated the extent of oxidative stress, DNA damage, apoptosis and expression of apoptosis-related genes in BCR-ABL1 cells sensitive and resistant to imatinib. The resistance resulted either from the Y253H mutation in the BCR-ABL1 gene or incubation in increasing concentrations of imatinib (AR). UV irradiation at a dose rate of 0.12 J/(m2 · s) induced more DNA damage detected by the T4 pyrimidine dimers glycosylase and hOGG1, recognizing oxidative modifications to DNA bases in imatinib-resistant than -sensitive cells. The resistant cells displayed also higher susceptibility to UV-induced apoptosis. These cells had lower native mitochondrial membrane potential than imatinib-sensitive cells, but UV-irradiation reversed that relationship. We observed a significant lowering of the expression of the succinate dehydrogenase (SDHB) gene, encoding a component of the complex II of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, which is involved in apoptosis sensing. Although detailed mechanism of imatinib resistance in AR cells in unknown, we detected the presence of the Y253H mutation in a fraction of these cells. In conclusion, imatinib-resistant cells may display a different extent of genome instability than their imatinib-sensitive counterparts, which may follow their different reactions to both endogenous and exogenous DNA-damaging factors, including DNA repair and apoptosis.

  13. Inhibition of heat shock protein 90 prolongs survival of mice with BCR-ABL-T315I–induced leukemia and suppresses leukemic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Cong; Brain, Julia; Hu, Yiguo; Goodrich, Ami; Kong, Linghong; Grayzel, David; Pak, Roger; Read, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    Development of kinase domain mutations is a major drug-resistance mechanism for tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in cancer therapy. A particularly challenging example is found in Philadelphia chromosome–positive chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) where all available kinase inhibitors in clinic are ineffective against the BCR-ABL mutant, T315I. As an alternative approach to kinase inhibition, an orally administered heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitor, IPI-504, was evaluated in a murine model of CML. Treatment with IPI-504 resulted in BCR-ABL protein degradation, decreased numbers of leukemia stem cells, and prolonged survival of leukemic mice bearing the T315I mutation. Hsp90 inhibition more potently suppressed T315I-expressing leukemia clones relative to the wild-type (WT) clones in mice. Combination treatment with IPI-504 and imatinib was more effective than either treatment alone in prolonging survival of mice simultaneously bearing both WT and T315I leukemic cells. These results provide a rationale for use of an Hsp90 inhibitor as a first-line treatment in CML by inhibiting leukemia stem cells and preventing the emergence of imatinib-resistant clones in patients. Rather than inhibiting kinase activity, elimination of mutant kinases provides a new therapeutic strategy for treating BCR-ABL–induced leukemia as well as other cancers resistant to treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. PMID:17395781

  14. Fractionation of Heavy Metals in Fly Ash from Wood Biomass Using the BCR Sequential Extraction Procedure.

    PubMed

    Jukić, Mirela; Ćurković, Lidija; Šabarić, Jasenka; Kerolli-Mustafa, Mihone

    2017-08-20

    The aim of this study was to extract the wood biomass fly ash fractions by a three-stage sequential extraction method for acetic acid and ion exchangeable (BCR 1), hydroxylamine hydrochloride reduction (BCR 2), and hydrogen peroxide oxidation (BCR 3) fractions in order to access the leaching behavior of this residue. The fly ash was collected as a by-product from the processing of mixed wood biomass in Udbina combustion facility, Croatia. Concentrations of several elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in all extracts were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The acidic exchangeable form of the metals was used to evaluate the potential ecological risk of biomass fly ash. According to calculated potential ecological risk index, it is confirmed that mobility of Ni and As has major environmental impact. However the results of potential ecological risk show that biomass fly ash had a low risk.

  15. An accurate and rapid flow cytometric diagnosis of BCR-ABL positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Raponi, Sara; De Propris, Maria Stefania; Wai, Hobert; Intoppa, Stefania; Elia, Loredana; Diverio, Daniela; Vitale, Antonella; Foà, Robin; Guarini, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors have profoundly modified the treatment and prognosis of chronic myeloid leukemia and Ph+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia. A rapid and accurate detection of the BCR-ABL fusion protein is paramount today for an optimal management of Ph+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia. We have utilized a recently described and commercialized immunoassay that identifies qualitatively the presence of the BCR-ABL protein in leukemic cell lysates. The BCR-ABL fusion protein is captured and detected by a cytometric bead assay and analyzed by flow cytometry. The assay was applied to 101 primary patient samples (94 acute leukemias and 7 chronic myeloid leukemia blast crisis) and the results of the immunoassay were concordant with those obtained by conventional molecular techniques. The method proved reliable, reproducible, of simple execution and it was successfully completed within four hours. This flow cytometric immunoassay has important implications for perfecting the management of Ph+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients worldwide. PMID:19608682

  16. Essential role for telomerase in chronic myeloid leukemia induced by BCR-ABL in mice

    PubMed Central

    Vicente-Dueñas, Carolina; Barajas-Diego, Marcos; Romero-Camarero, Isabel; González-Herrero, Inés; Flores, Teresa; Sánchez-García, Isidro

    2012-01-01

    The telomerase protein is constitutively activated in malignant cells from many patients with cancer, including the chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), but whether telomerase is essential for the pathogenesis of this disease is not known. Here, we used telomerase deficient mice to determine the requirement for telomerase in CML induced by BCR-ABL in mouse models of CML. Loss of one telomerase allele or complete deletion of telomerase prevented the development of leukemia induced by BCR-ABL. However, BCR-ABL was expressed and active in telomerase heterozygous and null leukemic hematopoietic stem cells. These results demonstrate that telomerase is essential for oncogene-induced reprogramming of hematopoietic stem cells in CML development and validate telomerase and the genes it regulates as targets for therapy in CML. PMID:22408137

  17. Natural and Sexual Selection on Many Loci

    PubMed Central

    Barton, N. H.; Turelli, M.

    1991-01-01

    A method is developed that describes the effects on an arbitrary number of autosomal loci of selection on haploid and diploid stages, of nonrandom mating between haploid individuals, and of recombination. We provide exact recursions for the dynamics of allele frequencies and linkage disequilibria (nonrandom associations of alleles across loci). When selection is weak relative to recombination, our recursions provide simple approximations for the linkage disequilibria among arbitrary combinations of loci. We show how previous models of sex-independent natural selection on diploids, assortative mating between haploids, and sexual selection on haploids can be analyzed in this framework. Using our weak-selection approximations, we derive new results concerning the coevolution of male traits and female preferences under natural and sexual selection. In particular, we provide general expressions for the intensity of linkage-disequilibrium induced selection experienced by loci that contribute to female preferences for specific male traits. Our general results support the previous observation that these indirect selection forces are so weak that they are unlikely to dominate the evolution of preference-producing loci. PMID:2016044

  18. Bcr-Abl and inhibition of apoptosis in chronic myelogenous leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Luna, J L

    2000-10-01

    Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) cells are highly resistant to apoptosis induced by chemotherapeutic drugs. The observation that production of Bcr-Abl is the initiating event in CML has focussed attention on the survival signals triggered by this oncogene. A number of signal transducers and transcription factors have been associated with the antiapoptotic phenotype of CML cells, some of which lead to the expression and/or activation of members of the Bcl-2 family of apoptosis modulators, such as Bcl-xL and Bad. In this article, recent advances in understanding the antiapoptotic pathways triggered by Bcr-Abl in CML cells, are discussed.

  19. International reporting scale of BCR-ABL1 fusion transcript in chronic myeloid leukemia: first report from India.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Poonkuzhali; Chendamarai, Ezhilarasi; Markose, Preetha; Fletcher, Linda; Branford, Susan; George, Biju; Mathews, Vikram; Chandy, Mammen; Srivastava, Alok

    2012-01-01

    Achieving a major molecular response (MMR) is an important predictor of progression-free survival in chronic myeloid leukemia patients treated with imatinib. This requires accurate measurement of BCR-ABL1 transcripts normalized to a control gene, as well as defining a level (BCR-ABL1/control gene ratio) that will correlate with sustained clinical response. To make these measurements comparable between laboratories, an international scale (IS) is necessary. A BCR-ABL1/control gene ratio of 0.10% represents MMR in the IS. In collaboration with an international reference laboratory in Adelaide, S.A., Australia, we have established and validated a lab-specific conversion factor for expressing BCR-ABL1 transcript levels in the IS. In this report, we explain the process and steps involved in obtaining a valid lab-specific conversion factor for expressing BCR-ABL1 transcript levels in the IS. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Isolation and characterization of eight novel microsatellite loci in the double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mercer, Dacey; Haig, Susan; Mullins, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We describe the isolation and characterization of eight microsatellite loci from the double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus). Genetic variability was assessed using 60 individuals from three populations. All loci were variable with the number of alleles ranging from two to 17 per locus, and observed heterozygosity varying from 0.05 to 0.89. No loci showed signs of linkage disequilibrium and all loci conformed to Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium frequencies. Further, all loci amplified and were polymorphic in two related Phalacrocorax species. These loci should prove useful for population genetic studies of the double-crested cormorant and other pelecaniform species.

  1. Dense genotyping of immune-related loci implicates host responses to microbial exposure in Behçet’s disease susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Masaki; Mizuki, Nobuhisa; Meguro, Akira; Ombrello, Michael J.; Kirino, Yohei; Satorius, Colleen; Le, Julie; Blake, Mary; Erer, Burak; Kawagoe, Tatsukata; Ustek, Duran; Tugal-Tutkun, Ilknur; Seyahi, Emire; Ozyazgan, Yilmaz; Sousa, Inês; Davatchi, Fereydoun; Francisco, Vânia; Shahram, Farhad; Abdollahi, Bahar Sadeghi; Nadji, Abdolhadi; Shafiee, Niloofar Mojarad; Ghaderibarmi, Fahmida; Ohno, Shigeaki; Ueda, Atsuhisa; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki; Gadina, Massimo; Oliveira, Sofia A.; Gül, Ahmet; Kastner, Daniel L.; Remmers, Elaine F.

    2017-01-01

    We analyzed 1,900 Turkish Behçet’s disease cases and 1,779 controls genotyped with the Immunochip. The most significantly associated single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was rs1050502, a tag SNP for HLA-B*51. In the Turkish discovery set, we identified three novel loci, IL1A-IL1B, IRF8, and CEBPB-PTPN1, with genome-wide significance (P<5×10−8) by direct genotyping, and ADO-EGR2 by imputation. ADO-EGR2, IRF8, and CEBPB-PTPN1 replicated by genotyping 969 Iranian cases and 826 controls. Imputed data in 608 Japanese cases and 737 controls replicated ADO-EGR2 and IRF8 and meta-analysis additionally identified RIPK2 and LACC1. The disease-associated allele of rs4402765, the lead marker of the IL1A-IL1B locus, was associated with both decreased interleukin-1α and increased interleukin-1β production. ABO non-secretor genotypes of two ancestry-specific FUT2 SNPs showed strong disease association (P=5.89×10−15). Our findings extend shared susceptibility genes with Crohn’s disease and leprosy, and implicate mucosal factors and the innate immune response to microbial exposure in Behçet’s disease susceptibility. PMID:28166214

  2. Oridonin Triggers Chaperon-mediated Proteasomal Degradation of BCR-ABL in Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Huilin; Weng, Hengyou; Dong, Bowen; Zhao, Panpan; Zhou, Hui; Qu, Lianghu

    2017-01-01

    Inducing degradation of oncoproteins by small molecule compounds has the potential to avoid drug resistance and therefore deserves to be exploited for new therapies. Oridonin is a natural compound with promising antitumor efficacy that can trigger the degradation of oncoproteins; however, the direct cellular targets and underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we report that oridonin depletes BCR-ABL through chaperon-mediated proteasomal degradation in leukemia. Mechanistically, oridonin poses oxidative stress in cancer cells and directly binds to cysteines of HSF1, leading to the activation of this master regulator of the chaperone system. The resulting induction of HSP70 and ubiquitin proteins and the enhanced binding to CHIP E3 ligase hence target BCR-ABL for ubiquitin-proteasome degradation. Both wild-type and mutant forms of BCR-ABL can be efficiently degraded by oridonin, supporting its efficacy observed in cultured cells as well as mouse tumor xenograft assays with either imatinib-sensitive or -resistant cells. Collectively, our results identify a novel mechanism by which oridonin induces rapid degradation of BCR-ABL as well as a novel pharmaceutical activator of HSF1 that represents a promising treatment for leukemia. PMID:28128329

  3. Monovalent engagement of the BCR activates ovalbumin-specific transnuclear B cells

    PubMed Central

    Avalos, Ana M.; Bilate, Angelina M.; Witte, Martin D.; Tai, Albert K.; He, Jiang; Frushicheva, Maria P.; Thill, Peter D.; Meyer-Wentrup, Friederike; Theile, Christopher S.; Chakraborty, Arup K.; Zhuang, Xiaowei

    2014-01-01

    Valency requirements for B cell activation upon antigen encounter are poorly understood. OB1 transnuclear B cells express an IgG1 B cell receptor (BCR) specific for ovalbumin (OVA), the epitope of which can be mimicked using short synthetic peptides to allow antigen-specific engagement of the BCR. By altering length and valency of epitope-bearing synthetic peptides, we examined the properties of ligands required for optimal OB1 B cell activation. Monovalent engagement of the BCR with an epitope-bearing 17-mer synthetic peptide readily activated OB1 B cells. Dimers of the minimal peptide epitope oriented in an N to N configuration were more stimulatory than their C to C counterparts. Although shorter length correlated with less activation, a monomeric 8-mer peptide epitope behaved as a weak agonist that blocked responses to cell-bound peptide antigen, a blockade which could not be reversed by CD40 ligation. The 8-mer not only delivered a suboptimal signal, which blocked subsequent responses to OVA, anti-IgG, and anti-kappa, but also competed for binding with OVA. Our results show that fine-tuning of BCR-ligand recognition can lead to B cell nonresponsiveness, activation, or inhibition. PMID:24493799

  4. Cantharidin Overcomes Imatinib Resistance by Depleting BCR-ABL in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaoyan; Cai, Xueting; Yang, Jie; Chen, Jiao; Guo, Caixia; Cao, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Cantharidin (CTD) is an active compound isolated from the traditional Chinese medicine blister beetle and displayed anticancer properties against various types of cancer cells. However, little is known about its effect on human chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells, including imatinib-resistant CML cells. The objective of this study was to investigate whether CTD could overcome imatinib resistance in imatinib-resistant CML cells and to explore the possible underlying mechanisms associated with the effect. Our results showed that CTD strongly inhibited the growth of both imatinib-sensitive and imatinib-resistant CML cells. CTD induced cell cycle arrest at mitotic phase and triggered DNA damage in CML cells. The ATM/ATR inhibitor CGK733 abrogated CTD-induced mitotic arrest but promoted the cytotoxic effects of CTD. In addition, we demonstrated that CTD downregulated the expression of the BCR-ABL protein and suppressed its downstream signal transduction. Real-time quantitative PCR revealed that CTD inhibited BCR-ABL at transcriptional level. Knockdown of BCR-ABL increased the cell-killing effects of CTD in K562 cells. These findings indicated that CTD overcomes imatinib resistance through depletion of BCR-ABL. Taken together, CTD is an important new candidate agent for CML therapy. PMID:27989101

  5. Signalling of the BCR is regulated by a lipid rafts-localised transcription factor, Bright

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Christian; Kim, Dongkyoon; Ippolito, Gregory C; Naqvi, Hassan R; Probst, Loren; Mathur, Shawn; Rosas-Acosta, German; Wilson, Van G; Oldham, Athenia L; Poenie, Martin; Webb, Carol F; Tucker, Philip W

    2009-01-01

    Regulation of BCR signalling strength is crucial for B-cell development and function. Bright is a B-cell-restricted factor that complexes with Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) and its substrate, transcription initiation factor-I (TFII-I), to activate immunoglobulin heavy chain gene transcription in the nucleus. Here we show that a palmitoylated pool of Bright is diverted to lipid rafts of resting B cells where it associates with signalosome components. After BCR ligation, Bright transiently interacts with sumoylation enzymes, blocks calcium flux and phosphorylation of Btk and TFII-I and is then discharged from lipid rafts as a Sumo-I-modified form. The resulting lipid raft concentration of Bright contributes to the signalling threshold of B cells, as their sensitivity to BCR stimulation decreases as the levels of Bright increase. Bright regulates signalling independent of its role in IgH transcription, as shown by specific dominant-negative titration of rafts-specific forms. This study identifies a BCR tuning mechanism in lipid rafts that is regulated by differential post-translational modification of a transcription factor with implications for B-cell tolerance and autoimmunity. PMID:19214191

  6. Distribution of Different PML/RARα bcr Isoforms in Indian Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (APL) Patients and Clinicohematological Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Tathagata; Gupta, Srishti; Sharma, Sanjeevan; Ganguli, Prosenjit

    2014-01-01

    Context Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), an AML subtype, is characterized morphologically by abnormal promyelocytes. Molecular studies show three possible bcr isoforms of PML-RARα fusion gene. This study undertakes analysis of PML-RARα bcr isoforms and their correlation with haematological parameters and response to treatment in Indian patients. Aims To study different PML-RARα bcr isoforms in Indian patients and to find any correlation with various haematological parameters and response to treatment Settings and Design Patients diagnosed as APL on morphology or flowcytometry and confirmed by RQ PCR were included in the study. Treated APL patients or patients with relapse and on follow-up were excluded from the study. Methods and Material Twenty patients over thirty one months period were included. The clinical, haematological & morphological features were analysed, the latter using routine & special cytochemical stains on blood and bone marrow. Flow cytometric evaluation using 4-color Beckman Coulter FC 500 and molecular studies using RT PCR Fusion Quant® kits for bcr-1, bcr-2 and bcr-3 of PML-RARα bcr isoforms on the instrument Rotor Gene™ 3000 were performed. Statistical analysis used Student t test was applied to correlate different bcr isoforms with various haematological parameters and response to treatment. Results In our study, M:F ratio was 1.5:1 with median age 42 years, Hb - 8.0 g/dl, TLC-7900/μl, and platelet – 35000/μl and varied clinical presentation. Four patients were microgranular variants, and the rest were hypergranular. MPO and CAE positivity were100% and for NSE it was 33.33%. Molecular analysis revealed PML-RARα isoforms of bcr1 in 42.85%, bcr2 in 14.28% and bcr3 in 38.09% patients. No correlation was found between PML-RARα bcr isoforms, different haematological parameters and response to treatment. Conclusions Higher incidence of PML-RARα bcr-1 isoform was found in Indian APL patients with no significant correlation between

  7. Role of treatment in the appearance and selection of BCR-ABL1 kinase domain mutations.

    PubMed

    Razga, Filip; Jurcek, Tomas; Zackova, Daniela; Dvorakova, Dana; Toskova, Martina; Jeziskova, Ivana; Mayer, Jiri; Racil, Zdenek

    2012-08-01

    The availability of different tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) with distinct anti-leukemic potency enables optimization of current therapeutic regimens; however, some patients lose their therapy response and acquire TKI resistance. In this study, we describe a single-center experience of monitoring BCR-ABL1 kinase domain (KD) mutations and discuss the impact of treatment on mutation selection. Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) patients treated with TKIs at the Department of Internal Medicine-Hematology and Oncology, Masaryk University and University Hospital Brno during 2003-2011 were included in this study. A total number of 100 patients who did not achieve an optimal therapy response or who lost their therapy response were screened for the presence of BCR-ABL1 KD mutations, using direct sequencing. Our data show that pretreatment with non-specific non-TKI drugs prior to TKI therapy does not preferentially select for initial BCR-ABL1 KD mutations, in contrast to first-line imatinib therapy, which shows a clear predominance of T315I or P-loop mutations compared with mutations located in other KD regions. In addition, the median time to detection of P-loop mutations was substantially shorter in patients treated with first-line imatinib than in those pretreated with non-TKI drugs. Furthermore, analysis of CML patients who had recurrent resistance to TKI therapy revealed possible therapy-driven selection of BCR-ABL1 KD mutations. Finally, we confirm the previously described poor prognosis of CML patients with mutations in the BCR-ABL1 KD, since 40.0% of our CML patients who harbored a BCR-ABL1 KD mutation died from CML while receiving TKI treatment. Moreover, among the patients who are still on treatment, 27.8% have already progressed. Our data also confirm the unique position of the T315I mutation with respect to its strong resistance to currently approved TKIs. On the basis of the 'real-life' data described in this study, it is possible that the therapy itself

  8. Frequency of BCR-ABL Transcript Types in Syrian CML Patients

    PubMed Central

    Farhat-Maghribi, Sulaf; Habbal, Wafa; Monem, Fawza

    2016-01-01

    Background. In Syria, CML patients are started on tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and monitored until complete molecular response is achieved. BCR-ABL mRNA transcript type is not routinely identified, contrary to the recommendations. In this study we aimed to identify the frequency of different BCR-ABL transcripts in Syrian CML patients and highlight their significance on monitoring and treatment protocols. Methods. CML patients positive for BCR-ABL transcripts by quantitative RT-PCR were enrolled. BCR-ABL transcript types were investigated using a home-made PCR method that was adapted from published protocols and optimized. The transcript types were then confirmed using a commercially available research kit. Results. Twenty-four transcripts were found in 21 patients. The most common was b2a2, followed by b3a2, b3a3, and e1a3 present solely in 12 (57.1%), 3 (14.3%), 2 (9.5%), and 1 (4.8%), respectively. Three samples (14.3%) contained dual transcripts. While b3a2 transcript was apparently associated with warning molecular response to imatinib treatment, b2a2, b3a3, and e1a3 transcripts collectively proved otherwise (P = 0.047). Conclusion. It might be advisable to identify the BCR-ABL transcript type in CML patients at diagnosis, using an empirically verified method, in order to link the detected transcript with the clinical findings, possible resistance to treatment, and appropriate monitoring methods. PMID:27313614

  9. Activity of the Aurora kinase inhibitor VX-680 against Bcr/Abl-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemias.

    PubMed

    Fei, Fei; Stoddart, Sonia; Groffen, John; Heisterkamp, Nora

    2010-05-01

    The emergence of resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors due to point mutations in Bcr/Abl is a challenging problem for Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph-positive) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients, especially for those with the T315I mutation, against which neither nilotinib or dasatinib shows significant activity. VX-680 is a pan-Aurora kinase inhibitor active against all Bcr/Abl proteins but has not been extensively examined in preclinical models of Ph-positive ALL. Here, we have tested VX-680 for the treatment of Bcr/Abl-positive ALL when leukemic cells are protected by the presence of stroma. Under these conditions, VX-680 showed significant effects on primary human Ph-positive ALL cells both with and without the T315I mutation, including ablation of tyrosine phosphorylation downstream of Bcr/Abl, decreased viability, and induction of apoptosis. However, drug treatment of human Ph-positive ALL cells for 3 days followed by drug removal allowed the outgrowth of abnormal cells 21 days later, and on culture of mouse Bcr/Abl ALL cells on stroma with lower concentrations of VX-680, drug-resistant cells emerged. Combined treatment of human ALL cells lacking the T315I mutation with both VX-680 and dasatinib caused significantly more cytotoxicity than each drug alone. We suggest that use of VX-680 together with a second effective drug as first-line treatment for Ph-positive ALL is likely to be safer and more useful than second-line treatment with VX-680 as monotherapy for drug-resistant T315I Ph-positive ALL.

  10. Quantitative trait loci for plant height in Maresi × CamB barley population and their associations with yield-related traits under different water regimes.

    PubMed

    Mikołajczak, Krzysztof; Kuczyńska, Anetta; Krajewski, Paweł; Sawikowska, Aneta; Surma, Maria; Ogrodowicz, Piotr; Adamski, Tadeusz; Krystkowiak, Karolina; Górny, Andrzej G; Kempa, Michał; Szarejko, Iwona; Guzy-Wróbelska, Justyna; Gudyś, Kornelia

    2017-02-01

    High-yielding capacity of the modern barley varieties is mostly dependent on the sources of semi-dwarfness associated with the sdw1/denso locus. The objective of the study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with the plant height and yield potential of barley recombinant inbred lines (RILs) grown under various soil moisture regimes. The plant material was developed from a hybrid between the Maresi (European cv.) and CamB (Syrian cv.). A total of 103 QTLs affecting analysed traits were detected and 36 of them showed stable effects over environments. In total, ten QTLs were found to be significant only under water shortage conditions. Nine QTLs affecting the length of main stem were detected on 2H-6H chromosomes. In four of the detected QTLs, alleles contributed by Maresi had negative effects on that trait, the most significant being the QLSt-3H.1-1 in the 3H.1 linkage group. The close linkage between QTLs identified around the sdw1/denso locus, with positive alleles contributed by Maresi, indicates that the semi-dwarf cv. Maresi could serve as a donor of favourable traits resulting in grain yield improvement, also under water scarcity. Molecular analyses revealed that the Syrian cv. also contributed alleles which increased the yield potential. Available barley resources of genomic annotations were employed to the biological interpretation of detected QTLs. This approach revealed 26 over-represented Gene Ontology terms. In the projected support intervals of QGWSl-5H.3-2 and QLSt-5H.3 on the chromosome 5H, four genes annotated to 'response to stress' were found. It suggests that these QTL-regions may be involved in a response of plant to a wide range of environmental disturbances.

  11. Remote Symbolic Computation of Loci

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abanades, Miguel A.; Escribano, Jesus; Botana, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a web-based tool designed to compute certified equations and graphs of geometric loci specified using standard Dynamic Geometry Systems (DGS). Complementing the graphing abilities of the considered DGS, the equations of the loci produced by the application are remotely computed using symbolic algebraic techniques from the…

  12. Fine Mapping and Identification of BMI Loci in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jian; Schumacher, Fredrick; Lim, Unhee; Hindorff, Lucia A.; Haessler, Jeff; Buyske, Steven; Carlson, Christopher S.; Rosse, Stephanie; Bůžková, Petra; Fornage, Myriam; Gross, Myron; Pankratz, Nathan; Pankow, James S.; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Cooper, Richard; Ehret, Georg; Gu, C. Charles; Houston, Denise; Irvin, Marguerite R.; Jackson, Rebecca; Kuller, Lew; Henderson, Brian; Cheng, Iona; Wilkens, Lynne; Leppert, Mark; Lewis, Cora E.; Li, Rongling; Nguyen, Khanh-Dung H.; Goodloe, Robert; Farber-Eger, Eric; Boston, Jonathan; Dilks, Holli H.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Fowke, Jay; Pooler, Loreall; Graff, Misa; Fernandez-Rhodes, Lindsay; Cochrane, Barbara; Boerwinkle, Eric; Kooperberg, Charles; Matise, Tara C.; Le Marchand, Loic; Crawford, Dana C.; Haiman, Christopher A.; North, Kari E.; Peters, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) primarily performed in European-ancestry (EA) populations have identified numerous loci associated with body mass index (BMI). However, it is still unclear whether these GWAS loci can be generalized to other ethnic groups, such as African Americans (AAs). Furthermore, the putative functional variant or variants in these loci mostly remain under investigation. The overall lower linkage disequilibrium in AA compared to EA populations provides the opportunity to narrow in or fine-map these BMI-related loci. Therefore, we used the Metabochip to densely genotype and evaluate 21 BMI GWAS loci identified in EA studies in 29,151 AAs from the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) study. Eight of the 21 loci (SEC16B, TMEM18, ETV5, GNPDA2, TFAP2B, BDNF, FTO, and MC4R) were found to be associated with BMI in AAs at 5.8 × 10−5. Within seven out of these eight loci, we found that, on average, a substantially smaller number of variants was correlated (r2 > 0.5) with the most significant SNP in AA than in EA populations (16 versus 55). Conditional analyses revealed GNPDA2 harboring a potential additional independent signal. Moreover, Metabochip-wide discovery analyses revealed two BMI-related loci, BRE (rs116612809, p = 3.6 × 10−8) and DHX34 (rs4802349, p = 1.2 × 10−7), which were significant when adjustment was made for the total number of SNPs tested across the chip. These results demonstrate that fine mapping in AAs is a powerful approach for both narrowing in on the underlying causal variants in known loci and discovering BMI-related loci. PMID:24094743

  13. Signal Transducer and Activator of  Transcription (STAT)5 Activation by BCR/ABL Is Dependent on Intact Src Homology (SH)3 and SH2 Domains of BCR/ABL and Is Required for Leukemogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Nieborowska-Skorska, Malgorzata; Wasik, Mariusz A.; Slupianek, Artur; Salomoni, Paolo; Kitamura, Toshio; Calabretta, Bruno; Skorski, Tomasz

    1999-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)5 is constitutively activated in BCR/ ABL-expressing cells, but the mechanisms and functional consequences of such activation are unknown. We show here that BCR/ABL induces phosphorylation and activation of STAT5 by a mechanism that requires the BCR/ABL Src homology (SH)2 domain and the proline-rich binding site of the SH3 domain. Upon expression in 32Dcl3 growth factor–dependent myeloid precursor cells, STAT5 activation–deficient BCR/ABL SH3+SH2 domain mutants functioned as tyrosine kinase and activated Ras, but failed to protect from apoptosis induced by withdrawal of interleukin 3 and/or serum and did not induce leukemia in severe combined immunodeficiency mice. In complementation assays, expression of a dominant-active STAT5B mutant (STAT5B-DAM), but not wild-type STAT5B (STAT5B-WT), in 32Dcl3 cells transfected with STAT5 activation–deficient BCR/ABL SH3+SH2 mutants restored protection from apoptosis, stimulated growth factor–independent cell cycle progression, and rescued the leukemogenic potential in mice. Moreover, expression of a dominant-negative STAT5B mutant (STAT5B-DNM) in 32Dcl3 cells transfected with wild-type BCR/ABL inhibited apoptosis resistance, growth factor–independent proliferation, and the leukemogenic potential of these cells. In retrovirally infected mouse bone marrow cells, expression of STAT5B-DNM inhibited BCR/ABL-dependent transformation. Moreover, STAT5B-DAM, but not STAT5B-WT, markedly enhanced the ability of STAT5 activation–defective BCR/ABL SH3+SH2 mutants to induce growth factor–independent colony formation of primary mouse bone marrow progenitor cells. However, STAT5B-DAM did not rescue the growth factor–independent colony formation of kinase-deficient K1172R BCR/ABL or the triple mutant Y177F+R522L+ Y793F BCR/ABL, both of which also fail to activate STAT5. Together, these data demonstrate that STAT5 activation by BCR/ABL is dependent on signaling from more

  14. A 76-kb duplicon maps close to the BCR gene on chromosome 22 and the ABL gene on chromosome 9: Possible involvement in the genesis of the Philadelphia chromosome translocation

    PubMed Central

    Saglio, Giuseppe; Storlazzi, Clelia T.; Giugliano, Emilia; Surace, Cecilia; Anelli, Luisa; Rege-Cambrin, Giovanna; Zagaria, Antonella; Velasco, Antonio Jimenez; Heiniger, Anabel; Scaravaglio, Patrizia; Gomez, Antonio Torres; Gomez, Josè Roman; Archidiacono, Nicoletta; Banfi, Sandro; Rocchi, Mariano

    2002-01-01

    A patient with a typical form of chronic myeloid leukemia was found to carry a large deletion on the derivative chromosome 9q+ and an unusual BCR-ABL transcript characterized by the insertion, between BCR exon 14 and ABL exon 2, of 126 bp derived from a region located on chromosome 9, 1.4 Mb 5′ to ABL. This sequence was contained in the bacterial artificial chromosome RP11-65J3, which in fluorescence in situ hybridization experiments on normal metaphases was found to detect, in addition to the predicted clear signal at 9q34, a faint but distinct signal at 22q11.2, where the BCR gene is located, suggesting the presence of a large region of homology between the two chromosomal regions. Indeed, blast analysis of the RP11-65J3 sequence against the entire human genome revealed the presence of a stretch of homology, about 76 kb long, located approximately 150 kb 3′ to the BCR gene, and containing the 126-bp insertion sequence. Evolutionary studies using fluorescence in situ hybridization identified the region as a duplicon, which transposed from the region orthologous to human 9q34 to chromosome 22 after the divergence of orangutan from the human-chimpanzee-gorilla common ancestor about 14 million years ago. Recent sequence analyses have disclosed an unpredicted extensive segmental duplication of our genome, and the impact of duplicons in triggering genomic disorders is becoming more and more apparent. The discovery of a large duplicon relatively close to the ABL and BCR genes and the finding that the 126-bp insertion is very close to the duplicon at 9q34 open the question of the possible involvement of the duplicon in the formation of the Philadelphia chromosome translocation. PMID:12114534

  15. The human leukemia oncogene bcr-abl abrogates the anchorage requirement but not the growth factor requirement for proliferation.

    PubMed Central

    Renshaw, M W; McWhirter, J R; Wang, J Y

    1995-01-01

    Proliferation of normal cells in a multicellular organism requires not only growth factors but also the proper attachment to the extracellular matrix. A hallmark of neoplastic transformation is the loss of anchorage dependence which usually accompanies the loss of growth factor requirement. The Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase of human leukemias is shown here to abrogate only the anchorage, not the growth factor, requirement. Bcr-Abl-transformed cells grow in soft agar but do not proliferate in serum-free media. Bcr-Abl does not activate the mitogenic pathway, as indicated by its inability to induce enhancers such as the serum response element or the tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate response element (TRE). However, Bcr-Abl can alleviate the anchorage requirement for the induction of the TRE enhancer; i.e., it allows serum to activate the TRE in detached cells. This activity is dependent on the association of an active Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase with the actin filaments. Despite its association with the adapter protein Grb2, Bcr-Abl's effect on the TRE enhancer is not blocked by dominant negative Ras or Raf. The finding that Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase abrogates only anchorage dependence may have important implications on the pathogenesis of chronic myelogenous leukemia. PMID:7862122

  16. CXCL13/CXCR5 signaling enhances BCR-triggered B-cell activation by shaping cell dynamics.

    PubMed

    Sáez de Guinoa, Julia; Barrio, Laura; Mellado, Mario; Carrasco, Yolanda R

    2011-08-11

    Continuous migration of B cells at the follicle contrasts with their stable arrest after encounter with antigen. Two main ligand/receptor pairs are involved in these cell behaviors: the chemokine CXCL13/chemokine receptor CXCR5 and antigen/BCR. Little is known regarding the interplay between CXCR5 and BCR signaling in the modulation of B-cell dynamics and its effect on B-cell activation. We used a 2-dimensional model to study B-cell migration and antigen recognition in real time, and found that BCR signaling strength alters CXCL13-mediated migration, leading to a heterogeneous B-cell behavior pattern. In addition, we demonstrate that CXCL13/CXCR5 signaling does not impair BCR-triggered immune synapse formation and that CXCR5 is excluded from the central antigen cluster. CXCL13/CXCR5 signaling enhances BCR-mediated B-cell activation in at least 2 ways: (1) it assists antigen gathering at the synapse by promoting membrane ruffling and lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1)-supported adhesion, and (2) it allows BCR signaling integration in motile B cells through establishment of LFA-1-supported migratory junctions. Both processes require functional actin cytoskeleton and non-muscle myosin II motor protein. Therefore, the CXCL13/CXCR5 signaling effect on shaping B-cell dynamics is an effective mechanism that enhances antigen encounter and BCR-triggered B-cell activation.

  17. Antileukemia effects of xanthohumol in Bcr/Abl-transformed cells involve nuclear factor-kappaB and p53 modulation.

    PubMed

    Monteghirfo, Stefano; Tosetti, Francesca; Ambrosini, Claudia; Stigliani, Sara; Pozzi, Sarah; Frassoni, Francesco; Fassina, Gianfranco; Soverini, Simona; Albini, Adriana; Ferrari, Nicoletta

    2008-09-01

    The oncogenic Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase activates various signaling pathways including phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt and nuclear factor-kappaB that mediate proliferation, transformation, and apoptosis resistance in Bcr-Abl+ myeloid leukemia cells. The hop flavonoid xanthohumol inhibits tumor growth by targeting the nuclear factor-kappaB and Akt pathways and angiogenesis. Here, we show that xanthohumol has in vitro activity against Bcr-Abl+ cells and clinical samples and retained its cytotoxicity when imatinib mesylate-resistant K562 cells were examined. Xanthohumol inhibition of K562 cell viability was associated with induction of apoptosis, increased p21 and p53 expression, and decreased survivin levels. We show that xanthohumol strongly inhibited Bcr-Abl expression at both mRNA and protein levels and show that xanthohumol caused elevation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and that the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine blunted xanthohumol-induced events. Further, we observed that xanthohumol inhibits leukemia cell invasion, metalloprotease production, and adhesion to endothelial cells, potentially preventing in vivo life-threatening complications of leukostasis and tissue infiltration by leukemic cells. As structural mutations and/or gene amplification in Bcr-Abl can circumvent an otherwise potent anticancer drug such as imatinib, targeting Bcr-Abl expression as well as its kinase activity could be a novel additional therapeutic approach for the treatment of Bcr-Abl+ myeloid leukemia.

  18. BCR-ABL–specific T-cell therapy in Ph+ ALL patients on tyrosine-kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Riva, Giovanni; Guido, Ilaria; Gurrado, Antonella; Quartuccio, Giuseppe; Rubert, Laura; Lagreca, Ivana; Vallerini, Daniela; Forghieri, Fabio; Morselli, Monica; Bresciani, Paola; Cuoghi, Angela; Paolini, Ambra; Colaci, Elisabetta; Marasca, Roberto; Cuneo, Antonio; Iughetti, Lorenzo; Trenti, Tommaso; Narni, Franco; Foà, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Although the emergence of bone marrow (BM)–resident p190BCR-ABL–specific T lymphocytes has been correlated with hematologic and cytogenetic remissions in patients with Philadelphia chromosome–positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ ALL) undergoing maintenance tyrosine-kinase inhibitor treatment, little is known about the possibility of culturing these cells ex vivo and using them in T-cell therapy strategies. We investigated the feasibility of expanding/priming p190BCR-ABL–specific T cells in vitro by stimulation with dendritic cells pulsed with p190BCR-ABL peptides derived from the BCR-ABL junctional region and alternative splicing, and of adoptively administering them to patients with relapsed disease. We report on the feasibility of producing clinical-grade BCR-ABL–specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), endowed with antileukemia activity, from Ph+ ALL patients and healthy donors. We treated 3 patients with Ph+ ALL with autologous or allogeneic p190BCR-ABL–specific CTLs. No postinfusion toxicity was observed, except for a grade II skin graft-versus-host disease in the patient treated for hematologic relapse. All patients achieved a molecular or hematologic complete remission (CR) after T-cell therapy, upon emergence of p190BCR-ABL–specific T cells in the BM. Our results show that p190BCR-ABL–specific CTLs are capable of controlling treatment-refractory Ph+ ALL in vivo, and support the development of adoptive immunotherapeutic approaches with BCR-ABL CTLs in Ph+ ALL. PMID:27927646

  19. p210 Bcr-Abl confers overexpression of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase : an intrinsic pathway to drug resistance mediated by oncogene.

    SciTech Connect

    Gharehbaghi, K.; Burgess, G. S.; Collart, F. R.; Litz-Jackson, S.; Huberman, E.; Jayaram, H. N.; Boswell, H. S.; Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology; Lab. for Experimental Oncology; Indiana Univ. School of Medicine

    1994-01-01

    The p210 bcr-abl fusion protein tyrosine kinase oncogene has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic granulocytic leukemia (CGL). Specific intracellular functions performed by p210 bcr-abl have recently been delineated. We considered the possibility that p210 bcr-abl may also regulate the abundance of inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) which is a rate-limiting enzyme for de novo guanylate synthesis. We performed studies of the inhibition of IMPDH by tiazofurin, which acts as a competitive inhibitor through its active species that mimics nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), i.e. thiazole-4-carboxamide adenine dinucleotide (TAD). The mean inhibitory concentration (IC50) of tiazofurin for cellular proliferation inhibition was 2.3-2.8-fold greater in cells expressing p210 bcr-abl than in their corresponding parent cells proliferating under the influence of growth factors or in growth factor-independent derivative cells not expressing detectable p210 bcr-abl. IMPDH activity was 1.5-2.3-fold greater within cells expressing p210 bcr-abl than in their parent cells. This increase in enzyme activity was a result of 2-fold increased IMPDH protein as determined by immunoblotting. In addition, an increase in the Km value for NAD utilization by IMPDH was observed in p210 bcr-abl transformed cells, but this increase was within the range of resident NAD concentrations observed in the cells. Increased IMPDH protein in p210 bcr-abl transformed cells was traced to an increased level of IMP dehydrogenase II messenger RNA. Thus, regulation of IMPDH gene expression is mediated at least in part by the bcr-abl gene product and may therefore be indicative of a specific mechanism of intrinsic resistance to tiazofurin.

  20. Hematopoietic stem cell involvement in BCR-ABL1-positive ALL as potential mechanism of resistance to blinatumomab therapy.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Inga; Bartels, Marius; Duell, Johannes; Oberg, Hans-Heinrich; Ussat, Sandra; Bruckmueller, Henrike; Ottmann, Oliver; Pfeifer, Heike; Trautmann, Heiko; Gökbuget, Nicola; Caliebe, Almuth; Kabelitz, Dieter; Kneba, Michael; Horst, Heinz-August; Hoelzer, Dieter; Topp, Max S; Cascorbi, Ingolf; Siebert, Reiner; Brüggemann, Monika

    2017-08-21

    The bispecific T-cell engager blinatumomab targeting CD19 can induce complete remission in relapsed or refractory B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL). However, some patients ultimately relapse with loss of CD19-antigen on leukemic cells which has been established as a novel escape mechanism to CD19-specific immunotherapies. Here, we provide evidence that CD19-negative relapse after CD19-directed therapy in BCP-ALL may be due to selection of preexisting CD19-negative malignant progenitor cells. We present two BCR-ABL1-fusion-positive BCP-ALL patients with CD19-negative myeloid lineage relapse after blinatumomab therapy and show BCR-ABL1-positivity in their hematopoietic stem cell (HSC)/progenitor/myeloid compartments at initial diagnosis by fluorescence in situ hybridization after cell sorting. Using the same approach in 25 additional diagnostic samples of patients with BCR-ABL1-positive BCP-ALL, HSC involvement was identified in 40% of the patients. Patients with major-BCR-ABL1 transcript encoding P210(BCR-ABL1) mainly showed HSC involvement (6/8), whereas in most of the patients with minor-BCR-ABL1 transcript encoding P190(BCR-ABL1) only the CD19-positive leukemia compartments were BCR-ABL1-positive (9/12) (p=0.02). Our data are of clinical importance, because they indicate that not only CD19-positive cells, but also CD19-negative precursors should be targeted to avoid CD19-negative relapses in patients with BCR-ABL1-positive ALL. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Hematology.

  1. The background, discovery and clinical development of BCR-ABL inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Gemma K; Duhme-Klair, Anne-Kathrin; Morgan, Trevor; Ramjee, Manoj K

    2013-10-01

    The story of the inhibition of BCR-ABL as a treatment for chronic myelogenous leukaemia serves to illustrate key aspects of the kinase drug discovery and development process. Firstly, elucidation of the disease mechanism enabled identification of the molecular target(s) which catalysed pharmaceutical research and resulted in Gleevec(®) (Novartis) as the first FDA approved BCR-ABL inhibitor. However, clinical success was soon tempered by the emergence of drug resistance through various mechanisms. Using rational drug design, several hypotheses were devised to overcome resistance issues leading to the development of second generation inhibitors, providing clinicians and patients with greater therapeutic choice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Discovery and characterization of a novel potent type II native and mutant BCR-ABL inhibitor (CHMFL-074) for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ji-Yun; Liu, Xiaochuan; Wang, Aoli; Hu, Chen; Wang, Wenchao; Wang, Huiping; Wu, Fan; Ruan, Yanjie; Qi, Shuang; Liu, Juan; Zou, Fengming; Hu, Zhenquan; Wang, Wei; Wang, Li; Zhang, Shanchun; Yun, Cai-Hong; Zhai, Zhimin; Liu, Jing; Liu, Qingsong

    2016-01-01

    BCR gene fused ABL kinase is the critical driving force for the Philadelphia Chromosome positive (Ph+) Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) and has been extensively explored as a drug target. With a structure-based drug design approach we have discovered a novel inhibitor CHMFL-074, that potently inhibits both the native and a variety of clinically emerged mutants of BCR-ABL kinase. The X-ray crystal structure of CHMFL-074 in complex with ABL1 kinase (PDB ID: 5HU9) revealed a typical type II binding mode (DFG-out) but relatively rare hinge binding. Kinome wide selectivity profiling demonstrated that CHMFL-074 bore a high selectivity (S score(1) = 0.03) and potently inhibited ABL1 kinase (IC50: 24 nM) and PDGFR α/β (IC50: 71 nM and 88 nM). CHMFL-074 displayed strong anti-proliferative efficacy against BCR-ABL–driven CML cell lines such as K562 (GI50: 56 nM), MEG-01 (GI50: 18 nM) and KU812 (GI50: 57 nM). CHMFL-074 arrested cell cycle into the G0/G1 phase and induced apoptosis in the Ph+ CML cell lines. In addition, it potently inhibited the CML patient primary cell's proliferation but did not affect the normal bone marrow cells. In the CML cell K562 inoculated xenograft mouse model, oral administration of 100 mg/kg/d of CHMFL-074 achieved a tumor growth inhibition (TGI) of 65% without exhibiting apparent toxicity. As a potential drug candidate for fighting CML, CHMFL-074 is under extensive preclinical safety evaluation now. PMID:27322145

  3. Discovery and characterization of a novel potent type II native and mutant BCR-ABL inhibitor (CHMFL-074) for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML).

    PubMed

    Liu, Feiyang; Wang, Beilei; Wang, Qiang; Qi, Ziping; Chen, Cheng; Kong, Lu-Lu; Chen, Ji-Yun; Liu, Xiaochuan; Wang, Aoli; Hu, Chen; Wang, Wenchao; Wang, Huiping; Wu, Fan; Ruan, Yanjie; Qi, Shuang; Liu, Juan; Zou, Fengming; Hu, Zhenquan; Wang, Wei; Wang, Li; Zhang, Shanchun; Yun, Cai-Hong; Zhai, Zhimin; Liu, Jing; Liu, Qingsong

    2016-07-19

    BCR gene fused ABL kinase is the critical driving force for the Philadelphia Chromosome positive (Ph+) Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) and has been extensively explored as a drug target. With a structure-based drug design approach we have discovered a novel inhibitor CHMFL-074, that potently inhibits both the native and a variety of clinically emerged mutants of BCR-ABL kinase. The X-ray crystal structure of CHMFL-074 in complex with ABL1 kinase (PDB ID: 5HU9) revealed a typical type II binding mode (DFG-out) but relatively rare hinge binding. Kinome wide selectivity profiling demonstrated that CHMFL-074 bore a high selectivity (S score(1) = 0.03) and potently inhibited ABL1 kinase (IC50: 24 nM) and PDGFR α/β (IC50: 71 nM and 88 nM). CHMFL-074 displayed strong anti-proliferative efficacy against BCR-ABL-driven CML cell lines such as K562 (GI50: 56 nM), MEG-01 (GI50: 18 nM) and KU812 (GI50: 57 nM). CHMFL-074 arrested cell cycle into the G0/G1 phase and induced apoptosis in the Ph+ CML cell lines. In addition, it potently inhibited the CML patient primary cell's proliferation but did not affect the normal bone marrow cells. In the CML cell K562 inoculated xenograft mouse model, oral administration of 100 mg/kg/d of CHMFL-074 achieved a tumor growth inhibition (TGI) of 65% without exhibiting apparent toxicity. As a potential drug candidate for fighting CML, CHMFL-074 is under extensive preclinical safety evaluation now.

  4. Detection of BCR-ABL Fusion mRNA Using Reverse Transcriptase Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification

    SciTech Connect

    Dugan, L C; Hall, S; Kohlgruber, A; Urbin, S; Torres, C; Wilson, P

    2011-12-08

    RT-PCR is commonly used for the detection of Bcr-Abl fusion transcripts in patients diagnosed with chronic myelogenous leukemia, CML. Two fusion transcripts predominate in CML, Br-Abl e13a2 and e14a2. They have developed reverse transcriptase isothermal loop-mediated amplification (RT-LAMP) assays to detect these two fusion transcripts along with the normal Bcr transcript.

  5. A Non-ATP Competitive Inhibitor of BCR-ABL for the Therapy of Imatinib-Resistant Cmls

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    Network. Further studies are needed to determine the actual cause of Network destruction. STAT3 inhibitor Ursolic acid 16 reduced STAT3 and HSP90...STAT3 were decreased in a dose-dependent manner by Ursolic acid . The disappearance of Bcr-Abl and Jak2 argues that the Network was disrupted as a... Ursolic acid also induces extensive apoptosis induction, as we showed that it induces more than 90% of the Bcr-Abl cells to undergo late state

  6. Gene expression analysis of BCR/ABL1-dependent transcriptional response reveals enrichment for genes involved in negative feedback regulation.

    PubMed

    Håkansson, Petra; Nilsson, Björn; Andersson, Anna; Lassen, Carin; Gullberg, Urban; Fioretos, Thoas

    2008-04-01

    Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome-positive leukemia is characterized by the BCR/ABL1 fusion protein that affects a wide range of signal transduction pathways. The knowledge about its downstream target genes is, however, still quite limited. To identify novel BCR/ABL1-regulated genes we used global gene expression profiling of several Ph-positive and Ph-negative cell lines treated with imatinib. Following imatinib treatment, the Ph-positive cells showed decreased growth, viability, and reduced phosphorylation of BCR/ABL1 and STAT5. In total, 142 genes were identified as being dependent on BCR/ABL1-mediated signaling, mainly including genes involved in signal transduction, e.g. the JAK/STAT, MAPK, TGFB, and insulin signaling pathways, and in regulation of metabolism. Interestingly, BCR/ABL1 was found to activate several genes involved in negative feedback regulation (CISH, SOCS2, SOCS3, PIM1, DUSP6, and TNFAIP3), which may act to indirectly suppress the tumor promoting effects exerted by BCR/ABL1. In addition, several genes identified as deregulated upon BCR/ABL1 expression could be assigned to the TGFB and NFkB signaling pathways, as well as to reflect the metabolic adjustments needed for rapidly growing cells. Apart from providing important pathogenetic insights into BCR/ABL1-mediated leukemogenesis, the present study also provides a number of pathways/individual genes that may provide attractive targets for future development of targeted therapies. This article contains Supplementary Material available at http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/1045-2257/suppmat.

  7. ON012380: A Non-ATP Competitive Inhibitor of BCR-ABL for the Therapy of Imatinib-Resistant CMLs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    applications including monosomy 7 MDS, imatinib-resistant CML, and myeloproliferative neoplasms that develop resistance to ATP-competitive agents. Keywords JAK2...and myeloproliferative neoplasms where JAK2 is aberrantly activated. In the past few years, several cases have been reported in which both the BCR...found to be dual inhibitors of BCR-ABL and JAK-2, 8 which makes them ideal agents for the treatment of other myeloproliferative diseases in addition

  8. Monoubiquitinated Fanconi anemia D2 (FANCD2-Ub) is required for BCR-ABL1 kinase-induced leukemogenesis.

    PubMed

    Koptyra, M; Stoklosa, T; Hoser, G; Glodkowska-Mrowka, E; Seferynska, I; Klejman, A; Blasiak, J; Skorski, T

    2011-08-01

    Fanconi D2 (FANCD2) is monoubiquitinated on K561 (FANCD2-Ub) in response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) to stimulate repair of these potentially lethal DNA lesions. FANCD2-Ub was upregulated in CD34+ chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells and in BCR-ABL1 kinase-positive cell lines in response to elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA cross-linking agent mitomycin C. Downregulation of FANCD2 and inhibition of FANCD2-Ub reduced the clonogenic potential of CD34+ CML cells and delayed BCR-ABL1 leukemogenesis in mice. Retarded proliferation of BCR-ABL1 positive FANCD2-/- leukemia cells could be rescued by FANCD2 expression. BCR-ABL1 positive FANCD2-/- cells accumulated more ROS-induced DSBs in comparison with BCR-ABL1 positive FANCD2+/+ cells. Antioxidants diminished the number of DSBs and enhanced proliferation of BCR-ABL1 positive FANCD2-/- cells. Expression of wild-type FANCD2 and FANCD2(S222A) phosphorylation-defective mutant (deficient in stimulation of intra-S phase checkpoint, but proficient in DSB repair), but not FANCD2(K561R) monoubiquitination-defective mutant (proficient in stimulation of intra-S phase checkpoint, but deficient in DSB repair) reduced the number of DSBs and facilitated proliferation of BCR-ABL1 positive FANCD2-/- cells. We hypothesize that FANCD2-Ub has an important role in BCR-ABL1 leukemogenesis because of its ability to facilitate the repair of numerous ROS-induced DSBs.

  9. Monoubiquitinated Fanconi Anemia D2 (FANCD2-Ub) Is Required for BCR-ABL1 Kinase -Induced Leukemogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Koptyra, Mateusz; Stoklosa, Tomasz; Hoser, Grazyna; Glodkowska-Mrowka, Eliza; Seferynska, Ilona; Klejman, Agata; Blasiak, Janusz; Skorski, Tomasz

    2011-01-01

    Fanconi D2 (FANCD2) is monoubiquitinated on K561 (FANCD2-Ub) in response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) to stimulate repair of these potentially lethal DNA lesions. FANCD2-Ub was upregulated in CD34+ chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells and in BCR-ABL1 kinase –positive cell lines in response to elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA cross-linking agent mitomycin C. Downregulation of FANCD2 and inhibition of FANCD2-Ub reduced the clonogenic potential of CD34+ CML cells and delayed BCR-ABL1 leukemogenesis in mice. Retarded proliferation of BCR-ABL1 -positive FANCD2−/− leukemia cells could be rescued by FANCD2 expression. BCR-ABL1 –positive FANCD2−/− cells accumulated more ROS-induced DSBs in comparison to BCR-ABL1 –positive FANCD2+/+ cells. Antioxidants diminished the number of DSBs and enhanced proliferation of BCR-ABL1 –positive FANCD2−/− cells. Expression of wild-type FANCD2 and FANCD2(S222A) phosphorylation-defective mutant (deficient in stimulation of intra-S phase checkpoint but proficient in DSB repair), but not FANCD2(K561R) monoubiquitination-defective mutant (proficient in stimulation of intra-S phase checkpoint but deficient in DSB repair) reduced the number of DSBs and facilitated proliferation of BCR-ABL1 –positive FANCD2−/− cells. We hypothesize that FANCD2-Ub plays an important role in BCR-ABL1 leukemogenesis due to its ability to facilitate the repair of numerous ROS-induced DSBs. PMID:21519342

  10. A BCR-ABL Kinase Activity-Independent Signaling Pathway in Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    leukemia (CML), but does not cure mice with BCR-ABL-induced acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), similar to CML lymphoid blast crisis. The inability... leukemia or Ph-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia who develop imatinib (STI571) resistance. Blood. 2002;99:3472-3475. 9. von Bubnoff N, Schneller F...the blast crisis of chronic myeloid leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia with the Philadelphia chromosome. N Engl J Med. 2001;344:1038-1042. 11

  11. BCR-ABL1-like acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: From bench to bedside.

    PubMed

    Boer, Judith M; den Boer, Monique L

    2017-09-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) occurs in approximately 1:1500 children and is less frequently found in adults. The most common immunophenotype of ALL is the B cell lineage and within B cell precursor ALL, specific genetic aberrations define subtypes with distinct biological and clinical characteristics. With more advanced genetic analysis methods such as whole genome and transcriptome sequencing, novel genetic subtypes have recently been discovered. One novel class of genetic aberrations comprises tyrosine kinase-activating lesions, including translocations and rearrangements of tyrosine kinase and cytokine receptor genes. These newly discovered genetic aberrations are harder to detect by standard diagnostic methods such as karyotyping, fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) because they are diverse and often cryptic. These lesions involve one of several tyrosine kinase genes (among others, v-abl Abelson murine leukaemia viral oncogene homologue 1 (ABL1), v-abl Abelson murine leukaemia viral oncogene homologue 2 (ABL2), platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta polypeptide (PDGFRB)), each of which can be fused to up to 15 partner genes. Together, they compose 2-3% of B cell precursor ALL (BCP-ALL), which is similar in size to the well-known fusion gene BCR-ABL1 subtype. These so-called BCR-ABL1-like fusions are mutually exclusive with the sentinel translocations in BCP-ALL (BCR-ABL1, ETV6-RUNX1, TCF3-PBX1, and KMT2A (MLL) rearrangements) and have the promising prospect to be sensitive to tyrosine kinase inhibitors similar to BCR-ABL1. In this review, we discuss the types of tyrosine kinase-activating lesions discovered, and the preclinical and clinical evidence for the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in the treatment of this novel subtype of ALL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Orientation and Oligomerization Specificity of the Bcr Coiled-Coil Oligomerization Domain†

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Christina M.; Keating, Amy E.

    2008-01-01

    The Bcr oligomerization domain, from the Bcr-Abl oncoprotein, is an attractive therapeutic target for treating leukemias because it is required for cellular transformation. The domain homodimerizes via an antiparallel coiled coil with an adjacent short, helical swap domain. Inspection of the coiled-coil sequence does not reveal obvious determinants of helix-orientation specificity, raising the possibility that the antiparallel orientation preference and/or the dimeric oligomerization state are due to interactions of the swap domains. To better understand how structural specificity is encoded in Bcr, coiled-coil constructs containing either an N- or C-terminal cysteine were synthesized without the swap domain. When crosslinked to adopt exclusively parallel or antiparallel orientations, these showed similar circular dichroism spectra. Both constructs formed coiled-coil dimers, but the antiparallel construct was ~16 °C more stable than the parallel to thermal denaturation. Equilibrium disulfide-exchange studies confirmed that the isolated coiled-coil homodimer shows a very strong preference for the antiparallel orientation. We conclude that the orientation and oligomerization preferences of Bcr are not caused by the presence of the swap domains, but rather are directly encoded in the coiled-coil sequence. We further explored possible determinants of structural specificity by mutating residues in the d position of the coiled-coil core. Some of the mutations caused a change in orientation specificity, and all of the mutations led to the formation of higher-order oligomers. In the absence of the swap domain, these residues play an important role in disfavoring alternate states and are especially important for encoding dimeric oligomerization specificity. PMID:16331985

  13. Speciation of heavy metals in untreated domestic wastewater sludge by time saving BCR sequential extraction method.

    PubMed

    Jamali, Mohammad K; Kazi, Tasneem G; Afridi, Hassan I; Arain, Mohammad B; Jalbani, Nusrat; Memon, Attique R

    2007-04-01

    In this work the modified three-stage sequential extraction procedure developed within the Standards, Measurement and Testing Programme (formally the Community Bureau of Reference BCR) of the European Commission, was applied for the fractionation of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in the untreated domestic wastewater sludge (DWS) collected from the Hyderabad city of Pakistan. The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of different time intervals for shaking, and sample mass of sewage sludge on optimal recovery of all metals under study. Analyses of the extracts were performed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). The precision and accuracy of the proposed procedure was evaluated by using a certified reference material of soil amended with sewage sludge BCR 483. The maximum recoveries for Cd and Zn were observed for all three steps of BCR protocol at 26 hours (h) total shaking period, while Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb were achieved at 32 hours instead of previously reported 51 hours, with (p < 0.05). The maximum level of all heavy metals was achieved in samples mass 0.2-0.4 g, where as the extractant-sample mass ratio was kept according to the optimized BCR method. The results of the sequential extraction study of untreated DWS indicates that more easily mobilized forms (acid exchangeable) were found to be 31.0, 3.1, 2.5, 7.6, 2.6 and 8.4% of total contents of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn, respectively. The oxidizable fraction is dominant for all the heavy metals, except Cd. The lixiviation tests (DIN 38414-S4) were used to evaluate the leaching of heavy metals from sewage sludge used for agricultural purposes.

  14. Genome-Wide Mapping of Growth-Related Quantitative Trait Loci in Orange-Spotted Grouper (Epinephelus coioides) Using Double Digest Restriction-Site Associated DNA Sequencing (ddRADseq)

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hui; You, Xinxin; Li, Jia; Liu, Hankui; Meng, Zining; Xiao, Ling; Zhang, Haifa; Lin, Hao-Ran; Zhang, Yong; Shi, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) is essential for the discovery of genetic structures that related to complex quantitative traits. In this study, we identified 264,072 raw SNPs (single-nucleotide polymorphisms) by double digest restriction site associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq), and utilized 3029 of these SNPs to construct a genetic linkage map in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) using a regression mapping algorithm. The genetic map contained 24 linkage groups (LGs) spanning a total genetic distance of 1231.98 cM. Twenty-seven significant growth-related QTLs were identified. Furthermore, we identified 17 genes (fez2, alg3, ece2, arvcf, sla27a4, sgk223, camk2, prrc2b, mchr1, sardh, pappa, syk, tert, wdrcp91, ftz-f1, mate1 and notch1) including three (tert, ftz-f1 and notch1) that have been reported to be involved in fish growth. To summarize, we mapped growth-related QTLs in the orange-spotted grouper. These QTLs will be useful in marker-assisted selection (MAS) efforts to improve growth-related traits in this economically important fish. PMID:27058532

  15. Stat5 is indispensable for the maintenance of bcr/abl-positive leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Hoelbl, Andrea; Schuster, Christian; Kovacic, Boris; Zhu, Bingmei; Wickre, Mark; Hoelzl, Maria A; Fajmann, Sabine; Grebien, Florian; Warsch, Wolfgang; Stengl, Gabriele; Hennighausen, Lothar; Poli, Valeria; Beug, Hartmut; Moriggl, Richard; Sexl, Veronika

    2010-01-01

    Tumourigenesis caused by the Bcr/Abl oncoprotein is a multi-step process proceeding from initial to tumour-maintaining events and finally results in a complex tumour-supporting network. A key to successful cancer therapy is the identification of critical functional nodes in an oncogenic network required for disease maintenance. So far, the transcription factors Stat3 and Stat5a/b have been implicated in bcr/abl-induced initial transformation. However, to qualify as a potential drug target, a signalling pathway must be required for the maintenance of the leukaemic state. Data on the roles of Stat3 or Stat5a/b in leukaemia maintenance are elusive. Here, we show that both, Stat3 and Stat5 are necessary for initial transformation. However, Stat5- but not Stat3-deletion induces G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of imatinib-sensitive and imatinib-resistant stable leukaemic cells in vitro. Accordingly, Stat5-abrogation led to effective elimination of myeloid and lymphoid leukaemia maintenance in vivo. Hence, we identified Stat5 as a vulnerable point in the oncogenic network downstream of Bcr/Abl representing a case of non-oncogene addiction (NOA). PMID:20201032

  16. Association of HLA antigens and BCR-ABL transcripts in leukemia patients with the Philadelphia chromosome

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Daiana Landenberger; Barbosa, Cristian Dias; de Carvalho, André Luiz; Beck, Sandra Trevisan

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to verify the association between human leukocyte antigens and the bcr-abl fusion protein resulting from t(9;22)(q34;q11) in chronic leukemia myeloid and acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients. Methods Forty-seven bcr-abl positive individuals were evaluated. Typing was performed bymicrolymphocytotoxicity and molecular biological methods (human leukocyte antigens Class I and Class II). A control group was obtained from the data of potential bone marrow donors registered in the Brazilian Bone Marrow Donor Registry (REDOME). Results Positive associations with HLA-A25 and HLA-B18 were found for the b2a2 transcript, as well as a tendency towards a positive association with HLA-B40 and a negative association with HLA-A68. The b3a2 transcript showed positive associations with HLA-B40 and HLA-DRB1*3. Conclusion The negative association between human leukocyte antigens and the BCR-ABL transcript suggests that binding and presentation of peptides derived from the chimeric protein are effective to increase a cytotoxic T lymphocyte response appropriate for the destruction of leukemic cells. PMID:23049441

  17. Assessment of the BCR sequential extraction procedure for thallium fractionation using synthetic mineral mixtures.

    PubMed

    Vanek, Ales; Grygar, Tomás; Chrastný, Vladislav; Tejnecký, Václav; Drahota, Petr; Komárek, Michael

    2010-04-15

    This work focused on the specific behavior of Tl-bearing phases in the BCR (Community Bureau of Reference) sequential extraction (SE) scheme, namely Tl-bearing ferrihydrite, goethite, birnessite, calcite, illite, sphalerite and feldspar in their simple model mixtures with quartz. Several significant discrepancies between the obtained and expected behaviors of these phases in the BCR SE were observed. The amount of Tl released as the exchangeable/acid-extractable fraction (55-82% of the total Tl content) showed a substantial H(+)-promoted dissolution of all Fe(III) and Mn(III, IV) oxides (corresponding to up to 61% of solid Fe dissolved) and incongruent (increased) extraction of Tl from ferrihydrite and goethite. Reductive conditions of the second SE step were insufficient to complete goethite dissolution with corresponding Tl amount retained in the solid phase. Similarly, insufficient oxidation of sphalerite and lower Tl recovery of the oxidisable fraction was identified. In contrast, the BCR SE seems to produce well predictable results of Tl leaching from Tl-bearing calcite and feldspar. Only 70% of total Tl content was extracted from Tl-modified illite in the exchangeable/acid-extractable step, while 30% was associated with the reducible and residual fractions, i.e., Tl was strongly fixed to the illite matrix.

  18. CD40 signaling synergizes with TLR-2 in the BCR independent activation of resting B cells.

    PubMed

    Jain, Shweta; Chodisetti, Sathi Babu; Agrewala, Javed N

    2011-01-01

    Conventionally, signaling through BCR initiates sequence of events necessary for activation and differentiation of B cells. We report an alternative approach, independent of BCR, for stimulating resting B (RB) cells, by involving TLR-2 and CD40--molecules crucial for innate and adaptive immunity. CD40 triggering of TLR-2 stimulated RB cells significantly augments their activation, proliferation and differentiation. It also substantially ameliorates the calcium flux, antigen uptake capacity and ability of B cells to activate T cells. The survival of RB cells was improved and it increases the number of cells expressing activation induced deaminase (AID), signifying class switch recombination (CSR). Further, we also observed increased activation rate and decreased threshold period required for optimum stimulation of RB cells. These results corroborate well with microarray gene expression data. This study provides novel insights into coordination between the molecules of innate and adaptive immunity in activating B cells, in a BCR independent manner. This strategy can be exploited to design vaccines to bolster B cell activation and antigen presenting efficiency, leading to faster and better immune response.

  19. Heterogeneity of genomic fusion of BCR and ABL in Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, C.M.; Carrino, J.J.; Dickler, M.N.; Leibowitz, D.; Smith, S.D.; Westbrook, C.A.

    1988-04-01

    Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia occurs in two molecular forms, those with and those without rearrangement of the breakpoint cluster region on chromosome 22. The molecular abnormality in the former group is similar to that found in chronic myelogenous leukemia. To characterize the abnormality in the breakpoint cluster region-unrearranged form, the authors have mapped a 9; 22 translocation from the Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line SUP-B13 by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and have cloned the DNA at the translocation junctions. They demonstrate a BCR-ABL fusion gene on the Philadelphia chromosome. The exons from ABL are the same. Analysis of leukemic cells from four other patients with breakpoint cluster region-unrearranged Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia revealed a rearrangement on chromosome 22 close to the breakpoint in SUP-B13 in only one patient. These data indicate that breakpoints do not cluster tightly in this region but are scattered, possibly in a large intron. Given the large size of BCR and the heterogeneity in breakpoint location, detection of BCR rearrangement by standard Southern blot analysis is difficult. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis should allow detection at the DNA level in every patient and thus will permit clinical correlation of the breakpoint location with prognosis.

  20. Hypoxia-Like Signatures Induced by BCR-ABL Potentially Alter the Glutamine Uptake for Maintaining Oxidative Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Sontakke, Pallavi; Koczula, Katarzyna M.; Jaques, Jennifer; Wierenga, Albertus T. J.; Brouwers-Vos, Annet Z.; Pruis, Maurien; Günther, Ulrich L.; Vellenga, Edo; Schuringa, Jan Jacob

    2016-01-01

    The Warburg effect is probably the most prominent metabolic feature of cancer cells, although little is known about the underlying mechanisms and consequences. Here, we set out to study these features in detail in a number of leukemia backgrounds. The transcriptomes of human CB CD34+ cells transduced with various oncogenes, including BCR-ABL, MLL-AF9, FLT3-ITD, NUP98-HOXA9, STAT5A and KRASG12V were analyzed in detail. Our data indicate that in particular BCR-ABL, KRASG12V and STAT5 could impose hypoxic signaling under normoxic conditions. This coincided with an upregulation of glucose importers SLC2A1/3, hexokinases and HIF1 and 2. NMR-based metabolic profiling was performed in CB CD34+ cells transduced with BCR-ABL versus controls, both cultured under normoxia and hypoxia. Lactate and pyruvate levels were increased in BCR-ABL-expressing cells even under normoxia, coinciding with enhanced glutaminolysis which occurred in an HIF1/2-dependent manner. Expression of the glutamine importer SLC1A5 was increased in BCR-ABL+ cells, coinciding with an increased susceptibility to the glutaminase inhibitor BPTES. Oxygen consumption rates also decreased upon BPTES treatment, indicating a glutamine dependency for oxidative phosphorylation. The current study suggests that BCR-ABL-positive cancer cells make use of enhanced glutamine metabolism to maintain TCA cell cycle activity in glycolytic cells. PMID:27055152

  1. A balance between BCR and inhibitory receptor signaling controls plasma cell differentiation by maintaining optimal Ets1 levels1

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Wei; Mayeux, Jessica; Gutierrez, Toni; Russell, Lisa; Getahun, Andrew; Müller, Jennifer; Tedder, Thomas; Parnes, Jane; Rickert, Robert; Nitschke, Lars; Cambier, John; Garrett-Sinha, Lee Ann

    2014-01-01

    Signaling through the B cell receptor (BCR) can drive B cell activation and contribute to B cell differentiation into antibody-secreting plasma cells. The positive BCR signal is counterbalanced by a number of membrane-localized inhibitory receptors that limit B cell activation and plasma cell differentiation. Deficiencies in these negative signaling pathways may cause autoantibody generation and autoimmune disease in both animal models and human patients. We have previously shown that the transcription factor Ets1 can restrain B cell differentiation into plasma cells. Here, we tested the roles of the BCR and inhibitory receptors in controlling the expression of Ets1 in mouse B cells. We found that Ets1 is down regulated in B cells by BCR or TLR signaling through a pathway dependent on PI3 kinase, Btk, IKK2 and JNK. Deficiencies in inhibitory pathways, such as a loss of the tyrosine kinase Lyn, the phosphatase SHP1 or membrane receptors CD22 and/or Siglec-G, result in enhanced BCR signaling and decreased Ets1 expression. Restoring Ets1 expression in Lyn- or SHP1-deficient B cells inhibits their enhanced plasma cell differentiation. Our findings indicate that downregulation of Ets1 occurs in response to B cell activation via either BCR or TLR signaling thereby allowing B cell differentiation and that the maintenance of Ets1 expression is an important function of the inhibitory Lyn → CD22/SiglecG → SHP1 pathway in B cells. PMID:24929000

  2. shRNA library screening identifies nucleocytoplasmic transport as a mediator of BCR-ABL1 kinase-independent resistance

    PubMed Central

    Khorashad, Jamshid S.; Eiring, Anna M.; Mason, Clinton C.; Gantz, Kevin C.; Bowler, Amber D.; Redwine, Hannah M.; Yu, Fan; Kraft, Ira L.; Pomicter, Anthony D.; Reynolds, Kimberly R.; Iovino, Anthony J.; Zabriskie, Matthew S.; Heaton, William L.; Tantravahi, Srinivas K.; Kauffman, Michael; Shacham, Sharon; Chenchik, Alex; Bonneau, Kyle; Ullman, Katharine S.; O’Hare, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) resistance in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients lacking explanatory BCR-ABL1 kinase domain mutations are incompletely understood. To identify mechanisms of TKI resistance that are independent of BCR-ABL1 kinase activity, we introduced a lentiviral short hairpin RNA (shRNA) library targeting ∼5000 cell signaling genes into K562R, a CML cell line with BCR-ABL1 kinase-independent TKI resistance expressing exclusively native BCR-ABL1. A customized algorithm identified genes whose shRNA-mediated knockdown markedly impaired growth of K562R cells compared with TKI-sensitive controls. Among the top candidates were 2 components of the nucleocytoplasmic transport complex, RAN and XPO1 (CRM1). shRNA-mediated RAN inhibition or treatment of cells with the XPO1 inhibitor, KPT-330 (Selinexor), increased the imatinib sensitivity of CML cell lines with kinase-independent TKI resistance. Inhibition of either RAN or XPO1 impaired colony formation of CD34+ cells from newly diagnosed and TKI-resistant CML patients in the presence of imatinib, without effects on CD34+ cells from normal cord blood or from a patient harboring the BCR-ABL1T315I mutant. These data implicate RAN in BCR-ABL1 kinase-independent imatinib resistance and show that shRNA library screens are useful to identify alternative pathways critical to drug resistance in CML. PMID:25573989

  3. Bcr-Abl ubiquitination and Usp9x inhibition block kinase signaling and promote CML cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hanshi; Kapuria, Vaibhav; Peterson, Luke F; Fang, Dexing; Bornmann, William G; Bartholomeusz, Geoffrey; Talpaz, Moshe; Donato, Nicholas J

    2011-03-17

    Although chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is effectively controlled by Bcr-Abl kinase inhibitors, resistance to inhibitors, progressive disease, and incomplete eradication of Bcr-Abl-expressing cells are concerns for the long-term control and suppression of this disease. We describe a novel approach to targeting key proteins in CML cells with a ubiquitin-cycle inhibitor, WP1130. Bcr-Abl is rapidly modified with K63-linked ubiquitin polymers in WP1130-treated CML cells, resulting in its accumulation in aggresomes, where is it unable to conduct signal transduction. Induction of apoptosis because of aggresomal compartmentalization of Bcr-Abl was observed in both imatinib-sensitive and -resistant cells. WP1130, but not Bcr-Abl kinase inhibitors, directly inhibits Usp9x deubiquitinase activity, resulting in the down-regulation of the prosurvival protein Mcl-1 and facilitating apoptosis. These results demonstrate that ubiquitin-cycle inhibition represents a novel and effective approach to blocking Bcr-Abl kinase signaling and reducing Mcl-1 levels to engage CML cell apoptosis. This approach may be a therapeutic option for kinase inhibitor-resistant CML patients.

  4. shRNA library screening identifies nucleocytoplasmic transport as a mediator of BCR-ABL1 kinase-independent resistance.

    PubMed

    Khorashad, Jamshid S; Eiring, Anna M; Mason, Clinton C; Gantz, Kevin C; Bowler, Amber D; Redwine, Hannah M; Yu, Fan; Kraft, Ira L; Pomicter, Anthony D; Reynolds, Kimberly R; Iovino, Anthony J; Zabriskie, Matthew S; Heaton, William L; Tantravahi, Srinivas K; Kauffman, Michael; Shacham, Sharon; Chenchik, Alex; Bonneau, Kyle; Ullman, Katharine S; O'Hare, Thomas; Deininger, Michael W

    2015-03-12

    The mechanisms underlying tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) resistance in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients lacking explanatory BCR-ABL1 kinase domain mutations are incompletely understood. To identify mechanisms of TKI resistance that are independent of BCR-ABL1 kinase activity, we introduced a lentiviral short hairpin RNA (shRNA) library targeting ∼5000 cell signaling genes into K562(R), a CML cell line with BCR-ABL1 kinase-independent TKI resistance expressing exclusively native BCR-ABL1. A customized algorithm identified genes whose shRNA-mediated knockdown markedly impaired growth of K562(R) cells compared with TKI-sensitive controls. Among the top candidates were 2 components of the nucleocytoplasmic transport complex, RAN and XPO1 (CRM1). shRNA-mediated RAN inhibition or treatment of cells with the XPO1 inhibitor, KPT-330 (Selinexor), increased the imatinib sensitivity of CML cell lines with kinase-independent TKI resistance. Inhibition of either RAN or XPO1 impaired colony formation of CD34(+) cells from newly diagnosed and TKI-resistant CML patients in the presence of imatinib, without effects on CD34(+) cells from normal cord blood or from a patient harboring the BCR-ABL1(T315I) mutant. These data implicate RAN in BCR-ABL1 kinase-independent imatinib resistance and show that shRNA library screens are useful to identify alternative pathways critical to drug resistance in CML.

  5. Nonequivalent Loci and the distribution of mutant effects.

    PubMed Central

    Welch, J J; Waxman, D

    2002-01-01

    It has been observed repeatedly that the distribution of new mutations of a quantitative trait has a kurtosis (a statistical measure of the distribution's shape) that is systematically larger than that of a normal distribution. Here we suggest that rather than being a property of individual loci that control the trait, the enhanced kurtosis is highly likely to be an emergent property that arises directly from the loci being mutationally nonequivalent. We present a method of incorporating nonequivalent loci into quantitative genetic modeling and give an approximate relation between the kurtosis of the mutant distribution and the degree of mutational nonequivalence of loci. We go on to ask whether incorporating the experimentally observed kurtosis through nonequivalent loci, rather than at locus level, affects any biologically important conclusions of quantitative genetic modeling. Concentrating on the maintenance of quantitative genetic variation by mutation-selection balance, we conclude that typically nonequivalent loci yield a genetic variance that is of order 10% smaller than that obtained from the previous approaches. For large populations, when the kurtosis is large, the genetic variance may be <50% of the result of equivalent loci, with Gaussian distributions of mutant effects. PMID:12072483

  6. New cancer susceptibility loci: population and familial risks.

    PubMed

    Hemminki, Kari; Försti, Asta; Lorenzo Bermejo, Justo

    2008-10-01

    The recent large genotyping studies have identified a new repertoire of cancer susceptibility genes and loci which are characterized by common risk alleles and low relative risks. Because of these properties, these loci explain a much larger proportion of the etiology of the particular cancers, described by the population attributable fraction (PAF), than of their familial risks (FRRs). For breast cancer, the 9 established loci gave a joint PAF of >60%, but explaining only some 8% of the empirical FRR. For prostate cancer, 6 independent loci at chromosome 8q conferred a joint PAF of 35% but the loci explained no more than 1.9% of the empirical excess familial risks. For colorectal cancer, the contributions of the 2 identified loci to PAF and FRR were somewhat lower. The genome-wide array platforms have been built for common variants, constraining the results to variants with high PAFs and low FRRs. However, the common variants are likely to tag rarer causative variants with much higher FRRs. The detected loci are noncoding and the underlying genetic mechanisms have not been worked out. The data suggest, in spite of the reservations for combining data on PAFs across populations, that the published first-generation genome-wide scans on breast, prostate and colorectal cancers have made successful inroads into genomics of common cancers, yet leaving the mechanisms to be explained.

  7. The TCN2 variant of rs9606756 [Ile23Val] acts as risk loci for obesity-related traits and mediates by interacting with Apo-A1.

    PubMed

    Hebbar, Prashantha; Alkayal, Fadi; Nizam, Rasheeba; Melhem, Motasem; Elkum, Naser; John, Sumi Elsa; Abufarha, Mohamed; Alsmadi, Osama; Thanaraj, Thangavel Alphonse

    2017-06-01

    Despite alarming obesity levels in the Arabian Peninsula, its population lacks convincingly identified genetic determinants of obesity. A genome-wide association study was performed for obesity-related anthropometric traits in Arabs and to decipher mechanisms by which the variants mediate traits. The Illumina HumanOmniExpress BeadChip was used to genotype 1,353 Arab individuals (largely with Class I obesity) from Kuwait. Genome-wide association tests for obesity-related anthropometric traits were performed. Top associations were tested for replication in an independent cohort (1,176 unrelated Arabs). Resultant variants were investigated for interactions with obesity-related plasma biomarkers. Pathway analysis was performed on genes harboring markers in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with identified variants. The rs9606756[c.67A>G,p.Ile23Val] variant from TCN2 was associated with waist circumference (WC) at nearly genome-wide significance (P = 8.92E-08). WC was inversely related with Apo-A1 or high-density lipoprotein levels; individuals with the AG genotype exhibited stronger relationship than those with the reference AA genotype. Interaction involving the AG genotype (effect allele = G) significantly contributed to an increase in anthropometric traits (particularly WC). Genes harboring single-nucleotide polymorphisms in LD with rs9606756 mapped onto an interaction network (with TP53 as central element) of established obesity/diabetes-related protein components. The TCN2 variant acts as a risk factor for WC in the Arab population. The variant mediates obesity-related anthropometric traits via interactions with Apo-A1/high-density lipoprotein or TP53. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  8. Global transcription of CRISPR loci in the human oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Lum, Andrew G; Ly, Melissa; Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha M; Naidu, Mayuri; Boehm, Tobias K; Pride, David T

    2015-05-21

    Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPRs) are active in acquired resistance against bacteriophage and plasmids in a number of environments. In the human mouth, CRISPR loci evolve to counteract oral phage, but the expression of these CRISPR loci has not previously been investigated. We sequenced cDNA from CRISPR loci found in numerous different oral bacteria and compared with oral phage communities to determine whether the transcription of CRISPR loci is specifically targeted towards highly abundant phage present in the oral environment. We found that of the 529,027 CRISPR spacer groups studied, 88 % could be identified in transcripts, indicating that the vast majority of CRISPR loci in the oral cavity were transcribed. There were no strong associations between CRISPR spacer repertoires and oral health status or nucleic acid type. We also compared CRISPR repertoires with oral bacteriophage communities, and found that there was no significant association between CRISPR transcripts and oral phage, regardless of the CRISPR type being evaluated. We characterized highly expressed CRISPR spacers and found that they were no more likely than other spacers to match oral phage. By reassembling the CRISPR-bearing reads into longer CRISPR loci, we found that the majority of the loci did not have spacers matching viruses found in the oral cavities of the subjects studied. For some CRISPR types, loci containing spacers matching oral phage were significantly more likely to have multiple spacers rather than a single spacer matching oral phage. These data suggest that the transcription of oral CRISPR loci is relatively ubiquitous and that highly expressed CRISPR spacers do not necessarily target the most abundant oral phage.

  9. 75 FR 5069 - BCR Holdings, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... provide open-access firm and interruptible interstate natural gas storage and storage related services and..., operate, and maintain a natural gas storage facility on and near the Bully Camp salt dome in Lafourche... the Commission an application, pursuant to section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act, and Subpart F of...

  10. AP24534, a Pan-BCR-ABL Inhibitor for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, Potently Inhibits the T315I Mutant and Overcomes Mutation-Based Resistance

    SciTech Connect

    O’Hare, Thomas; Shakespeare, William C.; Zhu, Xiaotian; Eide, Christopher A.; Rivera, Victor M.; Wang, Frank; Adrian, Lauren T.; Zhou, Tianjun; Huang, Wei-Sheng; Xu, Qihong; Metcalf, III, Chester A.; Tyner, Jeffrey W.; Loriaux, Marc M.; Corbin, Amie S.; Wardwell, Scott; Ning, Yaoyu; Keats, Jeffrey A.; Wang, Yihan; Sundaramoorthi, Raji; Thomas, Mathew; Zhou, Dong; Snodgrass, Joseph; Commodore, Lois; Sawyer, Tomi K.; Dalgarno, David C.; Deininger, Michael W.N.; Druker, Brian J.; Clackson, Tim

    2010-09-07

    Inhibition of BCR-ABL by imatinib induces durable responses in many patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), but resistance attributable to kinase domain mutations can lead to relapse and a switch to second-line therapy with nilotinib or dasatinib. Despite three approved therapeutic options, the cross-resistant BCR-ABL{sup T315I} mutation and compound mutants selected on sequential inhibitor therapy remain major clinical challenges. We report design and preclinical evaluation of AP24534, a potent, orally available multitargeted kinase inhibitor active against T315I and other BCR-ABL mutants. AP24534 inhibited all tested BCR-ABL mutants in cellular and biochemical assays, suppressed BCR-ABL{sup T315I}-driven tumor growth in mice, and completely abrogated resistance in cell-based mutagenesis screens. Our work supports clinical evaluation of AP24534 as a pan-BCR-ABL inhibitor for treatment of CML.

  11. AP24534, a Pan-BCR-ABL Inhibitor for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, Potently Inhibits the T315I Mutant and Overcomes Mutation-Based Resistance

    PubMed Central

    O’Hare, Thomas; Shakespeare, William C.; Zhu, Xiaotian; Eide, Christopher A.; Rivera, Victor M.; Wang, Frank; Adrian, Lauren T.; Zhou, Tianjun; Huang, Wei-Sheng; Xu, Qihong; Metcalf, Chester A.; Tyner, Jeffrey W.; Loriaux, Marc M.; Corbin, Amie S.; Wardwell, Scott; Ning, Yaoyu; Keats, Jeffrey A.; Wang, Yihan; Sundaramoorthi, Raji; Thomas, Mathew; Zhou, Dong; Snodgrass, Joseph; Commodore, Lois; Sawyer, Tomi K.; Dalgarno, David C.; Deininger, Michael W.N.; Druker, Brian J.; Clackson, Tim

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Inhibition of BCR-ABL by imatinib induces durable responses in many patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), but resistance attributable to kinase domain mutations can lead to relapse and a switch to second-line therapy with nilotinib or dasatinib. Despite three approved therapeutic options, the cross-resistant BCR-ABLT315I mutation and compound mutants selected on sequential inhibitor therapy remain major clinical challenges. We report design and pre-clinical evaluation of AP24534, a potent, orally available multi-targeted kinase inhibitor active against T315I and other BCR-ABL mutants. AP24534 inhibited all tested BCR-ABL mutants in cellular and biochemical assays, suppressed BCR-ABLT315I-driven tumor growth in mice, and completely abrogated resistance in cell-based mutagenesis screens. Our work supports clinical evaluation of AP24534 as a pan-BCR-ABL inhibitor for treatment of CML. PMID:19878872

  12. Certification of the elemental composition of the BCR reference materials No. 71, containing carbon, hydrogen, bromine, chlorine, nitrogen, oxygen and sulphur, and No. 73, containing carbon, hydrogen, bromine, chlorine, fluorine and nitrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Griepink, B.; Hamers, L.; Le Duigou, Y.

    1982-01-01

    The procedure is described for the characterization of two types of halogen-containing materials, intended to serve as reference materials for organic elemental analysis. The aim was to certify to within 0.2% limits in relation to each element the C, H, Br, Cl, N, O and S content of BCR compound no. 71, consisting mainly of N-(4-bromophenyl)-N'-(2-chloro-4 nitrophenyl) thiourea, and similarly the C, H, Br, Cl, F and N content of BCR compound no. 73, consisting mainly of 1-(1-(4-bromophenyl-methyl)-4-piperidinyl)-5-chloro-2-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-benzimidazole. Homogeneity of the materials was achieved by handling each material as a single batch in the final step of its preparation. The procedures used to characterize each element are listed and a statistical evaluation of the results is given.

  13. Quantitative trait loci for seed yield and yield-related traits, and their responses to reduced phosphorus supply in Brassica napus

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Guangda; Zhao, Zunkang; Liao, Yuan; Hu, Yifan; Shi, Lei; Long, Yan; Xu, Fangsen

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims One of the key targets of breeding programmes in rapeseed (Brassica napus) is to develop high-yield varieties. However, the lack of available phosphorus (P) in soils seriously limits rapeseed production. The aim of this study was to dissect the genetic control of seed yield and yield-related traits in B. napus grown with contrasting P supplies. Methods Two-year field trials were conducted at one site with normal and low P treatments using a population of 124 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between ‘B104-2’ and ‘Eyou Changjia’. Seed yield, seed weight, seed number, pod number, plant height, branch number and P efficiency coefficient (PEC) were investigated. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was performed by composite interval mapping. Key Results The phenotypic values of most of the tested traits were reduced under the low P conditions. In total, 74 putative QTLs were identified, contributing 7·3–25·4 % of the phenotypic variation. Of these QTLs, 16 (21·6 %) were detected in two seasons and in the mean value of two seasons, and eight QTLs for two traits were conserved across P levels. Low-P-specific QTLs were clustered on chromosomes A1, A6 and A8. By comparative mapping between Arabidopsis and B. napus, 161 orthologues of 146 genes involved in Arabidopsis P homeostasis and/or yield-related trait control were associated with 45 QTLs corresponding to 23 chromosomal regions. Four gene-based markers developed from genes involved in Arabidopsis P homeostasis were mapped to QTL intervals. Conclusions Different genetic determinants were involved in controlling seed yield and yield-related traits in B. napus under normal and low P conditions. The QTLs detected under reduced P supply may provide useful information for improving the seed yield of B. napus in soils with low P availability in marker-assisted selection. PMID:22234558

  14. Analysis of genetic polymorphism of the HLA-B and HLA-DR loci in patients with dermatophytic onychomycosis and in their first-degree relatives.

    PubMed

    García-Romero, M T; Granados, J; Vega-Memije, M E; Arenas, R

    2012-01-01

    Onychomycosis is known to have predisposing factors and a high prevalence within families that cannot be explained by within-family transmission. We determined the frequency of HLA-B and HLA-DR haplotypes in 25 families of Mexican patients with onychomycosis in order to define the role of the class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in genetic susceptibility to this infection. Seventy-eight subjects participated in the study, 47 with onychomycosis and 31 healthy individuals. The frequencies of the HLA-B and HLA-DR haplotypes were compared with those found in first-degree relatives without onychomycosis and in a historic control group of healthy individuals. The frequencies in the controls were similar to those of the healthy relatives of the patients. However, on comparison of the patients with historic controls, we detected a higher frequency of the HLA-DR8 haplotype (P=.03; odds ratio, 1.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.98-36). These findings suggest that there are polymorphisms in genes of the MHC that increase susceptibility to onychomycosis, particularly haplotype HLA-DR8.

  15. [Analysis of genetic polymorphism of the HLA-B and HLA-DR loci in patients with dermatophytic onychomycosis and in their first-degree relatives].

    PubMed

    García-Romero, M T; Granados, J; Vega-Memije, M E; Arenas, R

    2012-01-01

    Onychomycosis is known to have predisposing factors and a high prevalence within families that cannot be explained by within-family transmission. We determined the frequency of HLA-B and HLA-DR haplotypes in 25 families of Mexican patients with onychomycosis in order to define the role of the class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in genetic susceptibility to this infection. Seventy-eight subjects participated in the study, 47 with onychomycosis and 31 healthy individuals. The frequencies of the HLA-B and HLA-DR haplotypes were compared with those found in first-degree relatives without onychomycosis and in a historic control group of healthy individuals. The frequencies in the controls were similar to those of the healthy relatives of the patients. However, on comparison of the patients with historic controls, we detected a higher frequency of the HLA-DR8 haplotype (P=.03; odds ratio, 1.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.98-36). These findings suggest that there are polymorphisms in genes of the MHC that increase susceptibility to onychomycosis, particularly haplotype HLA-DR8.

  16. Molecular characterization of LMW-GS genes in Brachypodium distachyon L. reveals highly conserved Glu-3 loci in Triticum and related species

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Brachypodium distachyon L. is a newly emerging model plant system for temperate cereal crop species. However, its grain protein compositions are still not clear. In the current study, we carried out a detailed proteomics and molecular genetics study on grain glutenin proteins in B. distachyon. Results SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC analysis of grain proteins showed that Brachypodium has few gliadins and high molecular weight glutenin subunits. In contrast the electrophoretic patterns for the albumin, globulin and low molecular weight glutenin subunit (LMW-GS) fractions of the grain protein were similar to those in wheat. In particular, the LMW-C type subunits in Brachypodium were more abundant than the equivalent proteins in common wheat. Southern blotting analysis confirmed that Brachypodium has 4–5 copies of LMW-GS genes. A total of 18 LMW-GS genes were cloned from Brachypodium by allele specific PCR. LMW-GS and 4 deduced amino acid sequences were further confirmed by using Western-blotting and MALDI-TOF-MS. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Brachypodium was closer to Ae. markgrafii and Ae. umbellulata than to T. aestivum. Conclusions Brachypodium possessed a highly conserved Glu-3 locus that is closely related to Triticum and related species. The presence of LMW-GS in B. distachyon grains indicates that B. distachyon may be used as a model system for studying wheat quality attributes. PMID:23171363

  17. N200, N250r, and N400 event-related brain potentials reveal three loci of repetition priming for familiar names.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Esther C; Schweinberger, Stefan R

    2003-11-01

    The authors assessed immediate repetition effects on event-related potentials (ERPs) while participants performed familiarity decisions for written personal names. For immediately repeated familiar names, the authors observed 3 distinct ERP modulations. At 180-220 ms, a posterior N200 effect occurred for names preceded by same-font primes only. In addition, an increased left temporal negativity (N250r, 220-300 ms) and a reduced central-parietal negativity (N400, 300-400 ms) were seen both for same-font and different-font repetitions. In a 2nd experiment, when names were preceded by either their corresponding face or the face of a different celebrity, only the N400 effect was preserved. These findings suggest that the N200, N250r, and N400 effects reflect facilitated processing at font-specific featural, lexical, and semantic levels of processing, respectively. ((c) 2003 APA, all rights reserved)

  18. Chromosomal structure of the human TYRP1 and TYRP2 loci and comparison of the tyrosinase-related protein gene family

    SciTech Connect

    Sturm, R.A.; Smith, A.G.; Smit, S.E.

    1995-09-01

    The structures of the human tyrosinase-related protein genes TYRP1 and TYRP2 have been determined and compared with that of the tyrosinase gene (TYR). The TYRP1 protein is encoded in 7 exons spread over 24 kb of genomic DNA. Characterization of a 55-kb contig encompassing the human TYRP2 locus reveals that the protein coding region is divided into 8 exons. All three members of the TYRP gene family share a common C-terminal membrane spanning exon. Examination of the position of other intron junctions suggests that TYRP1 was derived from a TYR duplication and then was itself duplicated to give rise to the TYRP2 gene. The evidence also suggests that at least some of the introns within the TYR, TYRP1, and TYRP2 coding regions were gained after duplication and that intron slippage is unlikely to have occurred. 51 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. A linkage strategy for detection of human quantitative-trait loci. II. Optimization of study designs based on extreme sib pairs and generalized relative risk ratios.

    PubMed

    Gu, C; Rao, D C

    1997-07-01

    We are concerned here with practical issues in the application of extreme sib-pair (ESP) methods to quantitative traits. Two important factors-namely, the way extreme trait values are defined and the proportions in which different types of ESPs are pooled, in the analysis-are shown to determine the power and the cost effectiveness of a study design. We found that, in general, combining reasonable numbers of both extremely discordant and extremely concordant sib pairs that were available in the sample is more powerful and more cost effective than pursuing only a single type of ESP. We also found that dividing trait values with a less extreme threshold at one end or at both ends of the trait distribution leads to more cost-effective designs. The notion of generalized relative risk ratios (the lambda methods, as described in the first part of this series of two articles) is used to calculate the power and sample size for various choices of polychotomization of trait values and for the combination of different types of ESPs. A balance then can be struck among these choices, to attain an optimum design.

  20. Broadly distributed T cell reactivity, with no immunodominant loci, to the pre-erythrocytic antigen thrombospondin-related adhesive protein of Plasmodium falciparum in West Africans.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, K L; Plebanski, M; Akinwunmi, P; Lee, E A; Reece, W H; Robson, K J; Hill, A V; Pinder, M

    1999-06-01

    Protective immunity to malaria has been achieved in human volunteers utilizing the pre-erythrocytic Plasmodium falciparum antigen, the circumsporozoite protein (CS). However, T cell reactivity to CS is focused on several highly polymorphic T cell epitope regions, potentially limiting the efficacy of any vaccine to specific malaria strains. Another important pre-erythrocytic malaria antigen, the thrombospondin-related adhesive protein (TRAP), can induce protection in animal models of malaria, but knowledge of human T cell responses is limited to the identification of CD8 T cell epitopes, with no CD4 epitopes identified to date. This comprehensive study assessed reactivity to overlapping peptides spanning almost the whole of P. falciparum TRAP (PfTRAP), as well as peptides selected on the basis of HLA class II-binding motifs. A total of 50 naturally exposed Gambian adults were assessed to define 26 T cell epitopes in PfTRAP capable of inducing rapid IFN-gamma or IL-4 production, as assessed by enzyme-linked immunospot assays. In contrast to the CS protein, this reactivity was broadly distributed along the length of TRAP. Moreover, of the 26 epitopes identified, 10 were found to be conserved in West Africa.

  1. Common genetic variants in the CLDN2 and PRSS1-PRSS2 loci alter risk for alcohol-related and sporadic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Whitcomb, David C.; LaRusch, Jessica; Krasinskas, Alyssa M.; Klei, Lambertus; Smith, Jill P.; Brand, Randall E.; Neoptolemos, John P.; Lerch, Markus M.; Tector, Matt; Sandhu, Bimaljit S.; Guda, Nalini M.; Orlichenko, Lidiya; Alkaade, Samer; Amann, Stephen T.; Anderson, Michelle A.; Baillie, John; Banks, Peter A.; Conwell, Darwin; Coté, Gregory A.; Cotton, Peter B.; DiSario, James; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Forsmark, Chris E.; Johnstone, Marianne; Gardner, Timothy B.; Gelrud, Andres; Greenhalf, William; Haines, Jonathan L.; Hartman, Douglas J.; Hawes, Robert A.; Lawrence, Christopher; Lewis, Michele; Mayerle, Julia; Mayeux, Richard; Melhem, Nadine M.; Money, Mary E.; Muniraj, Thiruvengadam; Papachristou, Georgios I.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Romagnuolo, Joseph; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Sherman, Stuart; Simon, Peter; Singh, Vijay K.; Slivka, Adam; Stolz, Donna; Sutton, Robert; Weiss, Frank Ulrich; Wilcox, C. Mel; Zarnescu, Narcis Octavian; Wisniewski, Stephen R.; O'Connell, Michael R.; Kienholz, Michelle L.; Roeder, Kathryn; Barmada, M. Michael; Yadav, Dhiraj; Devlin, Bernie; Albert, Marilyn S.; Albin, Roger L.; Apostolova, Liana G.; Arnold, Steven E.; Baldwin, Clinton T.; Barber, Robert; Barnes, Lisa L.; Beach, Thomas G.; Beecham, Gary W.; Beekly, Duane; Bennett, David A.; Bigio, Eileen H.; Bird, Thomas D.; Blacker, Deborah; Boxer, Adam; Burke, James R.; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Cairns, Nigel J.; Cantwell, Laura B.; Cao, Chuanhai; Carney, Regina M.; Carroll, Steven L.; Chui, Helena C.; Clark, David G.; Cribbs, David H.; Crocco, Elizabeth A.; Cruchaga, Carlos; DeCarli, Charles; Demirci, F. Yesim; Dick, Malcolm; Dickson, Dennis W.; Duara, Ranjan; Ertekin-Taner, Nilufer; Faber, Kelley M.; Fallon, Kenneth B.; Farlow, Martin R.; Ferris, Steven; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Frosch, Matthew P.; Galasko, Douglas R.; Ganguli, Mary; Gearing, Marla; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Ghetti, Bernardino; Gilbert, John R.; Gilman, Sid; Glass, Jonathan D.; Goate, Alison M.; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Green, Robert C.; Growdon, John H.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Hamilton-Nelson, Kara L.; Hamilton, Ronald L.; Harrell, Lindy E.; Head, Elizabeth; Honig, Lawrence S.; Hulette, Christine M.; Hyman, Bradley T.; Jicha, Gregory A.; Jin, Lee-Way; Jun, Gyungah; Kamboh, M. Ilyas; Karydas, Anna; Kaye, Jeffrey A.; Kim, Ronald; Koo, Edward H.; Kowall, Neil W.; Kramer, Joel H.; Kramer, Patricia; Kukull, Walter A.; LaFerla, Frank M.; Lah, James J.; Leverenz, James B.; Levey, Allan I.; Li, Ge; Lin, Chiao-Feng; Lieberman, Andrew P.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Lyketsos, Constantine G.; Mack, Wendy J.; Marson, Daniel C.; Martin, Eden R.; Martiniuk, Frank; Mash, Deborah C.; Masliah, Eliezer; McKee, Ann C.; Mesulam, Marsel; Miller, Bruce L.; Miller, Carol A.; Miller, Joshua W.; Montine, Thomas J.; Morris, John C.; Murrell, Jill R.; Naj, Adam C.; Olichney, John M.; Parisi, Joseph E.; Peskind, Elaine; Petersen, Ronald C.; Pierce, Aimee; Poon, Wayne W.; Potter, Huntington; Quinn, Joseph F.; Raj, Ashok; Raskind, Murray; Reiman, Eric M.; Reisberg, Barry; Reitz, Christiane; Ringman, John M.; Roberson, Erik D.; Rosen, Howard J.; Rosenberg, Roger N.; Sano, Mary; Saykin, Andrew J.; Schneider, Julie A.; Schneider, Lon S.; Seeley, William W.; Smith, Amanda G.; Sonnen, Joshua A.; Spina, Salvatore; Stern, Robert A.; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Troncoso, Juan C.; Tsuang, Debby W.; Valladares, Otto; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M.; Van Eldik, Linda J.; Vardarajan, Badri N.; Vinters, Harry V.; Vonsattel, Jean Paul; Wang, Li-San; Weintraub, Sandra; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen A.; Williamson, Jennifer; Woltjer, Randall L.; Wright, Clinton B.; Younkin, Steven G.; Yu, Chang-En; Yu, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatitis is a complex, progressively destructive inflammatory disorder. Alcohol was long thought to be the primary causative agent, but genetic contributions have been of interest since the discovery that rare PRSS1, CFTR, and SPINK1 variants were associated with pancreatitis risk. We now report two significant genome-wide associations identified and replicated at PRSS1-PRSS2 (1×10-12) and x-linked CLDN2 (p < 1×10-21) through a two-stage genome-wide study (Stage 1, 676 cases and 4507 controls; Stage 2, 910 cases and 4170 controls). The PRSS1 variant affects susceptibility by altering expression of the primary trypsinogen gene. The CLDN2 risk allele is associated with atypical localization of claudin-2 in pancreatic acinar cells. The homozygous (or hemizygous male) CLDN2 genotype confers the greatest risk, and its alleles interact with alcohol consumption to amplify risk. These results could partially explain the high frequency of alcohol-related pancreatitis in men – male hemizygous frequency is 0.26, female homozygote is 0.07. PMID:23143602

  2. Accessible DNA and Relative Depletion of H3K9me2 at Maize Loci Undergoing RNA-Directed DNA Methylation[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Gent, Jonathan I.; Madzima, Thelma F.; Bader, Rechien; Kent, Matthew R.; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Stam, Maike; McGinnis, Karen M.; Dawe, R. Kelly

    2014-01-01

    RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) in plants is a well-characterized example of RNA interference-related transcriptional gene silencing. To determine the relationships between RdDM and heterochromatin in the repeat-rich maize (Zea mays) genome, we performed whole-genome analyses of several heterochromatic features: dimethylation of lysine 9 and lysine 27 (H3K9me2 and H3K27me2), chromatin accessibility, DNA methylation, and small RNAs; we also analyzed two mutants that affect these processes, mediator of paramutation1 and zea methyltransferase2. The data revealed that the majority of the genome exists in a heterochromatic state defined by inaccessible chromatin that is marked by H3K9me2 and H3K27me2 but that lacks RdDM. The minority of the genome marked by RdDM was predominantly near genes, and its overall chromatin structure appeared more similar to euchromatin than to heterochromatin. These and other data indicate that the densely staining chromatin defined as heterochromatin differs fundamentally from RdDM-targeted chromatin. We propose that small interfering RNAs perform a specialized role in repressing transposons in accessible chromatin environments and that the bulk of heterochromatin is incompatible with small RNA production. PMID:25465407

  3. A genome-wide linkage and association study of musical aptitude identifies loci containing genes related to inner ear development and neurocognitive functions

    PubMed Central

    Oikkonen, J.; Huang, Y.; Onkamo, P.; Ukkola-Vuoti, L.; Raijas, P.; Karma, K.; Vieland, V. J.; Järvelä, I.

    2014-01-01

    Humans have developed the perception, production and processing of sounds into the art of music. A genetic contribution to these skills of musical aptitude has long been suggested. We performed a genome-wide scan in 76 pedigrees (767 individuals) characterized for the ability to discriminate pitch (SP), duration (ST) and sound patterns (KMT), which are primary capacities for music perception. Using the Bayesian linkage and association approach implemented in program package KELVIN, especially designed for complex pedigrees, several SNPs near genes affecting the functions of the auditory pathway and neurocognitive processes were identified. The strongest association was found at 3q21.3 (rs9854612) with combined SP, ST and KMT test scores (COMB). This region is located a few dozen kilobases upstream of the GATA binding protein 2 (GATA2) gene. GATA2 regulates the development of cochlear hair cells and the inferior colliculus (IC), which are important in tonotopic mapping. The highest probability of linkage was obtained for phenotype SP at 4p14, located next to the region harboring the protocadherin 7 gene, PCDH7. Two SNPs rs13146789 and rs13109270 of PCDH7 showed strong association. PCDH7 has been suggested to play a role in cochlear and amygdaloid complexes. Functional class analysis showed that inner ear and schizophrenia related genes were enriched inside the linked regions. This study is the first to show the importance of auditory pathway genes in musical aptitude. PMID:24614497

  4. A genome-wide linkage and association study of musical aptitude identifies loci containing genes related to inner ear development and neurocognitive functions.

    PubMed

    Oikkonen, J; Huang, Y; Onkamo, P; Ukkola-Vuoti, L; Raijas, P; Karma, K; Vieland, V J; Järvelä, I

    2015-02-01

    Humans have developed the perception, production and processing of sounds into the art of music. A genetic contribution to these skills of musical aptitude has long been suggested. We performed a genome-wide scan in 76 pedigrees (767 individuals) characterized for the ability to discriminate pitch (SP), duration (ST) and sound patterns (KMT), which are primary capacities for music perception. Using the Bayesian linkage and association approach implemented in program package KELVIN, especially designed for complex pedigrees, several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) near genes affecting the functions of the auditory pathway and neurocognitive processes were identified. The strongest association was found at 3q21.3 (rs9854612) with combined SP, ST and KMT test scores (COMB). This region is located a few dozen kilobases upstream of the GATA binding protein 2 (GATA2) gene. GATA2 regulates the development of cochlear hair cells and the inferior colliculus (IC), which are important in tonotopic mapping. The highest probability of linkage was obtained for phenotype SP at 4p14, located next to the region harboring the protocadherin 7 gene, PCDH7. Two SNPs rs13146789 and rs13109270 of PCDH7 showed strong association. PCDH7 has been suggested to play a role in cochlear and amygdaloid complexes. Functional class analysis showed that inner ear and schizophrenia-related genes were enriched inside the linked regions. This study is the first to show the importance of auditory pathway genes in musical aptitude.

  5. SGX393 inhibits the CML mutant Bcr-Abl[superscript T315I] and preempts in vitro resistance when combined with nilotinib or dasatinib

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hare, Thomas; Eide, Christopher A.; Tyner, Jeffrey W.; Corbin, Amie S.; Wong, Matthew J.; Buchanan, Sean; Holme, Kevin; Jessen, Katayoun A.; Tang, Crystal; Lewis, Hal A.; Romero, Richard D.; Burley, Stephen K.; Deininger, Michael W.

    2010-01-12

    Imatinib inhibits Bcr-Abl, the oncogenic tyrosine kinase that causes chronic myeloid leukemia. The second-line inhibitors nilotinib and dasatinib are effective in patients with imatinib resistance resulting from Bcr-Abl kinase domain mutations. Bcr-Abl{sup T315I}, however, is resistant to all Abl kinase inhibitors in clinical use and is emerging as the most frequent cause of salvage therapy failure. SGX393 is a potent inhibitor of native and T315I-mutant Bcr-Abl kinase that blocks the growth of leukemia cell lines and primary hematopoietic cells expressing Bcr-Abl{sup T315I}, with minimal toxicity against Bcr-Abl-negative cell lines or normal bone marrow. A screen for Bcr-Abl mutants emerging in the presence of SGX393 revealed concentration-dependent reduction in the number and range of mutations. Combining SGX393 with nilotinib or dasatinib preempted emergence of resistant subclones, including Bcr-Abl{sup T315I}. These findings suggest that combination of a T315I inhibitor with the current clinically used inhibitors may be useful for reduction of Bcr-Abl mutants in Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemia.

  6. TAT-CC fusion protein depresses the oncogenicity of BCR-ABL in vitro and in vivo through interrupting its oligomerization.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zheng-Lan; Gao, Miao; Ji, Mao-Sheng; Tao, Kun; Xiao, Qing; Zhong, Liang; Zeng, Jian-Ming; Feng, Wen-Li

    2013-02-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a clonal hematologic malignancy characterized by the BCR-ABL protein. BCR-ABL is a constitutively active tyrosine kinase and plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of CML. Imatinib mesylate, a selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is effective in CML, but drug resistance and relapse occur. The coiled-coil (CC) domain located in BCR(1-72) mediates BCR-ABL tetramerization, which is essential for the activation of tyrosine kinase and transformation potential of BCR-ABL. CC domain is supposed to be a therapeutic target for CML. We purified a TAT-CC protein competively binding with the endogenous CC domain to reduce BCR-ABL kinase activity. We found that TAT-CC co-located and interacted with BCR-ABL in Ba/F3-p210 and K562 cells. It induced apoptosis and inhibited proliferation in these cells. It increased the sensitivity of these cells to imatinib and reduced the phosphorylation of BCR-ABL, CRKL and STAT5. We confirmed that TAT-CC could attenuate the oncogenicity of Ba/F3-p210 cells and diminish the volume of K562 solid tumor in mice. We conclude targeting the CC may provide a complementary therapy to inhibit BCR-ABL oncogenicity.

  7. Two novel susceptibility loci for non-small cell lung cancer map to low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Zhang, Yongjun; Fang, Meiyu; Bao, Wenglong; Deng, Dehou

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) on the risk of developing non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A total of 500 NSCLC patients and 500 healthy controls were recruited for genotyping of 11 SNPs of LRP5. The association between genotype and NSCLC risk was evaluated by computing the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) from multivariate unconditional logistic regression analyses. Eleven Tag SNPs were detected. The frequency of the LRP5 rs3736228 T allele (18.9% in male NSCLC cases and 23.9% in male controls) was statistically different between male NSCLCs and male controls (P=0.03), and the T allele was associated with a lower risk of NSCLC (OR=0.74; 95% CI, 0.56–0.67), whereas the C/C homozygous genotype and the LRP5 rs64843 T/T genotype were associated with an increased risk of NSCLC and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), respectively (OR=1.43 and 1.77, respectively). Using Haploview software, the frequency of the haplotypes of rs312009/rs3120015/rs3120014 CCC was was significantly higher in female SCC cases compared with female controls (0.064 vs. 0.009, P=0.04). LRP5 rs3736228 and rs64843 SNPs were significantly associated with an increased risk of NSCLC and SCC, respectively. Further studies are required to investigate the functional changes in LRP5 expression and activity in NSCLC in vitro. PMID:27698794

  8. Assessing gene-treatment interactions at the FTO and INSIG2 loci on obesity-related traits in the Diabetes Prevention Program.

    PubMed

    Franks, P W; Jablonski, K A; Delahanty, L M; McAteer, J B; Kahn, S E; Knowler, W C; Florez, J C

    2008-12-01

    The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs9939609 in the fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO) and the rs7566605 SNP located 10 kb upstream of the insulin-induced gene 2 gene (INSIG2) have been proposed as risk factors for common obesity. We tested for genotype-treatment interactions on changes in obesity-related traits in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP). The DPP is a randomised controlled trial of 3,548 high-risk individuals from 27 participating centres throughout the USA who were originally randomised to receive metformin, troglitazone, intensive lifestyle modification or placebo to prevent the development of type 2 diabetes. Measures of adiposity from computed tomography were available in a subsample (n = 908). This report focuses on the baseline and 1 year results. The minor A allele at FTO rs9939609 was positively associated with baseline BMI (p = 0.003), but not with baseline adiposity or the change at 1 year in any anthropometric trait. For the INSIG2 rs7566605 genotype, the minor C allele was associated with more subcutaneous adiposity (second and third lumbar vertebrae [L2/3]) at baseline (p = 0.04). During follow-up, CC homozygotes lost more weight than G allele carriers (p = 0.009). In an additive model, we observed nominally significant gene-lifestyle interactions on weight change (p = 0.02) and subcutaneous (L2/3 [p = 0.01] and L4/5 [p = 0.03]) and visceral (L2/3 [p = 0.02]) adipose areas. No statistical evidence of association with physical activity energy expenditure or energy intake was observed for either genotype. Within the DPP study population, common variants in FTO and INSIG2 are nominally associated with quantitative measures of obesity, directly and possibly by interacting with metformin or lifestyle intervention.

  9. Assessing gene–treatment interactions at the FTO and INSIG2 loci on obesity-related traits in the Diabetes Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Franks, P. W.; Jablonski, K. A.; Delahanty, L. M.; McAteer, J. B.; Kahn, S. E.; Knowler, W. C.; Florez, J. C.

    2010-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs9939609 in the fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO) and the rs7566605 SNP located 10 kb upstream of the insulin-induced gene 2 gene (INSIG2) have been proposed as risk factors for common obesity. Methods We tested for genotype–treatment interactions on changes in obesity-related traits in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP). The DPP is a randomised controlled trial of 3,548 high-risk individuals from 27 participating centres throughout the USA who were originally randomised to receive metformin, troglitazone, intensive lifestyle modification or placebo to prevent the development of type 2 diabetes. Measures of adiposity from computed tomography were available in a subsample (n=908). This report focuses on the baseline and 1 year results. Results The minor A allele at FTO rs9939609 was positively associated with baseline BMI (p=0.003), but not with baseline adiposity or the change at 1 year in any anthropometric trait. For the INSIG2 rs7566605 genotype, the minor C allele was associated with more subcutaneous adiposity (second and third lumbar vertebrae [L2/3]) at baseline (p=0.04). During follow-up, CC homozygotes lost more weight than G allele carriers (p=0.009). In an additive model, we observed nominally significant gene–lifestyle interactions on weight change (p=0.02) and subcutaneous (L2/3 [p=0.01] and L4/5 [p=0.03]) and visceral (L2/3 [p=0.02]) adipose areas. No statistical evidence of association with physical activity energy expenditure or energy intake was observed for either genotype. Conclusions/interpretation Within the DPP study population, common variants in FTO and INSIG2 are nominally associated with quantitative measures of obesity, directly and possibly by interacting with metformin or lifestyle intervention. PMID:18839134

  10. Transcriptional Profiling of Human Endogenous Retrovirus Group HERV-K(HML-2) Loci in Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Katja; Reichrath, Jörg; Roesch, Alexander; Meese, Eckart; Mayer, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggested a role for the human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) group HERV-K(HML-2) in melanoma because of upregulated transcription and expression of HERV-K(HML-2)-encoded proteins. Very little is known about which HML-2 loci are transcribed in melanoma. We assigned >1,400 HML-2 cDNA sequences generated from various melanoma and related samples to genomic HML-2 loci, identifying a total of 23 loci as transcribed. Transcription profiles of loci differed significantly between samples. One locus was found transcribed only in melanoma-derived samples but not in melanocytes and might represent a marker for melanoma. Several of the transcribed loci harbor ORFs for retroviral Gag and/or Env proteins. Env-encoding loci were transcribed only in melanoma. Specific investigation of rec and np9 transcripts indicated transcription of protein encoding loci in melanoma and melanocytes hinting at the relevance of Rec and Np9 in melanoma. UVB irradiation changed transcription profiles of loci and overall transcript levels decreased in melanoma and melanocytes. We further identified transcribed HML-2 loci formed by reverse transcription of spliced HML-2 transcripts by L1 machinery or in a retroviral fashion, with loci potentially encoding HML-2-like proteins. We reveal complex, sample-specific transcription of HML-2 loci in melanoma and related samples. Identified HML-2 loci and proteins encoded by those loci are particularly relevant for further studying the role of HML-2 in melanoma. Transcription of HERVs appears as a complex mechanism requiring specific studies to elucidate which HERV loci are transcribed and how transcribed HERVs may be involved in disease. PMID:23338945

  11. Fractionation of metals by sequential extraction procedures (BCR and Tessier) in soil exposed to fire of wide temperature range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajkovic, Hana; Rončević, Sanda; Nemet, Ivan; Prohić, Esad; Leontić-Vazdar, Dana

    2017-04-01

    Forest fire presents serious problem, especially in Mediterranean Region. Effects of fire are numerous, from climate change and deforestation to loss of soil organic matter and changes in soil properties. One of the effects, not well documented, is possible redistribution and/or remobilisation of pollutants previously deposited in the soil, due to the new physical and chemical soil properties and changes in equilibrium conditions. For understanding and predicting possible redistribution and/or remobilisation of potential pollutants from soil, affected by fire different in temperature, several laboratory investigations were carried out. To evaluate the influence of organic matter on soil under fire, three soil samples were analysed and compared: (a) the one with added coniferous organic matter; (b) deciduous organic matter (b) and (c) soil without additional organic matter. Type of organic matter is closely related to pH of soil, as pH is influencing the mobility of some pollutants, e.g. metals. For that reason pH was also measured through all experimental steps. Each of mentioned soil samples (a, b and c) were heated at 1+3 different temperatures (25°C, 200°C, 500°C and 850°C). After heating, whereby fire effect on soil was simulated, samples were analysed by BCR protocol with the addition of a first step of sequential extraction procedure by Tessier and analysis of residual by aqua regia. Element fractionation of heavy metals by this procedure was used to determine the amounts of selected elements (Al, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn). Selected metal concentrations were determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer. Further on, loss of organic matter was calculated after each heating procedure as well as the mineral composition. The mineral composition was determined using an X-ray diffraction. From obtained results, it can be concluded that temperature has an influence on concentration of elements in specific step of

  12. A long noncoding RNA critically regulates Bcr-Abl-mediated cellular transformation by acting as a competitive endogenous RNA.

    PubMed

    Guo, G; Kang, Q; Zhu, X; Chen, Q; Wang, X; Chen, Y; Ouyang, J; Zhang, L; Tan, H; Chen, R; Huang, S; Chen, J-L

    2015-04-02

    Aberrant expression of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) is associated with various human cancers. However, the role of lncRNAs in Bcr-Abl-mediated chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is unknown. In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of lncRNAs in human CML cells using an lncRNA cDNA microarray and identified an lncRNA termed lncRNA-BGL3 that acted as a key regulator of Bcr-Abl-mediated cellular transformation. Notably, we observed that lncRNA-BGL3 was highly induced in response to disruption of Bcr-Abl expression or by inhibiting Bcr-Abl kinase activity in K562 cells and leukemic cells derived from CML patients. Ectopic expression of lncRNA-BGL3 sensitized leukemic cells to undergo apoptosis and inhibited Bcr-Abl-induced tumorigenesis. Furthermore, transgenic (TG) mice expressing lncRNA-BGL3 were generated. We found that TG expression of lncRNA-BGL3 alone in mice was sufficient to impair primary bone marrow transformation by Bcr-Abl. Interestingly, we identified that lncRNA-BGL3 was a target of miR-17, miR-93, miR-20a, miR-20b, miR-106a and miR-106b, microRNAs that repress mRNA of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN). Further experiments demonstrated that lncRNA-BGL3 functioned as a competitive endogenous RNA for binding these microRNAs to cross-regulate PTEN expression. Additionally, our experiments have begun to address the mechanism of how lncRNA-BGL3 is regulated in the leukemic cells and showed that Bcr-Abl repressed lncRNA-BGL3 expression through c-Myc-dependent DNA methylation. Taken together, these results reveal that Bcr-Abl-mediated cellular transformation critically requires silence of tumor-suppressor lncRNA-BGL3 and suggest a potential strategy for the treatment of Bcr-Abl-positive leukemia.

  13. Targeting wild-type and T315I Bcr-Abl by combining allosteric with ATP-site inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianming; Adrián, Francisco J.; Jahnke, Wolfgang; Cowan-Jacob, Sandra W.; Li, Allen G.; Iacob, Roxana E.; Sim, Taebo; Powers, John; Dierks, Christine; Sun, Fangxian; Guo, Gui-Rong; Ding, Qiang; Okram, Barun; Choi, Yongmun; Wojciechowski, Amy; Deng, Xianming; Liu, Guoxun; Fendrich, Gabriele; Strauss, Andre; Vajpai, Navratna; Grzesiek, Stephan; Tuntland, Tove; Liu, Yi; Bursulaya, Badry; Azam, Mohammad; Manley, Paul W.; Engen, John R.; Daley, George Q.; Warmuth, Markus; Gray, Nathanael S.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY In an effort to find new pharmacological modalities to overcome resistance to ATP-site inhibitors of Bcr-Abl, we recently reported the discovery of GNF-2, a selective allosteric Bcr-Abl inhibitor. Here, using solution NMR, X-ray crystallography, mutagenesis and hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry we demonstrate that GNF-2 binds to the myristate binding site of Abl, leading to changes in the structural dynamics of the ATP-binding site. GNF-5, an analog of GNF-2 having improved pharmacokinetic properties, when utilized in combination with the ATP-competitive inhibitors imatinib or nilotinib, suppressed the emergence of resistance mutations in vitro, displayed additive inhibitory activity in biochemical and cellular assays against T315I Bcr-Abl and displayed in vivo efficacy against the recalcitrant T315I Bcr-Abl mutant in a murine bone-marrow transplantation model. These results demonstrate that therapeutically relevant inhibition of Bcr-Abl activity can be achieved using inhibitors that bind to the myristate binding site and that combining allosteric and ATP-competitive inhibitors can overcome resistance to either agent alone. PMID:20072125

  14. Development and evaluation of a secondary reference panel for BCR-ABL1 quantification on the International Scale

    PubMed Central

    Cross, N C P; White, H E; Ernst, T; Welden, L; Dietz, C; Saglio, G; Mahon, F-X; Wong, C C; Zheng, D; Wong, S; Wang, S-S; Akiki, S; Albano, F; Andrikovics, H; Anwar, J; Balatzenko, G; Bendit, I; Beveridge, J; Boeckx, N; Cerveira, N; Cheng, S-M; Colomer, D; Czurda, S; Daraio, F; Dulucq, S; Eggen, L; El Housni, H; Gerrard, G; Gniot, M; Izzo, B; Jacquin, D; Janssen, J J W M; Jeromin, S; Jurcek, T; Kim, D-W; Machova-Polakova, K; Martinez-Lopez, J; McBean, M; Mesanovic, S; Mitterbauer-Hohendanner, G; Mobtaker, H; Mozziconacci, M-J; Pajič, T; Pallisgaard, N; Panagiotidis, P; Press, R D; Qin, Y-Z; Radich, J; Sacha, T; Touloumenidou, T; Waits, P; Wilkinson, E; Zadro, R; Müller, M C; Hochhaus, A; Branford, S

    2016-01-01

    Molecular monitoring of chronic myeloid leukemia patients using robust BCR-ABL1 tests standardized to the International Scale (IS) is key to proper disease management, especially when treatment cessation is considered. Most laboratories currently use a time-consuming sample exchange process with reference laboratories for IS calibration. A World Health Organization (WHO) BCR-ABL1 reference panel was developed (MR1–MR4), but access to the material is limited. In this study, we describe the development of the first cell-based secondary reference panel that is traceable to and faithfully replicates the WHO panel, with an additional MR4.5 level. The secondary panel was calibrated to IS using digital PCR with ABL1, BCR and GUSB as reference genes and evaluated by 44 laboratories worldwide. Interestingly, we found that >40% of BCR-ABL1 assays showed signs of inadequate optimization such as poor linearity and suboptimal PCR efficiency. Nonetheless, when optimized sample inputs were used, >60% demonstrated satisfactory IS accuracy, precision and/or MR4.5 sensitivity, and 58% obtained IS conversion factors from the secondary reference concordant with their current values. Correlation analysis indicated no significant alterations in %BCR-ABL1 results caused by different assay configurations. More assays achieved good precision and/or sensitivity than IS accuracy, indicating the need for better IS calibration mechanisms. PMID:27109508

  15. The Rac-GAP Bcr is a novel regulator of the Par complex that controls cell polarity

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Anjana S.; Reyes, Steve B.; Um, Kyongmi; McCarty, Joseph H.; Tolias, Kimberley F.

    2013-01-01

    Cell polarization is essential for many biological processes, including directed cell migration, and loss of polarity contributes to pathological conditions such as cancer. The Par complex (Par3, Par6, and PKCζ) controls cell polarity in part by recruiting the Rac-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor T-lymphoma invasion and metastasis 1 (Tiam1) to specialized cellular sites, where Tiam1 promotes local Rac1 activation and cytoskeletal remodeling. However, the mechanisms that restrict Par-Tiam1 complex activity to the leading edge to maintain cell polarity during migration remain unclear. We identify the Rac-specific GTPase-activating protein (GAP) breakpoint cluster region protein (Bcr) as a novel regulator of the Par-Tiam1 complex. We show that Bcr interacts with members of the Par complex and inhibits both Rac1 and PKCζ signaling. Loss of Bcr results in faster, more random migration and striking polarity defects in astrocytes. These polarity defects are rescued by reducing PKCζ activity or by expressing full-length Bcr, but not an N-terminal deletion mutant or the homologous Rac-GAP, Abr, both of which fail to associate with the Par complex. These results demonstrate that Bcr is an integral member of the Par-Tiam1 complex that controls polarized cell migration by locally restricting both Rac1 and PKCζ function. PMID:24152735

  16. Comparison of three sequential extraction procedures (original and modified 3 steps BCR procedure) applied to sediments of different origin.

    PubMed

    Craba, Laura; Brunori, Claudia; Galletti, Mara; Cremisini, Carlo; Morabito, Roberto

    2004-01-01

    The 3 steps sequential extraction procedure proposed by the Standards Measurements and Testing program (SM&T--formerly BCR) of the European Union has been applied for the speciation of metals in sediments. Results obtained by the application of the BCR standardized procedure were compared to those of two four step sequential extraction procedures, which are different from the BCR procedure only for the introduction of an additional step with NaOCl, as 2nd and 3rd step respectively. Five different metals have been taken into consideration: Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. The analytical performances of the laboratory have been evaluated using three certified reference materials: the BCR 601 lake sediment for the BCR sequential extraction procedure, PACS-1 and MESS-1 for total metal concentration. Results showed that the efficiency of NaOCl treatment is higher or at least equal to that of H2O2 treatment and that its selectivity is quite satisfying. Moreover the NaOCl treatment doesn't significantly influence the extraction of the easily reducible fraction.

  17. The BTK Inhibitor Ibrutinib (PCI-32765) Blocks Hairy Cell Leukaemia Survival, Proliferation and BCR Signalling: A New Therapeutic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sivina, Mariela; Kreitman, Robert J.; Arons, Evgeny; Ravandi, Farhad; Burger, Jan A.

    2014-01-01

    B cell receptor (BCR) signalling plays a critical role in the progression of several B-cell malignancies, but its role in hairy cell leukaemia (HCL) is ambiguous. Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK), a key player in BCR signalling, migration and adhesion, can be targeted with ibrutinib, a selective, irreversible BTK inhibitor. We analysed BTK expression and function in HCL and analysed the effects of ibrutinib on HCL cells. We demonstrated uniform BTK protein expression in HCL cells. Ibrutinib significantly inhibited HCL proliferation and cell cycle progression. Accordingly, ibrutinib also reduced HCL cell survival after BCR triggering with anti-immunoglobulins (A, G, and M) and abrogated the activation of kinases downstream of the BCR (PI3K and MAPK). Ibrutinib also inhibited BCR-dependent secretion of the chemokines CCL3 and CCL4 by HCL cells. Interestingly, ibrutinib inhibited CXCL12-induced signalling, a key pathway for bone marrow homing. Collectively, our data support the clinical development of ibrutinib in patients with HCL. PMID:24697238

  18. Characterization of CLL exosomes reveals a distinct microRNA signature and enhanced secretion by activation of BCR signaling

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Yuh-Ying; Ozer, Hatice Gulcin; Lehman, Amy M.; Maddocks, Kami; Yu, Lianbo; Byrd, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple studies show that chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells are heavily dependent on their microenvironment for survival. Communication between CLL cells and the microenvironment is mediated through direct cell contact, soluble factors, and extracellular vesicles. Exosomes are small particles enclosed with lipids, proteins, and small RNAs that can convey biological materials to surrounding cells. Our data herein demonstrate that CLL cells release significant amounts of exosomes in plasma that exhibit abundant CD37, CD9, and CD63 expression. Our work also pinpoints the regulation of B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling in the release of CLL exosomes: BCR activation by α-immunoglobulin (Ig)M induces exosome secretion, whereas BCR inactivation via ibrutinib impedes α-IgM-stimulated exosome release. Moreover, analysis of serial plasma samples collected from CLL patients on an ibrutinib clinical trial revealed that exosome plasma concentration was significantly decreased following ibrutinib therapy. Furthermore, microRNA (miR) profiling of plasma-derived exosomes identified a distinct exosome microRNA signature, including miR-29 family, miR-150, miR-155, and miR-223 that have been associated with CLL disease. Interestingly, expression of exosome miR-150 and miR-155 increases with BCR activation. In all, this study successfully characterized CLL exosomes, demonstrated the control of BCR signaling in the release of CLL exosomes, and uncovered a disease-relevant exosome microRNA profile. PMID:25833959

  19. Flow Cytometric Measurement of Blood Cells with BCR-ABL1 Fusion Protein in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Löf, Liza; Arngården, Linda; Olsson-Strömberg, Ulla; Siart, Benjamin; Jansson, Mattias; Dahlin, Joakim S; Thörn, Ingrid; Christiansson, Lisa; Hermansson, Monica; Larsson, Anders; Ahlstrand, Erik; Wålinder, Göran; Söderberg, Ola; Rosenquist, Richard; Landegren, Ulf; Kamali-Moghaddam, Masood

    2017-04-04

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is characterized in the majority of cases by a t(9;22)(q34;q11) translocation, also called the Philadelphia chromosome, giving rise to the BCR-ABL1 fusion protein. Current treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors is directed against the constitutively active ABL1 domain of the fusion protein, and minimal residual disease (MRD) after therapy is monitored by real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR) of the fusion transcript. Here, we describe a novel approach to detect and enumerate cells positive for the BCR-ABL1 fusion protein by combining the in situ proximity ligation assay with flow cytometry as readout (PLA-flow). By targeting of the BCR and ABL1 parts of the fusion protein with one antibody each, and creating strong fluorescent signals through rolling circle amplification, PLA-flow allowed sensitive detection of cells positive for the BCR-ABL1 fusion at frequencies as low as one in 10,000. Importantly, the flow cytometric results correlated strongly to those of RQ-PCR, both in diagnostic testing and for MRD measurements over time. In summary, we believe this flow cytometry-based method can serve as an attractive approach for routine measurement of cells harboring BCR-ABL1 fusions, also allowing simultaneously assessment of other cell surface markers as well as sensitive longitudinal follow-up.

  20. Characterization of CLL exosomes reveals a distinct microRNA signature and enhanced secretion by activation of BCR signaling.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Yuh-Ying; Ozer, Hatice Gulcin; Lehman, Amy M; Maddocks, Kami; Yu, Lianbo; Johnson, Amy J; Byrd, John C

    2015-05-21

    Multiple studies show that chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells are heavily dependent on their microenvironment for survival. Communication between CLL cells and the microenvironment is mediated through direct cell contact, soluble factors, and extracellular vesicles. Exosomes are small particles enclosed with lipids, proteins, and small RNAs that can convey biological materials to surrounding cells. Our data herein demonstrate that CLL cells release significant amounts of exosomes in plasma that exhibit abundant CD37, CD9, and CD63 expression. Our work also pinpoints the regulation of B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling in the release of CLL exosomes: BCR activation by α-immunoglobulin (Ig)M induces exosome secretion, whereas BCR inactivation via ibrutinib impedes α-IgM-stimulated exosome release. Moreover, analysis of serial plasma samples collected from CLL patients on an ibrutinib clinical trial revealed that exosome plasma concentration was significantly decreased following ibrutinib therapy. Furthermore, microRNA (miR) profiling of plasma-derived exosomes identified a distinct exosome microRNA signature, including miR-29 family, miR-150, miR-155, and miR-223 that have been associated with CLL disease. Interestingly, expression of exosome miR-150 and miR-155 increases with BCR activation. In all, this study successfully characterized CLL exosomes, demonstrated the control of BCR signaling in the release of CLL exosomes, and uncovered a disease-relevant exosome microRNA profile.

  1. The impact of multiple low-level BCR-ABL1 mutations on response to ponatinib

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, David T. O.; Yeoman, Alexandra L.; Altamura, Haley K.; Jamison, Bronte A.; Field, Chani R.; Hodgson, J. Graeme; Lustgarten, Stephanie; Rivera, Victor M.; Hughes, Timothy P.; Branford, Susan

    2016-01-01

    The third-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) ponatinib shows activity against all common BCR-ABL1 single mutants, including the highly resistant BCR-ABL1-T315I mutant, improving outcome for patients with refractory chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). However, responses are variable, and causal baseline factors have not been well-studied. The type and number of low-level BCR-ABL1 mutations present after imatinib resistance has prognostic significance for subsequent treatment with nilotinib or dasatinib as second-line therapy. We therefore investigated the impact of low-level mutations detected by sensitive mass-spectrometry before ponatinib initiation (baseline) on treatment response in 363 TKI-resistant patients enrolled in the PONATINIB for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Evaluation and Ph+ Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia trial, including 231 patients in chronic phase (CP-CML). Low-level mutations were detected in 53 patients (15%, including low-level T315I in 14 patients); most, however, did not undergo clonal expansion during ponatinib treatment and, moreover, no specific individual mutations were associated with inferior outcome. We demonstrate however, that the number of mutations detectable by mass spectrometry after TKI resistance is associated with response to ponatinib treatment and could be used to refine the therapeutic approach. Although CP-CML patients with T315I (63/231, 27%) had superior responses overall, those with multiple mutations detectable by mass spectrometry (20, 32%) had substantially inferior responses compared with those with T315I as the sole mutation detected (43, 68%). In contrast, for CP-CML patients without T315I, the inferior responses previously observed with nilotinib/dasatinib therapy for imatinib-resistant patients with multiple mutations were not seen with ponatinib treatment, suggesting that ponatinib may prove to be particularly advantageous for patients with multiple mutations detectable by mass spectrometry after TKI resistance

  2. The effect of the additional cytogenetic abnormalities on major molecular response and BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations in long-term follow-up chronic myeloid leukemia patients, a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Savasoglu, Kaan; Payzin, Kadriye Bahriye; Ozdemirkiran, Fusun; Subasioglu, Asli; Yilmaz, Asu Fergun

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relation between additional chromosomal aberrations (ACAs) with major molecular response (MMR) and BCR-ABL kinase domain (KD) mutations in the long-term follow-up of the chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) disease. The study design was cross-sectional observational and used the CML patients' data of Izmir Ataturk Education and Research Hospital from 2011 to 2015. Conventional cytogenetic, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR) test results from 89 CML patients' and pyrosequencing analysis results from 17 patients' were set up for comparison analysis. The chi-square test was used in statistical analysis of the experimental data. There were no statistically significant correlations between ACAs and MMR (p = .361, p > .05) groups or BCR-ABL KD mutations (p = .576, p > .05) groups observed in the study. This study has revealed that MMR and BCR-ABL KD mutations did not correlate with ACAs.

  3. Evaluating CO2 mineralization capacity of sedimentary rock Using BCR sequential extraction procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Gang-Ting; Yu, Chi-Wen; Yang, Hsiao-Ming; Chiao, Chung-Hui; Yang, Ming-Wei

    2015-04-01

    To relief the high concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, carbon capture and storage (CCS) is gradually becoming an important concept to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In IPCC Special Report on CCS, the storage mechanisms for geological formations are categorized into structural/stratigraphic, hydrodynamic and geochemical trappings. Geochemical trapping is considered as a storage mechanism, which can further increase storage capacity, effectiveness and security in terms of permanent CO2 sequestration. The injected CO2 can have geochemical interactions with pore fluid and reservoir rocks and transform into minerals. It is important to evaluate the capacity of reservoir rock for sequestrating CO2. In this study, sedimentary rock samples were collected from a 2-km-deep well in Midwestern Taiwan; and, the BCR sequential extraction experiments developed by European Union Measurement and Testing Programme were conducted. BCR was designed for extracting three major phases from soil, including exchangeable phase and carbonates (the first stage), reducible phase (the second stage) and oxidizable phase (the third stage). The chemistry of extracted solutions and rock residues were measured with ICP-MS and XRF, respectively. According to the results of XRF, considerable amounts of calcium and iron can be extracted by BCR procedures but other cations are negligible. In general, shale has a higher capacity of CO2 sequestration than sandstone. The first stage of extraction can release about 6 (sandstone) to 18.5 (shale) g of calcium from 1 kg rock, which are equivalent to 6.6 and 20.4 g CO2/kg rock, respectively. In the second stage extraction, 0.71 (sandstone) to 1.38 (shale) g/kg rock of iron can be released and can mineralized 0.56 to 1.08 g CO2/kg rock. However, there are no considerable cations extracted in the third stage of BCR as shown by the XRF analysis. In addition, the results of ICP-MS show that Mg can be released in the order of 10-3 g from 1 kg rock

  4. Loci Related to Metabolic-Syndrome Pathways Including LEPR,HNF1A, IL6R, and GCKR Associate with Plasma C-Reactive Protein: The Women's Genome Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Ridker, Paul M.; Pare, Guillaume; Parker, Alex; Zee, Robert Y.L.; Danik, Jacqueline S.; Buring, Julie E.; Kwiatkowski, David; Cook, Nancy R.; Miletich, Joseph P.; Chasman, Daniel I.

    2008-01-01

    Although elevated levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) independently predict increased risk of development of metabolic syndrome, diabetes, myocardial infarction, and stroke, comprehensive analysis of the influence of genetic variation on CRP is not available. To address this issue, we performed a genome-wide association study among 6345 apparently healthy women in which we evaluated 336,108 SNPs as potential determinants of plasma CRP concentration. Overall, seven loci that associate with plasma CRP at levels achieving genome-wide statistical significance were found (range of p values for lead SNPs within the seven loci: 1.9 × 10−8 to 6.2 × 10−28). Two of these loci (GCKR and HNF1A) are suspected or known to be associated with maturity-onset diabetes of the young, one is a gene-desert region on 12q23.2, and the remaining four loci are in or near the leptin receptor protein gene, the apolipoprotein E gene, the interleukin-6 receptor protein gene, or the CRP gene itself. The protein products of six of these seven loci are directly involved in metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, beta cell function, weight homeostasis, and/or premature atherothrombosis. Thus, common variation in several genes involved in metabolic and inflammatory regulation have significant effects on CRP levels, consistent with CRP's identification as a useful biomarker of risk for incident vascular disease and diabetes. PMID:18439548

  5. Concomitant high expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) and B-cell receptor (BCR) signalling molecules has clinical implications in mantle cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Akhter, Ariz; Street, Lesley; Ghosh, Sunita; Burns, Bruce F; Elyamany, Ghaleb; Shabani-Rad, Meer-Taher; Stewart, Douglas A; Mansoor, Adnan

    2017-03-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive disease with frequent relapse. Targeted therapies against B-cell receptor (BCR) molecules have demonstrated improved outcomes in relapsed cases. However, clinical responses are slow and selective, with failure to attain complete remission in a significant subset of patients. Complex interaction of BCR signal transduction with toll-like receptor (TLR) and other pathways in MCL remains unknown, thus averting progress in development of targeted therapies. We have performed detailed digital quantification of BCR/TLR signalling molecules and their effector pathways in a cohort (n = 81) of MCL patients and correlated these data with overall survival. Hierarchical clustering model based on BCR/TLR genes revealed two distinct (BCR(high) and BCR(low) ) subsets of patients (n = 32; 40%) with significant differences in expression (>1.5-fold change; p < 0.05). Higher levels of BTK/SYK/BLNK/CARD11/PLCG signalosome and lower expression of MALT1/BCL10 genes suggested tonic pattern of BCR activation. Amplified expression of TLR6/TLR7/TLR9 was noted in concert with hyper-responsiveness of BCR machinery. MYD88, a key TLR adaptor molecule, was not upregulated in any of these clusters, which may suggest a 'cross-talk' between BCR and TLR pathways. In sync with BCR/TLR signalling, we recorded significantly enhanced expression of genes associated with NF-kB pathway in BCR(high) subset of MCL patients. On univariate analysis, the BCR(high) patients showed a trend towards inferior clinical response to a standardized treatment protocol, compared with the BCR(low) group (log rank, p = 0.043). In conclusion, we have identified hyperactive BCR/TLR signalling pathways and their effector downstream targets in a subset of MCL patients and associated it with poor clinical outcomes. Our study provides quantitative evidence at RNA expression level of possible concomitant collaboration between TLR and BCR signalling molecules in MCL. These

  6. The targetable role of herpes virus-associated ubiquitin-specific protease (HAUSP) in p190 BCR-ABL leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Carrà, Giovanna; Panuzzo, Cristina; Crivellaro, Sabrina; Morena, Deborah; Taulli, Riccardo; Guerrasio, Angelo; Saglio, Giuseppe; Morotti, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is driven by the p190 breakpoint cluster region (BCR)-ABL isoform. Although effectively targeted by BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), ALL is associated with a less effective response to TKIs compared with chronic myeloid leukemia. Therefore, the identification of additional genes required for ALL maintenance may provide possible therapeutic targets to aid the eradication of this cancer. The present study demonstrated that p190 BCR-ABL is able to interact with the deubiquitinase herpesvirus-associated ubiquitin-specific protease (HAUSP), which in turn affects p53 protein stability. Notably, the inhibition of HAUSP with small molecule inhibitors promoted the upregulation of p53 protein levels. These results suggest that HAUSP inhibitors may harbor clinically relevant implications in the treatment of Ph+ ALL. PMID:27899971

  7. Recent developments in the third generation inhibitors of Bcr-Abl for overriding T315I mutation.

    PubMed

    Lu, X Y; Cai, Q; Ding, K

    2011-01-01

    In the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) with Bcr-Abl kinase inhibitors, the T315I gatekeeper mutant has emerged as resistant to all currently approved agents, such as imatinib, nilotinib and dasatinib, by discrupting important contact interactions between the inhibitors and the enzyme. To overcome this particular resistance, several different strategies have been explored and many molecules have been investigated as capable of potently inhibiting Bcr-Abl T315I. Herein, this review reports on some predominant examples of third generation inhibitors of Bcr-Abl active against the T315I mutation, and special attentions are paid to the "hybrid-design" strategy for creating type-II class ATP-competitive inhibitors.

  8. BCR-ABL mutations in chronic myeloid leukemia treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors and impact on survival.

    PubMed

    Pagnano, Katia Borgia Barbosa; Bendit, Israel; Boquimpani, Carla; De Souza, Carmino Antonio; Miranda, Eliana C M; Zalcberg, Ilana; Larripa, Irene; Nardinelli, Luciana; Silveira, Rosana Antunes; Fogliatto, Laura; Spector, Nelson; Funke, Vaneuza; Pasquini, Ricardo; Hungria, Vania; Chiattone, Carlos Sérgio; Clementino, Nelma; Conchon, Monika; Moiraghi, Elena Beatriz; Lopez, Jose Luis; Pavlovsky, Carolina; Pavlovsky, Miguel A; Cervera, Eduardo E; Meillon, Luis Antonio; Simões, Belinda; Hamerschlak, Nelson; Bozzano, Alicia Helena Magarinos; Mayta, Ernesto; Cortes, Jorge; Bengió, Raquel M

    2015-01-01

    This is the largest Latin American study of BCR-ABL mutations in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients, resistant to imatinib (IM). In 195/467 (41%) patients, mutations were detected. The most frequent mutation was T315I (n = 31, 16%). Progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) at 5 years were lower in patients with BCR-ABL mutations (43% vs. 65%, p = 0.07 and 47% vs. 72%, p = 0.03, respectively) and in those with the T315I mutation (p = 0.003 and p = 0.03). OS and PFS were superior in subgroup who switched to second generation inhibitors (SGIs) after IM failure (OS: 50% vs. 39% p = 0.01; PFS: 48% vs. 30% p = 0.02). BCR-ABL mutations conferred a significant poor prognosis in CML patients.

  9. BCR and chemokine responses upon anti-IgM and anti-IgD stimulation in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Haerzschel, Andrea; Catusse, Julie; Hutterer, Evelyn; Paunovic, Manuela; Zirlik, Katja; Eibel, Hermann; Krenn, Peter W; Hartmann, Tanja N; Burger, Meike

    2016-12-01

    Dysregulation of B cell receptor (BCR) signalling is a hallmark of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) pathology, and targeting BCR pathway kinases has brought great therapeutic advances. Activation of the BCR in lymphoid organs has been associated with CLL cell proliferation and survival, leading to progressive disease. While these responses are mediated predominantly by IgM, the role of IgD is less clear. Seeking to uncover downstream consequences of individual and combined stimulation of the two BCR isotypes, we found an amplification of IgD expression and IgD-mediated calcium signalling by previous stimulation of IgM in CLL. Furthermore, no heterologous downmodulation of the isotypes, as observed in healthy donors, was present. Only marginal downregulation of the expression of various chemokine receptors by α-IgM and α-IgD stimulation was found as compared to normal B cells. Consistently, calcium responses of CLL cells to different chemokines were only weakly affected by preceding BCR activation. In contrast, migration towards the two homeostatic chemokines CXCL12 and CCL21 was differentially regulated by IgM and IgD. While IgM activation reduced migration of CLL cells towards CXCL12, but not CCL21, IgD activation predominantly impacted on CCL21 but not CXCL12-mediated chemotaxis. This indicates that the preference for one chemokine over the other may depend on the functional presence of the two isotypes in CLL. Inhibitors against the kinases Syk, Lyn, and Btk antagonised both BCR- and chemokine-induced calcium signals.

  10. BCR/ABL can promote CD19+ cell growth but not render them long-term stemness

    PubMed Central

    Li, Donghe; Zhao, Xuemei; Zhang, Ruihong; Jiao, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer stem cells are a subpopulation of malignant cells that have the capacity of both self-renewal and reconstitution of the cancer. Eradication of cancer stem cells is crucial for curing the malignant disease. Previous studies in hematopoietic malignancies showed that leukemia stem cells (LSCs) in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) chronic phase are originated from a hematopoietic stem cell (HSC), while LSCs in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) can either be derived from HSCs or be transformed from myeloid progenitors. But in B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), the origin of leukemia stem cells is not clear. In this study, we tested whether BCR/ABL could transform B-lineage committed CD19+ cells to LSCs. Methods The B-cell lymphoblastic leukemia mouse model was generated by transplanting BCR/ABL-containing retrovirus infected bone marrow (BM) cells or CD19+ cells into recipient mice. In the secondary or tertiary transplantation experiment, the GFP+ cells (leukemic cells) were isolated from primary or secondary B-ALL mice. In addition, the frequency of leukemia stem cells was determined by limited dilution assay. Results We found that transducing BCR/ABL in CD19+ cells can promote their colony formation in vitro and induce B-ALL like disease in vivo. However, only BCR/ABL transduced whole BM cells can be transplanted multiple times in recipient mice, and the frequency of long-term LSCs from the latter ranges from 1/135 to 1/629. Conclusions These studies suggest that BCR/ABL is unable to confer the long-term stemness to committed B-lymphoid progenitors and imply that CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) modified T cell therapy may not be effective in eradicating LSCs in BCR/ABL+ B-ALL. PMID:28066787

  11. Sequence and analysis of the human ABL gene, the BCR gene, and regions involved in the Philadelphia chromosomal translocation

    SciTech Connect

    Burian, D.; Clifton, S.W.; Crabtree, J.

    1995-05-01

    The complete human BCR gene (152j-141 nt) on chromosome 22 and greater than 80% of the human ABL gene (179-512 nt) on chromosome 9 have been sequenced from mapped cosmid and plasmid clones via a shotgun strategy. Because these two chromosomes are translocated with breakpoints within the BCR and ABL genes in Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemias, knowledge of these sequences also might provide insight into the validity of various theories of chromosomal rearrangements. Comparison of these genes with their cDNA sequences reveal the positions of 23 BCR exons and putative alternative BCR first and second exons, as well as the common ABL exons 2-11, respectively. Additionally, these regions include the alternative ABL first exons 1b and 1a, a new gene 5` to the first ABL exon, and an open reading frame with homology to an EST within the BCR fourth intron. Further analysis reveals an Alu homology of 38.83 and 39.35% for the BCR and ABL genes, respectively, with other repeat elements present to a lesser extent. Four new Philadelphia chromosome translocation breakpoints from chronic myelogenous leukemia patients also were sequenced, and the positions of these and several other previously sequenced breakpoints now have been mapped precisely, although no consistent breakpoint features immediately were apparent. Comparative analysis of genomic sequences encompassing the murine homologues to the human ABL exons 1b and 1a, as well as regions encompassing the ABL exons 2 and 3, reveals that although there is a high degree of homology in their corresponding exons and promoter regions, these two vertebrate species show a striking lack of homology outside these regions. 122 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Inverse regulation of bridging integrator 1 and BCR-ABL1 in chronic myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Trino, Stefania; De Luca, Luciana; Simeon, Vittorio; Laurenzana, Ilaria; Morano, Annalisa; Caivano, Antonella; La Rocca, Francesco; Pietrantuono, Giuseppe; Bianchino, Gabriella; Grieco, Vitina; Signorino, Elisabetta; Fragasso, Alberto; Bochicchio, Maria Teresa; Venturi, Claudia; Rosti, Gianantonio; Martinelli, Giovanni; Del Vecchio, Luigi; Cilloni, Daniela; Musto, Pellegrino

    2016-01-01

    Endocytosis is the major regulator process of tyrosine kinase receptor (RTK) functional activities. Bridging integrator 1 (BIN1) is a key protein involved in RTK intracellular trafficking. Here, we report, by studying 34 patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) at diagnosis, that BIN1 gene is downregulated in CML as compared to healthy controls, suggesting an altered endocytosis of RTKs. Rab interactor 1 (RIN1), an activator of BIN1, displayed a similar behavior. Treatment of 57 patients by tyrosine kinase inhibitors caused, along with BCR-ABL1 inactivation, an increase of BIN1 and RIN1 expression, potentially restoring endocytosis. There was a significant inverse correlation between BIN1-RIN1 and BCR-ABL1 expression. In vitro experiments on both CML and nontumorigenic cell lines treated with Imatinib confirmed these results. In order to provide another proof in favor of BIN1 and RIN1 endocytosis function in CML, we demonstrated that Imatinib induced, in K562 cell line, BIN1-RIN1 upregulation accompanied by a parallel AXL receptor internalization into cytoplasmic compartment. This study shows a novel deregulated mechanism in CML patients, indicating BIN1 and RIN1 as players in the maintenance of the abnormal RTK signaling in this hematological disease.

  13. A Cell-Based Assay for Measuring Endogenous BcrAbl Kinase Activity and Inhibitor Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Ouellette, Steven B.; Noel, Brett M.; Parker, Laurie L.

    2016-01-01

    Kinase enzymes are an important class of drug targets, particularly in cancer. Cell-based kinase assays are needed to understand how potential kinase inhibitors act on their targets in a physiologically relevant context. Current cell-based kinase assays rely on antibody-based detection of endogenous substrates, inaccurate disease models, or indirect measurements of drug action. Here we expand on previous work from our lab to introduce a 96-well plate compatible approach for measuring cell-based kinase activity in disease-relevant human chronic myeloid leukemia cell lines using an exogenously added, multi-functional peptide substrate. Our cellular models natively express the BcrAbl oncogene and are either sensitive or have acquired resistance to well-characterized BcrAbl tyrosine kinase inhibitors. This approach measures IC50 values comparable to established methods of assessing drug potency, and its robustness indicates that it can be employed in drug discovery applications. This medium-throughput assay could bridge the gap between single target focused, high-throughput in vitro assays and lower-throughput cell-based follow-up experiments. PMID:27598410

  14. BCR and Endosomal TLR Signals Synergize to Increase AID Expression and Establish Central B Cell Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Kuraoka, Masayuki; Snowden, Pilar B; Nojima, Takuya; Verkoczy, Laurent; Haynes, Barton F; Kitamura, Daisuke; Kelsoe, Garnett

    2017-02-14

    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is required to purge autoreactive immature and transitional-1 (immature/T1) B cells at the first tolerance checkpoint, but how AID selectively removes self-reactive B cells is unclear. We now show that B cell antigen receptor (BCR) and endosomal Toll-like receptor (TLR) signals synergize to elicit high levels of AID expression in immature/T1 B cells. This synergy is restricted to ligands for endocytic TLR and requires phospholipase-D activation, endosomal acidification, and MyD88. The first checkpoint is significantly impaired in AID- or MyD88-deficient mice and in mice doubly heterozygous for AID and MyD88, suggesting interaction of these factors in central B cell tolerance. Moreover, administration of chloroquine, an inhibitor of endosomal acidification, results in a failure to remove autoreactive immature/T1 B cells in mice. We propose that a BCR/TLR pathway coordinately establishes central tolerance by hyper-activating AID in immature/T1 B cells that bind ligands for endosomal TLRs.

  15. Improved FRET Biosensor for the Measurement of BCR-ABL Activity in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Cells.

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, Mika; Fujioka, Mari; Kondo, Takeshi; Fujioka, Yoichiro; Li, Xinxin; Horiuchi, Kosui; O Satoh, Aya; Nepal, Prabha; Nishide, Shinya; Nanbo, Asuka; Teshima, Takanori; Ohba, Yusuke

    2017-02-02

    Although the co-development of companion diagnostics with molecular targeted drugs is desirable, truly efficient diagnostics are limited to diseases in which chromosomal translocations or overt mutations are clearly correlated with drug efficacy. Moreover, even for such diseases, few methods are available to predict whether drug administration is effective for each individual patient whose disease is expected to respond to the drug(s). We have previously developed a biosensor based on the principle of Förster resonance energy transfer to measure the activity of the tyrosine kinase BCR-ABL and its response to drug treatment in patient-derived chronic myeloid leukemia cells. The biosensor harbors CrkL, one of the major substrates of BCR-ABL, and is therefore named Pickles after phosphorylation indicator of CrkL en substrate. The efficacy of this technique as a clinical test has been demonstrated, but the number of cells available for analysis is limited in a case-dependent manner, owing to the cleavage of the biosensor in patient-derived leukemia cells. Here, we describe an improved biosensor with an amino acid substitution and a nuclear export signal being introduced. Of the two predicted cleavage positions in CrkL, the mutations inhibited one cleavage completely and the other cleavage partially, thus collectively increasing the number of cells available for drug evaluation. This improved version of the biosensor holds promise in the future development of companion diagnostics to predict responses to tyrosine kinase inhibitors in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia.

  16. Evaluation of a new flow cytometry based method for detection of BCR-ABL1 fusion protein in chronic myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Swati; Ray, Ujjal K; Mitra, Arpita Ghosh; Bhattacharyya, Deboshree M; Mukhopadhyay, Ashis; Das, Priyabrata; Gangopadhyay, Sudeshna; Roy, Sudip; Mukhopadhyay, Soma

    2017-06-01

    Philadelphia chromosome, a hallmark of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), plays a key role in disease pathogenesis. It reflects a balanced reciprocal translocation between long arms of chromosomes 9 and 22 involving BCR and ABL1 genes, respectively. An accurate and reliable detection of BCR-ABL fusion gene is necessary for the diagnosis and monitoring of CML. Previously, many technologies, most of which are laborious and time consuming, have been developed to detect BCR-ABL chimeric gene or chromosome. A new flow cytometric immunobead assay was used for detection of BCR-ABL fusion proteins and applicability, sensitivity, reliability, efficacy and rapidity of this method was evaluated. From February 2009 to January 2014, a total 648 CML patients were investigated for the status of BCR-ABL1 protein. Among them, 83 patients were enrolled for comparative study of BCR-ABL1 positivity by three routinely used procedures like karyotyping, and quantitative real time PCR (RT-PCR) as well as immunobead flow cytometry assay. BCR-ABL protein analysis was found consistent, more sensitive (17% greater sensitivity) and reliable than the conventional cytogenetics, as flow cytometry showed 95% concordance rate to RT-PCR. BCR-ABL fusion protein assay using a new flow cytometric immunobead might be useful in the diagnosis and monitoring CML patients.

  17. Unexpected heterogeneity of BCR-ABL fusion mRNA detected by polymerase chain reaction in Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Hooberman, A.L.; Carrino, J.J.; Leibowitz, D.; Rowley, J.D.; Le Beau, M.M.; Arlin, Z.A.; Westbrook, C.A. )

    1989-06-01

    The Philadelphia (Ph{sup 1}) chromosome results in a fusion of portions of the BCR gene from chromosome 22 and the ABL gene from chromosome 9, producing a chimeric BCR-ABL mRNA and protein. In lymphoblastic leukemias, there are two molecular subtypes of the Ph{sup 1} chromosome, one with a rearrangement of the breakpoint cluster region (bcr) of the BCR gene, producing the same 8.5-kilobase BCR-ABL fusion mRNA seen in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), and the other, without a bcr rearrangement, producing a 7.0-kilobase BCR-ABL fusion mRNA that is seen only in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The authors studied the molecular subtype of the Ph{sup 1} chromosome in 11 cases of Ph{sup 1}-positive ALL, including 2 with a previous diagnosis of CML, using a sensitive method to analyze the mRNA species based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). They observed unexpected heterogeneity in BCR-ABL mRNA in this population. They conclude that the PCR gives additional information about the Ph{sup 1} chromosome gene products that cannot be obtained by genomic analysis, but that it cannot be used as the sole means of detection of this chromosomal abnormality in ALL because of the high incidence of false negative results.

  18. Estimating rice yield related traits and quantitative trait loci analysis under different nitrogen treatments using a simple tower-based field phenotyping system with modified single-lens reflex cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naito, Hiroki; Ogawa, Satoshi; Valencia, Milton Orlando; Mohri, Hiroki; Urano, Yutaka; Hosoi, Fumiki; Shimizu, Yo; Chavez, Alba Lucia; Ishitani, Manabu; Selvaraj, Michael Gomez; Omasa, Kenji

    2017-03-01

    Application of field based high-throughput phenotyping (FB-HTP) methods for monitoring plant performance in real field conditions has a high potential to accelerate the breeding process. In this paper, we discuss the use of a simple tower based remote sensing platform using modified single-lens reflex cameras for phenotyping yield traits in rice under different nitrogen (N) treatments over three years. This tower based phenotyping platform has the advantages of simplicity, ease and stability in terms of introduction, maintenance and continual operation under field conditions. Out of six phenological stages of rice analyzed, the flowering stage was the most useful in the estimation of yield performance under field conditions. We found a high correlation between several vegetation indices (simple ratio (SR), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), transformed vegetation index (TVI), corrected transformed vegetation index (CTVI), soil-adjusted vegetation index (SAVI) and modified soil-adjusted vegetation index (MSAVI)) and multiple yield traits (panicle number, grain weight and shoot biomass) across a three trials. Among all of the indices studied, SR exhibited the best performance in regards to the estimation of grain weight (R2 = 0.80). Under our tower-based field phenotyping system (TBFPS), we identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) for yield related traits using a mapping population of chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) and a single nucleotide polymorphism data set. Our findings suggest the TBFPS can be useful for the estimation of yield performance during early crop development. This can be a major opportunity for rice breeders whom desire high throughput phenotypic selection for yield performance traits.

  19. Cross-Species Amplification and Polymorphism of Microsatellite Loci in the Soybean Aphid, Aphis glycines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We tested the utility of 18 previously characterized Aphis spp. microsatellite loci for polymorphism and differentiation among populations of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines. Loci were chosen from a closely related species (Aphis gossypii) and a more distantly related species (Aphis fabae). We f...

  20. Development of BCR-ABL degradation inducers via the conjugation of an imatinib derivative and a cIAP1 ligand.

    PubMed

    Demizu, Yosuke; Shibata, Norihito; Hattori, Takayuki; Ohoka, Nobumichi; Motoi, Hiromi; Misawa, Takashi; Shoda, Takuji; Naito, Mikihiko; Kurihara, Masaaki

    2016-10-15

    The manipulation of protein stability with small molecules has great potential as a technique for aiding the development of clinical therapies, including treatments for cancer. In this study, BCR-ABL protein degradation inducers called SNIPER(ABL) (Specific and Non-genetic inhibitors of apoptosis protein [IAP]-dependent Protein Erasers) were developed. The designed molecules contained two biologically active scaffolds: one was an imatinib derivative that binds to BCL-ABL and the other was a methyl bestatin that binds to cellular IAP 1 (cIAP1). The hybrid molecules, SNIPER(ABL), were expected to recruit BCR-ABL to cIAP1 for removal by proteasomes. In fact, SNIPER(ABL) induced the degradation of BCR-ABL protein and a subsequent reduction in cell growth. Thus, the degradation of BCR-ABL by SNIPER(ABL) is one potential strategy for treating BCR-ABL driven chronic myelogenous leukemia.

  1. BCR-ABL1 compound mutations combining key kinase domain positions confer clinical resistance to ponatinib in Ph chromosome-positive leukemia.

    PubMed

    Zabriskie, Matthew S; Eide, Christopher A; Tantravahi, Srinivas K; Vellore, Nadeem A; Estrada, Johanna; Nicolini, Franck E; Khoury, Hanna J; Larson, Richard A; Konopleva, Marina; Cortes, Jorge E; Kantarjian, Hagop; Jabbour, Elias J; Kornblau, Steven M; Lipton, Jeffrey H; Rea, Delphine; Stenke, Leif; Barbany, Gisela; Lange, Thoralf; Hernández-Boluda, Juan-Carlos; Ossenkoppele, Gert J; Press, Richard D; Chuah, Charles; Goldberg, Stuart L; Wetzler, Meir; Mahon, Francois-Xavier; Etienne, Gabriel; Baccarani, Michele; Soverini, Simona; Rosti, Gianantonio; Rousselot, Philippe; Friedman, Ran; Deininger, Marie; Reynolds, Kimberly R; Heaton, William L; Eiring, Anna M; Pomicter, Anthony D; Khorashad, Jamshid S; Kelley, Todd W; Baron, Riccardo; Druker, Brian J; Deininger, Michael W; O'Hare, Thomas

    2014-09-08

    Ponatinib is the only currently approved tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) that suppresses all BCR-ABL1 single mutants in Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph(+)) leukemia, including the recalcitrant BCR-ABL1(T315I) mutant. However, emergence of compound mutations in a BCR-ABL1 allele may confer ponatinib resistance. We found that clinically reported BCR-ABL1 compound mutants center on 12 key positions and confer varying resistance to imatinib, nilotinib, dasatinib, ponatinib, rebastinib, and bosutinib. T315I-inclusive compound mutants confer high-level resistance to TKIs, including ponatinib. In vitro resistance profiling was predictive of treatment outcomes in Ph(+) leukemia patients. Structural explanations for compound mutation-based resistance were obtained through molecular dynamics simulations. Our findings demonstrate that BCR-ABL1 compound mutants confer different levels of TKI resistance, necessitating rational treatment selection to optimize clinical outcome.

  2. Angles of multivariable root loci

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, P. M.; Stein, G.; Laub, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    A generalized eigenvalue problem is demonstrated to be useful for computing the multivariable root locus, particularly when obtaining the arrival angles to finite transmission zeros. The multivariable root loci are found for a linear, time-invariant output feedback problem. The problem is then employed to compute a closed-loop eigenstructure. The method of computing angles on the root locus is demonstrated, and the method is extended to a multivariable optimal root locus.

  3. Mapping quantitative trait loci for expression abundance.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhenyu; Xu, Shizhong

    2007-05-01

    Mendelian loci that control the expression levels of transcripts are called expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL). When mapping eQTL, we often deal with thousands of expression traits simultaneously, which complicates the statistical model and data analysis. Two simple approaches may be taken in eQTL analysis: (1) individual transcript analysis in which a single expression trait is mapped at a time and the entire eQTL mapping involves separate analysis of thousands of traits and (2) individual marker analysis where differentially expressed transcripts are detected on the basis of their association with the segregation pattern of an individual marker and the entire analysis requires scanning markers of the entire genome. Neither approach is optimal because data are not analyzed jointly. We develop a Bayesian clustering method that analyzes all expressed transcripts and markers jointly in a single model. A transcript may be simultaneously associated with multiple markers. Additionally, a marker may simultaneously alter the expression of multiple transcripts. This is a model-based method that combines a Gaussian mixture of expression data with segregation of multiple linked marker loci. Parameter estimation for each variable is obtained via the posterior mean drawn from a Markov chain Monte Carlo sample. The method allows a regular quantitative trait to be included as an expression trait and subject to the same clustering assignment. If an expression trait links to a locus where a quantitative trait also links, the expressed transcript is considered to be associated with the quantitative trait. The method is applied to a microarray experiment with 60 F(2) mice measured for 25 different obesity-related quantitative traits. In the experiment, approximately 40,000 transcripts and 145 codominant markers are investigated for their associations. A program written in SAS/IML is available from the authors on request.

  4. Quantitative Trait Loci for Murine Growth

    PubMed Central

    Cheverud, J. M.; Routman, E. J.; Duarte, FAM.; van-Swinderen, B.; Cothran, K.; Perel, C.

    1996-01-01

    Body size is an archetypal quantitative trait with variation due to the segregation of many gene loci, each of relatively minor effect, and the environment. We examine the effects of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on age-specific body weights and growth in the F(2) intercross of the LG/J and SM/J strains of inbred mice. Weekly weights (1-10 wk) and 75 microsatellite genotypes were obtained for 535 mice. Interval mapping was used to locate and measure the genotypic effects of QTLs on body weight and growth. QTL effects were detected on 16 of the 19 autosomes with several chromosomes carrying more than one QTL. The number of QTLs for age-specific weights varied from seven at 1 week to 17 at 10 wk. The QTLs were each of relatively minor, subequal effect. QTLs affecting early and late growth were generally distinct, mapping to different chromosomal locations indicating separate genetic and physiological systems for early and later murine growth. PMID:8846907

  5. Inhibition of BCR signaling using the Syk inhibitor TAK-659 prevents stroma-mediated signaling in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Abrisqueta, Pau; Egia, Leire; Aguiló, Meritxell; Carpio, Cecilia; Palacio, Carles

    2017-01-01

    Proliferation and survival of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells depend on microenvironmental signals coming from lymphoid organs. One of the key players involved in the crosstalk between CLL cells and the microenvironment is the B-cell receptor (BCR). Syk protein, a tyrosine kinase essential for BCR signaling, is therefore a rational candidate for targeted therapy in CLL. Against this background, we tested the efficacy of the highly specific Syk inhibitor TAK-659 in suppressing the favorable signaling derived from the microenvironment. To ex vivo mimic the microenvironment found in the proliferation centers, we co-cultured primary CLL cells with BM stromal cells (BMSC), CD40L and CpG ODN along with BCR stimulation. In this setting, TAK-659 inhibited the microenvironment-induced activation of Syk and downstream signaling molecules, without inhibiting the protein homologue ZAP-70 in T cells. Importantly, the pro-survival, proliferative, chemoresistant and activation effects promoted by the microenvironment were abrogated by TAK-659, which furthermore blocked CLL cell migration toward BMSC, CXCL12, and CXCL13. Combination of TAK-659 with other BCR inhibitors showed synergistic effect in inducing apoptosis, and the sequential addition of TAK-659 in ibrutinib-treated CLL cells induced significantly higher cytotoxicity. These findings provide a strong rationale for the clinical development of TAK-659 in CLL. PMID:27888629

  6. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase accelerates clonal evolution in BCR-ABL1-driven B cell lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Tanja Andrea; Chang, Mi Sook; Sposto, Richard; Müschen, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Activation-Induced Cytidine Deaminase (AID) is required for somatic hypermutation and immunoglobulin (Ig) class switch recombination in germinal center B cells. Occasionally, AID can target non-Ig genes and thereby promote GC B cell lymphomagenesis. We recently demonstrated that the oncogenic BCR-ABL1 kinase induces aberrant expression of AID in pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and lymphoid CML blast crisis. To elucidate the biological significance of aberrant AID expression, we studied loss of AID function in a murine model of BCR-ABL1 ALL. Mice transplanted with BCR-ABL1-transduced AID-/- bone marrow had prolonged survival as compared to mice transplanted with leukemia cells generated from AID+/+ bone marrow. Consistent with a causative role of AID in genetic instability, AID-/- leukemia had a lower frequency of amplifications, deletions and a lower frequency of mutations in non-Ig genes including Pax5 and Rhoh as compared to AID+/+ leukemias. AID-/- and AID+/+ ALL cells showed a markedly distinct gene expression pattern and AID-/- ALL cells failed to downregulate a number of tumor suppressor genes including Rhoh, Cdkn1a (p21), and Blnk (SLP65). We conclude that AID accelerates clonal evolution in BCR-ABL1 ALL by enhancing genetic instability, aberrant somatic hypermutation, and by negative regulation of tumor suppressor genes. PMID:20876806

  7. FoxO Tumor Suppressors and BCR-ABL-Induced Leukemia: A Matter of Evasion of Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Jagani, Zainab; Singh, Amrik; Khosravi-Far, Roya

    2008-01-01

    Numerous studies have revealed that the BCR-ABL oncoprotein abnormally engages a multitude of signaling pathways, some of which may be important for its leukemogenic properties. Central to this has been the determination that the tyrosine kinase function of BCR-ABL is mainly responsible for its transforming potential, and can be targeted with small molecule inhibitors, such as imatinib mesylate (Gleevec, STI-571). Despite this apparent success, the development of clinical resistance to imatinib therapy, and the inability of imatinib to eradicate BCR-ABL-positive malignant hematopoietic progenitors demand detailed investigations of additional effector pathways that can be targeted for CML treatment. The promotion of cellular survival via the suppression of apoptotic pathways is a fundamental characteristic of tumor cells that enables resistance to anti-cancer therapies. As substrates of survival kinases such as Akt, the FoxO family of transcription factors, particularly FoxO3a, has emerged as playing an important role in the cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of hematopoietic cells. This review will discuss our current understanding of BCR-ABL signaling with a focus on apoptotic suppressive mechanisms and alternative approaches to CML therapy, as well as the potential for FoxO transcription factors as novel therapeutic targets. PMID:17980712

  8. Growth Arrest of BCR-ABL Positive Cells with a Sequence-Specific Polyamide-Chlorambucil Conjugate

    PubMed Central

    Chou, C. James; O'Hare, Thomas; Lefebvre, Sophie; Alvarez, David; Tyner, Jeffrey W.; Eide, Christopher A.; Druker, Brian J.; Gottesfeld, Joel M.

    2008-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is characterized by the presence of a constitutively active Abl kinase, which is the product of a chimeric BCR-ABL gene, caused by the genetic translocation known as the Philadelphia chromosome. Imatinib, a selective inhibitor of the Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase, has significantly improved the clinical outcome of patients with CML. However, subsets of patients lose their response to treatment through the emergence of imatinib-resistant cells, and imatinib treatment is less durable for patients with late stage CML. Although alternative Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been developed to overcome drug resistance, a cocktail therapy of different kinase inhibitors and additional chemotherapeutics may be needed for complete remission of CML in some cases. Chlorambucil has been used for treatment of B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia, non-Hodgkin's and Hodgkin's disease. Here we report that a DNA sequence-specific pyrrole-imidazole polyamide-chlorambucil conjugate, 1R-Chl, causes growth arrest of cells harboring both unmutated BCR-ABL and three imatinib resistant strains. 1R-Chl also displays selective toxicities against activated lymphocytes and a high dose tolerance in a murine model. PMID:18974832

  9. WT1-mediated repression of the proapoptotic transcription factor ZNF224 is triggered by the BCR-ABL oncogene

    PubMed Central

    Montano, Giorgia; Vidovic, Karina; Palladino, Chiara; Cesaro, Elena; Sodaro, Gaetano; Quintarelli, Concetta; De Angelis, Biagio; Errichiello, Santa; Pane, Fabrizio; Izzo, Paola; Grosso, Michela; Gullberg, Urban; Costanzo, Paola

    2015-01-01

    The Kruppel-like protein ZNF224 is a co-factor of the Wilms’ tumor 1 protein, WT1. We have previously shown that ZNF224 exerts a specific proapoptotic role in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) K562 cells and contributes to cytosine arabinoside-induced apoptosis, by modulating WT1-dependent transcription of apoptotic genes. Here we demonstrate that ZNF224 gene expression is down-regulated both in BCR-ABL positive cell lines and in primary CML samples and is restored after imatinib and second generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors treatment. We also show that WT1, whose expression is positively regulated by BCR-ABL, represses transcription of the ZNF224 gene. Finally, we report that ZNF224 is significantly down-regulated in patients with BCR-ABL positive chronic phase-CML showing poor response or resistance to imatinib treatment as compared to high-responder patients. Taken as a whole, our data disclose a novel pathway activated by BCR-ABL that leads to inhibition of apoptosis through the ZNF224 repression. ZNF224 could thus represent a novel promising therapeutic target in CML. PMID:26320177

  10. Quantification of BCR-ABL mRNA in plasma/serum of patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia.

    PubMed

    Narita, Miwako; Saito, Anri; Kojima, Aya; Iwabuchi, Minami; Satoh, Naoya; Uchiyama, Takayoshi; Yamahira, Akie; Furukawa, Tatsuo; Sone, Hirohito; Takahashi, Masuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Quantification of tumor-associated mRNA extracted from blood cells/tissues containing tumor cells is used for evaluation of treatment efficacy or residual tumor cell burden in tumors including leukemia. However, this method using tumor cell-containing blood/tissue is difficult to evaluate the whole tumor cell burden in the body. In order to establish an efficient method to evaluate the whole tumor cell burden in the body, we tried to quantify tumor-associated mRNA existing in plasma/serum instead of leukemia cell-containing blood cells in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and compared the levels of BCR-ABL mRNA between plasma/serum and peripheral blood cells. mRNA of BCR-ABL, WT1 or GAPDH (control molecule) was detected by real-time RT-PCR using RNA extracted from plasma/serum of almost all the patients with CML. Copy numbers of BCR-ABL mRNA were significantly correlated between plasma/serum and peripheral blood cells. However, levels of BCR-ABL mRNA extracted from serum were low compared with those extracted with peripheral blood cells. The present findings suggest that although real-time RT-PCR of mRNA existing in plasma/serum could be used for evaluating the whole tumor cell burden in the body, it's required to establish an efficient method to quantify plasma/serum mRNA by nature without degrading during the procedure.

  11. ATRA-Induced Cellular Differentiation and CD38 Expression Inhibits Acquisition of BCR-ABL Mutations for CML Acquired Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiwei; Chu, Su; Wang, Jinhui; Yuan, Hongfeng; Roth, Mendel; Yuan, Yate-Ching; Bhatia, Ravi; Chen, WenYong

    2014-01-01

    Acquired resistance through genetic mutations is a major obstacle in targeted cancer therapy, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we studied mechanisms of acquired resistance of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) by examining genome-wide gene expression changes in KCL-22 CML cells versus their resistant KCL-22M cells that acquire T315I BCR-ABL mutation following TKI exposure. Although T315I BCR-ABL is sufficient to confer resistance to TKIs in CML cells, surprisingly we found that multiple drug resistance pathways were activated in KCL-22M cells along with reduced expression of a set of myeloid differentiation genes. Forced myeloid differentiation by all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) effectively blocked acquisition of BCR-ABL mutations and resistance to the TKIs imatinib, nilotinib or dasatinib in our previously described in vitro models of acquired TKI resistance. ATRA induced robust expression of CD38, a cell surface marker and cellular NADase. High levels of CD38 reduced intracellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) levels and blocked acquired resistance by inhibiting the activity of the NAD+-dependent SIRT1 deacetylase that we have previously shown to promote resistance in CML cells by facilitating error-prone DNA damage repair. Consequently, ATRA treatment decreased DNA damage repair and suppressed acquisition of BCR-ABL mutations. This study sheds novel insight into mechanisms underlying acquired resistance in CML, and suggests potential benefit of combining ATRA with TKIs in treating CML, particularly in advanced phases. PMID:24967705

  12. ATRA-induced cellular differentiation and CD38 expression inhibits acquisition of BCR-ABL mutations for CML acquired resistance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zheng; Wu, Xiwei; Chu, Su; Wang, Jinhui; Yuan, Hongfeng; Roth, Mendel; Yuan, Yate-Ching; Bhatia, Ravi; Chen, WenYong

    2014-06-01

    Acquired resistance through genetic mutations is a major obstacle in targeted cancer therapy, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we studied mechanisms of acquired resistance of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) by examining genome-wide gene expression changes in KCL-22 CML cells versus their resistant KCL-22M cells that acquire T315I BCR-ABL mutation following TKI exposure. Although T315I BCR-ABL is sufficient to confer resistance to TKIs in CML cells, surprisingly we found that multiple drug resistance pathways were activated in KCL-22M cells along with reduced expression of a set of myeloid differentiation genes. Forced myeloid differentiation by all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) effectively blocked acquisition of BCR-ABL mutations and resistance to the TKIs imatinib, nilotinib or dasatinib in our previously described in vitro models of acquired TKI resistance. ATRA induced robust expression of CD38, a cell surface marker and cellular NADase. High levels of CD38 reduced intracellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) levels and blocked acquired resistance by inhibiting the activity of the NAD+-dependent SIRT1 deacetylase that we have previously shown to promote resistance in CML cells by facilitating error-prone DNA damage repair. Consequently, ATRA treatment decreased DNA damage repair and suppressed acquisition of BCR-ABL mutations. This study sheds novel insight into mechanisms underlying acquired resistance in CML, and suggests potential benefit of combining ATRA with TKIs in treating CML, particularly in advanced phases.

  13. Y-STR loci diversity in native Alaskan populations.

    PubMed

    Davis, Carey; Ge, Jianye; Chidambaram, Abirami; King, Jonathan; Turnbough, Meredith; Collins, Michelle; Dym, Orin; Chakraborty, Ranajit; Eisenberg, Arthur J; Budowle, Bruce

    2011-07-01

    Y chromosome short tandem repeat (Y-STR) loci are important genetic markers for forensic biological evidence analyses. However, paternal inheritance, reduced effective population size, and lack of independence between loci can reduce Y-STR diversity and may yield greater population substructure effects on a locus-by-locus basis compared with the autosomal STR loci. Population studies are necessary to assess the genetic variation of forensically relevant markers so that proper inferences can be made about the rarity of DNA profiles. This study examined 16 Y-STRs in three sampled populations of Native Americans from Alaska: Inupiat, Yupik, and Athabaskan. Population genetic and statistical issues addressed were: (1) the degree of diversity at locus and haplotype levels, (2) determination of the loci that contribute more so to haplotype diversity, and (3) the effects of population substructure on forensic statistical calculations of the rarity of a Y-STR profile. All three population samples were highly polymorphic at the haplotype level for the 16 Y-STR markers; however, the Native Americans demonstrated reduced genetic diversity compared with major US populations. The degree of substructure indicated that the three populations were related and admixed in terms of paternal lineage. The examination of more polymorphic loci may be needed to increase the power of discrimination of Y-STR systems in these populations.

  14. Developing criteria and data to determine best options for expanding the core CODIS loci

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Recently, the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) Core Loci Working Group established by the US Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) reviewed and recommended changes to the CODIS core loci. The Working Group identified 20 short tandem repeat (STR) loci (composed of the original CODIS core set loci (minus TPOX), four European recommended loci, PentaE, and DYS391) plus the Amelogenin marker as the new core set. Before selecting and finalizing the core loci, some evaluations are needed to provide guidance for the best options of core selection. Method The performance of current and newly proposed CODIS core loci sets were evaluated with simplified analyses for adventitious hit rates in reasonably large datasets under single-source profile comparisons, mixture comparisons and kinship searches, and for international data sharing. Informativeness (for example, match probability, average kinship index (AKI)) and mutation rates of each locus were some of the criteria to consider for loci selection. However, the primary factor was performance with challenged forensic samples. Results The current battery of loci provided in already validated commercial kits meet the needs for single-source profile comparisons and international data sharing, even with relatively large databases. However, the 13 CODIS core loci are not sufficiently powerful for kinship analyses and searching potential contributors of mixtures in larger databases; 19 or more autosomal STR loci perform better. Y-chromosome STR (Y-STR) loci are very useful to trace paternal lineage, deconvolve female and male mixtures, and resolve inconsistencies with Amelogenin typing. The DYS391 locus is of little theoretical or practical use. Combining five or six Y-chromosome STR loci with existing autosomal STR loci can produce better performance than the same number of autosomal loci for kinship analysis and still yield a sufficiently low match probability for single-source profile comparisons. Conclusion A more

  15. High-throughput identification of informative nuclear loci for shallow-scale phylogenetics and phylogeography.

    PubMed

    Lemmon, Alan R; Lemmon, Emily Moriarty

    2012-10-01

    One of the major challenges for researchers studying phylogeography and shallow-scale phylogenetics is the identification of highly variable and informative nuclear loci for the question of interest. Previous approaches to locus identification have generally required extensive testing of anonymous nuclear loci developed from genomic libraries of the target taxon, testing of loci of unknown utility from other systems, or identification of loci from the nearest model organism with genomic resources. Here, we present a fast and economical approach to generating thousands of variable, single-copy nuclear loci for any system using next-generation sequencing. We performed Illumina paired-end sequencing of three reduced-representation libraries (RRLs) in chorus frogs (Pseudacris) to identify orthologous, single-copy loci across libraries and to estimate sequence divergence at multiple taxonomic levels. We also conducted PCR testing of these loci across the genus Pseudacris and outgroups to determine whether loci developed for phylogeography can be extended to deeper phylogenetic levels. Prior to sequencing, we conducted in silico digestion of the most closely related reference genome (Xenopus tropicalis) to generate expectations for the number of loci and degree of coverage for a particular experimental design. Using the RRL approach, we: (i) identified more than 100,000 single-copy nuclear loci, 6339 of which were obtained for divergent conspecifics and 904 of which were obtained for heterospecifics; (ii) estimated average nuclear sequence divergence at 0.1% between alleles within an individual, 1.1% between conspecific individuals that represent two different clades, and 1.8% between species; and (iii) determined from PCR testing that 53% of the loci successfully amplify within-species and also many amplify to the genus-level and deeper in the phylogeny (16%). Our study effectively identified nuclear loci present in the genome that have levels of sequence divergence on

  16. Cytoprotective effect of imatinib mesylate in non-BCR-ABL-expressing cells along with autophagosome formation

    SciTech Connect

    Ohtomo, Tadashi; Miyazawa, Keisuke; Naito, Munekazu; Moriya, Shota; Kuroda, Masahiko; Itoh, Masahiro; Tomoda, Akio

    2010-01-01

    Treatment with imatinib mesylate (IM) results in an increased viable cell number of non-BCR-ABL-expressing cell lines by inhibiting spontaneous apoptosis. Electron microscopy revealed an increase of autophagosomes in response to IM. IM attenuated the cytotoxic effect of cytosine arabinoside, as well as inhibiting cell death with serum-deprived culture. Cytoprotection with autophagosome formation by IM was observed in various leukemia and cancer cell lines as well as normal murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Complete inhibition of autophagy by knockdown of atg5 in the Tet-off atg5{sup -/-} MEF system attenuated the cytoprotective effect of IM, indicating that the effect is partially dependent on autophagy. However, cytoprotection by IM was not mediated through suppression of ROS production via mitophagy, ER stress via ribophagy, or proapoptotic function of ABL kinase. Although the target tyrosine kinase(s) of IM remains unclear, our data provide novel therapeutic possibilities of using IM for cytoprotection.

  17. Modular PROTAC Design for the Degradation of Oncogenic BCR-ABL

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Ashton C.; Toure, Momar; Hellerschmied, Doris; Salami, Jemilat; Jaime-Figueroa, Saul; Ko, Eunhwa; Hines, John

    2016-01-01

    Proteolysis Targeting Chimera (PROTAC) technology is a rapidly emerging alternative therapeutic strategy with the potential to address many of the challenges currently faced in modern drug development programs. PROTAC technology employs small molecules that recruit target proteins for ubiquitination and removal by the proteasome. The synthesis of PROTAC compounds that mediate the degradation of c-ABL and BCR-ABL by recruiting either Cereblon or Von Hippel Lindau E3 ligases is reported. During the course of their development, we discovered that the capacity of a PROTAC to induce degradation involves more than just target binding: the identity of the inhibitor warhead and the recruited E3 ligase largely determine the degradation profiles of the compounds; thus, as a starting point for PROTAC development, both the target ligand and the recruited E3 ligase should be varied to rapidly generate a PROTAC with the desired degradation profile. PMID:26593377

  18. Modular PROTAC Design for the Degradation of Oncogenic BCR-ABL.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ashton C; Toure, Momar; Hellerschmied, Doris; Salami, Jemilat; Jaime-Figueroa, Saul; Ko, Eunhwa; Hines, John; Crews, Craig M

    2016-01-11

    Proteolysis Targeting Chimera (PROTAC) technology is a rapidly emerging alternative therapeutic strategy with the potential to address many of the challenges currently faced in modern drug development programs. PROTAC technology employs small molecules that recruit target proteins for ubiquitination and removal by the proteasome. The synthesis of PROTAC compounds that mediate the degradation of c-ABL and BCR-ABL by recruiting either Cereblon or Von Hippel Lindau E3 ligases is reported. During the course of their development, we discovered that the capacity of a PROTAC to induce degradation involves more than just target binding: the identity of the inhibitor warhead and the recruited E3 ligase largely determine the degradation profiles of the compounds; thus, as a starting point for PROTAC development, both the target ligand and the recruited E3 ligase should be varied to rapidly generate a PROTAC with the desired degradation profile.

  19. Homothetic transformations and geometric loci: properties of triangles and quadrilaterals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flavia Mammana, Maria

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we use geometric transformations to find some interesting properties related with geometric loci. In particular, given a triangle or a cyclic quadrilateral, the locus generated by the centroid or by the orthocentre (for triangles) or by the anticentre (for cyclic quadrilaterals) when one vertex moves on the circumcircle of the figure are considered. These loci are studied in paragraphs 3 and 4. By means of the homothetic transformations some properties of triangles and quadrilaterals are found. The study of these properties can be used, with profit, in a classroom activity supported by Dynamic Geometry System.

  20. Deregulated expression of Cdc6 as BCR/ABL-dependent survival factor in chronic myeloid leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia-Hua; He, Yan-Li; Zhu, Rui; Du, Wen; Xiao, Jun-Hua

    2017-06-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia is characterized by the presence of the reciprocal translocation t(9;22) and the BCR/ABL oncogene. The BCR/ABL oncogene activates multiple signaling pathways and involves the dysregulation of oncogenes during the progression of chronic myeloid leukemia. The cell division cycle protein 6, an essential regulator of DNA replication, is elevated in some human cancer cells. However, the expression of cell division cycle protein 6 in chronic myeloid leukemia and the underlying regulatory mechanism remain to be elucidated. In this study, our data showed that cell division cycle protein 6 expression was significantly upregulated in primary chronic myeloid leukemia cells and the chronic myeloid leukemia cell line K562 cells, as compared to the normal bone marrow mononuclear cells. BCR/ABL kinase inhibitor STI571 or BCR/ABL small interfering RNA could significantly downregulate cell division cycle protein 6 messenger RNA expression in K562 cells. Moreover, phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT pathway inhibitor LY294002 and Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription pathway inhibitor AG490 could downregulate cell division cycle protein 6 expression in K562 cells, but not RAS/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway inhibitor PD98059 had such effect. Cell division cycle protein 6 gene silencing by small interfering RNA effectively resulted in decrease of proliferation, increase of apoptosis, and arrest of cell cycle in K562 cells. These findings have demonstrated that cell division cycle protein 6 overexpression may contribute to the high proliferation and low apoptosis in chronic myeloid leukemia cells and can be regulated by BCR/ABL signal transduction through downstream phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt and Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription pathways, suggesting cell division cycle protein 6 as a potential therapeutic target in chronic myeloid leukemia.

  1. Transcription Factors Efg1 and Bcr1 Regulate Biofilm Formation and Virulence during Candida albicans-Associated Denture Stomatitis

    PubMed Central

    Yano, Junko; Yu, Alika; Fidel, Paul L.; Noverr, Mairi C.

    2016-01-01

    Denture stomatitis (DS) is characterized by inflammation of the oral mucosa in direct contact with dentures and affects a significant number of otherwise healthy denture wearers. The disease is caused by Candida albicans, which readily colonizes and form biofilms on denture materials. While evidence for biofilms on abiotic and biotic surfaces initiating Candida infections is accumulating, a role for biofilms in DS remains unclear. Using an established model of DS in immunocompetent animals, the purpose of this study was to determine the role of biofilm formation in mucosal damage during pathogenesis using C. albicans or mutants defective in morphogenesis (efg1-/-) or biofilm formation (bcr1-/-). For in vivo analyses, rats fitted with custom dentures, consisting of fixed and removable parts, were inoculated with wild-type C. albicans, mutants or reconstituted strains and monitored weekly for fungal burden (denture and palate), body weight and tissue damage (LDH) for up to 8 weeks. C. albicans wild-type and reconstituted mutants formed biofilms on dentures and palatal tissues under in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo conditions as indicated by microscopy demonstrating robust biofilm architecture and extracellular matrix (ECM). In contrast, both efg1-/- and bcr1-/- mutants exhibited poor biofilm growth with little to no ECM. In addition, quantification of fungal burden showed reduced colonization throughout the infection period on dentures and palates of rats inoculated with efg1-/-, but not bcr1-/-, compared to controls. Finally, rats inoculated with efg1-/- and bcr1-/- mutants had minimal palatal tissue damage/weight loss while those inoculated with wild-type or reconstituted mutants showed evidence of tissue damage and exhibited stunted weight gain. These data suggest that biofilm formation is associated with tissue damage during DS and that Efg1 and Bcr1, both central regulators of virulence in C. albicans, have pivotal roles in pathogenesis of DS. PMID:27453977

  2. A novel BCR-ABL1 fusion gene identified by next-generation sequencing in chronic myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Xiaodong; Yang, Jingke; Wang, Xianwei; Hu, Jieying; Liu, Bing; Zhao, Yu; Guo, Zhen; Liu, Bingshan; Fan, Ruihua; Song, Yongping

    2016-01-01

    BCR-ABL1 fusion proteins contain constitutively active tyrosine kinases that are potential candidates for targeted therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as imatinib in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). However, uncharacterized BCR-ABL1 fusion genes can be missed by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR)-based routine screening methods, causing adverse effect on drug selection and treatment outcome. In this study, we demonstrated that the next-generation sequencing (NGS) can be employed to overcome this obstacle. Through NGS, we identified a novel BCR-ABL1 fusion gene with breakpoints in the BCR intron 14 and the ABL1 intron 2, respectively, in a rare case of CML. Its mRNA with an e14a3 junction was then detected using customized RT-PCR followed by Sanger sequencing. Subsequently, the patient received targeted medicine imatinib initially at 400 mg/day, and later 300 mg/day due to intolerance reactions. With this personalized treatment, the patient's condition was significantly improved. Interestingly, this novel fusion gene encodes a fusion protein containing a compromised SH3 domain, which is usually intact in the majority of CML cases, suggesting that dysfunctional SH3 domain may be associated with altered drug response and unique clinicopathological manifestations observed in this patient. We identified a novel BCR-ABL1 fusion gene using NGS in a rare case of CML while routine laboratory procedures were challenged, demonstrating the power of NGS as a diagnostic tool for detecting novel genetic mutations. Moreover, our new finding regarding the novel fusion variant will provide useful insights to improve the spectrum of the genomic abnormalities recognizable by routine molecular screening.

  3. Combined STAT3 and BCR-ABL1 Inhibition Induces Synthetic Lethality in Therapy-Resistant Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Clinton C.; Vellore, Nadeem A.; Resetca, Diana; Zabriskie, Matthew S.; Zhang, Tian Y.; Khorashad, Jamshid S.; Engar, Alexander J.; Reynolds, Kimberly R.; Anderson, David J.; Senina, Anna; Pomicter, Anthony D.; Arpin, Carolynn C.; Ahmad, Shazia; Heaton, William L.; Tantravahi, Srinivas K.; Todic, Aleksandra; Moriggl, Richard; Wilson, Derek J.; Baron, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the BCR-ABL1 kinase domain are an established mechanism of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) resistance in Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemia, but fail to explain many cases of clinical TKI failure. In contrast, it is largely unknown why some patients fail TKI therapy despite continued suppression of BCR-ABL1 kinase activity, a situation termed BCRABL1 kinase-independent TKI resistance. Here, we identified activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) by extrinsic or intrinsic mechanisms as an essential feature of BCR-ABL1 kinase-independent TKI resistance. By combining synthetic chemistry, in vitro reporter assays, and molecular dynamics-guided rational inhibitor design and high-throughput screening, we discovered BP-5-087, a potent and selective STAT3 SH2 domain inhibitor that reduces STAT3 phosphorylation and nuclear transactivation. Computational simulations, fluorescence polarization assays, and hydrogen-deuterium exchange assays establish direct engagement of STAT3 by BP-5-087 and provide a high-resolution view of the STAT3 SH2 domain/BP-5-087 interface. In primary cells from CML patients with BCR-ABL1 kinase-independent TKI resistance, BP-5-087 (1.0 μM) restored TKI sensitivity to therapy-resistant CML progenitor cells, including leukemic stem cells (LSCs). Our findings implicate STAT3 as a critical signaling node in BCR-ABL1 kinase-independent TKI resistance, and suggest that BP-5-087 has clinical utility for treating malignancies characterized by STAT3 activation. PMID:25134459

  4. Optimization of dot blot method to detect bcr/abl transcripts in chronic myeloid leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Tharapel, S.A.; Zhao, J.

    1994-09-01

    Detection of abl-bcr fusion transcripts using molecular methodologies is becoming an attractive alternative (or supplement) to traditional cytogenetics in identifying the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome. Among these methods, RT-PCR technique has provided an extremely powerful tool for improving the detection of bcr/abl translocations through enzymatic amplification of the reverse-transcribed cDNA. The analysis of PCR products can be accomplished by a number of techniques including dot blot following liquid-phase hybridization. In order to render the detection of PCR products more simple, accurate and efficient, and therefore more amenable for the clinical laboratory routine use, we optimized several parameters of the procedure. (1) We discovered that with the starting material of 1 ug of total RNA, the amount of the final PCR amplified products was linear to the PCR cycles between 20 to 30 cycles. Since the dot blot procedure does not separate the amplified products according to their sizes, increased background would increase the false positive rate. (2) If a detection sensitivity of 1 in 10{sup 3} cells is sufficient, then the nested or a second PCR amplification is not necessary. (3) Starting material more than 5 ug of total RNA would decrease the amplification efficiency and therefore compromise the sensitivity. (4) Ten minutes of hybridization gave equal signal intensity as 24 hours. (5) The ionic strength and temperature in the washing step were also tested. Upon optimization of each parameter, the detection procedure was tested on 18 clinical samples. Compared to the procedures that are currently available, our optimized procedure is less time consuming, has higher sensitivity and lower false positive rate. This method has the potential to be automated and therefore can be used as a screening method for Ph chromosome in high volume settings.

  5. Major Quantitative Trait Loci and Putative Candidate Genes for Powdery Mildew Resistance and Fruit-Related Traits Revealed by an Intraspecific Genetic Map for Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus).

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang-Hwan; Hwang, Ji-Hyun; Han, Dong-Yeup; Park, Minkyu; Kim, Seungill; Choi, Doil; Kim, Yongjae; Lee, Gung Pyo; Kim, Sun-Tae; Park, Young-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    An intraspecific genetic map for watermelon was constructed using an F2 population derived from 'Arka Manik' × 'TS34' and transcript sequence variants and quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to powdery mildew (PMR), seed size (SS), and fruit shape (FS) were analyzed. The map consists of 14 linkage groups (LGs) defined by 174 cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences (CAPS), 2 derived-cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers, 20 sequence-characterized amplified regions, and 8 expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat markers spanning 1,404.3 cM, with a mean marker interval of 6.9 cM and an average of 14.6 markers per LG. Genetic inheritance and QTL analyses indicated that each of the PMR, SS, and FS traits is controlled by an incompletely dominant effect of major QTLs designated as pmr2.1, ss2.1, and fsi3.1, respectively. The pmr2.1, detected on chromosome 2 (Chr02), explained 80.0% of the phenotypic variation (LOD = 30.76). This QTL was flanked by two CAPS markers, wsb2-24 (4.00 cM) and wsb2-39 (13.97 cM). The ss2.1, located close to pmr2.1 and CAPS marker wsb2-13 (1.00 cM) on Chr02, explained 92.3% of the phenotypic variation (LOD = 68.78). The fsi3.1, detected on Chr03, explained 79.7% of the phenotypic variation (LOD = 31.37) and was flanked by two CAPS, wsb3-24 (1.91 cM) and wsb3-9 (7.00 cM). Candidate gene-based CAPS markers were developed from the disease resistance and fruit shape gene homologs located on Chr.02 and Chr03 and were mapped on the intraspecific map. Colocalization of these markers with the major QTLs indicated that watermelon orthologs of a nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat class gene containing an RPW8 domain and a member of SUN containing the IQ67 domain are candidate genes for pmr2.1 and fsi3.1, respectively. The results presented herein provide useful information for marker-assisted breeding and gene cloning for PMR and fruit-related traits.

  6. Major Quantitative Trait Loci and Putative Candidate Genes for Powdery Mildew Resistance and Fruit-Related Traits Revealed by an Intraspecific Genetic Map for Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwang-Hwan; Hwang, Ji-Hyun; Han, Dong-Yeup; Park, Minkyu; Kim, Seungill; Choi, Doil; Kim, Yongjae; Lee, Gung Pyo; Kim, Sun-Tae; Park, Young-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    An intraspecific genetic map for watermelon was constructed using an F2 population derived from ‘Arka Manik’ × ‘TS34’ and transcript sequence variants and quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to powdery mildew (PMR), seed size (SS), and fruit shape (FS) were analyzed. The map consists of 14 linkage groups (LGs) defined by 174 cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences (CAPS), 2 derived-cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers, 20 sequence-characterized amplified regions, and 8 expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat markers spanning 1,404.3 cM, with a mean marker interval of 6.9 cM and an average of 14.6 markers per LG. Genetic inheritance and QTL analyses indicated that each of the PMR, SS, and FS traits is controlled by an incompletely dominant effect of major QTLs designated as pmr2.1, ss2.1, and fsi3.1, respectively. The pmr2.1, detected on chromosome 2 (Chr02), explained 80.0% of the phenotypic variation (LOD = 30.76). This QTL was flanked by two CAPS markers, wsb2-24 (4.00 cM) and wsb2-39 (13.97 cM). The ss2.1, located close to pmr2.1 and CAPS marker wsb2-13 (1.00 cM) on Chr02, explained 92.3% of the phenotypic variation (LOD = 68.78). The fsi3.1, detected on Chr03, explained 79.7% of the phenotypic variation (LOD = 31.37) and was flanked by two CAPS, wsb3-24 (1.91 cM) and wsb3-9 (7.00 cM). Candidate gene-based CAPS markers were developed from the disease resistance and fruit shape gene homologs located on Chr.02 and Chr03 and were mapped on the intraspecific map. Colocalization of these markers with the major QTLs indicated that watermelon orthologs of a nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat class gene containing an RPW8 domain and a member of SUN containing the IQ67 domain are candidate genes for pmr2.1 and fsi3.1, respectively. The results presented herein provide useful information for marker-assisted breeding and gene cloning for PMR and fruit-related traits. PMID:26700647

  7. Optimal Molecular Methods in Detecting p190BCR-ABL Fusion Variants in Hematologic Malignancies: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Sonu, Rebecca J.; Jonas, Brian A.; Dwyre, Denis M.; Gregg, Jeffrey P.; Rashidi, Hooman H.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with BCR-ABL1 positive hematologic malignancies and Philadelphia-like B-lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) are potential candidates for targeted therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). Before TKIs, patients with B-ALL had a much worse prognosis and current treatments with targeted TKI therapy have improved outcomes. Thus, the detection of BCR-ABL1 is crucial and a false negative BCR-ABL1 result may adversely affect patient care. We report a case of a 76-year-old male with a new diagnosis of B-ALL who was initially found to be BCR-ABL1 negative by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A concurrent qualitative PCR was performed which detected a positive BCR-ABL1 result that was confirmed by a next generation sequencing (NGS) based assay and identified as the rare fusion variant e1a3 of p190BCR-ABL. Based on this result, the patient was placed on dasatinib as a targeted therapy. In the era of molecular diagnostic medicine and targeted therapy, it is essential to have an understanding of the limitations of molecular assays and to follow a comprehensive diagnostic approach in order to detect common abnormalities and rare variants. Incorporating NGS methods in an algorithmic manner into the standard diagnostic PCR-based approach for BCR-ABL1 will aid in minimizing false negative results. PMID:25949834

  8. Detection of bcr/abl fusion and duplication of abl in a Ph-negative CML patient by the dual-color FISH method

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, L.; Liang, J.C.

    1994-09-01

    We report here the use of the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method to detect duplication of the abl gene and fusion of bcr/abl in a Ph-negative CML patient. The patient was in clinical remission when studied. Conventional cytogenetic analysis revealed an apparent normal diploid karyotype. Using a metaphase-FISH method previously described for detecting residual leukemic cells in CML patients in clinical remission, we failed to detect any gross abnormality involving chromsomes 9 and 22. However, using the dual-color bcr and abl probes (Oncor), we found that in 55% of the interphases, fusion of these two genes was detectable. More interestingly, in those cells in which fusion of the bcr and abl genes occurred, we observed an extra abl signal. Further examination of bcr and abl hybridization signals on metaphases revealed that the bcr/abl fusion occurred on a chromosome that resembled chromosome 22. The two abl signals were on two chromosomes that resembled chromosome 9s and one bcr signal could be found on another chromosome 22. Thus the bcr and abl dual-color probes allow us to detect a rare form of gene fusion and duplication that is not detectable by karyotyping or chromosome painting.

  9. The NDR/LATS Kinase Cbk1 Controls the Activity of the Transcriptional Regulator Bcr1 during Biofilm Formation in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Escribano, Pilar; Zeidler, Ute; Suárez, M. Belén; Bachellier-Bassi, Sophie; Clemente-Blanco, Andrés; Bonhomme, Julie; Vázquez de Aldana, Carlos R.; d'Enfert, Christophe; Correa-Bordes, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    In nature, many microorganisms form specialized complex, multicellular, surface-attached communities called biofilms. These communities play critical roles in microbial pathogenesis. The fungal pathogen Candida albicans is associated with catheter-based infections due to its ability to establish biofilms. The transcription factor Bcr1 is a master regulator of C. albicans biofilm development, although the full extent of its regulation remains unknown. Here, we report that Bcr1 is a phosphoprotein that physically interacts with the NDR kinase Cbk1 and undergoes Cbk1-dependent phosphorylation. Mutating the two putative Cbk1 phosphoacceptor residues in Bcr1 to alanine markedly impaired Bcr1 function during biofilm formation and virulence in a mouse model of disseminated candidiasis. Cells lacking Cbk1, or any of its upstream activators, also had reduced biofilm development. Notably, mutating the two putative Cbk1 phosphoacceptor residues in Bcr1 to glutamate in cbk1Δ cells upregulated the transcription of Bcr1-dependent genes and partially rescued the biofilm defects of a cbk1Δ strain. Therefore, our data uncovered a novel role of the NDR/LATS kinase Cbk1 in the regulation of biofilm development through the control of Bcr1. PMID:22589718

  10. CCR7 is involved in BCR-ABL/STAP-2-mediated cell growth in hematopoietic Ba/F3 cells.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Kaori; Iwakami, Masashi; Muromoto, Ryuta; Inagaki, Takuya; Kitai, Yuichi; Kon, Shigeyuki; Sekine, Yuichi; Oritani, Kenji; Matsuda, Tadashi

    2015-08-07

    Chronic myeloid leukemia is a clonal disease characterized by the presence of the Philadelphia chromosome and its oncogenic product, BCR-ABL, which activates multiple pathways involved in cell survival, growth promotion, and disease progression. We previously reported that in murine hematopoietic Ba/F3 cells, signal transducing adaptor protein-2 (STAP-2) binds to BCR-ABL and up-regulates BCR-ABL phosphorylation, leading to enhanced activation of its downstream signaling molecules. The binding of STAP-2 to BCR-ABL also influenced the expression levels of chemokine receptors, such as CXCR4 and CCR7. For the induction of CCR7 expression, signals mediated by the MAPK/ERK pathway were critical in Ba/F3 cells expressing BCR-ABL and STAP-2. In addition, STAP-2 cooperated with BCR-ABL to induce the production of CCR7 ligands, CCL19 and CCL21. Our results demonstrate a contribution of CCR7 to STAP-2-dependent enhancement of BCR-ABL-mediated cell growth in Ba/F3 cells.

  11. Detection of the chimeric ABL/BCR gene located on chromosome 9 by the FISH technique in a Ph negative CML

    SciTech Connect

    Macera, M.J.; Frankel, E.; Szabo, P. ||

    1994-09-01

    Chronic myelogeous leukemia (CML) is characterized by the presence of the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome, which arises from a reciprical translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22 and is found in over 90% of all reported cases. This translocation results in the fusion of the chromosome 9 ABL gene with the chromosome 22 BCR gene forming a chimeric gene that encodes a unique protein. The chimeric gene has been demonstrated in variant translocations. In cases without Ph chromosomes, the ABL/BCR rearrangement was located on chromosome 22 at band q11. We report a case that presented with typical symptoms of classical CML. Cytogenetic analysis revealed a normal 46,XX karyotype in all his mitotic bone marrow cells. Fluorescence in situ hybridization using a two color ABL/BCR probe (Oncor, Gaithersburg, MD) showed the presence of two ABL genes located on both chromosome 9s, one BCR located on chromosome 22 and one located in tandem with one ABL gene on chromosome 9q34. Southern blotting using the transprobe (Oncogene Science, Uniondale, NY) confirmed that a break was located within the 5.8 Kb major BCR. This is one of the first cases where the chimeric ABL/BCR gene was demonstrated to be on chromosome 9q34. This variant stresses the importance of the ABL/BCR gene in the etiology of this disease as this patient was clinically indistinguishable from those CML patients with the standard Ph translocation.

  12. Fitness Conferred by BCR-ABL Kinase Domain Mutations Determines the Risk of Pre-Existing Resistance in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Skaggs, Brian; Gorre, Mercedes; Sawyers, Charles L.; Michor, Franziska

    2011-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is the first human malignancy to be successfully treated with a small molecule inhibitor, imatinib, targeting a mutant oncoprotein (BCR-ABL). Despite its successes, acquired resistance to imatinib leads to reduced drug efficacy and frequent progression of disease. Understanding the characteristics of pre-existing resistant cells is important for evaluating the benefits of first-line combination therapy with second generation inhibitors. However, due to limitations of assay sensitivity, determining the existence and characteristics of resistant cell clones at the start of therapy is difficult. Here we combined a mathematical modeling approach using branching processes with experimental data on the fitness changes (i.e., changes in net reproductive rate) conferred by BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations to investigate the likelihood, composition, and diversity of pre-existing resistance. Furthermore, we studied the impact of these factors on the response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Our approach predicts that in most patients, there is at most one resistant clone present at the time of diagnosis of their disease. Interestingly, patients are no more likely to harbor the most aggressive, pan-resistant T315I mutation than any other resistance mutation; however, T315I cells on average establish larger-sized clones at the time of diagnosis. We established that for patients diagnosed late, the relative benefit of combination therapy over monotherapy with imatinib is significant, while this benefit is modest for patients with a typically early diagnosis time. These findings, after pre-clinical validation, will have implications for the clinical management of CML: we recommend that patients with advanced-phase disease be treated with combination therapy with at least two tyrosine kinase inhibitors. PMID:22140458

  13. Homothetic Transformations and Geometric Loci: Properties of Triangles and Quadrilaterals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mammana, Maria Flavia

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we use geometric transformations to find some interesting properties related with geometric loci. In particular, given a triangle or a cyclic quadrilateral, the locus generated by the centroid or by the orthocentre (for triangles) or by the anticentre (for cyclic quadrilaterals) when one vertex moves on the circumcircle of the…

  14. Homothetic Transformations and Geometric Loci: Properties of Triangles and Quadrilaterals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mammana, Maria Flavia

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we use geometric transformations to find some interesting properties related with geometric loci. In particular, given a triangle or a cyclic quadrilateral, the locus generated by the centroid or by the orthocentre (for triangles) or by the anticentre (for cyclic quadrilaterals) when one vertex moves on the circumcircle of the…

  15. Mcl-1 downregulation leads to the heightened sensitivity exhibited by BCR-ABL positive ALL to induction of energy and ER-stress.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Guy J; DeSalvo, Joanna; Du, Jianfeng; Gao, Ningguo; Leclerc, Gilles M; Lehrman, Mark A; Lampidis, Theodore J; Barredo, Julio C

    2015-08-20

    BCR-ABL positive (+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) accounts for ∼30% of cases of ALL. We recently demonstrated that 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG), a dual energy (glycolysis inhibition) and ER-stress (N-linked-glycosylation inhibition) inducer, leads to cell death in ALL via ER-stress/UPR-mediated apoptosis. Among ALL subtypes, BCR-ABL+ ALL cells exhibited the highest sensitivity to 2-DG suggesting BCR-ABL expression may be linked to this increased vulnerability. To confirm the role of BCR-ABL, we constructed a NALM6/BCR-ABL stable cell line and found significant increase in 2-DG-induced apoptosis compared to control. We found that Mcl-1 was downregulated by agents inducing ER-stress and Mcl-1 levels correlated with ALL sensitivity. In addition, we showed that Mcl-1 expression is positively regulated by the MEK/ERK pathway, dependent on BCR-ABL, and further downregulated by combining ER-stressors with TKIs. We determined that energy/ER stressors led to translational repression of Mcl-1 via the AMPK/mTOR and UPR/PERK/eIF2α pathways. Taken together, our data indicate that BCR-ABL+ ALL exhibits heightened sensitivity to induction of energy and ER-stress through inhibition of the MEK/ERK pathway, and translational repression of Mcl-1 expression via AMPK/mTOR and UPR/PERK/eIF2α pathways. This study supports further consideration of strategies combining energy/ER-stress inducers with BCR-ABL TKIs for future clinical translation in BCR-ABL+ ALL patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Measurements of plutonium, 237Np, and 137Cs in the BCR 482 lichen reference material

    SciTech Connect

    Lavelle, Kevin B.; Miller, Jeffrey L.; Hanson, Susan K.; Connick, William B.; Spitz, Henry B.; Glover, Samuel E.; Oldham, Warren J.

    2015-10-01

    Select anthropogenic radionuclides were measured in lichen reference material, BCR 482. This material was originally collected in Axalp, Switzerland in 1991 and is composed of the epiphytic lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea. Samples from three separate bottles of BCR 482 were analyzed for uranium, neptunium, and plutonium isotopes by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and analyzed for cesium-137 by gamma-ray spectrometry. The isotopic composition of the radionuclides measured in BCR 482 suggests contributions from both global fallout resulting from historical nuclear weapons testing and more volatile materials released following the Chernobyl accident.

  17. Pristimerin induces apoptosis in imatinib-resistant chronic myelogenous leukemia cells harboring T315I mutation by blocking NF-κB signaling and depleting Bcr-Abl

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is characterized by the chimeric tyrosine kinase Bcr-Abl. Bcr-Abl-T315I is the notorious point mutation that causes resistance to imatinib and the second generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors, leading to poor prognosis. CML blasts have constitutive p65 (RelA NF-κB) transcriptional activity, and NF-κB may be a potential target for molecular therapies in CML that may also be effective against CML cells with Bcr-Abl-T315I. Results In this report, we discovered that pristimerin, a quinonemethide triterpenoid isolated from Celastraceae and Hippocrateaceae, inhibited growth and induced apoptosis in CML cells, including the cells harboring Bcr-Abl-T315I mutation. Additionally, pristimerin inhibited the growth of imatinib-resistant Bcr-Abl-T315I xenografts in nude mice. Pristimerin blocked the TNFα-induced IκBα phosphorylation, translocation of p65, and expression of NF-κB-regulated genes. Pristimerin inhibited two steps in NF-κB signaling: TAK1→IKK and IKK→IκBα. Pristimerin potently inhibited two pairs of CML cell lines (KBM5 versus KBM5-T315I, 32D-Bcr-Abl versus 32D-Bcr-Abl-T315I) and primary cells from a CML patient with acquired resistance to imatinib. The mRNA and protein levels of Bcr-Abl in imatinib-sensitive (KBM5) or imatinib-resistant (KBM5-T315I) CML cells were reduced after pristimerin treatment. Further, inactivation of Bcr-Abl by imatinib pretreatment did not abrogate the TNFα-induced NF-κB activation while silencing p65 by siRNA did not affect the levels of Bcr-Abl, both results together indicating that NF-κB inactivation and Bcr-Abl inhibition may be parallel independent pathways. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first report to show that pristimerin is effective in vitro and in vivo against CML cells, including those with the T315I mutation. The mechanisms may involve inhibition of NF-κB and Bcr-Abl. We concluded that pristimerin could be a lead compound for further drug development to

  18. The ribosomal protein genes and Minute loci of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Marygold, Steven J; Roote, John; Reuter, Gunter; Lambertsson, Andrew; Ashburner, Michael; Millburn, Gillian H; Harrison, Paul M; Yu, Zhan; Kenmochi, Naoya; Kaufman, Thomas C; Leevers, Sally J; Cook, Kevin R

    2007-01-01

    Background Mutations in genes encoding ribosomal proteins (RPs) have been shown to cause an array of cellular and developmental defects in a variety of organisms. In Drosophila melanogaster, disruption of RP genes can result in the 'Minute' syndrome of dominant, haploinsufficient phenotypes, which include prolonged development, short and thin bristles, and poor fertility and viability. While more than 50 Minute loci have been defined genetically, only 15 have so far been characterized molecularly and shown to correspond to RP genes. Results We combined bioinformatic and genetic approaches to conduct a systematic analysis of the relationship between RP genes and Minute loci. First, we identified 88 genes encoding 79 different cytoplasmic RPs (CRPs) and 75 genes encoding distinct mitochondrial RPs (MRPs). Interestingly, nine CRP genes are present as duplicates and, while all appear to be functional, one member of each gene pair has relatively limited expression. Next, we defined 65 discrete Minute loci by genetic criteria. Of these, 64 correspond to, or very likely correspond to, CRP genes; the single non-CRP-encoding Minute gene encodes a translation initiation factor subunit. Significantly, MRP genes and more than 20 CRP genes do not correspond to Minute loci. Conclusion This work answers a longstanding question about the molecular nature of Minute loci and suggests that Minute phenotypes arise from suboptimal protein synthesis resulting from reduced levels of cytoribosomes. Furthermore, by identifying the majority of haplolethal and haplosterile loci at the molecular level, our data will directly benefit efforts to attain complete deletion coverage of the D. melanogaster genome. PMID:17927810

  19. Microsatellite loci for Orthophytum ophiuroides (Bromelioideae, Bromeliaceae) species adapted to neotropical rock outcrops.

    PubMed

    Aoki-Gonçalves, Felipe; Louzada, Rafael B; De Souza, Lívia Moura; Palma-Silva, Clarisse

    2014-03-01

    Microsatellite primers were developed for Orthophytum ophiuroides, a rupicolous bromeliad species endemic to neotropical rocky fields. These microsatellite loci will be used to investigate population differentiation and species cohesion in such fragmented environments. The loci were tested for cross-amplification in related bromeliad species. • Eleven polymorphic microsatellite markers were isolated and characterized from an enriched library of O. ophiuroides. The loci were tested on 42 individuals from two populations of this species. The number of alleles per locus ranged from three to nine and the expected and observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.167 to 0.870 and from 0.369 to 0.958, respectively. Seven loci successfully amplified in other related bromeliad species. • Our results suggest that the microsatellite loci developed here will be useful to assess genetic diversity and gene flow in O. ophiuroides for the investigation of population differentiation and species cohesion in neotropical mountainous habitats.

  20. Interactions of dietary whole-grain intake with fasting glucose- and insulin-related genetic loci in individuals of European descent: a meta-analysis of 14 cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Nettleton, Jennifer A; McKeown, Nicola M; Kanoni, Stavroula; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Hivert, Marie-France; Ngwa, Julius; van Rooij, Frank J A; Sonestedt, Emily; Wojczynski, Mary K; Ye, Zheng; Tanaka, Tosh; Garcia, Melissa; Anderson, Jennifer S; Follis, Jack L; Djousse, Luc; Mukamal, Kenneth; Papoutsakis, Constantina; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Zillikens, M Carola; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bennett, Amanda J; Borecki, Ingrid B; Feitosa, Mary F; Ferrucci, Luigi; Forouhi, Nita G; Groves, Christopher J; Hallmans, Goran; Harris, Tamara; Hofman, Albert; Houston, Denise K; Hu, Frank B; Johansson, Ingegerd; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Langenberg, Claudia; Launer, Lenore; Liu, Yongmei; Loos, Ruth J; Nalls, Michael; Orho-Melander, Marju; Renstrom, Frida; Rice, Kenneth; Riserus, Ulf; Rolandsson, Olov; Rotter, Jerome I; Saylor, Georgia; Sijbrands, Eric J G; Sjogren, Per; Smith, Albert; Steingrímsdóttir, Laufey; Uitterlinden, André G; Wareham, Nicholas J; Prokopenko, Inga; Pankow, James S; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Florez, Jose C; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Dupuis, Josée; Dedoussis, George V; Ordovas, Jose M; Ingelsson, Erik; Cupples, L Adrienne; Siscovick, David S; Franks, Paul W; Meigs, James B

    2010-12-01

    Whole-grain foods are touted for multiple health benefits, including enhancing insulin sensitivity and reducing type 2 diabetes risk. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with fasting glucose and insulin concentrations in individuals free of diabetes. We tested the hypothesis that whole-grain food intake and genetic variation interact to influence concentrations of fasting glucose and insulin. Via meta-analysis of data from 14 cohorts comprising ∼ 48,000 participants of European descent, we studied interactions of whole-grain intake with loci previously associated in GWAS with fasting glucose (16 loci) and/or insulin (2 loci) concentrations. For tests of interaction, we considered a P value <0.0028 (0.05 of 18 tests) as statistically significant. Greater whole-grain food intake was associated with lower fasting glucose and insulin concentrations independent of demographics, other dietary and lifestyle factors, and BMI (β [95% CI] per 1-serving-greater whole-grain intake: -0.009 mmol/l glucose [-0.013 to -0.005], P < 0.0001 and -0.011 pmol/l [ln] insulin [-0.015 to -0.007], P = 0.0003). No interactions met our multiple testing-adjusted statistical significance threshold. The strongest SNP interaction with whole-grain intake was rs780094 (GCKR) for fasting insulin (P = 0.006), where greater whole-grain intake was associated with a smaller reduction in fasting insulin concentrations in those with the insulin-raising allele. Our results support the favorable association of whole-grain intake with fasting glucose and insulin and suggest a potential interaction between variation in GCKR and whole-grain intake in influencing fasting insulin concentrations.

  1. Inhibition of Aurora kinase B is important for biologic activity of the dual inhibitors of BCR-ABL and Aurora kinases R763/AS703569 and PHA-739358 in BCR-ABL transformed cells.

    PubMed

    Illert, Anna L; Seitz, Anna K; Rummelt, Christoph; Kreutmair, Stefanie; Engh, Richard A; Goodstal, Samantha; Peschel, Christian; Duyster, Justus; von Bubnoff, Nikolas

    2014-01-01

    ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) like Imatinib, Dasatinib and Nilotinib are the gold standard in conventional treatment of CML. However, the emergence of resistance remains a major problem. Alternative therapeutic strategies of ABL TKI-resistant CML are urgently needed. We asked whether dual inhibition of BCR-ABL and Aurora kinases A-C could overcome resistance mediated by ABL kinase mutations. We therefore tested the dual ABL and Aurora kinase inhibitors PHA-739358 and R763/AS703569 in Ba/F3- cells ectopically expressing wild type (wt) or TKI-resistant BCR-ABL mutants. We show that both compounds exhibited strong anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activity in ABL TKI resistant cell lines including cells expressing the strongly resistant T315I mutation. Cell cycle analysis indicated polyploidisation, a consequence of continued cell cycle progression in the absence of cell division by Aurora kinase inhibition. Experiments using drug resistant variants of Aurora B indicated that PHA-739358 acts on both, BCR-ABL and Aurora Kinase B, whereas Aurora kinase B inhibition might be sufficient for the anti-proliferative activity observed with R763/AS703569. Taken together, our data demonstrate that dual ABL and Aurora kinase inhibition might be used to overcome ABL TKI resistant CML.

  2. Inhibition of Aurora Kinase B Is Important for Biologic Activity of the Dual Inhibitors of BCR-ABL and Aurora Kinases R763/AS703569 and PHA-739358 in BCR-ABL Transformed Cells

    PubMed Central

    Illert, Anna L.; Seitz, Anna K.; Rummelt, Christoph; Kreutmair, Stefanie; Engh, Richard A.; Goodstal, Samantha; Peschel, Christian; Duyster, Justus; von Bubnoff, Nikolas

    2014-01-01

    ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) like Imatinib, Dasatinib and Nilotinib are the gold standard in conventional treatment of CML. However, the emergence of resistance remains a major problem. Alternative therapeutic strategies of ABL TKI-resistant CML are urgently needed. We asked whether dual inhibition of BCR-ABL and Aurora kinases A-C could overcome resistance mediated by ABL kinase mutations. We therefore tested the dual ABL and Aurora kinase inhibitors PHA-739358 and R763/AS703569 in Ba/F3- cells ectopically expressing wild type (wt) or TKI-resistant BCR-ABL mutants. We show that both compounds exhibited strong anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activity in ABL TKI resistant cell lines including cells expressing the strongly resistant T315I mutation. Cell cycle analysis indicated polyploidisation, a consequence of continued cell cycle progression in the absence of cell division by Aurora kinase inhibition. Experiments using drug resistant variants of Aurora B indicated that PHA-739358 acts on both, BCR-ABL and Aurora Kinase B, whereas Aurora kinase B inhibition might be sufficient for the anti-proliferative activity observed with R763/AS703569. Taken together, our data demonstrate that dual ABL and Aurora kinase inhibition might be used to overcome ABL TKI resistant CML. PMID:25426931

  3. Kriging analysis of geochemical data obtained by sequential extraction procedure (BCR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajkovic, Hana; Pitarević Svedružić, Lovorka; Prohić, Esad; Rončević, Sanda; Nemet, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    Field examination and laboratory analysis were performed to establish whether nonsanitary landfill Bastijunski brig has a negative influence on Vransko Lake, situated only 1500 m away. Vransko Lake is Croatia's largest natural lake, and it is a part of the Nature Park and ornithological reserve, which indicates its high biodiversity. Therefore it is necessary to understand the environmental processes and complex sediment/water interface. Lake sediments are considered to be a good "sinkhole'and are often the final recipients of anthropogenic and natural pollutants through adsorption onto the organic or clay fraction in sediments. Geochemical investigation were obtained throughout more than 50 lake sediments cores situated in different parts of the lake Speciation of heavy metals by modified BCR sequential extraction procedure with the addition of a first step of sequential extraction procedure by Tessier and analysis of residual by aqua regia were used to determine the amounts of selected elements (Al, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) in different fractions. With such approach it is possible to determine which element will be extracted from sediment/soil in a different environmental conditions and can be valuable tool for interpretation of the mobile fraction of the elements, considered bioavailability, that present threat to biota in a case of a contaminant concentration magnification. All sediment and soil samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. More accurate interpretation of data is an advantage of BCR sequential extraction procedure while high number of the data together with point data type could be considered as a drawback. Due to high amount of data, graphical presentation is advisable while interpolation tool is a first choice for point type of data, as it makes predictions for defined area based on the measurements. Distribution maps of analysed elements were obtained by kriging as a geostatistical method and

  4. Nilotinib first-line therapy in patients with Philadelphia chromosome-negative/BCR-ABL-positive chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase: ENEST1st sub-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hochhaus, Andreas; Mahon, Franҫois-Xavier; le Coutre, Philipp; Petrov, Ljubomir; Janssen, Jeroen J W M; Cross, Nicholas C P; Rea, Delphine; Castagnetti, Fausto; Hellmann, Andrzej; Rosti, Gianantonio; Gattermann, Norbert; Coronel, Maria Liz Paciello; Gutierrez, Maria Asuncion Echeveste; Garcia-Gutierrez, Valentin; Vincenzi, Beatrice; Dezzani, Luca; Giles, Francis J

    2017-07-01

    The ENEST1st sub-analysis presents data based on Philadelphia chromosome (Ph) status, i.e., Ph+ and Ph-/BCR-ABL1 + chronic myeloid leukemia. Patients received nilotinib 300 mg twice daily, up to 24 months. At screening, 983 patients were identified as Ph+ and 30 patients as Ph-/BCR-ABL + based on cytogenetic and RT-PCR assessment; 76 patients had unknown karyotype (excluded from this sub-analysis). In the Ph-/BCR-ABL1 + subgroup, no additional chromosomal aberrations were reported. In the Ph+ subgroup, 952 patients had safety and molecular assessments. In the Ph-/BCR-ABL1 + subgroup, 30 patients had safety assessments and 28 were followed up for molecular assessments. At 18 months, the molecular response (MR) 4 rate [MR(4); BCR-ABL1 ≤0.01% on International Scale (IS)] was similar in the Ph-/BCR-ABL1+ (39.3%) and Ph+ subgroups (38.1%). By 24 months, the cumulative rates of major molecular response (BCR-ABL1(IS) ≤0.1%;), MR(4), and MR(4.5) (BCR-ABL1(IS) ≤0.0032%) were 85.7, 60.7, and 50.0%, respectively, in the Ph-/BCR-ABL1 + subgroup, and 80.3, 54.7, and 38.3%, respectively, in the Ph+ subgroup. In both Ph-/BCR-ABL1 + and Ph+ subgroups, rash (20 and 22%), pruritus (16.7 and 16.7%), nasopharyngitis (13.3 and 10.4%), fatigue (10 and 14.2%), headache (10 and 15.8%), and nausea (6.7 vs 11.4%) were frequent non-hematologic adverse events, whereas hypophosphatemia (23.3 and 6.8%), anemia (10 and 6.5%), and thrombocytopenia (3.3 and 10.2%) were the common hematologic/biochemical laboratory events. Based on similar molecular response and safety results in both subgroups, we conclude that Ph-/BCR-ABL1 + patients benefit from nilotinib in the same way as Ph+ patients.

  5. Hsp90 N- and C-terminal double inhibition synergistically suppresses Bcr-Abl-positive human leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun; Zhuang, Yingting; Chen, Xianling; Chen, Xiaole; Li, Ding; Fan, Yingjuan; Xu, Jianhua; Chen, Yuanzhong; Wu, Lixian

    2017-02-07

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) contains amino (N)-terminal domain, carboxyl(C)-terminal domain, and middle domains, which activate Hsp90 chaperone function cooperatively in tumor cells. One terminal occupancy might influence another terminal binding with inhibitor. The Bcr-Abl kinase is one of the Hsp90 clients implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Present studies demonstrate that double inhibition of the N- and C-terminal termini can disrupt Hsp90 chaperone function synergistically, but not antagonistically, in Bcr-Abl-positive human leukemia cells. Furthermore, both the N-terminal inhibitor 17-AAG and the C-terminal inhibitor cisplatin (CP) have the capacity to suppress progenitor cells; however, only CP is able to inhibit leukemia stem cells (LSCs) significantly, which implies that the combinational treatment is able to suppress human leukemia in different mature states.

  6. MPT0B169, a New Antitubulin Agent, Inhibits Bcr-Abl Expression and Induces Mitochondrion-Mediated Apoptosis in Nonresistant and Imatinib-Resistant Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Cells.

    PubMed

    Wong, Shuit-Mun; Liu, Fu-Hwa; Lee, Yueh-Lun; Huang, Huei-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a clonal disorder of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells that is caused by the Bcr-Abl oncoprotein. Clinical resistance to the Bcr-Abl inhibitor imatinib is a critical problem in treating CML. This study investigated the antitumor effect and mechanism of MPT0B169, a new antitubulin agent, in K562 CML cells and their derived imatinib-resistant cells, IMR2 and IMR3. IMR2 and IMR3 cells showed complete resistance to imatinib-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis. Resistance involved ERK1/2 overactivation and MDR1 overexpression. MPT0B169 inhibited the growth of K562, IMR2, and IMR3 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. MPT0B169 substantially inhibited the mRNA and protein levels of Bcr-Abl, followed by its downstream pathways including Akt, ERK1/2, and STAT3 in these cells. MPT0B169 treatment resulted in a decrease in the polymer form of tubulin according to Western blot analysis. It triggered cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase before apoptosis, which was related to the upregulation of the mitotic marker MPM2 and the cyclin B1 level, and a change in the phosphorylation of Cdk1. MPT0B169 induced apoptosis in nonresistant and imatinib-resistant cells via a mitochondrion-mediated caspase pathway. Further study showed that the agent led to a decrease in the antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Mcl-1 and an increase in the apoptotic protein Bax. Taken together, our results suggest that MPT0B169 might be a promising agent for overcoming imatinib resistance in CML cells.

  7. Studying the features of 57 confirmed CRISPR loci in 29 strains of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Rahmatabadi, Seyyed Soheil; Nezafat, Navid; Negahdaripour, Manica; Hajighahramani, Nasim; Morowvat, Mohammad Hossein; Ghasemi, Younes

    2016-06-01

    Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPRs) system is a novel type of innate defense system in prokaryotes for destruction of exogenous elements. To gain further insight into behavior and organization of the system, the extensive analysis of the available sequenced genomes is necessary. The dynamic nature of CRISPR loci is possibly valuable for typing and relative analyses of strains and microbial population. There are a few orderly bioinformatics investigations about the structure of CRISPR sequences in the Escherichia coli strains. In this study, 57 CRISPR loci were selected from 32 Escherichia coli strains to investigate their structural characteristics and potential functions using bioinformatics tools. Our results showed that most strains contained several loci that mainly included conserved direct repeats, while the spacers were highly variable. Moreover, RNA analysis of the sequences indicated that all loci could form stable RNA secondary structures and showed homology mostly with phages compared to plasmids. Only three strains included cas genes around their loci.

  8. [Construction of standard allelic ladder of miniSTR loci by molecular cloning].

    PubMed

    Bai, Xue; Cong, Bin; Li, Shu-Jin; Hou, Zhi-Ping; Gu, Jian-Li; Liu, Ning; Li, Xia; Guo, Xia

    2009-04-01

    To investigate the genetic polymorphism of five miniSTR loci (D9S2157, D9S1122, D10S1435, D12ATA63, D2S1776) in Hebei Han population and to construct standard allelic ladders. Polymorphism of the five miniSTR loci in 120 unrelated individuals was analyzed by fluorescence PCR and ABI 310 Genetic Analyzer. Molecular cloning technique was employed to construct standard allelic ladder of the 5 loci. Of the five miniSTR loci, 8, 8, 7, 5 and 8 alleles were found, respectively. The polymorphism information component were 0.790, 0.720, 0.750, 0.630 and 0.850, respectively. The five loci have relatively abundant polymorphic information and their standard allelic ladders constructed by molecular cloning technique are useful in forensic science.

  9. Purification of TAT-CC-HA protein under native condition, and its transduction analysis and biological effects on BCR-ABL positive cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhenglan; Ji, Maosheng; Peng, Zhi; Huang, Shifeng; Xiao, Qing; Li, Chunli; Zeng, Jianming; Gao, Miao; Feng, Wenli

    2011-06-01

    BCR-ABL oncoprotein is the cause of chronic myeloid leukemia. The homologous oligomerization of BCR-ABL protein mediated by BCR coiled-coil (CC) domain plays an important role in ABL kinase activation. The HIV-1 TAT peptide has been used extensively for the introduction of proteins into cells. We recombinated a TAT-CC-HA protein to interrupt the homologous oligomerization of BCR-ABL. The expression conditions for TAT-CC-HA were optimized. The TAT-CC-HA fusion protein was purified with Ni+-NTA resin. TAT-CC-HA fusion protein was added into the cultures of Ba/F3-p210, 32D-p210, K562, KU812, Ba/F3, 32D, and HL-60 cells. It was found that TAT-CC-HA could transduce into these cells. It was confirmed that TAT-CC-HA fusion protein was internalized by Ba/F3-p210, K562, and Ba/F3 cells and located in the cytoplasm observed by confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscope. The transduction of TAT-CC-HA fusion protein into K562 cells was in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. The result of coimmunoprecipitation assay indicated that TAT-CC-HA could interact with BCR-ABL in K562 cells. The effects of TAT-CC-HA fusion protein on cell growth and apoptosis were detected by MTT test and flow cytometry. Our findings suggested that TAT-CC-HA fusion protein could specifically inhibit the growth of BCR-ABL positive cells, and specifically induce apoptosis of BCR-ABL positive cells, while not affect the growth and apoptosis of BCR-ABL negative cells.

  10. High-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells with bcr-abl and INK4A/ARF mutations retain susceptibility to alloreactive T cells.

    PubMed

    Young, Faith M; Campbell, Andrew; Emo, Kris Lambert; Jansson, Johan; Wang, Pin-Yi; Jordan, Craig T; Mullen, Craig A

    2008-06-01

    INK4A/ARF mutations are acquired in bcr/abl(+) lymphoid blast phase chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and bcr/abl(+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Donor lymphocyte infusion and graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) are generally ineffective in such ALLs, whereas GVL is highly active against bcr/abl(+) CML, which does not have a lesion in the INK4A/ARF locus. The mechanisms for the ineffectiveness of GVL are not fully known, and it is possible that intrinsic resistance of acute lymphoid leukemias to immune effectors associated with allogeneic GVL may contribute to ineffectiveness. This work tested the hypothesis that INK4A/ARF mutations that are associated with transformation of bcr/abl(+) CML to an ALL phenotype, and that are associated with increased resistance to apoptosis render ALL cells insensitive to allogeneic immune responses to minor histocompatibility antigens (mHA). Murine acute pre-B ALLs were induced by transfer of the human p210 bcr/abl gene into bone marrow of INK4A/ARF null mice. These ALL lines were then studied in a murine model of MHC-matched, mHA-mismatched allogeneic BMT. In vivo growth of these ALLs was inhibited in allogeneic transplants characterized by active allogeneic immune responses compared to their behavior in syngeneic transplants. In vitro ALLs with INK4A/ARF, p210 bcr/abl, or p190 bcr/abl mutations remained sensitive to anti-mHA cytolytic T cells. In addition, the ALLs were capable of inducing primary immune responses to mHAs in vivo. Thus, ALLs with INK4A/ARF or bcr/abl mutations are not intrinsically resistant to allogeneic T cell responses, suggesting that active immunotherapies against mHA have the potential to control such acute lymphoblastic leukemias.

  11. High risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells with bcr-abl and INK4A/ARF mutations retain susceptibility to alloreactive T cells

    PubMed Central

    Young, Faith M.; Campbell, Andrew; Emo, Kris Lambert; Jansson, Johan; Wang, Pin-Yi; Jordan, Craig T.; Mullen, Craig A.

    2008-01-01

    INK4A/ARF mutations are acquired in bcr/abl+ lymphoid blast phase chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and bcr/abl+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Donor lymphocyte infusion and graft versus leukemia are generally ineffective in such ALL’s, while GVL is highly active against bcr/abl+ CML that does not have a lesion in the INK4A/ARF locus. The mechanisms for the ineffectiveness of GVL are not fully known and it is possible that intrinsic resistance of acute lymphoid leukemias to immune effectors associated with allogeneic GVL may contribute to ineffectiveness. This work tested the hypothesis that INK4A/ARF mutations that are associated with transformation of bcr/abl+ CML to an ALL phenotype and that are associated with increased resistance to apoptosis render ALL cells insensitive to allogeneic immune responses to minor histocompatibility antigens (mHA). Murine acute pre-B ALL’s were induced by transfer of the human p210 bcr/abl gene into bone marrow of INK4A/ARF null mice. These ALL lines were then studied in a murine model of MHC-matched, mHA-mismatched allogeneic BMT. In vivo growth of these ALL’s was inhibited in allogeneic transplants characterized by active allogeneic immune responses compared to their behavior in syngeneic transplants. In vitro ALL’s with INK4A/ARF, p210 bcr/abl, or p190 bcr/abl mutations remained sensitive to anti-mHA cytolytic T cells. In addition, the ALL’s were capable of inducing primary immune responses to mHA’s in vivo. Thus, ALL’s with INK4A/ARF or bcr/abl mutations are not intrinsically resistant to allogeneic T cell responses suggesting that active immunotherapies against mHA have potential to control such acute lymphoblastic leukemias. PMID:18489987

  12. Myeloid Neoplasms with Concurrent BCR-ABL1 and CBFB Rearrangements: A Series of 10 Cases of a Clinically Aggressive Neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Salem, Alireza; Loghavi, Sanam; Tang, Guilin; Huh, Yang O; Jabbour, Elias J; Kantarjian, Hagop; Wang, Wei; Hu, Shimin; Luthra, Rajyalakshmi; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Khoury, Joseph D

    2017-03-02

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is defined by the presence of t(9;22)(q34;q11.2)/BCR-ABL1. Additional chromosomal abnormalities confer an adverse prognosis and are particularly common in the blast phase of CML (CML-BP). CBFB rearrangement, particularly CBFB-MYH11 fusion resulting from inv(16)(p13.1q22) or t(16;16)(p13.1;q22), is an acute myeloid leukemia (AML)-defining alteration that is associated with a favorable outcome. The co-occurrence of BCR-ABL1 and CBFB rearrangement is extremely rare, and the significance of this finding remains unclear. We identified 10 patients with myeloid neoplasms harboring BCR-ABL1 and CBFB rearrangement. The study group included 6 men and 4 women with a median age of 51 years (range, 20-71 years). The sequence of molecular alterations could be determined in 9 cases: BCR-ABL1 preceded CBFB rearrangement in 7, CBFB rearrangement preceded BCR-ABL1 in 2, and both alterations were discovered simultaneously in 1 patient. BCR-ABL1 encoded for p210 kD in all cases in which BCR-ABL1 preceded CBFB rearrangement; a p190 kD was identified in the other 3 cases. Two patients were treated with the FLAG-IDA regimen (fludarabine, cytarabine, idarubicin and G-CSF) and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI); 7 with other cytarabine-based regimens and TKIs, and one with ponatinib alone. At last follow up (median, 16 months; range 2-85), 7 of 10 patients had died. The co-existence of BCR-ABL1 and CBFB rearrangement is associated with poor outcome and a clinical course similar to that of CML-BP, and unlike de novo AML with CBFB rearrangement, suggesting that high-intensity chemotherapy with TKI should be considered in these patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. BCR/ABL alters the function of NK cells and the acquisition of killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs).

    PubMed

    Chiorean, Elena G; Dylla, Scott J; Olsen, Krista; Lenvik, Todd; Soignier, Yvette; Miller, Jeffrey S

    2003-05-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells decrease in function during chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) progression from chronic phase to blast crisis, and they can become BCR/ABL(+) late in the disease course. To study this altered function, NK92 cells were transduced with the BCR/ABL oncogene. In contrast to the parental cells, which died when deprived of interleukin 2 (IL-2), p210(+) NK92 cells proliferated and survived indefinitely in the absence of IL-2. BCR/ABL also decreased the natural cytotoxicity of NK92 cells against K562 targets, without affecting IL-2, interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production. Although the ABL-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate (STI-571) had no effect on parental NK92 cells, it markedly decreased the growth and survival of IL-2-independent p210(+) NK92 cells. In contrast to the parental cell line, serial analysis of p210(+) NK92 cells detected small populations that clonally expressed one or more killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs). Unlike the decreased natural cytotoxicity, the function of the activating CD158j receptor remained intact. Southern blotting and hybridization with an enhanced green fluorescence protein (eGFP) probe showed that KIR(-) and KIR(+) NK92 cells were all derived from the same clone, suggesting that KIR acquisition remains dynamic at the maturational stage represented by the NK92 cell line. When tested in primary CD56(+bright) NK cells, p210 induced partial IL-2-independent growth and increased KIR expression similar to findings in NK92 cells. This is the first study to show that BCR/ABL, well known for its effects on the myeloid lineage, can alter the function of lymphoid cells, which may be associated with the defect in innate immunity associated with CML progression.

  14. BCR signaling inhibitors differ in their ability to overcome Mcl-1-mediated resistance of CLL B cells to ABT-199.

    PubMed

    Bojarczuk, Kamil; Sasi, Binu K; Gobessi, Stefania; Innocenti, Idanna; Pozzato, Gabriele; Laurenti, Luca; Efremov, Dimitar G

    2016-06-23

    The Bcl-2 antagonist ABT-199 (venetoclax) has demonstrated promising clinical activity in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). ABT-199 is strongly cytotoxic against unstimulated peripheral blood CLL cells in vitro but is much less effective against CLL cells that have received survival signals from the microenvironment. In particular, stimulation of CLL cells with CD40L results in substantial resistance mediated by induction of the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins Bcl-xL and Bfl-1. In this study, we investigated whether resistance to ABT-199 can be conferred by B-cell receptor (BCR) stimulation, which is another important survival signal from the leukemic microenvironment. We show that sustained BCR stimulation results in significant ABT-199 resistance, which correlates with induction of the antiapoptotic protein Mcl-1 and less consistently with downregulation of proapoptotic Bmf, Hrk, and BimEL A major role for Mcl-1 in conferring ABT-199 resistance is additionally supported by knockdown and enforced expression experiments with primary CLL cells. We further show that SYK, BTK, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase δ (PI3Kδ) inhibitors significantly downregulate Mcl-1, but with different efficacy. Complete Mcl-1 downregulation was consistently achieved only with SYK inhibitors R406 and GS-9973 (entospletinib), whereas the BTK inhibitor ibrutinib and the PI3Kδ inhibitor idelalisib in more than half of the cases had only a partial effect. The greater ability of SYK inhibitors to downregulate Mcl-1 correlated with their greater capacity to block BCR-mediated inactivation of GSK-3, a major negative regulator of Mcl-1. The finding that BCR signaling inhibitors differ in their ability to target Mcl-1 is relevant for the design of clinical trials combining these agents with ABT-199.

  15. Quantification of BCR-ABL mRNA in Plasma/Serum of Patients with Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Narita, Miwako; Saito, Anri; Kojima, Aya; Iwabuchi, Minami; Satoh, Naoya; Uchiyama, Takayoshi; Yamahira, Akie; Furukawa, Tatsuo; Sone, Hirohito; Takahashi, Masuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Quantification of tumor-associated mRNA extracted from blood cells/tissues containing tumor cells is used for evaluation of treatment efficacy or residual tumor cell burden in tumors including leukemia. However, this method using tumor cell-containing blood/tissue is difficult to evaluate the whole tumor cell burden in the body. In order to establish an efficient method to evaluate the whole tumor cell burden in the body, we tried to quantify tumor-associated mRNA existing in plasma/serum instead of leukemia cell-containing blood cells in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and compared the levels of BCR-ABL mRNA between plasma/serum and peripheral blood cells. mRNA of BCR-ABL, WT1 or GAPDH (control molecule) was detected by real-time RT-PCR using RNA extracted from plasma/serum of almost all the patients with CML. Copy numbers of BCR-ABL mRNA were significantly correlated between plasma/serum and peripheral blood cells. However, levels of BCR-ABL mRNA extracted from serum were low compared with those extracted with peripheral blood cells. The present findings suggest that although real-time RT-PCR of mRNA existing in plasma/serum could be used for evaluating the whole tumor cell burden in the body, it's required to establish an efficient method to quantify plasma/serum mRNA by nature without degrading during the procedure. PMID:23155364

  16. Inhibiting CARD11 translation during BCR activation by targeting the eIF4A RNA helicase

    PubMed Central

    Steinhardt, James J.; Peroutka, Raymond J.; Mazan-Mamczarz, Krystyna; Chen, Qing; Houng, Simone; Robles, Carol; Barth, Rolf N.; DuBose, Joseph; Bruns, Brandon; Tesoriero, Ronald; Stein, Deborah; Fang, Raymond; Hanna, Nader; Pasley, Jason; Rodriguez, Carlos; Kligman, Mark D.; Bradley, Matthew; Rabin, Joseph; Shackelford, Stacy; Dai, Bojie; Landon, Ari L.; Scalea, Thomas; Livak, Ferenc

    2014-01-01

    Human diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) often aberrantly express oncogenes that generally contain complex secondary structures in their 5′ untranslated region (UTR). Oncogenes with complex 5′UTRs require enhanced eIF4A RNA helicase activity for translation. PDCD4 inhibits eIF4A, and PDCD4 knockout mice have a high penetrance for B-cell lymphomas. Here, we show that on B-cell receptor (BCR)-mediated p70s6K activation, PDCD4 is degraded, and eIF4A activity is greatly enhanced. We identified a subset of genes involved in BCR signaling, including CARD11, BCL10, and MALT1, that have complex 5′UTRs and encode proteins with short half-lives. Expression of these known oncogenic proteins is enhanced on BCR activation and is attenuated by the eIF4A inhibitor Silvestrol. Antigen-experienced immunoglobulin (Ig)G+ splenic B cells, from which most DLBCLs are derived, have higher levels of eIF4A cap-binding activity and protein translation than IgM+ B cells. Our results suggest that eIF4A-mediated enhancement of oncogene translation may be a critical component for lymphoma progression, and specific targeting of eIF4A may be an attractive therapeutic approach in the management of human B-cell lymphomas. PMID:25320244

  17. Structural Mechanism of the Pan-BCR-ABL Inhibitor Ponatinib (AP24534): Lessons for Overcoming Kinase Inhibitor Resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Tianjun; Commodore, Lois; Huang, Wei-Sheng; Wang, Yihan; Thomas, Mathew; Keats, Jeff; Xu, Qihong; Rivera, Victor M.; Shakespeare, William C.; Clackson, Tim; Dalgarno, David C.; Zhu, Xiaotian

    2012-01-20

    The BCR-ABL inhibitor imatinib has revolutionized the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia. However, drug resistance caused by kinase domain mutations has necessitated the development of new mutation-resistant inhibitors, most recently against the T315I gatekeeper residue mutation. Ponatinib (AP24534) inhibits both native and mutant BCR-ABL, including T315I, acting as a pan-BCR-ABL inhibitor. Here, we undertook a combined crystallographic and structure-activity relationship analysis on ponatinib to understand this unique profile. While the ethynyl linker is a key inhibitor functionality that interacts with the gatekeeper, virtually all other components of ponatinib play an essential role in its T315I inhibitory activity. The extensive network of optimized molecular contacts found in the DFG-out binding mode leads to high potency and renders binding less susceptible to disruption by single point mutations. The inhibitory mechanism exemplified by ponatinib may have broad relevance to designing inhibitors against other kinases with mutated gatekeeper residues.

  18. Inhibiting CARD11 translation during BCR activation by targeting the eIF4A RNA helicase.

    PubMed

    Steinhardt, James J; Peroutka, Raymond J; Mazan-Mamczarz, Krystyna; Chen, Qing; Houng, Simone; Robles, Carol; Barth, Rolf N; DuBose, Joseph; Bruns, Brandon; Tesoriero, Ronald; Stein, Deborah; Fang, Raymond; Hanna, Nader; Pasley, Jason; Rodriguez, Carlos; Kligman, Mark D; Bradley, Matthew; Rabin, Joseph; Shackelford, Stacy; Dai, Bojie; Landon, Ari L; Scalea, Thomas; Livak, Ferenc; Gartenhaus, Ronald B

    2014-12-11

    Human diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) often aberrantly express oncogenes that generally contain complex secondary structures in their 5' untranslated region (UTR). Oncogenes with complex 5'UTRs require enhanced eIF4A RNA helicase activity for translation. PDCD4 inhibits eIF4A, and PDCD4 knockout mice have a high penetrance for B-cell lymphomas. Here, we show that on B-cell receptor (BCR)-mediated p70s6K activation, PDCD4 is degraded, and eIF4A activity is greatly enhanced. We identified a subset of genes involved in BCR signaling, including CARD11, BCL10, and MALT1, that have complex 5'UTRs and encode proteins with short half-lives. Expression of these known oncogenic proteins is enhanced on BCR activation and is attenuated by the eIF4A inhibitor Silvestrol. Antigen-experienced immunoglobulin (Ig)G(+) splenic B cells, from which most DLBCLs are derived, have higher levels of eIF4A cap-binding activity and protein translation than IgM(+) B cells. Our results suggest that eIF4A-mediated enhancement of oncogene translation may be a critical component for lymphoma progression, and specific targeting of eIF4A may be an attractive therapeutic approach in the management of human B-cell lymphomas.

  19. The BCR-ABL/NF-κB signal transduction network: a long lasting relationship in Philadelphia positive Leukemias

    PubMed Central

    Carrà, Giovanna; Torti, Davide; Crivellaro, Sabrina; Panuzzo, Cristina; Taulli, Riccardo; Cilloni, Daniela; Guerrasio, Angelo; Saglio, Giuseppe; Morotti, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    The Nuclear Factor-kappa B (NF-κB) family of transcription factors plays a key role in cancer pathogenesis due to the ability to promote cellular proliferation and survival, to induce resistance to chemotherapy and to mediate invasion and metastasis. NF-κB is recruited through different mechanisms involving either canonical (RelA/p50) or non-canonical pathways (RelB/p50 or RelB/p52), which transduce the signals originated from growth-factors, cytokines, oncogenic stress and DNA damage, bacterial and viral products or other stimuli. The pharmacological inhibition of the NF-κB pathway has clearly been associated with significant clinical activity in different cancers. Almost 20 years ago, NF-κB was described as an essential modulator of BCR-ABL signaling in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia and Philadelphia-positive Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. This review summarizes the role of NF-κB in BCR-ABL-mediated leukemogenesis and provides new insights on the long lasting BCR-ABL/NF-κB connection. PMID:27563822

  20. BCR/ABL1 fusion transcripts generated from alternative splicing: implications for future targeted therapies in Ph+ leukaemias.

    PubMed

    Chiarella, P; Summa, V; De Santis, S; Signori, E; Picardi, E; Pesole, G; Saglio, G; Fazio, V M

    2012-06-01

    Philadelphia (Ph+) positive leukaemias are an example of haematological malignant diseases where different chromosomal rearrangements involving both BCR and ABL1 genes generate a variety of chimeric proteins (BCR/ABL1 p210, p190 and p230) which are considered pathological "biomarkers". In addition to these three, there is a variety of fusion transcripts whose origin may depend either on diverse genetic rearrangement or on alternative/atypical splicing of the main mRNAs or on the occurrence of single-point mutations. Although the therapy of Ph+ leukaemias based on Imatinib represents a triumph of medicine, not all patients benefit from such drug and may show resistance and intolerance. Furthermore, interruption of Imatinib administration is often followed by clinical relapse, suggesting a failure in the eradication of residual leukaemic stem cells. Therefore, while the targeted therapy is searching for new and implemented pharmacological inhibitors covering all the possible mutations in the kinase domain, there is urge to identify alternative molecular targets to develop other specific and effective therapeutic approaches. In this review we discuss the importance of recent advances based on the discovery of novel BCR/ABL1 variants and their potential role as new targets/biomarkers of Ph+ leukaemias in the light of the current therapeutic trends. The limits of the pharmacological inhibitors used for treating the disease can be overcome by considering other targets than the kinase enzyme. Our evaluations highlight the potential of alternative perspectives in the therapy of Ph+ leukaemias.

  1. CALR, JAK2 and MPL mutation status in Argentinean patients with BCR-ABL1- negative myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Ojeda, Mara Jorgelina; Bragós, Irma Margarita; Calvo, Karina Lucrecia; Williams, Gladis Marcela; Carbonell, María Magdalena; Pratti, Arianna Flavia

    2017-10-09

    To establish the frequency of JAK2, MPL and CALR mutations in Argentinean patients with BCR-ABL1-negative  myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) and to compare their clinical and haematological features. Mutations of JAK2V617F, JAK2 exon 12, MPL W515L/K and CALR were analysed in 439 Argentinean patients with BCR-ABL1-negative MPN, including 176 polycythemia vera (PV), 214 essential thrombocythemia (ET) and 49 primary myelofibrosis (PMF). In 94.9% of PV, 85.5% ET and 85.2% PMF, we found mutations in JAK2, MPL or CALR. 74.9% carried JAK2V617F, 12.3% CALR mutations, 2.1% MPL mutations and 10.7% were triple negative. In ET, nine types of CALR mutations were identified, four of which were novel. PMF patients were limited to types 1 and 2, type 2 being more frequent. In ET, patients with CALR mutation were younger and had higher platelet counts than those with JAK2V617F and triple negative. In addition, JAK2V617F patients had high leucocyte and haemoglobin values compared with CALR-mutated and triple-negative patients. In PMF, patients with mutant CALR were associated with higher platelet counts. Our study underscores the importance of JAK2, MPL and CALR genotyping for accurate diagnosis of patients with BCR-ABL1-negative MPN.

  2. [Detection of BCR-ABL1 chimeric gene-positive neutrophils in a patient with mixed phenotype acute leukemia].

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Fusako; Nakamura, Yukitsugu; Tokita, Katsuya; Takahashi, Wataru; Iso, Hisako; Arai, Honoka; Tsurumi, Shigeharu; Handa, Tomoyuki; Nakamura, Yuko; Nakamura, Yuka; Sasaki, Ko; Mitani, Kinuko

    2013-11-01

    We experienced two patients with mixed phenotype acute leukemia with t(9;22)(q34;q11.2); BCR-ABL1 according to the WHO classification 2008. The type of BCR/ABL1 was major in both patients, and the chimeric gene was also detected in neutrophils from peripheral blood by the fluorescence in situ hybridization technique. Patient 1 was a 59-year-old Japanese woman, and patient 2 a 45-year-old Japanese man. They had both developed leukemia suddenly. Their leukemic blasts expressed B cell and myeloid cell antigens, but concomitantly in patient 1 (biphenotypic) and separately in patient 2 (biclonal). Percentages of BCR-ABL1-positive neutrophils were 98% and 89%, respectively. Both patients received an imatinib (600 mg/day)-combined Hyper-CVAD regimen as induction therapy, followed by treatment with dasatinib (140 mg/day). MEC therapy was also applied between these two treatments in patient 2. At present, patient 1 has obtained complete molecular remission quantitatively and qualitatively, and patient 2 only quantitatively. Considering their acute onsets with no prior history of chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML), they were both diagnosed as having acute leukemia with Ph1, but not blastic crisis of CML. In this tyrosine kinase inhibitor era, it has become more difficult to differentiate these two types of Ph1-positive leukemia development.

  3. Combined Targeting of BCL-2 and BCR-ABL Tyrosine Kinase Eradicates Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mak, Po Yee; Mu, Hong; Zhou, Hongsheng; Mak, Duncan H.; Schober, Wendy; Leverson, Joel D.; Zhang, Bin; Bhatia, Ravi; Huang, Xuelin; Cortes, Jorge; Kantarjian, Hagop; Konopleva, Marina

    2016-01-01

    BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are effective against chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), but they rarely eliminate CML stem cells. Disease relapse is common upon therapy cessation, even in patients with complete molecular responses. Furthermore, once CML progresses to blast crisis (BC), treatment outcomes are dismal. We hypothesized that concomitant targeting of BCL-2 and BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase could overcome these limitations. We demonstrate increased BCL-2 expression at the protein level in bone marrow cells, particularly in Lin−Sca-1+cKit+ cells of inducible CML in mice as determined by CyTOF mass cytometry. Further, selective inhibition of BCL-2, aided by TKI-mediated MCL-1 and BCL-XL inhibition, markedly decreased leukemic Lin−Sca-1+cKit+ cell numbers and long-term stem cell frequency, and prolonged survival in a murine CML model. Additionally, this combination effectively eradicated CD34+CD38−, CD34+CD38+, and quiescent stem/progenitor CD34+ cells from BC CML patient samples. Our results suggest that BCL-2 is a key survival factor for CML stem/progenitor cells and that combined inhibition of BCL-2 and BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase has the potential to significantly improve depth of response and cure rates of chronic phase and BC CML. PMID:27605552

  4. Stat3 contributes to resistance toward BCR-ABL inhibitors in a bone marrow microenvironment model of drug resistance

    PubMed Central

    Bewry, Nadine N.; Nair, Rajesh R.; Emmons, Michael F.; Boulware, David; Pinilla-Ibarz, Javier; Hazlehurst, Lori A.

    2009-01-01

    Imatinib mesylate is a potent, molecularly targeted therapy against the oncogenic tyrosine kinase BCR-ABL. Although imatinib mesylate has considerable efficacy against chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), advanced-stage CML patients frequently become refractory to this agent. The bone marrow is the predominant microenvironment of CML and is a rich source of both soluble factors and extracellular matrices, which may influence drug response. To address the influence of the bone marrow microenvironment on imatinib mesylate sensitivity, we used an in vitro coculture bone marrow stroma model. Our data show culturing K562 cells, in bone marrow stroma-derived conditioned medium (CM), is sufficient to cause resistance to BCR-ABL inhibitors. Drug resistance correlated with increased pTyrStat3, whereas no increases in pTyrStat5 were noted. Moreover, resistance was associated with increased levels of the Stat3 target genes Bcl-xl, Mcl-1, and survivin. Finally, reducing Stat3 levels with small interfering RNA sensitized K562 cells cultured in CM to imatinib mesylate-induced cell death. Importantly, Stat3 dependency was specific for cells grown in CM, as reducing Stat3 levels in regular growth conditions had no effect on imatinib mesylate sensitivity. Together, these data support a novel mechanism of BCR-ABL-independent imatinib mesylate resistance and provide preclinical rationale for using Stat3 inhibitors to increase the efficacy of imatinib mesylate within the context of the bone marrow microenvironment. PMID:18852120

  5. Localization of preferential sites of rearrangement within the BCR gene in Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Denny, C.T.; Shah, N.P.; Ogden, S.; Willman, C.; McConnell, T.; Crist, W.; Carroll, A.; Witte, O.N. )

    1989-06-01

    The Philadelphia chromosome associated with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has been linked to a hybrid BCR/ABL protein product that differs from that found in chronic myelogenous leukemia. This implies that the molecular structures of the two chromosomal translocations also differ. Localization of translocation breakpoints in Philadelphia chromosome-positive ALL has been impeded due to the only partial characterization of the BCR locus. The authors have isolated the entire 130-kilobase BCR genomic locus from a human cosmid library. They have demonstrated that these breakpoints are all located at the 3{prime} end of the intron around an unusual restriction fragment length polymorphism caused by deletion of a 1-kilobase fragment containing Alu family reiterated sequences. This clustering is unexpected in light of previous theories of rearrangement in Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia that would have predicted a random dispersion of breakpoints in the first intron in Philadelphia chromosome-positive ALL. The proximity of the translocation breakpoints to this constitutive deletion may indicate shared mechanisms of rearrangement or that such polymorphisms mark areas of the genome prone to recombination.

  6. p210(BCR-ABL) reprograms transformed and normal human megakaryocytic progenitor cells into erythroid cells and suppresses FLI-1 transcription.

    PubMed

    Buet, D; Raslova, H; Geay, J-F; Jarrier, P; Lazar, V; Turhan, A; Morlé, F; Vainchenker, W; Louache, F

    2007-05-01

    The BCR-ABL oncoprotein exhibits deregulated protein tyrosine kinase activity and is implicated in the pathogenesis of Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)-positive human leukemias. Here, we report that ectopic expression of p210(BCR-ABL) in the megakaryoblastic Mo7e cell line and in primary human CD34(+) progenitors trigger erythroid differentiation at the expense of megakaryocyte (MK) differentiation. Clonal culture of purified CD41(+)CD42(-) cells, a population highly enriched in MK progenitors, combined with the conditional expression of p210(BCR-ABL) tyrosine kinase activity by imatinib identified a true lineage reprogramming. In both Mo7e or CD41(+)CD42(-) cells transduced with p210(BCR-ABL), lineage switching was associated with a downregulation of the friend leukemia Integration 1 (FLI-1) transcription factor. Re-expression of FLI-1 in p210(BCR-ABL)-transduced Mo7e cells rescued the megakaryoblastic phenotype. Altogether, these results demonstrate that alteration of signal transduction via p210(BCR-ABL) reprograms MK cells into erythroid cells by a downregulation of FLI-1. In addition, our findings underscore the role of kinases in lineage choice and infidelity in pathology and suggest that downregulation of FLI-1 may have important implications in CML pathogenesis.

  7. Transposon-mediated generation of BCR-ABL1-expressing transgenic cell lines for unbiased sensitivity testing of tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Berkowitsch, Bettina; Koenig, Margit; Haas, Oskar A.; Hoermann, Gregor; Valent, Peter; Lion, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Point mutations in the ABL1 kinase domain are an important mechanism of resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) in BCR-ABL1-positive and, as recently shown, BCR-ABL1-like leukemias. The cell line Ba/F3 lentivirally transduced with mutant BCR-ABL1 constructs is widely used for in vitro sensitivity testing and response prediction to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The transposon-based Sleeping Beauty system presented offers several advantages over lentiviral transduction including the absence of biosafety issues, faster generation of transgenic cell lines, and greater efficacy in introducing large gene constructs. Nevertheless, both methods can mediate multiple insertions in the genome. Here we show that multiple BCR-ABL1 insertions result in elevated IC50 levels for individual TKIs, thus overestimating the actual resistance of mutant subclones. We have therefore established flow-sorting-based fractionation of BCR-ABL1-transformed Ba/F3 cells facilitating efficient enrichment of cells carrying single-site insertions, as demonstrated by FISH-analysis. Fractions of unselected Ba/F3 cells not only showed a greater number of BCR-ABL1 hybridization signals, but also revealed higher IC50 values for the TKIs tested. The data presented highlight the need to carefully select transfected cells by flow-sorting, and to control the insertion numbers by FISH and real-time PCR to permit unbiased in vitro testing of drug resistance. PMID:27801667

  8. P210 and P190(BCR/ABL) induce the tyrosine phosphorylation and DNA binding activity of multiple specific STAT family members.

    PubMed

    Ilaria, R L; Van Etten, R A

    1996-12-06

    The products of the Philadelphia chromosome translocation, P210 and P190(BCR/ABL), are cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinases that share the ability to transform hematopoietic cytokine-dependent cell lines to cytokine independence but differ in the spectrum of leukemia induced in vivo. We have analyzed the Janus kinase (JAK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathways in hematopoietic cells transformed by Bcr/Abl. STAT5 and, to a lesser extent, STATs 1 and 3 were constitutively activated by tyrosine phosphorylation and induction of DNA binding activity in both P210 and P190(BCR/ABL)-transformed cells, but P190 differed in that it also prominently activated STAT6. There was low level tyrosine phosphorylation of JAKs 1, 2, and 3 in Bcr/Abl-transformed cells, but no detectable complex formation with Bcr/Abl, and activation of STAT5 by P210 was not blocked by two different dominant-negative JAK mutants. These results suggest that P210 and P190(BCR/ABL) directly activate specific STAT family members and may help explain their overlapping yet distinct roles in leukemogenesis.

  9. Increased CD40 ligation and reduced BCR signalling leads to higher IL-10 production in B-cells from tolerant kidney transplant patients

    PubMed Central

    Nova-Lamperti, Estefania; Chana, Prabhjoat; Mobillo, Paula; Runglall, Manohursingh; Kamra, Yogesh; McGregor, Reuben; Lord, Graham M.; Lechler, Robert I.; Lombardi, Giovanna; Hernandez-Fuentes, Maria P.

    2016-01-01

    Background An increased percentage of peripheral transitional B-cells producing IL-10 has been observed in patients tolerant to kidney allografts. In healthy volunteers, the balance between the CD40 and B-cell receptor (BCR) signalling modulated IL-10 production by B-cells, with stimulation via the BCR decreasing CD40-mediated-IL-10 production. In this study, we evaluate whether in tolerant kidney transplant patients the increased IL-10 production by B-cells was due to an altered CD40 and/or BCR signalling. Methods B-cells obtained from a new cohort of tolerant renal transplant recipients and those from age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers, were activated via CD40 and BCR, either alone or in combination. Results In tolerant patients we observed higher percentages of B-cells producing IL-10 after CD40 ligation and higher expression of CD40L on activated T-cells, compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, B-cells from tolerant recipients had reduced ERK signalling following BCR-mediated activation compared to healthy controls. In keeping with this, combining BCR signalling with CD40 ligation did not reduce IL-10 secretion as was observed in healthy control transitional B-cells. Conclusion Altogether our data suggests that the altered response of B-cells in tolerant recipients may contribute to long-term stable graft acceptance. PMID:27472092

  10. Developmental origins and impact of BCR-ABL1 fusion and IKZF1 deletions in monozygotic twins with Ph+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    van Delft, Frederik W.; Lo Nigro, Luca; Ford, Anthony M.; Score, Joannah; Iacobucci, Ilaria; Mirabile, Elena; Taj, Mary; Colman, Susan M.; Biondi, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The timing and developmental sequence of events for BCR-ABL1+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), usually associated with IKAROS (IKZF1) deletions, are unknown. We assessed the status of BCR-ABL1 and IKZF1 genes in 2 pairs of monozygotic twins, one pair concordant, the other discordant for Philadelphia chromosome positive (Ph+) ALL. The twin pair concordant for ALL shared identical BCR-ABL1 genomic sequence indicative of monoclonal, in utero origin. One twin had IKZF1 deletion and died after transplantation. The other twin had hyperdiploidy, no IKZF1 deletion, and is still in remission 8 years after transplantation. In the twin pair discordant for ALL, neonatal blood spots from both twins harbored the same clonotypic BCR-ABL1 sequence. Low level BCR-ABL1+ cells were present in the healthy co-twin but lacked the IKZF1 deletion present in the other twin's leukemic cells. The twin with ALL relapsed and died after transplantation. The co-twin remains healthy and leukemia free. These data show that in childhood Ph+ ALL, BCR-ABL1 gene fusion can be a prenatal and possibly initiating genetic event. In the absence of additional, secondary changes, the leukemic clone remains clinically silent. IKZF1 is a secondary and probable postnatal mutation in these cases, and as a recurrent but alternative copy number change is associated with poor prognosis. PMID:21960589

  11. Overdominant quantitative trait loci for yield and fitness in tomato.

    PubMed

    Semel, Yaniv; Nissenbaum, Jonathan; Menda, Naama; Zinder, Michael; Krieger, Uri; Issman, Noa; Pleban, Tzili; Lippman, Zachary; Gur, Amit; Zamir, Dani

    2006-08-29

    Heterosis, or hybrid vigor, is a major genetic force that contributes to world food production. The genetic basis of heterosis is not clear, and the importance of loci with overdominant (ODO) effects is debated. One problem has been the use of whole-genome segregating populations, where interactions often mask the effects of individual loci. To assess the contribution of ODO to heterosis in the absence of epistasis, we carried out quantitative genetic and phenotypic analyses on a population of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) introgression lines (ILs), which carry single marker-defined chromosome segments from the distantly related wild species Solanum pennellii. The ILs revealed 841 quantitative trait loci (QTL) for 35 diverse traits measured in the field on homozygous and heterozygous plants. ILs showing greater reproductive fitness were characterized by the prevalence of ODO QTL, which were virtually absent for the nonreproductive traits. ODO can result from true ODO due to allelic interactions of a single gene or from pseudoODO that involves linked loci with dominant alleles in repulsion. The fact that we detected dominant and recessive QTL for all phenotypic categories but ODO only for the reproductive traits indicates that pseudoODO due to random linkage is unlikely to explain heterosis in the ILs. Thus, we favor the true ODO model involving a single functional Mendelian locus. We propose that the alliance of ODO QTL with higher reproductive fitness was selected for in evolution and was domesticated by man to improve yields of crop plants.

  12. The natural history and treatment outcome of blast phase BCR-ABL− myeloproliferative neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Constantine S.; Nussenzveig, Roberto M.; Popat, Uday; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos E.; Thomas, Deborah A.; Cortes, Jorge A.; Champlin, Richard E.; Ciurea, Stefan E.; Manshouri, Taghi; Pierce, Sherry M.; Kantarjian, Hagop M.

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed the outcomes of 74 patients diagnosed with BCR-ABL− myeloproliferative neoplasms in blast phase receiving induction chemotherapy (55%), low-intensity therapy (16%), stem cell transplantation (SCT; 3%), or supportive care (26%). Median survival from the date of blastic transformation was 5 months. Patients receiving supportive therapy had a median survival of 6 weeks. Complete remission with or without blood recovery was achieved in 46% of patients receiving induction chemotherapy, but remissions were not durable with a median progression-free survival of only 5 months. Eight patients received SCT either as first therapy or after responding to antileukemia therapy. These patients had a markedly superior survival, with 73% alive at a median follow-up of 31 months. JAK2V617F kinetics were assessed in 16 patients: 0 of 4 negative patients became positive at transformation, and among 12 positive patients, 1 had an increase in JAK2V617F% at transformation, 7 had a substantial decrease, and 4 had stable levels. Myeloproliferative neoplasm blast phase is associated with a dismal prognosis. Responses to chemotherapy can be achieved but are not durable. Long-term survivors had all received SCT either as first therapy or in first remission. PMID:18566326

  13. Molecular monitoring of the treatment of patients with BCR/ABL (+) chronic myelogenous leukemia.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Argüelles, G J; López-Martínez, B; Ramírez-Cabrera, J M; Reyes-Núñez, V; Rodríguez-Cedeño, H M; Garcés-Eisele, J

    2001-01-01

    The molecular follow-up of patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) has been described as useful in other countries, but there are not data reported in Mexico. All patients studied at Laboratories Clínicos de Puebla/Centro de Hematología y Medicina Interna de Puebla in which the BCR-ABL hybrid gene was identified by means of polymerase chain reaction were analyzed. In 22 individuals the molecular marker of the disease was studied at diagnosis and in different instances afterwards; these patients were treated with chemotherapy, interferon, autologous or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Only the six patients that were allografted from HLA-identical siblings cleared the molecular marker of the disease; the rest of them did not achieve molecular remissions. The median survival (SV) of the whole group has not been reached, whereas the 53-month SV is 68%. One of the allografted patients died as a result of complications of graft versus-host disease. We have found useful the molecular monitoring of the treatment of patients with CML. Using this approach, we found that molecular remissions can be accomplished only with allografting; however, other therapeutic approaches may also result in long-lasting hematologic remissions.

  14. Use of the BCR sequential extraction procedure for the study of metal availability to plants.

    PubMed

    Li, Junhui; Lu, Ying; Shim, Hojae; Deng, Xianglian; Lian, Jin; Jia, Zhenglei; Li, Jianhua

    2010-02-01

    To investigate the mobility and availability of metals from soil to plant, concentrations of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and arsenic (As) in topsoils and plants (lettuce, scallion, celery, tomato, carambola, wampee and longan) collected from the area around a petrochemical complex in Guangzhou, China, were analyzed. The modified European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) three-step sequential extraction procedure was applied to determine the concentration of metal fractions in soils. The results showed that the distribution of Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd in four fractions varied greatly among the soil samples, and 18.8% of vegetable and fruit samples for Cd and 5.8% for Pb exceeded the maximum permissible levels in food of China. Soil-to-plant transfer coefficients were in the order of Cd>Zn>Cu>Hg>As>Pb, suggesting Cd being the most mobile and available to plants among the metals studied. Principal component analysis indicated that metal fractions and soil physicochemical properties (pH, organic matter, cation exchange capacity, clay content and electrical conductivity) affected metal uptake by plants. Furthermore, atmospheric deposition may be another important factor for the accumulation of metals in plants.

  15. Statistical Power of Expression Quantitative Trait Loci for Mapping of Complex Trait Loci in Natural Populations

    PubMed Central

    Schliekelman, Paul

    2008-01-01

    A number of recent genomewide surveys have found numerous QTL for gene expression, often with intermediate to high heritability values. As a result, there is currently a great deal of interest in genetical genomics—that is, the combination of genomewide expression data and molecular marker data to elucidate the genetics of complex traits. To date, most genetical genomics studies have focused on generating candidate genes for previously known trait loci or have otherwise leveraged existing knowledge about trait-related genes. The purpose of this study is to explore the potential for genetical genomics approaches in the context of genomewide scans for complex trait loci. I explore the expected strength of association between expression-level traits and a clinical trait, as a function of the underlying genetic model in natural populations. I give calculations of statistical power for detecting differential expression between affected and unaffected individuals. I model both reactive and causative expression-level traits with both additive and multiplicative multilocus models for the relationship between phenotype and genotype and explore a variety of assumptions about dominance, number of segregating loci, and other parameters. There are two key results. If a transcript is causative for the disease (in the sense that disease risk depends directly on transcript level), then the power to detect association between transcript and disease is quite good. Sample sizes on the order of 100 are sufficient for 80% power. On the other hand, if the transcript is reactive to a disease locus, then the correlation between expression-level traits and disease is low unless the expression-level trait shares several causative loci with the disease—that is, the expression-level trait itself is a complex trait. Thus, there is a trade-off between the power to show association between a reactive expression-level trait and the clinical trait of interest and the power to map expression

  16. Mapping of quantitative trait loci for canopy wilting trait in soybean (Glycine max L.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Drought stress adversely affects [Glycine max (L.) Merr] soybean at most developmental stages, which collectively results in yield reduction. Little information is available on relative contribution and chromosomal locations of quantitative trait loci (QTL) conditioning drought tolerance in soybean...

  17. Mechanisms of Type 2 Diabetes Risk Loci.

    PubMed

    Gaulton, Kyle J

    2017-09-01

    Deciphering the mechanisms of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) risk loci can greatly inform on disease pathology. This review discusses current knowledge of mechanisms through which genetic variants influence T2DM risk and considerations for future studies. Over 100 T2DM risk loci to date have been identified. Candidate causal variants at risk loci map predominantly to non-coding sequence. Physiological, epigenomic and gene expression data suggest that variants at many known T2DM risk loci affect pancreatic islet regulation, although variants at other loci also affect protein function and regulatory processes in adipose, pre-adipose, liver, skeletal muscle and brain. The effects of T2DM variants on regulatory activity in these tissues appear largely, but not exclusively, due to altered transcription factor binding. Putative target genes of T2DM variants have been defined at an increasing number of loci and some, such as FTO, may entail several genes and multiple tissues. Gene networks in islets and adipocytes have been implicated in T2DM risk, although the molecular pathways of risk genes remain largely undefined. Efforts to fully define the mechanisms of T2DM risk loci are just beginning. Continued identification of risk mechanisms will benefit from combining genetic fine-mapping with detailed phenotypic association data, high-throughput epigenomics data from diabetes-relevant tissue, functional screening of candidate genes and genome editing of cellular and animal models.

  18. Design III with Marker Loci

    PubMed Central

    Cockerham, C. C.; Zeng, Z. B.

    1996-01-01

    Design III is an experimental design originally proposed by R. E. COMSTOCK and H. F. ROBINSON for estimating genetic variances and the average degree of dominance for quantitative trait loci (QTL) and has recently been extended for mapping QTL. In this paper, we first extend COMSTOCK and ROBINSON's analysis of variance to include linkage, two-locus epistasis and the use of F(3) parents. Then we develop the theory and statistical analysis of orthogonal contrasts and contrast X environment interaction for a single marker locus to characterize the effects of QTL. The methods are applied to the maize data of C. W. STUBER. The analyses strongly suggest that there are multiple linked QTL in many chromosomes for several traits examined. QTL effects are largely environment-independent for grain yield, ear height, plant height and ear leaf area and largely environment dependent for days to tassel, grain moisture and ear number. There is significant QTL epistasis. The results are generally in favor of the hypothesis of dominance of favorable genes to explain the observed heterosis in grain yield and other traits, although epistasis could also play an important role and overdominance at individual QTL level can not be ruled out. PMID:8807314

  19. 4-Amino-2-arylamino-6-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7-(8H)-ones as BCR kinase inhibitors for B lymphoid malignancies.

    PubMed

    Puig de la Bellacasa, Raimon; Roué, Gaël; Balsas, Patricia; Pérez-Galán, Patricia; Teixidó, Jordi; Colomer, Dolors; Borrell, José I

    2014-10-30

    A new family of 4-aminopyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidines active against non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs) is described. Among these compounds, 19 inhibits the most upstream tyrosine kinases in the B cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathway which are involved in the mature B cell neoplasms. Thus, 19 showed antiproliferative activity at 24 h and 48 h against a panel of 20 NHLs cell lines with GI50 ranging from 1.3 to 6.9 μM at 24 h, and 1.4-7.2 μM at 48 h, being this effect related to a significant (20-90%) inhibition of the phosphorylation of the BCR-related kinases Btk, Syk, and Lyn. Most importantly, 19 was able to induce a 63% reduction in Rec-1 cell proliferation, which was significantly greater than the 31% and 3% blockade of proliferation observed after cell treatment with R406, a Syk inhibitor, and ibrutinib, a Btk inhibitor, respectively. The computational blind docking and ligand binding within the pockets of Btk, Syk and Lyn kinases showed that compound 19 presents the same kind of interactions of described cocrystallized inhibitors.

  20. Evolution of duplicated IgH loci in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) locus possesses two parallel IgH isoloci (IGH-A and IGH-B), that are related to the genomic duplication event in the family Salmonidae. These duplicated IgH loci in Atlantic salmon provide a unique opportunity to examine the mechanisms of genome diversity and genome evolution of the IgH loci in vertebrates. In this study, we defined the structure of these loci in Atlantic salmon, and sequenced 24 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones that were assembled into the IGH-A (1.1 Mb) and IGH-B (0.9 Mb) loci. In addition, over 7,000 cDNA clones from the IgH variable (VH) region have been sequenced and analyzed. Results The present study shows that the genomic organization of the duplicated IgH loci in Atlantic salmon differs from that in other teleosts and other vertebrates. The loci possess multiple Cτ genes upstream of the Cμ region, with three of the Cτ genes being functional. Moreover, the duplicated loci possess over 300 VH segments which could be classified into 18 families. This is the largest number of VH families currently defined in any vertebrate. There were significant structural differences between the two loci, indicating that both IGH-A and -B loci have evolved independently in the short time after the recent genome duplication approximately 60 mya. Conclusions Our results indicate that the duplication of the IgH loci in Atlantic salmon significantly contributes to the increased diversity of the antibody repertoire, as compared with the single IgH locus in other vertebrates. PMID:20813058

  1. HSP90 inhibitor AUY922 induces cell death by disruption of the Bcr-Abl, Jak2 and HSP90 signaling network complex in leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Tao, Wenjing; Chakraborty, Sandip N; Leng, Xiaohong; Ma, Helen; Arlinghaus, Ralph B

    2015-01-01

    The Bcr-Abl protein is an important client protein of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90). We evaluated the inhibitory effects of the HSP90 ATPase inhibitor AUY922 on 32D mouse hematopoietic cells expressing wild-type Bcr-Abl (b3a2, 32Dp210) and mutant Bcr-Abl imatinib (IM)-resistant cell lines. Western blotting results of fractions from gel filtration column chromatography of 32Dp210 cells showed that HSP90 together with Bcr-Abl, Jak2 Stat3 and several other proteins co-eluted in peak column fractions of a high molecular weight network complex (HMWNC). Co-IP results showed that HSP90 directly bound to Bcr-Abl, Jak2, Stat 3 and Akt. The associations between HSP90 and Bcr-Abl or Bcr-Abl kinase domain mutants (T315I and E255K) were interrupted by AUY922 treatment. Tyrosine phosphorylation of Bcr-Abl showed a dose-dependent decrease in 32Dp210T315I following AUY922 treatment for 16h. AUY922 also markedly inhibited cell proliferation of both IM-sensitive 32Dp210 (IC50 =6 nM) and IM-resistant 32Dp210T315I cells (IC50 ≈6 nM) and human KBM-5R/KBM-7R cell lines (IC50 =50 nM). AUY922 caused significant G1 arrest in 32Dp210 cells but not in T315I or E255K cells. AUY922 efficiently induced apoptosis in 32Dp210 (IC50 =10 nM) and T315I or E255K lines with IC50 around 20 to 50 nM. Our results showed that Bcr-Abl and Jak2 form HMWNC with HSP90 in CML cells. Inhibition of HSP90 by AUY922 disrupted the structure of HMWNC, leading to Bcr-Abl degradation, nhibiting cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis. Thus, inhibition of HSP90 is a powerful way to inhibit not only IM-sensitive CML cells but also IM-resistant CML cells.

  2. BCR/ABL mRNA targeting small interfering RNA effects on proliferation and apoptosis in chronic myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xi-Shan; Lin, Zi-Ying; Du, Jing; Cao, Guang-Xin; Liu, Gang

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effects of small interference RNA (siRNA) targeting BCR/ABL mRNA on proliferation and apoptosis in the K562 human chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cell line and to provide a theoretical rationale and experimental evidence for its potential clinical application for anti-CML treatment. The gene sequence for BCR/ABL mRNA was found from the GeneBank. The target gene site on the BCR/ABL mRNA were selected according to Max-Planck-Institute (MPI) and rational siRNA design rules, the secondary structure of the candidate targeted mRNA was predicted, the relevant thermodynamic parameters were analyzed, and the targeted gene sequences were compared with BLAST to eliminate any sequences with significant homology. Inhibition of proliferation was evaluated by MTT assay and colony-formation inhibiting test. Apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry (FCM) and the morphology of apoptotic cells was identified by Giemsa-Wright staining. Western blotting was used to analyze the expression of BCR/ABL fusion protein in K562 cells after siRNA treatment. The mRNA local secondary structure calculated by RNA structure software, and the optimal design of specific siRNA were contributed by bioinformatics rules. Five sequences of BCR/ABL siRNAs were designed and synthesized in vitro. Three sequences, siRNA1384, siRNA1276 and siRNA1786, which showed the most effective inhibition of K562 cell growth, were identified among the five candidate siRNAs, with a cell proliferative inhibitory rate nearly 50% after exposure to 12.5 nmol/L~50 nmol/L siRNA1384 for 24,48 and 72 hours. The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of siRNA1384, siRNA1276 and siRNA1786 for 24 hours were 46.6 nmol/L, 59.3 nmol/L and 62.6 nmol/L, respectively, and 65.668 nmol/L, 76.6 nmol/L, 74.4 nmol/L for 72 hours. The colony-formation inhibiting test also indicated that, compared with control, cell growth of siRNA treated group was inhibited. FCM results showed that the rate of cell apoptosis increased 24 hours

  3. From famine to feast? Selecting nuclear DNA sequence loci for plant species-level phylogeny reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Colin E; Eastwood, Ruth J; Donovan Bailey, C

    2005-01-01

    Phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences have prompted spectacular progress in assembling the Tree of Life. However, progress in constructing phylogenies among closely related species, at least for plants, has been less encouraging. We show that for plants, the rapid accumulation of DNA characters at higher taxonomic levels has not been matched by conventional sequence loci at the species level, leaving a lack of well-resolved gene trees that is hindering investigations of many fundamental questions in plant evolutionary biology. The most popular approach to address this problem has been to use low-copy nuclear genes as a source of DNA sequence data. However, this has had limited success because levels of variation among nuclear intron sequences across groups of closely related species are extremely variable and generally lower than conventionally used loci, and because no universally useful low-copy nuclear DNA sequence loci have been developed. This suggests that solutions will, for the most part, be lineage-specific, prompting a move away from ‘universal’ gene thinking for species-level phylogenetics. The benefits and limitations of alternative approaches to locate more variable nuclear loci are discussed and the potential of anonymous non-genic nuclear loci is highlighted. Given the virtually unlimited number of loci that can be generated using these new approaches, it is clear that effective screening will be critical for efficient selection of the most informative loci. Strategies for screening are outlined. PMID:16553318

  4. Identification of nine novel loci associated with white blood cell subtypes in a Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Okada, Yukinori; Hirota, Tomomitsu; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Takahashi, Atsushi; Ohmiya, Hiroko; Kumasaka, Natsuhiko; Higasa, Koichiro; Yamaguchi-Kabata, Yumi; Hosono, Naoya; Nalls, Michael A; Chen, Ming Huei; van Rooij, Frank J A; Smith, Albert V; Tanaka, Toshiko; Couper, David J; Zakai, Neil A; Ferrucci, Luigi; Longo, Dan L; Hernandez, Dena G; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Harris, Tamara B; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Ganesh, Santhi K; Matsuda, Koichi; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Kubo, Michiaki; Nakamura, Yusuke; Tamari, Mayumi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Kamatani, Naoyuki

    2011-06-01

    White blood cells (WBCs) mediate immune systems and consist of various subtypes with distinct roles. Elucidation of the mechanism that regulates the counts of the WBC subtypes would provide useful insights into both the etiology of the immune system and disease pathogenesis. In this study, we report results of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and a replication study for the counts of the 5 main WBC subtypes (neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, basophils, and eosinophils) using 14,792 Japanese subjects enrolled in the BioBank Japan Project. We identified 12 significantly associated loci that satisfied the genome-wide significance threshold of P<5.0×10(-8), of which 9 loci were novel (the CDK6 locus for the neutrophil count; the ITGA4, MLZE, STXBP6 loci, and the MHC region for the monocyte count; the SLC45A3-NUCKS1, GATA2, NAALAD2, ERG loci for the basophil count). We further evaluated associations in the identified loci using 15,600 subjects from Caucasian populations. These WBC subtype-related loci demonstrated a variety of patterns of pleiotropic associations within the WBC subtypes, or with total WBC count, platelet count, or red blood cell-related traits (n = 30,454), which suggests unique and common functional roles of these loci in the processes of hematopoiesis. This study should contribute to the understanding of the genetic backgrounds of the WBC subtypes and hematological traits.

  5. Development and characterization of microsatellite loci for common raven (Corvus corax) and cross species amplification in other Corvidae.

    PubMed

    Pruett, Christin L; Wan, Leping; Li, Tianyu; Spern, Cory; Lance, Stacey L; Glenn, Travis; Faircloth, Brant; Winker, Kevin

    2015-11-06

    A priority for conservation is the identification of endemic populations. We developed microsatellite markers for common raven (Corvus corax), a bird species with a Holarctic distribution, to identify and assess endemic populations in Alaska. From a total of 50 microsatellite loci, we isolated and characterized 15 loci. Eight of these loci were polymorphic and readily scoreable. Eighteen to 20 common ravens from Fairbanks, Alaska were genotyped showing the following variability: 3-8 alleles per locus, 0.25-0.80 observed heterozygosity (Ho), and 0.30-0.80 expected heterozygosity (He). All loci were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and linkage equilibrium and many loci amplified and were polymorphic in related taxa. These loci will be used to identify endemic populations of common raven and assess their genetic diversity and connectivity.

  6. Mapping quantitative trait Loci using generalized estimating equations.

    PubMed Central

    Lange, C; Whittaker, J C

    2001-01-01

    A number of statistical methods are now available to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) relative to markers. However, no existing methodology can simultaneously map QTL for multiple nonnormal traits. In this article we rectify this deficiency by developing a QTL-mapping approach based on generalized estimating equations (GEE). Simulation experiments are used to illustrate the application of the GEE-based approach. PMID:11729173

  7. Rapid reduction of BCR-ABL1 transcript predicts deep molecular response in dasatinib-treated chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukaemia patients.

    PubMed

    Murai, Kazunori; Yamaguchi, Kohei; Ito, Shigeki; Miyagishima, Takuto; Shindo, Motohiro; Wakasa, Kentaro; Inomata, Mitsue; Nagashima, Takahiro; Kondo, Takeshi; Fujimoto, Nozomu; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Yonezumi, Masakatsu; Oyake, Tatsuo; Shugo, Kowata; Tsukushi, Yasuhiko; Mine, Takahiro; Meguro, Kuniaki; Ikeda, Kazuhiko; Watanabe, Reiko; Saito, Souichi; Sato, Shinji; Tajima, Katsushi; Chou, Takaaki; Kubo, Kohmei; Oba, Koji; Sakamoto, Junichi; Ishida, Yoji

    2017-09-12

    We conducted a phase-II study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of dasatinib in patients newly diagnosed with chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML-CP) in Japan (IMIDAS PART 2 study). Seventy-nine patients were administered 100 mg dasatinib once daily. We examined pre-treatment and post-treatment influences of various factors. The BCR-ABL1 international scale (IS), halving time (HT), and reduction rate of BCR-ABL1 transcript within the initial 1 or 3 months of therapy (RR-BCR-ABL11m,3m ) were the post-treatment factors investigated to predict the molecular response. The estimated major molecular response (MMR), molecular response 4.0 (MR4.0), and molecular response 4.5 (MR4.5) rates were 77.2%, 49.4%, and 35.4%, respectively, at 12 months. Grade 3/4 non-haematologic adverse events were infrequent. Multivariate analysis showed that age >65 years was significantly correlated with MR4.0 and MR4.5 (deep molecular response: DMR) at 12 months. All post-treatment factors at 3 months predicted DMR by univariate analysis. However, RR-BCR-ABL13m was the only significant landmark for predicting DMR by multivariate analysis. Primary treatment of CML-CP with dasatinib enabled early achievement of MMR and DMR, particularly in elderly patients, with high safety. Furthermore, RR-BCR-ABL13m was found to be a more useful predictor of DMR than HT-BCR-ABL1 and BCR-ABL1 IS. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Proposed algorithm for the best detection of different bcr-abl gene fusion transcripts in molecular diagnostics laboratories: experience of a major referral center.

    PubMed

    Hoteit, Rouba; Mahfouz, Rami

    2011-04-01

    Detection of bcr-abl transcripts is important both in diagnosis as well as in prognostication and treatment modalities of different types of leukemia, both chronic and acute. However, the techniques employed are variable and different among laboratories. Our aim was to share with other labs a strategy/algorithm that we find highly useful for implementation to best detect all bcr-abl fusion transcripts for proper patient management. We have used two techniques for the detection of bcr-abl transcripts, an in-house developed polymerase chain reaction and a real-time quantitative commercial polymerase chain reaction (PCR) kit and tested 849 patients referred for initial screening for bcr-abl. Out of 849 cases, 146 (17.2%) were positive for bcr-abl. Around 92.11% of the total bcr-abl positive cases (N=76) detected by the real-time quantitative technique were also positive by the gel-based PCR assay; however, six cases (around 7.89%) were missed by the real-time assay and detected by the other technique in chronic myelogenous leukemia-proven cases. We highly encourage other laboratories to perform testing using a simple and inexpensive gel-based PCR screening assay followed by a real-time quantitative assay for a baseline bcr-abl expression level. This combination will enable laboratories to detect all the reported fusion transcripts in accordance with the clinical presentation of the patient as well as other laboratory tests for the best use of this genetic test in patient management and care.

  9. Differential Expression of Bcl-2 Family Proteins Determines the Sensitivity of Human Follicular Lymphoma Cells to Dexamethasone-mediated and Anti-BCR-mediated Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Adem, Jemal; Ropponen, Antti; Eeva, Jonna; Eray, Mine; Nuutinen, Ulla; Pelkonen, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    Bcl-2 family comprises proapoptotic and antiapoptotic proteins. The balance between these proteins is critical for the survival of the cells. Overexpression of the antiapoptotic protein, Bcl-2, is the hallmark of follicular lymphoma (FL). High expression of Bcl-2 provides survival advantage and may facilitate chemotherapeutic resistance in FL. In the present study, we examined expression profile of Bcl-2 family proteins such as Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Bim in human FL cell lines, HF1A3 and HF28. We assessed the correlation between the expression levels of these proteins and cells' sensitivity to dexamethasone (Dex)-mediated and B-cell receptor (BCR)-mediated apoptosis. Here, we show that Dex and anti-BCR-induced synergistic apoptosis which correlated with significant downregulation of Bcl-xL, inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation and accumulation of nonphosphorylated Bim. However, HF28 cells were less sensitive than HF1A3 cells to Dex-induced and anti-BCR-induced apoptosis due to high Bcl-2 protein level. It is interesting to note that, a Bcl-2-specific inhibitor, ABT-199, sensitized HF28 cells to Dex-induced or anti-BCR-induced apoptosis. In addition, overexpression of Bcl-xL prevented Dex-mediated, anti-BCR-mediated, and ABT-199-mediated apoptosis, indicating that mitochondria were involved. In conclusion, these data show that the expression levels of Bcl-2 family proteins may serve to predict tumor response to BH3 mimetics and the sensitivity of FL cells to Dex-induced and anti-BCR-induced apoptosis. Moreover, our results show that BCR-targeted apoptosis might have therapeutic benefit against FL and B-cell lymphomas.

  10. Negative regulation of p120GAP GTPase promoting activity by p210bcr/abl: implication for RAS-dependent Philadelphia chromosome positive cell growth

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The p210bcr/abl tyrosine kinase appears to be responsible for initiating and maintaining the leukemic phenotype in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) patients. p21ras-p120GAP interactions play a central role in transducing mitogenic signals. Therefore, we investigated whether p21ras and p120GAP are regulated by p210bcr/abl, and whether this activation is functionally significant for CML cell proliferation. We report that transient expression of p210bcr/abl in fibroblast-like cells induces simultaneous activation of p21ras and inhibition of GTPase-promoting activity of p120GAP, and confirm these data showing that downregulation of p210bcr/abl expression in CML cells with bcr/abl antisense oligodeoxynucleotides induces both inhibition of p21ras activation and stimulation of GTPase-promoting activity of p120GAP. Tyrosine phosphorylation of two p120GAP-associated proteins, p190 and p62, which may affect p120GAP activity, also depends on p210bcr/abl tyrosine kinase expression. Direct dependence of these effects on the kinase activity is proven in experiments in which expression of c-MYB protein in fibroblast-like cells or downregulation of c-MYB expression resulting in analogous inhibition of CML cell proliferation does not result in the same changes. Use of specific antisense oligodeoxynucleotides to downregulate p21ras expression revealed a requirement for functional p21ras in the proliferation of Philadelphia chromosome-positive CML primary cells. Thus, the p210bcr/abl-dependent regulation of p120GAP activity is responsible, in part, for the maintenance of p21ras in the active GTP-bound form, a crucial requirement for CML cell proliferation. PMID:8195713

  11. Development and characterization of microsatellite loci in the pantropical fern Hypolepis punctata (Dennstaedtiaceae).

    PubMed

    Shang, Hui; Wang, Ying; Yan, Yue-Hong

    2015-09-01

    Microsatellite loci were isolated in Hypolepis punctata (Dennstaedtiaceae) to further study the reproductive ecology of this species. We developed 16 microsatellite loci from one sample of H. punctata using an enriched genomic library. These loci were characterized in 28 individuals. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to 10, and the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.036 to 0.845. The results indicate that the microsatellite markers can facilitate further studies on inferring the phylogeography and population genetics of H. punctata and related species.

  12. Development and characterization of microsatellite loci in the pantropical fern Hypolepis punctata (Dennstaedtiaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Hui; Wang, Ying; Yan, Yue-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci were isolated in Hypolepis punctata (Dennstaedtiaceae) to further study the reproductive ecology of this species. Methods and Results: We developed 16 microsatellite loci from one sample of H. punctata using an enriched genomic library. These loci were characterized in 28 individuals. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to 10, and the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.036 to 0.845. Conclusions: The results indicate that the microsatellite markers can facilitate further studies on inferring the phylogeography and population genetics of H. punctata and related species. PMID:26421252

  13. [Isolation and characterization of twenty-one polymorphic microsatellite loci in the Tibetan macaque (Macaca thibetana)].

    PubMed

    Jia, X D; Yang, B D; Yue, B S; Yin, H L; Wang, H X; Zhang, X Y

    2011-07-01

    Twenty-one microsatellite loci were isolated from AC-enriched library of Tibetan macaque (Macaca thibetana). The number of alleles at the 21 microsatellite loci ranged from 8 to 15, with an average of 12.2 per locus. Polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.805 to 0.910 with an average of 0.873. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.208 to 0.792 and from 0.843 to 0.938, respectively. These microsatellite loci will be useful for future studies that relate to the genetic diversity and population structure of Tibetan macaque.

  14. Discovery of 2-Acylaminothiophene-3-Carboxamides as Multitarget Inhibitors for BCR-ABL Kinase and Microtubules.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ran; Wang, Yanli; Huang, Niu

    2015-11-23

    The emergence of drug resistance of the BCR-ABL kinase inhibitor imatinib, especially toward the T315I gatekeeper mutation, poses a great challenge to targeted therapy in treating chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients. To discover novel inhibitors against drug-resistant CML bearing T315I mutation, we applied a physics-based hierarchical virtual screening approach to dock a large chemical library against ATP binding pockets of both wild-type (WT) and T315I mutant ABL kinases in a combinatorial fashion. This strategy automatically resulted in 87 compounds satisfying structural and energetic criteria of both WT and T315I mutant kinases. Among them, nine compounds, which share a common thiophene-based scaffold and adopt similar binding poses, were chosen for experimental testing and one of them was shown to have low micromolar inhibition activities against both WT and mutant ABL kinases. Structure-activity relationship analysis with a series of structural modifications based on 2-acylaminothiophene-3-carboxamide scaffold supports our predicted binding mode. Interestingly, the same chemical scaffold was also enriched in our previous virtual screening campaign against colchicine site of microtubules using the same computational protocol, which suggests our virtual screening strategy is capable of discovering small-molecule ligands targeting distinct protein binding sites without sharing any sequential and structural similarity. Furthermore, the multitarget inhibition activity of this class of compounds was assessed in cellular experiments. We expect that the 2-acylaminothiophene-3-carboxamide scaffold may serve as a promising starting point for developing multitarget inhibitors in cancer treatment by targeting both kinases and microtubules.

  15. Stepwise effects of the BCR sequential chemical extraction procedure on dissolution and metal release from common ferromagnesian clay minerals: a combined solution chemistry and X-ray powder diffraction study.

    PubMed

    Ryan, P C; Hillier, S; Wall, A J

    2008-12-15

    Sequential extraction procedures (SEPs) are commonly used to determine speciation of trace metals in soils and sediments. However, the non-selectivity of reagents for targeted phases has remained a lingering concern. Furthermore, potentially reactive phases such as phyllosilicate clay minerals often contain trace metals in structural sites, and their reactivity has not been quantified. Accordingly, the objective of this study is to analyze the behavior of trace metal-bearing clay minerals exposed to the revised BCR 3-step plus aqua regia SEP. Mineral quantification based on stoichiometric analysis and quantitative powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) documents progressive dissolution of chlorite (CCa-2 ripidolite) and two varieties of smectite (SapCa-2 saponite and SWa-1 nontronite) during steps 1-3 of the BCR procedure. In total, 8 (+/-1) % of ripidolite, 19 (+/-1) % of saponite, and 19 (+/-3) % of nontronite (% mineral mass) dissolved during extractions assumed by many researchers to release trace metals from exchange sites, carbonates, hydroxides, sulfides and organic matter. For all three reference clays, release of Ni into solution is correlated with clay dissolution. Hydrolysis of relatively weak Mg-O bonds (362 kJ/mol) during all stages, reduction of Fe(III) during hydroxylamine hydrochloride extraction and oxidation of Fe(II) during hydrogen peroxide extraction are the main reasons for clay mineral dissolution. These findings underscore the need for precise mineral quantification when using SEPs to understand the origin/partitioning of trace metals with solid phases.

  16. Loci-STREAM Version 0.9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Jeffrey; Thakur, Siddharth

    2006-01-01

    Loci-STREAM is an evolving computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software tool for simulating possibly chemically reacting, possibly unsteady flows in diverse settings, including rocket engines, turbomachines, oil refineries, etc. Loci-STREAM implements a pressure- based flow-solving algorithm that utilizes unstructured grids. (The benefit of low memory usage by pressure-based algorithms is well recognized by experts in the field.) The algorithm is robust for flows at all speeds from zero to hypersonic. The flexibility of arbitrary polyhedral grids enables accurate, efficient simulation of flows in complex geometries, including those of plume-impingement problems. The present version - Loci-STREAM version 0.9 - includes an interface with the Portable, Extensible Toolkit for Scientific Computation (PETSc) library for access to enhanced linear-equation-solving programs therein that accelerate convergence toward a solution. The name "Loci" reflects the creation of this software within the Loci computational framework, which was developed at Mississippi State University for the primary purpose of simplifying the writing of complex multidisciplinary application programs to run in distributed-memory computing environments including clusters of personal computers. Loci has been designed to relieve application programmers of the details of programming for distributed-memory computers.

  17. Clonal Evolution and Blast Crisis Correlate with Enhanced Proteolytic Activity of Separase in BCR-ABL b3a2 Fusion Type CML under Imatinib Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Haaß, Wiltrud; Kleiner, Helga; Weiß, Christel; Haferlach, Claudia; Schlegelberger, Brigitte; Müller, Martin C.; Hehlmann, Rüdiger; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Fabarius, Alice; Seifarth, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Unbalanced (major route) additional cytogenetic aberrations (ACA) at diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) indicate an increased risk of progression and shorter survival. Moreover, newly arising ACA under imatinib treatment and clonal evolution are considered features of acceleration and define failure of therapy according to the European LeukemiaNet (ELN) recommendations. On the basis of 1151 Philadelphia chromosome positive chronic phase patients of the randomized CML-study IV, we examined the incidence of newly arising ACA under imatinib treatment with regard to the p210BCR-ABL breakpoint variants b2a2 and b3a2. We found a preferential acquisition of unbalanced ACA in patients with b3a2 vs. b2a2 fusion type (ratio: 6.3 vs. 1.6, p = 0.0246) concurring with a faster progress to blast crisis for b3a2 patients (p = 0.0124). ESPL1/Separase, a cysteine endopeptidase, is a key player in chromosomal segregation during mitosis. Separase overexpression and/or hyperactivity has been reported from a wide range of cancers and cause defective mitotic spindles, chromosome missegregation and aneuploidy. We investigated the influence of p210BCR-ABL breakpoint variants and imatinib treatment on expression and proteolytic activity of Separase as measured with a specific fluorogenic assay on CML cell lines (b2a2: KCL-22, BV-173; b3a2: K562, LAMA-84). Despite a drop in Separase protein levels an up to 5.4-fold increase of Separase activity under imatinib treatment was observed exclusively in b3a2 but not in b2a2 cell lines. Mimicking the influence of imatinib on BV-173 and LAMA-84 cells by ESPL1 silencing stimulated Separase proteolytic activity in both b3a2 and b2a2 cell lines. Our data suggest the existence of a fusion type-related feedback mechanism that posttranslationally stimulates Separase proteolytic activity after therapy-induced decreases in Separase protein levels. This could render b3a2 CML cells more prone to aneuploidy and clonal evolution than b2a2 progenitors

  18. Clonal Evolution and Blast Crisis Correlate with Enhanced Proteolytic Activity of Separase in BCR-ABL b3a2 Fusion Type CML under Imatinib Therapy.

    PubMed

    Haaß, Wiltrud; Kleiner, Helga; Weiß, Christel; Haferlach, Claudia; Schlegelberger, Brigitte; Müller, Martin C; Hehlmann, Rüdiger; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Fabarius, Alice; Seifarth, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Unbalanced (major route) additional cytogenetic aberrations (ACA) at diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) indicate an increased risk of progression and shorter survival. Moreover, newly arising ACA under imatinib treatment and clonal evolution are considered features of acceleration and define failure of therapy according to the European LeukemiaNet (ELN) recommendations. On the basis of 1151 Philadelphia chromosome positive chronic phase patients of the randomized CML-study IV, we examined the incidence of newly arising ACA under imatinib treatment with regard to the p210BCR-ABL breakpoint variants b2a2 and b3a2. We found a preferential acquisition of unbalanced ACA in patients with b3a2 vs. b2a2 fusion type (ratio: 6.3 vs. 1.6, p = 0.0246) concurring with a faster progress to blast crisis for b3a2 patients (p = 0.0124). ESPL1/Separase, a cysteine endopeptidase, is a key player in chromosomal segregation during mitosis. Separase overexpression and/or hyperactivity has been reported from a wide range of cancers and cause defective mitotic spindles, chromosome missegregation and aneuploidy. We investigated the influence of p210BCR-ABL breakpoint variants and imatinib treatment on expression and proteolytic activity of Separase as measured with a specific fluorogenic assay on CML cell lines (b2a2: KCL-22, BV-173; b3a2: K562, LAMA-84). Despite a drop in Separase protein levels an up to 5.4-fold increase of Separase activity under imatinib treatment was observed exclusively in b3a2 but not in b2a2 cell lines. Mimicking the influence of imatinib on BV-173 and LAMA-84 cells by ESPL1 silencing stimulated Separase proteolytic activity in both b3a2 and b2a2 cell lines. Our data suggest the existence of a fusion type-related feedback mechanism that posttranslationally stimulates Separase proteolytic activity after therapy-induced decreases in Separase protein levels. This could render b3a2 CML cells more prone to aneuploidy and clonal evolution than b2a2 progenitors

  19. Identification of four novel susceptibility loci for oestrogen receptor negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Couch, Fergus J.; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Mendoza-Fandino, Gustavo A.; Nord, Silje; Lilyquist, Janna; Olswold, Curtis; Hallberg, Emily; Agata, Simona; Ahsan, Habibul; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Ambrosone, Christine; Andrulis, Irene L.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Arndt, Volker; Arun, Banu K.; Arver, Brita; Barile, Monica; Barkardottir, Rosa B.; Barrowdale, Daniel; Beckmann, Lars; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Benitez, Javier; Blank, Stephanie V.; Blomqvist, Carl; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Bojesen, Stig E.; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Bonanni, Bernardo; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brenner, Hermann; Burwinkel, Barbara; Buys, Saundra S.; Caldes, Trinidad; Caligo, Maria A.; Canzian, Federico; Carpenter, Jane; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chanock, Stephen J.; Chung, Wendy K.; Claes, Kathleen B. M.; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Czene, Kamila; Daly, Mary B.; Damiola, Francesca; Darabi, Hatef; de la Hoya, Miguel; Devilee, Peter; Diez, Orland; Ding, Yuan C.; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Domchek, Susan M.; Dorfling, Cecilia M.; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Dumont, Martine; Dunning, Alison M.; Eccles, Diana M.; Ehrencrona, Hans; Ekici, Arif B.; Eliassen, Heather; Ellis, Steve; Fasching, Peter A.; Figueroa, Jonine; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Försti, Asta; Fostira, Florentia; Foulkes, William D.; Friebel, Tara; Friedman, Eitan; Frost, Debra; Gabrielson, Marike; Gammon, Marilie D.; Ganz, Patricia A.; Gapstur, Susan M.; Garber, Judy; Gaudet, Mia M.; Gayther, Simon A.; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Ghoussaini, Maya; Giles, Graham G.; Glendon, Gord; Godwin, Andrew K.; Goldberg, Mark S.; Goldgar, David E.; González-Neira, Anna; Greene, Mark H.; Gronwald, Jacek; Guénel, Pascal; Gunter, Marc; Haeberle, Lothar; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hamann, Ute; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Hart, Steven; Healey, Sue; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Henderson, Brian E.; Herzog, Josef; Hogervorst, Frans B. L.; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hoover, Robert N.; Hopper, John L.; Humphreys, Keith; Hunter, David J.; Huzarski, Tomasz; Imyanitov, Evgeny N.; Isaacs, Claudine; Jakubowska, Anna; James, Paul; Janavicius, Ramunas; Jensen, Uffe Birk; John, Esther M.; Jones, Michael; Kabisch, Maria; Kar, Siddhartha; Karlan, Beth Y.; Khan, Sofia; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kibriya, Muhammad G.; Knight, Julia A.; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kristensen, Vessela; Kwong, Ava; Laitman, Yael; Lambrechts, Diether; Lazaro, Conxi; Lee, Eunjung; Le Marchand, Loic; Lester, Jenny; Lindblom, Annika; Lindor, Noralane; Lindstrom, Sara; Liu, Jianjun; Long, Jirong; Lubinski, Jan; Mai, Phuong L.; Makalic, Enes; Malone, Kathleen E.; Mannermaa, Arto; Manoukian, Siranoush; Margolin, Sara; Marme, Frederik; Martens, John W. M.; McGuffog, Lesley; Meindl, Alfons; Miller, Austin; Milne, Roger L.; Miron, Penelope; Montagna, Marco; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Mulligan, Anna M.; Muranen, Taru A.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Nussbaum, Robert L.; Offit, Kenneth; Olah, Edith; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Olson, Janet E.; Osorio, Ana; Park, Sue K.; Peeters, Petra H.; Peissel, Bernard; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peto, Julian; Phelan, Catherine M.; Pilarski, Robert; Poppe, Bruce; Pylkäs, Katri; Radice, Paolo; Rahman, Nazneen; Rantala, Johanna; Rappaport, Christine; Rennert, Gad; Richardson, Andrea; Robson, Mark; Romieu, Isabelle; Rudolph, Anja; Rutgers, Emiel J.; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Santella, Regina M.; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Schmidt, Daniel F.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Scott, Rodney; Senter, Leigha; Sharma, Priyanka; Simard, Jacques; Singer, Christian F.; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Soucy, Penny; Southey, Melissa; Steinemann, Doris; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Swerdlow, Anthony; Szabo, Csilla I.; Tamimi, Rulla; Tapper, William; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Mary B.; Thomassen, Mads; Thompson, Deborah; Tihomirova, Laima; Toland, Amanda E.; Tollenaar, Robert A. E. M.; Tomlinson, Ian; Truong, Thérèse; Tsimiklis, Helen; Teulé, Alex; Tumino, Rosario; Tung, Nadine; Turnbull, Clare; Ursin, Giski; van Deurzen, Carolien H. M.; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J.; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Wang, Zhaoming; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Whittemore, Alice; Wildiers, Hans; Winqvist, Robert; Yang, Xiaohong R.; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Yao, Song; Zamora, M Pilar; Zheng, Wei; Hall, Per; Kraft, Peter; Vachon, Celine; Slager, Susan; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Monteiro, Alvaro A. N.; García-Closas, Montserrat; Easton, Douglas F.; Antoniou, Antonis C.

    2016-01-01

    Common variants in 94 loci have been associated with breast cancer including 15 loci with genome-wide significant associations (P<5 × 10−8) with oestrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer and BRCA1-associated breast cancer risk. In this study, to identify new ER-negative susceptibility loci, we performed a meta-analysis of 11 genome-wide association studies (GWAS) consisting of 4,939 ER-negative cases and 14,352 controls, combined with 7,333 ER-negative cases and 42,468 controls and 15,252 BRCA1 mutation carriers genotyped on the iCOGS array. We identify four previously unidentified loci including two loci at 13q22 near KLF5, a 2p23.2 locus near WDR43 and a 2q33 locus near PPIL3 that display genome-wide significant associations with ER-negative breast cancer. In addition, 19 known breast cancer risk loci have genome-wide significant associations and 40 had moderate associations (P<0.05) with ER-negative disease. Using functional and eQTL studies we implicate TRMT61B and WDR43 at 2p23.2 and PPIL3 at 2q33 in ER-negative breast cancer aetiology. All ER-negative loci combined account for ∼11% of familial relative risk for ER-negative disease and may contribute to improved ER-negative and BRCA1 breast cancer risk prediction. PMID:27117709

  20. Identification of four novel susceptibility loci for oestrogen receptor negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Couch, Fergus J; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Mendoza-Fandino, Gustavo A; Nord, Silje; Lilyquist, Janna; Olswold, Curtis; Hallberg, Emily; Agata, Simona; Ahsan, Habibul; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Ambrosone, Christine; Andrulis, Irene L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Arndt, Volker; Arun, Banu K; Arver, Brita; Barile, Monica; Barkardottir, Rosa B; Barrowdale, Daniel; Beckmann, Lars; Beckmann, Matthias W; Benitez, Javier; Blank, Stephanie V; Blomqvist, Carl; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Bojesen, Stig E; Bolla, Manjeet K; Bonanni, Bernardo; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brenner, Hermann; Burwinkel, Barbara; Buys, Saundra S; Caldes, Trinidad; Caligo, Maria A; Canzian, Federico; Carpenter, Jane; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chanock, Stephen J; Chung, Wendy K; Claes, Kathleen B M; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Cunningham, Julie M; Czene, Kamila; Daly, Mary B; Damiola, Francesca; Darabi, Hatef; de la Hoya, Miguel; Devilee, Peter; Diez, Orland; Ding, Yuan C; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Domchek, Susan M; Dorfling, Cecilia M; Dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Dumont, Martine; Dunning, Alison M; Eccles, Diana M; Ehrencrona, Hans; Ekici, Arif B; Eliassen, Heather; Ellis, Steve; Fasching, Peter A; Figueroa, Jonine; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Försti, Asta; Fostira, Florentia; Foulkes, William D; Friebel, Tara; Friedman, Eitan; Frost, Debra; Gabrielson, Marike; Gammon, Marilie D; Ganz, Patricia A; Gapstur, Susan M; Garber, Judy; Gaudet, Mia M; Gayther, Simon A; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Ghoussaini, Maya; Giles, Graham G; Glendon, Gord; Godwin, Andrew K; Goldberg, Mark S; Goldgar, David E; González-Neira, Anna; Greene, Mark H; Gronwald, Jacek; Guénel, Pascal; Gunter, Marc; Haeberle, Lothar; Haiman, Christopher A; Hamann, Ute; Hansen, Thomas V O; Hart, Steven; Healey, Sue; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Henderson, Brian E; Herzog, Josef; Hogervorst, Frans B L; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Hooning, Maartje J; Hoover, Robert N; Hopper, John L; Humphreys, Keith; Hunter, David J; Huzarski, Tomasz; Imyanitov, Evgeny N; Isaacs, Claudine; Jakubowska, Anna; James, Paul; Janavicius, Ramunas; Jensen, Uffe Birk; John, Esther M; Jones, Michael; Kabisch, Maria; Kar, Siddhartha; Karlan, Beth Y; Khan, Sofia; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kibriya, Muhammad G; Knight, Julia A; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kristensen, Vessela; Kwong, Ava; Laitman, Yael; Lambrechts, Diether; Lazaro, Conxi; Lee, Eunjung; Le Marchand, Loic; Lester, Jenny; Lindblom, Annika; Lindor, Noralane; Lindstrom, Sara; Liu, Jianjun; Long, Jirong; Lubinski, Jan; Mai, Phuong L; Makalic, Enes; Malone, Kathleen E; Mannermaa, Arto; Manoukian, Siranoush; Margolin, Sara; Marme, Frederik; Martens, John W M; McGuffog, Lesley; Meindl, Alfons; Miller, Austin; Milne, Roger L; Miron, Penelope; Montagna, Marco; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Mulligan, Anna M; Muranen, Taru A; Nathanson, Katherine L; Neuhausen, Susan L; Nevanlinna, Heli; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Nussbaum, Robert L; Offit, Kenneth; Olah, Edith; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Olson, Janet E; Osorio, Ana; Park, Sue K; Peeters, Petra H; Peissel, Bernard; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peto, Julian; Phelan, Catherine M; Pilarski, Robert; Poppe, Bruce; Pylkäs, Katri; Radice, Paolo; Rahman, Nazneen; Rantala, Johanna; Rappaport, Christine; Rennert, Gad; Richardson, Andrea; Robson, Mark; Romieu, Isabelle; Rudolph, Anja; Rutgers, Emiel J; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Santella, Regina M; Sawyer, Elinor J; Schmidt, Daniel F; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Schmutzler, Rita K; Schumacher, Fredrick; Scott, Rodney; Senter, Leigha; Sharma, Priyanka; Simard, Jacques; Singer, Christian F; Sinilnikova, Olga M; Soucy, Penny; Southey, Melissa; Steinemann, Doris; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Swerdlow, Anthony; Szabo, Csilla I; Tamimi, Rulla; Tapper, William; Teixeira, Manuel R; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Mary B; Thomassen, Mads; Thompson, Deborah; Tihomirova, Laima; Toland, Amanda E; Tollenaar, Robert A E M; Tomlinson, Ian; Truong, Thérèse; Tsimiklis, Helen; Teulé, Alex; Tumino, Rosario; Tung, Nadine; Turnbull, Clare; Ursin, Giski; van Deurzen, Carolien H M; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Wang, Zhaoming; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Whittemore, Alice; Wildiers, Hans; Winqvist, Robert; Yang, Xiaohong R; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Yao, Song; Zamora, M Pilar; Zheng, Wei; Hall, Per; Kraft, Peter; Vachon, Celine; Slager, Susan; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Pharoah, Paul D P; Monteiro, Alvaro A N; García-Closas, Montserrat; Easton, Douglas F; Antoniou, Antonis C

    2016-04-27

    Common variants in 94 loci have been associated with breast cancer including 15 loci with genome-wide significant associations (P<5 × 10(-8)) with oestrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer and BRCA1-associated breast cancer risk. In this study, to identify new ER-negative susceptibility loci, we performed a meta-analysis of 11 genome-wide association studies (GWAS) consisting of 4,939 ER-negative cases and 14,352 controls, combined with 7,333 ER-negative cases and 42,468 controls and 15,252 BRCA1 mutation carriers genotyped on the iCOGS array. We identify four previously unidentified loci including two loci at 13q22 near KLF5, a 2p23.2 locus near WDR43 and a 2q33 locus near PPIL3 that display genome-wide significant associations with ER-negative breast cancer. In addition, 19 known breast cancer risk loci have genome-wide significant associations and 40 had moderate associations (P<0.05) with ER-negative disease. Using functional and eQTL studies we implicate TRMT61B and WDR43 at 2p23.2 and PPIL3 at 2q33 in ER-negative breast cancer aetiology. All ER-negative loci combined account for ∼11% of familial relative risk for ER-negative disease and may contribute to improved ER-negative and BRCA1 breast cancer risk prediction.

  1. Differential pre-amplification of STR loci for fragmented forensic DNA profiling.

    PubMed

    Ham, Seon-Kyu; Kim, Se-Yong; Seo, Bo Young; Woo, Kwang-Man; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Choi, Cheol Yong

    2016-11-01

    DNA profiling of short tandem repeats (STR) has been successfully used for the identification of individuals in forensic samples, accidents and natural disasters. However, STR profiling of DNA isolated from old crime scenes and damaged biological samples is difficult due to DNA degradation and fragmentation. Here, we show that pre-amplification of STR loci using biotinylated primers for the STR loci is an efficient strategy to obtain STR profiling results from fragmented forensic samples. Analysis of STR loci with longer amplicon sizes is generally hampered, since these relatively long loci are vulnerable to DNA fragmentation. This problem was overcome by using reduced or increased primer concentrations for loci with shorter or longer amplicon sizes, respectively, in our pre-amplification strategy. In addition, pre-amplification of STR loci into two groups of short or long amplicon size increases the efficiency of STR profiling from highly fragmented forensic DNA samples. Therefore, differential pre-amplification of STR loci is an effective way to obtain DNA profiling results from fragmented forensic samples.

  2. Location of the Maltose A and B Loci on the Genetic Map of Escherichia coli1

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Maxime

    1966-01-01

    Schwartz, Maxime (Institut Pasteur, Paris, France). Location of the maltose A and B loci on the genetic map of Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 92:1083–1089. 1966.—All of the mutations impairing maltose metabolism that have been found in Escherichia coli map in one of the two loci, malA and malB. The position of malA in relation to the streptomycin, diaminopimelic acid + homoserine, and glycerol D loci were established both by sexual crosses and by P1 transduction. A new biotin marker was also shown to be located in this region. The position of malB was studied in relation to the loci for arginine F, methionine A, ultraviolet radiation A, and the origin of transfer of Hfr P10. PMID:5332865

  3. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci for alligator gar (Atractosteus spatula) and their variability in two other species (Lepisosteus oculatus and L. osseus) of Lepisosteidae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moyer, G.R.; Sloss, Brian L.; Kreiser, B.R.; Feldheim, K.A.

    2009-01-01

    We report on the isolation of 17 polymorphic microsatellite loci from alligator gar (Atractosteus spatula), a large-bodied species that has experienced population declines across much of its range. These loci possessed 2-19 alleles and observed heterozygosities of 0-0.974. All loci conformed to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations, and none exhibited linkage disequilibrium. Nine and eight of these loci were found to be polymorphic in the related species Lepisosteus oculatus and L. osseus, respectively. These microsatellite loci should prove useful in conservation efforts of A. spatula through the study of population structure and hatchery broodstock management. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. New basal cell carcinoma susceptibility loci.

    PubMed

    Stacey, Simon N; Helgason, Hannes; Gudjonsson, Sigurjon A; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Zink, Florian; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Kehr, Birte; Gudmundsson, Julius; Sulem, Patrick; Sigurgeirsson, Bardur; Benediktsdottir, Kristrun R; Thorisdottir, Kristin; Ragnarsson, Rafn; Fuentelsaz, Victoria; Corredera, Cristina; Gilaberte, Yolanda; Grasa, Matilde; Planelles, Dolores; Sanmartin, Onofre; Rudnai, Peter; Gurzau, Eugene; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Nexø, Bjørn A; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Jonasson, Jon G; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Johannsdottir, Hrefna; Kristinsdottir, Anna M; Stefansson, Hreinn; Masson, Gisli; Magnusson, Olafur T; Halldorsson, Bjarni V; Kong, Augustine; Rafnar, Thorunn; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Vogel, Ulla; Kumar, Rajiv; Nagore, Eduardo; Mayordomo, José I; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Olafsson, Jon H; Stefansson, Kari

    2015-04-09

    In an ongoing screen for DNA sequence variants that confer risk of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC), we conduct a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 24,988,228 SNPs and small indels detected through whole-genome sequencing of 2,636 Icelanders and imputed into 4,572 BCC patients and 266,358 controls. Here we show the discovery of four new BCC susceptibility loci: 2p24 MYCN (rs57244888[C], OR=0.76, P=4.7 × 10(-12)), 2q33 CASP8-ALS2CR12 (rs13014235[C], OR=1.15, P=1.5 × 10(-9)), 8q21 ZFHX4 (rs28727938[G], OR=0.70, P=3.5 × 10(-12)) and 10p14 GATA3 (rs73635312[A], OR=0.74, P=2.4 × 10(-16)). Fine mapping reveals that two variants correlated with rs73635312[A] occur in conserved binding sites for the GATA3 transcription factor. In addition, expression microarrays and RNA-seq show that rs13014235[C] and a related SNP rs700635[C] are associated with expression of CASP8 splice variants in which sequences from intron 8 are retained.

  5. Naturally segregating loci exhibit epistasis for fitness

    PubMed Central

    Monnahan, Patrick J.; Kelly, John K.

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which gene interaction or epistasis contributes to fitness variation within populations remains poorly understood, despite its importance to a myriad of evolutionary questions. Here, we report a multi-year field study estimating fitness of Mimulus guttatus genetic lines in which pairs of naturally segregating loci exist in an otherwise uniform background. An allele at QTL x5b—a locus originally mapped for its effect on flower size—positively affects survival if combined with one genotype at quantitative trait locus x10a (aa) but has negative effects when combined with the other genotypes (Aa and AA). The viability differences between genotypes parallel phenotypic differences for the time and node at which a plant flowers. Viability is negatively correlated with fecundity across genotypes, indicating antagonistic pleiotropy for fitness components. This trade-off reduces the genetic variance for total fitness relative to the individual fitness components and thus may serve to maintain variation. Additionally, we find that the effects of each locus and their interaction often vary with the environment. PMID:26246336

  6. New basal cell carcinoma susceptibility loci

    PubMed Central

    Stacey, Simon N.; Helgason, Hannes; Gudjonsson, Sigurjon A.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Zink, Florian; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Kehr, Birte; Gudmundsson, Julius; Sulem, Patrick; Sigurgeirsson, Bardur; Benediktsdottir, Kristrun R.; Thorisdottir, Kristin; Ragnarsson, Rafn; Fuentelsaz, Victoria; Corredera, Cristina; Gilaberte, Yolanda; Grasa, Matilde; Planelles, Dolores; Sanmartin, Onofre; Rudnai, Peter; Gurzau, Eugene; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Nexø, Bjørn A.; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Jonasson, Jon G.; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Johannsdottir, Hrefna; Kristinsdottir, Anna M.; Stefansson, Hreinn; Masson, Gisli; Magnusson, Olafur T.; Halldorsson, Bjarni V.; Kong, Augustine; Rafnar, Thorunn; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Vogel, Ulla; Kumar, Rajiv; Nagore, Eduardo; Mayordomo, José I.; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; Olafsson, Jon H.; Stefansson, Kari

    2015-01-01

    In an ongoing screen for DNA sequence variants that confer risk of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC), we conduct a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 24,988,228 SNPs and small indels detected through whole-genome sequencing of 2,636 Icelanders and imputed into 4,572 BCC patients and 266,358 controls. Here we show the discovery of four new BCC susceptibility loci: 2p24 MYCN (rs57244888[C], OR=0.76, P=4.7 × 10−12), 2q33 CASP8-ALS2CR12 (rs13014235[C], OR=1.15, P=1.5 × 10−9), 8q21 ZFHX4 (rs28727938[G], OR=0.70, P=3.5 × 10−12) and 10p14 GATA3 (rs73635312[A], OR=0.74, P=2.4 × 10−16). Fine mapping reveals that two variants correlated with rs73635312[A] occur in conserved binding sites for the GATA3 transcription factor. In addition, expression microarrays and RNA-seq show that rs13014235[C] and a related SNP rs700635[C] are associated with expression of CASP8 splice variants in which sequences from intron 8 are retained. PMID:25855136

  7. Properties of multivariable root loci. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yagle, A. E.

    1981-01-01

    Various properties of multivariable root loci are analyzed from a frequency domain point of view by using the technique of Newton polygons, and some generalizations of the SISO root locus rules to the multivariable case are pointed out. The behavior of the angles of arrival and departure is related to the Smith-MacMillan form of G(s) and explicit equations for these angles are obtained. After specializing to first order and a restricted class of higher order poles and zeros, some simple equations for these angles that are direct generalizations of the SISO equations are found. The unusual behavior of root loci on the real axis at branch points is studied. The SISO root locus rules for break-in and break-out points are shown to generalize directly to the multivariable case. Some methods for computing both types of points are presented.

  8. FcγRIIB signals inhibit BLyS signaling and BCR-mediated BLyS receptor up-regulation

    PubMed Central

    Crowley, Jenni E.; Stadanlick, Jason E.; Cambier, John C.

    2009-01-01

    These studies investigate how interactions between the BCR and FcγRIIB affect B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) recep-tor expression and signaling. Previous studies showed that BCR ligation up-regulates BLyS binding capacity in mature B cells, reflecting increased BLyS receptor levels. Here we show that FcγRIIB coaggregation dampens BCR-induced BLyS receptor up-regulation. This cross-regulation requires BCR and FcγRIIB coligation, and optimal action relies on the Src-homology-2 (SH2)–containing inositol 5 phosphase-1 (SHIP1). Subsequent to FcγRIIB/BCR coaggregation, the survival promoting actions of BLyS are attenuated, reflecting reduced BLyS receptor signaling capacity in terms of Pim 2 maintenance, noncanonical NF-κB activation, and Bcl-xL levels. These findings link the negative regulatory functions of FcγRIIB with BLyS-mediated B-cell survival. PMID:18791164

  9. Identification of novel tyrosine kinase inhibitors for drug resistant T315I mutant BCR-ABL: a virtual screening and molecular dynamics simulations study

    PubMed Central

    Banavath, Hemanth Naick; Sharma, Om Prakash; Kumar, Muthuvel Suresh; Baskaran, R.

    2014-01-01

    BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase plays a major role in the pathogenesis of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and is a proven target for drug development. Currently available drugs in the market are effective against CML; however, side-effects and drug-resistant mutations in BCR-ABL limit their full potential. Using high throughput virtual screening approach, we have screened several small molecule databases and docked against wild-type and drug resistant T315I mutant BCR-ABL. Drugs that are currently available, such as imatinib and ponatinib, were also docked against BCR-ABL protein to set a cutoff value for our screening. Selected lead compounds were further evaluated for chemical reactivity employing density functional theory approach, all selected ligands shows HLG value > 0.09900 and the binding free energy between protein-ligand complex interactions obtained was rescored using MM-GBSA. The selected compounds showed least ΔG score −71.53 KJ/mol to maximum −126.71 KJ/mol in both wild type and drug resistant T315I mutant BCR-ABL. Following which, the stability of the docking complexes were evaluated by molecular dynamics simulation (MD) using GROMACS4.5.5. Results uncovered seven lead molecules, designated with Drug-Bank and PubChem ids as DB07107, DB06977, ST013616, DB04200, ST007180 ST019342, and DB01172, which shows docking scores higher than imatinib and ponatinib. PMID:25382104

  10. The immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif of Epstein-Barr virus LMP2A is essential for blocking BCR-mediated signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Fruehling, S; Longnecker, R

    1997-09-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A) blocks B-cell receptor (BCR) signal transduction in EBV-immortalized B lymphocytes in vitro. The cytoplasmic amino-terminal domain of LMP2A contains an immunoreceptor tyrosine activation motif (ITAM). ITAMs consist of paired tyrosine and leucine residues and play a central role in signal transduction of the BCR and the T-cell receptor (TCR). To investigate the importance of the LMP2A ITAM, two EBV recombinants were constructed, each containing a tyrosine-to-phenylalanine point mutation at amino acid 74 or 85 within the ITAM of LMP2A. Tyrosine phosphorylation, calcium mobilization, and induction of BZLF1 expression were no longer blocked in the LMP2A ITAM mutant LCLs following BCR cross-linking. In addition, the Syk protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) was unable to bind LMP2A in unstimulated LCLs infected with either of the LMP2A ITAM mutants. Analysis of Syk phosphorylation before and after BCR cross-linking in the LMP2A mutant ITAM LCLs compared with wild-type EBV LCLs indicates a specific role of the LMP2A ITAM on the LMP2A-mediated negative effect on the Syk PTK. These data indicate the importance of the LMP2A ITAM motif in the LMP2A-mediated block on BCR signal transduction and position the role of the Syk PTK as being central to the function of LMP2A.

  11. Identification of novel tyrosine kinase inhibitors for drug resistant T315I mutant BCR-ABL: a virtual screening and molecular dynamics simulations study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banavath, Hemanth Naick; Sharma, Om Prakash; Kumar, Muthuvel Suresh; Baskaran, R.

    2014-11-01

    BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase plays a major role in the pathogenesis of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and is a proven target for drug development. Currently available drugs in the market are effective against CML; however, side-effects and drug-resistant mutations in BCR-ABL limit their full potential. Using high throughput virtual screening approach, we have screened several small molecule databases and docked against wild-type and drug resistant T315I mutant BCR-ABL. Drugs that are currently available, such as imatinib and ponatinib, were also docked against BCR-ABL protein to set a cutoff value for our screening. Selected lead compounds were further evaluated for chemical reactivity employing density functional theory approach, all selected ligands shows HLG value > 0.09900 and the binding free energy between protein-ligand complex interactions obtained was rescored using MM-GBSA. The selected compounds showed least ΔG score -71.53 KJ/mol to maximum -126.71 KJ/mol in both wild type and drug resistant T315I mutant BCR-ABL. Following which, the stability of the docking complexes were evaluated by molecular dynamics simulation (MD) using GROMACS4.5.5. Results uncovered seven lead molecules, designated with Drug-Bank and PubChem ids as DB07107, DB06977, ST013616, DB04200, ST007180 ST019342, and DB01172, which shows docking scores higher than imatinib and ponatinib.

  12. Essential role of the transcription factor Bhlhe41 in regulating the development, self-renewal and BCR repertoire of B-1a cells

    PubMed Central

    Kreslavsky, Taras; Vilagos, Bojan; Tagoh, Hiromi; Kostanova Poliakova, Daniela; Schwickert, Tanja; Wöhner, Miriam; Jaritz, Markus; Weiss, Siegfried; Taneja, Reshma; Rossner, Moritz J.; Busslinger, Meinrad

    2017-01-01

    Innate-like B-1a cells provide a first line of defense against pathogens, yet little is known about their transcriptional control. Here we identified an essential role of the transcription factor Bhlhe41, with a lesser contribution of Bhlhe40, in controlling late stages of B-1a cell differentiation. Bhlhe41–/–Bhlhe40–/– B-1a cells were severely reduced as compared to their wild-type counterparts. Mutant B-1a cells exhibited an abnormal cell-surface phenotype and altered B-cell receptor (BCR) repertoire exemplified by loss of the phosphatidylcholine-specific VH12/Vκ4 BCR. Expression of a pre-rearranged VH12/Vκ4 BCR failed to rescue the mutant phenotype and revealed enhanced proliferation accompanied with increased cell death. Bhlhe41 directly repressed the expression of cell cycle regulators and inhibitors of BCR signaling, while enabling pro-survival cytokine signaling. Thus, Bhlhe41 controls the development, BCR repertoire and self-renewal of B-1a cells. PMID:28250425

  13. Frequency of p190 and p210 BCR-ABL rearrangements and survival in Brazilian adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    de França Azevedo, Ilana; da Silva Júnior, Rui Milton Patrício; de Vasconcelos, Audrey Violeta Martins; das Neves, Washington Batista; de Barros Correia Melo, Fárida Coeli; Melo, Raul Antônio Morais

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the occurrence of the p190 and p210 breakpoint cluster region-Abelson (BCR-ABL) rearrangements in adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and possible associations with clinical and laboratory characteristics and survival. Methods Forty-one over 18-year-old patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia of both genders followed-up between January 2008 and May 2012 were included in this study. Clinical and laboratory data were obtained from the medical charts of the patients. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using specific primers was employed to identify molecular rearrangements. Results At diagnosis, the median age was 33 years, and there was a predominance of males (61%). The most common immunophenotype was B lineage (76%). BCR-ABL rearrangements was detected in 14 (34%) patients with the following distribution: p190 (28%), p210 (50%) and double positive (22%). Overall survival of patients with a mean/median of 331/246 days of follow up was 39%, respectively, negative BCR-ABL (44%) and positive BCR-ABL (28%). Conclusion These results confirm the high frequency of BCR-ABL rearrangements and the low survival rate of adult Brazilian patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. PMID:25305168

  14. BCR-ABL Testing by Polymerase Chain Reaction in Patients With Neutrophilia: The William Beaumont Hospital Experience and the Case for Rational Laboratory Test Requests.

    PubMed

    Ogunleye, Foluso; Ibrahim, Mohammed; Allen, Emily; Brennan, Neil; Huang, James; Yu, Zhou; Huben, Marianne; Jaiyesimi, Ishmael

    2016-12-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative neoplasm resulting from the fusion of the BCR-ABL genes, forming the Philadelphia chromosome. The diagnosis is often suspected when there is leukocytosis with left shift and basophilia. Confirmation of the diagnosis requires a demonstration of BCR-ABL by polymerase chain reaction. Using data from the William Beaumont laboratory data registry, we conducted a retrospective review of all the orders for BCR-ABL tests sent to the clinical pathology laboratory between March 11, 2014 and September 12, 2014. We concluded that the presence of concurrent neutrophilia and basophilia has a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI, 69.15% to 100%) and specificity of 100% (95% CI, 93.15% to 100%) in the initial diagnosis of CML. Our results suggest that the presence of both neutrophilia and basophilia should be used as a threshold for the placement of orders for BCR-ABL in the initial diagnosis of CML in patients with leukocytosis with left shift and provide a basis for a reduction in health care spending. Restricting BCR-ABL tests to this population would save approximately $198 million annually in national health care spending.

  15. Pervasive antagonistic interactions among hybrid incompatibility loci.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Rafael F; Muir, Christopher D; Josway, Sarah; Moyle, Leonie C

    2017-06-01

    Species barriers, expressed as hybrid inviability and sterility, are often due to epistatic interactions between divergent loci from two lineages. Theoretical models indicate that the strength, direction, and complexity of these genetic interactions can strongly affect the expression of interspecific reproductive isolation and the rates at which new species evolve. Nonetheless, empirical analyses have not quantified the frequency with which loci are involved in interactions affecting hybrid fitness, and whether these loci predominantly interact synergistically or antagonistically, or preferentially involve loci that have strong individual effects on hybrid fitness. We systematically examined the prevalence of interactions between pairs of short chromosomal regions from one species (Solanum habrochaites) co-introgressed into a heterospecific genetic background (Solanum lycopersicum), using lines containing pairwise combinations of 15 chromosomal segments from S. habrochaites in the background of S. lycopersicum (i.e., 95 double introgression lines). We compared the strength of hybrid incompatibility (either pollen sterility or seed sterility) expressed in each double introgression line to the expected additive effect of its two component single introgressions. We found that epistasis was common among co-introgressed regions. Interactions for hybrid dysfunction were substantially more prevalent in pollen fertility compared to seed fertility phenotypes, and were overwhelmingly antagonistic (i.e., double hybrids were less unfit than expected from additive single introgression effects). This pervasive antagonism is expected to attenuate the rate at which hybrid infertility accumulates among lineages over time (i.e., giving diminishing returns as more reproductive isolation loci accumulate), as well as decouple patterns of accumulation of sterility loci and hybrid incompatibility phenotypes. This decoupling effect might explain observed differences between pollen and

  16. Linkage relationships and haplotype polymorphism among cichlid Mhc class II B loci.

    PubMed Central

    Málaga-Trillo, E; Zaleska-Rutczynska, Z; McAndrew, B; Vincek, V; Figueroa, F; Sültmann, H; Klein, J

    1998-01-01

    The species flocks of cichlid fishes in the Great East African Lakes are paradigms of adaptive radiation and hence, of great interest to evolutionary biologists. Phylogenetic studies of these fishes have, however, been hampered by the lack of suitable polymorphic markers. The genes of the major histocompatibility complex hold the promise to provide, through their extensive polymorphism, a large number of such markers, but their use has been hampered by the complexity of the genetic system and the lack of definition of the individual loci. In this study we take the first substantial step to alleviate this problem. Using a combination of methods, including the typing of single sperm cells, gyno- or androgenetic individuals, and haploid embryos, as well as sequencing of class II B restriction fragments isolated from gels for Southern blots, we identify the previously characterized homology groups as distinct loci. At least 17 polymorphic class II B loci, all of which are presumably transcribed, have been found among the different species studied. Most of these loci are shared across the various cichlid species and genera. The number of loci per haplotype varies from individual to individual, ranging from 1 to 13. A total of 21 distinct haplotypes differing in the number of loci they carry has thus far been identified. All the polymorphic loci are part of the same cluster in which, however, distances between at least some of the loci (as indicated by recombination frequencies) are relatively large. Both the individual loci and the haplotypes can now be used to study phylogenetic relationships among the members of the species flocks and the mode in which speciation occurs during adaptive radiation. PMID:9649539

  17. Molecular monitoring of BCR-ABL transcripts in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia: is high sensitivity of clinical value?

    PubMed