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Sample records for bdz receptor binding

  1. Effects of vitamin B-6 nutrition on benzodiazepine (BDZ) receptor binding in the developing rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Borek, J.P.; Guilarte, T.R. )

    1990-02-26

    A dietary deficiency of vitamin B-6 promotes seizure activity in neonatal animals and human infants. Previous studied have shown that neonatal vitamin B-6 deprivation results in reduced levels of brain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and increased binding at the GABA site of the GABA/BDZ receptor complex. Since the GABA and BDZ receptors are allosterically linked, this study was undertaken to determine if vitamin B-6 deprivation had an effect on BDZ receptor binding. Benzodiazepine receptor binding isotherms using {sup 3}H-flunitrazepam as ligand were performed in the presence and absence of 10 {mu}M GABA. The results indicate a significant increase in the binding affinity (Kd) in the presence of GABA in cerebellar membranes from deficient rat pups at 14 days of age with no effect on receptor number (Bmax). By 28 days of age, the increase in Kd was no longer present. No change in Kd or Bmax was observed in cortical tissue from deficient animals at 14 or 28 days of age. Preliminary studies of GABA-enhancement of {sup 3}H-flunitrazepam binding indicate that vitamin B-6 deficiency also induces alterations in the ability of GABA to enhance BZD receptor binding. In summary, these results indicate that the effects of vitamin B-6 deprivation on BDZ receptor binding are region specific and age related.

  2. Comparison of (/sup 14/C)-deoxyglucose metabolism and peripheral benzodiazepine receptor binding in rat C6 glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Richfield, E.K.; Ciliax, B.J.; Starosta-Rubinstein, S.R.; McKeever, P.E.; Penney, J.B.; Young, A.B.

    1988-08-01

    A rat C6 glioma tumor model has demonstrated that C6 tumor cells express a high density of peripheral benzodiazepine (BDZ) receptors. We report a poor correlation between the density of peripheral BDZ receptors and tumor metabolism using (/sup 14/C)-deoxyglucose in this C6 glioma model. We also compared the abilities of in vivo and in vitro BDZ receptor binding and tumor metabolism to measure the tumor area. All imaging methods were capable of estimating both the gross and total tumor area and had similar specificities and sensitivities. Because of a high signal-to-noise ratio, in vivo peripheral BDZ receptor binding may be a useful method for determining tumor size in human tumors expressing the receptor using PET.

  3. Mechanism of inhibition of GluA2 AMPA receptor channel opening by 2,3-benzodiazepine derivatives: functional consequences of replacing a 7,8-methylenedioxy with a 7,8-ethylenedioxy moiety.

    PubMed

    Qneibi, Mohammad S; Micale, Nicola; Grasso, Silvana; Niu, Li

    2012-02-28

    2,3-Benzodiazepine (2,3-BDZ) compounds are a group of AMPA receptor inhibitors and are drug candidates for treating neurological diseases involving excessive AMPA receptor activity. We investigated the mechanism by which GluA2Q(flip) receptor channel opening is inhibited by two 2,3-BDZ derivatives, i.e., 1-(4-aminophenyl)-3,5-dihydro-7,8-ethylenedioxy-4H-2,3-benzodiazepin-4-one (2,3-BDZ-11-2) and its 1-(4-amino-3-chlorophenyl) analogue (2,3-BDZ-11-4). Both compounds have a 7,8-ethylenedioxy moiety instead of the 7,8-methylenedioxy feature present in the structure of GYKI 52466, the prototypic 2,3-BDZ compound. Using a laser-pulse photolysis approach with a time resolution of ~60 μs and a rapid solution flow technique, we characterized the effect of the two compounds on the channel opening process of the homomeric GluA2Q(flip) receptor. We found that both 2,3-BDZ-11-2 and 2,3-BDZ-11-4 are noncompetitive inhibitors with specificity for the closed-channel conformation of the GluA2Q(flip) receptor. However, 2,3-BDZ-11-4 is ~10-fold stronger, defined by its inhibition constant for the closed-channel conformation (i.e., K(I) = 2 μM), than 2,3-BDZ-11-2. From double-inhibitor experiments, we determined that both compounds bind to the same site, but this site is different from two other known, noncompetitive binding sites on the GluA2Q(flip) receptor previously reported. Our results provide both mechanistic clues to improve our understanding of AMPA receptor regulation and a structure-activity relationship for designing more potent 2,3-BDZ compounds with predictable properties for this new noncompetitive site.

  4. Sigma Receptor Binding Assays.

    PubMed

    Chu, Uyen B; Ruoho, Arnold E

    2015-12-08

    Sigma receptors, both Sigma-1(S1R) and Sigma-2 (S2R), are small molecule-regulated, primarily endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane-associated sites. A number of drugs bind to sigma receptors, including the antipsychotic haloperidol and (+)-pentazocine, an opioid analgesic. Sigma receptors are implicated in many central nervous system disorders, in particular Alzheimer's disease and conditions associated with motor control, such as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). Described in this unit are radioligand binding assays used for the pharmacological characterization of S1R and S2R. Methods detailed include a radioligand saturation binding assay for defining receptor densities and a competitive inhibition binding assay employing [³H]-(+)-pentazocine for identifying and characterizing novel ligands that interact with S1R. Procedures using [³H]-1,3-di(2-tolyl)guanidine ([³H]-DTG), a nonselective sigma receptor ligand, are described for conducting a saturation binding and competitive inhibition assays for the S2R site. These protocols are of value in drug discovery in identifying new sigma ligands and in the characterization of these receptors.

  5. SIGMA RECEPTOR BINDING ASSAYS

    PubMed Central

    CHU, UYEN B.; RUOHO, ARNOLD E.

    2016-01-01

    Sigma receptors belong to a class of small molecule-regulated, primarily endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane-associated receptors, of which there are two subtypes: the Sigma-1 receptor (S1R) and the Sigma-2 receptor (S2R). Both S1R and S2R bind to a number of drugs including antipsychotic, haloperidol, and the opioid analgesic, (+)-pentazocine. Sigma receptors are implicated in multiple disease pathologies associated with the nervous system including diseases affecting motor control such as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Alzeimher's disease. This unit describes methods for the pharmacological characterization of S1R and S2R using radioligand-binding assays. In the first section, radioligand saturation binding assay to determine receptor densities and competitive inhibition assays to characterize affinities of novel compounds are presented for S1R using the selective S1R ligand, [3H]-(+)-pentazocine. The second section describes radioligand saturation binding assay and competitive inhibition assays for the S2R using a non-selective S1R and S2R ligand, [3H]-1,3-di(2-tolyl)guanidine ([3H]-DTG). PMID:26646191

  6. Platelet peripheral benzodiazepine receptors are decreased in Parkinson's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Bonuccelli, U.; Nuti, A.; Del Dotto, P.; Piccini, P.; Martini, C.; Giannacccini, G.; Lucacchini, A.; Muratorio, A. )

    1991-01-01

    Peripheral benzodiazepine (BDZ) receptors are located in a variety of tissues, including platelets, in the nuclear and/or mitochondrial membranes. The authors studied the density of peripheral BDZ receptors in platelets of 10 de novo Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, 18 PD patients treated with a levodopa/carbidopa combination, and in 15 healthy subjects matched for sex and age. The binding assay was conducted using ({sup 3}H)PK 11195, a specific ligand for peripheral BDZ receptors. A significant decrease in the density of ({sup 3}H)PK 11195 binding sites has been observed in PD patients with respect to controls but not between de novo and treated PD patients. No correlation has been found between the decrease in density of ({sup 3}H)PK 11195 binding sites in platelets and either the duration or severity of PD. Peripheral BDZ receptors are implicated in the regulation of mitochondrial respiratory function. Thus, their decrease in PD might parallel the abnormalities in mitochondrial function recently found in this neurologic disease.

  7. Molecular size of benzodiazepine receptor in rat brain in situ: evidence for a functional dimer?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doble, A.; Iversen, L. L.

    1982-02-01

    Benzodiazepine tranquillizers such as diazepam and chlordiazepoxide interact with high-affinity binding sites in nervous tissue1,2. The correlation between the affinities of various benzodiazepines for these sites with their clinical potencies and activity in behavioural and electrophysiological tests in animals suggests that the sites represent the functional `receptor' whereby benzodiazepines exert their effects3. The intimate involvement of benzodiazepines with γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and chloride channels raised the possibility that the benzodiazepine binding site (BDZ-R) may be a protein in the GABA receptor-effector complex4,5. GABA agonists enhance the affinity of BDZ-R for benzodiazepines6, although BDZ-R is distinct from the GABA receptor itself3. However, electrophysiological evidence suggests that the action of benzodiazepines is chloride channel, rather than receptor, directed7-10. Several attempts have been made to measure the molecular weight (Mr) of BDZ-R after solubilization from brain membranes: treatment with 1% Triton X-100 followed by assay of binding activity in solute fractions separated according to molecular weight suggested11 a value of ~200,000, photoaffinity labelling of BDZ-R with 3H-flunitrazepam (3H-FNZ) followed by more rigorous solubilization and gel chromatography indicated12,13 an apparent Mr of ~55,000 and a third approach14 a value of ~100,000. The measured molecular weight seems to depend critically on the solubilization procedure used. Chang et al.15 recently described the use of radiation inactivation to determine the size of BDZ-R in situ in calf brain membranes, and estimated a Mr, of 216,000. We have also used this approach; the results reported here indicate a Mr of between 90,000 and 100,000, but this is reduced to 60,000-63,000 in membranes pretreated with GABA, suggesting the disaggregation of a normally dimeric form.

  8. An in situ assay for determination of benzodiazepine binding.

    PubMed

    Sher, P K; Schrier, B K; Van Putten, D

    1982-01-01

    Benzodiazepine (BDZ) receptors have been demonstrated recently in a variety of mammalian tissues. However, assay methods for such receptors have required that disrupted tissues be used. We have developed an in situ assay for this receptor utilizing intact cells cultured from the cerebral cortices of fetal mice which is more sensitive and physiologic than those used previously. Results obtained with this assay differ in the following ways from those in which disrupted tissues are used: (1) total and specific BDZ binding was as much as 10-fold higher in the in situ assays; (2) Scatchard analysis of the binding data is consistently nonlinear, revealing at least two binding sites with KD values of 5.5 and 303 nM, and (3) presumed nonneuronal receptors were found in abundance.

  9. Molecular modulators of benzodiazepine receptor ligand binding

    SciTech Connect

    Villar, H.O.; Loew, G.H. )

    1989-01-01

    Ten derivatives of {beta}-carbolines with known affinities to the GABA{sub A}/BDZ (benzodiazepine) receptor were studied using the Am 1 and MNDO/H Semiempirical techniques to identify and characterize molecular modulators of receptor recognition. Steric, lipophilic, and electrostatic properties of these compounds were calculated and examined for their possible role in recognition. Particular attention was paid to the regions around the two most favorable proton-accepting sites, the ON and the substituent at the C{sub 3} position, already implicated in recognition, as well as to the acidic N9H group that could be a proton donating center. To probe further the role of these three ligand sites in receptor interactions, a model of the receptor using three methanol molecules was made and optimum interactions of these three sites with them characterized. The results indicate some similarity in the shape of these ligands, which could reflect a steric requirement. The receptor affinity appears to be modulated to some extent by the ratio of lipophilic to hydrophilic surface, the negative potential at the {beta}N, provided there is also one at the C{sub 3} substituent confirming the importance of two accepting sites in recognition. The acidic N9H does not appear to be a modulator of affinity or does it form a stable H-bond with methanol as acceptor. The two proton donating molecules do form such a stable complex, and both are needed for high affinity.

  10. Effect of sertraline treatment on benzodiazepine receptors in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Giardino, L; Zanni, M; Velardo, A; Amato, G; Calzà, L

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we describe the modification of benzodiazepine (BDZ) binding sites in the rat brain after different times of treatment with the 5-hydroxytryptamine-(5HT) uptake blocker sertraline. We investigated the effect of 8, 15 and 30 days sertraline treatment (10 mg/kg/day, i.p.) on 3 H-flunitrazepam binding sites. In order to describe the anatomical site of action of the drug, the experiment has been carried out by means of quantitative receptor autoradiography. After 8 days of sertraline treatment, an increase of BDZ receptor density is found in the olfactory tubercle. This effect is reversed at 15 and 30 days. At 15 days of treatment, an increase is found in the anterior cingulate cortex. This increase is still present after 30 days of treatment. At 30 days of treatment, we also found an increase of BDZ receptor density in the frontoparietal motor cortex and in the septal nuclei. The Scatchard plots obtained from the saturation experiments indicate that this increase of the receptor density is due to an increase of both the receptor number and affinity. All the other investigated areas are unaffected by the sertraline treatment. The possible neurochemical basis of these BDZ receptor regulation by sertraline and its influence in the therapeutical profile are discussed.

  11. Regulation of GABA and benzodiazepine receptors following neurotoxin-induced striatal and medial forebrain bundle lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, H.S.I.

    1985-01-01

    GABA, a major inhibitory transmitter, is used by many projection neurons of the striatum. To investigate the role of GABA in striatal function, the GABA receptor complex was studied after lesions of the striatum or the nigrostriatal neurons. Quantitative receptor autoradiography using thaw-mounted tissue slices was developed for the study of GABA and benzodiazepine (BDZ) receptors. With the technique established, binding to GABA and BDZ receptors after unilateral striatal kainate lesions was examined. Subsequently, changes in GABA and BDZ receptors were studied following the destruction of dopaminergic nigrostriatal cells by unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion of the medial forebrain bundle. In summary, quantitative receptor autoradiography allowed the detection of GABA and BDZ receptor changes in multiple small areas in each lesioned brain. This technique made it feasible to carry out kinetic saturation, and competition studies using less than 1 mg of tissue. The data suggest that dopamine is functionally inhibitory on striatopallidal neurons but is functionally excitatory on striatoentopeduncular and striatonigral cells which in turn inhibit the thalamus. This quantitative autoradiographic technique can be generalized to study other transmitter receptors and can be combined with 2-deoxyglucose uptake studies.

  12. Cloning of the mouse GABA-benzodiazepine receptor. alpha. 1 subunit in a study of alcohol neurosensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Keir, W.J.; Deitrich, R.A.; Sikela, J.M. )

    1989-02-09

    The inhibitory action of gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) is mediated by its binding to the benzodiazepine (BDZ) receptor and opening of a chloride channel. This receptor contains a variety of binding sites for several behavorially active drugs. Recent studies with SS and LS mice which were selected for differential neurosensitivity to ethanol, suggest that the GABAergic system plays a role in this differential sensitivity. Thus genes controlling the GABAergic system may also influence the acute hypnotic actions of ethanol. As a fist step towards verifying this hypothesis we have cloned and partially sequenced the mouse GABA-BDZ {alpha}1 subunit cDNA using a 40 bp oligonucleotide derived from the N terminus of a published bovine {alpha} subunit cDNA. A positive clone from a mouse brain cDNA library was identified and contains an insert of approximately 2.5 Kb. Partial sequence analysis indicates that this clone corresponds to the mouse homolog of the {alpha}1 subunit of the GABA-BDZ receptor. This clone is being used as a probe to identify restriction fragment length polymorphisms in several mouse genotypes which differ in their neurosensitivity to ethanol in an attempt to identify molecular genetic changes in the GABA-BDZ receptor that are related to differential ethanol neurosensitivity.

  13. Mechanism and site of inhibition of AMPA receptors: substitution of one and two methyl groups at the 4-aminophenyl ring of 2,3-benzodiazepine and implications in the "E" site.

    PubMed

    Wang, Congzhou; Wu, Andrew; Shen, Yu-Chuan; Ettari, Roberta; Grasso, Silvana; Niu, Li

    2015-08-19

    2,3-Benzodiazepines are a well-known group of compounds for their potential antagonism against AMPA receptors. It has been previously reported that the inhibitory effect of 2,3-benzodiazepine derivatives with a 7,8-ethylenedioxy moiety can be enhanced by simply adding a chlorine atom at position 3 of the 4-aminophenyl ring. Here we report that adding a methyl group at position 3 on the 4-aminophenyl ring, termed as BDZ-11-7, can similarly enhance the inhibitory activity, as compared with the unsubstituted one or BDZ-11-2. Our kinetic studies have shown that BDZ-11-7 is a noncompetitive antagonist of GluA2Q homomeric receptors and prefers to inhibit the closed-channel state. However, adding another methyl group at position 5 on the 4-aminophenyl ring, termed as BDZ-11-6, fails to yield extra inhibition on GluA2Q receptors. Instead, BDZ-11-6 exhibits a diminished inhibition of GluA2Q. Site interaction test indicates the two compounds, BDZ-11-6 and BDZ-11-7, bind to the same site on GluA2Q, which is also the binding site for their prototype, BDZ-11-2. Based on the results from this and our earlier studies, we propose that the binding site that accommodates the 4-aminophenyl ring must contain two interactive points, with one preferring polar groups like chlorine and the other preferring nonpolar groups such as a methyl group. Either adding a chlorine or a methyl group may enhance the inhibitory activity of 2,3-benzodiazepine derivatives with a 7,8-ethylenedioxy moiety. Adding any two of the same group on positions 3 and 5 of the 4-aminophenyl ring, however, significantly reduces the interaction between these 2,3-benzodiazepines and their binding site, because one group is always repelled by one interactive point. We predict therefore that adding a chlorine atom at position 3 and a methyl group at position 5 of the 4-aminophenyl ring of 2,3-benzodiazepine derivatives with a 7,8-ethylenedioxy moiety may produce a new compound that is more potent.

  14. Neurotransmitter Receptor Binding in Bovine Cerebral Microvessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peroutka, Stephen J.; Moskowitz, Michael A.; Reinhard, John F.; Synder, Solomon H.

    1980-05-01

    Purified preparations of microvessels from bovine cerebral cortex contain substantial levels of alpha-adrenergic, beta-adrenergic, and histamine 1 receptor binding sites but only negligible serotonin, muscarinic cholinergic, opiate, and benzodiazepine receptor binding. Norepinephrine and histamine may be endogenous regulators of the cerebral microcirculation at the observed receptors.

  15. Opiate Receptor Binding Properties of Carfentanil

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    CHEMICAL O [RE CORN r RESEARCHL co -DEVELOPMENT & ENGINEERING CENTER,CRDEC-TR-88029 OPIATE RECEPTOR BINDING PROPERTIES OF CARFENTANIL DTIC .4J...TITLE (Include Security Classification) Opiate Receptor Binding Properties of Carfentanil 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Thompson, Roy G., Menking, Darrel...FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Opiates DELTA receptor 07 03 Carfentanil KAPPA receptor 15 06 03 Mil rpcentnr 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and

  16. Binding characteristics of swine erythrocyte insulin receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Dieberg, G.; Bryan, G.S.; Sartin, J.L.; Williams, J.C.; Prince, T.J.; Kemppainen, R.J.

    1985-09-01

    Crossbred gilts had 8.8 +/- 1.1% maximum binding of ( SVI)insulin to insulin receptors on erythrocytes. The number of insulin-binding sites per cell was 137 +/- 19, with a binding affinity ranging from 7.4 X 10(7)M-1 to 11.2 X 10(7)M-1 and mean of 8.8 X 10(7)M-1. Pregnant sows had a significant increase in maximum binding due to an increase in number of receptor sites per cell. Lactating sows fed a high-fiber diet and a low-fiber diet did not develop a significant difference in maximum binding of insulin. Sows fed the low-fiber diet had a significantly higher number of binding sites and a significantly lower binding affinity than did sows fed a high-fiber diet. Receptor-binding affinity was lower in the low-fiber diet group than in cycling gilts, whereas data from sows fed the high-fiber diet did not differ from data for cycling gilts. Data from this study indicated that insulin receptors of swine erythrocytes have binding characteristics similar to those in other species. Pregnancy and diet will alter insulin receptor binding in swine.

  17. [The influence of piracetam on behavior and brain receptors in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice: nootropic and anxiolytic effects].

    PubMed

    Kovalev, G I; Kondrakhin, E A; Salimov, R M; Neznamov, G G

    2013-01-01

    The influence of acute and long-term piracetam administration on the dynamics of rapid (non-specific, anxiolytic) and slow (specific, nootropic) behavioral drug effects, as well as on their interrelation with NMDA- and BDZ-receptors was studied in inbred mice strains differing in cognitive and emotional status--C57BL/6 and BALB/c. The BALB/c strain contained 17% less [3H]-flunitrazepam binding sites in frontal cortex and 22% less [3H]-MK801 binding sites in hippocampus as compared to those in C57BL/6 mice. Based on these data, BALB/c strain was used as a model of psychopathology, combining increased anxiety and cognitive deficit. Under the action of single, 7-fold, and 14-fold piracetam i.p. injections (200 mg/kg body weight, daily), a fast increase in NMDA-receptor density and slow escalation of the specific nootropic effect was observed in BALB/c mice. Non-specific anxiolytic effects in these mice increased for the first 1 - 7 days without any changes in BDZ-binding and then decreased to initial values accompanied by decrement of brain receptor concentration. Thus, in BALB/c mice, a slowly manifested specific nootropic action of piracetam develops, following an increase in NMDA receptor density, whereas the non-specific anxiolytic effect precedes the fast-paced changes in BDZ-binding site density.

  18. Receptor binding profile of Otilonium bromide.

    PubMed

    Evangelista, S; Giachetti, A; Chapelain, B; Neliat, G; Maggi, C A

    1998-08-01

    The interaction of Otilonium bromide (OB) with binding sites for 63 different receptors and ion channels in appropriate preparations has been investigated. Experiments were also performed in rat colon, the preferred tissue for OB 'in vivo' uptake after oral administration. Among the receptors investigated OB binds with sub microM affinity to muscarinic M1, M2, M4, M5 and PAF receptors and with microM affinity to the diltiazem binding site on L type Ca2+ channels. In the rat colon OB shows competitive interaction with the verapamil binding site on L type Ca2+ channels and with muscarinic M2 receptors with IC50 of 1020 and 1220 nM, respectively. These findings provide a molecular rationale to explain the spasmolytic action exerted by OB on intestinal smooth muscle. In particular, a combination of antimuscarinic and Ca2+ channel blocker properties seems to best account for the action of this compound.

  19. Collective binding properties of receptor arrays.

    PubMed

    Agmon, N; Edelstein, A L

    1997-04-01

    Binding kinetics of receptor arrays can differ dramatically from that of the isolated receptor. We simulate synaptic transmission using a microscopically accurate Brownian dynamics routine. We study the factors governing the rise and decay of the activation probability as a function of the number of transmitter molecules released. Using a realistic receptor array geometry, the simulation reproduces the time course of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents. A consistent interpretation of experimentally observed synaptic currents in terms of rebinding and spatial correlations is discussed.

  20. Association between improvement in depression, reduced benzodiazepine (BDZ) abuse, and increased psychotropic medication use in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) patients.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Shaul; Peles, Einat; Adelson, Miriam

    2008-01-01

    We had evaluated the depressive symptoms severity of 75 former heroin addicts in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) using the 21-item Hamilton rating scale for depression (21-HAM-D) and re-assessed 63 of them 1.6+/-0.3 years later. The second mean 21-HAM-D score was lower than the first (11.8+/-8.4 versus 17.4+/-6.2, p<0.0005). Benzodiazepine (BDZ) abuse was lower although not significantly (p=0.06) during the month preceding the second analysis (32/63, 50.8%) than the month preceding the first one (40/63, 63.5%). Psychotropic medication usage was higher at the second assessment than at the first one (50/63, 79.4% versus 27/63, 42.9%, p<0.0005). 21-HAM-D score reduced significantly over time among 13 "no psychotropic medication" patients (13.5+/-6.3 versus 6.8+/-6.8, p=0.005) and in 27 who started medication following the first assessment (19.3+/-3.8 versus 11.0+/-8.4, p<0.0005), but not in those who were already taking any medication before the first assessment (17.7+/-7.0 versus 15.0+/-8.0, p=n.s). 21-HAM-D score reduced in all BDZ groups but scores were still highest in the 32 patients who continued BDZ abuse (19.4+/-5.6 versus 15.2+/-7.7) followed by 14 who stopped it (16.8+/-6.4 versus 9.6+/-9.1) and were lowest in 17 patients who never abused BDZ (14.2+/-5.2 versus 7.2+/-6.4) (repeated measured, time and group effect, each p<0.0005). Predictors for being depressed at follow-up were pre-existing depression only. Stopping BDZ abuse and starting psychotropic treatment was associated with a reduction of depressive symptoms among MMT patients.

  1. Allosteric binding sites on muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Wess, Jürgen

    2005-12-01

    In this issue of Molecular Pharmacology, Tränkle et al. (p. 1597) present new findings regarding the existence of a second allosteric site on the M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M2 mAChR). The M2 mAChR is a prototypic class A G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that has proven to be a very useful model system to study the molecular mechanisms involved in the binding of allosteric GPCR ligands. Previous studies have identified several allosteric muscarinic ligands, including the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor tacrine and the bis-pyridinium derivative 4,4'-bis-[(2,6-dichloro-benzyloxy-imino)-methyl]-1,1'-propane-1,3-diyl-bis-pyridinium dibromide (Duo3), which, in contrast to conventional allosteric muscarinic ligands, display concentration-effect curves with slope factors >1. By analyzing the interactions of tacrine and Duo3 with other allosteric muscarinic agents predicted to bind to the previously identified ;common' allosteric binding site, Tränkle et al. provide evidence suggesting that two allosteric agents and one orthosteric ligand may be able to bind to the M2 mAChR simultaneously. Moreover, studies with mutant mAChRs indicated that the M2 receptor epitopes involved in the binding of tacrine and Duo3 may not be identical. Molecular modeling and ligand docking studies suggested that the additional allosteric site probably represents a subdomain of the receptor's allosteric binding cleft. Because allosteric binding sites have been found on many other GPCRs and drugs interacting with these sites are thought to have great therapeutic potential, the study by Tränkle et al. should be of considerable general interest.

  2. Membrane catalysis of peptide-receptor binding

    PubMed Central

    Langelaan, David N.; Rainey, Jan K.

    2011-01-01

    The membrane catalysis hypothesis states that a peptide ligand activates its target receptor after an initial interaction with the surrounding membrane. Upon membrane binding and interaction, the ligand is structured such that receptor binding and activation is encouraged. As evidence for this hypothesis, there are numerous studies concerning the conformation that peptides adopt in membrane mimetic environments. This mini-review analyzes the features of ligand peptides with available high-resolution membrane-induced structure and a characterized membrane-binding region. At the peptide-membrane interface, both amphipathic helices and turn structures are commonly formed in peptide ligands and both hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions can be responsible for membrane binding. Apelin is the ligand to the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) named APJ, with various important physiological effects, which we have recently characterized both in solution and bound to anionic micelles. The structural changes that apelin undergoes when binding to micelles provide strong evidence for membrane catalysis of apelin-APJ interactions. PMID:20453923

  3. Quantitative in vivo receptor binding. III. Tracer kinetic modeling of muscarinic cholinergic receptor binding

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, K.A.; Hichwa, R.D.; Ehrenkaufer, R.L.; Agranoff, B.W.

    1985-10-01

    A tracer kinetic method is developed for the in vivo estimation of high-affinity radioligand binding to central nervous system receptors. Ligand is considered to exist in three brain pools corresponding to free, nonspecifically bound, and specifically bound tracer. These environments, in addition to that of intravascular tracer, are interrelated by a compartmental model of in vivo ligand distribution. A mathematical description of the model is derived, which allows determination of regional blood-brain barrier permeability, nonspecific binding, the rate of receptor-ligand association, and the rate of dissociation of bound ligand, from the time courses of arterial blood and tissue tracer concentrations. The term ''free receptor density'' is introduced to describe the receptor population measured by this method. The technique is applied to the in vivo determination of regional muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the rat, with the use of (TH)scopolamine. Kinetic estimates of free muscarinic receptor density are in general agreement with binding capacities obtained from previous in vivo and in vitro equilibrium binding studies. In the striatum, however, kinetic estimates of free receptor density are less than those in the neocortex--a reversal of the rank ordering of these regions derived from equilibrium determinations. A simplified model is presented that is applicable to tracers that do not readily dissociate from specific binding sites during the experimental period.

  4. Coffee contains potent opiate receptor binding activity.

    PubMed

    Boublik, J H; Quinn, M J; Clements, J A; Herington, A C; Wynne, K N; Funder, J W

    1983-01-20

    Opiate receptor-active peptide fragments (exorphins) have been identified recently in casein and gluten hydrolysates, and morphine has been found in bovine and human milk. To determine whether similar peptides or alkaloids occur in other foodstuffs, we have screened potential sources using a rat brain homogenate assay to detect opiate receptor activity. We report here that instant coffee powders from a variety of manufacturers compete with tritiated naloxone for binding to opiate receptors in the rat brain membrane preparations, with no significant difference between normal and decaffeinated coffee. The receptor binding activity resembles that seen with opiate antagonists, in that there was no change in the half-maximal effective dose (ED50) in the presence of 100 mM Na+; on bioassay, the activity was similarly shown to be antagonistic and specific for opiate-induced inhibition of twitch. Preliminary characterization of the activity reveals that it has a molecular weight (MW) in the range 1,000-3,500, is heat-stable, ether-extractable, not modified by enzymatic digestion with papain, and clearly separable from caffeine and morphine on TLC. As its concentration in an average cup of coffee is five times the ED50, these data suggest that drinking coffee may be followed by effects mediated via opiate receptors, as well as effects of caffeine.

  5. Receptor binding domain based HIV vaccines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huan; Bi, Wenwen; Wang, Qian; Lu, Lu; Jiang, Shibo

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the main trend of the development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) vaccines in recent years. Designing an HIV-1 vaccine that provides robust protection from HIV-1 infection remains a challenge despite many years of effort. Therefore, we describe the receptor binding domain of gp120 as a target for developing AIDS vaccines. And we recommend some measures that could induce efficiently and produce cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies with high binding affinity. Those measures may offer a new way of the research and development of the potent and broad AIDS vaccines.

  6. Novel agonists of benzodiazepine receptors: design, synthesis, binding assay and pharmacological evaluation of 1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidinone and 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole derivatives.

    PubMed

    Faizi, Mehrdad; Dabirian, Sara; Tajali, Hamed; Ahmadi, Fatemeh; Zavareh, Elham Rezaee; Shahhosseini, Soraya; Tabatabai, Sayyed Abbas

    2015-02-01

    Agonists of benzodiazepine (BZD) binding site in GABA receptors are widely used in clinical practice. In spite of their benefits they have several side effects, so synthesis of new agonists of these receptors to get more specific effect and better profile of adverse drug reactions is still continued. Novel BZD agonists were designed based on the pharmacophore/receptor model of BZD binding site of GABAA receptor. Energy minima conformers of the designed compounds and estazolam, a known BZD receptor agonist, were well superimposed in conformational analysis. Docking studies revealed that the carbonyl group of the compound 4c, 3-(2-chlorobenzyl)-5-methyl-2-phenyl-[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-7(3H)-one, was near the nitrogen moiety of triazole ring of estazolam providing the hydrogen bond acceptor in proper direction in the BDZ-binding site of GABAA receptor model (α1β2ϒ2). The designed compounds were synthesized and their in vitro affinity for the central BZD receptor was determined. Most of the novel compounds had better affinity for the BZD site of action on GABAA receptor complex than diazepam. Finally, the novel compound 4c with the best affinity in radioligand receptor binding assay (Ki=0.42 nM and IC50=0.68 nM) was selected as candidate for in vivo evaluation. This compound showed significant hypnotic activity and weak anticonvulsant effect with no impairment on learning and memory performance in mouse. The pharmacological effects of the compound 4c were antagonized by flumazenil, a BZD antagonist, which confirms the involvement of BZD receptors in the biological effects of the novel ligand.

  7. Radiobrominated triphenylethylenes as estrogen receptor binding radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect

    Seevers, R.H.; Meese, R.C.; Friedman, A.M.; DeSombre, E.R.

    1985-05-01

    Estrogen receptor binding radiopharmaceuticals have potential for use in the diagnosis and treatment of cancers of the female reproductive system. Tamoxifen is an antiestrogen derived from the triphenylethylene skeleton which is used in the treatment of mammary carcinoma. Hydroxytamoxifen is a metabolite of tamoxifen which binds tightly to the estrogen receptor. Two triphenylethylene derivatives based on the structure of hydroxytamoxifen have been prepared: 1-bromo-1-phenyl-2- (2-dimethylamino)-4-ethoxyphenyl -2-(4-hydroxyphenyl) ethene (1) where the ethyl group of hydroxytamoxifen has been replaced by a bromine, and 1-bromo-1-phenyl-2,2-(4-hydroxyphenyl) ethene (2) with a similar substitution and also lacking the aminoethoxy side chain believed to confer antiestrogenicity. Both 1 and 2 bind strongly to the estrogen receptor. 2 has been labeled with the Auger electron emitting nuclide Br-80m in moderate yields in high specific activity using either N-bromosuccinimide or N-bromophthalimide and shows promise as a potential radiotherapy agent.

  8. Binding of rabies virus to purified Torpedo acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Lentz, T L; Benson, R J; Klimowicz, D; Wilson, P T; Hawrot, E

    1986-12-01

    The binding of 125I- and 35S-labeled rabies virus (CVS strain) to affinity-purified acetylcholine receptor from Torpedo electric organ was demonstrated. The binding of rabies virus to the acetylcholine receptor increased with increasing receptor concentration, was dependent on the pH of the incubation medium, and was saturable with increasing virus concentration. Binding of radioactively labeled virus was effectively competed by unlabeled homologous virus particles. Binding of 35S-labeled rabies virus to the AChR was inhibited up to 50% by alpha-bungarotoxin and up to 30% by (+)-tubocurarine but was not affected by atropine. These results demonstrate direct binding of rabies virus to a well-defined neurotransmitter receptor, namely the acetylcholine receptor and indicate that at least a portion of the virus interaction occurs near the acetylcholine binding site on the receptor. These findings support the hypothesis that the acetylcholine receptor may serve as a rabies virus receptor in vivo.

  9. Steroid binding domain of porcine estrogen receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Koike, S.; Nii, A.; Sakai, M.; Muramatsu, M.

    1987-05-05

    For the purpose of characterizing the estrogen binding domain of porcine estrogen receptor (ER), the authors have made use of affinity labeling of partially purified ER with (/sup 3/H)tamoxifen aziridine. The labeling is very efficient and selective particularly after partial purification of ER. A 65,000-dalton (65-kDa) band was detected on the fluorogram of a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel, together with a 50-kDa band and a few more smaller bands. The 50-kDa protein appears to be a degradation product of the 65-kDa protein in view of the similar peptide map. ER was affinity labeled before or after controlled limited proteolysis with either trypsin, papain, or ..cap alpha..-chymotrypsin. The labeling patterns of limited digests indicate that a fragment of about 30 kDa is relatively resistant to proteases and has a full and specific binding activity to estrogen, whereas smaller fragments have lost much of the binding activity. This fragment is very hydrophobic and probably corresponds to the carboxy half of ER.

  10. Structural Analysis of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type G Receptor Binding

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, John; Karalewitz, Andrew; Benefield, Desire A.; Mushrush, Darren J.; Pruitt, Rory N.; Spiller, Benjamin W.; Barbieri, Joseph T.; Lacy, D. Borden

    2010-10-19

    Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) binds peripheral neurons at the neuromuscular junction through a dual-receptor mechanism that includes interactions with ganglioside and protein receptors. The receptor identities vary depending on BoNT serotype (A-G). BoNT/B and BoNT/G bind the luminal domains of synaptotagmin I and II, homologous synaptic vesicle proteins. We observe conditions under which BoNT/B binds both Syt isoforms, but BoNT/G binds only SytI. Both serotypes bind ganglioside G{sub T1b}. The BoNT/G receptor-binding domain crystal structure provides a context for examining these binding interactions and a platform for understanding the physiological relevance of different Syt receptor isoforms in vivo.

  11. Formyl peptide receptor chimeras define domains involved in ligand binding.

    PubMed

    Perez, H D; Holmes, R; Vilander, L R; Adams, R R; Manzana, W; Jolley, D; Andrews, W H

    1993-02-05

    We have begun to study the structural requirements for the binding of formyl peptides to their specific receptors. As an initial approach, we constructed C5a-formyl peptide receptor chimeras. Unique (and identical) restriction sites were introduced within the transmembrane domains of these receptors that allowed for the exchange of specific areas. Four types of chimeric receptors were generated. 1) The C5a receptor was progressively substituted by the formyl peptide receptor. 2) The formyl peptide receptor was progressively substituted by the C5a receptor. 3) Specific domains of the C5a receptor were substituted by the corresponding domain of the formyl peptide receptor. 4) Specific domains of the formyl peptide receptor were replaced by the same corresponding domain of the C5a receptor. Wild type and chimeric receptors were transfected into COS 7 cells and their ability to bind formyl peptide determined, taking into account efficiency of transfection and expression of chimeric protein. Based on these results, a ligand binding model is presented in which the second, third, and fourth extracellular (and/or their transmembrane) domains together with the first transmembrane domain form a ligand binding pocket for formyl peptides. It is proposed that the amino-terminal domain plays a role by presumably providing a "lid" to the pocket. The carboxyl-terminal cytoplasmic tail appears to modulate ligand binding by regulating receptor affinity.

  12. NMDA receptor binding in focal epilepsies.

    PubMed

    McGinnity, C J; Koepp, M J; Hammers, A; Riaño Barros, D A; Pressler, R M; Luthra, S; Jones, P A; Trigg, W; Micallef, C; Symms, M R; Brooks, D J; Duncan, J S

    2015-10-01

    To demonstrate altered N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor availability in patients with focal epilepsies using positron emission tomography (PET) and [(18)F]GE-179, a ligand that selectively binds to the open NMDA receptor ion channel, which is thought to be overactive in epilepsy. Eleven patients (median age 33 years, 6 males) with known frequent interictal epileptiform discharges had an [(18)F]GE-179 PET scan, in a cross-sectional study. MRI showed a focal lesion but discordant EEG changes in two, was non-localising with multifocal EEG abnormalities in two, and was normal in the remaining seven patients who all had multifocal EEG changes. Individual patient [(18)F]GE-179 volume-of-distribution (VT) images were compared between individual patients and a group of 10 healthy controls (47 years, 7 males) using Statistical Parametric Mapping. Individual analyses revealed a single cluster of focal VT increase in four patients; one with a single and one with multifocal MRI lesions, and two with normal MRIs. Post hoc analysis revealed that, relative to controls, patients not taking antidepressants had globally increased [(18)F]GE-179 VT (+28%; p<0.002), and the three patients taking an antidepressant drug had globally reduced [(18)F]GE-179 VT (-29%; p<0.002). There were no focal abnormalities common to the epilepsy group. In patients with focal epilepsies, we detected primarily global increases of [(18)F]GE-179 VT consistent with increased NMDA channel activation, but reduced availability in those taking antidepressant drugs, consistent with a possible mode of action of this class of drugs. [(18)F]GE-179 PET showed focal accentuations of NMDA binding in 4 out of 11 patients, with difficult to localise and treat focal epilepsy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Ligand binding domain of vitamin D receptors.

    PubMed

    Rochel, Natacha; Moras, Dino

    2006-01-01

    The vitamin D receptor, a member of the nuclear receptor subgroup NR1I, is regulated by 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 to control calcium metabolism, cell proliferation and differentiation and immunomodulation. The therapeutic applications of vitamin D metabolites are wide. To develop efficient therapy, the elucidation of the structure-function relationships of VDR and its ligands are essential. In this review we will focus on the current structural understanding of the interactions of ligands in the ligand binding pocket of the VDR. These structures revealed the mutual adaptability of the ligands and the protein. In silico modeling has further revealed a possible new pocket in the VDR LBD responsible of the non-genomic action mediated by VDR. With the availability of all these structural information on VDR LBD, new ligands that are more selective, such as non-steroidal ligands, could be designed by taking into account the flexibility of some VDR regions. Tissue selectivity may also be achieved by developing ligands that specifically activate the non-genomic pathway.

  14. Unexpected binding of an octapeptide to the angiotensin II receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Soffer, R.L.; Bandyopadhyay, S.; Rosenberg, E.; Hoeprich, P.; Teitelbaum, A.; Brunck, T.; Colby, C.B.; Gloff, C.

    1987-12-01

    An octapeptide, TBI-22 (Lys-Gly-Val-Tyr-Ile, His-Ala-Leu), inhibited binding of angiotensin II by a solubilized angiotensin receptor partially purified from rabbit liver. This inhibition appears to result from competition for binding to the same receptor. Radioiodinated TBI-22, like angiotensin II, bound to the solubilized receptor with an affinity such that the binding was inhibited 50% by unlabeled TBI-22 or angiotensin II at nanomolar concentrations. The binding reaction, like that for angiotensin II, required p-chloromercuriphenylsulfonic acid and was reversed in the presence of dithiothreitol. TBI-22 and angiotensin II share the sequence Val-Tyr-Ile-His; this tetrapeptide alone, however, did not inhibit binding of angiotensin II. Replacement of the tyrosine residue by aspartic acid in TBI-22 greatly reduced the ability of the peptide to compete with angiotensin II for binding, suggesting an important contribution of this residue to the configuration required for recognition by the receptor.

  15. Ouabain receptor binding of hydroxyprogesterone derivatives.

    PubMed Central

    Chow, E.; Kim, R. S.; Labella, F. S.; Queen, G.

    1979-01-01

    1 A specific and sensitive radioreceptor assay ahs been devised which is based on high affinity, saturable binding of 9 nM [3H]-ouabain to the total particulate fraction isolated from dog heart. Ouabain and other cardiac glycosides, including the aglycones, were about equipotent in their ability to displace [3H]-ouabain from its receptor, the IC50s ranging from 10 to 30 nM. 2 The only other substances found to compete significantly in the assay were derivatives of hydroxyprogesterone having a 17 alpha-acetate substituent: chlormadinone acetate, megestrol acetate, cyproterone acetate and medroxyprogesterone acetate, with IC50s of 2, 7.4, 9 and 21 microM, respectively. Prednisolone-3,20-bisguanyl-hydrazone, reported to have inotropic activity, gave an IC50 of 6.4 microM. Cyproterone-17 alpha-OH was less active (IC50 90 microM) than cyproterone-17 alpha-acetate. 3 A large number of peptide and protein hormones, steroid hormones and their metabolites, amines, and drugs were inactive. PMID:497535

  16. Exploiting Receptor Competition to Enhance Nanoparticle Binding Selectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angioletti-Uberti, Stefano

    2017-02-01

    Nanoparticles functionalized with multiple ligands can be programed to bind biological targets depending on the receptors they express, providing a general mechanism exploited in various technologies, from selective drug delivery to biosensing. For binding to be highly selective, ligands should exclusively interact with specific targeted receptors, because the formation of bonds with other, untargeted ones would lead to nonspecific binding and potentially harmful behavior. This poses a particular problem for multivalent nanoparticles, because even very weak bonds can collectively lead to strong binding. A statistical mechanical model is used here to describe how competition between different receptors together with multivalent effects can be harnessed to design ligand-functionalized nanoparticles insensitive to the presence of untargeted receptors, preventing nonspecific binding.

  17. Characterization of pulmonary sigma receptors by radioligand binding

    PubMed Central

    Lever, John R.; Litton, Tyler P.; Fergason-Cantrell, Emily A.

    2015-01-01

    This study establishes the expression of appreciable populations of sites on mouse lung membranes that exhibit radioligand binding properties and pharmacology consistent with assignment as sigma1 and sigma2 receptors. Specific binding of the sigma1 receptor radioligand [3H](+)-pentazocine reached steady state within 6 h at 37 °C. Saturation studies revealed high affinity binding to a single class of sites (Kd 1.36 ± 0.04 nM; Bmax 967 ± 11 fmol / mg protein). Inhibition studies showed appropriate sigma1 receptor pharmacology, including higher affinity for (+)-N-allylnormetazocine with respect to the (−)-enantiomer, and positive allosteric modulation of dextromethorphan binding by phenytoin. Using [3H]1,3-di(2-tolyl)guanidine in the presence of (+)-pentazocine to assess sigma2 receptor binding, steady state was achieved within 2 min at 25 °C. Cold saturation studies revealed one high affinity, low capacity binding site (Kd 31.8 ± 8.3 nM; Bmax 921 ± 228 fmol / mg protein) that displayed sigma2 receptor pharmacology. A very low affinity, high capacity interaction also was observed that represents saturable, but not sigma receptor specific, binding. A panel of ligands showed rank order inhibition of radioligand binding appropriate for the sigma2 receptor, with ifenprodil displaying the highest apparent affinity. In vivo, dextromethorphan inhibited the specific binding of a radioiodinated sigma1 receptor ligand in lung with an ED50 of 1.2 µmol / kg, a value near the recommended dosage for the drug as a cough suppressant. Overall, the present work provides a foundation for studies of drug interactions with pulmonary sigma1 and sigma2 receptors in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26004528

  18. Conserved Receptor-Binding Domains of Lake Victoria Marburgvirus and Zaire Ebolavirus Bind a Shared Receptor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-14

    murine leukemia virus; PBS, phos- phate-buffered saline; RBD, receptor-binding domain; SARS, severe acute respiratory syndrome; VSV, vesicular stomatitis ...domain-deletedGP1,2 of ZEBOV-May (ZEBOV/MLV), or with theG pro- tein of vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (VSV/MLV). Vero E6 cells were incubated with...virion, because of the functional importance of and limited variation in this region (44, 45). In some cases, such as murine and feline leukemia viruses

  19. Estrophilin immunoreactivity versus estrogen receptor binding activity in meningiomas: evidence for multiple estrogen binding sites

    SciTech Connect

    Lesch, K.P.; Schott, W.; Gross, S.

    1987-09-01

    The existence of estrogen receptors in human meningiomas has long been a controversial issue. This may be explained, in part, by apparent heterogeneity of estrogen binding sites in meningioma tissue. In this study, estrogen receptors were determined in 58 meningiomas with an enzyme immunoassay using monoclonal antibodies against human estrogen receptor protein (estrophilin) and with a sensitive radioligand binding assay using /sup 125/I-labeled estradiol (/sup 125/I-estradiol) as radioligand. Low levels of estrophilin immunoreactivity were found in tumors from 62% of patients, whereas radioligand binding activity was demonstrated in about 46% of the meningiomas examined. In eight (14%) tissue samples multiple binding sites for estradiol were observed. The immunoreactive binding sites correspond to the classical, high affinity estrogen receptors: the Kd for /sup 125/I-estradiol binding to the receptor was approximately 0.2 nM and the binding was specific for estrogens. The second, low affinity class of binding sites considerably influenced measurement of the classical receptor even at low ligand concentrations. The epidemiological and clinical data from patients with meningiomas, and the existence of specific estrogen receptors confirmed by immunochemical detection, may be important factors in a theory of oncogenesis.

  20. Design and structure of stapled peptides binding to estrogen receptors.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Chris; Roberts, Lee R; Schade, Markus; Bazin, Richard; Bent, Andrew; Davies, Nichola L; Moore, Rob; Pannifer, Andrew D; Pickford, Andrew R; Prior, Stephen H; Read, Christopher M; Scott, Andrew; Brown, David G; Xu, Bin; Irving, Stephen L

    2011-06-29

    Synthetic peptides that specifically bind nuclear hormone receptors offer an alternative approach to small molecules for the modulation of receptor signaling and subsequent gene expression. Here we describe the design of a series of novel stapled peptides that bind the coactivator peptide site of estrogen receptors. Using a number of biophysical techniques, including crystal structure analysis of receptor-stapled peptide complexes, we describe in detail the molecular interactions and demonstrate that all-hydrocarbon staples modulate molecular recognition events. The findings have implications for the design of stapled peptides in general.

  1. Mu opioid receptor binding sites in human brain

    SciTech Connect

    Pilapil, C.; Welner, S.; Magnan, J.; Zamir, N.; Quirion, R.

    1986-01-01

    Our experiments focused on the examination of the distribution of mu opioid receptor binding sites in normal human brain using the highly selective ligand (/sup 3/H)DAGO, in both membrane binding assay and in vitro receptor autoradiography. Mu opioid binding sites are very discretely distributed in human brain with high densities of sites found in the posterior amygdala, caudate, putamen, hypothalamus and certain cortical areas. Moreover the autoradiographic distribution of (/sup 3/H)DAGO binding sites clearly reveals the discrete lamination (layers I and III-IV) of mu sites in cortical areas.

  2. Limited proteolysis for assaying ligand binding affinities of nuclear receptors.

    PubMed

    Benkoussa, M; Nominé, B; Mouchon, A; Lefebvre, B; Bernardon, J M; Formstecher, P; Lefebvre, P

    1997-01-01

    The binding of natural or synthetic ligands to nuclear receptors is the triggering event leading to gene transcription activation or repression. Ligand binding to the ligand binding domain of these receptors induces conformational changes that are evidenced by an increased resistance of this domain to proteases. In vitro labeled receptors were incubated with various synthetic or natural agonists or antagonists and submitted to trypsin digestion. Proteolysis products were separated by SDS-PAGE and quantified. The amount of trypsin-resistant fragments was proportional to receptor occupancy by the ligand, and allowed the determination of dissociation constants (kDa). Using the wild-type or mutated human retinoic acid receptor alpha as a model, kDa values determined by classical competition binding assays using tritiated ligands are in agreement with those measured by the proteolytic assay. This method was successfully extended to human retinoic X receptor alpha, glucocorticoid receptor, and progesterone receptor, thus providing a basis for a new, faster assay to determine simultaneously the affinity and conformation of receptors when bound to a given ligand.

  3. Affinity Regulates Spatial Range of EGF Receptor Autocrine Ligand Binding

    SciTech Connect

    Dewitt, Ann; Iida, Tomoko; Lam, Ho-Yan; Hill, Virginia; Wiley, H S.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

    2002-08-08

    Proper spatial localization of EGFR signaling activated by autocrine ligands represents a critical factor in embryonic development as well as tissue organization and function, and ligand/receptor binding affinity is among the molecular and cellular properties suggested to play a role in governing this localization. The authors employ a computational model to predict how receptor-binding affinity affects local capture of autocrine ligand vis-a-vis escape to distal regions, and provide experimental test by constructing cell lines expressing EGFR along with either wild-type EGF or a low-affinity mutant, EGF{sup L47M}. The model predicts local capture of a lower affinity autocrine ligand to be less efficient when the ligand production rate is small relative to receptor appearance rate. The experimental data confirm this prediction, demonstrating that cells can use ligand/receptor binding affinity to regulate ligand spatial distribution when autocrine ligand production is limiting for receptor signaling.

  4. Sex Differences in Serotonin 1 Receptor Binding in Rat Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischette, Christine T.; Biegon, Anat; McEwen, Bruce S.

    1983-10-01

    Male and female rats exhibit sex differences in binding by serotonin 1 receptors in discrete areas of the brain, some of which have been implicated in the control of ovulation and of gonadotropin release. The sex-specific changes in binding, which occur in response to the same hormonal (estrogenic) stimulus, are due to changes in the number of binding sites. Castration alone also affects the number of binding sites in certain areas. The results lead to the conclusion that peripheral hormones modulate binding by serotonin 1 receptors. The status of the serotonin receptor system may affect the reproductive capacity of an organism and may be related to sex-linked emotional disturbances in humans.

  5. Binding characteristics of the muscarinic receptor subtype in rabbit pancreas

    SciTech Connect

    van Zwam, A.J.; Willems, P.H.; Rodrigues de Miranda, J.F.; de Pont, J.J.; van Ginneken, C.A. )

    1990-01-01

    The muscarinic receptor in the rabbit pancreas was characterized with the use of the labeled ligand ({sup 3}H)-(-)-quinuclidinyl-benzylate (({sup 3}H)-(-)-QNB). Specific binding of ({sup 3}H)-(-)-QNB to pancreatic acini was found to be reversible and of high affinity, with an equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) of 68 pmol/l and a receptor density (RT) of 170 fmol/mg protein. Agonist binding behaviour was investigated by displacement of ({sup 3}H)-(-)-QNB binding by eight agonists like arecoline, arecadine-propargylester (APE) and carbachol, yielding only low affinity binding sites. The inhibition of ({sup 3}H)-(-)-QNB binding by the selective antagonists pirenzepine, hexahydrosiladifenidol (HHSiD) and (11-(2-(diethyl-amino)-methyl-1-piperidinyl)acetyl)-5,11-dihydro-6H-pyr ido (2,3-b) (1,4) benzodiazepin-6-one (AF-DX 116) confirmed the M3 nature of the rabbit pancreatic receptor.

  6. Binding of HIV-1 gp120 to the nicotinic receptor.

    PubMed

    Bracci, L; Lozzi, L; Rustici, M; Neri, P

    1992-10-19

    We previously described a significant sequence homology between HIV-1 gp120 and the functional sites responsible for the specific binding of snake curare-mimetic neurotoxins and rabies virus glycoprotein to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Here we report findings about the existence of a mechanism of functional molecular mimicry which could enable the binding of HIV-1 gp120 to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in muscle cells and neurons.

  7. CONTAMINANT INTERACTIONS WITH STEROID RECEPTORS: EVIDENCE FOR RECEPTOR BINDING.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Steroid receptors are important determinants of endocrine disrupter consequences. As the most frequently proposed mechanism of endocrine-disrupting contaminant (EDC) action, steroid receptors are not only targets of natural steroids but are also commonly sites of nonsteroidal com...

  8. Guanyl nucleotides modulate binding to steroid receptors in neuronal membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Orchinik, M; Murray, T F; Franklin, P H; Moore, F L

    1992-01-01

    The recently characterized corticosteroid receptor on amphibian neuronal membranes appears to mediate rapid, stress-induced changes in male reproductive behaviors. Because the transduction mechanisms associated with this receptor are unknown, we performed radioligand binding studies to determine whether this steroid receptor is negatively modulated by guanyl nucleotides. The binding of [3H]corticosterone to neuronal membranes was inhibited by nonhydrolyzable guanyl nucleotides in both equilibrium saturation binding and titration studies. The addition of guanyl nucleotide plus unlabeled corticosterone induced a rapid phase of [3H]corticosterone dissociation from membranes that was not induced by addition of unlabeled ligand alone. Furthermore, the equilibrium binding of [3H]corticosterone and the sensitivity of the receptor to modulation by guanyl nucleotides were both enhanced by Mg2+. These results are consistent with the formation of a ternary complex of steroid, receptor, and guanine nucleotide-binding protein that is subject to regulation by guanyl nucleotides. Therefore, rapid signal transduction through corticosteroid receptors on neuronal membranes appears to be mediated by guanine nucleotide-binding proteins. PMID:1570300

  9. Hormone-binding assay using living bacteria expressing eukaryotic receptors.

    PubMed

    Romanov, Georgy A; Lomin, Sergey N

    2009-01-01

    Studies on hormone-receptor interaction include, as a rule, isolation and extensive purification of the receptor protein or a particular receptor-containing fraction. To bypass these time- and resource-consuming procedures, we proposed a live cell-based assay using transgenic bacteria expressing single eukaryotic receptors. We describe here 3H-cytokinin binding to corresponding plant receptors as an example. The method includes procedures of bacteria growing, incubation with labeled hormone, separation of bound from unbound ligand, determination of radioactivity in bacterial precipitates, and mathematical analysis of primary data. The established simple protocol for specific labeling hormone-binding sites in intact bacteria allows determination of the main parameters of the ligand-receptor interaction.

  10. Estradiol Binds to Insulin and Insulin Receptor Decreasing Insulin Binding in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Root-Bernstein, Robert; Podufaly, Abigail; Dillon, Patrick F.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Insulin (INS) resistance associated with hyperestrogenemias occurs in gestational diabetes mellitus, polycystic ovary syndrome, ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, estrogen therapies, metabolic syndrome, and obesity. The mechanism by which INS and estrogen interact is unknown. We hypothesize that estrogen binds directly to INS and the insulin receptor (IR) producing INS resistance. Objectives: To determine the binding constants of steroid hormones to INS, the IR, and INS-like peptides derived from the IR; and to investigate the effect of estrogens on the binding of INS to its receptor. Methods: Ultraviolet spectroscopy, capillary electrophoresis, and NMR demonstrated estrogen binding to INS and its receptor. Horse-radish peroxidase-linked INS was used in an ELISA-like procedure to measure the effect of estradiol on binding of INS to its receptor. Measurements: Binding constants for estrogens to INS and the IR were determined by concentration-dependent spectral shifts. The effect of estradiol on INS binding to its receptor was determined by shifts in the INS binding curve. Main Results: Estradiol bound to INS with a Kd of 12 × 10−9 M and to the IR with a Kd of 24 × 10−9 M, while other hormones had significantly less affinity. Twenty-two nanomolars of estradiol shifted the binding curve of INS to its receptor 0.8 log units to the right. Conclusion: Estradiol concentrations in hyperestrogenemic syndromes may interfere with INS binding to its receptor producing significant INS resistance. PMID:25101056

  11. Dysregulation of Striatal Dopamine Receptor Binding in Suicide.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Megan L; Kassir, Suham A; Underwood, Mark D; Bakalian, Mihran J; Mann, J John; Arango, Victoria

    2017-03-01

    Inconsistent evidence implicates disruptions of striatal dopaminergic indices in suicide and major depression. To determine whether there are alterations in the striatal dopamine system in suicide, we conducted a quantitative autoradiographic survey of dopamine transporter (DAT; [(3)H]mazindol), D1 receptor ([(3)H]SCH23390), and D2 receptor ([(3)H]sulpiride) binding in the dorsal striatum postmortem from matched suicides and controls. Axis I and axis II psychiatric diagnosis, recent treatment history, and early life adversity (ELA) were determined by psychological autopsy. Mean DAT, D2, and D1 receptor binding did not differ in suicide. However, there was a positive correlation between D1 and D2 receptor binding in the dorsal striatum of control subjects (R(2)=0.31, p<0.05) that was not present in suicides (R(2)=0.00, p=0.97). In suicides and controls with reported ELA, there was no correlation between striatal DAT and D1 receptor binding (R(2)=0.07, p=0.33), although DAT and D1 receptor binding was positively correlated in subjects with no report of ELA (R(2)=0.32, p<0.05). After controlling for age, there were no significant ELA-related mean differences. Binding of D1 receptors and DAT throughout the striatum correlated negatively with age (D1 receptor: R(2)=0.12, p<0.05; DAT: R(2)=0.36, p<0.001). There appears to be an imbalance in dopaminergic receptor and transporter expression related to suicide that differs from that associated with ELA or age.

  12. Binding of tropane alkaloids to nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Schmeller, T; Sporer, F; Sauerwein, M; Wink, M

    1995-07-01

    Fourteen tropane and related alkaloids were analyzed for their affinity for nicotinic and/or muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. The biogenetic intermediates littorine, 6 beta-hydroxyhyoscyamine, 7 beta-hydroxyhyoscyamine exhibit similar affinities at the muscarinic receptor as scopolamine and atropine. The quarternary derivatives N-methylatropine and N-methylscopolamine show the highest binding with IC50 values of less than 100 pM and 300 pM, respectively. The tropane alkaloids (including cocaine) also bind to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, albeit with much lower affinities.

  13. Effect of desipramine on dopamine receptor binding in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Suhara, Tetsuya Jikei Univ., Tokyo ); Inoue, Osamu; Kobayasi, Kaoru )

    1990-01-01

    Effect of desipramine on the in vivo binding of {sup 3}H-SCH23390 and {sup 3}H-N-methylspiperone ({sup 3}H-NMSP) in mouse striatum was studied. The ratio of radioactivity in the striatum to that in the cerebellum at 15 min after i.v. injection of {sup 3}H-SCH23390 or 45 min after injection of {sup 3}H-NMSP were used as indices of dopamine D1 or D2 receptor binding in vivo, respectively. In vivo binding of D1 and D2 receptors was decreased in a dose-dependent manner by acute treatment with desipramine (DMI). A saturation experiment suggested that the DMI-induced reduction in the binding was mainly due to the decrease in the affinity of both receptors. No direct interactions between the dopamine receptors and DMI were observed in vitro by the addition of 1 mM of DMI into striatal homogenate. Other antidepressants such as imipramine, clomipramine, maprotiline and mianserin also decreased the binding of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors. The results indicated an important role of dopamine receptors in the pharmacological effect of antidepressants.

  14. Interrupting autocrine ligand-receptor binding: comparison between receptor blockers and ligand decoys.

    PubMed Central

    Forsten, K E; Lauffenburger, D A

    1992-01-01

    Stimulation of cell behavioral functions by ligand/receptor binding can be accomplished in autocrine fashion, where cells secrete ligand capable of binding to receptors on their own surfaces. This proximal secretion of autocrine ligands near the surface receptors on the secreting cell suggests that control of these systems by inhibitors of receptor/ligand binding may be more difficult than for systems involving exogenous ligands. Hence, it is of interest to predict the conditions under which successful inhibition of cell receptor binding by the autocrine ligand can be expected. Previous theoretical work using a compartmentalized model for autocrine cells has elucidated the conditions under which addition of solution decoys for the autocrine ligand can interrupt cell receptor/ligand binding via competitive binding of the secreted molecules (Forsten, K. E., and D. A. Lauffenburger. 1992. Biophys. J. 61:1-12.) We now apply a similar modeling approach to examine the addition of solution blockers targeted against the cell receptor. Comparison of the two alternative inhibition strategies reveals that a significantly lower concentration of receptor blockers, compared to ligand decoys, will obtain a high degree of inhibition. The more direct interruption scheme characteristic of the receptor blockers may make them a preferred strategy when feasible. PMID:1330038

  15. Human sex hormone-binding globulin binding affinities of 125 structurally diverse chemicals and comparison with their binding to androgen receptor, estrogen receptor, and α-fetoprotein.

    PubMed

    Hong, Huixiao; Branham, William S; Ng, Hui Wen; Moland, Carrie L; Dial, Stacey L; Fang, Hong; Perkins, Roger; Sheehan, Daniel; Tong, Weida

    2015-02-01

    One endocrine disruption mechanism is through binding to nuclear receptors such as the androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptor (ER) in target cells. The concentration of a chemical in serum is important for its entry into the target cells to bind the receptors, which is regulated by the serum proteins. Human sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is the major transport protein in serum that can bind androgens and estrogens and thus change a chemical's availability to enter the target cells. Sequestration of an androgen or estrogen in the serum can alter the chemical elicited AR- and ER-mediated responses. To better understand the chemical-induced endocrine activity, we developed a competitive binding assay using human pregnancy plasma and measured the binding to the human SHBG for 125 structurally diverse chemicals, most of which were known to bind AR and ER. Eighty seven chemicals were able to bind the human SHBG in the assay, whereas 38 chemicals were nonbinders. Binding data for human SHBG are compared with that for rat α-fetoprotein, ER and AR. Knowing the binding profiles between serum and nuclear receptors will improve assessment of a chemical's potential for endocrine disruption. The SHBG binding data reported here represent the largest data set of structurally diverse chemicals tested for human SHBG binding. Utilization of the SHBG binding data with AR and ER binding data could enable better evaluation of endocrine disrupting potential of chemicals through AR- and ER-mediated responses since sequestration in serum could be considered. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology 2014. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. Oxytocin receptors: ligand binding, signalling and cholesterol dependence.

    PubMed

    Gimpl, Gerald; Reitz, Julian; Brauer, Sabine; Trossen, Conny

    2008-01-01

    The G protein coupled oxytocin receptor (OTR) reveals some specific molecular and physiological characteristics. Ligand-receptor interaction has been analysed by photoaffinity labelling, site-directed mutagenesis, the construction of receptor chimeras and molecular modelling. Major results of these studies will be summarized. The N-terminus of the OTR is mainly involved in agonist binding. Notably, antagonists that are derived from the ground structure of oxytocin, bind the receptor at distinct sites partly non-overlapping with the agonist binding site. OTRs are able to couple to different G proteins, with a subsequent stimulation of phospholipase C-beta isoforms. In dependence on G protein coupling, OTRs can transduce growth-inhibitory or proliferatory signals. Some evidence is provided that OTRs are also present in form of dimeric or oligomeric complexes at the cell surface. The affinity of the receptor for ligands is strongly dependent on the presence of divalent cations (Mg(2+)) and cholesterol that both act like positive allosteric modulators. While the high-affinity state of the receptor for agonists requires divalent cations and cholesterol, the high-affinity state for antagonists is only dependent on a sufficient amount of cholesterol. Cholesterol affects ligand-binding affinity, receptor signalling and stability. Since the purification of the OTR has never been achieved, alternative methods to study the receptor in its native environment are necessary. Promising strategies for the site-specific labelling of the OTR will be presented. The employment of diverse reporter molecules introduced at different positions within the OTR might allow us in the near future to measure conformational changes of the receptor in its native lipid environment.

  17. Receptor-Binding Protein of Lactococcus lactis Phages: Identification and Characterization of the Saccharide Receptor-Binding Site

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Denise M.; Tegoni, Mariella; Spinelli, Silvia; Campanacci, Valérie; Blangy, Stéphanie; Huyghe, Céline; Desmyter, Aline; Labrie, Steve; Moineau, Sylvain; Cambillau, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Phage p2, a member of the lactococcal 936 phage species, infects Lactococcus lactis strains by binding initially to specific carbohydrate receptors using its receptor-binding protein (RBP). The structures of p2 RBP, a homotrimeric protein composed of three domains, and of its complex with a neutralizing llama VH domain (VHH5) have been determined (S. Spinelli, A. Desmyter, C. T. Verrips, H. J. de Haard, S. Moineau, and C. Cambillau, Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 13:85-89, 2006). Here, we show that VHH5 was able to neutralize 12 of 50 lactococcal phages belonging to the 936 species. Moreover, escape phage mutants no longer neutralized by VHH5 were isolated from 11 of these phages. All of the mutations (but one) cluster in the RBP/VHH5 interaction surface that delineates the receptor-binding area. A glycerol molecule, observed in the 1.7-Å resolution structure of RBP, was found to bind tightly (Kd = 0.26 μM) in a crevice located in this area. Other saccharides bind RBP with comparable high affinity. These data prove the saccharidic nature of the bacterial receptor recognized by phage p2 and identify the position of its binding site in the RBP head domain. PMID:16547026

  18. Signaling-competent receptor chimeras allow mapping of major insulin receptor binding domain determinants.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, R; Soos, M A; Schlessinger, J; Brandenburg, D; Siddle, K; Ullrich, A

    1993-01-15

    Chimeric receptors were generated in which structurally defined subdomains of the insulin receptor (IR) and insulin growth factor-I receptor (IGF-1R) alpha-subunits were exchanged between their respective receptor backbone structures. Upon expression in human fibroblasts, nine IR/IGF-1R chimeras were transported to the cell surface, where they formed binding sites with differential properties. One IGF-1R/IR chimera (C3') exhibited to some extent high insulin specificity, demonstrating the presence of major insulin binding determinants within the amino acid 325-524 region of the IR alpha-subunit. Complementation of this region with subdomain 1 (amino acids 1-137) reconstituted full insulin binding potential within an IGF-1R framework. In addition, both the IGF-1R/IR C3' chimera and another chimera (C13') displayed high affinity binding properties for IGF-1, which suggests distinct locations for major insulin and IGF-1 binding determinants in their respective receptors, in agreement with our previous findings (Schumacher, R., Mosthaf, L., Schlessinger, J., Brandenburg, D., and Ullrich, A. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 19288-19295). The binding characteristics of all receptor chimeras correlated directly with the ability of the ligands to regulate their tyrosine kinase activity in intact cells. These results demonstrate direct coupling of ligand binding affinity and capacity for tyrosine kinase activation.

  19. Ligand competition binding assay for the androgen receptor.

    PubMed

    Féau, Clémentine; Arnold, Leggy A; Kosinski, Aaron; Guy, R Kiplin

    2011-01-01

    Evaluating endocrine activities of environmental chemicals or screening for new small molecule modulators of the androgen receptor (AR) transcription activity requires standardized and reliable assay procedures. Scintillation proximity assays (SPA) are sensitive and reliable techniques that are suitable for ligand competition binding assays. We have utilized a radiolabeled ligand competition binding assay for the androgen receptor (AR) that can be carried out in a 384-well format. This standardized, highly reproducible and low-cost assay has been automated for high-throughput screening (HTS) purposes.

  20. Inhibition of oxytocin receptor function by direct binding of progesterone.

    PubMed

    Grazzini, E; Guillon, G; Mouillac, B; Zingg, H H

    1998-04-02

    The steroid hormone progesterone (P4) is essential for establishing and maintaining pregnancy in mammals. One of its functions includes maintenance of uterine quiescence by decreasing uterine sensitivity to the uterotonic peptide hormone oxytocin. Although it is generally held that steroid hormones such as P4 act at a genomic level by binding to nuclear receptors and modulating the expression of specific target genes, we show here that the effect of P4 on uterine sensitivity to oxytocin involves direct, non-genomic action of P4 on the uterine oxytocin receptor (OTR), a member of the G-protein-coupled receptor family. P4 inhibits oxytocin binding to OTR-containing membranes in vitro, binds with high affinity to recombinant rat OTR expressed in CHO cells, and suppresses oxytocin-induced inositol phosphate production and calcium mobilization. These effects are highly steroid- and receptor-specific, because binding and signalling functions of the closely related human OTR are not affected by P4 itself but by the P4 metabolite 5beta-dihydroprogesterone. Our findings provide the first evidence for a direct interaction between a steroid hormone and a G-protein-coupled receptor and define a new level of crosstalk between the peptide- and steroid-hormone signalling pathways.

  1. Structural Allostery and Binding of the Transferring Receptor Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Xu,G.; Liu, R.; Zak, O.; Aisen, P.; Chance, M.

    2005-01-01

    The structural allostery and binding interface for the human serum transferrin (Tf){center_dot}transferrin receptor (TfR) complex were identified using radiolytic footprinting and mass spectrometry. We have determined previously that the transferrin C-lobe binds to the receptor helical domain. In this study we examined the binding interactions of full-length transferrin with receptor and compared these data with a model of the complex derived from cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) reconstructions. The footprinting results provide the following novel conclusions. First, we report characteristic oxidations of acidic residues in the C-lobe of native Tf and basic residues in the helical domain of TfR that were suppressed as a function of complex formation; this confirms ionic interactions between these protein segments as predicted by cryo-EM data and demonstrates a novel method for detecting ion pair interactions in the formation of macromolecular complexes. Second, the specific side-chain interactions between the C-lobe and N-lobe of transferrin and the corresponding interactions sites on the transferrin receptor predicted from cryo-EM were confirmed in solution. Last, the footprinting data revealed allosteric movements of the iron binding C- and N-lobes of Tf that sequester iron as a function of complex formation; these structural changes promote tighter binding of the metal ion and facilitate efficient ion transport during endocytosis.

  2. Radioiodination of chicken luteinizing hormone without affecting receptor binding potency

    SciTech Connect

    Kikuchi, M.; Ishii, S. )

    1989-12-01

    By improving the currently used lactoperoxidase method, we were able to obtain radioiodinated chicken luteinizing hormone (LH) that shows high specific binding and low nonspecific binding to a crude plasma membrane fraction of testicular cells of the domestic fowl and the Japanese quail, and to the ovarian granulosa cells of the Japanese quail. The change we made from the original method consisted of (1) using chicken LH for radioiodination that was not only highly purified but also retained a high receptor binding potency; (2) controlling the level of incorporation of radioiodine into chicken LH molecules by employing a short reaction time and low temperature; and (3) fractionating radioiodinated chicken LH further by gel filtration using high-performance liquid chromatography. Specific radioactivity of the final {sup 125}I-labeled chicken LH preparation was 14 microCi/micrograms. When specific binding was 12-16%, nonspecific binding was as low as 2-4% in the gonadal receptors. {sup 125}I-Labeled chicken LH was displaced by chicken LH and ovine LH but not by chicken follicle-stimulating hormone. The equilibrium association constant of quail testicular receptor was 3.6 x 10(9) M-1. We concluded that chicken LH radioiodinated by the present method is useful for studies of avian LH receptors.

  3. Novel Drosophila receptor that binds multiple growth factors

    SciTech Connect

    Rosner, M.R.; Thompson, K.L.; Garcia, V.; Decker, S.J.

    1986-05-01

    The authors have recently reported the identification of a novel growth factor receptor from Drosophila cell cultures that has dual binding specificity for both insulin and epidermal growth factor (EGF). This 100 kDa protein is also antigenically related to the cytoplasmic region of the mammalian EGF receptor-tyrosine kinase. They now report that this protein binds to mammalian nerve growth factor and human transforming growth factor alpha as well as insulin and EGF with apparent dissociation constants ranging from 10/sup -6/ to 10/sup -8/ M. The 100 kDa protein can be affinity-labeled with these /sup 125/I-labeled growth factors after immunoprecipitation with anti-EGF receptor antiserum. These four growth factors appear to share a common binding site, as evidenced by their ability to block affinity labelling by /sup 125/I-insulin. No significant binding to the 100 kDa protein was observed with platelet-derived growth factor, transforming growth factor beta, or glucagon. The 100 kDa Drosophila protein has a unique ligand-binding spectrum with no direct counterpart in mammalian cells and may represent an evolutionary precursor of the mammalian receptors for these growth factors.

  4. Tactics for preclinical validation of receptor-binding radiotracers.

    PubMed

    Lever, Susan Z; Fan, Kuo-Hsien; Lever, John R

    2017-01-01

    Aspects of radiopharmaceutical development are illustrated through preclinical studies of [(125)I]-(E)-1-(2-(2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-5-yl)ethyl)-4-(iodoallyl)piperazine ([(125)I]-E-IA-BF-PE-PIPZE), a radioligand for sigma-1 (σ1) receptors, coupled with examples from the recent literature. Findings are compared to those previously observed for [(125)I]-(E)-1-(2-(2,3-dimethoxy-5-yl)ethyl)-4-(iodoallyl)piperazine ([(125)I]-E-IA-DM-PE-PIPZE). Syntheses of E-IA-BF-PE-PIPZE and [(125)I]-E-IA-BF-PE-PIPZE were accomplished by standard methods. In vitro receptor binding studies and autoradiography were performed, and binding potential was predicted. Measurements of lipophilicity and protein binding were obtained. In vivo studies were conducted in mice to evaluate radioligand stability, as well as specific binding to σ1 sites in brain, brain regions and peripheral organs in the presence and absence of potential blockers. E-IA-BF-PE-PIPZE exhibited high affinity and selectivity for σ1 receptors (Ki = 0.43 ± 0.03 nM, σ2/σ1 = 173). [(125)I]-E-IA-BF-PE-PIPZE was prepared in good yield and purity, with high specific activity. Radioligand binding provided dissociation (koff) and association (kon) rate constants, along with a measured Kd of 0.24 ± 0.01 nM and Bmax of 472 ± 13 fmol/mg protein. The radioligand proved suitable for quantitative autoradiography in vitro using brain sections. Moderate lipophilicity, Log D7.4 2.69 ± 0.28, was determined, and protein binding was 71 ± 0.3%. In vivo, high initial whole brain uptake, >6% injected dose/g, cleared slowly over 24 h. Specific binding represented 75% to 93% of total binding from 15 min to 24 h. Findings were confirmed and extended by regional brain biodistribution. Radiometabolites were not observed in brain (1%). Substitution of dihydrobenzofuranylethyl for dimethoxyphenethyl increased radioligand affinity for σ1 receptors by 16-fold. While high specific binding to σ1 receptors was observed for both radioligands in vivo

  5. Ligand-Receptor Binding Measured by Laser-Scanning Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuck, Paul; Lao, Zhege; Skwish, Stephen; Fraser Glickman, J.; Yang, Ke; Burbaum, Jonathan; Inglese, James

    1999-09-01

    This report describes the integration of laser-scanning fluorometric cytometry and nonseparation ligand-binding techniques to provide new assay methods adaptable to miniaturization and high-throughput screening. Receptor-bound, cyanine dye-labeled ligands, [Cy]ligands, were discriminated from those free in solution by measuring the accumulated fluorescence associated with a receptor-containing particle. To illustrate the various binding formats accommodated by this technique, saturation- and competition-binding analyses were performed with [Cy]ligands and their cognate receptors expressed in CHO cells or as fusion proteins coated on polystyrene microspheres. We have successfully applied this technique to the analysis of G protein-coupled receptors, cytokine receptors, and SH2 domains. Multiparameter readouts from ligands labeled separately with Cy5 and Cy5.5 demonstrate the simultaneous analysis of two target receptors in a single well. In addition, laser-scanning cytometry has been used to assay enzymes such as phosphatases and in the development of single-step fluorescent immunoassays.

  6. Whole-genome cartography of estrogen receptor alpha binding sites.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chin-Yo; Vega, Vinsensius B; Thomsen, Jane S; Zhang, Tao; Kong, Say Li; Xie, Min; Chiu, Kuo Ping; Lipovich, Leonard; Barnett, Daniel H; Stossi, Fabio; Yeo, Ailing; George, Joshy; Kuznetsov, Vladimir A; Lee, Yew Kok; Charn, Tze Howe; Palanisamy, Nallasivam; Miller, Lance D; Cheung, Edwin; Katzenellenbogen, Benita S; Ruan, Yijun; Bourque, Guillaume; Wei, Chia-Lin; Liu, Edison T

    2007-06-01

    Using a chromatin immunoprecipitation-paired end diTag cloning and sequencing strategy, we mapped estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) binding sites in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. We identified 1,234 high confidence binding clusters of which 94% are projected to be bona fide ERalpha binding regions. Only 5% of the mapped estrogen receptor binding sites are located within 5 kb upstream of the transcriptional start sites of adjacent genes, regions containing the proximal promoters, whereas vast majority of the sites are mapped to intronic or distal locations (>5 kb from 5' and 3' ends of adjacent transcript), suggesting transcriptional regulatory mechanisms over significant physical distances. Of all the identified sites, 71% harbored putative full estrogen response elements (EREs), 25% bore ERE half sites, and only 4% had no recognizable ERE sequences. Genes in the vicinity of ERalpha binding sites were enriched for regulation by estradiol in MCF-7 cells, and their expression profiles in patient samples segregate ERalpha-positive from ERalpha-negative breast tumors. The expression dynamics of the genes adjacent to ERalpha binding sites suggest a direct induction of gene expression through binding to ERE-like sequences, whereas transcriptional repression by ERalpha appears to be through indirect mechanisms. Our analysis also indicates a number of candidate transcription factor binding sites adjacent to occupied EREs at frequencies much greater than by chance, including the previously reported FOXA1 sites, and demonstrate the potential involvement of one such putative adjacent factor, Sp1, in the global regulation of ERalpha target genes. Unexpectedly, we found that only 22%-24% of the bona fide human ERalpha binding sites were overlapping conserved regions in whole genome vertebrate alignments, which suggest limited conservation of functional binding sites. Taken together, this genome-scale analysis suggests complex but definable rules governing ERalpha binding and gene

  7. Whole-Genome Cartography of Estrogen Receptor α Binding Sites

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, Jane S; Zhang, Tao; Kong, Say Li; Xie, Min; Chiu, Kuo Ping; Lipovich, Leonard; Barnett, Daniel H; Stossi, Fabio; Yeo, Ailing; George, Joshy; Kuznetsov, Vladimir A; Lee, Yew Kok; Charn, Tze Howe; Palanisamy, Nallasivam; Miller, Lance D; Cheung, Edwin; Katzenellenbogen, Benita S; Ruan, Yijun; Bourque, Guillaume; Wei, Chia-Lin; Liu, Edison T

    2007-01-01

    Using a chromatin immunoprecipitation-paired end diTag cloning and sequencing strategy, we mapped estrogen receptor α (ERα) binding sites in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. We identified 1,234 high confidence binding clusters of which 94% are projected to be bona fide ERα binding regions. Only 5% of the mapped estrogen receptor binding sites are located within 5 kb upstream of the transcriptional start sites of adjacent genes, regions containing the proximal promoters, whereas vast majority of the sites are mapped to intronic or distal locations (>5 kb from 5′ and 3′ ends of adjacent transcript), suggesting transcriptional regulatory mechanisms over significant physical distances. Of all the identified sites, 71% harbored putative full estrogen response elements (EREs), 25% bore ERE half sites, and only 4% had no recognizable ERE sequences. Genes in the vicinity of ERα binding sites were enriched for regulation by estradiol in MCF-7 cells, and their expression profiles in patient samples segregate ERα-positive from ERα-negative breast tumors. The expression dynamics of the genes adjacent to ERα binding sites suggest a direct induction of gene expression through binding to ERE-like sequences, whereas transcriptional repression by ERα appears to be through indirect mechanisms. Our analysis also indicates a number of candidate transcription factor binding sites adjacent to occupied EREs at frequencies much greater than by chance, including the previously reported FOXA1 sites, and demonstrate the potential involvement of one such putative adjacent factor, Sp1, in the global regulation of ERα target genes. Unexpectedly, we found that only 22%–24% of the bona fide human ERα binding sites were overlapping conserved regions in whole genome vertebrate alignments, which suggest limited conservation of functional binding sites. Taken together, this genome-scale analysis suggests complex but definable rules governing ERα binding and gene regulation. PMID:17542648

  8. Binding interactions with the complementary subunit of nicotinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Blum, Angela P; Van Arnam, Ethan B; German, Laurel A; Lester, Henry A; Dougherty, Dennis A

    2013-03-08

    The agonist-binding site of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) spans an interface between two subunits of the pentameric receptor. The principal component of this binding site is contributed by an α subunit, and it binds the cationic moiety of the nicotinic pharmacophore. The other part of the pharmacophore, a hydrogen bond acceptor, has recently been shown to bind to the complementary non-α subunit via the backbone NH of a conserved Leu. This interaction was predicted by studies of ACh-binding proteins and confirmed by functional studies of the neuronal (CNS) nAChR, α4β2. The ACh-binding protein structures further suggested that the hydrogen bond to the backbone NH is mediated by a water molecule and that a second hydrogen bonding interaction occurs between the water molecule and the backbone CO of a conserved Asn, also on the non-α subunit. Here, we provide new insights into the nature of the interactions between the hydrogen bond acceptor of nicotinic agonists and the complementary subunit backbone. We studied both the nAChR of the neuromuscular junction (muscle-type) and a neuronal subtype, (α4)2(β4)3. In the muscle-type receptor, both ACh and nicotine showed a strong interaction with the Leu NH, but the potent nicotine analog epibatidine did not. This interaction was much attenuated in the α4β4 receptor. Surprisingly, we found no evidence for a functionally significant interaction with the backbone carbonyl of the relevant Asn in either receptor with an array of agonists.

  9. Metallosupramolecular receptors for fullerene binding and release.

    PubMed

    García-Simón, Cristina; Costas, Miquel; Ribas, Xavi

    2016-01-07

    Fullerene extracts are easily available from fullerene soot, but finding an efficient strategy to obtain them in pure form remains elusive, especially for higher fullerenes (Cx, x > 70). The properties of the latter remain unclear and their potential application to multiple research fields has not been developed mainly due to their purification difficulties. In this Tutorial Review we cover the use of molecular receptors for the separation of fullerenes by means of host-guest interactions. This strategy allows gaining selectivity, no specialized equipment is required and, ideally, recyclable systems can be designed. We focus on the metallosupramolecular receptors using the metal-ligand coordination approach, which offers a controlled and versatile strategy to design fullerene hosts, and the latest strategies to release the fullerene guest will be described. The field is probably in its beginnings but it is rapidly evolving and we are confident that this tutorial review will help researchers to rapidly gain a general overview of the main works and concepts that are leading this promising strategy and that may lead towards a useful methodology to purify fullerenes.

  10. Neurosteroid binding to the amino terminal and glutamate binding domains of ionotropic glutamate receptors.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Krasnodara; Bartle, Emily; Roark, Ryan; Fanelli, David; Pham, Melissa; Pollard, Beth; Borkowski, Brian; Rhoads, Sarah; Kim, Joon; Rocha, Monica; Kahlson, Martha; Kangala, Melinda; Gentile, Lisa

    2012-06-01

    The endogenous neurosteroids, pregnenolone sulfate (PS) and 3α-hydroxy-5β-pregnan-20-one sulfate (PREGAS), have been shown to differentially regulate the ionotropic glutamate receptor (iGluR) family of ligand-gated ion channels. Upon binding to these receptors, PREGAS decreases current flow through the channels. Upon binding to non-NMDA or NMDA receptors containing an GluN2C or GluN2D subunit, PS also decreases current flow through the channels, however, upon binding to NMDA receptors containing an GluN2A or GluN2B subunit, flow through the channels increases. To begin to understand this differential regulation, we have cloned the S1S2 and amino terminal domains (ATD) of the NMDA GluN2B and GluN2D and AMPA GluA2 subunits. Here we present results that show that PS and PREGAS bind to different sites in the ATD of the GluA2 subunit, which when combined with previous results from our lab, now identifies two binding domains for each neurosteroid. We also show both neurosteroids bind only to the ATD of the GluN2D subunit, suggesting that this binding is distinct from that of the AMPA GluA2 subunit, with both leading to iGluR inhibition. Finally, we provide evidence that both PS and PREGAS bind to the S1S2 domain of the NMDA GluN2B subunit. Neurosteroid binding to the S1S2 domain of NMDA subunits responsible for potentiation of iGluRs and to the ATD of NMDA subunits responsible for inhibition of iGluRs, provides an interesting option for therapeutic design.

  11. Quantitative in vivo receptor binding. I. Theory and application to the muscarinic cholinergic receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, K.A.; Ehrenkaufer, R.L.; Beaucage, S.; Agranoff, B.W.

    1985-02-01

    A novel approach to in vivo receptor binding experiments is presented which allows direct quantitation of binding site densities. The method is based on an equilibrium model of tracer uptake and is designed to produce a static distribution proportional to receptor density and to minimize possible confounding influences of regional blood flow, blood-brain barrier permeability, and nonspecific binding. This technique was applied to the measurement of regional muscarinic cholinergic receptor densities in rat brain using (/sup 3/H)scopolamine. Specific in vivo binding of scopolamine demonstrated saturability, a pharmacologic profile, and regional densities which are consistent with interaction of the tracer with the muscarinic receptor. Estimates of receptor density obtained with the in vivo method and in vitro measurements in homogenates were highly correlated. Furthermore, reduction in striatal muscarinic receptors following ibotenic acid lesions resulted in a significant decrease in tracer uptake in vivo, indicating that the correlation between scopolamine distribution and receptor density may be used to demonstrate pathologic conditions. We propose that the general method presented here is directly applicable to investigation of high affinity binding sites for a variety of radioligands.

  12. Oxytocin receptor binding in the hypothalamus during gestation in rats.

    PubMed

    Bealer, Steven L; Lipschitz, David L; Ramoz, Gina; Crowley, William R

    2006-07-01

    Central oxytocin receptors (OTR) may be involved in adaptations of the brain oxytocin (OT) system during gestation, which are critical for systemic release of OT during parturition and lactation. We used quantitative autoradiography to determine changes in OTR binding in numerous brain sites during the course of gestation in the rat. Furthermore, to evaluate the importance of ovarian steroids in mediating pregnancy-related changes in OTR binding, we measured binding in ovariectomized animals treated with progesterone and/or estrogen, and in pregnant animals treated with exogenous progesterone during late gestation. We found that OTR binding was significantly increased in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON) by midgestation (day 15) compared with control. In addition, there was a further significant increase in OTR binding in these nuclei by late gestation (day 20). The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and the medial preoptic area (MPOA) also showed significant gestation-associated increases in OTR binding, which were similar during mid- and late pregnancy. Treatment with exogenous progesterone throughout pregnancy did not alter the increase in OTR binding characteristic of late gestation in any of these brain sites. Finally, estrogen treatment in ovariectomized animals resulted in increased OTR binding in the SON, BNST, and MPOA, but not the PVN. These data demonstrate that OTR binding in the hypothalamus is increased during mid- and late-gestation, compared with ovariectomized control animals, which may be mediated by increased estradiol.

  13. Role of Fluctuations in Ligand Binding Cooperativity of Membrane Receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lizhe; Frenkel, Daan; Bolhuis, Peter G.

    2011-04-01

    Signal transduction upon binding of a ligand to a membrane protein can occur not only via allosteric conformational changes but also through fluctuations. We report a numerical study on the influence of conformational fluctuations on the cooperativity of a binding reaction in a simple model of an integral membrane receptor consisting of transmembrane helices. We find that small fluctuations lateral as well as perpendicular to the membrane can increase the cooperativity, with the former more dominant. Moreover, too much fluctuation induces negative cooperativity. Proteins with fewer than four helices do not show positive cooperativity under any circumstances. This behavior is rather robust, and independent of the receptor topology or ligand size. Fluctuations measured in all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of a G-protein coupled receptor fall within the predicted region of maximum cooperativity.

  14. Differential binding of the HIV-1 envelope to phosphatidylserine receptors.

    PubMed

    Gu, Linlin; Sims, Brian; Krendelchtchikov, Alexandre; Tabengwa, Edlue; Matthews, Qiana L

    2017-10-01

    Prior work has shown that the HIV-1 envelope of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) interacts directly with T-cell immunoglobulin mucin (TIM) family proteins. Herein, we demonstrate that HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins from varying HIV-1 clades bind differentially to TIM proteins and functionally similar proteins acting as phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) receptors. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology, we show that lysate containing HIV-1 envelope and recombinant HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins bind TIM-4 and advanced glycosylation end product-specific receptor (AGER). The complex binding of HIV-1 UG21 gp140 to TIM-4 or AGER suggests a biphasic interaction with these proteins. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Crystal structure of mouse coronavirus receptor-binding domain complexed with its murine receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Guiqing; Sun, Dawei; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Qian, Zhaohui; Holmes, Kathryn V.; Li, Fang

    2011-09-28

    Coronaviruses have evolved diverse mechanisms to recognize different receptors for their cross-species transmission and host-range expansion. Mouse hepatitis coronavirus (MHV) uses the N-terminal domain (NTD) of its spike protein as its receptor-binding domain. Here we present the crystal structure of MHV NTD complexed with its receptor murine carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1a (mCEACAM1a). Unexpectedly, MHV NTD contains a core structure that has the same {beta}-sandwich fold as human galectins (S-lectins) and additional structural motifs that bind to the N-terminal Ig-like domain of mCEACAM1a. Despite its galectin fold, MHV NTD does not bind sugars, but instead binds mCEACAM1a through exclusive protein-protein interactions. Critical contacts at the interface have been confirmed by mutagenesis, providing a structural basis for viral and host specificities of coronavirus/CEACAM1 interactions. Sugar-binding assays reveal that galectin-like NTDs of some coronaviruses such as human coronavirus OC43 and bovine coronavirus bind sugars. Structural analysis and mutagenesis localize the sugar-binding site in coronavirus NTDs to be above the {beta}-sandwich core. We propose that coronavirus NTDs originated from a host galectin and retained sugar-binding functions in some contemporary coronaviruses, but evolved new structural features in MHV for mCEACAM1a binding.

  16. Agonist Binding to Chemosensory Receptors: A Systematic Bioinformatics Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fierro, Fabrizio; Suku, Eda; Alfonso-Prieto, Mercedes; Giorgetti, Alejandro; Cichon, Sven; Carloni, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Human G-protein coupled receptors (hGPCRs) constitute a large and highly pharmaceutically relevant membrane receptor superfamily. About half of the hGPCRs' family members are chemosensory receptors, involved in bitter taste and olfaction, along with a variety of other physiological processes. Hence these receptors constitute promising targets for pharmaceutical intervention. Molecular modeling has been so far the most important tool to get insights on agonist binding and receptor activation. Here we investigate both aspects by bioinformatics-based predictions across all bitter taste and odorant receptors for which site-directed mutagenesis data are available. First, we observe that state-of-the-art homology modeling combined with previously used docking procedures turned out to reproduce only a limited fraction of ligand/receptor interactions inferred by experiments. This is most probably caused by the low sequence identity with available structural templates, which limits the accuracy of the protein model and in particular of the side-chains' orientations. Methods which transcend the limited sampling of the conformational space of docking may improve the predictions. As an example corroborating this, we review here multi-scale simulations from our lab and show that, for the three complexes studied so far, they significantly enhance the predictive power of the computational approach. Second, our bioinformatics analysis provides support to previous claims that several residues, including those at positions 1.50, 2.50, and 7.52, are involved in receptor activation. PMID:28932739

  17. Crystal structure of NL63 respiratory coronavirus receptor-binding domain complexed with its human receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Kailang; Li, Weikai; Peng, Guiqing; Li, Fang

    2010-03-04

    NL63 coronavirus (NL63-CoV), a prevalent human respiratory virus, is the only group I coronavirus known to use angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as its receptor. Incidentally, ACE2 is also used by group II SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). We investigated how different groups of coronaviruses recognize the same receptor, whereas homologous group I coronaviruses recognize different receptors. We determined the crystal structure of NL63-CoV spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) complexed with human ACE2. NL63-CoV RBD has a novel {beta}-sandwich core structure consisting of 2 layers of {beta}-sheets, presenting 3 discontinuous receptor-binding motifs (RBMs) to bind ACE2. NL63-CoV and SARS-CoV have no structural homology in RBD cores or RBMs; yet the 2 viruses recognize common ACE2 regions, largely because of a 'virus-binding hotspot' on ACE2. Among group I coronaviruses, RBD cores are conserved but RBMs are variable, explaining how these viruses recognize different receptors. These results provide a structural basis for understanding viral evolution and virus-receptor interactions.

  18. Crystal structure of NL63 respiratory coronavirus receptor-binding domain complexed with its human receptor.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kailang; Li, Weikai; Peng, Guiqing; Li, Fang

    2009-11-24

    NL63 coronavirus (NL63-CoV), a prevalent human respiratory virus, is the only group I coronavirus known to use angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as its receptor. Incidentally, ACE2 is also used by group II SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). We investigated how different groups of coronaviruses recognize the same receptor, whereas homologous group I coronaviruses recognize different receptors. We determined the crystal structure of NL63-CoV spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) complexed with human ACE2. NL63-CoV RBD has a novel beta-sandwich core structure consisting of 2 layers of beta-sheets, presenting 3 discontinuous receptor-binding motifs (RBMs) to bind ACE2. NL63-CoV and SARS-CoV have no structural homology in RBD cores or RBMs; yet the 2 viruses recognize common ACE2 regions, largely because of a "virus-binding hotspot" on ACE2. Among group I coronaviruses, RBD cores are conserved but RBMs are variable, explaining how these viruses recognize different receptors. These results provide a structural basis for understanding viral evolution and virus-receptor interactions.

  19. Ligand binding was acquired during evolution of nuclear receptors

    PubMed Central

    Escriva, Hector; Safi, Rachid; Hänni, Catherine; Langlois, Marie-Claire; Saumitou-Laprade, Pierre; Stehelin, Dominique; Capron, André; Pierce, Raymond; Laudet, Vincent

    1997-01-01

    The nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily comprises, in addition to ligand-activated transcription factors, members for which no ligand has been identified to date. We demonstrate that orphan receptors are randomly distributed in the evolutionary tree and that there is no relationship between the position of a given liganded receptor in the tree and the chemical nature of its ligand. NRs are specific to metazoans, as revealed by a screen of NR-related sequences in early- and non-metazoan organisms. The analysis of the NR gene duplication pattern during the evolution of metazoans shows that the present NR diversity arose from two waves of gene duplications. Strikingly, our results suggest that the ancestral NR was an orphan receptor that acquired ligand-binding ability during subsequent evolution. PMID:9192646

  20. Homology modeling of the receptor binding domain of human thrombopoietin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jin-Soo; Park, Heungrok; Hong, Hyo-Jeong; Yu, Myeong-Hee; Ryu, Seong-Eon

    1998-09-01

    Platelet production in blood is regulated by a lineage specific humoral factor, thrombopoietin (TPO). The amino terminal domain of TPO (TPO-N) is responsible for the signal transduction mediated by the TPO receptor, c-mpl. From the predicted length of helices we found that TPO-N belongs to the long-chain subfamily of the four-helix bundle cytokine family. We built a three dimensional model of TPO-N by a comparative homology modeling procedure. The four helices of TPO-N with an up-up-down-down topology are stabilized by a tightly packed central hydrophobic core and the extended loop AB makes an additional hydrophobic core with helices B and D outside of the four helix bundle scaffold. An interpretation of the previous site directed mutageneses results in light of the model enabled us to identify two isolated receptor binding sites. The surface made of Lys 136, Lys 138 and Lys 140 in helix D, and Pro 42 and Glu 50 in loop AB forms the first receptor binding site, while the surface of Asp 8, Arg 10 and Lys14 in helix A represents the second binding site for the sequential receptor oligomerization.

  1. Binding Studies of TNF Receptor Superfamily (TNFRSF) Receptors on Intact Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Isabell; Füllsack, Simone; Wyzgol, Agnes; Fick, Andrea; Trebing, Johannes; Arana, José Antonio Carmona; Schäfer, Viktoria; Weisenberger, Daniela; Wajant, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Ligands of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily (TNFSF) interact with members of the TNF receptor superfamily (TNFRSF). TNFSF ligand-TNFRSF receptor interactions have been intensively evaluated by many groups. The affinities of TNFSF ligand-TNFRSF receptor interactions are highly dependent on the oligomerization state of the receptor, and cellular factors (e.g. actin cytoskeleton and lipid rafts) influence the assembly of ligand-receptor complexes, too. Binding studies on TNFSF ligand-TNFRSF receptor interactions were typically performed using cell-free assays with recombinant fusion proteins that contain varying numbers of TNFRSF ectodomains. It is therefore not surprising that affinities determined for an individual TNFSF ligand-TNFRSF interaction differ sometimes by several orders of magnitude and often do not reflect the ligand activity observed in cellular assays. To overcome the intrinsic limitations of cell-free binding studies and usage of recombinant receptor domains, we performed comprehensive binding studies with Gaussia princeps luciferase TNFSF ligand fusion proteins for cell-bound TNFRSF members on intact cells at 37 °C. The affinities of the TNFSF ligand G. princeps luciferase-fusion proteins ranged between 0.01 and 19 nm and offer the currently most comprehensive and best suited panel of affinities for in silico studies of ligand-receptor systems of the TNF family. PMID:26721880

  2. Radioligand binding assays: application of [(125)I]angiotensin II receptor binding.

    PubMed

    Leifert, Wayne R; Bucco, Olgatina; Abeywardena, Mahinda Y; Patten, Glen S

    2009-01-01

    Angiotensin II (AngII) is an octapeptide hormone with a key role in blood pressure regulation. AngII increases blood pressure by stimulating G protein-coupled receptors in vascular smooth muscle. AngII receptors are therefore an important target in patients with high blood pressure. Strategies to lower high blood pressure (hypertension) include the use of drugs that compete for AngII at the angiotensin II Type 1 receptors (ATR) using ATR antagonists (e.g., irbesartan, valsartan, and losartan). This chapter will demonstrate the subtype specificity of ATR binding and we discuss some of the key experiments that are necessary in optimizing some of the parameters for GPCR screening. The latter protocols include saturation binding to determine K (d) and B (max), as well as competition/inhibition experiments to determine the IC(50) of binding. For these experiments we have used rat liver membranes which express ATR (type 1a) in relatively abundant amounts. Additionally, rat liver membrane preparations can be easily prepared in "bulk," frozen away for extended periods (up to 1 year) and used when necessary with no loss of receptor binding activity using the radiolabeled angiotensin II analogue, [(125)I][Sar(1),I le(8)]AngII.

  3. Defining a minimal estrogen receptor DNA binding domain.

    PubMed Central

    Mader, S; Chambon, P; White, J H

    1993-01-01

    The estrogen receptor (ER) is a transcriptional regulator which binds to cognate palindromic DNA sequences known as estrogen response elements (EREs). A 66 amino acid core region which contains two zinc fingers and is highly conserved among the nuclear receptors is essential for site specific DNA recognition. However, it remains unclear how many flanking amino acids in addition to the zinc finger core are required for DNA binding. Here, we have characterized the minimal DNA binding region of the human ER by analysing the DNA binding properties of a series of deletion mutants expressed in bacteria. We find that the 66 amino acid zinc finger core of the DBD fails to bind DNA, and that the C-terminal end of the minimal ER DBD required for binding to perfectly palindromic EREs corresponds to the limit of 100% amino acid homology between the chicken and human receptors, which represents the boundary between regions C and D in the ER. Moreover, amino acids of region D up to 30 residues C-terminal to the zinc fingers greatly stabilize DNA binding by the DBD to perfectly palindromic EREs and are absolutely required for formation of gel retardation complexes by the DBD on certain physiological imperfectly palindromic EREs. These results indicate that in addition to the zinc finger core, amino acids C-terminal to the core in regions C and D play a key role in DNA binding by the ER, particularly to imperfectly palindromic response elements. The ER DBD expressed in E. coli binds as a dimer to ERE palindromes in a highly cooperative manner and forms only low levels of monomeric protein-DNA complexes on either palindromic or half-palindromic response elements. Conversion of ER amino acids 222 to 226, which lie within region C, to the corresponding residues of the human RAR alpha abolishes formation of dimeric protein-DNA complexes. Conversely, replacement of the same region of RAR alpha with ER residues 222 to 226 creates a derivative that, unlike the RAR alpha DBD, binds

  4. Characterization of Binding Sequences for Butyrolactone Autoregulator Receptors in Streptomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Tomohiro; Ipposhi, Hiroomi; Nihira, Takuya; Yamada, Yasuhiro

    1999-01-01

    BarA of Streptomyces virginiae is a specific receptor protein for a member of butyrolactone autoregulators which binds to an upstream region of target genes to control transcription, leading to the production of the antibiotic virginiamycin M1 and S. BarA-binding DNA sequences (BarA-responsive elements [BAREs]), to which BarA binds for transcriptional control, were restricted to 26 to 29-nucleotide (nt) sequences on barA and barB upstream regions by the surface plasmon resonance technique, gel shift assay, and DNase I footprint analysis. Two BAREs (BARE-1 and BARE-2) on the barB upstream region were located 57 to 29 bp (BARE-1) and 268 to 241 bp (BARE-2) upstream from the barB translational start codon. The BARE located on the barA upstream region (BARE-3) was found 101 to 76 bp upstream of the barA start codon. High-resolution S1 nuclease mapping analysis revealed that BARE-1 covered the barB transcription start site and BARE-3 covered an autoregulator-dependent transcription start site of the barA gene. Deletion and mutation analysis of BARE-2 demonstrated that at least a 19-nt sequence was required for sufficient BarA binding, and A or T residues at the edge as well as internal conserved nucleotides were indispensable. The identified binding sequences for autoregulator receptor proteins were found to be highly conserved among Streptomyces species. PMID:10438781

  5. MODELING THE BINDING OF THE METABOLITES OF SOME POLYCYCLIC AROMTIC HYDROCARBONS TO THE LIGAND BINDING DOMAIN OF THE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modeling the binding of the metabolites of some Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons to the ligand binding domain of the estrogen receptor
    James Rabinowitz, Stephen Little, Katrina Brown, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC; Un...

  6. MODELING THE BINDING OF THE METABOLITES OF SOME POLYCYCLIC AROMTIC HYDROCARBONS TO THE LIGAND BINDING DOMAIN OF THE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modeling the binding of the metabolites of some Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons to the ligand binding domain of the estrogen receptor
    James Rabinowitz, Stephen Little, Katrina Brown, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC; Un...

  7. Allelic association of the D2 dopamine receptor gene with receptor-binding characteristics in alcoholism

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, E.P.; Blum, K.; Ritchie, T.; Montgomery, A.; Sheridan, P.J. )

    1991-07-01

    The allelic association of the human D2 dopamine receptor gene with the binding characteristics of the D2 dopamine receptor was determined in 66 brains of alcoholic and non-alcoholic subjects. In a blinded experiment, DNA from the cerebral cortex was treated with the restriction endonuclease Taql and probed with a 1.5-kilobase (kb) digest of a clone (lambda hD2G1) of the human D2 dopamine receptor gene. The binding characteristics (Kd (binding affinity) and Bmax (number of binding sites)) of the D2 dopamine receptor were determined in the caudate nuclei of these brains using tritiated spiperone as the ligand. The adjusted Kd was significantly lower in alcoholic than in nonalcoholic subjects. In subjects with the A1 allele, in whom a high association with alcoholism was found, the Bmax was significantly reduced compared with the Bmax of subjects with the A2 allele. Moreover, a progressively reduced Bmax was found in subjects with A2/A2, A1/A2, and A1/A1 alleles, with subjects with A2/A2 having the highest mean values, and subjects with A1/A1, the lowest. The polymorphic pattern of the D2 dopamine receptor gene and its differential expression of receptors suggests the involvement of the dopaminergic system in conferring susceptibility to at least one subtype of severe alcoholism.

  8. Recombinant Collagen Engineered to Bind to Discoidin Domain Receptor Functions as a Receptor Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    An, Bo; Abbonante, Vittorio; Xu, Huifang; Gavriilidou, Despoina; Yoshizumi, Ayumi; Bihan, Dominique; Farndale, Richard W; Kaplan, David L; Balduini, Alessandra; Leitinger, Birgit; Brodsky, Barbara

    2016-02-26

    A bacterial collagen-like protein Scl2 has been developed as a recombinant collagen model system to host human collagen ligand-binding sequences, with the goal of generating biomaterials with selective collagen bioactivities. Defined binding sites in human collagen for integrins, fibronectin, heparin, and MMP-1 have been introduced into the triple-helical domain of the bacterial collagen and led to the expected biological activities. The modular insertion of activities is extended here to the discoidin domain receptors (DDRs), which are collagen-activated receptor tyrosine kinases. Insertion of the DDR-binding sequence from human collagen III into bacterial collagen led to specific receptor binding. However, even at the highest testable concentrations, the construct was unable to stimulate DDR autophosphorylation. The recombinant collagen expressed in Escherichia coli does not contain hydroxyproline (Hyp), and complementary synthetic peptide studies showed that replacement of Hyp by Pro at the critical Gly-Val-Met-Gly-Phe-Hyp position decreased the DDR-binding affinity and consequently required a higher concentration for the induction of receptor activation. The ability of the recombinant bacterial collagen to bind the DDRs without inducing kinase activation suggested it could interfere with the interactions between animal collagen and the DDRs, and such an inhibitory role was confirmed in vitro and with a cell migration assay. This study illustrates that recombinant collagen can complement synthetic peptides in investigating structure-activity relationships, and this system has the potential for the introduction or inhibition of specific biological activities.

  9. Recombinant Collagen Engineered to Bind to Discoidin Domain Receptor Functions as a Receptor Inhibitor*

    PubMed Central

    An, Bo; Abbonante, Vittorio; Xu, Huifang; Gavriilidou, Despoina; Yoshizumi, Ayumi; Bihan, Dominique; Farndale, Richard W.; Kaplan, David L.; Balduini, Alessandra; Leitinger, Birgit; Brodsky, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    A bacterial collagen-like protein Scl2 has been developed as a recombinant collagen model system to host human collagen ligand-binding sequences, with the goal of generating biomaterials with selective collagen bioactivities. Defined binding sites in human collagen for integrins, fibronectin, heparin, and MMP-1 have been introduced into the triple-helical domain of the bacterial collagen and led to the expected biological activities. The modular insertion of activities is extended here to the discoidin domain receptors (DDRs), which are collagen-activated receptor tyrosine kinases. Insertion of the DDR-binding sequence from human collagen III into bacterial collagen led to specific receptor binding. However, even at the highest testable concentrations, the construct was unable to stimulate DDR autophosphorylation. The recombinant collagen expressed in Escherichia coli does not contain hydroxyproline (Hyp), and complementary synthetic peptide studies showed that replacement of Hyp by Pro at the critical Gly-Val-Met-Gly-Phe-Hyp position decreased the DDR-binding affinity and consequently required a higher concentration for the induction of receptor activation. The ability of the recombinant bacterial collagen to bind the DDRs without inducing kinase activation suggested it could interfere with the interactions between animal collagen and the DDRs, and such an inhibitory role was confirmed in vitro and with a cell migration assay. This study illustrates that recombinant collagen can complement synthetic peptides in investigating structure-activity relationships, and this system has the potential for the introduction or inhibition of specific biological activities. PMID:26702058

  10. Five of Five VHHs Neutralizing Poliovirus Bind the Receptor-Binding Site

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Mike; Schotte, Lise; Thys, Bert; Filman, David J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nanobodies, or VHHs, that recognize poliovirus type 1 have previously been selected and characterized as candidates for antiviral agents or reagents for standardization of vaccine quality control. In this study, we present high-resolution cryo-electron microscopy reconstructions of poliovirus with five neutralizing VHHs. All VHHs bind the capsid in the canyon at sites that extensively overlap the poliovirus receptor-binding site. In contrast, the interaction involves a unique (and surprisingly extensive) surface for each of the five VHHs. Five regions of the capsid were found to participate in binding with all five VHHs. Four of these five regions are known to alter during the expansion of the capsid associated with viral entry. Interestingly, binding of one of the VHHs, PVSS21E, resulted in significant changes of the capsid structure and thus seems to trap the virus in an early stage of expansion. IMPORTANCE We describe the cryo-electron microscopy structures of complexes of five neutralizing VHHs with the Mahoney strain of type 1 poliovirus at resolutions ranging from 3.8 to 6.3Å. All five VHHs bind deep in the virus canyon at similar sites that overlap extensively with the binding site for the receptor (CD155). The binding surfaces on the VHHs are surprisingly extensive, but despite the use of similar binding surfaces on the virus, the binding surface on the VHHs is unique for each VHH. In four of the five complexes, the virus remains essentially unchanged, but for the fifth there are significant changes reminiscent of but smaller in magnitude than the changes associated with cell entry, suggesting that this VHH traps the virus in a previously undescribed early intermediate state. The neutralizing mechanisms of the VHHs and their potential use as quality control agents for the end game of poliovirus eradication are discussed. PMID:26764003

  11. Ligand-binding pocket of the ecdysone receptor.

    PubMed

    Billas, Isabelle M L; Moras, Dino

    2005-01-01

    The ecdysone receptor (EcR) belongs to the superfamily of nuclear receptors (NRs) that are ligand-dependent transcription factors. Ecdysone receptor is present only in invertebrates and plays a central role in regulating the expression of a vast array of genes during development and reproduction. The functional entity is a heterodimer composed of EcR and the ultraspiracle protein (USP)-the orthologue of the vertebrate retinoid X receptor (RXR). Ecdysone receptor is the molecular target of ecdysteroids-the endogenous steroidal molting hormones found in arthropods and nonarthropod invertebrates. In addition, EcR is the target of the environmentally safe bisacylhydrazine insecticides used against pests, such as caterpillars, that cause severe damage to agriculture. The crystal structures of the ligand-binding domains (LBDs) of the EcR/USP heterodimer, complexed to the ecdysteroid ponasterone A (ponA) and to the lepidopteran specific bisacylhydrazine BYI06830 used in the agrochemical pest control, provide the first insight at atomic level for these important functional complexes. The EcR/USP heterodimer has a shape similar to that seen for the known vertebrate heterodimer complexes with a conserved main interface, but with features, that are specific to this invertebrate heterodimer. The two EcR-LBD structures in complex with steroidal and nonsteroidal ligands reveal substantial differences. The adaptability of EcR to its ligand results in two radically different and only partially overlapping ligand-binding pockets with different residues involved in ligand recognition. The concept brought by these structural studies of a ligand-dependent binding pocket has potential applications for other NRs.

  12. Viral receptor-binding site antibodies with diverse germline origins

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Aaron G.; Therkelsen, Matthew D.; Stewart, Shaun; Kepler, Thomas B.; Liao, Hua-Xin; Moody, M. Anthony; Haynes, Barton F.; Harrison, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    Vaccines for rapidly evolving pathogens will confer lasting immunity if they elicit antibodies recognizing conserved epitopes, such as a receptor-binding site (RBS). From characteristics of an influenza-virus RBS-directed antibody, we devised a signature motif to search for similar antibodies. We identified, from three vaccinees, over 100 candidates encoded by eleven different VH genes. Crystal structures show that antibodies in this class engage the hemagglutinin RBS and mimic binding of the receptor, sialic acid, by supplying a critical dipeptide on their projecting, heavy-chain third complementarity determining region. They share contacts with conserved, receptor-binding residues but contact different residues on the RBS periphery, limiting the likelihood of viral escape when several such antibodies are present. These data show that related modes of RBS recognition can arise from different germline origins and mature through diverse affinity maturation pathways. Immunogens focused on an RBS-directed response will thus have a broad range of B-cell targets. PMID:25959776

  13. Tasimelteon: a selective and unique receptor binding profile.

    PubMed

    Lavedan, Christian; Forsberg, Mark; Gentile, Anthony J

    2015-04-01

    Hetlioz(®) (tasimelteon) is the first approved treatment in the United States for Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder (Non-24). We present here data on the in vitro binding affinity of tasimelteon for both human melatonin receptors MT1 and MT2, as well as the extended screen of other receptors and enzymes. Results indicate that tasimelteon is a potent Dual Melatonin Receptor Agonist (DMRA) with 2.1-4.4 times greater affinity for the MT2 receptor believed to mediate circadian rhythm phase-shifting (Ki = 0.0692 nM and Ki = 0.17 nM in NIH-3T3 and CHO-K1 cells, respectively), than for the MT1 receptor (Ki = 0.304 nM and Ki = 0.35 nM, respectively). Tasimelteon was also shown to have no appreciable affinity for more than 160 other pharmacologically relevant receptors and several enzymes. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Binding Mode Prediction of Evodiamine within Vanilloid Receptor TRPV1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhanli; Sun, Lidan; Yu, Hui; Zhang, Yanhui; Gong, Wuzhuang; Jin, Hongwei; Zhang, Liangren; Liang, Huaping

    2012-01-01

    Accurate assessment of the potential binding mode of drugs is crucial to computer-aided drug design paradigms. It has been reported that evodiamine acts as an agonist of the vanilloid receptor Transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1). However, the precise interaction between evodiamine and TRPV1 was still not fully understood. In this perspective, the homology models of TRPV1 were generated using the crystal structure of the voltage-dependent shaker family K+ channel as a template. We then performed docking and molecular dynamics simulation to gain a better understanding of the probable binding modes of evodiamine within the TRPV1 binding pocket. There are no significant interspecies differences in evodiamine binding in rat, human and rabbit TRPV1 models. Pharmacophore modeling further provided confidence for the validity of the docking studies. This study is the first to shed light on the structural determinants required for the interaction between TRPV1 and evodiamine, and gives new suggestions for the rational design of novel TRPV1 ligands. PMID:22942745

  15. Genome-Wide Binding Patterns of Thyroid Hormone Receptor Beta

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, Stephen; Switnicki, Michal Piotr; Angajala, Anusha; Lammel, Jan; Arumanayagam, Anithachristy S.; Webb, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) receptors (TRs) play central roles in metabolism and are major targets for pharmaceutical intervention. Presently, however, there is limited information about genome wide localizations of TR binding sites. Thus, complexities of TR genomic distribution and links between TRβ binding events and gene regulation are not fully appreciated. Here, we employ a BioChIP approach to capture TR genome-wide binding events in a liver cell line (HepG2). Like other NRs, TRβ appears widely distributed throughout the genome. Nevertheless, there is striking enrichment of TRβ binding sites immediately 5′ and 3′ of transcribed genes and TRβ can be detected near 50% of T3 induced genes. In contrast, no significant enrichment of TRβ is seen at negatively regulated genes or genes that respond to unliganded TRs in this system. Canonical TRE half-sites are present in more than 90% of TRβ peaks and classical TREs are also greatly enriched, but individual TRE organization appears highly variable with diverse half-site orientation and spacing. There is also significant enrichment of binding sites for TR associated transcription factors, including AP-1 and CTCF, near TR peaks. We conclude that T3-dependent gene induction commonly involves proximal TRβ binding events but that far-distant binding events are needed for T3 induction of some genes and that distinct, indirect, mechanisms are often at play in negative regulation and unliganded TR actions. Better understanding of genomic context of TR binding sites will help us determine why TR regulates genes in different ways and determine possibilities for selective modulation of TR action. PMID:24558356

  16. The Receptor Binding Domain of Botulinum Neurotoxin Stereotype C Binds Phosphoinositides

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yanfeng; Varnum, Susan M.

    2012-03-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most toxic proteins known for humans and animals with an extremely low LD50 of {approx} 1 ng/kg. BoNTs generally require a protein and a ganglioside on the cell membrane surface for binding, which is known as a 'dual receptor' mechanism for host intoxication. Recent studies have suggested that in addition to gangliosides, other membrane lipids such as phosphoinositides may be involved in the interactions with the receptor binding domain (HCR) of BoNTs for better membrane penetration. Here, using two independent lipid-binding assays, we tested the interactions of BoNT/C-HCR with lipids in vitro. BoNT/C-HCR was found to bind negatively charged phospholipids, preferentially phosphoinositides. Additional interactions to phosphoinositides may help BoNT/C bind membrane more tightly and transduct signals for subsequent steps of intoxication. Our results provide new insights into the mechanisms of host cell membrane recognition by BoNTs.

  17. Quantitative Comparison of Human Parainfluenza Virus Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase Receptor Binding and Receptor Cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Tappert, Mary M.; Porterfield, J. Zachary; Mehta-D'Souza, Padmaja; Gulati, Shelly

    2013-01-01

    The human parainfluenza virus (hPIV) hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein binds (H) oligosaccharide receptors that contain N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) and cleaves (N) Neu5Ac from these oligosaccharides. In order to determine if one of HN′s two functions is predominant, we measured the affinity of H for its ligands by a solid-phase binding assay with two glycoprotein substrates and by surface plasmon resonance with three monovalent glycans. We compared the dissociation constant (Kd) values from these experiments with previously determined Michaelis-Menten constants (Kms) for the enzyme activity. We found that glycoprotein substrates and monovalent glycans containing Neu5Acα2-3Galβ1-4GlcNAc bind HN with Kd values in the 10 to 100 μM range. Km values for HN were previously determined to be on the order of 1 mM (M. M. Tappert, D. F. Smith, and G. M. Air, J. Virol. 85:12146–12159, 2011). A Km value greater than the Kd value indicates that cleavage occurs faster than the dissociation of binding and will dominate under N-permissive conditions. We propose, therefore, that HN is a neuraminidase that can hold its substrate long enough to act as a binding protein. The N activity can therefore regulate binding by reducing virus-receptor interactions when the concentration of receptor is high. PMID:23740997

  18. CGS 8216: receptor binding characteristics of a potent benzodiazepine antagonist.

    PubMed

    Czernik, A J; Petrack, B; Kalinsky, H J; Psychoyos, S; Cash, W D; Tsai, C; Rinehart, R K; Granat, F R; Lovell, R A; Brundish, D E; Wade, R

    1982-01-25

    CGS 8216 is a novel nonbenzodiazepine that inhibited 3H-flunitrazepam (3H-FLU) binding to rat synaptosomal membranes in vitro at subnanomolar concentrations. It prevented the in vivo labeling of brain benzodiazepine receptors by 3H-FLU with the same potency as diazepam when given orally to mice. Pharmacologic tests showed that it was devoid of benzodiazepine-like activity but it antagonized the actions of diazepam in these tests. It did not interact with alpha- or beta- adrenergic, H1-histaminergic or GABA receptors but it inhibited adenosine-activation of cyclic AMP formation. Studies with 3H-CGS 8216 demonstrated that it bound specifically and with high affinity to rat forebrain membranes and was displaced by drugs with an order of potencies similar to that observed when 3H-diazepam and 3H-FLU were used as radioligands. The regional distribution of 3H-CGS 8216 binding sites in the brain was also similar to that of 3H-FLU. Dissociation of 3H-CGS 8216 binding was slow at 0 degrees C but increased with temperature and was almost complete within 1 min at 37 degrees C. Scatchard analyses were linear, yielding KD values of 0.044, 0.11 and 0.18 nM at 0, 25 and 37 degrees C, respectively; the Bmax value did not change appreciably with temperature and was approximately 1000 fmoles/mg protein. Using 3H-FLU, the value for Bmax as well as for the KD increased with temperature. The total number of binding sites determined for 3H-FLU was greater than that for 3H-CGS 8216 at each temperature. CGS 8216 exhibited mixed-type inhibition of 3H-FLU binding. GABA did not stimulate 3H-CGS 8216 binding whereas it enhanced 3H-FLU binding. CGS 8216 may be a useful ligand for probing the antagonist properties of the benzodiazepine receptor and is likely to exhibit interesting therapeutic effects.

  19. Development of Gamma-Emitting Receptor Binding Radiopharmace

    SciTech Connect

    Reba, Richard

    2003-02-20

    The long-term objective is to develop blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeable m2-selective (relative to m1, m3, and m4) receptor-binding radiotracers and utilize these radiotracers for quantifying receptor concentrations obtained from PET or SPECT images of human brain. In initial studies, we concluded that the lipophilicity and high affinity prevented (R,S)-I-QNB from reaching a flow-independent and receptor-dependent state in a reasonable time. Thus, it was clear that (R,S)-I-QNB should be modified. Therefore, during the last portion of this funded research, we proposed that more polar heterocycles should help accomplish that. Since reports of others concluded that radiobromination and radiofluorination of the unactivated phenyl ring is not feasible (Newkome et al,,1982), we, therefore, explored during this grant period a series of analogues of (R)-QNB in which one or both of the six-membered phenyl rings is replaced by a five-membered thienyl (Boulay et al., 1995), or furyl ring. The chemistry specific aims were to synthesize novel compounds designed to be m2-selective mAChR ligands capable of penetrating into the CNS, and develop methods for efficient radiolabeling of promising m2-selective muscarinic ligands. The pharmacology specific aims were to determine the affinity and subtype-selectivity of the novel compounds using competition binding studies with membranes from cells that express each of the five muscarinic receptor subtypes, to determine the ability of the promising non-radioactive compounds and radiolabeled novel compounds to cross the BBB, to determine the biodistribution, in-vivo pharmacokinetics, and in-vitm kinetics of promising m2-selective radioligands and to determine the distribution of receptors for the novel m2-selective radioligands using quantitative autoradiography of rat brain, and compare this distribution to the distribution of known m2-selective compounds.

  20. A high-throughput ligand competition binding assay for the androgen receptor and other nuclear receptors.

    PubMed

    Féau, Clémentine; Arnold, Leggy A; Kosinski, Aaron; Guy, R Kiplin

    2009-01-01

    Standardized, automated ligand-binding assays facilitate evaluation of endocrine activities of environmental chemicals and identification of antagonists of nuclear receptor ligands. Many current assays rely on fluorescently labeled ligands that are significantly different from the native ligands. The authors describe a radiolabeled ligand competition scintillation proximity assay (SPA) for the androgen receptor (AR) using Ni-coated 384-well FlashPlates and liganded AR-LBD protein. This highly reproducible, low-cost assay is well suited for automated high-throughput screening. In addition, the authors show that this assay can be adapted to measure ligand affinities for other nuclear receptors (peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor gamma, thyroid receptors alpha and beta).

  1. Imidazoline binding sites and receptors in cardiovascular tissue.

    PubMed

    Molderings, G J; Göthert, M

    1999-01-01

    1. Imidazoline binding sites and receptors and their endogenous ligands have been identified in cardiovascular tissue of various species including human beings. 2. I2- (but only exceptionally I1-)imidazoline binding sites have been shown to exist on cardiac myocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells; at present, their functional role is unknown. 3. The sympathetic nerves supplying the cardiovascular system are endowed with presynaptic inhibitory imidazoline receptors that may become of therapeutic relevance as targets of drugs. 4. ATP-sensitive K+ channels present in heart and blood vessels can be blocked by several imidazolines and guanidines; hence, those drugs can interfere with the cardioprotective effects resulting from K(ATP) channel activation by a decrease in the endogenous ligand ATP or by drugs. 5. Imidazoline derivatives exhibit antiarrhythmic properties that are due to a reduction of sympathetic tone by central and peripheral mechanisms and to blockade of postsynaptic alpha2-adrenoceptors in the heart and coronary arteries. 6. Agmatine and clonidine-displacing substance, which are endogenous ligands at imidazoline and alpha2-receptors, are present in the blood serum and appear to participate in vascular smooth muscle proliferation and blood pressure regulation.

  2. Structure of the homodimeric androgen receptor ligand-binding domain

    PubMed Central

    Nadal, Marta; Prekovic, Stefan; Gallastegui, Nerea; Helsen, Christine; Abella, Montserrat; Zielinska, Karolina; Gay, Marina; Vilaseca, Marta; Taulès, Marta; Houtsmuller, Adriaan B.; van Royen, Martin E.; Claessens, Frank; Fuentes-Prior, Pablo; Estébanez-Perpiñá, Eva

    2017-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) plays a crucial role in normal physiology, development and metabolism as well as in the aetiology and treatment of diverse pathologies such as androgen insensitivity syndromes (AIS), male infertility and prostate cancer (PCa). Here we show that dimerization of AR ligand-binding domain (LBD) is induced by receptor agonists but not by antagonists. The 2.15-Å crystal structure of homodimeric, agonist- and coactivator peptide-bound AR-LBD unveils a 1,000-Å2 large dimerization surface, which harbours over 40 previously unexplained AIS- and PCa-associated point mutations. An AIS mutation in the self-association interface (P767A) disrupts dimer formation in vivo, and has a detrimental effect on the transactivating properties of full-length AR, despite retained hormone-binding capacity. The conservation of essential residues suggests that the unveiled dimerization mechanism might be shared by other nuclear receptors. Our work defines AR-LBD homodimerization as an essential step in the proper functioning of this important transcription factor. PMID:28165461

  3. Treponema pallidum receptor binding proteins interact with fibronectin

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    Analysis of plasma proteins avidly bound to T. pallidum surfaces revealed the ability of T. pallidum to acquire numerous host macromolecules. No acquisition was evident by the avirulent spirochete, T. phagedenis biotype Reiter. Western blotting technology using hyperimmune antifibronectin serum as a probe revealed the ability of virulent treponemes to avidly bind fibronectin from a complex medium such as plasma. The specificity of the tiplike adherence of motile T. pallidum to fibronectin-coated glass surfaces and to fibronectin on HEp- 2 cells was reinforced by the observation that pretreatment of coverslips or cell monolayers with monospecific antiserum against fibronectin substantially reduced T. pallidum attachment. The stoichiometric binding of T. pallidum to fibronectin-coated coverslips and the inability of unlabeled or 35S-radiolabeled treponemes to interact with glass surfaces treated with other plasma proteins further established the specific nature of the interaction between virulent T. pallidum and fibronectin. The avid association between three outer envelope proteins of T. pallidum and fibronectin was also demonstrated. These treponemal surface proteins have been previously identified as putative receptor-binding proteins responsible for T. pallidum parasitism of host cells. The data suggest that surface fibronectin mediates tip-oriented attachment of T. pallidum to host cells via a receptor-ligand mechanism of recognition. PMID:6304227

  4. The glycocalyx promotes cooperative binding and clustering of adhesion receptors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guang-Kui; Qian, Jin; Hu, Jinglei

    2016-05-18

    Cell adhesion plays a pivotal role in various biological processes, e.g., immune responses, cancer metastasis, and stem cell differentiation. The adhesion behaviors depend subtly on the binding kinetics of receptors and ligands restricted at the cell-substrate interfaces. Although much effort has been directed toward investigating the kinetics of adhesion molecules, the role of the glycocalyx, anchored on cell surfaces as an exterior layer, is still unclear. In this paper, we propose a theoretical approach to study the collective binding kinetics of a few and a large number of binders in the presence of the glycocalyx, representing the cases of initial and mature adhesions of cells, respectively. The analytical results are validated by finding good agreement with our Monte Carlo simulations. In the force loading case, the on-rate and affinity increase as more bonds form, whereas this cooperative effect is not observed in the displacement loading case. The increased thickness and stiffness of the glycocalyx tend to decrease the affinity for a few bonds, while they have less influence on the affinity for a large number of bonds. Moreover, for a flexible membrane with thermally-excited shape fluctuations, the glycocalyx is exhibited to promote the formation of bond clusters, mainly due to the cooperative binding of binders. This study helps to understand the cooperative kinetics of adhesion receptors under physiologically relevant loading conditions and sheds light on the novel role of the glycocalyx in cell adhesion.

  5. Angiotensin receptor binding and pressor effects in cat subretrofacial nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, A.M.; Dampney, R.A.L.; Mendelsohn, F.A.O. Univ. of Sydney )

    1988-11-01

    Central administration of angiotensin II (ANG II) increases arterial blood pressure via increased sympathetic activity. The authors have examined the possibility that one site of action of ANG II is the subretrofacial (SRF) nucleus in the rostral ventrolateral medulla, since this nucleus is known to play a critical role in the tonic and phasic control of arterial pressure. In vitro autoradiography, employing {sup 125}I-labeled (Sar{sup 1}, Ile{sup 8})ANG II as radioligand, was used to localize binding sites for ANG-II in the cat ventrolateral medulla. A high density of ANG II-receptor binding sites was found confined to the SRF nucleus. In a second group of experiments in anesthetized cats, microinjections of ANG II, in doses ranging from 10 to 50 pmol, were made into histologically identified sites within and outside the SRF nucleus. Microinjections into the nucleus resulted in a dose-dependent increase in arterial pressure, which was abolished by systemic administration of the ganglion-blocking drug hexamethonium bromide. In contrast, microinjections just outside the SRF nucleus had no effect on arterial pressure. It is concluded that activation of ANG II-receptor binding sites within the SRF nucleus leads to an increase in arterial pressure via increased sympathetic efferent activity.

  6. Rabies virus binding to an acetylcholine receptor alpha-subunit peptide.

    PubMed

    Lentz, T L

    1990-04-01

    The binding of 125I-labeled rabies virus to a synthetic peptide comprising residues 173-204 of the alpha 1-subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor was investigated. Binding of rabies virus to the receptor peptide was dependent on pH, could be competed with by unlabeled homologous virus particles, and was saturable. Synthetic peptides of snake venom, curaremimetic neurotoxins and of the structurally similar segment of the rabies virus glycoprotein, were effective in competing with labeled virus binding to the receptor peptide at micromolar concentrations. Similarly, synthetic peptides of the binding domain on the acetylcholine receptor competed for binding. These findings suggest that both rabies virus and neurotoxins bind to residues 173-204 of the alpha 1-subunit of the acetylcholine receptor. Competition studies with shorter alpha-subunit peptides within this region indicate that the highest affinity virus binding determinants are located within residues 179-192. A rat nerve alpha 3-subunit peptide, that does not bind alpha-bungarotoxin, inhibited binding of virus to the alpha 1 peptide, suggesting that rabies binds to neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. These studies indicate that synthetic peptides of the glycoprotein binding domain and of the receptor binding domain may represent useful antiviral agents by targeting the recognition event between the viral attachment protein and the host cell receptor, and inhibiting attachment of virus to the receptor.

  7. Ligand Binding Ensembles Determine Graded Agonist Efficacies at a G Protein-coupled Receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Bock, Andreas; Bermudez, Marcel; Krebs, Fabian; Matera, Carlo; Chirinda, Brian; Sydow, Dominique; Dallanoce, Clelia; Holzgrabe, Ulrike; De Amici, Marco; Lohse, Martin J.; Wolber, Gerhard; Mohr, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors constitute the largest family of membrane receptors and modulate almost every physiological process in humans. Binding of agonists to G protein-coupled receptors induces a shift from inactive to active receptor conformations. Biophysical studies of the dynamic equilibrium of receptors suggest that a portion of receptors can remain in inactive states even in the presence of saturating concentrations of agonist and G protein mimetic. However, the molecular details of agonist-bound inactive receptors are poorly understood. Here we use the model of bitopic orthosteric/allosteric (i.e. dualsteric) agonists for muscarinic M2 receptors to demonstrate the existence and function of such inactive agonist·receptor complexes on a molecular level. Using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, dynophores (i.e. a combination of static three-dimensional pharmacophores and molecular dynamics-based conformational sampling), ligand design, and receptor mutagenesis, we show that inactive agonist·receptor complexes can result from agonist binding to the allosteric vestibule alone, whereas the dualsteric binding mode produces active receptors. Each agonist forms a distinct ligand binding ensemble, and different agonist efficacies depend on the fraction of purely allosteric (i.e. inactive) versus dualsteric (i.e. active) binding modes. We propose that this concept may explain why agonist·receptor complexes can be inactive and that adopting multiple binding modes may be generalized also to small agonists where binding modes will be only subtly different and confined to only one binding site. PMID:27298318

  8. The binding of pirenzepine to digitonin-solubilized muscarinic acetylcholine receptors from the rat myocardium.

    PubMed Central

    Birdsall, N. J.; Hulme, E. C.; Keen, M.

    1986-01-01

    The binding of pirenzepine to digitonin-solubilized rat myocardial muscarinic acetylcholine receptors has been examined at 4 degrees C. Solubilization produced only small changes in the binding of N-methylscopolamine and atropine. In contrast to the low affinity binding of pirenzepine found to be present in in the membranes, high affinity binding was detected in the soluble preparation. In both preparations, pirenzepine binding was complex. High affinity pirenzepine binding (KD approximately 3 X 10(-8)M) to the soluble myocardial receptors could be monitored directly using [3H]-pirenzepine. [3H]-pirenzepine-labelled soluble myocardial receptors have a sedimentation coefficient of 11.1 s. This indicates that [3H]-pirenzepine binds predominantly to the uncoupled form of the receptor. However, [3H]-pirenzepine-agonist competition experiments indicated that the high affinity pirenzepine binding sites are capable of coupling with a guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP)-binding protein. Pirenzepine affinities for the soluble myocardial receptors were unaffected by their state of association with the GTP-binding proteins found in the heart. The equilibrium binding properties of the soluble cortical and myocardial receptors were very similar. However, the binding kinetics of the myocardial receptor were much slower. It appears that the membrane environment can affect the affinity of pirenzepine for the rat myocardial muscarinic receptor. Removal of the constraint by solubilization allows the expression of high affinity pirenzepine binding. PMID:3754173

  9. Specific glucocorticoid receptor binding to DNA reconstituted in a nucleosome.

    PubMed Central

    Perlmann, T; Wrange, O

    1988-01-01

    We have reconstituted a nucleosome with core histones from rat liver using a restriction fragment containing a sequence from the mouse mammary tumour virus (MTV) long terminal repeat (LTR). This sequence harbours glucocorticoid responsive elements (GREs) which mediate glucocorticoid hormone induction of transcription from the MTV promoter via glucocorticoid receptor (GR) binding. Exonuclease III and DNase I footprinting demonstrated that the reconstituted nucleosome was specifically located between positions -219 and -76. A nucleosome was previously shown to be located at a similar or identical position in the MTV promoter in situ and to be structurally altered upon glucocorticoid hormone induction. We demonstrated, by DNase I footprinting, that GR is able to bind sequence specifically to the DNA in the in vitro assembled nucleosome. No evidence for unfolding of the nucleosome was obtained, but the DNase I footprinting pattern demonstrated GR induced local alterations in the DNA. Images PMID:2846275

  10. Menthol Binding and Inhibition of α7-Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Ashoor, Abrar; Nordman, Jacob C.; Veltri, Daniel; Yang, Keun-Hang Susan; Al Kury, Lina; Shuba, Yaroslav; Mahgoub, Mohamed; Howarth, Frank C.; Sadek, Bassem; Shehu, Amarda; Kabbani, Nadine; Oz, Murat

    2013-01-01

    Menthol is a common compound in pharmaceutical and commercial products and a popular additive to cigarettes. The molecular targets of menthol remain poorly defined. In this study we show an effect of menthol on the α7 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptor function. Using a two-electrode voltage-clamp technique, menthol was found to reversibly inhibit α7-nACh receptors heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Inhibition by menthol was not dependent on the membrane potential and did not involve endogenous Ca2+-dependent Cl− channels, since menthol inhibition remained unchanged by intracellular injection of the Ca2+ chelator BAPTA and perfusion with Ca2+-free bathing solution containing Ba2+. Furthermore, increasing ACh concentrations did not reverse menthol inhibition and the specific binding of [125I] α-bungarotoxin was not attenuated by menthol. Studies of α7- nACh receptors endogenously expressed in neural cells demonstrate that menthol attenuates α7 mediated Ca2+ transients in the cell body and neurite. In conclusion, our results suggest that menthol inhibits α7-nACh receptors in a noncompetitive manner. PMID:23935840

  11. Fluorescent Receptor Binding Assay for Detecting Ciguatoxins in Fish.

    PubMed

    Hardison, D Ransom; Holland, William C; McCall, Jennifer R; Bourdelais, Andrea J; Baden, Daniel G; Darius, H Taiana; Chinain, Mireille; Tester, Patricia A; Shea, Damian; Quintana, Harold A Flores; Morris, James A; Litaker, R Wayne

    2016-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is an illness suffered by > 50,000 people yearly after consumption of fish containing ciguatoxins (CTXs). One of the current methodologies to detect ciguatoxins in fish is a radiolabeled receptor binding assay (RBA(R)). However, the license requirements and regulations pertaining to radioisotope utilization can limit the applicability of the RBA(R) in certain labs. A fluorescence based receptor binding assay (RBA(F)) was developed to provide an alternative method of screening fish samples for CTXs in facilities not certified to use radioisotopes. The new assay is based on competition binding between CTXs and fluorescently labeled brevetoxin-2 (BODIPY®-PbTx-2) for voltage-gated sodium channel receptors at site 5 instead of a radiolabeled brevetoxin. Responses were linear in fish tissues spiked from 0.1 to 1.0 ppb with Pacific ciguatoxin-3C (P-CTX-3C) with a detection limit of 0.075 ppb. Carribean ciguatoxins were confirmed in Caribbean fish by LC-MS/MS analysis of the regional biomarker (C-CTX-1). Fish (N = 61) of six different species were screened using the RBA(F). Results for corresponding samples analyzed using the neuroblastoma cell-based assay (CBA-N2a) correlated well (R2 = 0.71) with those of the RBA(F), given the low levels of CTX present in positive fish. Data analyses also showed the resulting toxicity levels of P-CTX-3C equivalents determined by CBA-N2a were consistently lower than the RBA(F) affinities expressed as % binding equivalents, indicating that a given amount of toxin bound to the site 5 receptors translates into corresponding lower cytotoxicity. Consequently, the RBA(F), which takes approximately two hours to perform, provides a generous estimate relative to the widely used CBA-N2a which requires 2.5 days to complete. Other RBA(F) advantages include the long-term (> 5 years) stability of the BODIPY®-PbTx-2 and having similar results as the commonly used RBA(R). The RBA(F) is cost-effective, allows high sample

  12. Fluorescent Receptor Binding Assay for Detecting Ciguatoxins in Fish

    PubMed Central

    Hardison, D. Ransom; Holland, William C.; McCall, Jennifer R.; Bourdelais, Andrea J.; Baden, Daniel G.; Darius, H. Taiana; Chinain, Mireille; Tester, Patricia A.; Shea, Damian; Flores Quintana, Harold A.; Morris, James A.; Litaker, R. Wayne

    2016-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is an illness suffered by > 50,000 people yearly after consumption of fish containing ciguatoxins (CTXs). One of the current methodologies to detect ciguatoxins in fish is a radiolabeled receptor binding assay (RBA(R)). However, the license requirements and regulations pertaining to radioisotope utilization can limit the applicability of the RBA(R) in certain labs. A fluorescence based receptor binding assay (RBA(F)) was developed to provide an alternative method of screening fish samples for CTXs in facilities not certified to use radioisotopes. The new assay is based on competition binding between CTXs and fluorescently labeled brevetoxin-2 (BODIPY®- PbTx-2) for voltage-gated sodium channel receptors at site 5 instead of a radiolabeled brevetoxin. Responses were linear in fish tissues spiked from 0.1 to 1.0 ppb with Pacific ciguatoxin-3C (P-CTX-3C) with a detection limit of 0.075 ppb. Carribean ciguatoxins were confirmed in Caribbean fish by LC-MS/MS analysis of the regional biomarker (C-CTX-1). Fish (N = 61) of six different species were screened using the RBA(F). Results for corresponding samples analyzed using the neuroblastoma cell-based assay (CBA-N2a) correlated well (R2 = 0.71) with those of the RBA(F), given the low levels of CTX present in positive fish. Data analyses also showed the resulting toxicity levels of P-CTX-3C equivalents determined by CBA-N2a were consistently lower than the RBA(F) affinities expressed as % binding equivalents, indicating that a given amount of toxin bound to the site 5 receptors translates into corresponding lower cytotoxicity. Consequently, the RBA(F), which takes approximately two hours to perform, provides a generous estimate relative to the widely used CBA-N2a which requires 2.5 days to complete. Other RBA(F) advantages include the long-term (> 5 years) stability of the BODIPY®- PbTx-2 and having similar results as the commonly used RBA(R). The RBA(F) is cost-effective, allows high sample

  13. A Predicted Binding Site for Cholesterol on the GABAA Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Hénin, Jérôme; Salari, Reza; Murlidaran, Sruthi; Brannigan, Grace

    2014-01-01

    Modulation of the GABA type A receptor (GABAAR) function by cholesterol and other steroids is documented at the functional level, yet its structural basis is largely unknown. Current data on structurally related modulators suggest that cholesterol binds to subunit interfaces between transmembrane domains of the GABAAR. We construct homology models of a human GABAAR based on the structure of the glutamate-gated chloride channel GluCl of Caenorhabditis elegans. The models show the possibility of previously unreported disulfide bridges linking the M1 and M3 transmembrane helices in the α and γ subunits. We discuss the biological relevance of such disulfide bridges. Using our models, we investigate cholesterol binding to intersubunit cavities of the GABAAR transmembrane domain. We find that very similar binding modes are predicted independently by three approaches: analogy with ivermectin in the GluCl crystal structure, automated docking by AutoDock, and spontaneous rebinding events in unbiased molecular dynamics simulations. Taken together, the models and atomistic simulations suggest a somewhat flexible binding mode, with several possible orientations. Finally, we explore the possibility that cholesterol promotes pore opening through a wedge mechanism. PMID:24806926

  14. Fibronectin receptors of mononuclear phagocytes: Binding characteristics and biochemical isolation

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Pardo, A.; Ferreira, O.C.; Valinsky, J.; Bianco, C. )

    1989-04-01

    Fibronectin receptors on mononuclear phagocytes are involved in the localization of monocytes at inflammatory sites and in the subsequent expression of macrophage-like phenotypes. In this study, the authors have investigated the hypothesis that preteolytically derived fragments of fibronectin may interfere with binding of fibronectin to monocytes in the extracellular matrix. They report on the reactivity of U937 cells with an 80-kDa tryptic fragment of fibronectin which contains the cell-binding domain but lacks the gelatin/collagen-binding domain. U937 cells attached to surfaces coated with the 80-kDa fragment as well as with intact fibronectin. Preincubation of the cells with the 80-kDa fragment inhibited attachment to both surfaces while intact fibronectin had little or no inhibitory effect. This complex resolved into a single diffuse band of 144 kDa upon reduction. Binding of the protein complex to the affinity column required divalent cations. The complex bound to wheat germ agglutinin and could be specifically eluted by N-acetylglucosamine. Similar cell-surface proteins were isolated from peripheral blood monocytes.

  15. Radioligand binding to muscarinic receptors of bovine aortic endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Brunner, F.; Kukovetz, W. R.

    1991-01-01

    1. Muscarinic receptors on endothelial cells of bovine thoracic aorta were characterized by binding assays in which (-)-[3H]-N-methyl quinuclidinyl benzilate ([3H]-NMeQNB) was used as radioligand. 2. Binding of [3H]-NMeQNB to crude membranes of freshly isolated endothelial cells was atropine-displaceable and of high affinity (KD = 0.48 nM) to a single class of sites (maximum binding capacity: 14 +/- 3 fmol mg-1 protein). Stereospecificity of the binding sites was demonstrated in experiments in which [3H]-NMeQNB binding was inhibited by dexetimide in the nanomolar range (KI = 0.63 nM) and by levetimide, its stereoisomer in the micromolar range (KI = 3.2 microM) (selectivity factor: approximately 5000). 3. Drug competition curves indicated a single class of binding sites for antagonists and the following apparent affinities (KI, nM): methyl atropine: 1.1: 4-diphenylacetoxy N-methyl piperidine methyl bromide (4-DAMP): 3.4; pirenzepine: 16; 11-[2-diethylamino-methyl)-1-piperidinyl- acetyl]-5,11-dihydro-6H-pyrido(2,3-b)1,4-benzodiazepine-6-one (AF-DX 116); 2.500. Competition of acetylcholine with [3H]-NMeQNB was best described by two affinity sites (or states) (KH = 0.82 microM, KL = 1.6 microM). In the presence of guanylimido diphosphate [Gpp(NH)p] (100 microM), acetylcholine affinity (IC50) was slightly, but significantly reduced (factor approximately 4). 4. Binding of [3H]-NMeQNB to freshly harvested intact cells was also atropine-displaceable, stereospecific (selectivity factor: approximately 3500) and of high affinity (KD = 0.35 nM). The maximum binding capacity (9 +/- 2 fmol mg-1 total cell protein) was comparable to that of membranes and corresponded to approximately 900 binding sites per endothelial cell.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2015420

  16. Muscarinic receptor binding and muscarinic receptor-mediated inhibition of adenylate cyclase in rat brain myelin

    SciTech Connect

    Larocca, J.N.; Ledeen, R.W.; Dvorkin, B.; Makman, M.H.

    1987-12-01

    High-affinity muscarinic cholinergic receptors were detected in myelin purified from rat brain stem with use of the radioligands /sup 3/H-N-methylscopolamine (/sup 3/H-NMS), /sup 3/H-quinuclidinyl benzilate (/sup 3/H-QNB), and /sup 3/H-pirenzepine. /sup 3/H-NMS binding was also present in myelin isolated from corpus callosum. In contrast, several other receptor types, including alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenergic receptors, present in the starting brain stem, were not detected in myelin. Based on Bmax values from Scatchard analyses, /sup 3/H-pirenzepine, a putative M1 selective ligand, bound to about 25% of the sites in myelin labeled by /sup 3/H-NMS, a nonselective ligand that binds to both M1 and M2 receptor subtypes. Agonist affinity for /sup 3/H-NMS binding sites in myelin was markedly decreased by Gpp(NH)p, indicating that a major portion of these receptors may be linked to a second messenger system via a guanine-nucleotide regulatory protein. Purified myelin also contained adenylate cyclase activity; this activity was stimulated several fold by forskolin and to small but significant extents by prostaglandin E1 and the beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol. Myelin adenylate cyclase activity was inhibited by carbachol and other muscarinic agonists; this inhibition was blocked by the antagonist atropine. Levels in myelin of muscarinic receptors were 20-25% and those of forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase 10% of the values for total particulate fraction of whole brain stem. These levels in myelin are appreciably greater than would be predicted on the basis of contamination. Also, additional receptors and adenylate cyclase, added by mixing nonmyelin tissue with whole brain stem, were quantitatively removed during the purification procedure.

  17. THIP and isoguvacine are partial agonists of GABA-stimulated benzodiazepine receptor binding.

    PubMed

    Karobath, M; Lippitsch, M

    1979-10-15

    The effects of THIP and isoguvacine on 3H-flunitrazepam binding to washed membranes prepared from the cerebral cortex of adult rats have been examined. THIP, which has only minimal stimulatory effects on benzodiazepine (BZ) receptor binding, has been found to inhibit the stimulation induced by small concentrations (2 microM) of exogenous GABA. While isoguvacine stimulates BZ receptor binding, although to a smaller extent than GABA, it also antagonizes the stimulation of BZ receptor binding induced by GABA. Thus THIP and isoguvacine exhibit the properties of a partial agonist of GABA-stimulated BZ receptor binding.

  18. Membrane binding of the bacterial signal recognition particle receptor involves two distinct binding sites

    PubMed Central

    Angelini, Sandra; Boy, Diana; Schiltz, Emile; Koch, Hans-Georg

    2006-01-01

    Cotranslational protein targeting in bacteria is mediated by the signal recognition particle (SRP) and FtsY, the bacterial SRP receptor (SR). FtsY is homologous to the SRα subunit of eukaryotes, which is tethered to the membrane via its interaction with the membrane-integral SRβ subunit. Despite the lack of a membrane-anchoring subunit, 30% of FtsY in Escherichia coli are found stably associated with the cytoplasmic membrane. However, the mechanisms that are involved in this membrane association are only poorly understood. Our data indicate that membrane association of FtsY involves two distinct binding sites and that binding to both sites is stabilized by blocking its GTPase activity. Binding to the first site requires only the NG-domain of FtsY and confers protease protection to FtsY. Importantly, the SecY translocon provides the second binding site, to which FtsY binds to form a carbonate-resistant 400-kD FtsY–SecY translocon complex. This interaction is stabilized by the N-terminal A-domain of FtsY, which probably serves as a transient lipid anchor. PMID:16923832

  19. Hormone Binding to Recombinant Estrogen Receptors from Human, Alligator, Quail, Salamander, and Fathead Minnow

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this work, a 96-well plate estrogen receptor binding assay was developed to facilitate the direct comparison of chemical binding to full-length recombinant estrogen receptors across vertebrate classes. Receptors were generated in a baculovirus expression system. This approach ...

  20. Hormone Binding to Recombinant Estrogen Receptors from Human, Alligator, Quail, Salamander, and Fathead Minnow

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this work, a 96-well plate estrogen receptor binding assay was developed to facilitate the direct comparison of chemical binding to full-length recombinant estrogen receptors across vertebrate classes. Receptors were generated in a baculovirus expression system. This approach ...

  1. Coregulator control of androgen receptor action by a novel nuclear receptor-binding motif.

    PubMed

    Jehle, Katja; Cato, Laura; Neeb, Antje; Muhle-Goll, Claudia; Jung, Nicole; Smith, Emmanuel W; Buzon, Victor; Carbó, Laia R; Estébanez-Perpiñá, Eva; Schmitz, Katja; Fruk, Ljiljana; Luy, Burkhard; Chen, Yu; Cox, Marc B; Bräse, Stefan; Brown, Myles; Cato, Andrew C B

    2014-03-28

    The androgen receptor (AR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that is essential for prostate cancer development. It is activated by androgens through its ligand-binding domain (LBD), which consists predominantly of 11 α-helices. Upon ligand binding, the last helix is reorganized to an agonist conformation termed activator function-2 (AF-2) for coactivator binding. Several coactivators bind to the AF-2 pocket through conserved LXXLL or FXXLF sequences to enhance the activity of the receptor. Recently, a small compound-binding surface adjacent to AF-2 has been identified as an allosteric modulator of the AF-2 activity and is termed binding function-3 (BF-3). However, the role of BF-3 in vivo is currently unknown, and little is understood about what proteins can bind to it. Here we demonstrate that a duplicated GARRPR motif at the N terminus of the cochaperone Bag-1L functions through the BF-3 pocket. These findings are supported by the fact that a selective BF-3 inhibitor or mutations within the BF-3 pocket abolish the interaction between the GARRPR motif(s) and the BF-3. Conversely, amino acid exchanges in the two GARRPR motifs of Bag-1L can impair the interaction between Bag-1L and AR without altering the ability of Bag-1L to bind to chromatin. Furthermore, the mutant Bag-1L increases androgen-dependent activation of a subset of AR targets in a genome-wide transcriptome analysis, demonstrating a repressive function of the GARRPR/BF-3 interaction. We have therefore identified GARRPR as a novel BF-3 regulatory sequence important for fine-tuning the activity of the AR.

  2. Ligand binding by recombinant domains from insect ecdysone receptors.

    PubMed

    Graham, L D; Johnson, W M; Pawlak-Skrzecz, A; Eaton, R E; Bliese, M; Howell, L; Hannan, G N; Hill, R J

    2007-06-01

    The ligand binding domains (LBDs) from the EcR and USP proteins of four insect pests (Lucilia cuprina, Myzus persicae, Bemisia tabaci, Helicoverpa armigera) were purified as recombinant heterodimers. The K(d) values for [(3)H]-ponasterone A binding by LBD heterodimers that included the hinge regions (i.e., DE/F heterodimers) ranged 0.7-2.5 nM, with K(i) values for ecdysteroid and dibenzoylhydrazine ligands ranging from 0.1 nM to >448 microM. The K(d) and K(i) values for a recombinant H. armigera LBD heterodimer that lacked D-regions (i.e., an E/F heterodimer) were approximately 4 times higher than those for its DE/F counterpart. Rate constants were estimated for the L. cuprina LBD heterodimer. A fluorescein-inokosterone conjugate (K(i)~40 nM) was used to develop a novel binding assay based on fluorescence polarization. This assay, which ranked the affinity of competitor ecdysteroids in the same order as the [(3)H]-ponasterone A binding assay, is well suited to high-throughput screening. Ponasterone A had a higher affinity than muristerone A for the recombinant hemipteran LBD heterodimers, whereas the reverse was true for the recombinant dipteran one. The same preference was observed when these ligands were tested as inducers of ecdysone receptor-controlled gene expression in transfected mammalian cells. The binding data obtained in vitro using recombinant LBD heterodimers reflects the ability of agonists to induce transgene expression in recombinant mammalian cells, and can also reflect their efficacy as larvicides.

  3. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors: location of the ligand binding site

    SciTech Connect

    Hulme, E.; Wheatley, M.; Curtis, C.; Birdsall, N.

    1987-05-01

    The key to understanding the pharmacological specificity of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR's) is the location within the receptor sequence of the amino acid residues responsible for ligand binding. To approach this problem, they have purified mAChR's from rat brain to homogeneity by sequential ion-exchange chromatography, affinity chromatography and molecular weight fractionation. Following labelling of the binding site with an alkylating affinity label, /sup 3/H-propylbenzilycholine mustard aziridinium ion (/sup 3/H-PrBCM), the mAChR was digested with a lysine-specific endoproteinase, and a ladder of peptides of increasing molecular weight, each containing the glycosylated N-terminus, isolated by chromatography on wheat-germ agglutinin sepharose. The pattern of labelling showed that a residue in the peptides containing transmembrane helices 2 and/or 3 of the mAChR was alkylated. The linkage was cleaved by 1 M hydroxylamine, showing that /sup 3/H-PrBCM was attached to an acidic residue, whose properties strongly suggested it to be embedded in a hydrophobic intramembrane region of the mAChR. Examination of the cloned sequence of the mAChR reveals several candidate residues, the most likely of which is homologous to an aspartic acid residue thought to protonate the retinal Schiff's base in the congeneric protein rhodopsin.

  4. Dendroaspis natriuretic peptide binds to the natriuretic peptide clearance receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Johns, Douglas G. . E-mail: Douglas.G.Johns@gsk.com; Ao, Zhaohui; Heidrich, Bradley J.; Hunsberger, Gerald E.; Graham, Taylor; Payne, Lisa; Elshourbagy, Nabil; Lu, Quinn; Aiyar, Nambi; Douglas, Stephen A.

    2007-06-22

    Dendroaspis natriuretic peptide (DNP) is a newly-described natriuretic peptide which lowers blood pressure via vasodilation. The natriuretic peptide clearance receptor (NPR-C) removes natriuretic peptides from the circulation, but whether DNP interacts with human NPR-C directly is unknown. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that DNP binds to NPR-C. ANP, BNP, CNP, and the NPR-C ligands AP-811 and cANP(4-23) displaced [{sup 125}I]-ANP from NPR-C with pM-to-nM K {sub i} values. DNP displaced [{sup 125}I]-ANP from NPR-C with nM potency, which represents the first direct demonstration of binding of DNP to human NPR-C. DNP showed high pM affinity for the GC-A receptor and no affinity for GC-B (K {sub i} > 1000 nM). DNP was nearly 10-fold more potent than ANP at stimulating cGMP production in GC-A expressing cells. Blockade of NPR-C might represent a novel therapeutic approach in augmenting the known beneficial actions of DNP in cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and heart failure.

  5. Glutamate Binding and Conformational Flexibility of Ligand-binding Domains Are Critical Early Determinants of Efficient Kainate Receptor Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Martin B.; Vivithanaporn, Pornpun; Swanson, Geoffrey T.

    2009-01-01

    Intracellular glutamate binding within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is thought to be necessary for plasma membrane expression of ionotropic glutamate receptors. Here we determined the importance of glutamate binding to folding and assembly of soluble ligand-binding domains (LBDs), as well as full-length receptors, by comparing the secretion of a soluble GluR6-S1S2 protein versus the plasma membrane localization of GluR6 kainate receptors following mutagenesis of the LBD. The mutations were designed to either eliminate glutamate binding, thereby trapping the bilobate LBD in an “open” conformation, or “lock” the LBD in a closed conformation with an engineered interdomain disulfide bridge. Analysis of plasma membrane localization, medium secretion of soluble LBD proteins, and measures of folding efficiency suggested that loss of glutamate binding affinity significantly impacted subunit protein folding and assembly. In contrast, receptors with conformationally restricted LBDs also exhibited decreased PM expression and altered oligomeric receptor assembly but did not exhibit any deficits in subunit folding. Secretion of the closed LBD protein was enhanced compared with wild-type GluR6-S1S2. Our results suggest that glutamate acts as a chaperone molecule for appropriate folding of nascent receptors and that relaxation of LBDs from fully closed states during oligomerization represents a critical transition that necessarily engages other determinants within receptor dimers. Glutamate receptor LBDs therefore must access multiple conformations for efficient biogenesis. PMID:19342380

  6. Benzodiazepine receptor binding in vivo with (/sup 3/)-Ro 15-1788

    SciTech Connect

    Goeders, N.E.; Kuhar, M.J.

    1985-07-29

    In vivo benzodiazepine receptor binding has generally been studied by ex vivo techniques. In this investigation, the authors identify the conditions where (/sup 3/H)-Ro 15-1788 labels benzodiazepine receptors by true in vivo binding, i.e. where workable specific to nonspecific ratios are obtained in intact tissues without homogenization or washing. (/sup 3/H)-Flunitrazepam and (/sup 3/H)-clonazepam did not exhibit useful in vivo receptor binding. 39 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  7. Managing tight-binding receptors for new separations technologies. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Busch, D.H.; Givens, R.S.

    1998-06-01

    'Whereas such traditional separation methodologies as ion exchange and solvent extraction require rapid interaction between ligands and metal ions, the most strongly binding ligands invariably bind slowly; e.g., cryptates bind and dissociate more slowly than macrocycles, which are slower than open-chain chelating ligands. This project seeks to maximize the binding and dissociation rates for tight-binding receptors in order to make them more useful to separations science. An alternative slow-binding technology is also under exploration.'

  8. Pirenzepine Promotes the Dimerization of Muscarinic M1 Receptors through a Three-step Binding Process*

    PubMed Central

    Ilien, Brigitte; Glasser, Nicole; Clamme, Jean-Pierre; Didier, Pascal; Piemont, Etienne; Chinnappan, Raja; Daval, Sandrine B.; Galzi, Jean-Luc; Mely, Yves

    2009-01-01

    Ligand binding to G protein-coupled receptors is a complex process that involves sequential receptor conformational changes, ligand translocation, and possibly ligand-induced receptor oligomerization. Binding events at muscarinic acetylcholine receptors are usually interpreted from radioligand binding studies in terms of two-step ligand-induced receptor isomerization. We report here, using a combination of fluorescence approaches, on the molecular mechanisms for Bodipy-pirenzepine binding to enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-fused muscarinic M1 receptors in living cells. Real time monitoring, under steady-state conditions, of the strong fluorescence energy transfer signal elicited by this interaction permitted a fine kinetic description of the binding process. Time-resolved fluorescence measurements allowed us to identify discrete EGFP lifetime species and to follow their redistribution upon ligand binding. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, with EGFP brightness analysis, showed that EGFP-fused muscarinic M1 receptors predominate as monomers in the absence of ligand and dimerize upon pirenzepine binding. Finally, all these experimental data could be quantitatively reconciled into a three-step mechanism, with four identified receptor conformational states. Fast ligand binding to a peripheral receptor site initiates a sequence of conformational changes that allows the ligand to access to inner regions of the protein and drives ligand-receptor complexes toward a high affinity dimeric state. PMID:19451648

  9. Pirenzepine promotes the dimerization of muscarinic M1 receptors through a three-step binding process.

    PubMed

    Ilien, Brigitte; Glasser, Nicole; Clamme, Jean-Pierre; Didier, Pascal; Piemont, Etienne; Chinnappan, Raja; Daval, Sandrine B; Galzi, Jean-Luc; Mely, Yves

    2009-07-17

    Ligand binding to G protein-coupled receptors is a complex process that involves sequential receptor conformational changes, ligand translocation, and possibly ligand-induced receptor oligomerization. Binding events at muscarinic acetylcholine receptors are usually interpreted from radioligand binding studies in terms of two-step ligand-induced receptor isomerization. We report here, using a combination of fluorescence approaches, on the molecular mechanisms for Bodipy-pirenzepine binding to enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-fused muscarinic M1 receptors in living cells. Real time monitoring, under steady-state conditions, of the strong fluorescence energy transfer signal elicited by this interaction permitted a fine kinetic description of the binding process. Time-resolved fluorescence measurements allowed us to identify discrete EGFP lifetime species and to follow their redistribution upon ligand binding. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, with EGFP brightness analysis, showed that EGFP-fused muscarinic M1 receptors predominate as monomers in the absence of ligand and dimerize upon pirenzepine binding. Finally, all these experimental data could be quantitatively reconciled into a three-step mechanism, with four identified receptor conformational states. Fast ligand binding to a peripheral receptor site initiates a sequence of conformational changes that allows the ligand to access to inner regions of the protein and drives ligand-receptor complexes toward a high affinity dimeric state.

  10. Arginine vasotocin receptor binding in the hen uterus (shell gland) before and after oviposition.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, T; Kawashima, M; Kamiyoshi, M; Tanaka, K

    1994-04-01

    The binding affinity and capacity of arginine vasotocin (AVT) receptor in the hen uterus changed during a period before and after oviposition. Three hours before oviposition, the binding capacity of the AVT receptor increased. An injection of prostaglandin (PG) F2 alpha caused an increase in the AVT receptor Bmax in the uterus, and indomethacin blocked the normal rise in the AVT receptor Bmax and PGF content prior to oviposition. However, just prior to oviposition, the binding affinity increased with a decrease in the binding capacity. A progesterone injection caused an increase in binding affinity and a decrease in binding capacity of the AVT receptor. The specific binding of the progesterone receptor in the uterus increased 2 h before oviposition and remained high until oviposition. Serum AVT levels increased at oviposition. An injection of AVT caused an increase in the affinity of the AVT receptor with a decrease in the capacity. The change in the affinity and capacity of AVT receptor at oviposition may result from the action of progesterone via increased progesterone receptor binding, and the action of AVT on its own receptors.

  11. Substitution of synthetic chimpanzee androgen receptor for human androgen receptor in competitive binding and transcriptional activation assays for EDC screening

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential effect of receptor-mediated endocrine modulators across species is of increasing concern. In attempts to address these concerns we are developing androgen and estrogen receptor binding assays using recombinant hormone receptors from a number of species across differ...

  12. Substitution of synthetic chimpanzee androgen receptor for human androgen receptor in competitive binding and transcriptional activation assays for EDC screening

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential effect of receptor-mediated endocrine modulators across species is of increasing concern. In attempts to address these concerns we are developing androgen and estrogen receptor binding assays using recombinant hormone receptors from a number of species across differ...

  13. Binding domains of stimulatory and inhibitory thyrotropin (TSH) receptor autoantibodies determined with chimeric TSH-lutropin/chorionic gonadotropin receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Nagayama, Y; Wadsworth, H L; Russo, D; Chazenbalk, G D; Rapoport, B

    1991-01-01

    We examined the relative effects of thyrotropin (TSH) and TSH receptor autoantibodies in the sera of patients with autoimmune thyroid disease on three TSH-lutropin/chorionic gonadotropin (LH/CG) receptor extracellular domain chimeras. Each chimera binds TSH with high affinity. Only the chimera with TSH receptor extracellular domains ABC (amino acids 1-260) had a functional (cAMP) response to thyroid stimulatory IgG. The chimeras with TSH receptor domains CD (amino acids 171-360) and DE (amino acids 261-418) were unresponsive. The lack of response of the chimera with TSH receptor domains DE was anticipated because it fails to transduce a signal with TSH stimulation, unlike the other two chimeras. A different spectrum of responses occurred when the TSH-LH/CG chimeras were examined in terms of autoantibody competition for TSH binding. IgG with TSH binding-inhibitory activity when tested with the wild-type TSH receptor also inhibited TSH binding to the chimera with TSH receptor domains DE. Dramatically, however, these IgG did not inhibit TSH binding to the chimera with TSH receptor domains CD, and had weak or absent activity with the chimera with TSH receptor domains ABC. Chimeras with TSH receptor domains ABC and DE were equally effective in affinity-purifying IgG with thyroid-stimulatory and TSH binding-inhibitory activities. Nonstimulatory IgG with TSH binding-inhibitory activity inhibited the action of stimulatory IgG on the wild-type TSH receptor, but not with the chimera containing TSH receptor domains ABC. In summary, TSH receptor autoantibodies and TSH bind to regions in both domains ABC and DE of the TSH receptor extracellular region. Stimulatory and inhibitory TSH receptor autoantibodies, as well as TSH, appear to bind to different sites in domains ABC, but similar sites in domains DE, of the receptor. Alternatively, TSH and the different TSH receptor antibodies bind with differing affinities to the same site in the ABC region. Images PMID:1711544

  14. High-throughput receptor-binding methods for somatostatin receptor 2.

    PubMed

    Birzin, Elizabeth T; Rohrer, Susan P

    2002-08-01

    Three high-throughput screening methods for quantitating 125I-SS14 binding to human somatostatin receptor 2 (hSST2) have been developed. Microplate-based separation assays were performed in Packard Unifilter and Millipore Multiscreen plates. A homogeneous ligand-binding assay was developed by employing wheat germ agglutinin (WGA)-coated Flashplates. Apparent dissociation constants for 125I-SS14 binding to hSST2 were obtained with each method. IC(50) values were determined for 12 compounds using each of the methods. Similar IC(50) values were obtained for each compound with all of the methods. The WGA-Flashplate is suitable for fully automated high-throughput screening whereas the Unifilter and Multiscreen methods are more suitable for semiautomated and manual screening applications.

  15. Agonists at the δ-opioid receptor modify the binding of µ-receptor agonists to the µ–δ receptor hetero-oligomer

    PubMed Central

    Kabli, N; Martin, N; Fan, T; Nguyen, T; Hasbi, A; Balboni, G; O'Dowd, BF; George, SR

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE µ- and δ-opioid receptors form heteromeric complexes with unique ligand binding and G protein-coupling profiles linked to G protein α z-subunit (Gαz) activation. However, the mechanism of action of agonists and their regulation of the µ–δ receptor heteromer are not well understood. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Competition radioligand binding, cell surface receptor internalization in intact cells, confocal microscopy and receptor immunofluorescence techniques were employed to study the regulation of the µ–δ receptor heteromer in heterologous cells with and without agonist exposure. KEY RESULTS Gαz enhanced affinity of some agonists at µ–δ receptor heteromers, independent of agonist chemical structure. δ-Opioid agonists displaced µ-agonist binding with high affinity from µ–δ heteromers, but not µ receptor homomers, suggestive of δ-agonists occupying a novel µ-receptor ligand binding pocket within the heteromers. Also, δ-agonists induced internalization of µ-opioid receptors in cells co-expressing µ- and δ-receptors, but not those expressing µ-receptors alone, indicative of µ–δ heteromer internalization. This dose-dependent, Pertussis toxin-resistant and clathrin- and dynamin-dependent effect required agonist occupancy of both µ- and δ-opioid receptors. In contrast to µ-receptor homomers, agonist-induced internalization of µ–δ heteromers persisted following chronic morphine exposure. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The µ–δ receptor heteromer may contain a novel δ-agonist-detected, high-affinity, µ-receptor ligand binding pocket and is regulated differently from the µ-receptor homomer following chronic morphine exposure. Occupancy of both µ- and δ-receptor binding pockets is required for δ-agonist-induced endocytosis of µ–δ receptor heteromers. δ-Opioid agonists target µ–δ receptor heteromers, and thus have a broader pharmacological specificity than previously identified. PMID:20977461

  16. Collagenase-3 binds to a specific receptor and requires the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein for internalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmina, O. Y.; Walling, H. W.; Fiacco, G. J.; Freije, J. M.; Lopez-Otin, C.; Jeffrey, J. J.; Partridge, N. C.

    1999-01-01

    We have previously identified a specific receptor for collagenase-3 that mediates the binding, internalization, and degradation of this ligand in UMR 106-01 rat osteoblastic osteosarcoma cells. In the present study, we show that collagenase-3 binding is calcium-dependent and occurs in a variety of cell types, including osteoblastic and fibroblastic cells. We also present evidence supporting a two-step mechanism of collagenase-3 binding and internalization involving both a specific collagenase-3 receptor and the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein. Ligand blot analysis shows that (125)I-collagenase-3 binds specifically to two proteins ( approximately 170 kDa and approximately 600 kDa) present in UMR 106-01 cells. Western blotting identified the 600-kDa protein as the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein. Our data suggest that the 170-kDa protein is a specific collagenase-3 receptor. Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-null mouse embryo fibroblasts bind but fail to internalize collagenase-3, whereas UMR 106-01 and wild-type mouse embryo fibroblasts bind and internalize collagenase-3. Internalization, but not binding, is inhibited by the 39-kDa receptor-associated protein. We conclude that the internalization of collagenase-3 requires the participation of the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein and propose a model in which the cell surface interaction of this ligand requires a sequential contribution from two receptors, with the collagenase-3 receptor acting as a high affinity primary binding site and the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein mediating internalization.

  17. Collagenase-3 binds to a specific receptor and requires the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein for internalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmina, O. Y.; Walling, H. W.; Fiacco, G. J.; Freije, J. M.; Lopez-Otin, C.; Jeffrey, J. J.; Partridge, N. C.

    1999-01-01

    We have previously identified a specific receptor for collagenase-3 that mediates the binding, internalization, and degradation of this ligand in UMR 106-01 rat osteoblastic osteosarcoma cells. In the present study, we show that collagenase-3 binding is calcium-dependent and occurs in a variety of cell types, including osteoblastic and fibroblastic cells. We also present evidence supporting a two-step mechanism of collagenase-3 binding and internalization involving both a specific collagenase-3 receptor and the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein. Ligand blot analysis shows that (125)I-collagenase-3 binds specifically to two proteins ( approximately 170 kDa and approximately 600 kDa) present in UMR 106-01 cells. Western blotting identified the 600-kDa protein as the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein. Our data suggest that the 170-kDa protein is a specific collagenase-3 receptor. Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-null mouse embryo fibroblasts bind but fail to internalize collagenase-3, whereas UMR 106-01 and wild-type mouse embryo fibroblasts bind and internalize collagenase-3. Internalization, but not binding, is inhibited by the 39-kDa receptor-associated protein. We conclude that the internalization of collagenase-3 requires the participation of the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein and propose a model in which the cell surface interaction of this ligand requires a sequential contribution from two receptors, with the collagenase-3 receptor acting as a high affinity primary binding site and the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein mediating internalization.

  18. Methods for quantifying T cell receptor binding affinities and thermodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Piepenbrink, Kurt H.; Gloor, Brian E.; Armstrong, Kathryn M.; Baker, Brian M.

    2013-01-01

    αβ T cell receptors (TCRs) recognize peptide antigens bound and presented by class I or class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins. Recognition of a peptide/MHC complex is required for initiation and propagation of a cellular immune response, as well as the development and maintenance of the T cell repertoire. Here we discuss methods to quantify the affinities and thermodynamics of interactions between soluble ectodomains of TCRs and their peptide/MHC ligands, focusing on titration calorimetry, surface plasmon resonance, and fluorescence anisotropy. As TCRs typically bind ligand with weak-to-moderate affinities, we focus the discussion on means to enhance the accuracy and precision of low affinity measurements. In addition to further elucidating the biology of the T cell mediated immune response, more reliable low affinity measurements will aid with more probing studies with mutants or altered peptides that can help illuminate the physical underpinnings of how TCRs achieve their remarkable recognition properties. PMID:21609868

  19. Reevaluation of ANS binding to human and bovine serum albumins: key role of equilibrium microdialysis in ligand - receptor binding characterization.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, Irina M; Sulatskaya, Anna I; Povarova, Olga I; Turoverov, Konstantin K

    2012-01-01

    In this work we return to the problem of the determination of ligand-receptor binding stoichiometry and binding constants. In many cases the ligand is a fluorescent dye which has low fluorescence quantum yield in free state but forms highly fluorescent complex with target receptor. That is why many researchers use dye fluorescence for determination of its binding parameters with receptor, but they leave out of account that fluorescence intensity is proportional to the part of the light absorbed by the solution rather than to the concentration of bound dye. We showed how ligand-receptor binding parameters can be determined by spectrophotometry of the solutions prepared by equilibrium microdialysis. We determined the binding parameters of ANS - human serum albumin (HSA) and ANS - bovine serum albumin (BSA) interaction, absorption spectra, concentration and molar extinction coefficient, as well as fluorescence quantum yield of the bound dye. It was found that HSA and BSA have two binding modes with significantly different affinity to ANS. Correct determination of the binding parameters of ligand-receptor interaction is important for fundamental investigations and practical aspects of molecule medicine and pharmaceutics. The data obtained for albumins are important in connection with their role as drugs transporters.

  20. Analysis of the hormone-binding domain of steroid receptors using chimeras generated by homologous recombination

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, Elisabeth D.; Pattabiraman, Nagarajan; Danielsen, Mark . E-mail: dan@bc.georgetown.edu

    2005-08-15

    The glucocorticoid receptor and the mineralocorticoid receptor are members of the steroid receptor family that exhibit ligand cross-reactivity. Specificity of steroid receptor action is investigated in the present work by the construction and characterization of chimeras between the glucocorticoid receptor and the mineralocorticoid receptor. We used an innovative approach to make novel steroid receptor proteins in vivo that in general, contrary to our expectations, show increased ligand specificity compared to the parental receptors. We describe a receptor that is specific for the potent synthetic glucocorticoid triamcinolone acetonide and does not bind aldosterone. A further set of chimeras has an increased ability to discriminate between ligands, responding potently to mineralocorticoids and only very weakly to synthetic glucocorticoids. A chimera with the fusion site in the hinge highlights the importance of the region between the DNA-binding and the hormone-binding domains since, unlike both the glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors, it only responds to mineralocorticoids. One chimera has reduced specificity in that it acts as a general corticoid receptor, responding to glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids with similar potency and efficacy. Our data suggest that regions of the glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor hormone-binding domains are functionally non-reciprocal. We present transcriptional, hormone-binding, and structure-modeling evidence that suggests that receptor-specific interactions within and across domains mediate aspects of specificity in transcriptional responses to steroids.

  1. THE INFLUENCE OF SERUM BINDING PROTEINS AND CLEARANCE ON THE COMPARATIVE RECEPTOR BINDING POTENCY OF ENDOCRINE ACTIVE COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    THE INFLUENCE OF SERUM BINDING PROTEINS AND CLEARANCE ON THE COMPARATIVE RECEPTOR BINDING POTENCY OF ENDOCRINE ACTIVE COMPOUNDS. JG Teeguarden1 and HA Barton2. 1ENVIRON International, Ruston LA; 2US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, ETD, Pharmacokinetics Branch, RTP, NC.

    One measure of th...

  2. Prenatal exposure to methylmercury alters development of adrenergic receptor binding sites in peripheral sympathetic target tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Slotkin, T.A.; Orband, L.; Cowdery, T.; Kavlock, R.J.; Bartolome, J.

    1987-01-01

    In order to assess the impact of prenatal exposure to methylmercury on sympathetic neurotransmission, effects on development of adrenergic receptor binding sites in peripheral tissues was evaluated. In the liver, methylmercury produced a dose-dependent increase in alpha/sub 1/, alpha/sub 2/, and beta-receptor binding of radioliganda throughout the first 5 weeks of postnatal life. Similarly, renal alpha-receptor subtypes showed increased binding capabilities, but binding to alpha-receptor sites was reduced. At least some of the changes in receptors appear to be of functional significance, as physiological reactivity to adrenergic stimulation is altered in the same directions in these two tissues. The actions of methylmercury displayed tissue specificity in that the same receptor populations were largely unaffected in other tissues (lung, heart). These results suggest that methylmercury exposure in utero alters adrenergic responses through targeted effects on postsynaptic receptor populations in specific tissues.

  3. Synthesis and binding properties of hybrid cyclophane-azamacrocyclic receptors.

    PubMed

    Benniston, Andrew C; Gunning, Patrick; Peacock, Robert D

    2005-01-07

    Three new azamacrocyclic-cyclophane hybrid receptors L(1), L(2), and L(3) have been synthesized that incorporate either 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (cyclen) or 1,4,7-triazacyclononane (tacn) unit(s) tethered via a short amidic spacer to an electron donor and a H-bonding crown ether polycycle. The crown ether is designed to act as a host toward biologically relevant guests, whereas the macrocycle can coordinate a zinc(II) or a copper(II) ion. The pK(a) of this bound water in the zinc(II) complex of L(1) and L(2) is approximately 7.5. Isothermal calorimetry experiments carried out on [ZnL(1)(L2)(OH(2))](CF(3)SO(3))(2) and [Zn(2)L(2)(OH(2))(2)](CF(3)SO(3))(4) in buffered water (pH 7.4) at 25 degrees C show that the host strongly binds a series of phosphate derivatives. In comparison, the complex [CuL(3)(OH(2))(2)](CF(3)SO(3))(2) is a poor receptor toward phosphate substrates.

  4. Binding of antibodies to acetylcholine receptors in Electrophorus and Torpedo electroplax membranes

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    Antisera against purified acetylcholine receptors from the electric tissues of Torpedo californica and of Electrophorus electricus were raised in rabbits. The antisera contain antibodies which bind to both autologous and heterologous receptors in solution as shown by an immunoprecipitation assay. Antibodies in both types of antisera bind specifically to the postjunctional membrane on the innervated surface of the intact electroplax from Electrophorus electric tissue as demonstrated by an indirect immunohistochemical procedure using horseradish peroxidase conjugated to anti-rabbit IgG. Only anti- Electrophorus receptor antisera, however, cause inhibition of the receptor-mediated depolarization of the intact Electrophorus electroplax. The lack of inhibition by anti-Torpedo receptor antibodies, which do bind, suggests that the receptor does not undergo extensive movement during activity. The binding of anti-Torpedo antibodies to receptor-rich vesicles prepared by subcellular fractionation of Torpedo electric tissue was demonstrated by both direct and indirect immunohistochemical methods using ferritin conjugates. These vesicles can be conveniently collected and prepared for electron microscopy on Millipore filters, a procedure requiring only 25 micrograms of membrane protein per filter. In addition, it was possible to visualize the binding of anti-Torpedo receptor antibodies directly, without ferritin. These anti-Torpedo receptor antibodies, however, do not inhibit the binding of acetylcholine or of alpha- neurotoxin to receptor in Torpedo microsacs but do inhibit binding of alpha-neurotoxin to Torpedo receptor in Triton X-100 solution. It is likely that the principal antigenic determinants on receptor are at sites other than the acetylcholine-binding sites and that inhibition of receptor function, when it occurs, may be due to a stabilization by antibody binding of an inactive conformational state. PMID:344325

  5. The Effect of Cellular Receptor Diffusion on Receptor-Mediated Viral Binding Using Brownian Adhesive Dynamics (BRAD) Simulations

    PubMed Central

    English, Thomas J.; Hammer, Daniel A.

    2005-01-01

    Brownian adhesive dynamics (BRAD) is a new method for simulating the attachment of viruses to cell surfaces. In BRAD, the motion of the virus is subject to stochastic bond formation and breakage, and thermal motion owing to collisions from the solvent. In the model, the virus is approximated as a rigid sphere and the cell surface is approximated as a rigid plane coated with receptors. In this article, we extend BRAD to allow for the mobility of receptors in the plane of the membrane, both before and after they are ligated by viral attachment proteins. Allowing the proteins to move within the membrane produced several differences in behavior from when the receptors are immobilized. First, the mean steady-state bond number is unaffected by changes in cellular receptor density because proteins are now free to diffuse into the contact area, and the extent of binding is dictated by the availability of viral attachment proteins. Second, the time required to reach steady-state binding increases as both the cellular receptor number decreases and the receptor mobility decreases. This is because receptor diffusion is a slower process than the binding kinetics of the proteins. Decreasing the rate of protein binding was found to decrease the fraction of viruses bound to steady state, but not the extent of binding for those viruses that were bound. Increasing the binding rate increased the fraction of viruses bound, until no further viruses could bind. Alterations in receptor binding kinetics had no discernable effect on the mean steady-state bond number between virus and cell, because interactions were of sufficiently high affinity that all available receptor-viral attachment proteins were destined to bind at steady state. PMID:15556985

  6. Accelerated Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Ligand Binding to a Muscarinic G-protein Coupled Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Kappel, Kalli; Miao, Yinglong; McCammon, J. Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Elucidating the detailed process of ligand binding to a receptor is pharmaceutically important for identifying druggable binding sites. With the ability to provide atomistic detail, computational methods are well poised to study these processes. Here, accelerated molecular dynamics (aMD) is proposed to simulate processes of ligand binding to a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR), in this case the M3 muscarinic receptor, which is a target for treating many human diseases, including cancer, diabetes and obesity. Long-timescale aMD simulations were performed to observe the binding of three chemically diverse ligand molecules: antagonist tiotropium (TTP), partial agonist arecoline (ARc), and full agonist acetylcholine (ACh). In comparison with earlier microsecond-timescale conventional MD simulations, aMD greatly accelerated the binding of ACh to the receptor orthosteric ligand-binding site and the binding of TTP to an extracellular vestibule. Further aMD simulations also captured binding of ARc to the receptor orthosteric site. Additionally, all three ligands were observed to bind in the extracellular vestibule during their binding pathways, suggesting that it is a metastable binding site. This study demonstrates the applicability of aMD to protein-ligand binding, especially the drug recognition of GPCRs. PMID:26537408

  7. Number and locations of agonist binding sites required to activate homomeric Cys-loop receptors.

    PubMed

    Rayes, Diego; De Rosa, María José; Sine, Steven M; Bouzat, Cecilia

    2009-05-06

    Homo-pentameric Cys-loop receptors contain five identical agonist binding sites, each formed at a subunit interface. To determine the number and locations of binding sites required to generate a stable active state, we constructed a receptor subunit with a mutation that disables the agonist binding site and a reporter mutation that alters unitary conductance and coexpressed mutant and nonmutant subunits. Although receptors with a range of different subunit compositions are produced, patch-clamp recordings reveal that the amplitude of each single-channel opening event reports the number and, for certain subunit combinations, the locations of subunits with intact binding sites. We find that receptors with three binding sites at nonconsecutive subunit interfaces exhibit maximal mean channel open time, receptors with binding sites at three consecutive or two nonconsecutive interfaces exhibit intermediate open time, and receptors with binding sites at two consecutive or one interface exhibit brief open time. Macroscopic recordings after rapid application of agonist reveal that channel activation slows and the extent of desensitization decreases as the number of binding sites per receptor decreases. The overall results provide a framework for defining mechanisms of activation and drug modulation for homo-pentameric Cys-loop receptors.

  8. Identification of essential cannabinoid-binding domains: structural insights into early dynamic events in receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Shim, Joong-Youn; Bertalovitz, Alexander C; Kendall, Debra A

    2011-09-23

    The classical cannabinoid agonist HU210, a structural analog of (-)-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, binds to brain cannabinoid (CB1) receptors and activates signal transduction pathways. To date, an exact molecular description of the CB1 receptor is not yet available. Utilizing the minor binding pocket of the CB1 receptor as the primary ligand interaction site, we explored HU210 binding using lipid bilayer molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Among the potential ligand contact residues, we identified residues Phe-174(2.61), Phe-177(2.64), Leu-193(3.29), and Met-363(6.55) as being critical for HU210 binding by mutational analysis. Using these residues to guide the simulations, we determined essential cannabinoid-binding domains in the CB1 receptor, including the highly sought after hydrophobic pocket important for the binding of the C3 alkyl chain of classical and nonclassical cannabinoids. Analyzing the simulations of the HU210-CB1 receptor complex, the CP55940-CB1 receptor complex, and the (-)-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-CB1 receptor complex, we found that the positioning of the C3 alkyl chain and the aromatic stacking between Trp-356(6.48) and Trp-279(5.43) is crucial for the Trp-356(6.48) rotamer change toward receptor activation through the rigid-body movement of H6. The functional data for the mutant receptors demonstrated reductions in potency for G protein activation similar to the reductions seen in ligand binding affinity for HU210.

  9. Administration of angiotensin II and a bradykinin B2 receptor blocker in midpregnancy impairs gestational outcome in guinea pigs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The opposing renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and kallikrein-kinin system (KKS) are upregulated in pregnancy and localize in the utero-placental unit. To test their participation as counter-regulators, circulating angiotensin II (AII) was exogenously elevated and the bradykinin B2 receptor (B2R) was antagonized in pregnant guinea-pigs. We hypothesized that disrupting the RAS/KKS balance during the period of maximal trophoblast invasion and placental development would provoke increased blood pressure, defective trophoblast invasion and a preeclampsia-like syndrome. Methods Pregnant guinea-pigs received subcutaneous infusions of AII (200 μg/kg/day), the B2R antagonist Bradyzide (BDZ; 62.5 microg/kg/day), or both (AII + BDZ) from gestational day 20 to 34. Non-pregnant cycling animals were included in a control group (C NP) or received AII + BDZ (AII + BDZ NP) during 14 days. Systolic blood pressure was determined during cycle in C NP, and on the last day of infusion, and 6 and 26 days thereafter in the remaining groups. Twenty six days after the infusions blood and urine were extracted, fetuses, placentas and kidneys were weighed, and trophoblast invasion of spiral arteries was defined in the utero-placental units by immunocytochemistry. Results Systolic blood pressure transiently rose in a subgroup of the pregnant females while receiving AII + BDZ infusion, but not in AII + BDZ NP. Plasma creatinine was higher in AII- and BDZ-treated dams, but no proteinuria or hyperuricemia were observed. Kidney weight increased in AII + BDZ-treated pregnant and non-pregnant females. Aborted and dead fetuses were increased in dams that received AII and AII + BDZ. The fetal/placental weight ratio was reduced in litters of AII + BDZ-treated mothers. All groups that received interventions during pregnancy showed reduced replacement of endothelial cells by extravillous trophoblasts in lateral and myometrial spiral arteries. Conclusions The acute effects on fetal viability, and

  10. Competitive inhibition of (TH)dexamethasone binding to mammary glucocorticoid receptor by leupeptin

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, L.C.C.; Su, C.; Markland, F.S. Jr.

    1987-03-01

    The inhibitory effect of leupeptin on (TH)dexamethasone binding to the glucocorticoid receptor from lactating goat mammary cytosol has been studied. Leupeptin (10 mM) caused a significant (about 35%) inhibition of (TH)dexamethasone binding to glucocorticoid receptor. Binding inhibition is further increased following filtration of unlabeled cytosolic receptor through a Bio-Gel A 0.5-m column. Binding inhibition was partially reversed by monothioglycerol at 10 mM concentration. A double reciprocal plot revealed that leupeptin appears to be a competitive inhibitor of (TH)dexamethasone binding to the glucocorticoid receptor. Low salt sucrose density gradient centrifugation revealed that the leupeptin-treated sample formed a slightly larger (approximately 9 S) receptor complex (leupeptin-free complex sediments at 8 S).

  11. Differential effects of exercise on brain opioid receptor binding and activation in rats.

    PubMed

    Arida, Ricardo Mario; Gomes da Silva, Sérgio; de Almeida, Alexandre Aparecido; Cavalheiro, Esper Abrão; Zavala-Tecuapetla, Cecilia; Brand, Serge; Rocha, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Physical exercise stimulates the release of endogenous opioid peptides supposed to be responsible for changes in mood, anxiety, and performance. Exercise alters sensitivity to these effects that modify the efficacy at the opioid receptor. Although there is evidence that relates exercise to neuropeptide expression in the brain, the effects of exercise on opioid receptor binding and signal transduction mechanisms downstream of these receptors have not been explored. Here, we characterized the binding and G protein activation of mu opioid receptor, kappa opioid receptor or delta opioid receptor in several brain regions following acute (7 days) and chronic (30 days) exercise. As regards short- (acute) or long-term effects (chronic) of exercise, overall, higher opioid receptor binding was observed in acute-exercise animals and the opposite was found in the chronic-exercise animals. The binding of [(35) S]GTPγS under basal conditions (absence of agonists) was elevated in sensorimotor cortex and hippocampus, an effect more evident after chronic exercise. Divergence of findings was observed for mu opioid receptor, kappa opioid receptor, and delta opioid receptor receptor activation in our study. Our results support existing evidence of opioid receptor binding and G protein activation occurring differentially in brain regions in response to diverse exercise stimuli. We characterized the binding and G protein activation of mu, kappa, and delta opioid receptors in several brain regions following acute (7 days) and chronic (30 days) exercise. Higher opioid receptor binding was observed in the acute exercise animal group and opposite findings in the chronic exercise group. Higher G protein activation under basal conditions was noted in rats submitted to chronic exercise, as visible in the depicted pseudo-color autoradiograms.

  12. Cse1p-binding dynamics reveal a binding pattern for FG-repeat nucleoporins on transport receptors.

    PubMed

    Isgro, Timothy A; Schulten, Klaus

    2007-08-01

    Nuclear pore proteins with phenylalanine-glycine repeats are vital to the functional transport of molecules across the nuclear pore complex. The current study investigates the binding of these FG-nucleoporins to the Cse1p:Kap60p:RanGTP nuclear export complex. Fourteen binding spots for FG-nucleoporin peptides are revealed on the surface of Cse1p, and 5 are revealed on the Kap60p surface. Taken together, and along with binding data for two other transport receptors, the data suggest that the ability to bind FG-nucleoporins by itself is not enough to ensure viable nuclear transport. Rather, it is proposed that the density of binding spots on the transport receptor surface is key in determining transport viability. The number of binding spots on the transport receptor surface should be large enough to ensure multiple, simultaneous FG-repeat binding, and their arrangement should be close enough to ensure multiple binding from the same FG-nucleoporin.

  13. Reassessment of the Unique Mode of Binding between Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor and Their Blockers

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Yoshino; Saku, Keijiro; Karnik, Sadashiva S.

    2013-01-01

    While the molecular structures of angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 (AT1) receptor blockers (ARBs) are very similar, they are also slightly different. Although each ARB has been shown to exhibit a unique mode of binding to AT1 receptor, different positions of the AT1 receptor have been analyzed and computational modeling has been performed using different crystal structures for the receptor as a template and different kinds of software. Therefore, we systematically analyzed the critical positions of the AT1 receptor, Tyr113, Tyr184, Lys199, His256 and Gln257 using a mutagenesis study, and subsequently performed computational modeling of the binding of ARBs to AT1 receptor using CXCR4 receptor as a new template and a single version of software. The interactions between Tyr113 in the AT1 receptor and the hydroxyl group of olmesartan, between Lys199 and carboxyl or tetrazole groups, and between His256 or Gln257 and the tetrazole group were studied. The common structure, a tetrazole group, of most ARBs similarly bind to Lys199, His256 and Gln257 of AT1 receptor. Lys199 in the AT1 receptor binds to the carboxyl group of EXP3174, candesartan and azilsartan, whereas oxygen in the amidecarbonyl group of valsartan may bind to Lys199. The benzimidazole portion of telmisartan may bind to a lipophilic pocket that includes Tyr113. On the other hand, the n-butyl group of irbesartan may bind to Tyr113. In conclusion, we confirmed that the slightly different structures of ARBs may be critical for binding to AT1 receptor and for the formation of unique modes of binding. PMID:24260317

  14. Metal binding sites of the estradiol receptor from calf uterus and their possible role in the regulation of receptor function

    SciTech Connect

    Medici, N.; Minucci, S.; Nigro, V.; Abbondanza, C.; Armetta, I.; Molinari, A.M.; Puca, G.A. )

    1989-01-10

    The existence of putative metal binding sites on the estradiol receptor (ER) molecule from calf uterus was evaluated by immobilizing various divalent metals to iminodiacetate-Sepharose. ER from both crude and highly purified preparations binds to metal-containing adsorbents complexed with Zn(II), Ni(II), Co(II), and Cu(II), but not to those complexed with Fe(II) and Cd(II). Analysis of affinity-labeled ER by ({sup 3}H)tamoxifen aziridine after elution from a column of Zn(II)-charged iminodiacetate-Sepharose showed that ER fragments obtained by extensive trypsinization were also bound. Zn(II) and the same other metals able to bind ER, when immobilized on resins, inhibit the binding of estradiol to the receptor at micromolar concentration. This inhibition is noncompetitive and can be reversed by EDTA. The inhibition of the hormone binding was still present after trypsin treatment of the cytosol, and it was abolished by preincubation with the hormone. Micromolar concentrations of these metals were able to block those chemical-physical changes occurring during the process of ER transformation in vitro. The presence of metal binding sites that modulate the ER activity in the hormone binding domain of ER is speculated. Since progesterone receptor showed the same pattern of binding and elution from metal-containing adsorbents, the presence of metal binding regulatory sites could be a property of all steroid receptors.

  15. Specific receptor binding of atrial natriuretic peptide to rat renal cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Ogura, T.; Mitsui, T.; Ogawa, N.; Ota, Z.

    1985-09-01

    Radiolabeled receptor assay (RRA) of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was studied in rat kidney membranes. Binding of ( SVI)-ANP to membrane preparations of rat whole kidney was saturated and show a high affinity. Furthermore, renal cortex membrane had a higher affinity for ANP binding site than renal medulla membrane. This high affinity ANP receptor site in renal cortex membrane indicated that ANP controlled the balance of water and sodium excretion due to this receptor site in the kidney.

  16. Autocrine ligand binding to cell receptors. Mathematical analysis of competition by solution "decoys".

    PubMed Central

    Forsten, K E; Lauffenburger, D A

    1992-01-01

    Autocrine ligands have been demonstrated to regulate cell proliferation, cell adhesion, and cell migration in a number of different systems and are believed to be one of the underlying causes of malignant cell transformation. Binding of these ligands to their cellular receptors can be compromised by diffusive transport of ligand away from the secreting cell. Exogenous addition of antibodies or solution receptors capable of competing with cellular receptors for these autocrine ligands has been proposed as a means of inhibiting autocrine-stimulated cell behavioral responses. Such "decoys" complicate cellular binding by offering alternative binding targets, which may also be capable of aiding or abating transport of the ligand away from the cell surface. We present a mathematical model incorporating autocrine ligand production and the presence of competing cellular and solution receptors. We elucidate effects of key system parameters including ligand diffusion rate, binding rate constants, cell density, and secretion rate on the ability of solution receptors to inhibit cellular receptor binding. Both plated and suspension cell systems are considered. An approximate analytical expression relating the key parameters to the critical concentration of solution "decoys" required for inhibition is derived and compared to the numerical calculations. We find that in order to achieve essentially complete inhibition of surface receptor binding, the concentration of decoys may need to be as much as four to eight orders of magnitude greater than the equilibrium disociation constant for ligand binding to surface receptors. PMID:1312367

  17. Structures and receptor binding of hemagglutinins from human-infecting H7N9 influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yi; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Fei; Qi, Jianxun; Wu, Ying; Song, Hao; Gao, Feng; Bi, Yuhai; Zhang, Yanfang; Fan, Zheng; Qin, Chengfeng; Sun, Honglei; Liu, Jinhua; Haywood, Joel; Liu, Wenjun; Gong, Weimin; Wang, Dayan; Shu, Yuelong; Wang, Yu; Yan, Jinghua; Gao, George F

    2013-10-11

    An avian-origin human-infecting influenza (H7N9) virus was recently identified in China. We have evaluated the viral hemagglutinin (HA) receptor-binding properties of two human H7N9 isolates, A/Shanghai/1/2013 (SH-H7N9) (containing the avian-signature residue Gln(226)) and A/Anhui/1/2013 (AH-H7N9) (containing the mammalian-signature residue Leu(226)). We found that SH-H7N9 HA preferentially binds the avian receptor analog, whereas AH-H7N9 HA binds both avian and human receptor analogs. Furthermore, an AH-H7N9 mutant HA (Leu(226) → Gln) was found to exhibit dual receptor-binding property, indicating that other amino acid substitutions contribute to the receptor-binding switch. The structures of SH-H7N9 HA, AH-H7N9 HA, and its mutant in complex with either avian or human receptor analogs show how AH-H7N9 can bind human receptors while still retaining the avian receptor-binding property.

  18. Mannose-specific lectins modulate ligand binding to AMPA-type glutamate receptors.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, K B; Kessler, M; Ta, J; Lam, L; Lynch, G

    1998-06-08

    Binding of [3H]AMPA was increased above control levels in rat brain membranes that had been incubated with concanavalin A (Con A) or a lectin from Lens culinaris (LC), both of which bind mannose residues. This did not occur with any of six lectins with other specificities. The magnitude of the increased binding varied from 15% in cortex to 70% in hippocampus and decreased significantly between 3 weeks and 6 months of age. Succinylated Con A was without effect and neither Con A nor LC increased binding to solubilized AMPA receptors. Increases in binding were not obtained in membranes purified from HEK293 cell lines expressing homomeric AMPA receptors. This indicates that mannose specific lectins may enhance binding by cross-linking AMPA receptors to each other or to proteins that are specific to brain. Con A has been reported to reduce glutamate receptor desensitization with higher efficacy at kainate than at AMPA receptors; the increase in binding reported here appears to be unrelated to such effects because (1) it was not affected by drugs that block desensitization and (2) [3H]kainate binding was reduced rather than increased by Con A. These observations suggest that AMPA receptor kinetic properties not involving desensitization are influenced by extracellular interactions between the receptors and other transmembrane proteins. Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of a novel virtual screening strategy using receptor decoy binding sites.

    PubMed

    Patel, Hershna; Kukol, Andreas

    2016-08-23

    Virtual screening is used in biomedical research to predict the binding affinity of a large set of small organic molecules to protein receptor targets. This report shows the development and evaluation of a novel yet straightforward attempt to improve this ranking in receptor-based molecular docking using a receptor-decoy strategy. This strategy includes defining a decoy binding site on the receptor and adjusting the ranking of the true binding-site virtual screen based on the decoy-site screen. The results show that by docking against a receptor-decoy site with Autodock Vina, improved Receiver Operator Characteristic Enrichment (ROCE) was achieved for 5 out of fifteen receptor targets investigated, when up to 15 % of a decoy site rank list was considered. No improved enrichment was seen for 7 targets, while for 3 targets the ROCE was reduced. The extent to which this strategy can effectively improve ligand prediction is dependent on the target receptor investigated.

  20. Structure-Based Understanding of Binding Affinity and Mode of Estrogen Receptor α Agonists and Antagonists

    EPA Science Inventory

    The flexible hydrophobic ligand binding pocket (LBP) of estrogen receptor α (ERα) allows the binding of a wide variety of endocrine disruptors. Upon ligand binding, the LBP reshapes around the contours of the ligand and stabilizes the complex by complementary hydrophobic interact...

  1. Structure-based Understanding of Binding Affinity and Mode of Estrogen Receptor α Agonists and Antagonists.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The flexible hydrophobic ligand binding pocket (LBP) of estrogen receptor α (ERα) allows the binding of a wide variety of endocrine disruptors. Upon ligand binding, the LBP reshapes around the contours of the ligand and stabilizes the complex by complementary hydropho...

  2. Combined sodium ion sensitivity in agonist binding and internalization of vasopressin V1b receptors.

    PubMed

    Koshimizu, Taka-Aki; Kashiwazaki, Aki; Taniguchi, Junichi

    2016-05-03

    Reducing Na(+) in the extracellular environment may lead to two beneficial effects for increasing agonist binding to cell surface G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs): reduction of Na(+)-mediated binding block and reduce of receptor internalization. However, such combined effects have not been explored. We used Chinese Hamster Ovary cells expressing vasopressin V1b receptors as a model to explore Na(+) sensitivity in agonist binding and receptor internalization. Under basal conditions, a large fraction of V1b receptors is located intracellularly, and a small fraction is in the plasma membrane. Decreases in external Na(+) increased cell surface [(3)H]AVP binding and decreased receptor internalization. Substitution of Na(+) by Cs(+) or NH4(+) inhibited agonist binding. To suppress receptor internalization, the concentration of NaCl, but not of CsCl, had to be less than 50 mM, due to the high sensitivity of the internalization machinery to Na(+) over Cs(+). Iso-osmotic supplementation of glucose or NH4Cl maintained internalization of the V1b receptor, even in a low-NaCl environment. Moreover, iodide ions, which acted as a counter anion, inhibited V1b agonist binding. In summary, we found external ionic conditions that could increase the presence of high-affinity state receptors at the cell surface with minimum internalization during agonist stimulations.

  3. Combined sodium ion sensitivity in agonist binding and internalization of vasopressin V1b receptors

    PubMed Central

    Koshimizu, Taka-aki; Kashiwazaki, Aki; Taniguchi, Junichi

    2016-01-01

    Reducing Na+ in the extracellular environment may lead to two beneficial effects for increasing agonist binding to cell surface G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs): reduction of Na+-mediated binding block and reduce of receptor internalization. However, such combined effects have not been explored. We used Chinese Hamster Ovary cells expressing vasopressin V1b receptors as a model to explore Na+ sensitivity in agonist binding and receptor internalization. Under basal conditions, a large fraction of V1b receptors is located intracellularly, and a small fraction is in the plasma membrane. Decreases in external Na+ increased cell surface [3H]AVP binding and decreased receptor internalization. Substitution of Na+ by Cs+ or NH4+ inhibited agonist binding. To suppress receptor internalization, the concentration of NaCl, but not of CsCl, had to be less than 50 mM, due to the high sensitivity of the internalization machinery to Na+ over Cs+. Iso-osmotic supplementation of glucose or NH4Cl maintained internalization of the V1b receptor, even in a low-NaCl environment. Moreover, iodide ions, which acted as a counter anion, inhibited V1b agonist binding. In summary, we found external ionic conditions that could increase the presence of high-affinity state receptors at the cell surface with minimum internalization during agonist stimulations. PMID:27138239

  4. Binding of N-methylscopolamine to the extracellular domain of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Jakubík, Jan; Randáková, Alena; Zimčík, Pavel; El-Fakahany, Esam E.; Doležal, Vladimír

    2017-01-01

    Interaction of orthosteric ligands with extracellular domain was described at several aminergic G protein-coupled receptors, including muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. The orthosteric antagonists quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) and N-methylscopolamine (NMS) bind to the binding pocket of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor formed by transmembrane α-helices. We show that high concentrations of either QNB or NMS slow down dissociation of their radiolabeled species from all five subtypes of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, suggesting allosteric binding. The affinity of NMS at the allosteric site is in the micromolar range for all receptor subtypes. Using molecular modelling of the M2 receptor we found that E172 and E175 in the second extracellular loop and N419 in the third extracellular loop are involved in allosteric binding of NMS. Mutation of these amino acids to alanine decreased affinity of NMS for the allosteric binding site confirming results of molecular modelling. The allosteric binding site of NMS overlaps with the binding site of some allosteric, ectopic and bitopic ligands. Understanding of interactions of NMS at the allosteric binding site is essential for correct analysis of binding and action of these ligands. PMID:28091608

  5. Binding of N-methylscopolamine to the extracellular domain of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakubík, Jan; Randáková, Alena; Zimčík, Pavel; El-Fakahany, Esam E.; Doležal, Vladimír

    2017-01-01

    Interaction of orthosteric ligands with extracellular domain was described at several aminergic G protein-coupled receptors, including muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. The orthosteric antagonists quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) and N-methylscopolamine (NMS) bind to the binding pocket of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor formed by transmembrane α-helices. We show that high concentrations of either QNB or NMS slow down dissociation of their radiolabeled species from all five subtypes of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, suggesting allosteric binding. The affinity of NMS at the allosteric site is in the micromolar range for all receptor subtypes. Using molecular modelling of the M2 receptor we found that E172 and E175 in the second extracellular loop and N419 in the third extracellular loop are involved in allosteric binding of NMS. Mutation of these amino acids to alanine decreased affinity of NMS for the allosteric binding site confirming results of molecular modelling. The allosteric binding site of NMS overlaps with the binding site of some allosteric, ectopic and bitopic ligands. Understanding of interactions of NMS at the allosteric binding site is essential for correct analysis of binding and action of these ligands.

  6. Effects of the binding of a dextran derivative on fibroblast growth factor 2: secondary structure and receptor-binding studies.

    PubMed

    Bittoun, P; Bagheri-Yarmand, R; Chaubet, F; Crépin, M; Jozefonvicz, J; Fermandjian, S

    1999-06-15

    CMDB (carboxymethyldextran-benzylamide) are dextrans statistically substituted with carboxymethyl and benzylamide groups which can mimick some of the biological properties of heparin. It has previously been shown that CMDB inhibit autocrine growth of breast tumor cells (Bagheri-Yarmand et al., Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 239: 424-428, 1997) and selectively displace fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) from its receptor. Here, we used circular dichroism and fluorescence anisotropy measurements to show that the conformation of FGF-2 was significantly altered upon its binding to CMDB and to short CMDB fragments prepared within this study. CMDB and fragments formed a stable 1:1 complex with FGF-2, with affinities being estimated as 20+/-10 nM from fluorescence anisotropy analysis. No such a complex was formed with insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) or epidermal growth factor (EGF). CMDB competed with the FGF-2 receptor for binding to FGF-2 but did not disturb the binding of IGF-1 and EGF to their receptors. Thus, our results highlight the selectivity of CMDB and their fragments towards FGF-2. Heparin, however, competes with CMDB and their fragments for binding to FGF-2. The carboxymethyl and benzylamide groups of these molecules likely interact directly with a heparin-binding region of FGF-2. The resulting change in conformation disturbs the binding of FGF-2 to its receptor and consecutively its mitogenic activity.

  7. Gonococcal pili. Primary structure and receptor binding domain.

    PubMed

    Schoolnik, G K; Fernandez, R; Tai, J Y; Rothbard, J; Gotschlich, E C

    1984-05-01

    The complete amino acid sequence of pilin from gonococcal strain MS11 and the sequence of constant and variable regions from strain R10 pilin have been determined in order to elucidate the structural basis for adherence function, antigenic diversity, and polymeric structure. The MS11 pilin sequence consists of 159 amino acids in a single polypeptide chain with two cysteines in disulfide linkage and serine-bonded phosphate residues. TC-2 (31-111), a soluble monomeric pilus peptide prepared by arginine-specific digestion, bound human endocervical, but not buccal or HeLa cells and therefore is postulated to encompass the receptor binding domain. Variable regions of CNBr-3 appear to confer antigenic diversity and comprise segments in which changes in the position of charged residues occur in hydrophilic, beta-turns. Residues 2-21 and 202-221 of gonococcal pilins and lower eucaryotic actins, respectively, exhibit 50% homology. When these residues are arranged at intervals of 100 degrees of arc on "helical wheels," the identical amino acids comprise a hydrophobic face on one side of the helix. This observation, the hydrophobic character of this region and the tendency for TC-1 (residues 1-30) to aggregate in water, suggest that this stretch interacts with other subunits to stabilize polymeric structure.

  8. Botulinum neurotoxin devoid of receptor binding domain translocates active protease.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Audrey; Mushrush, Darren J; Lacy, D Borden; Montal, Mauricio

    2008-12-01

    Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) causes flaccid paralysis by disabling synaptic exocytosis. Intoxication requires the tri-modular protein to undergo conformational changes in response to pH and redox gradients across endosomes, leading to the formation of a protein-conducting channel. The approximately 50 kDa light chain (LC) protease is translocated into the cytosol by the approximately 100 kDa heavy chain (HC), which consists of two modules: the N-terminal translocation domain (TD) and the C-terminal Receptor Binding Domain (RBD). Here we exploited the BoNT modular design to identify the minimal requirements for channel activity and LC translocation in neurons. Using the combined detection of substrate proteolysis and single-channel currents, we showed that a di-modular protein consisting only of LC and TD was sufficient to translocate active protease into the cytosol of target cells. The RBD is dispensable for cell entry, channel activity, or LC translocation; however, it determined a pH threshold for channel formation. These findings indicate that, in addition to its individual functions, each module acts as a chaperone for the others, working in concert to achieve productive intoxication.

  9. Growth hormone receptor/binding protein: Physiology and function

    SciTech Connect

    Herington, A.C.; Ymer, S.I.; Stevenson, J.L.; Roupas, P.

    1994-12-31

    Soluble truncated forms of the growth hormone receptor (GHR) are present in the circulation of many species and are also produced by many tissues/cell types. The major high-affinity forms of these GH-binding proteins (GHBP) are derived by alternative splicing of GHR mRNA in rodents, but probably by proteolytic cleavage in other species. Questions still remain with respect to the origins, native molecular forms(s), physiology, and function of the GHBPs, however. The observation that GH induces dimerization of the soluble GHBP and a membrane GHR, and that dimerization of GHR appears to be critical for GH bioactivity suggests that the presentation of GH to target cells, in an unbound form or as a monomeric or dimeric complex with GHBP, may have significant implications for the ability of GH to activate specific postreceptor signaling pathways (tyrosine kinase, protein kinase C, G-protein pathways) known to be utilized by GH for its diverse biological effects. This minireview addresses some of these aspects and highlights several new questions which have arisen as a result of recent advances in our understanding of the structure, function, and signaling mechanisms of the membrane bound GHR. 43 refs.

  10. Binding of polychlorinated biphenyls to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Kafafi, S.A.; Ali, A.H.; Said, H.K. ); Afeefy, H.Y. ); Kafafi, A. G. )

    1993-10-01

    A new thermodynamic model for calculating the dissociation constants of complexes formed between the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is reported. The free energies of binding of PCBs to AhR are controlled by their lipophilicites, electron affinities, and entropies. The corresponding physicochemical properties of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans also control their interactions with AhR. We present evidence supporting the hypothesis that the majority of PCBs are likely to interact with AhR in their nonplanar conformations. In addition, we demonstrate that the affinities of PCBs for AhR relative to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin correlate with corresponding toxic equivalency factors in animals. The reported methodology is likely to be applicable to the polyhalogenated and mixed polyhalogentated bi- and terphenyls and related xenobiotics; thus, it could minimize the number of in vivo studies in laboratory animals and facilitate the identification of potentially and facilitate the identification of potentially hazardous aromatic xenobiotics.

  11. Botulinum Neurotoxin Devoid of Receptor Binding Domain Translocates Active Protease

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Audrey; Mushrush, Darren J.; Lacy, D. Borden; Montal, Mauricio

    2008-01-01

    Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) causes flaccid paralysis by disabling synaptic exocytosis. Intoxication requires the tri-modular protein to undergo conformational changes in response to pH and redox gradients across endosomes, leading to the formation of a protein-conducting channel. The ∼50 kDa light chain (LC) protease is translocated into the cytosol by the ∼100 kDa heavy chain (HC), which consists of two modules: the N-terminal translocation domain (TD) and the C-terminal Receptor Binding Domain (RBD). Here we exploited the BoNT modular design to identify the minimal requirements for channel activity and LC translocation in neurons. Using the combined detection of substrate proteolysis and single-channel currents, we showed that a di-modular protein consisting only of LC and TD was sufficient to translocate active protease into the cytosol of target cells. The RBD is dispensable for cell entry, channel activity, or LC translocation; however, it determined a pH threshold for channel formation. These findings indicate that, in addition to its individual functions, each module acts as a chaperone for the others, working in concert to achieve productive intoxication. PMID:19096517

  12. RAINBOW TROUT ANDROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA AND THE HUMAN ANDROGEN RECEPTOR: COMPARISONS IN THE COS WHOLE CELL BINDING ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    RAINBOW TROUT ANDROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA AND HUMAN ANDROGEN RECEPTOR: COMPARISONS IN THE COS WHOLE CELL BINDING ASSAY.
    MC Cardon, PC Hartig,LE Gray, Jr. and VS Wilson.
    U.S. EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTD, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.
    Typically, in vitro hazard assessments for ...

  13. RAINBOW TROUT ANDROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA AND THE HUMAN ANDROGEN RECEPTOR: COMPARISONS IN THE COS WHOLE CELL BINDING ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainbow Trout Androgen Receptor Alpha And Human Androgen Receptor: Comparisons in the COS Whole Cell Binding Assay
    Mary C. Cardon, L. Earl Gray, Jr. and Vickie S. Wilson
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, ORD, NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle...

  14. RAINBOW TROUT ANDROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA AND THE HUMAN ANDROGEN RECEPTOR: COMPARISONS IN THE COS WHOLE CELL BINDING ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    RAINBOW TROUT ANDROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA AND HUMAN ANDROGEN RECEPTOR: COMPARISONS IN THE COS WHOLE CELL BINDING ASSAY.
    MC Cardon, PC Hartig,LE Gray, Jr. and VS Wilson.
    U.S. EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTD, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.
    Typically, in vitro hazard assessments for ...

  15. RAINBOW TROUT ANDROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA AND THE HUMAN ANDROGEN RECEPTOR: COMPARISONS IN THE COS WHOLE CELL BINDING ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainbow Trout Androgen Receptor Alpha And Human Androgen Receptor: Comparisons in the COS Whole Cell Binding Assay
    Mary C. Cardon, L. Earl Gray, Jr. and Vickie S. Wilson
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, ORD, NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle...

  16. In situ distinction between steroid receptor binding and transactivation at a target gene.

    PubMed Central

    McDonnell, D P; Nawaz, Z; O'Malley, B W

    1991-01-01

    We have developed a DNA interference assay in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that is designed to indicate the intracellular DNA-binding status of the estrogen receptor. The assay utilizes a promoter containing multiple copies of a GAL4-estrogen receptor binding sequence. This element is designed so that either an estrogen receptor or a GAL4 molecule, but not both, can occupy it simultaneously. The assay is extremely sensitive, and at concentrations of estrogen receptor below that required for maximal transcriptional activation of its target estrogen response element, a quantitative inhibition of GAL4-mediated transcription is seen. Inhibition occurs thought the disruption of complex cooperative interactions among the GAL4 molecules in this reporter. The data obtained from our experiments show that at low concentrations of receptor, hormone is required to promote DNA binding. Overexpression of receptor leads to occupation of the estrogen receptor element in the absence of ligand. In contrast, this latter receptor form will not activate transcription. Our results are consistent with a two-step process for receptor activation. Ligand first causes dissociation of receptor from an inhibitory complex within the cell and produces a DNA-binding form. Second, it converts receptor to a transcriptionally competent form. With use of this yeast model system, these two steps can be distinguished in situ. PMID:1875926

  17. Divergence of allosteric effects of rapacuronium on binding and function of muscarinic receptors

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Many neuromuscular blockers act as negative allosteric modulators of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors by decreasing affinity and potency of acetylcholine. The neuromuscular blocker rapacuronium has been shown to have facilitatory effects at muscarinic receptors leading to bronchospasm. We examined the influence of rapacuronium on acetylcholine (ACh) binding to and activation of individual subtypes of muscarinic receptors expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells to determine its receptor selectivity. Results At equilibrium rapacuronium bound to all subtypes of muscarinic receptors with micromolar affinity (2.7-17 μM) and displayed negative cooperativity with both high- and low-affinity ACh binding states. Rapacuronium accelerated [3H]ACh association with and dissociation from odd-numbered receptor subtypes. With respect to [35S]GTPγS binding rapacuronium alone behaved as an inverse agonist at all subtypes. Rapacuronium concentration-dependently decreased the potency of ACh-induced [35S]GTPγS binding at M2 and M4 receptors. In contrast, 0.1 μM rapacuronium significantly increased ACh potency at M1, M3, and M5 receptors. Kinetic measurements at M3 receptors showed acceleration of the rate of ACh-induced [35S]GTPγS binding by rapacuronium. Conclusions Our data demonstrate a novel dichotomy in rapacuronium effects at odd-numbered muscarinic receptors. Rapacuronium accelerates the rate of ACh binding but decreases its affinity under equilibrium conditions. This results in potentiation of receptor activation at low concentrations of rapacuronium (1 μM) but not at high concentrations (10 μM). These observations highlight the relevance and necessity of performing physiological tests under non-equilibrium conditions in evaluating the functional effects of allosteric modulators at muscarinic receptors. They also provide molecular basis for potentiating M3 receptor-mediated bronchoconstriction. PMID:20038295

  18. Receptor mobility and the binding of cells to lectin-coated fibers

    PubMed Central

    1975-01-01

    The ability of cells to bind to nylon fibers coated with lectin molecules interspaced with varying numbers of albumin molecules has been analyzed. The cells used were lymphoma cells, normal lymphocytes, myeloid leukemia cells, and normal and transformed fibroblasts, and the fibers were coated with different densities of concanavalin A or the lectins from soybean or wheat germ. Cells fixed with glutaraldehyde did not bind to lectin-coated fibers. The number of cells bound to fibers could be increased by increasing the density of lectin molecules on the fiber, the density of specific receptors on the cell, or the mobility of the receptors. It is suggested that binding of cells to fibers involves alignment and binding of specific cell surface receptors with lectin molecules immobilized on the fibers, and that this alignment requires short-range rapid lateral mobility (RLM) of the receptors. The titration of cell binding to fibers coated with different densities of lectin and albumin has been used to measure the relative RLM of unoccupied cell surface receptors for the lectin. The results indicate a relationship of RLM to lectin-induced cell-to-cell binding. The RLM or receptors for concanavalin A (Con A) was generally found to be higher than that of receptors for the lectins from wheat germ or soybean. Receptor RLM could be decreased by use of metabolic inhibitors or by lowering the temperature. Receptors for Con A had a lower RLM on normal fibroblasts than on SV40-transformed fibroblasts, and trypsinization of normal fibroblasts increased Con A receptor RLM. Normal lymphocytes, lymphoma cells, and lines of myeloid leukemia cells that can be induced to differentiate had a high receptor RLM, whereas lines of myeloid leukemia cells that could not be induced to differentiate had a low receptor RLM. These results suggest that the RLM of Con A receptors is related to the transformation of fibroblasts and the ability of myeloid leukemia cells to undergo differentiation PMID

  19. Ligand Binding Mechanism in Steroid Receptors: From Conserved Plasticity to Differential Evolutionary Constraints.

    PubMed

    Edman, Karl; Hosseini, Ali; Bjursell, Magnus K; Aagaard, Anna; Wissler, Lisa; Gunnarsson, Anders; Kaminski, Tim; Köhler, Christian; Bäckström, Stefan; Jensen, Tina J; Cavallin, Anders; Karlsson, Ulla; Nilsson, Ewa; Lecina, Daniel; Takahashi, Ryoji; Grebner, Christoph; Geschwindner, Stefan; Lepistö, Matti; Hogner, Anders C; Guallar, Victor

    2015-12-01

    Steroid receptor drugs have been available for more than half a century, but details of the ligand binding mechanism have remained elusive. We solved X-ray structures of the glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors to identify a conserved plasticity at the helix 6-7 region that extends the ligand binding pocket toward the receptor surface. Since none of the endogenous ligands exploit this region, we hypothesized that it constitutes an integral part of the binding event. Extensive all-atom unbiased ligand exit and entrance simulations corroborate a ligand binding pathway that gives the observed structural plasticity a key functional role. Kinetic measurements reveal that the receptor residence time correlates with structural rearrangements observed in both structures and simulations. Ultimately, our findings reveal why nature has conserved the capacity to open up this region, and highlight how differences in the details of the ligand entry process result in differential evolutionary constraints across the steroid receptors.

  20. Neurotensin receptor binding levels in basal ganglia are not altered in Huntington's chorea or schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Palacios, J.M.; Chinaglia, G.; Rigo, M.; Ulrich, J.; Probst, A. )

    1991-02-01

    Autoradiographic techniques were used to examine the distribution and levels of neurotensin receptor binding sites in the basal ganglia and related regions of the human brain. Monoiodo ({sup 125}I-Tyr3)neurotensin was used as a ligand. High amounts of neurotensin receptor binding sites were found in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Lower but significant quantities of neurotensin receptor binding sites characterized the caudate, putamen, and nucleus accumbens, while very low quantities were seen in both medial and lateral segments of the globus pallidus. In Huntington's chorea, the levels of neurotensin receptor binding sites were found to be comparable to those of control cases. Only slight but not statistically significant decreases in amounts of receptor binding sites were detected in the dorsal part of the head and in the body of caudate nucleus. No alterations in the levels of neurotensin receptor binding sites were observed in the substantia nigra pars compacta and reticulata. These results suggest that a large proportion of neurotensin receptor binding sites in the basal ganglia are located on intrinsic neurons and on extrinsic afferent fibers that do not degenerate in Huntington's disease.

  1. Muscarinic cholinergic and histamine H1 receptor binding of phenothiazine drug metabolites

    SciTech Connect

    Hals, P.A.; Hall, H.; Dahl, S.G.

    1988-01-01

    In vitro binding affinities of chlorpromazine, fluphenazine, levomepromazine, perphenazine and some of their metabolites for dopamine D2 receptors, ..cap alpha../sub 1/- and ..cap alpha../sup 2/ adrenoceptors in rat brain were previously reported from out laboratories. The present study reports the in vitro binding affinities of the same compounds for muscarinic cholinergic receptors and for histamine H1 receptors in rat brain, using /sup 3/H-quinuclidinyl benzilate and /sup 3/H-mepyramine as radioligands. Chlorpromazine, levomepromazine, and their metabolites had 5-30 times higher binding affinities for muscarinic cholinergic receptors than fluphenazine, perphenazine and their metabolites. Levomepromazine was the most potent and fluphenazine the least potent of the four drugs in histamine H1 receptor binding. 7-Hydroxy levomepromazine, 3-hydroxy levomepromazine and 7-hydroxy fluphenazine had only 10% of the potency of the parent drug in histamine H1 receptor binding, while the 7-hydroxy-metabolites of chlorpromazine and perphenazine had about 75% of the potency of the parent drug in this binding system. This histamine H1 receptor binding affinities indicate that metabolites may contribute to the sedative effects of chlorpromazine and levomepromazine.

  2. Identification of three muscarinic receptor subtypes in rat lung using binding studies with selective antagonists

    SciTech Connect

    Fryer, A.D.; El-Fakahany, E.E. )

    1990-01-01

    Heterogeneity of the muscarinic receptor population in the rat central and peripheral lung was found in competition binding experiments against ({sup 3}H)quinuclidinyl benzilate (({sup 3}H)QNB) using the selective antagonists pirenzepine, AF-DX 116 and hexahydrosiladifenidol (HHSiD). Pirenzepine displaced ({sup 3}H)QNB with low affinity from preparations of central airways indicating the absence of M{sub 1} receptors in the trachea and bronchi. Muscarinic receptors in the central airways are comprised of both M{sub 2} and M{sub 3} receptors since AF-DX 116, an M{sub 2}-selective antagonist, bound with high affinity to 70% of the available sites while HHSiD, an M{sub 3}-selective antagonist bound with high affinity to the remaining binding sites. In the peripheral lung, pirenzepine bound with high affinity to 14% of the receptor population, AF-DX 116 bound with high affinity 79% of the binding sites while HHSiD bound with high affinity to 18% of the binding sites. The presence of M{sub 1} receptors in the peripheral airways but not in the central airways was confirmed using ({sup 3}H)telenzepine, an M{sub 1} receptor ligand. ({sup 3}H)Telenzepine showed specific saturable binding to 8% of ({sup 3}H)QNB labeled binding sites in homogenates of rat peripheral lung, while there was no detectable specific binding in homogenates of rat trachea or heart.

  3. Binding site and subclass specificity of the herpes simplex virus type 1-induced Fc receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Wiger, D; Michaelsen, T E

    1985-01-01

    Immunoglobulin Fc-binding activity was detected by indirect immunofluorescence employing fluorochrome conjugated F(ab')2 antibody fragments on acetone-fixed cell cultures infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Using this method the Fc receptor-like activity seemed to be restricted to the IgG class of human immunoglobulins. While IgG1, IgG2, and IgG4 myeloma proteins bind to this putative Fc gamma receptor at a concentration of 0.002 mg/ml, IgG3 myeloma proteins were without activity at 0.1 mg/ml. The binding activity was associated with the Fc fragments of IgG, while the pFc' fragments of IgG appeared to be unable to bind in this assay system. The reactivity and specificity of the HSV-1 Fc receptor was independent of both the type of tissue culture cells used and the strain of HSV-1 inducing the Fc receptor-like activity. The HSV-1-induced Fc receptor has a similar specificity for human immunoglobulin class and subclasses as staphylococcal Protein A. However, these two Fc receptors exhibit at least one striking difference. The IgG3 G3m(st) protein which binds to Protein A does not bind to HSV-1-induced Fc receptor. A possible reaction site for the HSV-1 Fc receptor on IgG could be at or near Asp 276. Images Figure 1 PMID:2982735

  4. Heterogeneity of binding of muscarinic receptor antagonists in rat brain homogenates

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.H.; el-Fakahany, E.E.

    1985-06-01

    The binding properties of (-)-(/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate and (/sup 3/H) N-methylscopolamine to muscarinic acetylcholine receptors have been investigated in rat brain homogenates. The binding of both antagonists demonstrated high affinity and saturability. Analysis of the binding data resulted in linear Scatchard plots. However, (-)-(/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate showed a significantly higher maximal binding capacity than that of (/sup 3/H)N-methylscopolamine. Displacement of both ligands with several muscarinic receptor antagonists resulted in competition curves in accordance with the law of mass-action for quinuclidinyl benzilate, atropine and scopolamine. A similar profile was found for the quaternary ammonium analogs of atropine and scopolamine when (/sup 3/H)N-methylscopolamine was used to label the receptors. However, when these hydrophilic antagonists were used to displace (-)-(/sup 3/H) quinuclidinyl benzilate binding, they showed interaction with high- and low-affinity binding sites. On the other hand, the nonclassical muscarinic receptor antagonist, pirenzepine, was able to displace both ligands from two binding sites. The present data are discussed in terms of the relationship of this anomalous heterogenity of binding of these hydrophilic muscarinic receptor antagonists and the proposed M1 and M2 receptor subtypes.

  5. The unique extracellular disulfide loop of the glycine receptor is a principal ligand binding element.

    PubMed Central

    Rajendra, S; Vandenberg, R J; Pierce, K D; Cunningham, A M; French, P W; Barry, P H; Schofield, P R

    1995-01-01

    A loop structure, formed by the putative disulfide bridging of Cys198 and Cys209, is a principal element of the ligand binding site in the glycine receptor (GlyR). Disruption of the loop's tertiary structure by Ser mutations of these Cys residues either prevented receptor assembly on the cell surface, or created receptors unable to be activated by agonists or to bind the competitive antagonist, strychnine. Mutation of residues Lys200, Tyr202 and Thr204 within this loop reduced agonist binding and channel activation sensitivities by up to 55-, 520- and 190-fold, respectively, without altering maximal current sizes, and mutations of Lys200 and Tyr202 abolished strychnine binding to the receptor. Removal of the hydroxyl moiety from Tyr202 by mutation to Phe profoundly reduced agonist sensitivity, whilst removal of the benzene ring abolished strychnine binding, thus demonstrating that Tyr202 is crucial for both agonist and antagonist binding to the GlyR. Tyr202 also influences receptor assembly on the cell surface, with only large chain substitutions (Phe, Leu and Arg, but not Thr, Ser and Ala) forming functional receptors. Our data demonstrate the presence of a second ligand binding site in the GlyR, consistent with the three-loop model of ligand binding to the ligand-gated ion channel superfamily. Images PMID:7621814

  6. Dual Role of the Second Extracellular Loop of the Cannabinoid Receptor 1: Ligand Binding and Receptor Localization

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Kwang H.; Bertalovitz, Alexander C.; Mierke, Dale F.

    2009-01-01

    The seven transmembrane α-helices of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the hallmark of this superfamily. Intrahelical interactions are critical to receptor assembly and, for the GPCR subclass that binds small molecules, ligand binding. Most research has focused on identifying the ligand binding pocket within the helical bundle, whereas the role of the extracellular loops remains undefined. Molecular modeling of the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) extracellular loop 2 (EC2), however, suggests that EC2 is poised for key interactions. To test this possibility, we employed alanine scanning mutagenesis of CB1 EC2 and identified two distinct regions critical for ligand binding, G protein coupling activity, and receptor trafficking. Receptors with mutations in the N terminus of EC2 (W255A, N256A) were retained in the endoplasmic reticulum and did not bind the agonist (1R,3R,4R)-3-[2-hydroxy-4-(1,1-dimethylheptyl)-phenyl]-4-(3-hydroxypropyl)cyclohexan-1-ol (CP55940) or the inverse agonist N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide(SR141716A). In contrast, the C terminus of EC2 differentiates agonist and inverse agonist; the P269A, H270A, and I271A receptors exhibited diminished binding for several agonists but bound inverse agonists SR141716A, N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (AM251), and 4-[6-methoxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)benzofuran-3-carbonyl]benzonitrile (LY320135) with wild-type receptor affinity. The F268A receptor involving substitution in the Cys-X-X-X-Ar motif, displayed both impaired localization and ligand binding. Other amino acid substitutions at position 268 revealed that highly hydrophobic residues are required to accomplish both functions. It is noteworthy that a F268W receptor was trafficked to the cell surface yet displayed differential binding preference for inverse agonists comparable with the P269A, H270A, and I271A receptors. The findings

  7. Steroid binding by antibodies and artificial receptors: Exploration of theoretical methods to determine the origins of binding affinities and specificities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handschuh, Sandra; Goldfuss, Bernd; Chen, Jiangang; Gasteiger, Johann; Houk, K. N.

    2000-10-01

    Binding mode calculations for complexes between an artificial paracyclophane receptor and digoxins, cholic acids as well as cortisone steroids show encapsulation of different ring combinations. Docking experiments were performed between the 26-10 antibody and digoxins. Coordination affinity arises from hydrophobic desolvation and van der Waals interactions rather than from hydrogen bonds. The specificity and affinity arises mainly from shape complementarity. Computed binding free energies and Kohonen neural network computations both point to physicochemical and structural similarities of natural antibodies and artificial receptors.

  8. Identification of a subdomain in the Moloney murine leukemia virus envelope protein involved in receptor binding.

    PubMed Central

    MacKrell, A J; Soong, N W; Curtis, C M; Anderson, W F

    1996-01-01

    We have mutated amino acids within the receptor-binding domain of Moloney murine leukemia virus envelope in order to identify residues involved in receptor binding. Analysis of mutations in the region of amino acids 81 to 88 indicates that this region is important for specific envelope-receptor interactions. None of the aspartate 84 (D-84) mutants studied bind measurably, although they are efficiently incorporated into particles. D-84 mutants have titers that correspond to the severity of the substitution. This observation suggests that D-84 may provide a direct receptor contact. Mutations in the other charged amino acids in this domain (R-83, E-86, and E-87) yield titers similar to those of wild-type envelope, but the affinity of the mutant envelope in the binding assay is decreased by nonconservative substitutions in parallel to the severity of the change. These other amino acids may either provide secondary receptor contacts or assist in maintaining a structure in the domain that favors efficient binding. We also studied other regions of high hydrophilicity. Our initial characterization indicates that amino acids 106 to 111 and 170 to 188 do not play a major role in receptor binding. Measurements of relative binding affinity and titer indicate that most mutations in the region of amino acids 120 to 131 did not significantly affect receptor binding. However, SU encoded by mutants H123V, R124L, and C131A as well as C81A could not be detected in particles and therefore did not bind measurably. Therefore, the region encompassed by amino acids 81 to 88 appears to be directly involved in receptor binding. PMID:8627699

  9. Familial defective apolipoprotein B-100: low density lipoproteins with abnormal receptor binding.

    PubMed Central

    Innerarity, T L; Weisgraber, K H; Arnold, K S; Mahley, R W; Krauss, R M; Vega, G L; Grundy, S M

    1987-01-01

    Previous in vivo turnover studies suggested that retarded clearance of low density lipoproteins (LDL) from the plasma of some hypercholesterolemic patients is due to LDL with defective receptor binding. The present study examined this postulate directly by receptor binding experiments. The LDL from a hypercholesterolemic patient (G.R.) displayed a reduced ability to bind to the LDL receptors on normal human fibroblasts. The G.R. LDL possessed 32% of normal receptor binding activity (approximately equal to 9.3 micrograms of G.R. LDL per ml were required to displace 50% of 125I-labeled normal LDL, vs. approximately equal to 3.0 micrograms of normal LDL per ml). Likewise, the G.R. LDL were much less effective than normal LDL in competing with 125I-labeled normal LDL for cellular uptake and degradation and in stimulating intracellular cholesteryl ester synthesis. The defect in LDL binding appears to be due to a genetic abnormality of apolipoprotein B-100: two brothers of the proband possess LDL defective in receptor binding, whereas a third brother and the proband's son have normally binding LDL. Further, the defect in receptor binding does not appear to be associated with an abnormal lipid composition or structure of the LDL: the chemical and physical properties of the particles were normal, and partial delipidation of the LDL did not alter receptor binding activity. Normal and abnormal LDL subpopulations were partially separated from plasma of two subjects by density-gradient ultracentrifugation, a finding consistent with the presence of a normal and a mutant allele. The affected family members appear to be heterozygous for this disorder, which has been designated familial defective apolipoprotein B-100. These studies indicate that the defective receptor binding results in inefficient clearance of LDL and the hypercholesterolemia observed in these patients. PMID:3477815

  10. Test of the Binding Threshold Hypothesis for olfactory receptors: Explanation of the differential binding of ketones to the mouse and human orthologs of olfactory receptor 912-93

    PubMed Central

    Hummel, Patrick; Vaidehi, Nagarajan; Floriano, Wely B.; Hall, Spencer E.; Goddard, William A.

    2005-01-01

    We tested the Binding Threshold Hypothesis (BTH) for activation of olfactory receptors (ORs): To activate an OR, the odorant must bind to the OR with binding energy above some threshold value. The olfactory receptor (OR) 912-93 is known experimentally to be activated by ketones in mouse, but is inactive to ketones in human, despite an amino acid sequence identity of ∼66%. To investigate the origins of this difference, we used the MembStruk first-principles method to predict the tertiary structure of the mouse OR 912-93 (mOR912-93), and the HierDock first-principles method to predict the binding site for ketones to this receptor. We found that the strong binding of ketones to mOR912-93 is dominated by a hydrogen bond of the ketone carbonyl group to Ser105. All ketones predicted to have a binding energy stronger than EBindThresh = 26 kcal/mol were observed experimentally to activate this OR, while the two ketones predicted to bind more weakly do not. In addition, we predict that 2-undecanone and 2-dodecanone both bind sufficiently strongly to activate mOR912-93. A similar binding site for ketones was predicted in hOR912-93, but the binding is much weaker because the human ortholog has a Gly at the position of Ser105. We predict that mutating this Gly to Ser in human should lead to activation of hOR912-93 by these ketones. Experimental substantiations of the above predictions would provide further tests of the validity of the BTH, our predicted 3D structures, and our predicted binding sites for these ORs. PMID:15722446

  11. Partial separation of platelet and placental adenosine receptors from adenosine A2-like binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Zolnierowicz, S.; Work, C.; Hutchison, K.; Fox, I.H. )

    1990-04-01

    The ubiquitous adenosine A2-like binding protein obscures the binding properties of adenosine receptors assayed with 5'-N-({sup 3}H)ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (({sup 3}H)NECA). To solve this problem, we developed a rapid and simple method to separate adenosine receptors from the adenosine A2-like binding protein. Human platelet and placental membranes were solubilized with 1% 3-((3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio)-1-propanesulfonate. The soluble platelet extract was precipitated with polyethylene glycol and the fraction enriched in adenosine receptors was isolated from the precipitate by differential centrifugation. The adenosine A2-like binding protein was removed from the soluble placental extract with hydroxylapatite and adenosine receptors were precipitated with polyethylene glycol. The specificity of the ({sup 3}H)NECA binding is typical of an adenosine A2 receptor for platelets and an adenosine A1 receptor for placenta. This method leads to enrichment of adenosine A2 receptors for platelets and adenosine A1 receptors for placenta. This provides a useful preparation technique for pharmacologic studies of adenosine receptors.

  12. Differences in the binding mechanism of RU486 and progesterone to the progesterone receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Skafar, D.F. )

    1991-11-12

    The binding mechanism of the antagonist RU486 to the progesterone receptor was compared with that of the agonists progesterone and R5020. Both progesterone and RU486 bound to the receptor with a Hill coefficient of 1.2, indicating the binding of each ligand is positive cooperative. However, when each ligand was used to compete with ({sup 3}H)progesterone for binding to the receptor at receptor concentrations near 8 nM, at which the receptor is likely a dimer, the competition curve for RU486 was significantly steeper than the curves for progesterone and R5020. This indicated that a difference in the binding mechanism of RU486 and progesterone can be detected when both ligands are present. In contrast, at receptor concentrations near 1 nM, at which the receptor is likely a monomer, the competition curves for all three ligands were indistinguishable. These results indicate that RU486 and agonists have different binding mechanisms for the receptor and further suggest that this difference may be related to site-site interactions within the receptor.

  13. Sigma-1 receptors bind cholesterol and remodel lipid rafts in breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Christopher P; Mahen, Robert; Schnell, Eva; Djamgoz, Mustafa B A; Aydar, Ebru

    2007-12-01

    Lipid rafts are membrane platforms that spatially organize molecules for specific signaling pathways that regulate various cellular functions. Cholesterol is critical for liquid-ordered raft formation by serving as a spacer between the hydrocarbon chains of sphingolipids, and alterations in the cholesterol contents of the plasma membrane causes disruption of rafts. The role that sigma receptors play in cancer is not clear, although it is frequently up-regulated in human cancer cells and tissues and sigma receptors inhibit proliferation in carcinoma and melanoma cell lines, induce apoptosis in colon and mammary carcinoma cell lines, and reduce cellular adhesion in mammary carcinoma cell lines. In this study, we provide molecular and functional evidence for the involvement of the enigmatic sigma 1 receptors in lipid raft modeling by sigma 1 receptor-mediated cholesterol alteration of lipid rafts in breast cancer cell lines. Cholesterol binds to cholesterol recognition domains in the COOH terminus of the sigma 1 receptor. This binding is blocked by sigma receptor drugs because the cholesterol-binding domains form part of the sigma receptor drug-binding site, mutations of which abolish cholesterol binding. Furthermore, we outline a hypothetical functional model to explain the myriad of biological processes, including cancer, in which these mysterious receptors are involved. The findings of this study provide a biological basis for the potential therapeutic applications of lipid raft cholesterol regulation in cancer therapy using sigma receptor drugs.

  14. Palonosetron-5-HT3 Receptor Interactions As Shown by a Binding Protein Cocrystal Structure.

    PubMed

    Price, Kerry L; Lillestol, Reidun K; Ulens, Chris; Lummis, Sarah C R

    2016-12-21

    Palonosetron is a potent 5-HT3 receptor antagonist and an effective therapeutic agent against emesis. Here we identify the molecular determinants of compound recognition in the receptor binding site by obtaining a high resolution structure of palonosetron bound to an engineered acetylcholine binding protein that mimics the 5-HT3 receptor binding site, termed 5-HTBP, and by examining the potency of palonosetron in a range of 5-HT3 receptors with mutated binding site residues. The structural data indicate that palonosetron forms a tight and effective wedge in the binding pocket, made possible by its rigid tricyclic ring structure and its interactions with binding site residues; it adopts a binding pose that is distinct from the related antiemetics granisetron and tropisetron. The functional data show many residues previously shown to interact with agonists and antagonists in the binding site are important for palonosetron binding, and indicate those of particular importance are W183 (a cation-π interaction and a hydrogen bond) and Y153 (a hydrogen bond). This information, and the availability of the structure of palonosetron bound to 5-HTBP, should aid the development of novel and more efficacious drugs that act via 5-HT3 receptors.

  15. Non-peptide ligand binding to the formyl peptide receptor FPR2--A comparison to peptide ligand binding modes.

    PubMed

    Stepniewski, Tomasz M; Filipek, Slawomir

    2015-07-15

    Ligands of the FPR2 receptor initiate many signaling pathways including activation of phospholipase C, protein kinase C, the mitogen-activated protein kinase, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B pathway. The possible actions include also calcium flux, superoxide generation, as well as migration and proliferation of monocytes. FPR2 activation may induce a pro- and anti-inflammatory effect depending on the ligand type. It is also found that this receptor is involved in tumor growth. Most of currently known FPR2 ligands are agonists since they were designed based on N-formyl peptides, which are natural agonists of formyl receptors. Since the non-peptide drugs are indispensable for effective treatment strategies, we performed a docking study of such ligands employing a generated dual template homology model of the FPR2 receptor. The study revealed different binding modes of particular classes of these drugs. Based on the obtained docking poses we proposed a detailed location of three hydrophobic pockets in orthosteric binding site of FPR2. Our model emphasizes the importance of aromatic stacking, especially with regard to residues His102(3.29) and Phe257(6.51), for binding of FPR2 ligands. We also identified other residues important for non-peptide ligand binding in the binding site of FPR2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Multiple specific binding sites for purified glucocorticoid receptors on mammary tumor virus DNA.

    PubMed

    Payvar, F; Firestone, G L; Ross, S R; Chandler, V L; Wrange, O; Carlstedt-Duke, J; Gustafsson, J A; Yamamoto, K R

    1982-01-01

    Glucocorticoid hormones selectively stimulate the rate of transcription of integrated mammary tumor virus (MTV) sequences in infected rat hepatoma cells. Using two independent assays, we find that purified rat liver glucocorticoid receptor protein binds specifically to at least four widely separated regions on pure MTV proviral DNA. One of these specific binding domains, which itself contains at least two distinct receptor binding sites, resides within a fragment of viral DNA that maps 110-449 bp upstream of the promoter for MTV RNA synthesis. Three other binding domains lie downstream of the promoter and within the MTV primary transcription unit. Restriction fragments bearing separate binding domains have been introduced into cultured cells; transformants have been recovered in which the introduced fragments are expressed under glucocorticoid control. Thus, it appears that this assay will be useful for assessing the biological significance of the receptor binding sites detected in vitro.

  17. Free energy calculations offer insights into the influence of receptor flexibility on ligand-receptor binding affinities.

    PubMed

    Dolenc, Jožica; Riniker, Sereina; Gaspari, Roberto; Daura, Xavier; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F

    2011-08-01

    Docking algorithms for computer-aided drug discovery and design often ignore or restrain the flexibility of the receptor, which may lead to a loss of accuracy of the relative free enthalpies of binding. In order to evaluate the contribution of receptor flexibility to relative binding free enthalpies, two host-guest systems have been examined: inclusion complexes of α-cyclodextrin (αCD) with 1-chlorobenzene (ClBn), 1-bromobenzene (BrBn) and toluene (MeBn), and complexes of DNA with the minor-groove binding ligands netropsin (Net) and distamycin (Dist). Molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations reveal that restraining of the flexibility of the receptor can have a significant influence on the estimated relative ligand-receptor binding affinities as well as on the predicted structures of the biomolecular complexes. The influence is particularly pronounced in the case of flexible receptors such as DNA, where a 50% contribution of DNA flexibility towards the relative ligand-DNA binding affinities is observed. The differences in the free enthalpy of binding do not arise only from the changes in ligand-DNA interactions but also from changes in ligand-solvent interactions as well as from the loss of DNA configurational entropy upon restraining.

  18. Human myometrial adrenergic receptors during pregnancy: identification of the alpha-adrenergic receptor by (/sup 3/H) dihydroergocryptine binding

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, M.M.; Hayashida, D.; Roberts, J.M.

    1985-07-15

    The radioactive alpha-adrenergic antagonist (/sup 3/H) dihydroergocryptine binds to particulate preparations of term pregnant human myometrium in a manner compatible with binding to the alpha-adrenergic receptor (alpha-receptor). (/sup 3/H) Dihydroergocryptine binds with high affinity (KD = 2 nmol/L and low capacity (receptor concentration = 100 fmol/mg of protein). Adrenergic agonists compete for (/sup 3/H) dihydroergocryptine binding sites stereo-selectively ((-)-norepinephrine is 100 times as potent as (+)-norepinephrine) and in a manner compatible with alpha-adrenergic potencies (epinephrine approximately equal to norepinephrine much greater than isoproterenol). Studies in which prazosin, an alpha 1-antagonist, and yohimbine, and alpha 2-antagonist, competed for (/sup 3/H) dihydroergocryptine binding sites in human myometrium indicated that approximately 70% are alpha 2-receptors and that 30% are alpha 1-receptors. (/sup 3/H) dihydroergocryptine binding to human myometrial membrane particulate provides an important tool with which to study the molecular mechanisms of uterine alpha-adrenergic response.

  19. Neuronal low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 binds and endocytoses prion fibrils via receptor cluster 4

    PubMed Central

    Jen, Angela; Parkyn, Celia J.; Mootoosamy, Roy C.; Ford, Melanie J.; Warley, Alice; Liu, Qiang; Bu, Guojun; Baskakov, Ilia V.; Moestrup, Søren; McGuinness, Lindsay; Emptage, Nigel; Morris, Roger J.

    2010-01-01

    For infectious prion protein (designated PrPSc) to act as a template to convert normal cellular protein (PrPC) to its distinctive pathogenic conformation, the two forms of prion protein (PrP) must interact closely. The neuronal receptor that rapidly endocytoses PrPC is the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1). We show here that on sensory neurons LRP1 is also the receptor that binds and rapidly endocytoses smaller oligomeric forms of infectious prion fibrils, and recombinant PrP fibrils. Although LRP1 binds two molecules of most ligands independently to its receptor clusters 2 and 4, PrPC and PrPSc fibrils bind only to receptor cluster 4. PrPSc fibrils out-compete PrPC for internalization. When endocytosed, PrPSc fibrils are routed to lysosomes, rather than recycled to the cell surface with PrPC. Thus, although LRP1 binds both forms of PrP, it traffics them to separate fates within sensory neurons. The binding of both to ligand cluster 4 should enable genetic modification of PrP binding without disrupting other roles of LRP1 essential to neuronal viability and function, thereby enabling in vivo analysis of the role of this interaction in controlling both prion and LRP1 biology. PMID:20048341

  20. The human olfactory receptor 17-40: requisites for fitting into the binding pocket.

    PubMed

    Anselmi, Cecilia; Buonocore, Anna; Centini, Marisanna; Facino, Roberto Maffei; Hatt, Hanns

    2011-06-01

    To gain structural insight on the interactions between odorants and the human olfactory receptor, we did homology modelling of the receptor structure, followed by molecular docking simulation with ligands. Molecular dynamics simulation on the structures resulting from docking served to estimate the binding free energy of the various odorant families. A correlation with the odorous properties of the ligands is proposed. We also investigated which residues were involved in the binding of a set of properly synthesised ligands and which were required for fitting inside the binding pocket. Olfactive stimulation of the olfactory receptor with odorous molecules was also investigated, using calcium imaging or electrophysiological recordings.

  1. IP3 receptor binds to and sensitizes TRPV4 channel to osmotic stimuli via a calmodulin-binding site.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Elias, Anna; Lorenzo, Ivan M; Vicente, Rubén; Valverde, Miguel A

    2008-11-14

    Activation of the non-selective cation channel TRPV4 by mechanical and osmotic stimuli requires the involvement of phospholipase A2 and the subsequent production of the arachidonic acid metabolites, epoxieicosatrienoic acids (EET). Previous studies have shown that inositol trisphosphate (IP3) sensitizes TRPV4 to mechanical, osmotic, and direct EET stimulation. We now search for the IP3 receptor-binding site on TRPV4 and its relevance to IP3-mediated sensitization. Three putative sites involved in protein-protein interactions were evaluated: a proline-rich domain (PRD), a calmodulin (CaM)-binding site, and the last four amino acids (DAPL) that show a PDZ-binding motif-like. TRPV4-DeltaCaM-(Delta812-831) channels preserved activation by hypotonicity, 4alpha-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate, and EET but lost their physical interaction with IP3 receptor 3 and IP3-mediated sensitization. Deletion of a PDZ-binding motif-like (TRPV4-DeltaDAPL) did not affect channel activity or IP3-mediated sensitization, whereas TRPV4-DeltaPRD-(Delta132-144) resulted in loss of channel function despite correct trafficking. We conclude that IP3-mediated sensitization requires IP3 receptor binding to a TRPV4 C-terminal domain that overlaps with a previously described calmodulin-binding site.

  2. Human myometrial adrenergic receptors: identification of the beta-adrenergic receptor by (/sup 3/H)dihydroalprenolol binding

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashida, D.N.; Leung, R.; Goldfien, A.; Roberts, J.M.

    1982-02-15

    The radioactive beta-adrenergic antagonist (/sup 3/H) dihydroalprenolol (DHA) binds to particulate preparations of human myometrium in a manner compatible with binding to the beta-adrenergic receptor. The binding of DHA is rapid (attaining equilibrium in 12 minutes), readily reversible (half time = 16 minutes), high affinity (K/sub D/ = 0.50 nM), low capacity (Bmax = 70 fmoles/mg of protein), and stereoselective ((-)-propranolol is 100 times as potent as (+) -propranolol in inhibiting DHA binding). Adrenergic agonists competed for DHA binding sites in a manner compatible with beta-adrenergic interactions and mirrored ..beta../sub 2/ pharmacologic potencies: isoproterenol > epinephrine >> norepinephrine. Studies in which zinterol, a ..beta../sub 2/-adrenergic agonist, competed for DHA binding sites in human myometrial particulate indicated that at least 87% of the beta-adrenergic receptors present are ..beta../sub 2/-adrenergic receptors. Binding of DHA to human myometrial beta-adrenergic receptors provides a tool which may be used in the examination of gonadal hormonal modification of adrenergic response in human uterus as well as in the analysis of beta-adrenergic agents as potentially useful tocolytic agents.

  3. Coupling the Torpedo Microplate-Receptor Binding Assay with Mass Spectrometry to Detect Cyclic Imine Neurotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Aráoz, Rómulo; Ramos, Suzanne; Pelissier, Franck; Guérineau, Vincent; Benoit, Evelyne; Vilariño, Natalia; Botana, Luis M.; Zakarian, Armen; Molgó, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Cyclic imine neurotoxins constitute an emergent family of neurotoxins of dinoflagellate origin that are potent antagonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. We developed a target-directed functional method based on the mechanism of action of competitive agonists/antagonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors for the detection of marine cyclic imine neurotoxins. The key step for method development was the immobilization of Torpedo electrocyte membranes rich in nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on the surface of microplate wells and the use of biotinylated-α-bungarotoxin as tracer. Cyclic imine neurotoxins competitively inhibit biotinylated-α-bungarotoxin binding to Torpedo-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in a concentration-dependent manner. The microplate-receptor binding assay allowed rapid detection of nanomolar concentrations of cyclic imine neurotoxins directly in shellfish samples. Although highly sensitive and specific for the detection of neurotoxins targeting nicotinic acetylcholine receptors as a class, the receptor binding assay cannot identify a given analyte. To address the low selectivity of the microplate-receptor binding assay, the cyclic imine neurotoxins tightly bound to the coated Torpedo nicotinic receptor were eluted with methanol, and the chemical nature of the eluted ligands was identified by mass spectrometry. The immobilization of Torpedo electrocyte membranes on the surface of microplate wells proved to be a high-throughput format for the survey of neurotoxins targeting nicotinic acetylcholine receptors directly in shellfish matrixes with high sensitivity and reproducibility. PMID:23131021

  4. Ligand binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor investigated by surface plasmon resonance.

    PubMed

    Kröger, D; Hucho, F; Vogel, H

    1999-08-01

    Ligand binding to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is studied by surface plasmon resonance. Biotinylated bungarotoxin, immobilized on a streptavidin-coated gold film, binds nicotinic acetylcholine receptor both in detergent-solubilized and in lipid vesicle-reconstituted form with high specificity. In the latter case, nonspecific binding to the sensor surface is significantly reduced by reconstituting the receptor into poly(ethylene glycol)-lipid-containing sterically stabilized vesicles. By preincubation of a bulk nicotinic acetylcholine receptor sample with the competing ligands carbamoylcholine and decamethonium bromide, the subsequent specific binding of the receptor to the surface-immobilized bungarotoxin is reduced, depending on the concentration of competing ligand. This competition assay allows the determination of the dissociation constants of the acetylcholine receptor-carbamoylcholine complex. A K(D) = 3.5 × 10(-)(6) M for the detergent-solubilized receptor and a K(D) = 1.4 × 10(-)(5) M for the lipid vesicle-reconstituted receptor are obtained. For decamethonium bromide, a K(D) = 4.5 × 10(-)(5) M is determined for the detergent-solubilized receptor. This approach is of general importance for investigating ligand-receptor interactions in case of small ligand molecules by mass-sensitive techniques.

  5. Coupling the Torpedo microplate-receptor binding assay with mass spectrometry to detect cyclic imine neurotoxins.

    PubMed

    Aráoz, Rómulo; Ramos, Suzanne; Pelissier, Franck; Guérineau, Vincent; Benoit, Evelyne; Vilariño, Natalia; Botana, Luis M; Zakarian, Armen; Molgó, Jordi

    2012-12-04

    Cyclic imine neurotoxins constitute an emergent family of neurotoxins of dinoflagellate origin that are potent antagonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. We developed a target-directed functional method based on the mechanism of action of competitive agonists/antagonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors for the detection of marine cyclic imine neurotoxins. The key step for method development was the immobilization of Torpedo electrocyte membranes rich in nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on the surface of microplate wells and the use of biotinylated-α-bungarotoxin as tracer. Cyclic imine neurotoxins competitively inhibit biotinylated-α-bungarotoxin binding to Torpedo-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in a concentration-dependent manner. The microplate-receptor binding assay allowed rapid detection of nanomolar concentrations of cyclic imine neurotoxins directly in shellfish samples. Although highly sensitive and specific for the detection of neurotoxins targeting nicotinic acetylcholine receptors as a class, the receptor binding assay cannot identify a given analyte. To address the low selectivity of the microplate-receptor binding assay, the cyclic imine neurotoxins tightly bound to the coated Torpedo nicotinic receptor were eluted with methanol, and the chemical nature of the eluted ligands was identified by mass spectrometry. The immobilization of Torpedo electrocyte membranes on the surface of microplate wells proved to be a high-throughput format for the survey of neurotoxins targeting nicotinic acetylcholine receptors directly in shellfish matrixes with high sensitivity and reproducibility.

  6. Binding of quinolizidine alkaloids to nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Schmeller, T; Sauerwein, M; Sporer, F; Wink, M; Müller, W E

    1994-09-01

    Fourteen quinolizidine alkaloids, isolated from Lupinus albus, L. mutabilis, and Anagyris foetida, were analyzed for their affinity for nicotinic and/or muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Of the compounds tested, the alpha-pyridones, N-methylcytisine and cytisine, showed the highest affinities at the nicotinic receptor, while several quinolizidine alkaloid types were especially active at the muscarinic receptor.

  7. Mu receptor binding of some commonly used opioids and their metabolites

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Zhaorong; Irvine, R.J. ); Somogyi, A.A.; Bochner, F. Royal Adelaide Hospital )

    1991-01-01

    The binding affinity to the {mu} receptor of some opioids chemically related to morphine and some of their metabolites was examined in rat brain homogenates with {sup 3}H-DAMGO. The chemical group at position 6 of the molecule had little effect on binding. Decreasing the length of the alkyl group at position 3 decreased the K{sub i} values (morphine < codeine < ethylmorphine < pholcodine). Analgesics with high clinical potency containing a methoxyl group at position 3 had relatively weak receptor binding, while their O-demethylated metabolites had much stronger binding. Many opioids may exert their pharmacological actions predominantly through metabolites.

  8. GABA(A) receptor binding and localization in the tiger salamander retina.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Standifer, K M; Sherry, D M

    2000-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the retina and also appears to act as a trophic factor regulating photoreceptor development and regeneration. Although the tiger salamander is a major model system for the study of retinal circuitry and regeneration, our understanding of GABA receptors in this species is almost exclusively based on the results of physiological studies. Therefore, we have examined the pharmacological binding properties of GABA(A) receptors and their anatomical localization in the tiger salamander retina. Radioligand-binding studies showed that specific 3H-GABA binding to GABA(A) receptors was dominated by a single high-affinity binding site (Kd = 15.6+/-6.9 nM). Specific binding of 3H-GABA was almost completely eliminated by muscimol (Ki = 105+/-62 nM) and bicuculline (Ki = 14.3+/-2.2 microM); however, SR-95531 only displaced about 40% of specific 3H-GABA binding (Ki = 35.0+/-3.8 nM). These data indicate that there are at least two subtypes of GABA(A) receptors present in the salamander retina that can be distinguished by their antagonist binding properties: one sensitive to both bicuculline and SR-95531, and one sensitive to bicuculline but insensitive to SR-95531. Because localization of GABA receptors in the salamander retina by immunocytochemistry is problematic, GABA(A) receptors were localized by fluorescent ligand binding combined with immunocytochemical labeling for cell specific markers. Binding of fluorescently labeled muscimol to GABA(A) receptors was present in both plexiform layers and on photoreceptor cell bodies. GABA(A) receptors in the outer plexiform layer were localized to both photoreceptor terminals and horizontal cell processes.

  9. Measuring relative acetylcholine receptor agonist binding by selective proton nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation experiments.

    PubMed Central

    Behling, R W; Yamane, T; Navon, G; Sammon, M J; Jelinski, L W

    1988-01-01

    A method is presented that uses selective proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) relaxation measurements of nicotine in the presence of the acetylcholine receptor to obtain relative binding constants for acetylcholine, carbamylcholine, and muscarine. For receptors from Torpedo californica the results show that (a) the binding constants are in the order acetylcholine greater than nicotine greater than carbamylcholine greater than muscarine; (b) selective NMR measurements provide a rapid and direct method for monitoring both the specific and nonspecific binding of agonists to these receptors and to the lipid; (c) alpha-bungarotoxin can be used to distinguish between specific and nonspecific binding to the receptor; (d) the receptor--substrate interaction causes a large change in the selective relaxation time of the agonists even at concentrations 100x greater than that of the receptor. This last observation means that these measurements provide a rapid method to monitor drug binding when only small amounts of receptor are available. Furthermore, the binding strategies presented here may be useful for the NMR determination of the conformation of the ligand in its bound state. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:3395661

  10. Proposed Mode of Binding and Action of Positive Allosteric Modulators at Opioid Receptors

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Available crystal structures of opioid receptors provide a high-resolution picture of ligand binding at the primary (“orthosteric”) site, that is, the site targeted by endogenous ligands. Recently, positive allosteric modulators of opioid receptors have also been discovered, but their modes of binding and action remain unknown. Here, we use a metadynamics-based strategy to efficiently sample the binding process of a recently discovered positive allosteric modulator of the δ-opioid receptor, BMS-986187, in the presence of the orthosteric agonist SNC-80, and with the receptor embedded in an explicit lipid–water environment. The dynamics of BMS-986187 were enhanced by biasing the potential acting on the ligand–receptor distance and ligand–receptor interaction contacts. Representative lowest-energy structures from the reconstructed free-energy landscape revealed two alternative ligand binding poses at an allosteric site delineated by transmembrane (TM) helices TM1, TM2, and TM7, with some participation of TM6. Mutations of amino acid residues at these proposed allosteric sites were found to either affect the binding of BMS-986187 or its ability to modulate the affinity and/or efficacy of SNC-80. Taken together, these combined experimental and computational studies provide the first atomic-level insight into the modulation of opioid receptor binding and signaling by allosteric modulators. PMID:26841170

  11. The roles of hemagglutinin Phe-95 in receptor binding and pathogenicity of influenza B virus.

    PubMed

    Ni, Fengyun; Mbawuike, Innocent Nnadi; Kondrashkina, Elena; Wang, Qinghua

    2014-02-01

    Diverged ~4000 years ago, influenza B virus has several important differences from influenza A virus, including lower receptor-binding affinity and highly restricted host range. Based on our prior structural studies, we hypothesized that a single-residue difference in the receptor-binding site of hemagglutinin (HA), Phe-95 in influenza B virus versus Tyr-98 in influenza A/H1-H15, is possibly a key determinant for the low receptor-binding affinity. Here we demonstrate that the mutation Phe95→Tyr in influenza B virus HA restores all three hydrogen bonds made by Tyr-98 in influenza A/H1-15 HA and has the potential to enhance receptor binding. However, the full realization of this potential is influenced by the local environment into which the mutation is introduced. The binding and replication of the recombinant viruses correlate well with the receptor-binding capabilities of HA. These results are discussed in relation to the roles of Phe-95 in receptor binding and pathogenicity of influenza B virus.

  12. The Roles of Hemagglutinin Phe-95 in Receptor Binding and Pathogenicity of Influenza B Virus

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Fengyun; Mbawuike, Innocent Nnadi; Kondrashkina, Elena; Wang, Qinghua

    2014-01-01

    Diverged ~4,000 years ago, influenza B virus has several important differences from influenza A virus, including lower receptor-binding affinity and highly restricted host range. Based on our prior structural studies, we hypothesized that a single-residue difference in the receptor-binding site of hemagglutinin (HA), Phe-95 in influenza B virus versus Tyr-98 in influenza A/H1~H15, is possibly a key determinant for the low receptor-binding affinity. Here we demonstrate that the mutation Phe95→Tyr in influenza B virus HA restores all three hydrogen bonds made by Tyr-98 in influenza A/H3 HA and has the potential to enhance receptor binding. However, the full realization of this potential is influenced by the local environment into which the mutation is introduced. The binding and replication of the recombinant viruses correlate well with the receptor-binding capabilities of HA. These results are discussed in relation to the roles of Phe-95 in receptor binding and pathogenicity of influenza B virus. PMID:24503069

  13. Adaptation of avian influenza A (H6N1) virus from avian to human receptor-binding preference

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Qi, Jianxun; Bi, Yuhai; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Min; Zhang, Baorong; Wang, Ming; Liu, Jinhua; Yan, Jinghua; Shi, Yi; Gao, George F

    2015-01-01

    The receptor-binding specificity of influenza A viruses is a major determinant for the host tropism of the virus, which enables interspecies transmission. In 2013, the first human case of infection with avian influenza A (H6N1) virus was reported in Taiwan. To gather evidence concerning the epidemic potential of H6 subtype viruses, we performed comprehensive analysis of receptor-binding properties of Taiwan-isolated H6 HAs from 1972 to 2013. We propose that the receptor-binding properties of Taiwan-isolated H6 HAs have undergone three major stages: initially avian receptor-binding preference, secondarily obtaining human receptor-binding capacity, and recently human receptor-binding preference, which has been confirmed by receptor-binding assessment of three representative virus isolates. Mutagenesis work revealed that E190V and G228S substitutions are important to acquire the human receptor-binding capacity, and the P186L substitution could reduce the binding to avian receptor. Further structural analysis revealed how the P186L substitution in the receptor-binding site of HA determines the receptor-binding preference change. We conclude that the human-infecting H6N1 evolved into a human receptor preference. PMID:25940072

  14. Adaptation of avian influenza A (H6N1) virus from avian to human receptor-binding preference.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Qi, Jianxun; Bi, Yuhai; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Min; Zhang, Baorong; Wang, Ming; Liu, Jinhua; Yan, Jinghua; Shi, Yi; Gao, George F

    2015-06-12

    The receptor-binding specificity of influenza A viruses is a major determinant for the host tropism of the virus, which enables interspecies transmission. In 2013, the first human case of infection with avian influenza A (H6N1) virus was reported in Taiwan. To gather evidence concerning the epidemic potential of H6 subtype viruses, we performed comprehensive analysis of receptor-binding properties of Taiwan-isolated H6 HAs from 1972 to 2013. We propose that the receptor-binding properties of Taiwan-isolated H6 HAs have undergone three major stages: initially avian receptor-binding preference, secondarily obtaining human receptor-binding capacity, and recently human receptor-binding preference, which has been confirmed by receptor-binding assessment of three representative virus isolates. Mutagenesis work revealed that E190V and G228S substitutions are important to acquire the human receptor-binding capacity, and the P186L substitution could reduce the binding to avian receptor. Further structural analysis revealed how the P186L substitution in the receptor-binding site of HA determines the receptor-binding preference change. We conclude that the human-infecting H6N1 evolved into a human receptor preference.

  15. Binding characteristics of prostaglandin E sub 2 receptor in submandibular glands: Effect of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Wuwang, C.Y.; Lim, C.; Yao, P.; Wang, S.L.; Slomiany, A.; Slomiany, B.L. )

    1991-03-11

    Prostaglandin (PG) of the E series are known to stimulate saliva flow and mucin secretion in salivary glands, however, the cellular mechanism of this action remains unclear. Binding of PGE to specific binding site may be the initial step in the sequence of events that result in various biological activities. The authors first characterized PGE{sub 2} receptor binding in rat submandibular glandmembranes. The binding was specific and reversible. Scatchard analysis demonstrated that the receptor consists of two binding sites. Since ethanol has been reported to diminish salivary secretion, they further investigated whether this detrimental effect was due to the alteration of PGE receptor. Submandibular glands were dissected from rats, minced, suspended in DMEM and incubated at 37C for 2 hr under 95% O{sub 2}-5% CO{sub 2} in the absence or presence of various concentrations of ethanol. After incubation, cell membranes were prepared and receptor binding assayed. The results indicated that ethanol caused an increase in PGE{sub 2} receptor binding. The specific binding increased by 30% at 2.5% ethanol and by 50% at 5% ethanol. Scatchard analysis of 5% ethanol-treated samples indicated that ethanol-induced increase of PGE{sub 2} binding was due to a 35% decrease and a 2.3-fold decrease of Kds of the high and low affinity receptor, respectively. The binding capacities were not changed by ethanol. It is suggested that ethanol causes an up-regulation of PGE{sub 2} receptor in submandibular glands.

  16. Competitive MS binding assays for dopamine D2 receptors employing spiperone as a native marker.

    PubMed

    Niessen, Karin V; Höfner, Georg; Wanner, Klaus T

    2005-10-01

    A competitive MS binding assay employing spiperone as a native marker and a porcine striatal membrane fraction as a source for dopamine D2 receptors in a nonvolatile buffer has been established. Binding of the test compounds to the target was monitored by mass-spectrometric quantification of the nonbound marker, spiperone, in the supernatant of the binding samples obtained by centrifugation. A solid-phase extraction procedure was used for separating spiperone from ESI-MS-incompatible supernatant matrix components. Subsequently, the marker was reliably quantified by LC-ESI-MS-MS by using haloperidol as an internal standard. The affinities of the test compounds, the dopamine receptor antagonists (+)-butaclamol, chlorpromazine and (S)-sulpiride obtained from the competitive MS binding assay were verified by corresponding radioligand binding experiments with [3H]spiperone. The results of this study demonstrate that competitive MS binding assays represent a universally applicable alternative to conventional radioligand binding assays.

  17. Binding-site analysis of opioid receptors using monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Conroy, W.G.

    1988-01-01

    Structural relatedness between the variable region of anti-ligand antibodies and opioid binding sites allowed the generation of anti-idiotypic antibodies which recognized opioid receptors. The IgG{sub 3}k antibodies which bound to opioid receptors were obtained when an anti-morphine antiserum was the idiotype. Both antibodies bound to opioid receptors, but only one of these blocked the binding of ({sup 3}H)naloxone. The antibody which did not inhibit the binding of ({sup 3}H)naloxone was itself displaced from the receptor by opioid ligands. The unique binding properties displayed by this antibody indicated that anti-idiotypic antibodies are not always a perfect image of the original ligand, and therefore may be more useful than typical ligands as probes for the receptor. An auto-anti-idiotypic technique was successfully used to obtain anti-opioid receptor antibodies. Another IgG{sub 3}k antibody that blocked the binding of ({sup 3}H)naloxone to rat brain opioid receptors was obtained when a mouse was immunized with naloxone conjugated to bovine serum albumin. These data confirmed that an idiotype-anti-idiotype network which can generate an anti-receptor antibody normally functions when an opioid ligand is introduced into an animal in an immunogenic form.

  18. Brain and atrial natriuretic peptides bind to common receptors in brain capillary endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Gelfand, R A; Frank, H J; Levin, E; Pedram, A

    1991-08-01

    The recent discovery of brain natriuretic peptides (BNP) that stimulates natriuresis, diuresis, and vascular smooth muscle relaxation in a manner similar to that of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) suggests the possibility that these endocrine hormones function via some common mechanism. Indirect evidence from several laboratories suggests that BNP and ANP may bind to the same receptors. We examined whether ANP and BNP bind to a common set of receptors in cultured bovine brain capillary endothelial cells and in bovine aortic endothelial cells. Scatchard plot analysis of binding data shows a similar dissociation constant (KD) of approximately 0.3 nM and a maximal binding capacity (Bmax) of 50 fmol/mg protein for both natriuretic peptides in brain capillary cells and 0.6 nM and 80 fmol/mg protein, respectively, in the aortic endothelial cells. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the affinity cross-linked receptor-ligand complex shows a strongly labeled 65-kDa receptor and a 125-kDa band that is likely to be a receptor of the guanylate cyclase type. ANP and BNP cross compete equally for binding to the two receptors identified on the gels. ANP and BNP also stimulate guanosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate production in these cells, consistent with the presence of a functional guanylate cyclase-linked B receptor. We conclude that ANP and BNP share common receptors in brain capillary and aortic endothelial cells.

  19. Characterization of [3H]alprazolam binding to central benzodiazepine receptors.

    PubMed

    McCabe, R T; Mahan, D R; Smith, R B; Wamsley, J K

    1990-10-01

    The binding of the triazolobenzodiazepine [3H]alprazolam was studied to characterize the in vitro interactions with benzodiazepine receptors in membrane preparations of rat brain. Studies using nonequilibrium and equilibrium binding conditions for [3H]alprazolam resulted in high specific to nonspecific (signal to noise) binding ratios. The binding of [3H]alprazolam was saturable and specific with a low nanomolar affinity for benzodiazepine receptors in the rat brain. The Kd was 4.6 nM and the Bmax was 2.6 pmol/mg protein. GABA enhanced [3H]alprazolam binding while several benzodiazepine receptor ligands were competitive inhibitors of this drug. Compounds that bind to other receptor sites had a very weak or negligible effect on [3H]alprazolam binding. Alprazolam, an agent used as an anxiolytic and in the treatment of depression, acts in vitro as a selective and specific ligand for benzodiazepine receptors in the rat brain. The biochemical binding profile does not appear to account for the unique therapeutic properties which distinguish this compound from the other benzodiazepines in its class.

  20. CLiBE: a database of computed ligand binding energy for ligand-receptor complexes.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Ji, Z L; Zhi, D G; Chen, Y Z

    2002-11-01

    Consideration of binding competitiveness of a drug candidate against natural ligands and other drugs that bind to the same receptor site may facilitate the rational development of a candidate into a potent drug. A strategy that can be applied to computer-aided drug design is to evaluate ligand-receptor interaction energy or other scoring functions of a designed drug with that of the relevant ligands known to bind to the same binding site. As a tool to facilitate such a strategy, a database of ligand-receptor interaction energy is developed from known ligand-receptor 3D structural entries in the Protein Databank (PDB). The Energy is computed based on a molecular mechanics force field that has been used in the prediction of therapeutic and toxicity targets of drugs. This database also contains information about ligand function and other properties and it can be accessed at http://xin.cz3.nus.edu.sg/group/CLiBE.asp. The computed energy components may facilitate the probing of the mode of action and other profiles of binding. A number of computed energies of some PDB ligand-receptor complexes in this database are studied and compared to experimental binding affinity. A certain degree of correlation between the computed energy and experimental binding affinity is found, which suggests that the computed energy may be useful in facilitating a qualitative analysis of drug binding competitiveness.

  1. Epidermal growth factor receptors on PC12 cells: alteration of binding properties by lectins

    SciTech Connect

    Vale, R.D.; Shooter, E.M.

    1983-01-01

    The PC12 cell line displays cell surface receptors for both nerve growth factor (NGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF). It has been previously shown that the lectin wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) alters the properties of NGF receptors on these cells. We now report that preincubations with either WGA or concanavalin A (Con A) decrease the binding of /sup 125/I-EGF to PC12 cells by greater than 50%. The inhibition of binding occurred at 37 degrees C and 4 degrees C and could be blocked or reversed by the addition of sugars which bind specifically to WGA or Con A. Scatchard analysis revealed that these lectins decreased binding primarily by lowering the affinity of the receptor and to a lesser extent by decreasing receptor number. Succinylation of Con A (sCon A) produced a derivative that was less effective than the native lectin in decreasing EGF binding; however, addition of an antibody against Con A restored the ability of sCon A to decrease binding. Similar to results obtained with /sup 125/I-NGF binding, WGA but not Con A was found to increase, by severalfold, the proportion of /sup 125/I-EGF binding that is resistant to solubilization by Triton X-100 detergent. A potential association of the EGF receptor with cytoskeletal elements is discussed which could account for such results.

  2. Characterization of ( sup 3 H)alprazolam binding to central benzodiazepine receptors

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, R.T.; Mahan, D.R.; Smith, R.B.; Wamsley, J.K. )

    1990-10-01

    The binding of the triazolobenzodiazepine ({sup 3}H)alprazolam was studied to characterize the in vitro interactions with benzodiazepine receptors in membrane preparations of rat brain. Studies using nonequilibrium and equilibrium binding conditions for ({sup 3}H)alprazolam resulted in high specific to nonspecific (signal to noise) binding ratios. The binding of ({sup 3}H)alprazolam was saturable and specific with a low nanomolar affinity for benzodiazepine receptors in the rat brain. The Kd was 4.6 nM and the Bmax was 2.6 pmol/mg protein. GABA enhanced ({sup 3}H)alprazolam binding while several benzodiazepine receptor ligands were competitive inhibitors of this drug. Compounds that bind to other receptor sites had a very weak or negligible effect on ({sup 3}H)alprazolam binding. Alprazolam, an agent used as an anxiolytic and in the treatment of depression, acts in vitro as a selective and specific ligand for benzodiazepine receptors in the rat brain. The biochemical binding profile does not appear to account for the unique therapeutic properties which distinguish this compound from the other benzodiazepines in its class.

  3. Activation of a GTP-binding protein and a GTP-binding-protein-coupled receptor kinase (beta-adrenergic-receptor kinase-1) by a muscarinic receptor m2 mutant lacking phosphorylation sites.

    PubMed

    Kameyama, K; Haga, K; Haga, T; Moro, O; Sadée, W

    1994-12-01

    A mutant of the human muscarinic acetylcholine receptor m2 subtype (m2 receptor), lacking a large part of the third intracellular loop, was expressed and purified using the baculovirus/insect cell culture system. The mutant was not phosphorylated by beta-adrenergic-receptor kinase, as expected from the previous assignment of phosphorylation sites to the central part of the third intracellular loop. However, the m2 receptor mutant was capable of stimulating beta-adrenergic-receptor-kinase-1-mediated phosphorylation of a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein containing the m2 phosphorylation sites in an agonist-dependent manner. Both mutant and wild-type m2 receptors reconstituted with the guanine-nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (G protein), G(o) and G(i)2, displayed guanine-nucleotide-sensitive high-affinity agonist binding, as assessed by displacement of [3H]quinuclidinyl-benzilate binding with carbamoylcholine, and both stimulated guanosine 5'-3-O-[35S]thiotriphosphate ([35S]GTP[S]) binding in the presence of carbamoylcholine and GDP. The Ki values of carbamoylcholine effects on [3H]quinuclidinyl-benzilate binding were indistinguishable for the mutant and wild-type m2 receptors. Moreover, the phosphorylation of the wild-type m2 receptor by beta-adrenergic-receptor kinase-1 did not affect m2 interaction with G proteins as assessed by the binding of [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate or [35S]GTP[S]. These results indicate that (a) the m2 receptor serves both as an activator and as a substrate of beta-adrenergic-receptor kinase, and (b) a large part of the third intracellular loop of the m2 receptor does not contribute to interaction with G proteins and its phosphorylation by beta-adrenergic-receptor kinase does not uncouple the receptor and G proteins in reconstituted lipid vesicles.

  4. Characterization of ligand binding to the σ(1) receptor in a human tumor cell line (RPMI 8226) and establishment of a competitive receptor binding assay.

    PubMed

    Brune, Stefanie; Schepmann, Dirk; Lehmkuhl, Kirstin; Frehland, Bastian; Wünsch, Bernhard

    2012-08-01

    The standard assay for the determination of σ(1) receptor affinities of novel compounds is a competitive binding assay using [(3)H]-(+)-pentazocine as radioligand and membrane preparations from guinea pig brain. Herein, a novel competitive binding assay was developed employing the hematopoietic cell line of human multiple myeloma (RPMI 8226), which expresses a large amount of the human σ(1) receptor. Membrane fragments of RPMI 8226 cells were prepared and characterized. A Western blot analysis confirmed the high density of σ(1) receptors in this cell line. Assay conditions were carefully optimized leading to an incubation period of 120 min, an incubation temperature of 37°C, and receptor material for each well was prepared from 300,000 cells. It was shown that a large excess (10 μM) of (+)-pentazocine, haloperidol, and di-o-tolylguanidine provided the same results during determination of the nonspecific binding. Saturation experiments with the radioligand [(3)H]-(+)-pentazocine led to a K(d)-value of 36±0.3 nM and a B(max)-value of 477±7 fmol/mg protein. These data resulted in approximately 122,000 σ(1) binding sites per cell. The assay was validated by using six known σ(1) ligands and eight σ(1) ligands prepared in our lab. The K(i)-values determined with RPMI 8226-derived receptor material are in good accordance with the K(i)-values obtained with guinea pig brain membrane preparations. Compared with guinea pig brain preparations, the RPMI 8226-derived receptor material represents a better standardized receptor material with a high density of human σ(1) receptors.

  5. Identification of a new hormone-binding site on the surface of thyroid hormone receptor.

    PubMed

    Souza, P C T; Puhl, A C; Martínez, L; Aparício, R; Nascimento, A S; Figueira, A C M; Nguyen, P; Webb, P; Skaf, M S; Polikarpov, I

    2014-04-01

    Thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors involved in cell differentiation, growth, and homeostasis. Although X-ray structures of many nuclear receptor ligand-binding domains (LBDs) reveal that the ligand binds within the hydrophobic core of the ligand-binding pocket, a few studies suggest the possibility of ligands binding to other sites. Here, we report a new x-ray crystallographic structure of TR-LBD that shows a second binding site for T3 and T4 located between H9, H10, and H11 of the TRα LBD surface. Statistical multiple sequence analysis, site-directed mutagenesis, and cell transactivation assays indicate that residues of the second binding site could be important for the TR function. We also conducted molecular dynamics simulations to investigate ligand mobility and ligand-protein interaction for T3 and T4 bound to this new TR surface-binding site. Extensive molecular dynamics simulations designed to compute ligand-protein dissociation constant indicate that the binding affinities to this surface site are of the order of the plasma and intracellular concentrations of the thyroid hormones, suggesting that ligands may bind to this new binding site under physiological conditions. Therefore, the second binding site could be useful as a new target site for drug design and could modulate selectively TR functions.

  6. Ascorbic acid enables reversible dopamine receptor /sup 3/H-agonist binding

    SciTech Connect

    Leff, S.; Sibley, D.R.; Hamblin, M.; Creese, I.

    1981-11-16

    The effects of ascorbic acid on dopaminergic /sup 3/H-agonist receptor binding were studied in membrane homogenates of bovine anterior pituitary and caudate, and rat striatum. In all tissues virtually no stereospecific binding (defined using 1uM (+)butaclamol) of the /sup 3/H-agonists N-propylnorapomorphine (NPA), apomorphine, or dopamine could be demonstrated in the absence of ascorbic acid. Although levels of total /sup 3/H-agonist binding were three to five times greater in the absence than in the presence of 0.1% ascorbic acid, the increased binding was entirely non-stereospecific. Greater amounts of dopamine-inhibitable /sup 3/H-NPA binding could be demonstrated in the absence of 0.1% ascorbic acid, but this measure of ''specific binding'' was demonstrated not to represent dopamine receptor binding since several other catecholamines and catechol were equipotent with dopamine and more potent than the dopamine agonist (+/-)amino-6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronapthalene (ADTN) in inhibiting this binding. High levels of dopamine-displaceable /sup 3/H-agonist binding were detected in fresh and boiled homogenates of cerebellum, an area of brain which receives no dopaminergic innervation, further demonstrating the non-specific nature of /sup 3/H-agonist binding in the absence of ascorbic acid. These studies emphasize that under typical assay conditions ascorbic acid is required in order to demonstrate reversible and specific /sup 3/H-agonist binding to dopamine receptors.

  7. The gamma-aminobutyrate/benzodiazepine receptor from pig brain. Enhancement of gamma-aminobutyrate-receptor binding by the anaesthetic propanidid.

    PubMed Central

    Kirkness, E F; Turner, A J

    1986-01-01

    The binding of [3H]muscimol, a gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA) receptor agonist, to a membrane preparation from pig cerebral cortex was enhanced by the anaesthetic propanidid in a concentration-dependent manner. At 0 degrees C, binding was stimulated to 220% of control values, with 50% stimulation at 60 microM-propanidid. At 37 degrees C, propanidid caused a more powerful stimulation of [3H]muscimol binding (340% of control values). Propanidid (1 mM) exerted little effect on the affinity of muscimol binding (KD approx. 10 nM), but increased the apparent number of high-affinity binding sites in the membrane by 2-fold. Enhancement of [3H]muscimol binding was observed only in the presence of Cl- ions, half-maximal activation being achieved at approx. 40 mM-Cl-. Picrotoxinin inhibited the stimulation of [3H]muscimol binding by propanidid with an IC50 (concentration causing 50% inhibition) value of approx. 25 microM. The enhancement of [3H]muscimol binding by propanidid was not additive with the enhancement produced by secobarbital. Phenobarbital inhibited the effect of propanidid and secobarbital. The GABA receptor was solubilized with Triton X-100 or with Chaps [3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]propanesulphonate]. Propanidid and secobarbital did not stimulate the binding of [3H]muscimol after solubilization with Triton X-100. However, the receptor could be solubilized by 5 mM-Chaps with retention of the stimulatory effects of propanidid and secobarbital. Unlike barbiturates, propanidid did not stimulate the binding of [3H]flunitrazepam to membranes. It is suggested that the ability to modulate the [3H]muscimol site of the GABA-receptor complex may be a common and perhaps functional characteristic of general anaesthetics. PMID:3006660

  8. The gamma-aminobutyrate/benzodiazepine receptor from pig brain. Enhancement of gamma-aminobutyrate-receptor binding by the anaesthetic propanidid.

    PubMed

    Kirkness, E F; Turner, A J

    1986-01-01

    The binding of [3H]muscimol, a gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA) receptor agonist, to a membrane preparation from pig cerebral cortex was enhanced by the anaesthetic propanidid in a concentration-dependent manner. At 0 degrees C, binding was stimulated to 220% of control values, with 50% stimulation at 60 microM-propanidid. At 37 degrees C, propanidid caused a more powerful stimulation of [3H]muscimol binding (340% of control values). Propanidid (1 mM) exerted little effect on the affinity of muscimol binding (KD approx. 10 nM), but increased the apparent number of high-affinity binding sites in the membrane by 2-fold. Enhancement of [3H]muscimol binding was observed only in the presence of Cl- ions, half-maximal activation being achieved at approx. 40 mM-Cl-. Picrotoxinin inhibited the stimulation of [3H]muscimol binding by propanidid with an IC50 (concentration causing 50% inhibition) value of approx. 25 microM. The enhancement of [3H]muscimol binding by propanidid was not additive with the enhancement produced by secobarbital. Phenobarbital inhibited the effect of propanidid and secobarbital. The GABA receptor was solubilized with Triton X-100 or with Chaps [3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]propanesulphonate]. Propanidid and secobarbital did not stimulate the binding of [3H]muscimol after solubilization with Triton X-100. However, the receptor could be solubilized by 5 mM-Chaps with retention of the stimulatory effects of propanidid and secobarbital. Unlike barbiturates, propanidid did not stimulate the binding of [3H]flunitrazepam to membranes. It is suggested that the ability to modulate the [3H]muscimol site of the GABA-receptor complex may be a common and perhaps functional characteristic of general anaesthetics.

  9. Potential ligand-binding residues in rat olfactory receptors identified by correlated mutation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, M. S.; Oliveira, L.; Vriend, G.; Shepherd, G. M.

    1995-01-01

    A family of G-protein-coupled receptors is believed to mediate the recognition of odor molecules. In order to identify potential ligand-binding residues, we have applied correlated mutation analysis to receptor sequences from the rat. This method identifies pairs of sequence positions where residues remain conserved or mutate in tandem, thereby suggesting structural or functional importance. The analysis supported molecular modeling studies in suggesting several residues in positions that were consistent with ligand-binding function. Two of these positions, dominated by histidine residues, may play important roles in ligand binding and could confer broad specificity to mammalian odor receptors. The presence of positive (overdominant) selection at some of the identified positions provides additional evidence for roles in ligand binding. Higher-order groups of correlated residues were also observed. Each group may interact with an individual ligand determinant, and combinations of these groups may provide a multi-dimensional mechanism for receptor diversity.

  10. Potential ligand-binding residues in rat olfactory receptors identified by correlated mutation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, M. S.; Oliveira, L.; Vriend, G.; Shepherd, G. M.

    1995-01-01

    A family of G-protein-coupled receptors is believed to mediate the recognition of odor molecules. In order to identify potential ligand-binding residues, we have applied correlated mutation analysis to receptor sequences from the rat. This method identifies pairs of sequence positions where residues remain conserved or mutate in tandem, thereby suggesting structural or functional importance. The analysis supported molecular modeling studies in suggesting several residues in positions that were consistent with ligand-binding function. Two of these positions, dominated by histidine residues, may play important roles in ligand binding and could confer broad specificity to mammalian odor receptors. The presence of positive (overdominant) selection at some of the identified positions provides additional evidence for roles in ligand binding. Higher-order groups of correlated residues were also observed. Each group may interact with an individual ligand determinant, and combinations of these groups may provide a multi-dimensional mechanism for receptor diversity.

  11. A propofol binding site on mammalian GABAA receptors identified by photolabeling

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Grace M S; Chen, Zi-Wei; Edge, Christopher J; Smith, Edward H; Dickinson, Robert; Hohenester, Erhard; Townsend, R Reid; Fuchs, Karoline; Sieghart, Werner; Evers, Alex S; Franks, Nicholas P

    2014-01-01

    Propofol is the most important intravenous general anesthetic in current clinical use. It acts by potentiating GABAA receptors, but where it binds to this receptor is not known and has been a matter of some controversy. We have synthesized a novel propofol analogue photolabeling reagent that has a biological activity very similar to that of propofol. We confirmed that this reagent labeled known propofol binding sites in human serum albumin which have been identified using X-ray crystallography. Using a combination of the protiated label and a deuterated version, and mammalian receptors labeled in intact membranes, we have identified a novel binding site for propofol in GABAA receptors consisting of both β3 homopentamers and α1β3 heteropentamers. The binding site is located within the β subunit, at the interface between the transmembrane domains and the extracellular domain, and lies close to known determinants of anesthetic sensitivity in transmembrane segments TM1 and TM2. PMID:24056400

  12. Correlation between conformational equilibria of free host and guest binding affinity in non-preorganized receptors.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Romen; Morales, Ezequiel Q; Martín, Víctor S; Martín, Tomás

    2013-08-16

    Positive cooperativity between host conformational equilibria and guest binding has been widely reported in protein receptors. However, reported examples of this kind of cooperativity in synthetic hosts are scarce and largely serendipitous, among other things because it is hard to envision systems which display this kind of cooperativity. In order to shed some light on the correlation between conformational equilibria of free host and guest binding, selected structural modifications have been performed over a family of nonpreorganized hosts in order to induce conformational changes and to analyze their effect on the binding affinity. The conformational effect was evaluated by a theoretical conformational search and correlated with the ability of the receptors. All data suggest that those receptors that display the best association constants are able to sample folded conformations analogous to the conformational requirements for the binding of the guests. On the contrary, for those receptors where folded conformers are scarce, then the association constant and enantioselectivity clearly drop.

  13. Binding kinetics of membrane-anchored receptors and ligands: Molecular dynamics simulations and theory.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jinglei; Xu, Guang-Kui; Lipowsky, Reinhard; Weikl, Thomas R

    2015-12-28

    The adhesion of biological membranes is mediated by the binding of membrane-anchored receptor and ligand proteins. Central questions are how the binding kinetics of these proteins is affected by the membranes and by the membrane anchoring of the proteins. In this article, we (i) present detailed data for the binding of membrane-anchored proteins from coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations and (ii) provide a theory that describes how the binding kinetics depends on the average separation and thermal roughness of the adhering membranes and on the anchoring, lengths, and length variations of the proteins. An important element of our theory is the tilt of bound receptor-ligand complexes and transition-state complexes relative to the membrane normals. This tilt results from an interplay of the anchoring energy and rotational entropy of the complexes and facilitates the formation of receptor-ligand bonds at membrane separations smaller than the preferred separation for binding. In our simulations, we have considered both lipid-anchored and transmembrane receptor and ligand proteins. We find that the binding equilibrium constant and binding on-rate constant of lipid-anchored proteins are considerably smaller than the binding constant and on-rate constant of rigid transmembrane proteins with identical binding domains.

  14. Absence of serum growth hormone binding protein in patients with growth hormone receptor deficiency (Laron dwarfism)

    SciTech Connect

    Daughaday, W.H.; Trivedi, B.

    1987-07-01

    It has recently been recognized that human serum contains a protein that specifically binds human growth hormone (hGH). This protein has the same restricted specificity for hGH as the membrane-bound GH receptor. To determine whether the GH-binding protein is a derivative of, or otherwise related to, the GH receptor, the authors have examined the serum of three patients with Laron-type dwarfism, a condition in which GH refractoriness has been attributed to a defect in the GH receptor. The binding of /sup 125/I-labeled hGH incubated with serum has been measured after gel filtration of the serum through an Ultrogel AcA 44 minicolumn. Results are expressed as percent of specifically bound /sup 125/I-hGH and as specific binding relative to that of a reference serum after correction is made for endogenous GH. The mean +/- SEM of specific binding of sera from eight normal adults (26-46 years of age) was 21.6 +/- 0.45%, and the relative specific binding was 101.1 +/- 8.6%. Sera from 11 normal children had lower specific binding of 12.5 +/- 1.95% and relative specific binding of 56.6 +/- 9.1%. Sera from three children with Laron-type dwarfism lacked any demonstrable GH binding, whereas sera from 10 other children with other types of nonpituitary short stature had normal relative specific binding. They suggest that the serum GH-binding protein is a soluble derivative of the GH receptor. Measurement of the serum GH-binding protein may permit recognition of other abnormalities of the GH receptor.

  15. Central phencyclidine (PCP) receptor binding is glutamate dependent: evidence for a PCP/excitatory amino acid receptor (EAAR) complex

    SciTech Connect

    Loo, P.; Braunwalder, A.; Lehmann, J.; Williams, M.

    1986-03-01

    PCP and other dissociative anesthetica block the increase in neuronal firing rate evoked by the EAAR agonist, N-methyl-Daspartate. NMDA and other EAAs such as glutamate (glu) have not been previously shown to affect PCP ligand binding. In the present study, using once washed rat forebrain membranes, 10 ..mu..M-glu was found to increase the binding of (/sup 3/H)TCP, a PCP analog, to defined PCP recognition sites by 20%. Removal of glu and aspartate (asp) by extensive washing decreased TCP binding by 75-90%. In these membranes, 10 ..mu..M L-glu increased TCP binding 3-fold. This effect was stereospecific and evoked by other EAAs with the order of activity, L-glu > D-asp > L- asp > NMDA > D-glu > quisqualate. Kainate, GABA, NE, DA, 5-HT, 2-chloroadenosine, oxotremorine and histamine had no effect on TCP binding at concentrations up to 100 ..mu..M. The effects of L-glu were attenuated by the NMDA-type receptor antagonist, 2-amino-7--phosphonoheptanoate (AP7; 10 ..mu..M-1 mM). These findings indicate that EAAS facilitate TCP binding, possibly through NMDA-type receptors. The observed interaction between the PCP receptor and EAARs may reflect the existence of a macromolecular receptor complex similar to that demonstrated for the benzodiazepines and GABA.

  16. Helix 8 of the ligand binding domain of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is essential for ligand binding.

    PubMed

    Deng, Qiong; Waxse, Bennett; Riquelme, Denise; Zhang, Jiabao; Aguilera, Greti

    2015-06-15

    Membrane association of estrogen receptors (ER) depends on cysteine palmitoylation and two leucines in the ligand binding domain (LBD), conserved in most steroid receptors. The role of this region, corresponding to helix 8 of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) LBD, on membrane association of GR was studied in 4B cells, expressing endogenous GR, and Cos-7 cells transfected EGFP-GR constructs. 4B cells preloaded with radiolabeled palmitic acid showed no radioactivity incorporation into immunoprecipitated GR. Moreover, mutation C683A (corresponding to ER palmitoylation site) did not affect corticosterone-induced membrane association of GR. Mutations L687-690A, L682A, E680G and K685G prevented membrane and also nuclear localization through reduced ligand binding. L687-690A mutation decreased association of GR with heat shock protein 90 and transcriptional activity, without overt effects on receptor protein stability. The data demonstrate that palmitoylation does not mediate membrane association of GR, but that the region 680-690 (helix 8) is critical for ligand binding and receptor function.

  17. Binding of GTPgamma[35S] is regulated by GDP and receptor activation. Studies with the nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor.

    PubMed

    McDonald, John; Lambert, David G

    2010-03-01

    We have examined the effects of ligand efficacy and receptor density on the binding of guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTPgammaS) and GDP to the nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) peptide receptor (NOP)-coupled G-proteins. In GTPgamma[(35)S] binding experiments, using stable (CHO(hNOP)) and inducible (CHO(INDhNOP)) recombinant human and rat NOP we have measured: (i) ligand-specific GDP requirements; (ii) the effects of receptor density on guanine nucleotide affinity/capacity; and (iii) the effect of ligand efficacy on GTPgammaS association kinetics. GTPgammaS competition curves were shallow and modelled by high- and low-affinity components that were relatively consistent between cell types and tissue preparations. In the presence of 1 microM N/OFQ a high-affinity GDP binding site was also present, but the fraction of total binding was reduced. In an efficacy-dependent manner, the partial agonists [F/G]N/OFQ(1-13)NH(2) ([Phe(1)psi(CH(2)-NH)Gly(2)]-nociceptin(1-13)NH(2)) and naloxone benzoylhydrazone both reduced the fraction of high-affinity sites for GDP (relative to basal). While the pIC(50) for high-affinity GDP binding site did not decrease in the presence of 1 microM N/OFQ, N/OFQ produced a significant reduction in pIC(50) for the low-affinity site. Agonist-mediated decrease in affinity for GDP binding was efficacy-dependent. GDP displayed three affinities: high, conserved in the presence and absence of ligand; intermediate, present as a low fraction under basal conditions; low (efficacy-dependent), present during receptor activation representing the majority of binding. The affinity of GTPgamma[(35)S] was regulated by GDP and receptor activation caused increased binding of GTPgamma[(35)S] through a reduction in GDP affinity.

  18. Intact Microtubules Preserve Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) Functionality through Receptor Binding*

    PubMed Central

    Storti, Barbara; Bizzarri, Ranieri; Cardarelli, Francesco; Beltram, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    The transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) is a protein currently under scrutiny as a pharmacological target for pain management therapies. Recently, the role of TRPV1-microtubule interaction in transducing nociception stimuli to cells by cytoskeletal rearrangement was proposed. In this work, we investigate TRPV1-microtubule interaction in living cells under the resting or activated state of TRPV1, as well as in presence of structurally intact or depolymerized cytoskeletal microtubules. We combined a toolbox of high resolution/high sensitivity fluorescence imaging techniques (such as FRET, correlation spectroscopy, and fluorescence anisotropy) to monitor TRPV1 aggregation status, membrane mobility, and interaction with microtubules. We found that TRPV1 is a dimeric membrane protein characterized by two populations with different diffusion properties in basal condition. After stimulation with resiniferatoxin, TRPV1 dimers tetramerize. The tetramers and the slower population of TRPV1 dimers bind dynamically to intact microtubules but not to tubulin dimers. Upon microtubule disassembly, the interaction with TRPV1 is lost thereby inducing receptor self-aggregation with partial loss of functionality. Intact microtubules play an essential role in maintaining TRPV1 functionality toward activation stimuli. This previously undisclosed property mirrors the recently reported role of TRPV1 in modulating microtubule assembly/disassembly and suggests the participation of these two players in a feedback cycle linking nociception and cytoskeletal remodeling. PMID:22262838

  19. The binding of some antidepressant drugs to brain muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Golds, P. R.; Przyslo, F. R.; Strange, P. G.

    1980-01-01

    1 The binding of some antidepressant drugs, including some new drugs of atypical structure (flupenthixol, iprindole, maprotiline, mianserin, nomifensine, tofenacine and viloxazine) to muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the brain has been studied by displacement of [3H]-atropine. 2 Many of the drugs are potent muscarinic antagonists. 3 Some correlation can be made between the affinity for binding to the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor and the incidence of anticholinergic side effects in clinical usage. PMID:7052344

  20. Structural analysis of the receptor binding domain of botulinum neurotoxin serotype D

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yanfeng; Buchko, Garry W.; Qin, Lin; Robinson, Howard; Varnum, Susan M.

    2010-10-28

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most toxic proteins known. The mechanism for entry into neuronal cells for serotypes A, B, E, F, and G involves a well understood dual receptor (protein and ganglioside) process, however, the mechanism of entry for serotypes C and D remains unclear. To provide structural insights into how BoNT/D enters neuronal cells, the crystal structure of the receptor binding domain (S863-E1276) for this serotype (BoNT/D-HCR) was determined at 1.65 Å resolution. While BoNT/D-HCR adopts an overall fold similar to that observed in other known BoNT HCRs, several major structural differences are present. These structural differences are located at, or near, putative receptor binding sites and may be responsible for BoNT/D host preferences. Two loops, S1195-I1204 and K1236-N1244, located on both sides of the putative protein receptor binding pocket, are displaced >10 Å relative to the corresponding residues in the crystal structures of BoNT/B and G. Obvious clashes were observed in the putative protein receptor binding site when the BoNT/B protein receptor synaptotagmin II was modeled into the BoNT/D-HCR structure. Although a ganglioside binding site has never been unambiguously identified in BoNT/D-HCR, a shallow cavity in an analogous location to the other BoNT serotypes HCR domains is observed in BoNT/D-HCR that has features compatible with membrane binding. A portion of a loop near the putative receptor binding site, K1236-N1244, is hydrophobic and solvent-exposed and may directly bind membrane lipids. Liposome-binding experiments with BoNT/D-HCR demonstrate that this membrane lipid may be phosphatidylethanolamine.

  1. Structural Analysis of the Receptor Binding Domain of Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype D

    SciTech Connect

    Y Zhang; G Buchko; L Qin; H Robinson; S Varnum

    2011-12-31

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most toxic proteins known. The mechanism for entry into neuronal cells for serotypes A, B, E, F, and G involves a well understood dual receptor (protein and ganglioside) process, however, the mechanism of entry for serotypes C and D remains unclear. To provide structural insights into how BoNT/D enters neuronal cells, the crystal structure of the receptor binding domain (S863-E1276) for this serotype (BoNT/D-HCR) was determined at 1.65{angstrom} resolution. While BoNT/D-HCR adopts an overall fold similar to that observed in other known BoNT HCRs, several major structural differences are present. These structural differences are located at, or near, putative receptor binding sites and may be responsible for BoNT/D host preferences. Two loops, S1195-I1204 and K1236-N1244, located on both sides of the putative protein receptor binding pocket, are displaced >10{angstrom} relative to the corresponding residues in the crystal structures of BoNT/B and G. Obvious clashes were observed in the putative protein receptor binding site when the BoNT/B protein receptor synaptotagmin II was modeled into the BoNT/D-HCR structure. Although a ganglioside binding site has never been unambiguously identified in BoNT/D-HCR, a shallow cavity in an analogous location to the other BoNT serotypes HCR domains is observed in BoNT/D-HCR that has features compatible with membrane binding. A portion of a loop near the putative receptor binding site, K1236-N1244, is hydrophobic and solvent-exposed and may directly bind membrane lipids. Liposome-binding experiments with BoNT/D-HCR demonstrate that this membrane lipid may be phosphatidylethanolamine.

  2. Photochemically enhanced binding of small molecules to the tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 inhibits the binding of TNF-[alpha

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, Percy H.; Scherle, Peggy A.; Muckelbauer, Jodi K.; Voss, Matthew E.; Liu, Rui-qin; Thompson III, Lorin A.; Xu, Meizhong; Lo, Yvonne C.; Li, Zhong; Strzemienski, Paul; Yang, Gengjie; Falahatpishen, Nikoo; Farrow, Neil A.; Tebben, Andrew J.; Underwood, Denis; Trzaskos, James M.; Friedman, Steven M.; Newton, Robert C.; Decicco, Carl P.

    2010-03-05

    The binding of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-{alpha}) to the type-1 TNF receptor (TNFRc1) plays an important role in inflammation. Despite the clinical success of biologics (antibodies, soluble receptors) for treating TNF-based autoimmune conditions, no potent small molecule antagonists have been developed. Our screening of chemical libraries revealed that N-alkyl 5-arylidene-2-thioxo-1,3-thiazolidin-4-ones were antagonists of this protein-protein interaction. After chemical optimization, we discovered IW927, which potently disrupted the binding of TNF-{alpha} to TNFRc1 (IC{sub 50} = 50 nM) and also blocked TNF-stimulated phosphorylation of I{kappa}-B in Ramos cells (IC{sub 50} = 600 nM). This compound did not bind detectably to the related cytokine receptors TNFRc2 or CD40, and did not display any cytotoxicity at concentrations as high as 100 {micro}M. Detailed evaluation of this and related molecules revealed that compounds in this class are 'photochemically enhanced' inhibitors, in that they bind reversibly to the TNFRc1 with weak affinity (ca. 40-100 mM) and then covalently modify the receptor via a photochemical reaction. We obtained a crystal structure of IV703 (a close analog of IW927) bound to the TNFRc1. This structure clearly revealed that one of the aromatic rings of the inhibitor was covalently linked to the receptor through the main-chain nitrogen of Ala-62, a residue that has already been implicated in the binding of TNF-{alpha} to the TNFRc1. When combined with the fact that our inhibitors are reversible binders in light-excluded conditions, the results of the crystallography provide the basis for the rational design of nonphotoreactive inhibitors of the TNF-{alpha}-TNFRc1 interaction.

  3. Photochemically enhanced binding of small molecules to the tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 inhibits the binding of TNF-alpha.

    PubMed

    Carter, P H; Scherle, P A; Muckelbauer, J K; Voss, M E; Liu, R Q; Thompson, L A; Tebben, A J; Solomon, K A; Lo, Y C; Li, Z; Strzemienski, P; Yang, G; Falahatpisheh, N; Xu, M; Wu, Z; Farrow, N A; Ramnarayan, K; Wang, J; Rideout, D; Yalamoori, V; Domaille, P; Underwood, D J; Trzaskos, J M; Friedman, S M; Newton, R C; Decicco, C P; Muckelbauer, J A

    2001-10-09

    The binding of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) to the type-1 TNF receptor (TNFRc1) plays an important role in inflammation. Despite the clinical success of biologics (antibodies, soluble receptors) for treating TNF-based autoimmune conditions, no potent small molecule antagonists have been developed. Our screening of chemical libraries revealed that N-alkyl 5-arylidene-2-thioxo-1,3-thiazolidin-4-ones were antagonists of this protein-protein interaction. After chemical optimization, we discovered IW927, which potently disrupted the binding of TNF-alpha to TNFRc1 (IC(50) = 50 nM) and also blocked TNF-stimulated phosphorylation of Ikappa-B in Ramos cells (IC(50) = 600 nM). This compound did not bind detectably to the related cytokine receptors TNFRc2 or CD40, and did not display any cytotoxicity at concentrations as high as 100 microM. Detailed evaluation of this and related molecules revealed that compounds in this class are "photochemically enhanced" inhibitors, in that they bind reversibly to the TNFRc1 with weak affinity (ca. 40-100 microM) and then covalently modify the receptor via a photochemical reaction. We obtained a crystal structure of IV703 (a close analog of IW927) bound to the TNFRc1. This structure clearly revealed that one of the aromatic rings of the inhibitor was covalently linked to the receptor through the main-chain nitrogen of Ala-62, a residue that has already been implicated in the binding of TNF-alpha to the TNFRc1. When combined with the fact that our inhibitors are reversible binders in light-excluded conditions, the results of the crystallography provide the basis for the rational design of nonphotoreactive inhibitors of the TNF-alpha-TNFRc1 interaction.

  4. Evaluation of the In Vivo and Ex Vivo Binding of Novel BC1 Cannabinoid Receptor Radiotracers

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, A.; Gatley, J.; Gifford, A.

    2002-01-01

    The primary active ingredient of marijuana, 9-tetrahydrocannabinol, exerts its psychoactive effects by binding to cannabinoid CB1 receptors. These receptors are found throughout the brain with high concentrations in the hippocampus and cerebellum. The current study was conducted to evaluate the binding of a newly developed putative cannabinoid antagonist, AM630, and a classical cannabinoid 8-tetrahydrocannabinol as potential PET and/or SPECT imaging agents for brain CB1 receptors. For both of these ligands in vivo and ex vivo studies in mice were conducted. AM630 showed good overall brain uptake (as measure by %IA/g) and a moderately rapid clearance from the brain with a half-clearance time of approximately 30 minutes. However, AM630 did not show selective binding to CB1 cannabinoid receptors. Ex vivo autoradiography supported the lack of selective binding seen in the in vivo study. Similar to AM630, 8-tetrahydrocanibol also failed to show selective binding to CB1 receptor rich brain areas. The 8-tetrahydrocanibol showed moderate overall brain uptake and relatively slow brain clearance as compared to AM630. Further studies were done with AM2233, a cannabinoid ligand with a similar structure as AM630. These studies were done to develop an ex vivo binding assay to quantify the displacement of [131I]AM2233 binding by other ligands in Swiss-Webster and CB1 receptor knockout mice. By developing this assay we hoped to determine the identity of an unknown binding site for AM2233 present in the hippocampus of CB1 knockout mice. Using an approach based on incubation of brain slices prepared from mice given intravenous [131I]AM2233 in either the presence or absence of AM2233 (unlabelled) it was possible to demonstrate a significant AM2233-displacable binding in the Swiss-Webster mice. Future studies will determine if this assay is appropriate for identifying the unknown binding site for AM2233 in the CB1 knockout mice.

  5. Folding and stability of the ligand-binding domain of the glucocorticoid receptor

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Stephen H.; Jackson, Sophie E.

    2002-01-01

    A complex pathway involving many molecular chaperones has been proposed for the folding, assembly, and maintenance of a high-affinity ligand-binding form of steroid receptors in vivo, including the glucocorticoid receptor. To better understand this intricate folding and assembly process, we studied the folding of the ligand-binding domain of the glucocorticoid receptor in vitro. We found that this domain can be refolded into a compact, highly structured state in vitro in the absence of chaperones. However, the presence of zwitterionic detergent is required to maintain the domain in a soluble form. In this state, the protein is dimeric and has considerable helical structure as shown by far-UV circular dichroism. Further investigation of the properties of this in vitro refolded state show that it is stable and resistant to denaturation by heat or low concentrations of chemical denaturants. A detailed analysis of the unfolding equilibria using three different structural probes demonstrated that this state unfolds via a highly populated dimeric intermediate state. Together, these data clearly show that the ligand-binding domain of the glucocorticoid receptor does not require chaperones for folding per se. However, this in vitro refolded state binds the ligand dexamethasone only weakly (Kd = 45 μM) compared to the in vivo assembled receptor (Kd = 3.4 nM). We suggest that the role of Hsp90 and associated chaperones is to bind to, and stabilize, a specific conformational state of the receptor which binds ligand with high affinity. PMID:12142447

  6. Agonist and antagonist protect sulfhydrals in the binding site of the D-1 dopamine receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Sidhu, A.; Kebabian, J.W.; Fishman, P.H.

    1986-05-01

    An iodinated compound (/sup 125/I)-SCH 23982 (8-iodo-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-3-methyl-5-phenyl-1H-3-benzazepine-7-ol) has been characterized as a specific, high affinity (Kd = 0.7 nM) ligand for the D-1 dopamine receptor. The ligand binding site of the D-1 receptor in rat striatum was inactivated by N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) in a time and concentration dependent manner. The inactivation was rapid and irreversible with a 70% net loss of binding sites. Scatchard analysis of binding to NEM-treated tissue showed a decrease both in receptor number and in radioligand affinity. The remaining receptors retained their selectivity for stereoisomers of both agonist and antagonist. Receptor occupancy by either a D-1 specific agonist or antagonist protected in a dose dependent manner the binding sites from inactivation by NEM; the agonist was more effective than the antagonist. The agonist high affinity site, however, was abolished in the absence or presence of protective compound, presumably because of inactivation of the GTP-binding component of adenylate cyclase. In this regard, there was a total loss of agonist- and forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity after NEM treatment. The authors conclude that the D-1 dopamine receptor contains NEM-sensitive sulfhydral group(s) at or near the vicinity of the ligand binding site.

  7. Structural and functional characterization of the human formyl peptide receptor ligand-binding region.

    PubMed Central

    Radel, S J; Genco, R J; De Nardin, E

    1994-01-01

    The formyl peptide (N-formyl-1-methionyl-1-leucyl-1-phenylalanine [FMLP]) receptor is involved in the activation of neutrophils and their subsequent response to chemotactic N-formylated peptides. Recently, we found that the first extracellular loop closest to the N-terminal end of the FMLP receptor exhibited the strongest ligand binding compared with that shown by other extracellular regions. By constructing amino acid substitutional variants of this domain, we have determined that residues Arg-84 and Lys-85 on this loop play major roles in ligand-binding activity. Furthermore, random rearrangement of the residues of this receptor region demonstrated that the position of these charged amino acids did not affect their involvement in ligand binding, although their presence was essential for this binding to occur. We propose that the portion of the first N-terminal extracellular loop of the FMLP receptor containing residues Arg-84 and Lys-85 contributes significantly to the active site in ligand-receptor binding. We further propose that this binding is not dependent on defined structure but rather that these charged moieties may function as important "contacts" in receptor-ligand interactions. Images PMID:8168934

  8. Localization and synthesis of the hormone-binding regions of the human thyrotropin receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Atassi, M.Z.; Manshouri, T. ); Sakata, Shigeki )

    1991-05-01

    Two regions of human thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone, TSH) receptor (TSHR) were selected on the basis that they exhibit no sequence resemblance to luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor. Five synthetic overlapping peptides (12-30, 24-44, 308-328, 324-344, and 339-364) were studied for their ability to bind {sup 125}I-labeled human TSH (hTSH), its isolated {alpha} and {beta} subunits, bovine TSH, ovine TSH, human luteinizing hormone, and human follicle-stimulating hormone. The human TSHR peptides 12-30 and 324-344 exhibited remarkable binding activity to human, bovine, and ovine TSH and to the {beta} chain of hTSH. Lower binding activity resided in the adjacent overlapping peptides, probably due to the contribution of the shared overlap to the binding. The specificity of TSH binding to these peptides was confirmed by their inability to bind human luteinizing hormone, human follicle-stimulating hormone, and the {alpha} chain of hTSH. Thyrotropins did not bind to bovine serum albumin or to peptide controls unrelated to the TSHR system. It is concluded that the binding of TSH to its receptor involves extensive contacts and that the TSHR peptides 12-30 and 324-344 contain specific binding regions for TSH that might be either independent sites or two faces (subsites) within a large binding site.

  9. Defining the Communication between Agonist and Coactivator Binding in the Retinoid X Receptor α Ligand Binding Domain*

    PubMed Central

    Boerma, LeeAnn J.; Xia, Gang; Qui, Cheng; Cox, Bryan D.; Chalmers, Michael J.; Smith, Craig D.; Lobo-Ruppert, Susan; Griffin, Patrick R.; Muccio, Donald D.; Renfrow, Matthew B.

    2014-01-01

    Retinoid X receptors (RXRs) are obligate partners for several other nuclear receptors, and they play a key role in several signaling processes. Despite being a promiscuous heterodimer partner, this nuclear receptor is a target of therapeutic intervention through activation using selective RXR agonists (rexinoids). Agonist binding to RXR initiates a large conformational change in the receptor that allows for coactivator recruitment to its surface and enhanced transcription. Here we reveal the structural and dynamical changes produced when a coactivator peptide binds to the human RXRα ligand binding domain containing two clinically relevant rexinoids, Targretin and 9-cis-UAB30. Our results show that the structural changes are very similar for each rexinoid and similar to those for the pan-agonist 9-cis-retinoic acid. The four structural changes involve key residues on helix 3, helix 4, and helix 11 that move from a solvent-exposed environment to one that interacts extensively with helix 12. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry reveals that the dynamics of helices 3, 11, and 12 are significantly decreased when the two rexinoids are bound to the receptor. When the pan-agonist 9-cis-retinoic acid is bound to the receptor, only the dynamics of helices 3 and 11 are reduced. The four structural changes are conserved in all x-ray structures of the RXR ligand-binding domain in the presence of agonist and coactivator peptide. They serve as hallmarks for how RXR changes conformation and dynamics in the presence of agonist and coactivator to initiate signaling. PMID:24187139

  10. Phytotropins: III. NAPHTHYLPHTHALAMIC ACID BINDING SITES ON MAIZE COLEOPTILE MEMBRANES AS POSSIBLE RECEPTOR SITES FOR PHYTOTROPIN ACTION.

    PubMed

    Katekar, G F; Navé, J F; Geissler, A E

    1981-12-01

    Certain members of the phytotropin class of auxin transport inhibitors are shown to bind with high affinity to the known naphthylphthalamic acid binding sites in maize (Zea mays) coleoptiles. The binding site is, thus, a phytotropin binding site. In general, the degree of binding correlates with the phytotropin structure activity rules and with physiological activities of model compounds. It is argued that the binding site may be a receptor, and it also may be the receptor involved in the control of the auxin transport process. The possibility is raised that the binding sites may be intrinsic receptors for endoanalog(s) of the phytotropins.

  11. Determination of receptor protein binding site specificity and relative binding strength using a time-resolved competition assay.

    PubMed

    Barta, Pavel; Volkova, Marie; Dascalu, Adrian; Spiegelberg, Diana; Trejtnar, Frantisek; Andersson, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Competitive binding assays can be used to decipher not only the binding kinetics of studied ligands but also the binding site preference. Such assays are an essential step in the characterization of radioligands. However, the currently used competition assays require high concentrations of usually expensive ligands and still provide only binding site preference. By employing the time-resolved competition assay presented in this paper, binding characteristics including binding site preference can be obtained using less ligand. To demonstrate the appropriateness of the time-resolved competition assay, we developed an assay in which the ligand binding was interrupted with a competitor. Experiments were performed on human carcinoma cell lines expressing epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The targeting of the receptor was performed with radio-iodinated epidermal growth factor (EGF). The employed competitors involved either natural ligand transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-α) or anti-EGFR antibodies cetuximab and panitumumab targeting the same EGFR domain. Radio-iodinated EGF bound to EGFR was displaced with either low concentrations of cetuximab or high concentrations of panitumumab. In the case of TGF-α, we observed no competitive displacement of bound EGF at either high or low concentrations. When comparing the time-resolved competition assay with a manual competition assay, the resulting data of measured inhibition constants were in agreement. The results summarised in this study confirm the appropriateness of the time-resolved competition assay for assessing ligand binding properties. The assay has the potential to complement or replace conventional competition assays for determining binding site preference in the future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Pirenzepine binding to membrane-bound, solubilized and purified muscarinic receptor subtypes

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgold, J.

    1986-05-01

    Muscarinic receptors were purified to near-homogeneity from bovine cortex, an area rich in the putative M1 subtype, and from bovine pons/medulla, an area rich in the putative M2 subtype. In both cases, the receptors were solubilized in digitonin and purified over an affinity column. Both the cortical and pons/medulla preparations yielded receptor proteins of 70,000 daltons. Pirenzepine binding was deduced from its competition with /sup 3/H-N-methyl scopolamine. The binding of pirenzepine to membrane-bound receptors from cortex was best described by a two site model, with approximately half the sites having a Ki of 6.4 x 10/sup -9/ M and the remaining sites having a Ki of 3.5 x 10/sup -7/ M. Membrane-bound receptors from pons/medulla bound pirenzepine according to a one-site model with a Ki of 1.1 x 10/sup -7/ M. After solubilization the two-site binding of cortical receptors became a one-site binding, Ki = 1.1 x 10/sup -7/M. This value was still five-fold lower than that of soluble receptors from pons/medulla. After purification however the affinity of pirenzepine for the pons/medulla receptor increased so that the two putative subtypes bound pirenzepine with approximately the same affinity. These findings suggest that the different pirenzepine binding characteristics used to define muscarinic receptor subtypes are not inherent in the receptor protein itself but may be due to coupling factors associated with the receptor.

  13. Hepatocyte insulin receptor is a calmodulin binding protein and is functionally inhibited by calmidazolium

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, T.P.; Pollet, R.J.

    1986-05-01

    Insulin-induced autophosphorylation of the insulin receptor and changes in intracellular Ca/sup + +/ have been proposed as possible mediators of insulin action in target tissues. The authors have investigated the association of the 17kD calcium binding protein calmodulin with the insulin receptor solubilized from rat liver plasma membranes. Insulin receptors solubilized in 0.1% Triton X-100 exhibited strong binding to calmodulin-agarose affinity columns in the presence of 100..mu..M calcium and could be eluded with 100..mu..M ethelene glycol-bis (amino ethel ether) Tetra Acetic Acid (EGTA) with an 80% yield in insulin binding activity. In addition, /sup 125/I-Calmodulin was shown to bind to wheat germ agglutinin purified solubilized receptors, was specifically inhibited by EGTA (100 ..mu..M) and/or calmidazolium (10 ..mu..M) and was found to be insulin-dependent (max 10/sup -10/ M insulin). SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis data suggests that /sup 125/I-calmodulin may be associated with the 92 kD beta-subunit of the insulin receptor, consistent with the cytoplasmic domain of this subunit. While they have confirmed previous reports that the addition of calcium and calmodulin to solubilized insulin receptors preparations produces no demonstrable change in receptor phosphorylation, the addition of the calmodulin inhibitor calmidazolium did show more than 50% inhibition of insulin stimulated receptor phosphorylation, suggesting that a domain of the calmodulin molecule may be very tightly associated with the insulin receptor. These results indicate that calmodulin binds tightly and specifically to the insulin receptor of the hepatocyte and is insulin dependent. The findings also suggest that this interaction may be functionally significant in mediating insulin-induced receptor phosphorylation as well as other insulin actions. Thus, calmodulin may play a major role as an intracellular contributor to insulin action.

  14. Altered (/sup 125/I)epidermal growth factor binding and receptor distribution in psoriasis

    SciTech Connect

    Nanney, L.B.; Stoscheck, C.M.; Magid, M.; King, L.E. Jr.

    1986-03-01

    Stimulation of growth and differentiation of human epidermis by epidermal growth factor (EGF) is mediated by its binding to specific receptors. Whether EGF receptors primarily mediate cell division or differentiation in hyperproliferative disease such as psoriasis vulgaris is unclear. To study the pathogenesis of psoriasis, 4-mm2 punch biopsy specimens of normal, uninvolved, and involved psoriatic skin were assayed for EGF receptors by autoradiographic, immunohistochemical, and biochemical methods. Using autoradiographic and immunohistochemical methods, basal keratinocytes were found to contain the greatest number of EGF binding sites and immunoreactive receptors as compared to the upper layers of the epidermis in both normal epidermis and psoriatic skin. No EGF receptor differences between normal and psoriatic epidermis were observed in this layer. In the upper layers of the epidermis, a 2-fold increase in EGF binding capacity was observed in psoriatic skin as compared with normal thin or thick skin. Biochemical methods indicated that (/sup 125/I)EGF binding was increased in psoriatic epidermis as compared with similar thickness normal epidermis when measured on a protein basis. Epidermal growth factor was shown to increase phosphorylation of the EGF receptor in skin. EGF receptors retained in the nonmitotic stratum spinosum and parakeratotic stratum corneum may reflect the incomplete, abnormal differentiation that occurs in active psoriatic lesions. Alternatively, retained EGF receptors may play a direct role in inhibiting cellular differentiation in the suprabasal layers.

  15. Mutations in arrestin-3 differentially affect binding to neuropeptide Y receptor subtypes.

    PubMed

    Gimenez, Luis E; Babilon, Stefanie; Wanka, Lizzy; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G; Gurevich, Vsevolod V

    2014-07-01

    Based on the identification of residues that determine receptor selectivity in arrestins and the phylogenetic analysis of the arrestin (arr) family, we introduced fifteen mutations of receptor-discriminator residues in arr-3, which were identified previously using mutagenesis, in vitro binding, and BRET-based recruitment assay in intact cells. The effects of these mutations were tested using neuropeptide Y receptors Y1R and Y2R. NPY-elicited arr-3 recruitment to Y1R was not affected by these mutations, or even alanine substitution of all ten residues (arr-3-NCA), which prevented arr-3 binding to other receptors tested so far. However, NCA and two other mutations prevented agonist-independent arr-3 pre-docking to Y1R. In contrast, eight out of 15 mutations significantly reduced agonist-dependent arr-3 recruitment to Y2R. NCA eliminated arr-3 binding to active Y2R, whereas Tyr239Thr reduced it ~7-fold. Thus, manipulation of key residues on the receptor-binding surface generates arr-3 with high preference for Y1R over Y2R. Several mutations differentially affect arr-3 pre-docking and agonist-induced recruitment. Thus, arr-3 recruitment to the receptor involves several mechanistically distinct steps. Targeted mutagenesis can fine-tune arrestins directing them to specific receptors and particular activation states of the same receptor.

  16. Mutations in arrestin-3 differentially affect binding to neuropeptide Y receptor subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Gimenez, Luis E.; Babilon, Stefanie; Wanka, Lizzy; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G.; Gurevich, Vsevolod V.

    2014-01-01

    Based on the identification of residues that determine receptor selectivity in arrestins and the phylogenetic analysis of the arrestin (arr) family, we introduced fifteen mutations of receptor-discriminator residues in arr-3, which were identified previously using mutagenesis, in vitro binding, and BRET-based recruitment assay in intact cells. The effects of these mutations were tested using neuropeptide Y receptors Y1R and Y2R. NPY-elicited arr-3 recruitment to Y1R was not affected by these mutations, or even alanine substitution of all ten residues (arr-3-NCA), which prevented arr-3 binding to other receptors tested so far. However, NCA and two other mutations prevented agonist-independent arr-3 pre-docking to Y1R. In contrast, eight out of 15 mutations significantly reduced agonist-dependent arr-3 recruitment to Y2R. NCA eliminated arr-3 binding to active Y2R, whereas Tyr239Thr reduced it ~7-fold. Thus, manipulation of key residues on the receptor-binding surface generates arr-3 with high preference for Y1R over Y2R. Several mutations differentially affect arr-3 pre-docking and agonist-induced recruitment. Thus, arr-3 recruitment to the receptor involves several mechanistically distinct steps. Targeted mutagenesis can fine-tune arrestins directing them to specific receptors and particular activation states of the same receptor. PMID:24686081

  17. Binding and transactivation of the largemouth bass estrogen receptors by model compounds

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental estrogens (EEs) are chemicals in the environment that can elicit adverse effects on estrogen (E2) signaling by binding with the estrogen receptors (ERs). In largemouth bass (LMB), the physiological actions of E2 are primarily mediated via three receptors (ERα, ERßb ...

  18. Development of a Competitive Binding Assay System with Recombinant Estrogen Receptors from Multiple Species

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT In the current study, we developed a new system using full-length recombinant baculovirus-expressed estrogen receptors which allows for direct comparison of binding across species. Estrogen receptors representing five vertebrate classes were compared: human (hERα), quai...

  19. Insulin Mimetic Peptide Disrupts the Primary Binding Site of the Insulin Receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Callum F.; Margetts, Mai B.; Menting, John G.; Smith, Nicholas A.; Smith, Brian J.; Ward, Colin W.; Lawrence, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Sets of synthetic peptides that interact with the insulin receptor ectodomain have been discovered by phage display and reported in the literature. These peptides were grouped into three classes termed Site 1, Site 2, and Site 3 based on their mutual competition of binding to the receptor. Further refinement has yielded, in particular, a 36-residue Site 2-Site 1 fusion peptide, S519, that binds the insulin receptor with subnanomolar affinity and exhibits agonist activity in both lipogenesis and glucose uptake assays. Here, we report three-dimensional crystallographic detail of the interaction of the C-terminal, 16-residue Site 1 component (S519C16) of S519 with the first leucine-rich repeat domain (L1) of the insulin receptor. Our structure shows that S519C16 binds to the same site on the L1 surface as that occupied by a critical component of the primary binding site, namely the helical C-terminal segment of the insulin receptor α-chain (termed αCT). In particular, the two phenylalanine residues within the FYXWF motif of S519C16 are seen to engage the insulin receptor L1 domain surface in a fashion almost identical to the respective αCT residues Phe701 and Phe705. The structure provides a platform for the further development of peptidic and/or small molecule agents directed toward the insulin receptor and/or the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor. PMID:27281820

  20. Binding and transactivation of the largemouth bass estrogen receptors by model compounds

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental estrogens (EEs) are chemicals in the environment that can elicit adverse effects on estrogen (E2) signaling by binding with the estrogen receptors (ERs). In largemouth bass (LMB), the physiological actions of E2 are primarily mediated via three receptors (ERα, ERßb ...

  1. Development of a Competitive Binding Assay System with Recombinant Estrogen Receptors from Multiple Species

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT In the current study, we developed a new system using full-length recombinant baculovirus-expressed estrogen receptors which allows for direct comparison of binding across species. Estrogen receptors representing five vertebrate classes were compared: human (hERα), quai...

  2. Structural Basis for Negative Cooperativity in Growth Factor Binding to an EGF Receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarado, Diego; Klein, Daryl E.; Lemmon, Mark A.

    2010-09-27

    Transmembrane signaling by the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) involves ligand-induced dimerization and allosteric regulation of the intracellular tyrosine kinase domain. Crystallographic studies have shown how ligand binding induces dimerization of the EGFR extracellular region but cannot explain the high-affinity and low-affinity classes of cell-surface EGF-binding sites inferred from curved Scatchard plots. From a series of crystal structures of the Drosophila EGFR extracellular region, we show here how Scatchard plot curvature arises from negatively cooperative ligand binding. The first ligand-binding event induces formation of an asymmetric dimer with only one bound ligand. The unoccupied site in this dimer is structurally restrained, leading to reduced affinity for binding of the second ligand, and thus negative cooperativity. Our results explain the cell-surface binding characteristics of EGF receptors and suggest how individual EGFR ligands might stabilize distinct dimeric species with different signaling properties.

  3. Computational Exploration of a Protein Receptor Binding Space with Student Proposed Peptide Ligands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Matthew D.; Phillips, Paul; Turner, Matthew W.; Katz, Michael; Lew, Sarah; Bradburn, Sarah; Andersen, Tim; McDougal, Owen M.

    2016-01-01

    Computational molecular docking is a fast and effective "in silico" method for the analysis of binding between a protein receptor model and a ligand. The visualization and manipulation of protein to ligand binding in three-dimensional space represents a powerful tool in the biochemistry curriculum to enhance student learning. The…

  4. Structure-Based Understanding of Binding Affinity and Mode of Estrogen Receptor α Agonists and Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Barron, Mace G.

    2017-01-01

    The flexible hydrophobic ligand binding pocket (LBP) of estrogen receptor α (ERα) allows the binding of a wide variety of endocrine disruptors. Upon ligand binding, the LBP reshapes around the contours of the ligand and stabilizes the complex by complementary hydrophobic interactions and specific hydrogen bonds with the ligand. Here we present a framework for quantitative analysis of the steric and electronic features of the human ERα-ligand complex using three dimensional (3D) protein-ligand interaction description combined with 3D-QSAR approach. An empirical hydrophobicity density field is applied to account for hydrophobic contacts of ligand within the LBP. The obtained 3D-QSAR model revealed that hydrophobic contacts primarily determine binding affinity and govern binding mode with hydrogen bonds. Several residues of the LBP appear to be quite flexible and adopt a spectrum of conformations in various ERα-ligand complexes, in particular His524. The 3D-QSAR was combined with molecular docking based on three receptor conformations to accommodate receptor flexibility. The model indicates that the dynamic character of the LBP allows accommodation and stable binding of structurally diverse ligands, and proper representation of the protein flexibility is critical for reasonable description of binding of the ligands. Our results provide a quantitative and mechanistic understanding of binding affinity and mode of ERα agonists and antagonists that may be applicable to other nuclear receptors. PMID:28061508

  5. Computational Exploration of a Protein Receptor Binding Space with Student Proposed Peptide Ligands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Matthew D.; Phillips, Paul; Turner, Matthew W.; Katz, Michael; Lew, Sarah; Bradburn, Sarah; Andersen, Tim; McDougal, Owen M.

    2016-01-01

    Computational molecular docking is a fast and effective "in silico" method for the analysis of binding between a protein receptor model and a ligand. The visualization and manipulation of protein to ligand binding in three-dimensional space represents a powerful tool in the biochemistry curriculum to enhance student learning. The…

  6. Receptor binding sites for atrial natriuretic factor are expressed by brown adipose tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Bacay, A.C.; Mantyh, C.R.; Vigna, S.R.; Mantyh, P.W. )

    1988-09-01

    To explore the possibility that atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) is involved in thermoregulation we used quantitative receptor autoradiography and homogenate receptor binding assays to identify ANF bindings sites in neonatal rat and sheep brown adipose tissue, respectively. Using quantitative receptor autoradiography were were able to localize high levels of specific binding sites for {sup 125}I-rat ANF in neonatal rat brown adipose tissue. Homogenate binding assays on sheep brown fat demonstrated that the radioligand was binding to the membrane fraction and that the specific binding was not due to a lipophilic interaction between {sup 125}I-rat ANF and brown fat. Specific binding of {sup 125}I-rat ANF to the membranes of brown fat cells was inhibited by unlabeled rat ANF with a Ki of 8.0 x 10(-9) M, but not by unrelated peptides. These studies demonstrate that brown fat cells express high levels of ANF receptor binding sites in neonatal rat and sheep and suggest that ANF may play a role in thermoregulation.

  7. [Insulin and glucocorticoid binding by blood cell receptors after hydrocortisone administration in rabbits].

    PubMed

    Tikhonova, N E; Tatarinova, G Sh

    1989-07-01

    Repeated i.v. administration of hydrocortisone (10 mg/kg) revealed an increase in the resistance against insulin although endogenous corticosterone was decreased in 33 male rabbits. The insulin- and dexamethasone-binding receptors of erythrocytes and mononuclear leucocytes. changed after 3-7 hydrocortisone injections, the binding increasing for insulin and diminishing for dexamethasone.

  8. High-affinity binding of (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine to muscarinic cholinergic receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Kellar, K.J.; Martino, A.M.; Hall, D.P. Jr.; Schwartz, R.D.; Taylor, R.L.

    1985-06-01

    High-affinity binding of (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine to muscarinic cholinergic sites in rat CNS and peripheral tissues was measured in the presence of cytisin, which occupies nicotinic cholinergic receptors. The muscarinic sites were characterized with regard to binding kinetics, pharmacology, anatomical distribution, and regulation by guanyl nucleotides. These binding sites have characteristics of high-affinity muscarinic cholinergic receptors with a Kd of approximately 30 nM. Most of the muscarinic agonist and antagonist drugs tested have high affinity for the (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine binding site, but pirenzepine, an antagonist which is selective for M-1 receptors, has relatively low affinity. The ratio of high-affinity (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine binding sites to total muscarinic binding sites labeled by (/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate varies from 9 to 90% in different tissues, with the highest ratios in the pons, medulla, and heart atrium. In the presence of guanyl nucleotides, (/sup 3/H) acetylcholine binding is decreased, but the extent of decrease varies from 40 to 90% in different tissues, with the largest decreases being found in the pons, medulla, cerebellum, and heart atrium. The results indicate that (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine binds to high-affinity M-1 and M-2 muscarinic receptors, and they suggest that most M-2 sites have high affinity for acetylcholine but that only a small fraction of M-1 sites have such high affinity.

  9. Structural Studies of GABAA Receptor Binding Sites: Which Experimental Structure Tells us What?

    PubMed Central

    Puthenkalam, Roshan; Hieckel, Marcel; Simeone, Xenia; Suwattanasophon, Chonticha; Feldbauer, Roman V.; Ecker, Gerhard F.; Ernst, Margot

    2016-01-01

    Atomic resolution structures of cys-loop receptors, including one of a γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAA receptor) subtype, allow amazing insights into the structural features and conformational changes that these pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs) display. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of more than 30 cys-loop receptor structures of homologous proteins that revealed several allosteric binding sites not previously described in GABAA receptors. These novel binding sites were examined in GABAA receptor homology models and assessed as putative candidate sites for allosteric ligands. Four so far undescribed putative ligand binding sites were proposed for follow up studies based on their presence in the GABAA receptor homology models. A comprehensive analysis of conserved structural features in GABAA and glycine receptors (GlyRs), the glutamate gated ion channel, the bacterial homologs Erwinia chrysanthemi (ELIC) and Gloeobacter violaceus GLIC, and the serotonin type 3 (5-HT3) receptor was performed. The conserved features were integrated into a master alignment that led to improved homology models. The large fragment of the intracellular domain that is present in the structure of the 5-HT3 receptor was utilized to generate GABAA receptor models with a corresponding intracellular domain fragment. Results of mutational and photoaffinity ligand studies in GABAA receptors were analyzed in the light of the model structures. This led to an assignment of candidate ligands to two proposed novel pockets, candidate binding sites for furosemide and neurosteroids in the trans-membrane domain were identified. The homology models can serve as hypotheses generators, and some previously controversial structural interpretations of biochemical data can be resolved in the light of the presented multi-template approach to comparative modeling. Crystal and cryo-EM microscopic structures of the closest homologs that were solved in different conformational

  10. Nicotine binding to brain receptors requires a strong cation-pi interaction.

    PubMed

    Xiu, Xinan; Puskar, Nyssa L; Shanata, Jai A P; Lester, Henry A; Dougherty, Dennis A

    2009-03-26

    Nicotine addiction begins with high-affinity binding of nicotine to acetylcholine (ACh) receptors in the brain. The end result is over 4,000,000 smoking-related deaths annually worldwide and the largest source of preventable mortality in developed countries. Stress reduction, pleasure, improved cognition and other central nervous system effects are strongly associated with smoking. However, if nicotine activated ACh receptors found in muscle as potently as it does brain ACh receptors, smoking would cause intolerable and perhaps fatal muscle contractions. Despite extensive pharmacological, functional and structural studies of ACh receptors, the basis for the differential action of nicotine on brain compared with muscle ACh receptors has not been determined. Here we show that at the alpha4beta2 brain receptors thought to underlie nicotine addiction, the high affinity for nicotine is the result of a strong cation-pi interaction to a specific aromatic amino acid of the receptor, TrpB. In contrast, the low affinity for nicotine at the muscle-type ACh receptor is largely due to the fact that this key interaction is absent, even though the immediate binding site residues, including the key amino acid TrpB, are identical in the brain and muscle receptors. At the same time a hydrogen bond from nicotine to the backbone carbonyl of TrpB is enhanced in the neuronal receptor relative to the muscle type. A point mutation near TrpB that differentiates alpha4beta2 and muscle-type receptors seems to influence the shape of the binding site, allowing nicotine to interact more strongly with TrpB in the neuronal receptor. ACh receptors are established therapeutic targets for Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, smoking cessation, pain, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, epilepsy, autism and depression. Along with solving a chemical mystery in nicotine addiction, our results provide guidance for efforts to develop drugs that target specific types of nicotinic

  11. Binding properties of solubilized gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor: role of carboxylic groups

    SciTech Connect

    Hazum, E.

    1987-11-03

    The interaction of /sup 125/I-buserelin, a superactive agonist of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), with solubilized GnRH receptor was studied. The highest specific binding of /sup 125/I-buserelin to solubilized GnRH receptor is evident at 4/sup 0/C, and equilibrium is reached after 2 h of incubation. The soluble receptor retained 100% of the original binding activity when kept at 4 or 22/sup 0/C for 60 min. Mono- and divalent cations inhibited, in a concentration-dependent manner, the binding of /sup 125/I-buserelin to solubilized GnRH receptor. Monovalent cations require higher concentrations than divalent cations to inhibit the binding. Since the order of potency with the divalent cations was identical with that of their association constants to dicarboxylic compounds, it is suggested that there are at least two carboxylic groups of the receptor that participate in the binding of the hormone. The carboxyl groups of sialic acid residues are not absolutely required for GnRH binding since the binding of /sup 125/I-buserelin to solubilized GnRH receptor was only slightly affected by pretreatment with neuraminidase and wheat germ agglutinin. The finding that polylysines stimulate luteinizing hormone (LH) release from pituitary cell cultures with the same efficacy as GnRH suggest that simple charge interactions can induce LH release. According to these results, the authors propose that the driving force for the formation of the hormone-receptor complex is an ionic interaction between the positively charged amino acid arginine in position 8 and the carboxyl groups in the binding site.

  12. The first intron of the human growth hormone gene contains a binding site for glucocorticoid receptor.

    PubMed

    Moore, D D; Marks, A R; Buckley, D I; Kapler, G; Payvar, F; Goodman, H M

    1985-02-01

    Glucocorticoid receptor (GCR) protein stimulates transcription from a variety of cellular genes. We show here that GCR partially purified from rat liver binds specifically to a site within the first intron of the human growth hormone (hGH) gene, approximately 100 base pairs downstream from the start of hGH transcription. GCR binding is selectively inhibited by methylation of two short, symmetrically arranged clusters of guanine residues within this site. A cloned synthetic 24-base-pair deoxyoligonucleotide containing the predicted GCR binding sequence interacts specifically with GCR. The hGH binding site shares sequence homology with a GCR binding site upstream from the human metallothionein II gene and a subset of GCR binding sites from mouse mammary tumor virus. All of these binding sites for this eukaryotic transcriptional regulatory protein show remarkable similarity in overall geometry to the binding sites for several prokaryotic transcriptional regulatory proteins.

  13. Specific beta-adrenergic receptor binding of carazolol measured with PET

    SciTech Connect

    Berridge, M.S.; Nelson, A.D.; Zheng, L.

    1994-10-01

    Carazolol is a promising high-affinity beta-adrenergic receptor ligand for the noninvasive determination of beta receptor status using PET> Earlier investigations demonstrated specific receptor binding of carazolol in mice. These PET studies with S(-)-[2{double_prime}-{sup 11}C]carazolol in pigs were performed to explore the utility of the tracer for PET receptor studies. Tracer uptake in the heart and lung was measured by PET as a function of time. Receptors were blocked with propranolol and different doses of ICI 118,551 to estimate specific binding. Fluorine-18-1{double_prime}-Fluorocarazolol and the less active R-enantiomer of [{sup 11}C]-carazolol were also studied. Specific receptor binding was 75% of the total uptake in the heart, preventable and displaceable by propranolol. Dose-dependent competition showed that carazolol binds in vivo to {beta}{sub 1} and to {beta}{sub 2} subtypes. Uptake of the labeled R(=) enantiomer of carazolol was not receptor-specific. Carazolol labeled with {sup 11}C or {sup 18}F is a strong candidate for use in receptor estimation with PET. The in vivo observations were consistent with its known high affinity and slow receptor dissociation rate. Its high specific receptor uptake and low metabolism allow existing kinetic models to be applied for receptor measurements. The {sup 11}C label is convenient for repeated administrations, though {sup 13}F allowed the long observation periods necessary for measurement of the receptor dissociation rate. If needed, nonspecific uptake can be estimated without pharmacologic intervention by using the labeled R enantiomer. 32 refs., 11 figs.

  14. Effect of mutations in putative hormone binding sites on V2 vasopressin receptor function.

    PubMed

    Sebti, Y; Rabbani, M; Sadeghi, H Mir Mohammad; Sardari, S; Ghahremani, M H; Innamorati, G

    2015-01-01

    The vasopressin V2 receptor belongs to the large family of the G-protein coupled receptors and is responsible for the antidiuretic effect of the neurohypophyseal hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP). Based on bioinformatic studies it seems that Ala300 and Asp297 of the V2 vasopressin receptor (V2R) are involved in receptor binding. Ala300Glu mutation resulted in lower energy while Asp297Tyr mutation resulted in higher energy in AVP-V2R docked complex rather than the wild type. Therefore we hypothesized that the Ala300Glu mutation results in stronger and Asp297Tyr mutation leads to weaker ligand-receptor binding. Site directed mutagenesis of Asp297Tyr and Ala300Glu was performed using nested polymerase chain reaction. After restriction enzyme digestion, the inserts were ligated into the pcDNA3 vector and Escherichia coli XL1-Blue competent cells were transformed using commercial kit and electroporation methods. The obtained colonies were analyzed for the presence and orientation of the inserts using proper restriction enzymes. After transient transfection of COS-7 cells using ESCORT™ IV transfection reagent, the adenylyl cyclase activity assay was performed for functional studies. The cell surface expression of V2R was analyzed by indirect ELISA method. Based on the obtained results, the Ala300Glu mutation of V2R led to reduced levels of cAMP production without a marked effect on the receptor expression and the receptor binding. Effect of Asp297Tyr mutation on cell surface expression of V2R was the same as the wild type receptor. Pretreatment with 1 nM vasopressin showed an increased level of Asp297Tyr mutant receptor internalization as compared to the wild type receptor, while the effect of 100 nM vasopressin was similar in the mutant and wild type receptors. These data suggest that alterations in Asp297 but not Ala300 would affect the hormone receptor binding.

  15. A Natural Mutation in Helix 5 of the Ligand Binding Domain of Glucocorticoid Receptor Enhances Receptor-Ligand Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Reyer, Henry; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Kanitz, Ellen; Pöhland, Ralf; Wimmers, Klaus; Murani, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a central player in the neuroendocrine stress response; it mediates feedback regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and physiological actions of glucocorticoids in the periphery. Despite intensive investigations of GR in the context of receptor-ligand interaction, only recently the first naturally occurring gain-of-function substitution, Ala610Val, of the ligand binding domain was identified in mammals. We showed that this mutation underlies a major quantitative trait locus for HPA axis activity in pigs, reducing cortisol production by about 40–50 percent. To unravel the molecular mechanisms behind this gain of function, receptor-ligand interactions were evaluated in silico, in vitro and in vivo. In accordance with previously observed phenotypic effects, the mutant Val610 GR showed significantly increased activation in response to glucocorticoid and non-glucocorticoid steroids, and, as revealed by GR-binding studies in vitro and in pituitary glands, enhanced ligand binding. Concordantly, the protein structure prediction depicted reduced binding distances between the receptor and ligand, and altered interactions in the ligand binding pocket. Consequently, the Ala610Val substitution opens up new structural information for the design of potent GR ligands and to examine effects of the enhanced GR responsiveness to glucocorticoids on the entire organism. PMID:27736993

  16. G-protein mediates voltage regulation of agonist binding to muscarinic receptors: effects on receptor-Na/sup +/ channel interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen-Armon, M.; Garty, H.; Sokolovsky, M.

    1988-01-12

    The authors previous experiments in membranes prepared from rat heart and brain led them to suggest that the binding of agonist to the muscarinic receptors and to the Na/sup +/ channels is a coupled event mediated by guanine nucleotide binding protein(s) (G-protein(s)). These in vitro findings prompted us to employ synaptoneurosomes from brain stem tissue to examine (i) the binding properties of (/sup 3/H) acetylcholine at resting potential and under depolarization conditions in the absence and presence of pertussis toxin; (ii) the binding of (/sup 3/H)batrachotoxin to Na/sup +/ channel(s) in the presence of the muscarinic agonists; and (iii) muscarinically induced /sup 22/Na/sup +/ uptake in the presence and absence of tetrodotoxin, which blocks Na/sup +/ channels. The findings indicate that agonist binding to muscarinic receptors is voltage dependent, that this process is mediated by G-protein(s), and that muscarinic agonists induce opening of Na/sup +/channels. The latter process persists even after pertussis toxin treatment, indicating that it is not likely to be mediated by pertussis toxin sensitive G-protein(s). The system with its three interacting components-receptor, G-protein, and Na/sup +/ channel-is such that at resting potential the muscarinic receptor induces opening of Na/sup +/ channels; this property may provide a possible physiological mechanism for the depolarization stimulus necessary for autoexcitation or repetitive firing in heart or brain tissues.

  17. Binding of amyloid beta peptide to beta2 adrenergic receptor induces PKA-dependent AMPA receptor hyperactivity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dayong; Govindaiah, G; Liu, Ruijie; De Arcangelis, Vania; Cox, Charles L; Xiang, Yang K

    2010-09-01

    Progressive decrease in neuronal function is an established feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous studies have shown that amyloid beta (Abeta) peptide induces acute increase in spontaneous synaptic activity accompanied by neurotoxicity, and Abeta induces excitotoxic neuronal death by increasing calcium influx mediated by hyperactive alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA) receptors. An in vivo study has revealed subpopulations of hyperactive neurons near Abeta plaques in mutant amyloid precursor protein (APP)-transgenic animal model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) that can be normalized by an AMPA receptor antagonist. In the present study, we aim to determine whether soluble Abeta acutely induces hyperactivity of AMPA receptors by a mechanism involving beta(2) adrenergic receptor (beta(2)AR). We found that the soluble Abeta binds to beta(2)AR, and the extracellular N terminus of beta(2)AR is critical for the binding. The binding is required to induce G-protein/cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling, which controls PKA-dependent phosphorylation of GluR1 and beta(2)AR, and AMPA receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). beta(2)AR and GluR1 also form a complex comprising postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95), PKA and its anchor AKAP150, and protein phosphotase 2A (PP2A). Both the third intracellular (i3) loop and C terminus of beta(2)AR are required for the beta(2)AR/AMPA receptor complex. Abeta acutely induces PKA phosphorylation of GluR1 in the complex without affecting the association between two receptors. The present study reveals that non-neurotransmitter Abeta has a binding capacity to beta(2)AR and induces PKA-dependent hyperactivity in AMPA receptors.

  18. Characterization of (/sup 3/H)pirenzepine binding to muscarinic cholinergic receptors solubilized from rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Luthin, G.R.; Wolfe, B.B.

    1985-07-01

    Membranes prepared from rat cerebral cortex were solubilized in buffer containing 1% digitonin. Material present in the supernatant after centrifugation at 147,000 X g was shown to contain binding sites for both (/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate ((/sup 3/H)QNB) and (/sup 3/H)pirenzepine ((/sup 3/H)PZ). Recovery of binding sites was approximately 25% of the initial membrane-bound (/sup 3/H)QNB binding sites. The Kd values for (/sup 3/H)QNB and (/sup 3/H)PZ binding to solubilized receptors were 0.3 nM and 0.1 microM, respectively. As has been observed previously in membrane preparations, (/sup 3/H)PZ appeared to label fewer solubilized binding sites than did (/sup 3/H)QNB. Maximum binding values for (/sup 3/H)PZ and (/sup 3/H)QNB binding to solubilized receptors were approximately 400 and 950 fmol/mg of protein, respectively. Competition curves for PZ inhibiting the binding of (/sup 3/H)QNB, however, had Hill slopes of 1, with a Ki value of 0.24 microM. The k1 and k-1 for (/sup 3/H)PZ binding were 3.5 X 10(6) M-1 min-1 and 0.13 min-1, respectively. The muscarinic receptor antagonists atropine, scopolamine and PZ inhibited the binding of (/sup 3/H)QNB and (/sup 3/H)PZ to solubilized receptors with Hill slopes of 1, as did the muscarinic receptor agonist oxotremorine. The muscarinic receptor agonist carbachol competed for (/sup 3/H)QNB and (/sup 3/H)PZ binding with a Hill slope of less than 1 in cerebral cortex, but not in cerebellum. GTP did not alter the interactions of carbachol or oxotremorine with the solubilized receptor. Together, these data suggest that muscarinic receptor sites solubilized from rat brain retain their abilities to interact selectively with muscarinic receptor agonists and antagonists.

  19. Review of the Third Domain Receptor Binding Fragment of Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP): Plausible Binding of AFP to Lysophospholipid Receptor Targets.

    PubMed

    Mizejewski, G J

    2016-01-31

    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a 69 kD fetal- and tumor-associated single-chain glycoprotein belonging to the albuminoid gene family. AFP functions as a carrier/transport molecule as well as a growth regulator and has been utilized as a clinical biomarker for both fetal defects and cancer growth. Lysophospholipids (LPLs) are plasma membrane-derived bioactive lipid signaling mediators composed of a small molecular weight single acyl carbon chain (palmitic, oleic acid) attached to a polar headgroup; they range in molecular mass from 250-750 daltons. The LPLs consist of either sphingosine-1-phosphate or lysophosphatidic acid, and mostly their choline, ethanolamine, serine or inositol derivatives. They are present only in vertebrates. These bioactive paracrine lipid mediators are ubiquitously distributed in tissues and are released from many different cell types (platelets, macrophages, monocytes, etc.) involved in developmental, physiological, and pathological processes. The LPLs bind to four different classes of G-protein coupled receptors described herein which transduce a multiple of cell effects encompassing activities such as morphogenesis, neural development, angiogenesis, and carcinogenesis. The identification of potential binding sites of LPL receptors on the AFP third domain receptor binding fragment were derived by computer modeling analysis. It is conceivable, but not proven, that AFP might bind not only to the LPL receptors, but also to LPLs themselves since AFP binds medium and long chain fatty acids. It is proposed that some of the activities ascribed to AFP in the past might be due in part to the presence of bound LPLs and/or their receptors.

  20. Thyroid hormone receptors bind to defined regions of the growth hormone and placental lactogen genes.

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, J W; Voz, M L; Eliard, P H; Mathy-Harter, M; De Nayer, P; Economidis, I V; Belayew, A; Martial, J A; Rousseau, G G

    1986-01-01

    The intracellular receptor for thyroid hormone is a protein found in chromatin. Since thyroid hormone stimulates transcription of the growth hormone gene through an unknown mechanism, the hypothesis that the thyroid hormone-receptor complex interacts with defined regions of this gene has been investigated in a cell-free system. Nuclear extracts from human lymphoblastoid IM-9 cells containing thyroid hormone receptors were incubated with L-3,5,3'-tri[125I]iodothyronine and calf thymus DNA-cellulose. Restriction fragments of the human growth hormone gene were added to determine their ability to inhibit labeled receptor binding to DNA-cellulose. These fragments encompassed nucleotide sequences from about three kilobase pairs upstream to about four kilobase pairs downstream from the transcription initiation site. The thyroid hormone-receptor complex bound preferentially to the 5'-flanking sequences of the growth hormone gene in a region between nucleotide coordinates -290 and -129. The receptor also bound to an analogous promoter region in the human placental lactogen gene, which has 92% nucleotide sequence homology with the growth hormone gene. These binding regions appear to be distinct from those that are recognized by the receptor for glucocorticoids, which stimulate growth hormone gene expression synergistically with thyroid hormone. The presence of thyroid hormone was required for binding of its receptor to the growth hormone gene promoter, suggesting that thyroid hormone renders the receptor capable of recognizing specific gene regions. PMID:3466175

  1. Thyroid hormone receptors bind to defined regions of the growth hormone and placental lactogen genes.

    PubMed

    Barlow, J W; Voz, M L; Eliard, P H; Mathy-Harter, M; De Nayer, P; Economidis, I V; Belayew, A; Martial, J A; Rousseau, G G

    1986-12-01

    The intracellular receptor for thyroid hormone is a protein found in chromatin. Since thyroid hormone stimulates transcription of the growth hormone gene through an unknown mechanism, the hypothesis that the thyroid hormone-receptor complex interacts with defined regions of this gene has been investigated in a cell-free system. Nuclear extracts from human lymphoblastoid IM-9 cells containing thyroid hormone receptors were incubated with L-3,5,3'-tri[125I]iodothyronine and calf thymus DNA-cellulose. Restriction fragments of the human growth hormone gene were added to determine their ability to inhibit labeled receptor binding to DNA-cellulose. These fragments encompassed nucleotide sequences from about three kilobase pairs upstream to about four kilobase pairs downstream from the transcription initiation site. The thyroid hormone-receptor complex bound preferentially to the 5'-flanking sequences of the growth hormone gene in a region between nucleotide coordinates -290 and -129. The receptor also bound to an analogous promoter region in the human placental lactogen gene, which has 92% nucleotide sequence homology with the growth hormone gene. These binding regions appear to be distinct from those that are recognized by the receptor for glucocorticoids, which stimulate growth hormone gene expression synergistically with thyroid hormone. The presence of thyroid hormone was required for binding of its receptor to the growth hormone gene promoter, suggesting that thyroid hormone renders the receptor capable of recognizing specific gene regions.

  2. Exploration of N-arylpiperazine Binding Sites of D2 Dopaminergic Receptor.

    PubMed

    Soskic, Vukic; Sukalovic, Vladimir; Kostic-Rajacic, Sladjana

    2015-01-01

    The crystal structures of the D3 dopamine receptor and several other G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) were published in recent times. Those 3D structures are used by us and other scientists as a template for the homology modeling and ligand docking analysis of related GPCRs. Our main scientific interest lies in the field of pharmacologically active N-arylpiperazines that exhibit antipsychotic and/or antidepressant properties, and as such are dopaminergic and serotonergic receptor ligands. In this short review article we are presenting synthesis and biological data on the new N-arylpipereazine as well our results on molecular modeling of the interactions of those N-arylpiperazines with the model of D2 dopamine receptors. To obtain that model the crystal structure of the D3 dopamine receptor was used. Our results show that the N-arylpiperazines binding site consists of two pockets: one is the orthosteric binding site where the N-arylpiperazine part of the ligand is docked and the second is a non-canonical accessory binding site for N-arylpipereazine that is formed by a second extracellular loop (ecl2) of the receptor. Until now, the structure of this receptor region was unresolved in crystal structure analyses of the D3 dopamine receptor. To get a more complete picture of the ligand - receptor interaction, DFT quantum mechanical calculations on N-arylpiperazine were performed and the obtained models were used to examine those interactions.

  3. Drug Binding Poses Relate Structure with Efficacy in the μ Opioid Receptor.

    PubMed

    Sutcliffe, Katy J; Henderson, Graeme; Kelly, Eamonn; Sessions, Richard B

    2017-06-16

    The μ-opioid receptor (MOPr) is a clinically important G protein-coupled receptor that couples to Gi/o proteins and arrestins. At present, the receptor conformational changes that occur following agonist binding and activation are poorly understood. This study has employed molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the binding mode and receptor conformational changes induced by structurally similar opioid ligands of widely differing intrinsic agonist efficacy, norbuprenorphine, buprenorphine, and diprenorphine. Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer assays for Gi activation and arrestin-3 recruitment in human embryonic kidney 293 cells confirmed that norbuprenorphine is a high efficacy agonist, buprenorphine a low efficacy agonist, and diprenorphine an antagonist at the MOPr. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed that these ligands adopt distinct binding poses and engage different subsets of residues, despite sharing a common morphinan scaffold. Notably, norbuprenorphine interacted with sodium ion-coordinating residues W293(6.48) and N150(3.35), whilst buprenorphine and diprenorphine did not. Principal component analysis of the movements of the receptor transmembrane domains showed that the buprenorphine-bound receptor occupied a distinct set of conformations to the norbuprenorphine-bound receptor. Addition of an allosteric sodium ion caused the receptor and ligand to adopt an inactive conformation. The differences in ligand-residue interactions and receptor conformations observed here may underlie the differing efficacies for cellular signalling outputs for these ligands. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of rat spinal cord receptors to FLFQPQRFamide, a mammalian morphine modulating peptide: a binding study.

    PubMed

    Allard, M; Geoffre, S; Legendre, P; Vincent, J D; Simonnet, G

    1989-10-23

    An in vitro binding assay, using 125I-YLFQPQRFamide, a newly synthetized iodinated analog of FLFQPQRFamide, in which Phe1 (F) has been substituted by a Tyr (Y), was developed to demonstrate and characterize putative binding sites of this brain morphine modulating peptide. This radioligand bound in a time-dependent manner to rat spinal cord membrane preparation. This binding was dose-dependent, saturable and reversible. Both kinetic data and saturation measured at equilibrium lead to the existence of a homogenous population of high affinity binding sites with a Kd value of 0.09-0.1 nM and a maximal capacity Bmax of 14.5 +/- 2 fmol/mg protein. Results of competition experiments show that both FLFQPQRFamide and its analog YLFQPQRFamide had a similar capacity to inhibit the 125I-YLFQPQRFamide binding, suggesting that this radioiodinated analog is a good tool to study binding characteristics of FLFQPQRFamide receptors. The related octadecapeptide AGEGLSSPFWSLAAPQRFamide, another mammalian morphine modulating peptide competes for radioligand binding with similar potency. Our results also show that mu, delta and kappa opiate receptor agonists as well as the antagonist naloxone were not able to affect binding either in presence or in absence of 120 mM NaCl. Together, these data demonstrate that FLFQPQRFamide does not function as an endogenous opiate receptor antagonist and that is capacity to reduce opiate-induced analgesia is supported by specific binding sites.

  5. Binding and uptake of H-ferritin are mediated by human transferrin receptor-1.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Fang, Celia J; Ryan, James C; Niemi, Eréne C; Lebrón, José A; Björkman, Pamela J; Arase, Hisashi; Torti, Frank M; Torti, Suzy V; Nakamura, Mary C; Seaman, William E

    2010-02-23

    Ferritin is a spherical molecule composed of 24 subunits of two types, ferritin H chain (FHC) and ferritin L chain (FLC). Ferritin stores iron within cells, but it also circulates and binds specifically and saturably to a variety of cell types. For most cell types, this binding can be mediated by ferritin composed only of FHC (HFt) but not by ferritin composed only of FLC (LFt), indicating that binding of ferritin to cells is mediated by FHC but not FLC. By using expression cloning, we identified human transferrin receptor-1 (TfR1) as an important receptor for HFt with little or no binding to LFt. In vitro, HFt can be precipitated by soluble TfR1, showing that this interaction is not dependent on other proteins. Binding of HFt to TfR1 is partially inhibited by diferric transferrin, but it is hindered little, if at all, by HFE. After binding of HFt to TfR1 on the cell surface, HFt enters both endosomes and lysosomes. TfR1 accounts for most, if not all, of the binding of HFt to mitogen-activated T and B cells, circulating reticulocytes, and all cell lines that we have studied. The demonstration that TfR1 can bind HFt as well as Tf raises the possibility that this dual receptor function may coordinate the processing and use of iron by these iron-binding molecules.

  6. Binding and uptake of H-ferritin are mediated by human transferrin receptor-1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Fang, Celia J.; Ryan, James C.; Niemi, Eréne C.; Lebrón, José A.; Björkman, Pamela J.; Arase, Hisashi; Torti, Frank M.; Torti, Suzy V.; Nakamura, Mary C.; Seaman, William E.

    2010-01-01

    Ferritin is a spherical molecule composed of 24 subunits of two types, ferritin H chain (FHC) and ferritin L chain (FLC). Ferritin stores iron within cells, but it also circulates and binds specifically and saturably to a variety of cell types. For most cell types, this binding can be mediated by ferritin composed only of FHC (HFt) but not by ferritin composed only of FLC (LFt), indicating that binding of ferritin to cells is mediated by FHC but not FLC. By using expression cloning, we identified human transferrin receptor-1 (TfR1) as an important receptor for HFt with little or no binding to LFt. In vitro, HFt can be precipitated by soluble TfR1, showing that this interaction is not dependent on other proteins. Binding of HFt to TfR1 is partially inhibited by diferric transferrin, but it is hindered little, if at all, by HFE. After binding of HFt to TfR1 on the cell surface, HFt enters both endosomes and lysosomes. TfR1 accounts for most, if not all, of the binding of HFt to mitogen-activated T and B cells, circulating reticulocytes, and all cell lines that we have studied. The demonstration that TfR1 can bind HFt as well as Tf raises the possibility that this dual receptor function may coordinate the processing and use of iron by these iron-binding molecules. PMID:20133674

  7. A novel fluorescent GSH-adduct binds to the NMDA receptor.

    PubMed

    Shaw, C A; Pasqualotto, B A; Curry, K; Kim, S U; LeCompte, K A; Langmuir, M E

    1999-10-30

    In an attempt to develop various fluorescent probes to label glutathione (GSH) receptors, we have serendipitously synthesized a probe that binds to and antagonizes the NMDA receptor. Probe 1, a GSH adduct, displaces the competitive NMDA antagonist [3H]-CGP 39653 with a higher affinity than NMDA or cysteine in rat synaptic membranes. In recording experiments from a rat cortical 'wedge' preparation, Probe 1 reversibly blocks both NMDA- and cysteine-induced depolarization. In mixed astrocyte-neuron tissue culture preparations, Probe 1 labels parts of both cell bodies as well as processes. The present data suggest that Probe 1 binds to the NMDA receptor and antagonizes channel function.

  8. Distinct second extracellular loop structures of the brain cannabinoid CB(1) receptor: implication in ligand binding and receptor function.

    PubMed

    Shim, Joong-Youn; Rudd, James; Ding, Tomas T

    2011-02-01

    The G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) second extracellular loop (E2) is known to play an important role in receptor structure and function. The brain cannabinoid (CB(1)) receptor is unique in that it lacks the interloop E2 disulfide linkage to the transmembrane (TM) helical bundle, a characteristic of many GPCRs. Recent mutation studies of the CB(1) receptor, however, suggest the presence of an alternative intraloop disulfide bond between two E2 Cys residues. Considering the oxidation state of these Cys residues, we determine the molecular structures of the 17-residue E2 in the dithiol form (E2(dithiol)) and in the disulfide form (E2(disulfide)) of the CB(1) receptor in a fully hydrated 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine bilayer, using a combination of simulated annealing and molecular dynamics simulation approaches. We characterize the CB(1) receptor models with these two E2 forms, CB(1)(E2(dithiol)) and CB(1)(E2(disulfide)), by analyzing interaction energy, contact number, core crevice, and cross correlation. The results show that the distinct E2 structures interact differently with the TM helical bundle and uniquely modify the TM helical topology, suggesting that E2 of the CB(1) receptor plays a critical role in stabilizing receptor structure, regulating ligand binding, and ultimately modulating receptor activation. Further studies on the role of E2 of the CB(1) receptor are warranted, particularly comparisons of the ligand-bound form with the present ligand-free form.

  9. A comprehensive ligand based mapping of the σ₂ receptor binding pocket.

    PubMed

    Rhoades, Derek J; Kinder, David H; Mahfouz, Tarek M

    2014-01-01

    The sigma (σ) receptor system consists of at least two major receptor subtypes: σ₁ and σ₂. Several potential therapeutic applications would benefit from structural knowledge of the σ₂ receptor but gaining this knowledge has been hampered by the difficulties associated with its isolation and, thus, characterization. Here, a ligand based approach has been adopted using the program PHASE® and a group of 41 potent and structurally diverse σ₂ ligands to develop several pharmacophore models for different families of σ₂ ligands. These pharmacophores were analyzed to identify the different binding modes to the receptor and were combined together to construct a comprehensive pharmacophore that was used to develop a structural model for the σ₂ binding pocket. A total of six binding modes were identified and could be classified as neutral or charged modes. The results presented here also indicate the significance of hydrophobic interactions to σ₂ binding and the requirement of hydrogen bonding interactions to increase the affinity for this receptor subtype. This work adds breadth to our knowledge of this receptor's binding site, and should contribute significantly to the development of novel selective σ₂ ligands.

  10. Is insulin binding followed by disulfide interchange between insulin and the receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, P.E.; Lipkin, E.W.; Teller, D.C.; de Haeen, C.

    1986-05-01

    The kinetics of insulin binding to rat adipocytes at 15/sup 0/C can best be described by a 2-step model. Insulin, I, first binds to the receptor, R. Occupied receptors, RI, then convert reversibly to another form, R'I, from which insulin cannot dissociate directly. At equilibrium, the R'I:RI ratio is approx.3:2. To elucidate the nature of R'I, the effects of 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoate) (DTNB) on the kinetics of insulin binding were investigated. DTNB (2.5 mM) added with 1 nM /sup 125/I-iodoinsulin doubled insulin binding relative to cells without DTNB. When labeled insulin prebound to cells was dissociated with excess unlabeled insulin, DTNB added with the unlabeled insulin reduced the amount of dissociating label. Treatment of adipocytes with DTNB prior to insulin exposure did not alter the subsequent response of insulin binding to DTNB. These data suggest that the receptor exists in at least two conformational states: R, the unoccupied receptor, with a cryptic sulfhydryl group, and the occupied receptors RI and R'I, in which a sulfhydryl group is sensitive to DTNB. The authors propose that R'I formation is the result of disulfide exchange between the receptor and insulin, in accordance with the kinetics evidence that insulin cannot directly dissociate from R'I. The disulfide exchange generates a free sulfhydryl on insulin, with which DTNB reacts to trap insulin covalently bound in the R'I form.

  11. Characterization of a second ligand binding site of the insulin receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Hao Caili; Whittaker, Linda; Whittaker, Jonathan . E-mail: jonathan.whittaker@case.edu

    2006-08-18

    Insulin binding to its receptor is characterized by high affinity, curvilinear Scatchard plots, and negative cooperativity. These properties may be the consequence of binding of insulin to two receptor binding sites. The N-terminal L1 domain and the C-terminus of the {alpha} subunit contain one binding site. To locate a second site, we examined the binding properties of chimeric receptors in which the L1 and L2 domains and the first Fibronectin Type III repeat of the insulin-like growth factor-I receptor were replaced by corresponding regions of the insulin receptor. Substitutions of the L2 domain and the first Fibronectin Type III repeat together with the L1 domain produced 80- and 300-fold increases in affinity for insulin. Fusion of these domains to human immunoglobulin Fc fragment produced a protein which bound insulin with a K {sub d} of 2.9 nM. These data strongly suggest that these domains contain an insulin binding site.

  12. Functional Relationships between Agonist Binding Sites and Coupling Regions of Homomeric Cys-Loop Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Natalia; Corradi, Jeremías; Bartos, Mariana

    2011-01-01

    Each subunit in a homopentameric Cys-loop receptor contains a specialized coupling region positioned between the agonist binding domain and the ion conductive channel. To determine the contribution of each coupling region to the stability of the open channel, we constructed a receptor subunit (α7-5-HT3A) with both a disabled coupling region and a reporter mutation that alters unitary conductance, and coexpressed normal and mutant subunits. The resulting receptors show single-channel current amplitudes that are quantized according to the number of reporter mutations per receptor, allowing correlation of the number of intact coupling regions with mean open time. We find that each coupling region contributes an equal increment to the stability of the open channel. However, by altering the numbers and locations of active coupling regions and binding sites, we find that a coupling region in a subunit flanked by inactive binding sites can still stabilize the open channel. We also determine minimal requirements for channel opening regardless of stability and find that channel opening can occur in a receptor with one active coupling region flanked by functional binding sites or with one active binding site flanked by functional coupling regions. The overall findings show that, whereas the agonist binding sites contribute interdependently and asymmetrically to open-channel stability, the coupling regions contribute independently and symmetrically. PMID:21389221

  13. Iron uptake and increased intracellular enzyme activity follow host lactoferrin binding by Trichomonas vaginalis receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, K.M.; Alderete, J.F.

    1984-08-01

    Lactoferrin acquisition and iron uptake by pathogenic Trichomonas vaginalis was examined. Saturation binding kinetics were obtained for trichomonads using increasing amounts of radioiodinated lactoferrin, while no significant binding by transferrin under similar conditions was achieved. Only unlabeled lactoferrin successfully and stoichiometrically competed with 125I-labeled lactoferrin binding. Time course studies showed maximal lactoferrin binding by 30 min at 37 degrees C. Data suggest no internalization of bound lactoferrin. The accumulation of radioactivity in supernatants after incubation of T. vaginalis with 125I-labeled lactoferrin and washing in PBS suggested the presence of low affinity sites for this host macromolecule. Scatchard analysis indicated the presence of 90,000 receptors per trichomonad with an apparent Kd of 1.0 microM. Two trichomonad lactoferrin binding proteins were identified by affinity chromatography and immunoprecipitation of receptor-ligand complexes. A 30-fold accumulation of iron was achieved using 59Fe-lactoferrin when compared to the steady state concentration of bound lactoferrin. The activity of pyruvate/ferrodoxin oxidoreductase, an enzyme involved in trichomonal energy metabolism, increased more than sixfold following exposure of the parasites to lactoferrin, demonstrating a biologic response to the receptor-mediated binding of lactoferrin. These data suggest that T. vaginalis possesses specific receptors for biologically relevant host proteins and that these receptors contribute to the metabolic processes of the parasites.

  14. Novel Bioluminescent Binding Assays for Ligand–Receptor Interaction Studies of the Fibroblast Growth Factor Family

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ge; Shao, Xiao-Xia; Wu, Qing-Ping; Xu, Zeng-Guang; Liu, Ya-Li; Guo, Zhan-Yun

    2016-01-01

    We recently developed novel bioluminescent binding assays for several protein/peptide hormones to study their interactions with receptors using the so far brightest NanoLuc reporter. To validate the novel bioluminescent binding assay using a variety of protein/peptide hormones, in the present work we applied it to the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family using the prototype member FGF2 as an example. A fully active recombinant FGF2 retaining a unique exposed cysteine (Cys) residue was chemically conjugated with an engineered NanoLuc carrying a unique exposed Cys residue at the C-terminus via formation of an intermolecular disulfide linkage. The NanoLuc-conjugated FGF2 (FGF2-Luc) retained high binding affinity to the overexpressed FGFR1 and the endogenous FGF receptor with the calculated dissociation constants of 161 ± 21 pM (n = 3) and 25 ± 4 pM (n = 3), respectively. In competition binding assays using FGF2-Luc as a tracer, receptor-binding potencies of wild-type or mutant FGF2s were accurately quantified. Thus, FGF2-Luc represents a novel non-radioactive tracer for the quantitative measurement of ligand–receptor interactions in the FGF family. These data suggest that the novel bioluminescent binding assay can be applied to a variety of protein/peptide hormones for ligand–receptor interaction studies. PMID:27414797

  15. Human formyl peptide receptor ligand binding domain(s). Studies using an improved mutagenesis/expression vector reveal a novel mechanism for the regulation of receptor occupancy.

    PubMed

    Perez, H D; Vilander, L; Andrews, W H; Holmes, R

    1994-09-09

    Recently, we reported the domain requirements for the binding of formyl peptide to its specific receptor. Based on experiments using receptor chimeras, we also postulated an importance for the amino-terminal domain of the receptor in ligand binding (Perez, H. D., Holmes, R., Vilander, L., Adams, R., Manzana, W., Jolley, D., and Andrews, W. H. (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268, 2292-2295). We have begun to perform a detailed analysis of the regions within the formyl peptide receptor involved in ligand binding. To address the importance of the receptor amino-terminal domain, we substituted (or inserted) hydrophilic sequences within the amino-terminal domain, expressed the receptors, and determined their ability to bind ligand. A stretch of nine amino acids next to the initial methionine was identified as crucial for receptor occupancy. A peptide containing such a sequence specifically completed binding of the ligand to the receptor. Alanine screen mutagenesis of the second extracellular domain also identified amino acids involved in ligand binding as well as a disulfide bond (Cys98 to Cys176) crucial for maintaining the binding pocket. These studies provide evidence for a novel mechanism involved in regulation of receptor occupancy. Binding of the ligand induces conformational changes in the receptor that result in the apposition of the amino-terminal domain over the ligand, providing a lid to the binding pocket.

  16. Localization of ligand-binding domains of human corticotropin-releasing factor receptor: a chimeric receptor approach.

    PubMed

    Liaw, C W; Grigoriadis, D E; Lovenberg, T W; De Souza, E B; Maki, R A

    1997-06-01

    Two CRF receptors, CRFR1 and CRFR2, have recently been cloned and characterized. CRFR1 shares 70% sequence identity with CRFR2, yet has much higher affinity for rat/human CRF (r/hCRF) than CRFR2. As a first step toward understanding the interactions between rat/human CRF and its receptor, the regions that are involved in receptor-ligand binding and/or receptor activation were determined by using chimeric receptor constructs of the two human CRFR subtypes, CRFR1 and CRFR2, followed by generating point mutations of the receptor. The EC50 values in stimulation of intracellular cAMP of the chimeric and mutant receptors for the peptide ligand were determined using a cAMP-dependent reporter system. Three regions of the receptor were found to be important for optimal binding of r/hCRF and/or receptor activation. The first region was mapped to the junction of the third extracellular domain and the fifth transmembrane domain; substitution of three amino acids of CRFR1 in this region (Val266, Tyr267, and Thr268) by the corresponding CRFR2 amino acids (Asp266, Leu267, and Val268) increased the EC50 value by approximately 10-fold. The other two regions were localized to the second extracellular domain of the CRFR1 involving amino acids 175-178 and His189 residue. Substitutions in these two regions each increased the EC50 value for r/hCRF by approximately 7- to 8-fold only in the presence of the amino acid 266-268 mutation involving the first region, suggesting that their roles in peptide ligand binding might be secondary.

  17. Different antagonist binding properties of rat pancreatic and cardiac muscarinic receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Waelbroeck, M.; Camus, J.; Winand, J.; Christophe, J.

    1987-11-09

    The antagonist binding properties of rat pancreatic and cardiac muscarinic receptors were compared. In both tissues pirenzepine (PZ) had a low affinity for muscarinic receptors labelled by (/sup 3/H)N-methylscopolamine ((/sup 3/)NMS) (K/sub D/ values of 140 and 280nM, respectively, in pancreatic and cardiac homogenates). The binding properties of pancreatic and cardiac receptors were, however, markedly different. This was indicated by different affinities for dicyclomine, (11-(/(2-((diethylamino)-methyl)-1-piperidinyl/acetyl)-5, 11-dihydro-6H-pyrido(2,3-b)(1,4) benzodiazepin-6-on)(AFDX-116), 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methyl-piperidine methobromide (4-DAMP) and hexahydrosiladifenidol (HHSiD). Pancreatic and cardiac muscarinic receptros also showed different (/sup 3/H)NMS association and dissociation rates. These results support the concept of M2 receptor subtypes have different binding kinetic properties. 20 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  18. Structure of the bacteriophage T4 long tail fiber receptor-binding tip

    PubMed Central

    Bartual, Sergio G.; Otero, José M.; Garcia-Doval, Carmela; Llamas-Saiz, Antonio L.; Kahn, Richard; Fox, Gavin C.; van Raaij, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    Bacteriophages are the most numerous organisms in the biosphere. In spite of their biological significance and the spectrum of potential applications, little high-resolution structural detail is available on their receptor-binding fibers. Here we present the crystal structure of the receptor-binding tip of the bacteriophage T4 long tail fiber, which is highly homologous to the tip of the bacteriophage lambda side tail fibers. This structure reveals an unusual elongated six-stranded antiparallel beta-strand needle domain containing seven iron ions coordinated by histidine residues arranged colinearly along the core of the biological unit. At the end of the tip, the three chains intertwine forming a broader head domain, which contains the putative receptor interaction site. The structure reveals a previously unknown beta-structured fibrous fold, provides insights into the remarkable stability of the fiber, and suggests a framework for mutations to expand or modulate receptor-binding specificity. PMID:21041684

  19. The ligand binding domain controls glucocorticoid receptor dynamics independent of ligand release.

    PubMed

    Meijsing, Sebastiaan H; Elbi, Cem; Luecke, Hans F; Hager, Gordon L; Yamamoto, Keith R

    2007-04-01

    Ligand binding to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) results in receptor binding to glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) and the formation of transcriptional regulatory complexes. Equally important, these complexes are continuously disassembled, with active processes driving GR off GREs. We found that co-chaperone p23-dependent disruption of GR-driven transcription depended on the ligand binding domain (LBD). Next, we examined the importance of the LBD and of ligand dissociation in GR-GRE dissociation in living cells. We showed in fluorescence recovery after photobleaching studies that dissociation of GR from GREs is faster in the absence of the LBD. Furthermore, GR interaction with a target promoter revealed ligand-specific exchange rates. However, using covalently binding ligands, we demonstrated that ligand dissociation is not required for receptor dissociation from GREs. Overall, these studies showed that activities impinging on the LBD regulate GR exchange with GREs but that the dissociation of GR from GREs is independent from ligand dissociation.

  20. Quantitative Analysis of D2 Dopamine Receptor Binding in the Living Human Brain by PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farde, Lars; Hall, Hakan; Ehrin, Erling; Sedvall, Goran

    1986-01-01

    D2 dopamine receptors in the putamen of living human subjects were characterized by using the selective, high-affinity D2 dopamine receptor antagonist carbon-11-labeled raclopride and positron emission tomography. Experiments in four healthy men demonstrated saturability of [11C]raclopride binding to an apparently homogeneous population of sites with Hill coefficients close to unity. In the normal putamen, maximum binding ranged from 12 to 17 picomoles per cubic centimeter and dissociation constants from 3.4 to 4.7 nanomolar. Maximum binding for human putamen at autopsy was 15 picomoles per cubic centimeter. Studies of [11C]raclopride binding indicate that clinically effective doses of chemically distinct neuroleptic drugs result in 85 to 90 percent occupancy of D2 dopamine receptors in the putamen of schizophrenic patients.

  1. Measurement in vivo of dopamine receptor density I: Effect of endogenous dopamine on spiroperidol binding

    SciTech Connect

    De Jesus, O.T.; Van Moffaert, G.J.C.; Friedman, A.M.; Dinerstein, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    Non-invasive localization of brain dopamine (DA) receptors has been achieved by us and others using gamma emitting derivatives of the DA antagonist spiroperidol (SP). To accurately characterize this localization, the authors have previously described an equilibrium binding model involving SP and DA for a single DA receptor. It is the purpose of this study to establish experimentally the significance of endogenous DA on the ability of SP to bind a group of DA receptors. Several mice were administered different doses of SP. To one group of mice L-dopa was given with peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor, RO-4-4602, in order to elevate brain DA levels while a separate group served as control. /sup 3/H-SP binding and DA levels were measured in each brain sample. The results reflect a significant competition between DA and SP for caudate DA binding sites.

  2. Structure and Receptor Binding of the Hemagglutinin from a Human H6N1 Influenza Virus

    DOE PAGES

    Tzarum, Netanel; de Vries, Robert P.; Zhu, Xueyong; ...

    2015-03-11

    Avian influenza viruses that cause infection and are transmissible in humans involve changes in the receptor binding site (RBS) of the viral hemagglutinin (HA) that alter receptor preference from α2-3-linked (avian-like) to α2-6-linked (human-like) sialosides. A human case of avian-origin H6N1 influenza virus was recently reported, but the molecular mechanisms contributing to it crossing the species barrier are unknown. We find that, although the H6 HA RBS contains D190V and G228S substitutions that potentially promote human receptor binding, recombinant H6 HA preferentially binds α2-3-linked sialosides, indicating no adaptation to human receptors. Crystal structures of H6 HA with avian and humanmore » receptor analogs reveal that H6 HA preferentially interacts with avian receptor analogs. Lastly, this binding mechanism differs from other HA subtypes due to a unique combination of RBS residues, highlighting additional variation in HA-receptor interactions and the challenges in predicting which influenza strains and subtypes can infect humans and cause pandemics.« less

  3. GHB receptor targets in the CNS: focus on high-affinity binding sites.

    PubMed

    Bay, Tina; Eghorn, Laura F; Klein, Anders B; Wellendorph, Petrine

    2014-01-15

    γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is an endogenous compound in the mammalian brain with both low- and high-affinity receptor targets. GHB is used clinically in the treatment of symptoms of narcolepsy and alcoholism, but also illicitly abused as the recreational drug Fantasy. Major pharmacological effects of exogenous GHB are mediated by GABA subtype B (GABAB) receptors that bind GHB with low affinity. The existence of GHB high-affinity binding sites has been known for more than three decades, but the uncovering of their molecular identity has only recently begun. This has been prompted by the generation of molecular tools to selectively study high-affinity sites. These include both genetically modified GABAB knock-out mice and engineered selective GHB ligands. Recently, certain GABA subtype A (GABAA) receptor subtypes emerged as high-affinity GHB binding sites and potential physiological mediators of GHB effects. In this research update, a description of the various reported receptors for GHB is provided, including GABAB receptors, certain GABAA receptor subtypes and other reported GHB receptors. The main focus will thus be on the high-affinity binding targets for GHB and their potential functional roles in the mammalian brain.

  4. A two-step binding model of PCSK9 interaction with the low density lipoprotein receptor.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Taichi; Lu, Christine; Ryan, Robert O

    2011-02-18

    PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin-like/kexin type 9) is an emerging target for pharmaceutical intervention. This multidomain protein interacts with the LDL receptor (LDLR), promoting receptor degradation. Insofar as PCSK9 inhibition induces a decrease in plasma cholesterol levels, understanding the nature of the binding interaction between PCSK9 and the LDLR is of critical importance. In this study, the ability of PCSK9 to compete with apoE3 N-terminal domain-containing reconstituted HDL for receptor binding was examined. Whereas full-length PCSK9 was an effective competitor, the N-terminal domain (composed of the prodomain and catalytic domain) was not. Surprisingly, the C-terminal domain (CT domain) of PCSK9 was able to compete. Using a direct binding interaction assay, we show that the PCSK9 CT domain bound to the LDLR in a calcium-dependent manner and that co-incubation with the prodomain and catalytic domain had no effect on this binding. To further characterize this interaction, two LDLR fragments, the classical ligand-binding domain (LBD) and the EGF precursor homology domain, were expressed in stably transfected HEK 293 cells and isolated. Binding assays showed that the PCSK9 CT domain bound to the LBD at pH 5.4. Thus, CT domain interaction with the LBD of the LDLR at endosomal pH constitutes a second step in the PCSK9-mediated LDLR binding that leads to receptor degradation.

  5. Nucleotide-binding properties of kinase-deficient epidermal-growth-factor-receptor mutants.

    PubMed

    Cheng, K; Koland, J G

    1998-02-15

    The nucleotide-binding properties of wild-type epidermal- growth-factor (EGF)-receptor protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) and EGF-receptor mutants with site-specific amino acid substitutions known to attenuate protein kinase activity were analysed by a fluorescence competition assay employing the nucleotide analogue 2'(3')-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)adenosine 5'-triphosphate. Binding affinities for ATP and Mn.ATP complex were determined for the PTK domains of the wild-type and two mutant proteins. Surprisingly, mutation of the highly conserved Lys-721 residue in the nucleotide-binding site of the EGF- receptor PTK domain did not abolish ATP and Mn.ATP binding, although the binding affinity for the Mn.ATP complex was significantly reduced. A second kinase-inactivating mutation that targeted the highly conserved Asp-813 residue had little effect on the nucleotide-binding properties of the EGF-receptor PTK domain. These results indicated that the principle effect of these two kinase-inactivating amino acid substitutions is not to block nucleotide binding, but is instead an inhibition of the phospho-transfer reaction.

  6. Nucleotide-binding properties of kinase-deficient epidermal-growth-factor-receptor mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, K; Koland, J G

    1998-01-01

    The nucleotide-binding properties of wild-type epidermal- growth-factor (EGF)-receptor protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) and EGF-receptor mutants with site-specific amino acid substitutions known to attenuate protein kinase activity were analysed by a fluorescence competition assay employing the nucleotide analogue 2'(3')-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)adenosine 5'-triphosphate.Binding affinities for ATP and Mn.ATP complex were determined for the PTK domains of the wild-type and two mutant proteins. Surprisingly, mutation of the highly conserved Lys-721 residue in the nucleotide-binding site of the EGF- receptor PTK domain did not abolish ATP and Mn.ATP binding, although the binding affinity for the Mn.ATP complex was significantly reduced. A second kinase-inactivating mutation that targeted the highly conserved Asp-813 residue had little effect on the nucleotide-binding properties of the EGF-receptor PTK domain. These results indicated that the principle effect of these two kinase-inactivating amino acid substitutions is not to block nucleotide binding, but is instead an inhibition of the phospho-transfer reaction. PMID:9461530

  7. Multiple opioid receptor binding in dissociated intact guinea pig brain cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tam, S.W.; James, D.W.

    1986-03-05

    Dissociated intact guinea pig brain cells were prepared by the method of Rogers and El-Fakahany. Over 95% of these cells are viable as demonstrated by their exclusion of the dye trypan blue. Opioid receptor binding assays were performed in a modified Kreb-Ringers physiological buffer. The following radiolabeled ligands and conditions were used to selectively labeled multiple opioid receptors: mu binding, 1 nM (/sup 3/H)naloxone + 20 nM DADLE + 300 nM U50,488H; kappa binding, 4 nM (-)-(/sup 3/H)-EKC + 100 nM DAGO + 500 nM DADLE; delta binding, 2 nM (/sup 3/H)-DADLE + 100 nM DAGO + 300 nM U50,488H; sigma binding, 4 nM (+)-(/sup 3/H)SKF 10,047. The intact brain cells in physiological buffer demonstrated specific binding for mu, kappa, delta, and sigma receptors. The relative binding potency of naloxone for each of the receptor types is arbitrarily set at 1.

  8. Rabies virus binding to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha subunit demonstrated by virus overlay protein binding assay.

    PubMed

    Gastka, M; Horvath, J; Lentz, T L

    1996-10-01

    A virus overlay protein binding assay was used to study binding of 125I-labelled rabies virus to the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) from Torpedo californica electric organ membranes. After gel electrophoresis of electric organ membranes and transfer of proteins to nitrocellulose, 125I-labelled alpha-bungarotoxin, a curaremimetic neurotoxin, bound to a 40 kDa band and 125I-labelled rabies virus bound to 51 kDa and 40 kDa bands. Binding of rabies virus to the 40 kDa band was inhibited by unlabelled alpha-bungarotoxin. In blots of affinity-purified AChR, labelled virus bound to the 40 kDa alpha subunit and was competed by alpha-bungarotoxin. Based on binding of rabies virus to the alpha subunit and the ability of alpha-bungarotoxin to compete for binding, rabies virus appears to bind to the neurotoxin-binding site of the nicotinic AChR alpha subunit.

  9. PREDICTING RETINOID RECEPTOR BINDING AFFINITY: COREPA-M APPLICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Retinoic acid and associated vitamin A derivatives comprise a class of endogenous hormones that activate different retinoic acid receptors RARs). Transcriptional events subsequent to this activation are key to controlling several aspects of vertebrate development. As such, identi...

  10. PREDICTING RETINOID RECEPTOR BINDING AFFINITY: COREPA-M APPLICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Retinoic acid and associated vitamin A derivatives comprise a class of endogenous hormones that activate different retinoic acid receptors RARs). Transcriptional events subsequent to this activation are key to controlling several aspects of vertebrate development. As such, identi...

  11. Study of V2 vasopressin receptor hormone binding site using in silico methods

    PubMed Central

    Sebti, Yeganeh; Sardari, Soroush; Sadeghi, Hamid Mir Mohammad; Ghahremani, Mohammad Hossein; Innamorati, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    The antidiuretic effect of arginine vasopressin (AVP) is mediated by the vasopressin V2 receptor. The docking study of AVP as a ligand to V2 receptor helps in identifying important amino acid residues that might be involved in AVP binding for predicting the lowest free energy state of the protein complex. Whereas previous researchers were not able to detect the exact site of the ligand-receptor binding, we designed the current study to identify the vasopressin V2 receptor hormone binding site using bioinformatic methods. The 3D structure of nonapeptide hormone vasopressin was extracted from Protein Data Bank. Since no suitable template resembling V2 receptor was found, an ab initio approach was chosen to model the protein receptor. Using protein docking methods such as Hex protein-protein docking, the model of V2 receptor was docked to the peptide ligand AVP to identify possible binding sites. The residues that involved in binding site are W293, W296, D297, A300, and P301. The lowest free energy state of the protein complex was predicted after mutation in the above residues. The amount of gained energies permits us to compare the mutant forms with native forms and help to asses critical changes such as positive and negative mutations followed by ranking the best mutations. Based on the mutation/docking predictions, we found some mutants such as W293D and A300E possess positively inducing effect in ligand binding and some of them such as A300R present negatively inducing effect in ligand binding. PMID:26600856

  12. The heterodimeric sweet taste receptor has multiple potential ligand binding sites.

    PubMed

    Cui, Meng; Jiang, Peihua; Maillet, Emeline; Max, Marianna; Margolskee, Robert F; Osman, Roman

    2006-01-01

    The sweet taste receptor is a heterodimer of two G protein coupled receptors, T1R2 and T1R3. This discovery has increased our understanding at the molecular level of the mechanisms underlying sweet taste. Previous experimental studies using sweet receptor chimeras and mutants show that there are at least three potential binding sites in this heterodimeric receptor. Receptor activity toward the artificial sweeteners aspartame and neotame depends on residues in the amino terminal domain of human T1R2. In contrast, receptor activity toward the sweetener cyclamate and the sweet taste inhibitor lactisole depends on residues within the transmembrane domain of human T1R3. Furthermore, receptor activity toward the sweet protein brazzein depends on the cysteine rich domain of human T1R3. Although crystal structures are not available for the sweet taste receptor, useful homology models can be developed based on appropriate templates. The amino terminal domain, cysteine rich domain and transmembrane helix domain of T1R2 and T1R3 have been modeled based on the crystal structures of metabotropic glutamate receptor type 1, tumor necrosis factor receptor, and bovine rhodopsin, respectively. We have used homology models of the sweet taste receptors, molecular docking of sweet ligands to the receptors, and site-directed mutagenesis of the receptors to identify potential ligand binding sites of the sweet taste receptor. These studies have led to a better understanding of the structure and function of this heterodimeric receptor, and can act as a guide for rational structure-based design of novel non-caloric sweeteners, which can be used in the fighting against obesity and diabetes.

  13. CdiA Effectors Use Modular Receptor-Binding Domains To Recognize Target Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ruhe, Zachary C.; Nguyen, Josephine Y.; Xiong, Jing; Koskiniemi, Sanna; Beck, Christina M.; Perkins, Basil R.; Low, David A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI) systems encode CdiA effectors, which bind to specific receptors on neighboring bacteria and deliver C-terminal toxin domains to suppress target cell growth. Two classes of CdiA effectors that bind distinct cell surface receptors have been identified, but the molecular basis of receptor specificity is not understood. Alignment of BamA-specific CdiAEC93 from Escherichia coli EC93 and OmpC-specific CdiAEC536 from E. coli 536 suggests that the receptor-binding domain resides within a central region that varies between the two effectors. In support of this hypothesis, we find that CdiAEC93 fragments containing residues Arg1358 to Phe1646 bind specifically to purified BamA. Moreover, chimeric CdiAEC93 that carries the corresponding sequence from CdiAEC536 is endowed with OmpC-binding activity, demonstrating that this region dictates receptor specificity. A survey of E. coli CdiA proteins reveals two additional effector classes, which presumably recognize distinct receptors. Using a genetic approach, we identify the outer membrane nucleoside transporter Tsx as the receptor for a third class of CdiA effectors. Thus, CDI systems exploit multiple outer membrane proteins to identify and engage target cells. These results underscore the modularity of CdiA proteins and suggest that novel effectors can be constructed through genetic recombination to interchange different receptor-binding domains and toxic payloads. PMID:28351921

  14. GABAergic control of neostriatal dopamine D2 receptor binding and behaviors in the rat.

    PubMed

    Nikolaus, Susanne; Beu, Markus; de Souza Silva, Maria Angelica; Huston, Joseph P; Antke, Christina; Müller, Hans-Wilhelm; Hautzel, Hubertus

    2017-02-01

    The present study assessed the influence of the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol and the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline on neostriatal dopamine D2 receptor binding in relation to motor and exploratory behaviors in the rat. D2 receptor binding was measured in baseline and after challenge with either 1mg/kg muscimol or 1mg/kg bicuculline. In additional rats, D2 receptor binding was measured after injection of saline. After treatment with muscimol, bicuculline and saline, motor and exploratory behaviors were assessed for 30min in an open field prior to administration of [(123)I]S-3-iodo-N-(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl-2-hydroxy-6-methoxybenzamide ([(123)I]IBZM). For baseline and challenges, striatal equilibrium ratios (V3″) were computed as estimation of the binding potential. Muscimol but not bicuculline reduced D2 receptor binding relative to baseline and to saline. Travelled distance, duration of rearing and frequency of rearing and of head-shoulder motility were lower after muscimol compared to saline. In contrast, duration of rearing and grooming and frequency of rearing, head-shoulder motility and grooming were elevated after bicuculline relative to saline. Moreover, bicuculline decreased duration of sitting and head-shoulder motility. The muscimol-induced decrease of motor/exploratory behaviors can be related to an elevation of striatal dopamine levels. In contrast, bicuculline is likely to elicit a decline of synaptic dopamine, which, however, is compensated by the time of D2 receptor imaging studies. The results indicate direct GABAergic control over D2 receptor binding in the neostriatum in relation to behavioral action, and, thus, complement earlier pharmacological studies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Human corpus luteum: presence of epidermal growth factor receptors and binding characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Ayyagari, R.R.; Khan-Dawood, F.S.

    1987-04-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptors are present in many reproductive tissues but have not been demonstrated in the human corpus luteum. To determine the presence of epidermal growth factor receptors and its binding characteristics, we carried out studies on the plasma cell membrane fraction of seven human corpora lutea (days 16 to 25) of the menstrual cycle. Specific epidermal growth factor receptors were present in human corpus luteum. Insulin, nerve growth factor, and human chorionic gonadotropin did not competitively displace epidermal growth factor binding. The optimal conditions for corpus luteum-epidermal growth factor receptor binding were found to be incubation for 2 hours at 4 degrees C with 500 micrograms plasma membrane protein and 140 femtomol /sup 125/I-epidermal growth factor per incubate. The number (mean +/- SEM) of epidermal growth factor binding sites was 12.34 +/- 2.99 X 10(-19) mol/micrograms protein; the dissociation constant was 2.26 +/- 0.56 X 10(-9) mol/L; the association constant was 0.59 +/- 0.12 X 10(9) L/mol. In two regressing corpora lutea obtained on days 2 and 3 of the menstrual cycle, there was no detectable specific epidermal growth factor receptor binding activity. Similarly no epidermal growth factor receptor binding activity could be detected in ovarian stromal tissue. Our findings demonstrate that specific receptors for epidermal growth factor are present in the human corpus luteum. The physiologic significance of epidermal growth factor receptors in human corpus luteum is unknown, but epidermal growth factor may be involved in intragonadal regulation of luteal function.

  16. A locus of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor that differentiates agonist and antagonist binding sites.

    PubMed

    Zhou, W; Rodic, V; Kitanovic, S; Flanagan, C A; Chi, L; Weinstein, H; Maayani, S; Millar, R P; Sealfon, S C

    1995-08-11

    The decapeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone controls reproductive function via interaction with a heptahelical G protein-coupled receptor. Because of molecular model of the receptor predicts that Lys121 in the third transmembrane helix contributes to the binding pocket, the function of this side chain was studied by site-directed mutagenesis. Substitution of Arg at this position preserved high affinity agonist binding, whereas Gln at this position reduced binding below the limits of detection. Leu and Asp at this locus abolished both binding and detectable signal transduction. The EC50 of concentration-response curves for coupling to phosphatidyl inositol hydrolysis obtained with the Gln121 receptor was more than 3 orders of magnitude higher than that obtained for the wild-type receptor. In order to determine whether the increased EC50 obtained with this mutant reflects an altered receptor affinity, the effect of decreases in wild-type receptor density on concentration-response curves was determined by irreversible antagonism. Progressively decreasing the concentration of the wild-type receptor increased the EC50 values obtained to a maximal level of 2.4 +/- 0.2 nM. Comparison of this value with the EC50 of 282 +/- 52 nM observed with the Gln121 receptor mutant indicates that the agonist affinity for this mutant is reduced more than 100-fold. In contrast, antagonist had comparable high affinities for the wild-type, Arg121, and Gln121 mutants. The results indicate that a charge-strengthened hydrogen bond donor is required at this locus for high affinity agonist binding but not for high affinity antagonist binding.

  17. Characterization of the novel progestin gestodene by receptor binding studies and transactivation assays.

    PubMed

    Fuhrmann, U; Slater, E P; Fritzemeier, K H

    1995-01-01

    Gestodene is a novel progestin used in oral contraceptives with an increased separation of progestogenic versus androgenic activity and a distinct antimineralocorticoid activity. This specific pharmacological profile of gestodene is defined by its pattern of binding affinities to a variety of steroid hormone receptors. In the present study the affinity of gestodene to the progesterone receptor (PR), the androgen receptor (AR), the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and the estrogen receptor (ER) was re-evaluated by steroid binding assays and compared to those obtained for 3-keto-desogestrel and progesterone. The two synthetic progestins displayed identical high affinity to rabbit PR and similar marked binding to rat AR and GR, while progesterone showed high affinity to PR but only low binding to AR and GR. Furthermore, 3-keto-desogestrel exhibited almost no binding to MR, whereas gestodene, similar to progesterone, showed marked affinity to this receptor. In addition to receptor binding studies, transactivation assays were carried out to investigate the effects of gestodene on AR-, GR- and MR-mediated induction of transcription. In contrast to progesterone, which showed antiandrogenic activity, gestodene and 3-keto-desogestrel both exhibited androgenic activity. Furthermore, all three progestins exhibited weak GR-mediated antagonistic activity. In contrast to progesterone, which showed almost no glucocorticoid activity, gestodene and 3-keto-desogestrel showed weak glucocorticoid action. In addition, gestodene inhibited the aldosterone-induced reporter gene transcription, similar to progesterone, whereas unlike progesterone, gestodene did not induce reporter gene transcription. 3-Keto-desogestrel showed neither antimineralocorticoid nor mineralocorticoid action.

  18. Muscarinic cholinergic receptor binding sites differentiated by their affinity for pirenzepine do not interconvert

    SciTech Connect

    Gil, D.W.; Wolfe, B.B.

    1986-05-01

    Although it has been suggested by many investigators that subtypes of muscarinic cholinergic receptors exist, physical studies of solubilized receptors have indicated that only a single molecular species may exist. To test the hypothesis that the putative muscarinic receptor subtypes in rat forebrain are interconvertible states of the same receptor, the selective antagonist pirenzepine (PZ) was used to protect muscarinic receptors from blockade by the irreversible muscarinic receptor antagonist propylbenzilylcholine mustard (PBCM). If interconversion of high (M1) and low (M2) affinity binding sites for PZ occurs, incubation of cerebral cortical membranes with PBCM in the presence of PZ should not alter the proportions of M1 and M2 binding sites that are unalkylated (i.e., protected). If, on the other hand, the binding sites are not interconvertible, PZ should be able to selectively protect M1 sites and alter the proportions of unalkylated M1 and M2 binding sites. In the absence of PZ, treatment of cerebral cortical membranes with 20 nM PBCM at 4 degrees C for 50 min resulted in a 69% reduction in the density of M1 binding sites and a 55% reduction in the density of M2 binding sites with no change in the equilibrium dissociation constants of the radioligands (/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate or (/sup 3/H)PZ. The reasons for this somewhat selective effect of PBCM are not apparent. In radioligand binding experiments using cerebral cortical membranes, PZ inhibited the binding of (/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate in a biphasic manner.

  19. Doubling the Size of the Glucocorticoid Receptor Ligand Binding Pocket by Deacylcortivazol

    SciTech Connect

    Suino-Powell, Kelly; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Chenghai; Tao, Yong-guang; Tolbert, W. David; Simons, Jr., S. Stoney; Xu, H. Eric

    2010-03-08

    A common feature of nuclear receptor ligand binding domains (LBD) is a helical sandwich fold that nests a ligand binding pocket within the bottom half of the domain. Here we report that the ligand pocket of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) can be continuously extended into the top half of the LBD by binding to deacylcortivazol (DAC), an extremely potent glucocorticoid. It has been puzzling for decades why DAC, which contains a phenylpyrazole replacement at the conserved 3-ketone of steroid hormones that are normally required for activation of their cognate receptors, is a potent GR activator. The crystal structure of the GR LBD bound to DAC and the fourth LXXLL motif of steroid receptor coactivator 1 reveals that the GR ligand binding pocket is expanded to a size of 1,070 {angstrom}{sup 3}, effectively doubling the size of the GR dexamethasone-binding pocket of 540 {angstrom}{sup 3} and yet leaving the structure of the coactivator binding site intact. DAC occupies only {approx}50% of the space of the pocket but makes intricate interactions with the receptor around the phenylpyrazole group that accounts for the high-affinity binding of DAC. The dramatic expansion of the DAC-binding pocket thus highlights the conformational adaptability of GR to ligand binding. The new structure also allows docking of various nonsteroidal ligands that cannot be fitted into the previous structures, thus providing a new rational template for drug discovery of steroidal and nonsteroidal glucocorticoids that can be specifically designed to reach the unoccupied space of the expanded pocket.

  20. Negative cooperativity in binding of muscarinic receptor agonists and GDP as a measure of agonist efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Jakubík, J; Janíčková, H; El-Fakahany, EE; Doležal, V

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Conventional determination of agonist efficacy at G-protein coupled receptors is measured by stimulation of guanosine-5′-γ−thiotriphosphate (GTPγS) binding. We analysed the role of guanosine diphosphate (GDP) in the process of activation of the M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor and provide evidence that negative cooperativity between agonist and GDP binding is an alternative measure of agonist efficacy. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Filtration and scintillation proximity assays measured equilibrium binding as well as binding kinetics of [35S]GTPγS and [3H]GDP to a mixture of G-proteins as well as individual classes of G-proteins upon binding of structurally different agonists to the M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. KEY RESULTS Agonists displayed biphasic competition curves with the antagonist [3H]-N-methylscopolamine. GTPγS (1 µM) changed the competition curves to monophasic with low affinity and 50 µM GDP produced a similar effect. Depletion of membrane-bound GDP increased the proportion of agonist high-affinity sites. Carbachol accelerated the dissociation of [3H]GDP from membranes. The inverse agonist N-methylscopolamine slowed GDP dissociation and GTPγS binding without changing affinity for GDP. Carbachol affected both GDP association with and dissociation from Gi/o G-proteins but only its dissociation from Gs/olf G-proteins. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These findings suggest the existence of a low-affinity agonist-receptor conformation complexed with GDP-liganded G-protein. Also the negative cooperativity between GDP and agonist binding at the receptor/G-protein complex determines agonist efficacy. GDP binding reveals differences in action of agonists versus inverse agonists as well as differences in activation of Gi/o versus Gs/olf G-proteins that are not identified by conventional GTPγS binding. PMID:20958290

  1. Negative cooperativity in binding of muscarinic receptor agonists and GDP as a measure of agonist efficacy.

    PubMed

    Jakubík, J; Janíčková, H; El-Fakahany, E E; Doležal, V

    2011-03-01

    Conventional determination of agonist efficacy at G-protein coupled receptors is measured by stimulation of guanosine-5'-γ-thiotriphosphate (GTPγS) binding. We analysed the role of guanosine diphosphate (GDP) in the process of activation of the M₂ muscarinic acetylcholine receptor and provide evidence that negative cooperativity between agonist and GDP binding is an alternative measure of agonist efficacy. Filtration and scintillation proximity assays measured equilibrium binding as well as binding kinetics of [³⁵S]GTPγS and [³H]GDP to a mixture of G-proteins as well as individual classes of G-proteins upon binding of structurally different agonists to the M₂ muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. Agonists displayed biphasic competition curves with the antagonist [³H]-N-methylscopolamine. GTPγS (1 µM) changed the competition curves to monophasic with low affinity and 50 µM GDP produced a similar effect. Depletion of membrane-bound GDP increased the proportion of agonist high-affinity sites. Carbachol accelerated the dissociation of [³H]GDP from membranes. The inverse agonist N-methylscopolamine slowed GDP dissociation and GTPγS binding without changing affinity for GDP. Carbachol affected both GDP association with and dissociation from G(i/o) G-proteins but only its dissociation from G(s/olf) G-proteins. These findings suggest the existence of a low-affinity agonist-receptor conformation complexed with GDP-liganded G-protein. Also the negative cooperativity between GDP and agonist binding at the receptor/G-protein complex determines agonist efficacy. GDP binding reveals differences in action of agonists versus inverse agonists as well as differences in activation of G(i/o) versus G(s/olf) G-proteins that are not identified by conventional GTPγS binding. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  2. Leukotriene C4 binds to receptors and has positive inotropic effects in bullfrog heart.

    PubMed

    Chiono, M; Heller, R S; Andazola, J J; Herman, C A

    1991-03-01

    Leukotriene (LT) C4, LTD4 and LTE4 have positive inotropic effects on contractility of the isolated perfused bullfrog heart. The effects of LTD4 and LTE4 but not LTC4 can be blocked by the mammalian antagonist L-649,923. Characterization of specific binding sites for [3H]LTC4 on membrane preparations from American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) ventricle was carried out. Binding assays were done in the presence of serine (5 mM) and borate (10 mM) for 30 min at 23 degrees C. Under these conditions, no metabolism of LTC4 to LTD4 occurred. Specific binding of [3H]LTC4 reached steady state within 10 min, remained constant for 60 min, and was reversible with the addition of 1000-fold excess unlabeled LTC4. Scatchard analysis of the binding data indicated a single class of binding sites with a Kd of 33.9 nM and maximal binding capacity of 51.6 pmol/mg of protein. Competition binding studies revealed an order of potency of LTC4 greater than LTD4 greater than LTE4 with Ki values of 47, 11766 and 32248 nM, respectively. Glutathione and hematin had Ki values of 50566 and 6014 nM, respectively, suggesting that the LTC4 receptor is not a site on glutathione transferase. Two mammalian LTD4 antagonists, L-649,923 and LY171883 failed to inhibit specific binding of [3H]LTC4, suggesting that the LTC4 receptor is distinct from the LTD4 receptor. Guanosine-5'-O-3-thiotriphosphate did not affect specific binding of [3H]LTC4 indicating that, like mammalian LTC4 receptors, a Gi protein is not involved in the transduction mechanism. LTC4 acts on bullfrog hearts through specific membrane receptors and is similar to its mammalian counterpart.

  3. Cargo binding promotes KDEL receptor clustering at the mammalian cell surface

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Björn; Shaebani, M. Reza; Rammo, Domenik; Bubel, Tobias; Santen, Ludger; Schmitt, Manfred J.

    2016-01-01

    Transmembrane receptor clustering is a ubiquitous phenomenon in pro- and eukaryotic cells to physically sense receptor/ligand interactions and subsequently translate an exogenous signal into a cellular response. Despite that receptor cluster formation has been described for a wide variety of receptors, ranging from chemotactic receptors in bacteria to growth factor and neurotransmitter receptors in mammalian cells, a mechanistic understanding of the underlying molecular processes is still puzzling. In an attempt to fill this gap we followed a combined experimental and theoretical approach by dissecting and modulating cargo binding, internalization and cellular response mediated by KDEL receptors (KDELRs) at the mammalian cell surface after interaction with a model cargo/ligand. Using a fluorescent variant of ricin toxin A chain as KDELR-ligand (eGFP-RTAH/KDEL), we demonstrate that cargo binding induces dose-dependent receptor cluster formation at and subsequent internalization from the membrane which is associated and counteracted by anterograde and microtubule-assisted receptor transport to preferred docking sites at the plasma membrane. By means of analytical arguments and extensive numerical simulations we show that cargo-synchronized receptor transport from and to the membrane is causative for KDELR/cargo cluster formation at the mammalian cell surface. PMID:27353000

  4. Cargo binding promotes KDEL receptor clustering at the mammalian cell surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Björn; Shaebani, M. Reza; Rammo, Domenik; Bubel, Tobias; Santen, Ludger; Schmitt, Manfred J.

    2016-06-01

    Transmembrane receptor clustering is a ubiquitous phenomenon in pro- and eukaryotic cells to physically sense receptor/ligand interactions and subsequently translate an exogenous signal into a cellular response. Despite that receptor cluster formation has been described for a wide variety of receptors, ranging from chemotactic receptors in bacteria to growth factor and neurotransmitter receptors in mammalian cells, a mechanistic understanding of the underlying molecular processes is still puzzling. In an attempt to fill this gap we followed a combined experimental and theoretical approach by dissecting and modulating cargo binding, internalization and cellular response mediated by KDEL receptors (KDELRs) at the mammalian cell surface after interaction with a model cargo/ligand. Using a fluorescent variant of ricin toxin A chain as KDELR-ligand (eGFP-RTAH/KDEL), we demonstrate that cargo binding induces dose-dependent receptor cluster formation at and subsequent internalization from the membrane which is associated and counteracted by anterograde and microtubule-assisted receptor transport to preferred docking sites at the plasma membrane. By means of analytical arguments and extensive numerical simulations we show that cargo-synchronized receptor transport from and to the membrane is causative for KDELR/cargo cluster formation at the mammalian cell surface.

  5. The Second Receptor Binding Site of the Globular Head of the Newcastle Disease Virus Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase Activates the Stalk of Multiple Paramyxovirus Receptor Binding Proteins To Trigger Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Salah, Zuhair; DeVito, Ilaria; Talekar, Aparna; Palmer, Samantha G.; Xu, Rui; Wilson, Ian A.

    2012-01-01

    The hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of paramyxoviruses carries out three distinct activities contributing to the ability of HN to promote viral fusion and entry: receptor binding, receptor cleavage (neuraminidase), and activation of the fusion protein. The relationship between receptor binding and fusion triggering functions of HN are not fully understood. For Newcastle disease virus (NDV), one bifunctional site (site I) on HN′s globular head can mediate both receptor binding and neuraminidase activities, and a second site (site II) in the globular head is also capable of mediating receptor binding. The receptor analog, zanamivir, blocks receptor binding and cleavage activities of NDV HN′s site I while activating receptor binding by site II. Comparison of chimeric proteins in which the globular head of NDV HN is connected to the stalk region of either human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) or Nipah virus receptor binding proteins indicates that receptor binding to NDV HN site II not only can activate its own fusion (F) protein but can also activate the heterotypic fusion proteins. We suggest a general model for paramyxovirus fusion activation in which receptor engagement at site II plays an active role in F activation. PMID:22438532

  6. Insulin receptors: binding kinetics and structure-function relationship of insulin

    SciTech Connect

    Gammeltoft, S.

    1984-10-01

    Morphological and biochemical work suggests that internalization of the receptor-insulin complex from the plasma membrane transfers insulin to intracellular organelles like the lysosomes, the Golgi apparatus, or nucleus, where degradation by insulin protease takes place, whereas the receptor is recycled back to the membrane. Recent advances in the studies of biosynthesis and cellular dynamics of receptors indicate that intracellular processing and redistribution of binding sites may play a role in the mechanism of insulin action. Insulin receptors are widely distributed in all cell types, but evidence has accumulated that receptors show tissue and species variations in their functional properties regarding binding affinity, insulin specificity, cooperativity, and insulin degradation and in structural properties such as antigenic determinants and glycosidic composition. Perhaps these differences reflect cellular adaptations and variations in the physiological role of insulin.

  7. Receptor co-operation in retrovirus entry: recruitment of an auxiliary entry mechanism after retargeted binding.

    PubMed Central

    Valsesia-Wittmann, S; Morling, F J; Hatziioannou, T; Russell, S J; Cosset, F L

    1997-01-01

    We have constructed Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV)-derived envelope glycoproteins (AMO) displaying an amino-terminal Ram-1-binding domain in which a variety of different amino acid spacers have been inserted between the displayed domain and the MoMLV surface (SU) subunit. Titres of retroviruses generated with these chimeric envelopes were enhanced on cells expressing both Ram-1 and Rec-1 receptors compared with the titres on cells expressing only one or other receptor type. The absolute viral titres and the degree of titre enhancement due to receptor cooperativity were highly variable between the different chimeric envelopes and were determined primarily by the properties of the interdomain spacer. An extreme example of receptor co-operativity was encountered when testing Ram-1-targeted AMOPRO envelopes with specific proline-rich interdomain spacers. AMOPRO viruses could not enter cells expressing only Rec-1 or only Ram-1 but could efficiently infect cells co-expressing both receptors. The data are consistent with a model for receptor co-operativity in which binding to the targeted (Ram-1) receptor triggers conformational rearrangements of the envelope that lead to complete unmasking of the hidden Rec-1-binding domain, thereby facilitating its interaction with the viral (Rec-1) receptor which leads to optimal fusion triggering. PMID:9135138

  8. The mouse eugenol odorant receptor: structural and functional plasticity of a broadly tuned odorant binding pocket.

    PubMed

    Baud, Olivia; Etter, Sylvain; Spreafico, Morena; Bordoli, Lorenza; Schwede, Torsten; Vogel, Horst; Pick, Horst

    2011-02-08

    Molecular interactions of odorants with their olfactory receptors (ORs) are of central importance for the ability of the mammalian olfactory system to detect and discriminate a vast variety of odors with a limited set of receptors. How a particular OR binds and distinguishes different odorant molecules remains largely unknown on a structural basis. Here we investigated this question for the mouse eugenol receptor (mOR-EG). By screening a large odorant library, we discovered a wide range of chemical structures activating the receptor in heterologous mammalian cells. Potent agonists comprise (i) benzene, (ii) cyclohexane, or (iii) polycyclic structures substituted with alcohol, aldehyde, keto, ether, or esterified carboxylic groups. To detect those amino acids within the receptor that are in contact with a particular bound odorant molecule, we investigated how distinct mOR-EG point mutants were activated by the different odorant agonists found for the wild-type receptor. We identified 11 amino acids as a part of the receptor's ligand binding pocket. Molecular modeling predicted 10 of these residues in transmembrane helices TM3-TM6 and one in the extracellular loop between TM2 and TM3. These amino acids participate in odorant binding with variable importance depending on the type of odorant, revealing functional "fingerprints" of ligand-receptor interactions.

  9. MANAGING TIGHT BINDING RECEPTORS FOR NEW SPEARATIONS TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    DARYLE H BUSCH RICHARD S GIVENS

    2004-12-10

    Much of the earth's pollution involves compounds of the metallic elements, including actinides, strontium, cesium, technetium, and RCRA metals. Metal ions bind to molecules called ligands, which are the molecular tools that can manipulate the metal ions under most conditions. This DOE-EMSP sponsored program strives (1) to provide the foundations for using the most powerful ligands in transformational separations technologies and (2) to produce seminal examples of their applications to separations appropriate to the DOE EM mission. These ultra tight-binding ligands can capture metal ions in the most competitive of circumstances (from mineralized sites, lesser ligands, and even extremely dilute solutions), but they react so slowly that they are useless in traditional separations methodologies. Two attacks on this problem are underway. The first accommodates to the challenging molecular lethargy by developing a seminal slow separations methodology termed the soil poultice. The second designs ligands that are only tight-binding while wrapped around the targeted metal ion, but can be put in place by switch-binding and removed by switch-release. We envision a kind of molecular switching process to accelerate the union between metal ion and tight-binding ligand. Molecular switching processes are suggested for overcoming the slow natural equilibration rate with which ultra tight-binding ligands combine with metal ions. Ligands that bind relatively weakly combine with metal ions rapidly, so the trick is to convert a ligand from a weak, rapidly binding species to a powerful, slow releasing ligand--during the binding of the ligand to the metal ion. Such switch-binding ligands must react with themselves, and the reaction must take place under the influence of the metal ion. For example, our generation 1 ligands showed that a well-designed linear ligand with ends that readily combine, forms a cyclic molecule when it wraps around a metal ion. Our generation 2 ligands are even

  10. Estrogen receptor coregulator binding modulators (ERXs) effectively target estrogen receptor positive human breast cancers

    PubMed Central

    Raj, Ganesh V; Sareddy, Gangadhara Reddy; Ma, Shihong; Lee, Tae-Kyung; Viswanadhapalli, Suryavathi; Li, Rui; Liu, Xihui; Murakami, Shino; Chen, Chien-Cheng; Lee, Wan-Ru; Mann, Monica; Krishnan, Samaya Rajeshwari; Manandhar, Bikash; Gonugunta, Vijay K; Strand, Douglas; Tekmal, Rajeshwar Rao; Ahn, Jung-Mo; Vadlamudi, Ratna K

    2017-01-01

    The majority of human breast cancer is estrogen receptor alpha (ER) positive. While anti-estrogens/aromatase inhibitors are initially effective, resistance to these drugs commonly develops. Therapy-resistant tumors often retain ER signaling, via interaction with critical oncogenic coregulator proteins. To address these mechanisms of resistance, we have developed a novel ER coregulator binding modulator, ERX-11. ERX-11 interacts directly with ER and blocks the interaction between a subset of coregulators with both native and mutant forms of ER. ERX-11 effectively blocks ER-mediated oncogenic signaling and has potent anti-proliferative activity against therapy-sensitive and therapy-resistant human breast cancer cells. ERX-11 is orally bioavailable, with no overt signs of toxicity and potent activity in both murine xenograft and patient-derived breast tumor explant models. This first-in-class agent, with its novel mechanism of action of disrupting critical protein-protein interactions, overcomes the limitations of current therapies and may be clinically translatable for patients with therapy-sensitive and therapy-resistant breast cancers. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.26857.001 PMID:28786813

  11. Amyloid beta binds trimers as well as monomers of the 75-kDa neurotrophin receptor and activates receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Yaar, Mina; Zhai, Sen; Fine, Richard E; Eisenhauer, Patricia B; Arble, Bennett L; Stewart, Kenneth B; Gilchrest, Barbara A

    2002-03-08

    p75(NTR), a nerve growth factor co-receptor that has been implicated in apoptosis of neurons, is structurally related to Fas and the receptors for tumor necrosis factor-alpha that display ligand independent assembly into trimers. Using embryonic day 17 fetal rat cortical neurons and p75(NTR)-expressing NIH-3T3 cells, we now show that p75(NTR) exists as a trimer as well as a monomer. Furthermore, we have reported and others have confirmed that amyloid beta binds p75(NTR), and that this binding leads to apoptotic cell death. We now report that amyloid beta binds to trimers of p75(NTR) as well as to p75(NTR) monomers but not to the p140(trkA), the nerve growth factor co-receptor that mediates neuronal survival. Furthermore, amyloid beta activates p75(NTR), strongly inducing the transcription of c-Jun mRNA and stimulating the stress-activated c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase, as measured by phosphorylation of its substrate (glutathione S-transferase-c-Jun-(1-79)). Our data suggest that p75(NTR) may be present as a preformed trimer that binds amyloid beta to induce receptor activation, and support the hypothesis that p75(NTR) activation by amyloid beta is causally related to Alzheimer's disease.

  12. Brain Serotonin 1A Receptor Binding as a Predictor of Treatment Outcome in Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Jeffrey M.; Hesselgrave, Natalie; Ogden, R. Todd; Zanderigo, Francesca; Oquendo, Maria A.; Mann, J. John; Parsey, Ramin V.

    2013-01-01

    Background We previously reported higher serotonin 1A receptor (5-HT1A) binding in subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD) during a major depressive episode using positron emission tomography imaging with [11C]WAY-100635. 5-HT1A receptor binding is also associated with treatment outcome after nonstandardized antidepressant treatment. We examined whether pretreatment 5-HT1A binding is associated with treatment outcome following standardized escitalopram treatment in MDD. We also compared 5-HT1A binding between all MDD subjects in this cohort and a sample of healthy control subjects. Methods Twenty-four MDD subjects in a current major depressive episode and 51 previously studied healthy control subjects underwent positron emission tomography scanning with [11C]WAY-100635, acquiring a metabolite-corrected arterial input function and free-fraction measurement to estimate 5-HT1A binding potential (BPF = Bmax/KD, where Bmax = available receptors and KD = dissociation constant). Major depressive disorder subjects then received 8 weeks of treatment with escitalopram; remission was defined as a posttreatment 24-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale <10 and ≥50% reduction in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Results Remitters to escitalopram had 33% higher baseline 5-HT1A binding in the raphe nuclei than nonremitters (p = .047). Across 12 cortical and subcortical regions, 5-HT1A binding did not differ between remitters and nonremitters (p = .86). Serotonin 1A receptor binding was higher in MDD than control subjects across all regions (p = .0003). Remitters did not differ from nonremitters in several relevant clinical measures. Conclusions Elevated 5-HT1A binding in raphe nuclei is associated with subsequent remission with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitalopram; this is consistent with data from a separate cohort receiving naturalistic antidepressant treatment. We confirmed our previous findings of higher 5-HT1A binding in current MDD compared with

  13. Negatively Cooperative Binding of High Density Lipoprotein to the HDL Receptor SR-BI†

    PubMed Central

    Nieland, Thomas J.F.; Xu, Shangzhe; Penman, Marsha; Krieger, Monty

    2011-01-01

    Scavenger receptor class B, type I (SR-BI) is a high-density lipoprotein (HDL) receptor, which also binds low density lipoprotein (LDL), and mediates the cellular selective uptake of cholesteryl esters from lipoproteins. SR-BI also is a co-receptor for hepatitis C virus and a signaling receptor that regulates cell metabolism. Many investigators have reported that lipoproteins bind to SR-BI via a single class of independent (not interacting), high affinity binding sites (one site model). We have re-investigated the ligand concentration dependence of 125I-HDL binding to SR-BI and SR-BI-mediated specific uptake of [3H]CE from [3H]CE-HDL using an expanded range of ligand concentrations (<1 µg protein/ml, lower than previously reported). Scatchard and non-linear least squares model fitting analyses of the binding and uptake data were both inconsistent with a single class of independent binding sites binding univalent lipoprotein ligands. The data are best fit by models in which SR-BI has either two independent classes of binding sites, or one class of sites exhibiting negative cooperativity due to either classic allostery or ensemble effects (‘ lattice model’). Similar results were observed for LDL. Application of the ‘infinite dilution’ dissociation rate method established that the binding of 125I-HDL to SR-BI at 4 °C exhibits negative cooperativity. The unexpected complexity of the interactions of lipoproteins with SR-BI should be taken into account when interpreting the results of experiments that explore the mechanism(s) by which SR-BI mediates ligand binding, lipid transport and cell signaling. PMID:21254782

  14. A receptor binding assay applied to monitoring the neurotoxicity of parathion to Peromyscus after oral exposure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jett, D.A.; Eldefrawi, A.T.; Eldefrawi, M.E.

    1993-01-01

    Many naturally occurring toxins, as well as pesticides, metals, and other compounds that occur in our environment from anthropogenic activities, stimulate or antagonize neuro-receptors to produce acute and/or chronic toxicities. Recent advances in laboratory instrumentation and the availability of a variety of radiolabeled ligands and type-specific drugs for numerous receptors make it possible to easily screen large numbers of samples and detect changes in sensitivity and density of receptor types and subtypes. A receptor binding assay for examining the chronic dietary toxicity of parathion will be used as a model to describe the methodology.

  15. Photocontrol of Anion Binding Affinity to a Bis-urea Receptor Derived from Stiff-Stilbene

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Toward the development of photoresponsive anion receptors, a stiff-stilbene photoswitch has been equipped with two urea anion-binding motifs. Photoinduced E/Z isomerization has been studied in detail by UV–vis and NMR spectroscopy. Titration experiments (1H NMR) reveal strong binding of acetate and phosphate to the (Z)-isomer, in which the urea groups are closely together. Isomerization to the (E)-form separates the urea motifs, resulting in much weaker binding. Additionally, geometry optimizations by density functional theory (DFT) illustrate that oxo-anion binding to the (Z)-form involves four hydrogen bonds. PMID:28074657

  16. Heptapeptide mimic of ohmefentanyl binding in the discontinuous mu-opiod receptor.

    PubMed

    Gawley, Robert E; Dukh, Mykhaylo; Cardona, Claudia M; Jannach, Stephan H; Greathouse, Denise

    2005-07-07

    [reaction: see text] Ohmefentanyl binds to the rat mu-opiod receptor via two dipeptide sequences (Trp-His and Asp-Tyr) that are separated by 170 residues. A turn-inducing tripeptide, Pro-Aib-Aib, holds the dipeptides in a conformation that binds the narcotic (K(b) = 7.1 x 10(4) M(-)(1)) in THF. Binding is specific for ohmefentanyl over morphine and is accompanied by a conformational change in the heptapeptide host. Control experiments with a Gly-Gly-Gly tripeptide linking the dipeptides show no evidence of binding.

  17. Solvent-dependent enthalpic versus entropic anion binding by biaryl substituted quinoline based anion receptors.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhan-Hu; Albrecht, Markus; Raabe, Gerhard; Pan, Fang-Fang; Räuber, Christoph

    2015-01-08

    Anion receptors based on an 8-thiourea substituted quinoline with pentafluorinated (1a) or nonfluorinated (1b) biarylamide groups in the 2-position show similar binding of halide anions with somewhat higher association constants for the more acidic fluorinated derivative. Surprisingly, binding affinities for the halides in the case of the nonfluorinated 1b are similar in nonpolar chloroform or polar DMSO as solvent. Thorough thermodynamic investigations based on NMR van't Hoff analysis show that anion binding in chloroform is mainly enthalpically driven. In DMSO, entropy is the driving force for the binding of the ions with replacement of attached solvent.

  18. Structure-activity relationships of receptor binding of 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Daiki; Oyunzul, Luvsandorj; Onoue, Satomi; Ito, Yoshihiko; Uchida, Shinya; Simsek, Rahime; Gunduz, Miyase Gozde; Safak, Chiat; Yamada, Shizuo

    2008-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate binding activity of synthesized 1,4-dihydropyridine (1,4-DHP) derivatives (Compounds 1--124) to 1,4-DHP calcium channel antagonist receptors in rat brain. Sixteen 1,4-DHP derivatives inhibited specific (+)-[3H]PN 200-110 binding in rat brain in a concentration-dependent manner with IC50 value of 0.43 to 3.49 microM. Scatchard analysis revealed that compounds 54, 69, 85, like nifedipine, caused a significant increase in apparent dissociation constant (Kd) for (+)-[3H]PN 200-110, while compounds 68, 69 and 80 caused a significant decrease in maximal number of bindings sites (Bmax). These data suggest that compounds 68, 69 and 80 exert longer-acting antagonistic effects of 1,4-DHP receptors than compounds 54, 69 and 85. The structure-activity relationship study has revealed that 1) ester groups in 3- and 5-positions are the most effective, 2) the aryl group in the 4-position of 1,4-DHP ring is the basic requirement for optimal activity, 3) position and type of electron-withdrawing groups on phenyl group at position 4 would affect the receptor-binding activity. Furthermore, compound 58 exerted alpha1 receptor binding activity, being 1.6 times greater than 1,4-DHP receptors. Compounds 81, 84, 91, 94, 106, 108 and 109 showed significant binding of ATP-sensitive potassium (K ATP) channel, and the binding activities of compounds 81, 84, 108 and 109 were 1.6--3.8 times greater than the binding activity for 1,4-DHP receptors. Compounds 91 and 106 had similar binding activity for K ATP channel and 1,4-DHP receptors. In conclusion, the present study has shown that novel 1,4-DHP derivatives exert relatively high binding affinity to 1,4-DHP receptors and has revealed new aspect of structure-activity relationships of 1,4-DHP derivatives, especially hexahydroquinoline derivatives.

  19. Opioid binding properties of the purified kappa receptor from human placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, M.S.; Zhou, D.; Cavinato, A.G.; Maulik, D.

    1989-01-01

    A glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 63,000 has been purified, in an active form, from human placental villus tissue membranes. The binding properties of this glycoprotein to opioid alkaloids and peptides indicates that it is the kappa opiate receptor of human placenta. The receptor binds the tritiated ligands etorphine, bremazocine, ethylketocyclazocine and naloxone specifically and reversibly with Kd values of 3.3, 4.4, 5.1 and 7.0nM, respectively. The binding of /sup 3/H-Bremazocine to the purified receptor is inhibited by the following compounds with the corresponding Ki values EKC, 1.3 x 10/sup -8/M; Dynorphin 1-8, 3.03 x 10/sup -7/; U50,488H, 4.48 x 10/sup -9/; U69-593,2.28 x 10/sup -8/, morphine, 4.05 x 10/sup -6/ DADLE, 6.47 x 10/sup -6/ and naloxone, 2.64 x 10/sup -8/. The purified receptor binds 8 nmole of /sup 3/H-Etorphine and 1.7 nmole /sup 3/H-BZC per mg protein. The theoretical binding capacity of a protein of this molecular weight is 15.8. Although the iodinated purified receptor appears by autoradiography as one band on SDS-PAGE, yet homogeneity of the preparation is not claimed.

  20. Molecular mechanism of ATP binding and ion channel activation in P2X receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Hattori, Motoyuki; Gouaux, Eric

    2012-10-24

    P2X receptors are trimeric ATP-activated ion channels permeable to Na{sup +}, K{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+}. The seven P2X receptor subtypes are implicated in physiological processes that include modulation of synaptic transmission, contraction of smooth muscle, secretion of chemical transmitters and regulation of immune responses. Despite the importance of P2X receptors in cellular physiology, the three-dimensional composition of the ATP-binding site, the structural mechanism of ATP-dependent ion channel gating and the architecture of the open ion channel pore are unknown. Here we report the crystal structure of the zebrafish P2X4 receptor in complex with ATP and a new structure of the apo receptor. The agonist-bound structure reveals a previously unseen ATP-binding motif and an open ion channel pore. ATP binding induces cleft closure of the nucleotide-binding pocket, flexing of the lower body {beta}-sheet and a radial expansion of the extracellular vestibule. The structural widening of the extracellular vestibule is directly coupled to the opening of the ion channel pore by way of an iris-like expansion of the transmembrane helices. The structural delineation of the ATP-binding site and the ion channel pore, together with the conformational changes associated with ion channel gating, will stimulate development of new pharmacological agents.

  1. The Binding Characteristics and Number of β-Adrenergic Receptors on the Turkey Erythrocyte

    PubMed Central

    Levitzki, Alexander; Atlas, Daphne; Steer, Michael L.

    1974-01-01

    Turkey erythrocyte ghosts (empty membranes) possess a class of receptors that can bind both L-[3H]isoproterenol and DL-[3H]propranolol. The binding of [3H]isoproterenol to these receptors occurs with a dissociation constant of 0.15 μM and can be fully inhibited by 1 μM propranolol. The binding of [3H]propranolol occurs with a dissociation constant of 2.5 nM and can be fully inhibited by 0.2 mM DL-isoproterenol. Ligand binding is sensitive to sonication, boiling, and 8 M urea. The cells possess 500 to 1000 β-adrenergic receptors per cell. Binding of propranolol to the β-receptor was found to be stereospecific for the L stereoisomer. If one assumed a 1:1 relationship between β-adrenergic receptors and adenylate cyclase, the turnover number of this adenylate cyclase would be close to 100 min-1. PMID:4528016

  2. 4-Hydroxytamoxifen binds to and deactivates the estrogen-related receptor γ

    PubMed Central

    Coward, Peter; Lee, Doris; Hull, Mitchell V.; Lehmann, Jürgen M.

    2001-01-01

    The estrogen-related receptors (ERRα, ERRβ, and ERRγ) form a family of orphan nuclear receptors that share significant amino acid identity with the estrogen receptors, but for which physiologic roles remain largely unknown. By using a peptide sensor assay, we have identified the stilbenes diethylstilbestrol (DES), tamoxifen (TAM), and 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT) as high-affinity ligands for ERRγ. In direct binding assays, 4-OHT had a Kd value of 35 nM, and both DES and TAM displaced radiolabeled 4-OHT with Ki values of 870 nM. In cell-based assays, 4-OHT binding caused a dissociation of the complex between ERRγ and the steroid receptor coactivator-1, and led to an inhibition of the constitutive transcriptional activity of ERRγ. ERRα did not bind 4-OHT, but replacing a single amino acid predicted to be in the ERRα ligand-binding pocket with the corresponding ERRγ residue allowed high-affinity 4-OHT binding. These results demonstrate the existence of high-affinity ligands for the ERR family of orphan receptors, and identify 4-OHT as a molecule that can regulate the transcriptional activity of ERRγ. PMID:11447273

  3. Alpha2 receptor binding in the medulla oblongata in the sudden infant death syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, J; Panigrahy, A; Filiano, J J; Sleeper, L A; St John, W M; Kinney, H C

    2001-02-01

    The sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the leading cause of postnatal infant mortality in the United States. Its etiology remains unknown. We propose that SIDS, or a subset of SIDS, is due to a failure of autoresuscitation, a protective brainstem response to asphyxia or hypoxia, in a vulnerable infant during a critical developmental period. Gasping is an important component of autoresuscitation that is thought to be mediated by the "gasping center" in the lateral tegmentum of the medulla, a region homologous in its cytoarchitecture and chemical anatomy to the intermediate reticular zone (IRZ) in the human. Since we found that [3H]para-aminoclonidine ([3H]PAC) binding to alpha2-adrenergic receptors localizes to this region in human infants and, thereby provides a neurochemical marker for it, we tested the hypothesis that [3H]PAC binding to alpha2-adrenergic receptors is decreased in the IRZ in SIDS victims. Using quantitative tissue autoradiography with [3H]PAC as the radioligand and phentolamine as the displacer, we analyzed alpha2-receptor binding density in the IRZ, as well as in 7 additional sites for comparison, in 10 SIDS and 10 control medullae. There were no significant differences in alpha2 receptor binding in the IRZ, vagal nuclei, or other medullary sites examined between SIDS and control cases. These results suggest that the putative gasping defect in the IRZ in SIDS victims is not related to [3H]PAC binding to alpha2-adrenergic receptors.

  4. Molecular conformation, receptor binding, and hormone action of natural and synthetic estrogens and antiestrogens.

    PubMed Central

    Duax, W L; Griffin, J F; Weeks, C M; Korach, K S

    1985-01-01

    The X-ray crystallographic structural determinations of synthetic estrogens and antiestrogens provide reliable information on the global minimum energy conformation of these molecules or a local minimum energy conformation that is within 1 or 2 kcal/mole of the global minimum. In favorable cases, state-of-the-art molecular mechanics calculations provide quantitative agreement with X-ray results and information on the relative energy of other local minimum energy conformations not observed crystallographically. Because the conformation of diethylstilbestrol (DES) observed in solvated crystals has an overall conformation and dipole moment more similar to estradiol it is the form more likely to bind to the receptor and produce hormone activity. Either phenol ring of DES can successfully mimic the estradiol A-ring in binding to the receptor. Indenestrol A (INDA) and indenestrol B (INDB) have nearly identical fully extended planar conformations. Either the alpha or gamma rings of these compounds may mimic the A ring of estradiol and compete for the estrogen receptor. Although there are eight distinct ways in which molecules of a racemic mixture of INDA or INDB can bind to the receptor, not all of them may be able to elicit a hormonal response. This may account for the reduced biological activity of the compounds despite their successful competition for receptor binding. The minimum energy conformations of Z-pseudodiethylstilbestrol (ZPD) and E-pseudodiethylstilbestrol (EPD) are bent in a fashion similar to that of indanestrol (INDC). These molecules have good binding affinity suggesting that the receptor does not require a flat molecule. Therefore these conformations would appear to be compatible with receptor binding, but only the Z isomer has an energetically allowed extended conformation that accounts for its observed biological activity relative to DES. PMID:3905370

  5. Aging-induced changes in brain regional serotonin receptor binding: Effect of Carnosine.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, S; Poddar, M K

    2016-04-05

    Monoamine neurotransmitter, serotonin (5-HT) has its own specific receptors in both pre- and post-synapse. In the present study the role of carnosine on aging-induced changes of [(3)H]-5-HT receptor binding in different brain regions in a rat model was studied. The results showed that during aging (18 and 24 months) the [(3)H]-5-HT receptor binding was reduced in hippocampus, hypothalamus and pons-medulla with a decrease in their both Bmax and KD but in cerebral cortex the [(3)H]-5-HT binding was increased with the increase of its only Bmax. The aging-induced changes in [(3)H]-5-HT receptor binding with carnosine (2.0 μg/kg/day, intrathecally, for 21 consecutive days) attenuated in (a) 24-month-aged rats irrespective of the brain regions with the attenuation of its Bmax except hypothalamus where both Bmax and KD were significantly attenuated, (b) hippocampus and hypothalamus of 18-month-aged rats with the attenuation of its Bmax, and restored toward the [(3)H]-5-HT receptor binding that observed in 4-month-young rats. The decrease in pons-medullary [(3)H]-5-HT binding including its Bmax of 18-month-aged rats was promoted with carnosine without any significant change in its cerebral cortex. The [(3)H]-5-HT receptor binding with the same dosages of carnosine in 4-month-young rats (a) increased in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus with the increase in their only Bmax whereas (b) decreased in hypothalamus and pons-medulla with a decrease in their both Bmax and KD. These results suggest that carnosine treatment may (a) play a preventive role in aging-induced brain region-specific changes in serotonergic activity (b) not be worthy in 4-month-young rats in relation to the brain regional serotonergic activity. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Purification of high affinity benzodiazepine receptor binding site fragments from rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Klotz, K.L.

    1984-01-01

    In central nervous system benzodiazepine recognition sites occur on neuronal cell surfaces as one member of a multireceptor complex, including recognition sites for benzodiazepines, gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), barbiturates and a chloride ionophore. During photoaffinity labelling, the benzodiazepine agonist, /sup 3/H-flunitrazepam, is irreversibly bound to central benzodiazepine high affinity recognition sites in the presence of ultraviolet light. In these studies a /sup 3/H-flunitrazepam radiolabel was used to track the isolation and purification of high affinity agonist binding site fragments from membrane-bound benzodiazepine receptor in rat brain. The authors present a method for limited proteolysis of /sup 3/H-flunitrazepam photoaffinity labeled rat brain membranes, generating photolabeled benzodiazepine receptor fragments containing the agonist binding site. Using trypsin chymotrypsin A/sub 4/, or a combination of these two proteases, they have demonstrated the extent and time course for partial digestion of benzodiazepine receptor, yielding photolabeled receptor binding site fragments. These photolabeled receptor fragments have been further purified on the basis of size, using ultrafiltration, gel permeation chromatography, and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) as well as on the basis of hydrophobicity, using a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) precolumn, several HPLC elution schemes, and two different HPLC column types. Using these procedures, they have purified three photolabeled benzodiazepine receptor fragments containing the agonist binding site which appear to have a molecular weight of less than 2000 daltons each.

  7. Regulation of Receptor Binding Specificity of FGF9 by an Autoinhibitory Homodimerization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Ma, Jinghong; Beenken, Andrew; Srinivasan, Lakshmi; Eliseenkova, Anna V; Mohammadi, Moosa

    2017-09-05

    The epithelial fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF9) subfamily specifically binds and activates the mesenchymal "c" splice isoform of FGF receptors 1-3 (FGFR1-3) to regulate organogenesis and tissue homeostasis. The unique N and C termini of FGF9 subfamily ligands mediate a reversible homodimerization that occludes major receptor binding sites within the ligand core region. Here we provide compelling X-ray crystallographic, biophysical, and biochemical data showing that homodimerization controls receptor binding specificity of the FGF9 subfamily by keeping the concentration of active FGF9 monomers at a level, which is sufficient for a normal FGFR "c" isoform binding/signaling, but is insufficient for an illegitimate FGFR "b" isoform binding/signaling. We show that deletion of the N terminus or alanine substitutions in the C terminus of FGF9 skews the delicate ligand equilibrium toward active FGF9 monomers causing off-target binding and activation of FGFR b isoforms. Our study is the first to implicate ligand homodimerization in the regulation of ligand-receptor specificity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Reversible sequential-binding probe receptor-ligand interactions in single cells.

    PubMed

    Schreiter, Christoph; Gjoni, Marinela; Hovius, Ruud; Martinez, Karen L; Segura, Jean-Manuel; Vogel, Horst

    2005-12-01

    With the reversible sequential (ReSeq) binding assay,we present a novel approach for the ultrasensitive profiling of receptor function in single living cells. This assay is based on the repetitive application of fluorescent ligands that have fast association-dissociation kinetics. We chose the nicotinic-acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) as a prototypical example and performed ReSeq equilibrium, kinetic, and competition-binding assays using fluorescent derivatives of the antagonist alpha-conotoxin GI (alpha-CnTx). Thereby, we determined the binding constants of unlabeled alpha-CnTx and d-tubocurarine. The high selectivity of alpha-CnTx for muscle-type nAChR made it possible to observe specific binding even in the presence of other nAChR subtypes. Imaging of individual nAChRs and ligand-binding cycles to single cells in microfluidic devices demonstrated the ultimate miniaturization and accuracy of ReSeq-binding assays even at low receptor-expression levels. We expect our approach to be of generic importance for functional screening of compounds or membrane receptors, and for the detailed characterization of rare primary cells.

  9. Studying the role of lipid rafts on protein receptor bindings with cellular automata.

    PubMed

    Haack, Fiete; Burrage, Kevin; Redmer, Ronald; Uhrmacher, Adelinde M

    2013-01-01

    It is widely accepted that lipid rafts promote receptor clustering and thereby facilitate signaling transduction. The role of lipid rafts in inducing and promoting receptor accumulation within the cell membrane has been explored by several computational and experimental studies. However, it remains unclear whether lipid rafts influence the recruitment and binding of proteins from the cytosol as well. To provide an answer to this question a spatial membrane model has been developed based on cellular automata. Our results indicate that lipid rafts indeed influence protein receptor bindings. In particular processes with slow dissociation and binding kinetics are promoted by lipid rafts, whereas fast binding processes are slightly hampered. However, the impact depends on a variety of parameters, such as the size and mobility of the lipid rafts, the induced slow down of receptors within rafts, and also the dissociation and binding kinetics of the cytosolic proteins. Thus, for any individual signaling pathway the influence of lipid rafts on protein binding might be different. To facilitate analyzing this influence given a specific pathway, our approach has been generalized into LiRaM, a modeling and simulation tool for lipid rafts models.

  10. The platelet fibrinogen receptor: an immunogold-surface replica study of agonist-induced ligand binding and receptor clustering

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    Platelet aggregation requires the binding of fibrinogen to its receptor, a heterodimer consisting of the plasma-membrane glycoproteins (GP) IIb and IIIa. Although the GPIIb-IIIa complex is present on the surface of unstimulated platelets, it binds fibrinogen only after platelet activation. We have used an immunogold-surface replica technique to study the distribution of GPIIb-IIIa and bound fibrinogen over broad areas of surface membranes in unstimulated, as well as thrombin-activated and ADP-activated human platelets. We found that the immunogold-labeled GPIIb-IIIa was monodispersed over the surface of unstimulated platelets, although the cell surface lacked immunoreactive fibrinogen. On thrombin-stimulated platelets, approximately 65% of the GPIIb-IIIa molecules were in clusters within the plane of the membrane. Fibrinogen, which had been released from the alpha-granules of these cells, bound to GPIIb-IIIa on the cell surface and was similarly clustered. To determine whether the receptors clustered before ligand binding, or as a consequence thereof, we studied the surface distribution of GPIIb-IIIa after stimulation with ADP, which causes activation of the fibrinogen receptor function of GPIIb-IIIa without inducing the release of fibrinogen. In the absence of added fibrinogen, the unoccupied, yet binding-competent receptors on ADP-stimulated platelets were monodispersed. The addition of fibrinogen caused the GPIIb-IIIa molecules to cluster on the cell surface. Clustering was also induced by the addition of the GPIIb-IIIa-binding domains of fibrinogen, namely the tetrapeptide Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser on the alpha-chain or the gamma-chain decapeptide gamma 402-411. These results show that receptor occupancy causes clustering of GPIIb-IIIa in activated platelets. PMID:3584243

  11. Guanine nucleotide-binding protein regulation of melatonin receptors in lizard brain

    SciTech Connect

    Rivkees, S.A.; Carlson, L.L.; Reppert, S.M. )

    1989-05-01

    Melatonin receptors were identified and characterized in crude membrane preparations from lizard brain by using {sup 125}I-labeled melatonin ({sup 125}I-Mel), a potent melatonin agonist. {sup 125}I-Mel binding sites were saturable; Scatchard analysis revealed high-affinity and lower affinity binding sites, with apparent K{sub d} of 2.3 {plus minus} 1.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}11} M and 2.06 {plus minus} 0.43 {times} 10{sup {minus}10} M, respectively. Binding was reversible and inhibited by melatonin and closely related analogs but not by serotonin or norepinephrine. Treatment of crude membranes with the nonhydrolyzable GTP analog guanosine 5{prime}-({gamma}-thio)triphosphate (GTP({gamma}S)), significantly reduced the number of high-affinity receptors and increased the dissociation rate of {sup 125}I-Mel from its receptor. Furthermore, GTP({gamma}S) treatment of ligand-receptor complexes solubilized by Triton X-100 also led to a rapid dissociation of {sup 125}I-Mel from solubilized ligand-receptor complexes. Gel filtration chromatography of solubilized ligand-receptor complexes revealed two major peaks of radioactivity corresponding to M{sub r} > 400,000 and M{sub r} ca. 110,000. This elution profile was markedly altered by pretreatment with GTP({gamma}S) before solubilization; only the M{sub r} 110,000 peak was present in GTP({gamma}S)-pretreated membranes. The results strongly suggest that {sup 125}I-mel binding sites in lizard brain are melatonin receptors, with agonist-promoted guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein) coupling and that the apparent molecular size of receptors uncoupled from G proteins is about 110,000.

  12. Identification of the A2 adenosine receptor binding subunit by photoaffinity crosslinking

    SciTech Connect

    Barrington, W.W.; Jacobson, K.A.; Hutchison, A.J.; Williams, M.; Stiles, G.L. )

    1989-09-01

    A high-affinity iodinated agonist radioligand for the A2 adenosine receptor has been synthesized to facilitate studies of the A2 adenosine receptor binding subunit. The radioligand 125I-labeled PAPA-APEC (125I-labeled 2-(4-(2-(2-((4- aminophenyl)methylcarbonylamino)ethylaminocarbonyl)- ethyl)phenyl)ethylamino-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine) was synthesized and found to bind to the A2 adenosine receptor in bovine striatal membranes with high affinity (Kd = 1.5 nM) and A2 receptor selectivity. Competitive binding studies reveal the appropriate A2 receptor pharmacologic potency order with 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA) greater than (-)-N6-((R)-1-methyl- 2-phenylethyl)adenosine (R-PIA) greater than (+)-N6-((S)-1-methyl-2- phenylethyl)adenosine (S-PIA). Adenylate cyclase assays, in human platelet membranes, demonstrate a dose-dependent stimulation of cAMP production. PAPA-APEC (1 microM) produces a 43% increase in cAMP production, which is essentially the same degree of increase produced by 5'-N- ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (the prototypic A2 receptor agonist). These findings combined with the observed guanine nucleotide-mediated decrease in binding suggest that PAPA-APEC is a full A2 agonist. The A2 receptor binding subunit was identified by photoaffinity-crosslinking studies using 125I-labeled PAPA-APEC and the heterobifunctional crosslinking agent N-succinimidyl 6-(4'-azido-2'-nitrophenylamino)hexanoate (SANPAH). After covalent incorporation, a single specifically radiolabeled protein with an apparent molecular mass of 45 kDa was observed on NaDodSO4/PAGE/autoradiography. Incorporation of 125I-labeled PAPA-APEC into this polypeptide is blocked by agonists and antagonists with the expected potency for A2 receptors and is decreased in the presence of 10(-4) M guanosine 5'-(beta, gamma-imido)triphosphate.

  13. Signaling-sensitive amino acids surround the allosteric ligand binding site of the thyrotropin receptor

    PubMed Central

    Kleinau, Gunnar; Haas, Ann-Karin; Neumann, Susanne; Worth, Catherine L.; Hoyer, Inna; Furkert, Jens; Rutz, Claudia; Gershengorn, Marvin C.; Schülein, Ralf; Krause, Gerd

    2010-01-01

    The thyrotropin receptor [thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR)], a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), is endogenously activated by thyrotropin, which binds to the extracellular region of the receptor. We previously identified a low-molecular-weight (LMW) agonist of the TSHR and predicted its allosteric binding pocket within the receptor’s transmembrane domain. Because binding of the LMW agonist probably disrupts interactions or leads to formation of new interactions among amino acid residues surrounding the pocket, we tested whether mutation of residues at these positions would lead to constitutive signaling activity. Guided by molecular modeling, we performed site-directed mutagenesis of 24 amino acids in this spatial region, followed by functional characterization of the mutant receptors in terms of expression and signaling, measured as cAMP accumulation. We found that mutations V421I, Y466A, T501A, L587V, M637C, M637W, S641A, Y643F, L645V, and Y667A located in several helices exhibit constitutive activity. Of note is mutation M637W at position 6.48 in transmembrane helix 6, which has a significant effect on the interaction of the receptor with the LMW agonist. In summary, we found that a high proportion of residues in several helices surrounding the allosteric binding site of LMW ligands in the TSHR when mutated lead to constitutively active receptors. Our findings of signaling-sensitive residues in this region of the transmembrane bundle may be of general importance as this domain appears to be evolutionarily retained among GPCRs.—Kleinau, G., Haas, A.-K., Neumann, S., Worth, C. L., Hoyer, I., Furkert, J., Rutz, Gershengorn, M. C., Schülein, R., Krause, G. Signaling-sensitive amino acids surround the allosteric ligand binding site of the thyrotropin receptor. PMID:20179143

  14. A biosensor assay for studying ligand-membrane receptor interactions: Binding of antibodies and HIV-1 Env to chemokine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Trevor L.; Canziani, Gabriela; Jia, Li; Rucker, Joseph; Doms, Robert W.

    2000-01-01

    The HIV envelope (Env) protein mediates entry into cells by binding CD4 and an appropriate coreceptor, which triggers structural changes in Env that lead to fusion between the viral and cellular membranes. The major HIV-1 coreceptors are the seven transmembrane domain chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4. The type of coreceptor used by a virus strain is an important determinant of viral tropism and pathogenesis, and virus-receptor interactions can be therapeutic targets. However, Envs from many virus strains interact with CXCR4 and CCR5 with low affinity such that direct study of this important interaction is difficult if not impossible using standard cell-surface binding techniques. We have developed an approach that makes it possible to study ligand binding to membrane proteins, including Env–coreceptor interactions, using an optical biosensor. CCR5, CXCR4, and other membrane proteins were incorporated into retrovirus particles, which were purified and attached to the biosensor surface. Binding of conformationally sensitive antibodies as well as Env to these receptors was readily detected. The equilibrium dissociation constant for the interaction between an Env derived from the prototype HIV-1 strain IIIB for CXCR4 was approximately 500 nM, explaining the difficulty in measuring this interaction using standard equilibrium binding techniques. Retroviral pseudotypes represent easily produced, stable, homogenous structures that can be used to present a wide array of single and multiple membrane-spanning proteins in a native lipid environment for biosensor studies, thus avoiding the need for detergent solubilization, purification, and reconstitution. The approach should have general applicability and can be used to correlate Env–receptor binding constants to viral tropism and pathogenesis. PMID:11005830

  15. Computational Analysis of the Ligand Binding Site of the Extracellular ATP Receptor, DORN1

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yangrong; Cho, Sung-Hwan; Xu, Dong; Stacey, Gary

    2016-01-01

    DORN1 (also known as P2K1) is a plant receptor for extracellular ATP, which belongs to a large gene family of legume-type (L-type) lectin receptor kinases. Extracellular ATP binds to DORN1 with strong affinity through its lectin domain, and the binding triggers a variety of intracellular activities in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, information on the tertiary structure of the ligand binding site of DORN1is lacking, which hampers efforts to fully elucidate the mechanism of receptor action. Available data of the crystal structures from more than 50 L-type lectins enable us to perform an in silico study of molecular interaction between DORN1 and ATP. In this study, we employed a computational approach to develop a tertiary structure model of the DORN1 lectin domain. A blind docking analysis demonstrated that ATP binds to a cavity made by four loops (defined as loops A B, C and D) of the DORN1 lectin domain with high affinity. In silico target docking of ATP to the DORN1 binding site predicted interaction with 12 residues, located on the four loops, via hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. The ATP binding pocket is structurally similar in location to the carbohydrate binding pocket of the canonical L-type lectins. However, four of the residues predicted to interact with ATP are not conserved between DORN1 and the other carbohydrate-binding lectins, suggesting that diversifying selection acting on these key residues may have led to the ATP binding activity of DORN1. The in silico model was validated by in vitro ATP binding assays using the purified extracellular lectin domain of wild-type DORN1, as well as mutated DORN1 lacking key ATP binding residues. PMID:27583834

  16. Computational Analysis of the Ligand Binding Site of the Extracellular ATP Receptor, DORN1

    DOE PAGES

    Nguyen, Cuong The; Tanaka, Kiwamu; Cao, Yangrong; ...

    2016-09-01

    DORN1 (also known as P2K1) is a plant receptor for extracellular ATP, which belongs to a large gene family of legume-type (L-type) lectin receptor kinases. Extracellular ATP binds to DORN1 with strong affinity through its lectin domain, and the binding triggers a variety of intracellular activities in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, information on the tertiary structure of the ligand binding site of DORN1is lacking, which hampers efforts to fully elucidate the mechanism of receptor action. Available data of the crystal structures from more than 50 L-type lectins enable us to perform an in silico study of molecularmore » interaction between DORN1 and ATP. In this study, we employed a computational approach to develop a tertiary structure model of the DORN1 lectin domain. A blind docking analysis demonstrated that ATP binds to a cavity made by four loops (defined as loops A B, C and D) of the DORN1 lectin domain with high affinity. In silico target docking of ATP to the DORN1 binding site predicted interaction with 12 residues, located on the four loops, via hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. The ATP binding pocket is structurally similar in location to the carbohydrate binding pocket of the canonical L-type lectins. However, four of the residues predicted to interact with ATP are not conserved between DORN1 and the other carbohydrate-binding lectins, suggesting that diversifying selection acting on these key residues may have led to the ATP binding activity of DORN1. Finally, the in silico model was validated by in vitro ATP binding assays using the purified extracellular lectin domain of wild-type DORN1, as well as mutated DORN1 lacking key ATP binding residues.« less

  17. Localization and synthesis of the hormone-binding regions of the human thyrotropin receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Atassi, M Z; Manshouri, T; Sakata, S

    1991-01-01

    Two regions of human thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone, TSH) receptor (TSHR) (residues 12-44 and 308-364) were selected on the basis that they exhibit no sequence resemblance to luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor. Five synthetic overlapping peptides (12-30, 24-44, 308-328, 324-344, and 339-364) were studied for their ability to bind 125I-labeled human TSH (hTSH), its isolated alpha and beta subunits, bovine TSH, ovine TSH, human luteinizing hormone, and human follicle-stimulating hormone. The human TSHR peptides 12-30 and 324-344 exhibited remarkable binding activity to human, bovine, and ovine TSH and to the beta chain of hTSH. Lower binding activity resided in the adjacent overlapping peptides, probably due to the contribution of the shared overlap to the binding. The specificity of TSH binding to these peptides was confirmed by their inability to bind human luteinizing hormone, human follicle-stimulating hormone, and the alpha chain of hTSH. Thyrotropins did not bind to bovine serum albumin or to peptide controls unrelated to the TSHR system. Furthermore, the binding of hTSH to TSHR peptides 12-30 and 324-344 was almost completely (approximately 90%) inhibited by rabbit antibodies against hTSH but not by antisera against unrelated proteins. It is concluded that the binding of TSH to its receptor involves extensive contacts and that the TSHR peptides 12-30 and 324-344 contain specific binding regions for TSH that might be either independent sites or two faces (subsites) within a large binding site. Images PMID:2023910

  18. Nongenomic signaling of the retinoid X receptor through binding and inhibiting Gq in human platelets

    PubMed Central

    Moraes, Leonardo A.; Swales, Karen E.; Wray, Jessica A.; Damazo, Amilcar; Gibbins, Jonathan M.; Warner, Timothy D.

    2007-01-01

    Retinoid X receptors (RXRs) are important transcriptional nuclear hormone receptors, acting as either homodimers or the binding partner for at least one fourth of all the known human nuclear receptors. Functional nongenomic effects of nuclear receptors are poorly understood; however, recently peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ, PPARβ, and the glucocorticoid receptor have all been found active in human platelets. Human platelets express RXRα and RXRβ. RXR ligands inhibit platelet aggregation and TXA2 release to ADP and the TXA2 receptors, but only weakly to collagen. ADP and TXA2 both signal via the G protein, Gq. RXR rapidly binds Gq but not Gi/z/o/t/gust in a ligand-dependent manner and inhibits Gq-induced Rac activation and intracellular calcium release. We propose that RXR ligands may have beneficial clinical actions through inhibition of platelet activation. Furthermore, our results demonstrate a novel nongenomic mode for nuclear receptor action and a functional cross-talk between G-protein and nuclear receptor signaling families. PMID:17213293

  19. Insulin receptor binding and protein kinase activity in muscles of trained rats

    SciTech Connect

    Dohm, G.L.; Sinha, M.K.; Caro, J.F.

    1987-02-01

    Exercise has been shown to increase insulin sensitivity, and muscle is quantitatively the most important tissue of insulin action. Since the first step in insulin action is the binding to a membrane receptor, the authors postulated that exercise training would change insulin receptors in muscle and in this study they have investigated this hypothesis. Female rats initially weighing approx. 100 g were trained by treadmill running for 2 h/day, 6 days/wk for 4 wk at 25 m/min (0 grade). Insulin receptors from vastus intermedius muscles were solubilized by homogenizing in a buffer containing 1% Triton X-100 and then partially purified by passing the soluble extract over a wheat germ agglutinin column. The 4 wk training regimen resulted in a 65% increase in citrate synthase activity in red vastus lateralis muscle, indicating an adaptation to exercise ( SVI). Insulin binding by the partially purified receptor preparations was approximately doubled in muscle of trained rats at all insulin concentrations, suggesting an increase in the number of receptors. Training did not alter insulin receptor structure as evidenced by electrophoretic mobility under reducing and nonreducing conditions. Basal insulin receptor protein kinase activity was higher in trained than untrained animals and this was likely due to the greater number of receptors. However, insulin stimulation of the protein kinase activity was depressed by training. These results demonstrate that endurance training does alter receptor number and function in muscle and these changes may be important in increasing insulin sensitivity after exercise training.

  20. Defining the nucleotide binding sites of P2Y receptors using rhodopsin-based homology modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Andrei A.; Costanzi, Stefano; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2006-08-01

    Ongoing efforts to model P2Y receptors for extracellular nucleotides, i.e., endogenous ADP, ATP, UDP, UTP, and UDP-glucose, were summarized and correlated for the eight known subtypes. The rhodopsin-based homology modeling of the P2Y receptors is supported by a growing body of site-directed mutagenesis data, mainly for P2Y1 receptors. By comparing molecular models of the P2Y receptors, it was concluded that nucleotide binding could occur in the upper part of the helical bundle, with the ribose moiety accommodated between transmembrane domain (TM) 3 and TM7. The nucleobase was oriented towards TM1, TM2, and TM7, in the direction of the extracellular side of the receptor. The phosphate chain was oriented towards TM6, in the direction of the extracellular loops (ELs), and was coordinated by three critical cationic residues. In particular, in the P2Y1, P2Y2, P2Y4, and P2Y6 receptors the nucleotide ligands had very similar positions. ADP in the P2Y12 receptor was located deeper inside the receptor in comparison to other subtypes, and the uridine moiety of UDP-glucose in the P2Y14 receptor was located even deeper and shifted toward TM7. In general, these findings are in agreement with the proposed binding site of small molecules to other class A GPCRs.

  1. Arrestin interactions with G protein-coupled receptors. Direct binding studies of wild type and mutant arrestins with rhodopsin, beta 2-adrenergic, and m2 muscarinic cholinergic receptors.

    PubMed

    Gurevich, V V; Dion, S B; Onorato, J J; Ptasienski, J; Kim, C M; Sterne-Marr, R; Hosey, M M; Benovic, J L

    1995-01-13

    Arrestins play an important role in quenching signal transduction initiated by G protein-coupled receptors. To explore the specificity of arrestin-receptor interaction, we have characterized the ability of various wild-type arrestins to bind to rhodopsin, the beta 2-adrenergic receptor (beta 2AR), and the m2 muscarinic cholinergic receptor (m2 mAChR). Visual arrestin was found to be the most selective arrestin since it discriminated best between the three different receptors tested (highest binding to rhodopsin) as well as between the phosphorylation and activation state of the receptor (> 10-fold higher binding to the phosphorylated light-activated form of rhodopsin compared to any other form of rhodopsin). While beta-arrestin and arrestin 3 were also found to preferentially bind to the phosphorylated activated form of a given receptor, they only modestly discriminated among the three receptors tested. To explore the structural characteristics important in arrestin function, we constructed a series of truncated and chimeric arrestins. Analysis of the binding characteristics of the various mutant arrestins suggests a common molecular mechanism involved in determining receptor binding selectivity. Structural elements that contribute to arrestin binding include: 1) a C-terminal acidic region that serves a regulatory role in controlling arrestin binding selectivity toward the phosphorylated and activated form of a receptor, without directly participating in receptor interaction; 2) a basic N-terminal domain that directly participates in receptor interaction and appears to serve a regulatory role via intramolecular interaction with the C-terminal acidic region; and 3) two centrally localized domains that are directly involved in determining receptor binding specificity and selectivity. A comparative structure-function model of all arrestins and a kinetic model of beta-arrestin and arrestin 3 interaction with receptors are proposed.

  2. The phenolic monoterpenoid carvacrol inhibits the binding of nicotine to the housefly nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Tong, Fan; Gross, Aaron D; Dolan, Marc C; Coats, Joel R

    2013-07-01

    The phenolic monoterpenoid carvacrol, which is found in many plant essential oils (thyme, oregano and Alaska yellow cedar), is highly active against pest arthropods, but its mechanisms of action are not fully understood. Here, carvacrol is shown to bind in a membrane preparation containing insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). [(14) C]-Nicotine binding assays with Musca domestica (housefly) nAChRs were used in this study to demonstrate carvacrol's binding to nAChRs, thereby acting as a modulator of the receptors. Carvacrol showed a concentration-dependent inhibition of [(14) C]-nicotine binding in a membrane preparation of housefly heads containing nAChRs, with IC50 = 1.4 μM, in a non-competitive pattern. Binding studies with neonicotinoid insecticides revealed that imidacloprid and thiamethoxam did not inhibit the binding of [(14) C]-nicotine, while dinotefuran, from the guanidine subclass of neonicotinoids, inhibited nicotine binding like carvacrol. Carvacrol binds to housefly nAChRs at a binding site distinct from nicotine and acetylcholine, and the nAChRs are a possible target of carvacrol for its insecticidal activity. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. How insulin engages its primary binding site on the insulin receptor

    PubMed Central

    Menting, John G.; Whittaker, Jonathan; Margetts, Mai B.; Whittaker, Linda J.; Kong, Geoffrey K.-W.; Smith, Brian J.; Watson, Christopher J.; Žáková, Lenka; Kletvíková, Emília; Jiráček, Jiří; Chan, Shu Jin; Steiner, Donald F.; Dodson, Guy G.; Brzozowski, Andrzej M.; Weiss, Michael A.; Ward, Colin W.; Lawrence, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    Insulin receptor signalling has a central role in mammalian biology, regulating cellular metabolism, growth, division, differentiation and survival1,2. Insulin resistance contributes to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus and the onset of Alzheimer’s disease3; aberrant signalling occurs in diverse cancers, exacerbated by crosstalk with the homologous type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R)4. Despite more than three decades of investigation, the three-dimensional structure of the insulin–insulin receptor complex has proved elusive, confounded by the complexity of producing the receptor protein. Here we present the first view, to our knowledge, of the interaction of insulin with its primary binding site on the insulin receptor, on the basis of four crystal structures of insulin bound to truncated insulin receptor constructs. The direct interaction of insulin with the first leucine-rich-repeat domain (L1) of insulin receptor is seen to be sparse, the hormone instead engaging the insulin receptor carboxy-terminal α-chain (αCT) segment, which is itself remodelled on the face of L1 upon insulin binding. Contact between insulin and L1 is restricted to insulin B-chain residues. The αCT segment displaces the B-chain C-terminal β-strand away from the hormone core, revealing the mechanism of a long-proposed conformational switch in insulin upon receptor engagement. This mode of hormone–receptor recognition is novel within the broader family of receptor tyrosine kinases5. We support these findings by photo-crosslinking data that place the suggested interactions into the context of the holoreceptor and by isothermal titration calorimetry data that dissect the hormone–insulin receptor interface. Together, our findings provide an explanation for a wealth of biochemical data from the insulin receptor and IGF1R systems relevant to the design of therapeutic insulin analogues. PMID:23302862

  4. Immunochemical analysis of the glucocorticoid receptor: identification of a third domain separate from the steroid-binding and DNA-binding domains.

    PubMed Central

    Carlstedt-Duke, J; Okret, S; Wrange, O; Gustafsson, J A

    1982-01-01

    The glucocorticoid-receptor complex can be subdivided into three separate domains by limited proteolysis with trypsin or alpha-chymotrypsin. The following characteristics can be separated: steroid-binding activity (domain A), DNA-binding activity (domain B), and immunoactivity (domain C). We have previously reported the separation of the steroid-binding domain from the DNA-binding domain by limited proteolysis of the receptor with trypsin. In this paper, we report the detection by immunochemical analysis of a third domain of the glucocorticoid receptor, which does not bind hormone. Immunoactivity was detected by using specific antiglucocorticoid receptor antibodies raised in rabbits against purified rat liver glucocorticoid receptor and the assay used was an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. After digestion with alpha-chymotrypsin, the immunoactive region of the receptor (domain C) was separated from the other two domains (A and B). The immunoactive fragment was found to have a Stokes radius of 2.6 nm. Further digestion with alpha-chymotrypsin resulted in separation of the immunoactive fragment to give a fragment having a Stokes radius of 1.4 nm. The immunoactive domain could be separated from the half of the glucocorticoid receptor containing the steroid-binding and the DNA-binding domains (Stokes radius, 3.3 nm), by limited proteolysis of the receptor by alpha-chymotrypsin followed by gel filtration or chromatography on DNA-cellulose. PMID:6181503

  5. Chromatin binding by the androgen receptor in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Itkonen, Harri; Mills, Ian G

    2012-09-05

    Alterations in transcriptional programs are fundamental to the development of cancers. The androgen receptor is central to the normal development of the prostate gland and to the development of prostate cancer. To a large extent this is believed to be due to the control of gene expression through the interaction of the androgen receptor with chromatin and subsequently with coregulators and the transcriptional machinery. Unbiased genome-wide studies have recently uncovered the recruitment sites that are gene-distal and intragenic rather than associated with proximal promoter regions. Whilst expression profiles from AR-positive primary prostate tumours and cell lines can directly relate to the AR cistrome in prostate cancer cells, this distribution raises significant challenges in making direct mechanistic connections. Furthermore, extrapolating from datasets assembled in one model to other model systems or clinical samples poses challenges if we are to use the AR-directed transcriptome to guide the development of novel biomarkers or treatment decisions. This review will provide an overview of the androgen receptor before addressing the challenges and opportunities created by whole-genome studies of the interplay between the androgen receptor and chromatin. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Tall Fescue Alkaloids Bind Serotonin Receptors in Cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The serotonin (5HT) receptor 5HT2A is involved in the tall fescue alkaloid-induced vascular contraction in the bovine periphery. This was determined by evaluating the contractile responses of lateral saphenous veins biopsied from cattle grazing different tall fescue/endophyte combinations. The contr...

  7. Analysis of Ligand Binding ErbB Receptor Tyrosine Kinases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-07-01

    Abraham , J.A., Miller, J., Fiddes, J.C. & Klagsbrun, M. (1991) A heparin- binding growth factor secreted by macrophage-like cells that is related...to EGF. Science 251, 936-939. 12 Anual Report 1999 DAMD17-98-1-8228 Principal Investigator; Ferguson, Kathryn, M. 22. Peles , E. & Yarden, Y. (1993) Neu

  8. Increased cytosolic androgen receptor binding in rat striated muscle following denervation and disuse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernard, P. A.; Fishman, P. S.; Max, S. R.; Rance, N. E.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of denervation and disuse on cytosolic androgen receptor binding by rat striated muscle are investigated. Denervation of the extensor digitorum longus and tibialis anterior muscles caused by a 40-50-percent increase in cytosolic androgen receptor concentration with no change in apparent binding affinity. This effect was evident at 6 h postdenervation, maximal at 24 h, and declined to 120 percent of the control level 72 h after denervation. A 40-percent increase in cytosolic androgen receptor concentration was also noted 24 hr after denervation of the hormone-sensitive levator ani muscle. The effect of denervation on androgen receptors was blocked by in vivo injection of cycloheximide; therefore, de novo receptor synthesis probably is not involved in the observed increase. Disuse, produced by subperineurial injection of tetrodotoxin into the tibial and common peroneal branches of the sciatic nerve, mimicked the effect of denervation on androgen receptor binding, suggesting that neuromuscular activity is important in regulation of receptor concentration. Possible mechanisms subserving this effect are discussed.

  9. Differential Ligand Binding to a Human Cytomegalovirus Chemokine Receptor Determines Cell Type–Specific Motility

    PubMed Central

    Vomaske, Jennifer; Melnychuk, Ryan M.; Smith, Patricia P.; Powell, Joshua; Hall, Laurel; DeFilippis, Victor; Früh, Klaus; Smit, Martine; Schlaepfer, David D.; Nelson, Jay A.; Streblow, Daniel N.

    2009-01-01

    While most chemokine receptors fail to cross the chemokine class boundary with respect to the ligands that they bind, the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-encoded chemokine receptor US28 binds multiple CC-chemokines and the CX3C-chemokine Fractalkine. US28 binding to CC-chemokines is both necessary and sufficient to induce vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) migration in response to HCMV infection. However, the function of Fractalkine binding to US28 is unknown. In this report, we demonstrate that Fractalkine binding to US28 not only induces migration of macrophages but also acts to inhibit RANTES-mediated SMC migration. Similarly, RANTES inhibits Fractalkine-mediated US28 migration in macrophages. While US28 binding of both RANTES and Fractalkine activate FAK and ERK-1/2, RANTES signals through Gα12 and Fractalkine through Gαq. These findings represent the first example of differential chemotactic signaling via a multiple chemokine family binding receptor that results in migration of two different cell types. Additionally, the demonstration that US28-mediated chemotaxis is both ligand-specific and cell type–specific has important implications in the role of US28 in HCMV pathogenesis. PMID:19229316

  10. Modulatory effects of unsaturated fatty acids on the binding of glucocorticoids to rat liver glucocorticoid receptors.

    PubMed

    Vallette, G; Vanet, A; Sumida, C; Nunez, E A

    1991-09-01

    Binding of the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone to the rat liver cytosol glucocorticoid receptor was inhibited by physiological concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids as a function of increasing dose, degree of unsaturation, and chain length of the fatty acid. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were the most potent inhibitors. Scatchard analysis and Line-weaver-Burk plots of the binding data revealed that both the association constants and number of binding sites decreased and that polyunsaturated fatty acids inhibition was of a mixed non-competitive type. The dissociation rate constant of [3H]dexamethasone from glucocorticoid receptors was increased by up to 10 times in the presence of docosahexaenoic acid, whereas a competitive inhibitor like the glucocorticoid antagonist RU 38486 had no effect. Moreover, sucrose density gradient analysis showed that docosahexaenoic acid inhibited the binding of [3H] dexamethasone to both the 8.8S and 4S forms. The results strongly suggest that unsaturated fatty acids are interacting at a site on the receptor different from the hormone binding site and the heat shock protein and that by binding to a second site unsaturated fatty acids greatly change the conformation of the hormone binding site to reduce its affinity for the hormone, either partially or completely depending on the concentration and the class of the fatty acid.

  11. In vivo (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam binding: imaging of receptor regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Ciliax, B.J.; Penney, J.B. Jr.; Young, A.B.

    1986-08-01

    The use of (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam as a ligand to measure alterations in benzodiazepine receptors in vivo in rats was investigated. Animals were injected with (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam i.v., arterial samples of (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam were obtained and, later, the animals were sacrificed to assay brain binding. (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam enters the brain rapidly and binds to benzodiazepine receptors. About two-thirds of this binding is blocked by predosing the animals with 5 mg/kg of clonazepam. The amount of remaining (nonspecific) binding correlates very well (r = 0.88) with the amount of radioactivity found in plasma at the time of death. A series of rats were lesioned unilaterally with kainic acid in the caudate-putamen several months before the infusion of (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam. In vivo autoradiography in lesioned rats showed that benzodiazepine binding in globus pallidus and substantia nigra on the side of the lesion was increased significantly as compared to the intact side. The observed changes in benzodiazepine binding were similar to those observed previously in lesioned rats using in vitro techniques. Thus, benzodiazepine receptor regulation can be imaged quantitatively using in vivo binding techniques.

  12. Distinct ETA Receptor Binding Mode of Macitentan As Determined by Site Directed Mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gatfield, John; Mueller Grandjean, Celia; Bur, Daniel; Bolli, Martin H.; Nayler, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The competitive endothelin receptor antagonists (ERA) bosentan and ambrisentan, which have long been approved for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension, are characterized by very short (1 min) occupancy half-lives at the ETA receptor. The novel ERA macitentan, displays a 20-fold increased receptor occupancy half-life, causing insurmountable antagonism of ET-1-induced signaling in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells. We show here that the slow ETA receptor dissociation rate of macitentan was shared with a set of structural analogs, whereas compounds structurally related to bosentan displayed fast dissociation kinetics. NMR analysis showed that macitentan adopts a compact structure in aqueous solution and molecular modeling suggests that this conformation tightly fits into a well-defined ETA receptor binding pocket. In contrast the structurally different and negatively charged bosentan-type molecules only partially filled this pocket and expanded into an extended endothelin binding site. To further investigate these different ETA receptor-antagonist interaction modes, we performed functional studies using ETA receptor variants harboring amino acid point mutations in the presumed ERA interaction site. Three ETA receptor residues significantly and differentially affected ERA activity: Mutation R326Q did not affect the antagonist activity of macitentan, however the potencies of bosentan and ambrisentan were significantly reduced; mutation L322A rendered macitentan less potent, whereas bosentan and ambrisentan were unaffected; mutation I355A significantly reduced bosentan potency, but not ambrisentan and macitentan potencies. This suggests that – in contrast to bosentan and ambrisentan - macitentan-ETA receptor binding is not dependent on strong charge-charge interactions, but depends predominantly on hydrophobic interactions. This different binding mode could be the reason for macitentan's sustained target occupancy and insurmountable antagonism. PMID

  13. A molecular characterization of the agonist binding site of a nematode cys-loop GABA receptor

    PubMed Central

    Kaji, Mark D; Kwaka, Ariel; Callanan, Micah K; Nusrat, Humza; Desaulniers, Jean-Paul; Forrester, Sean G

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Cys-loop GABA receptors represent important targets for human chemotherapeutics and insecticides and are potential targets for novel anthelmintics (nematicides). However, compared with insect and mammalian receptors, little is known regarding the pharmacological characteristics of nematode Cys-loop GABA receptors. Here we have investigated the agonist binding site of the Cys-loop GABA receptor UNC-49 (Hco-UNC-49) from the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus. Experimental Approach We used two-electrode voltage-clamp electrophysiology to measure channel activation by classical GABA receptor agonists on Hco-UNC-49 expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, along with site-directed mutagenesis and in silico homology modelling. Key Results The sulphonated molecules P4S and taurine had no effect on Hco-UNC-49. Other classical Cys-loop GABAA receptor agonists tested on the Hco-UNC-49B/C heteromeric channel had a rank order efficacy of GABA > trans-4-aminocrotonic acid > isoguvacine > imidazole-4-acetic acid (IMA) > (R)-(−)-4-amino-3-hydroxybutyric acid [R(−)-GABOB] > (S)-(+)-4-amino-3-hydroxybutyric acid [S(+)-GABOB] > guanidinoacetic acid > isonipecotic acid > 5-aminovaleric acid (DAVA) (partial agonist) > β-alanine (partial agonist). In silico ligand docking revealed some variation in binding between agonists. Mutagenesis of a key serine residue in binding loop C to threonine had minimal effects on GABA and IMA but significantly increased the maximal response to DAVA and decreased twofold the EC50 for R(−)- and S(+)-GABOB. Conclusions and Implications The pharmacological profile of Hco-UNC-49 differed from that of vertebrate Cys-loop GABA receptors and insect resistance to dieldrin receptors, suggesting differences in the agonist binding pocket. These findings could be exploited to develop new drugs that specifically target GABA receptors of parasitic nematodes. PMID:25850584

  14. Mutational analysis of the transferrin receptor reveals overlapping HFE and transferrin binding sites.

    PubMed

    West, A P; Giannetti, A M; Herr, A B; Bennett, M J; Nangiana, J S; Pierce, J R; Weiner, L P; Snow, P M; Bjorkman, P J

    2001-10-19

    The transferrin receptor (TfR) binds two proteins critical for iron metabolism: transferrin (Tf) and HFE, the protein mutated in hereditary hemochromatosis. Previous results demonstrated that Tf and HFE compete for binding to TfR, suggesting that Tf and HFE bind to the same or an overlapping site on TfR. TfR is a homodimer that binds one Tf per polypeptide chain (2:2, TfR/Tf stoichiometry), whereas both 2:1 and 2:2 TfR/HFE stoichiometries have been observed. In order to more fully characterize the interaction between HFE and TfR, we determined the binding stoichiometry using equilibrium gel-filtration and analytical ultracentrifugation. Both techniques indicate that a 2:2 TfR/HFE complex can form at submicromolar concentrations in solution, consistent with the hypothesis that HFE competes for Tf binding to TfR by blocking the Tf binding site rather than by exerting an allosteric effect. To determine whether the Tf and HFE binding sites on TfR overlap, residues at the HFE binding site on TfR were identified from the 2.8 A resolution HFE-TfR co-crystal structure, then mutated and tested for their effects on HFE and Tf binding. The binding affinities of soluble TfR mutants for HFE and Tf were determined using a surface plasmon resonance assay. Substitutions of five TfR residues at the HFE binding site (L619A, R629A, Y643A, G647A and F650Q) resulted in significant reductions in Tf binding affinity. The findings that both HFE and Tf form 2:2 complexes with TfR and that mutations at the HFE binding site affect Tf binding support a model in which HFE and Tf compete for overlapping binding sites on TfR. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  15. Receptor-Binding Profiles of H7 Subtype Influenza Viruses in Different Host Species

    PubMed Central

    Gambaryan, Alexandra S.; Matrosovich, Tatyana Y.; Philipp, Jennifer; Munster, Vincent J.; Fouchier, Ron A. M.; Cattoli, Giovanni; Capua, Ilaria; Krauss, Scott L.; Webster, Robert G.; Banks, Jill; Bovin, Nicolai V.; Klenk, Hans-Dieter

    2012-01-01

    Influenza viruses of gallinaceous poultry and wild aquatic birds usually have distinguishable receptor-binding properties. Here we used a panel of synthetic sialylglycopolymers and solid-phase receptor-binding assays to characterize receptor-binding profiles of about 70 H7 influenza viruses isolated from aquatic birds, land-based poultry, and horses in Eurasia and America. Unlike typical duck influenza viruses with non-H7 hemagglutinin (HA), all avian H7 influenza viruses, irrespective of the host species, displayed a poultry-virus-like binding specificity, i.e., preferential binding to sulfated oligosaccharides Neu5Acα2-3Galβ1-4(6-O-HSO3)GlcNAc and Neu5Acα2-3Galβ1-4(Fucα1-3)(6-O-HSO3)GlcNAc. This phenotype correlated with the unique amino acid sequence of the amino acid 185 to 189 loop of H7 HA and seemed to be dependent on ionic interactions between the sulfate group of the receptor and Lys193 and on the lack of sterical clashes between the fucose residue and Gln222. Many North American and Eurasian H7 influenza viruses displayed weak but detectable binding to the human-type receptor moiety Neu5Acα2-6Galβ1-4GlcNAc, highlighting the potential of H7 influenza viruses for avian-to-human transmission. Equine H7 influenza viruses differed from other viruses by preferential binding to the N-glycolyl form of sialic acid. Our data suggest that the receptor-binding site of contemporary H7 influenza viruses in aquatic and terrestrial birds was formed after the introduction of their common precursor from ducks to a new host, presumably, gallinaceous poultry. The uniformity of the receptor-binding profile of H7 influenza viruses in various wild and domestic birds indicates that there is no strong receptor-mediated host range restriction in birds on viruses with this HA subtype. This notion agrees with repeated interspecies transmission of H7 influenza viruses from aquatic birds to poultry. PMID:22345462

  16. Miniaturizing VEGF: Peptides mimicking the discontinuous VEGF receptor-binding site modulate the angiogenic response.

    PubMed

    De Rosa, Lucia; Finetti, Federica; Diana, Donatella; Di Stasi, Rossella; Auriemma, Sara; Romanelli, Alessandra; Fattorusso, Roberto; Ziche, Marina; Morbidelli, Lucia; D'Andrea, Luca Domenico

    2016-08-08

    The angiogenic properties of VEGF are mediated through the binding of VEGF to its receptor VEGFR2. The VEGF/VEGFR interface is constituted by a discontinuous binding region distributed on both VEGF monomers. We attempted to reproduce this discontinuous binding site by covalently linking into a single molecular entity two VEGF segments involved in receptor recognition. We designed and synthesized by chemical ligation a set of peptides differing in length and flexibility of the molecular linker joining the two VEGF segments. The biological activity of the peptides was characterized in vitro and in vivo showing a VEGF-like activity. The most biologically active mini-VEGF was further analyzed by NMR to determine the atomic details of its interaction with the receptor.

  17. Miniaturizing VEGF: Peptides mimicking the discontinuous VEGF receptor-binding site modulate the angiogenic response

    PubMed Central

    De Rosa, Lucia; Finetti, Federica; Diana, Donatella; Di Stasi, Rossella; Auriemma, Sara; Romanelli, Alessandra; Fattorusso, Roberto; Ziche, Marina; Morbidelli, Lucia; D’Andrea, Luca Domenico

    2016-01-01

    The angiogenic properties of VEGF are mediated through the binding of VEGF to its receptor VEGFR2. The VEGF/VEGFR interface is constituted by a discontinuous binding region distributed on both VEGF monomers. We attempted to reproduce this discontinuous binding site by covalently linking into a single molecular entity two VEGF segments involved in receptor recognition. We designed and synthesized by chemical ligation a set of peptides differing in length and flexibility of the molecular linker joining the two VEGF segments. The biological activity of the peptides was characterized in vitro and in vivo showing a VEGF-like activity. The most biologically active mini-VEGF was further analyzed by NMR to determine the atomic details of its interaction with the receptor. PMID:27498819

  18. Docking simulations suggest that all- trans retinoic acid could bind to retinoid X receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Motonori; Shudo, Koichi; Kagechika, Hiroyuki

    2015-10-01

    Retinoid X receptors (RXRs) are ligand-controlled transcription factors which heterodimerize with other nuclear receptors to regulate gene transcriptions associated with crucial biological events. 9- cis retinoic acid (9cRA), which transactivates RXRs, is believed to be an endogenous RXR ligand. All- trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is a natural ligand for retinoic acid receptors (RARs), which heterodimerize with RXRs. Although the concentration of 9cRA in tissues is very low, ATRA is relatively abundant and some reports show that ATRA activates RXRs. We computationally studied the possibility of ATRA binding to RXRs using two different docking methods with our developed programs to assess the binding affinities of naturally occurring retinoids. The simulations showed good correlations to the reported binding affinities of these molecules for RXRs and RARs.

  19. Miniaturizing VEGF: Peptides mimicking the discontinuous VEGF receptor-binding site modulate the angiogenic response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Rosa, Lucia; Finetti, Federica; Diana, Donatella; di Stasi, Rossella; Auriemma, Sara; Romanelli, Alessandra; Fattorusso, Roberto; Ziche, Marina; Morbidelli, Lucia; D'Andrea, Luca Domenico

    2016-08-01

    The angiogenic properties of VEGF are mediated through the binding of VEGF to its receptor VEGFR2. The VEGF/VEGFR interface is constituted by a discontinuous binding region distributed on both VEGF monomers. We attempted to reproduce this discontinuous binding site by covalently linking into a single molecular entity two VEGF segments involved in receptor recognition. We designed and synthesized by chemical ligation a set of peptides differing in length and flexibility of the molecular linker joining the two VEGF segments. The biological activity of the peptides was characterized in vitro and in vivo showing a VEGF-like activity. The most biologically active mini-VEGF was further analyzed by NMR to determine the atomic details of its interaction with the receptor.

  20. [3H]Ethynylbicycloorthobenzoate ([3H]EBOB) binding in recombinant GABAA receptors.

    PubMed

    Yagle, Monica A; Martin, Michael W; de Fiebre, Christopher M; de Fiebre, NancyEllen C; Drewe, John A; Dillon, Glenn H

    2003-12-01

    Ethynylbicycloorthobenzoate (EBOB) is a recently developed ligand that binds to the convulsant site of the GABAA receptor. While a few studies have examined the binding of [3H]EBOB in vertebrate brain tissue and insect preparations, none have examined [3H]EBOB binding in preparations that express known configurations of the GABAA receptor. We have thus examined [3H]EBOB binding in HEK293 cells stably expressing human alpha1beta2gamma2 and alpha2beta2gamma2 GABAA receptors, and the effects of CNS convulsants on its binding. The ability of the CNS convulsants to displace the prototypical convulsant site ligand, [35S]TBPS, was also assessed. Saturation analysis revealed [3H]EBOB binding at a single site, with a K(d) of approximately 9 nM in alpha1beta2gamma2 and alpha2beta2gamma2 receptors. Binding of both [3H]EBOB and [35S]TBPS was inhibited by dieldrin, lindane, tert-butylbicycloorthobenzoate (TBOB), PTX, TBPS, and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) at one site in a concentration-dependent fashion. Affinities were in the high nM to low microM range for all compounds except PTZ (low mM range), and the rank order of potency for these convulsants to displace [3H]EBOB and [35S]TBPS was the same. Low [GABA] stimulated [3H]EBOB binding, while higher [GABA] (greater than 10 microM) inhibited [3H]EBOB binding. Overall, our data demonstrate that [3H]EBOB binds to a single, high affinity site in alpha1beta2gamma2 and alpha2beta2gamma2 GABAA receptors, and modulation of its binding is similar to that seen with [35S]TBPS. [3H]EBOB has a number of desirable traits that may make it preferable to [35S]TBPS for analysis of the convulsant site of the GABAA receptor.

  1. Binding of GTPγ[35S] is regulated by GDP and receptor activation. Studies with the nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, John; Lambert, David G

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: We have examined the effects of ligand efficacy and receptor density on the binding of guanosine 5′-[γ-thio]triphosphate (GTPγS) and GDP to the nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) peptide receptor (NOP)-coupled G-proteins. Experimental approach: In GTPγ[35S] binding experiments, using stable (CHOhNOP) and inducible (CHOINDhNOP) recombinant human and rat NOP we have measured: (i) ligand-specific GDP requirements; (ii) the effects of receptor density on guanine nucleotide affinity/capacity; and (iii) the effect of ligand efficacy on GTPγS association kinetics. Key results: GTPγS competition curves were shallow and modelled by high- and low-affinity components that were relatively consistent between cell types and tissue preparations. In the presence of 1 µM N/OFQ a high-affinity GDP binding site was also present, but the fraction of total binding was reduced. In an efficacy-dependent manner, the partial agonists [F/G]N/OFQ(1-13)NH2 ([Phe1ψ(CH2-NH)Gly2]-nociceptin(1-13)NH2) and naloxone benzoylhydrazone both reduced the fraction of high-affinity sites for GDP (relative to basal). While the pIC50 for high-affinity GDP binding site did not decrease in the presence of 1 µM N/OFQ, N/OFQ produced a significant reduction in pIC50 for the low-affinity site. Agonist-mediated decrease in affinity for GDP binding was efficacy-dependent. GDP displayed three affinities: high, conserved in the presence and absence of ligand; intermediate, present as a low fraction under basal conditions; low (efficacy-dependent), present during receptor activation representing the majority of binding. Conclusions and implications: The affinity of GTPγ[35S] was regulated by GDP and receptor activation caused increased binding of GTPγ[35S] through a reduction in GDP affinity. PMID:20148892

  2. The ligand binding domain of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Immunological analysis.

    PubMed

    Kachalsky, S G; Aladjem, M; Barchan, D; Fuchs, S

    1993-03-08

    The interaction of the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) binding site domain with specific antibodies and with alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-BTX) has been compared. The cloned and expressed ligand binding domain of the mouse AChR alpha-subunit binds alpha-BTX, whereas the mongoose-expressed domain is not recognized by alpha-BTX. On the other hand, both the mouse and mongoose domains bind to the site-specific monoclonal antibody 5.5. These results demonstrate that the structural requirements for binding of alpha-BTX and mcAb 5.5, both of which interact with the AChR binding site, are distinct from each other.

  3. Restored mutant receptor:Corticoid binding in chaperone complexes by trimethylamine N-oxide

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Aaron L.; Elam, W. Austin; Johnson, Betty H.; Khan, Shagufta H.; Kumar, Raj; Thompson, E. Brad

    2017-01-01

    Without a glucocorticoid (GC) ligand, the transcription factor glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is largely cytoplasmic, with its GC-binding domain held in high affinity conformation by a cluster of chaperones. Binding a GC causes serial dis- and re-associations with chaperones, translocation of the GR to the nucleus, where it binds to DNA sites and associates with coregulatory proteins and basic transcription complexes. Herein, we describe the effects of a potent protective osmolyte, trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), on a conditions-dependent “activation-labile” mutant GR (GRact/l), which under GR-activating conditions cannot bind GCs in cells or in cell cytosols. In both cells and cytosols, TMAO restores binding to GRact/l by stabilizing it in complex with chaperones. Cells bathed in much lower concentrations of TMAO than those required in vitro show restoration of GC binding, presumably due to intracellular molecular crowding effects. PMID:28301576

  4. Rate constants of agonist binding to muscarinic receptors in rat brain medulla. Evaluation by competition kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, G.; Henis, Y.I.; Sokolovsky, M.

    1985-07-25

    The method of competition kinetics, which measures the binding kinetics of an unlabeled ligand through its effect on the binding kinetics of a labeled ligand, was employed to investigate the kinetics of muscarinic agonist binding to rat brain medulla pons homogenates. The agonists studied were acetylcholine, carbamylcholine, and oxotremorine, with N-methyl-4-(TH)piperidyl benzilate employed as the radiolabeled ligand. Our results suggested that the binding of muscarinic agonists to the high affinity sites is characterized by dissociation rate constants higher by 2 orders of magnitude than those of antagonists, with rather similar association rate constants. Our findings also suggest that isomerization of the muscarinic receptors following ligand binding is significant in the case of antagonists, but not of agonists. Moreover, it is demonstrated that in the medulla pons preparation, agonist-induced interconversion between high and low affinity bindings sites does not occur to an appreciable extent.

  5. Unusual features of Self-Peptide/MHC Binding by Autoimmune T Cell Receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholson,M.; Hahn, M.; Wucherpfennig, K.

    2005-01-01

    Structural studies on T cell receptors (TCRs) specific for foreign antigens demonstrated a remarkably similar topology characterized by a central, diagonal TCR binding mode that maximizes interactions with the MHC bound peptide. However, three recent structures involving autoimmune TCRs demonstrated unusual interactions with self-peptide/MHC complexes. Two TCRs from multiple sclerosis patients bind with unconventional topologies, and both TCRs are shifted toward the peptide N terminus and the MHC class II {beta} chain helix. A TCR from the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model binds in a conventional orientation, but the structure is unusual because the self-peptide only partially fills the binding site. For all three TCRs, interaction with the MHC bound self-peptide is suboptimal, and only two or three TCR loops contact the peptide. Optimal TCR binding modes confer a competitive advantage for antimicrobial T cells during an infection, whereas altered binding properties may permit survival of a subset of autoreactive T cells during thymic selection.

  6. OS059. Blockade of the bradykinin B2 receptor in early pregnancy reduces fetal growth and trophoblast invasion in guinea-pigs.

    PubMed

    Valdes, G; Schneider, D; Corthorn, J; Ortiz, R

    2012-07-01

    Research in preeclampsia (PE) is hampered by the difficulty of sampling the placental bed in early pregnancies followed to delivery to be defined as normal or preeclamptic. Thus, animal models contribute to the understanding of its physiopathology. The guinea-pig shares with humans extensive vascular remodelling, a hemomonochorial placenta [1] and a vasodilator and angiogenic utero-placental repertoire [2]. In pregnancy it expresses bradykinin (BK) B1R and B2R receptors in cells related to invasion, angiogenesis and vasodilatation. In addition, in HTR-8/SVneo cells, BK induces a B2R-mediated increase in migration and invasion [3]. To test whether blocking the B2R with a rodent-selective non-peptide antagonist Bradyzide (BDZ) from days 20 to 34 of an ≈65 day gestation - period of maximal trophoblast invasion and placental development - induces PE-like morphological and functional alterations. Virgin Pirbright guinea-pigs (Cavia Porcellus) after mating and echographic confirmation of pregnancy, were allocated in gestational day 20 to to subcutaneous implantation of Alzet pumps that delivered for 14 days saline (Control; n=7), BDZ0,875mg/kg/day (BDZ0,87; n=6) and BDZ 1,2mg/kg/day (BDZ1,2; n=7). Systolic pressure was acquired in the right hindlimb with a Power Lab 8 SP and analyzed with Labchart at day 34. On that day dams were sacrificed, vesical urine was extracted for protein determination, the fetuses and corresponding placentas weighed and the cephalo-caudal length measured. The placentas were studied by HE and immunohistochemistry for cytokeratin to identify trophoblasts. Results are expressed as means±SE. Statistical analysis was performed with Graphpad Prism 5.1, using one-way ANOVA, the recommended post hoc tests and χ2 test. Maternal systolic pressure tended to increase in BDZ0,875 and BDZ1,2 versus controls (63±567±6 versus 56±2,mm Hg respectively; NS). Proteinuria was not observed in any group. The number of viable fetuses tended to be reduced in

  7. Computational Characterization and Prediction of Estrogen Receptor Coactivator Binding Site Inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Bennion, B J; Kulp, K S; Cosman, M; Lightstone, F C

    2005-08-26

    Many carcinogens have been shown to cause tissue specific tumors in animal models. The mechanism for this specificity has not been fully elucidated and is usually attributed to differences in organ metabolism. For heterocyclic amines, potent carcinogens that are formed in well-done meat, the ability to either bind to the estrogen receptor and activate or inhibit an estrogenic response will have a major impact on carcinogenicity. Here we describe our work with the human estrogen receptor alpha (hERa) and the mutagenic/carcinogenic heterocyclic amines PhIP, MeIQx, IFP, and the hydroxylated metabolite of PhIP, N2-hydroxy-PhIP. We found that PhIP, in contrast to the other heterocyclic amines, increased cell-proliferation in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells and activated the hERa receptor. We show mechanistic data supporting this activation both computationally by homology modeling and docking, and by NMR confirmation that PhIP binds with the ligand binding domain (LBD). This binding competes with estradiol (E2) in the native E2 binding cavity of the receptor. We also find that other heterocyclic amines and N2-hydroxy-PhIP inhibit ER activation presumably by binding into another cavity on the LBD. Moreover, molecular dynamics simulations of inhibitory heterocyclic amines reveal a disruption of the surface of the receptor protein involved with protein-protein signaling. We therefore propose that the mechanism for the tissue specific carcinogenicity seen in the rat breast tumors and the presumptive human breast cancer associated with the consumption of well-done meat maybe mediated by this receptor activation.

  8. Binding and functional properties of hexocyclium and sila-hexocyclium derivatives to muscarinic receptor subtypes.

    PubMed Central

    Waelbroeck, M.; Camus, J.; Tastenoy, M.; Feifel, R.; Mutschler, E.; Tacke, R.; Strohmann, C.; Rafeiner, K.; Rodrigues de Miranda, J. F.; Lambrecht, G.

    1994-01-01

    1. We have compared the binding properties of several hexocyclium and sila-hexocyclium derivatives to muscarinic M1 receptors (in rat brain, human neuroblastoma (NB-OK 1) cells and calf superior cervical ganglia), rat heart M2 receptors, rat pancreas M3 receptors and M4 receptors in rat striatum, with their functional antimuscarinic properties in rabbit vas deferens (M1/M4-like), guinea-pig atria (M2), and guinea-pig ileum (M3) muscarinic receptors. 2. Sila-substitution (C/Si exchange) of hexocyclium (-->sila-hexocyclium) and demethyl-hexocyclium (-->demethyl-sila-hexocyclium) did not significantly affect their affinities for muscarinic receptors. By contrast, sila-substitution of o-methoxy-hexocyclium increased its affinity 2 to 3 fold for all the muscarinic receptor subtypes studied. 3. The p-fluoro- and p-chloro-derivatives of sila-hexocyclium had lower affinities than the parent compound at the four receptor subtypes, in binding and pharmacological studies. 4. In binding studies, o-methoxy-sila-hexocyclium (M1 = M4 > or = M3 > or = M2) had a much lower affinity than sila-hexocyclium for the four receptor subtypes, and discriminated the receptor subtypes more poorly than sila-hexocyclium (M1 = M3 > M4 > M2). This is in marked contrast with the very clear selectivity of o-methoxy-sila-hexocyclium for the prejunctional M1/M4-like heteroreceptors in rabbit vas deferens. 5. The tertiary amines demethyl-hexocyclium, demethyl-sila-hexocyclium and demethyl-o-methoxy-sila-hexocyclium had 10 to 30 fold lower affinities than the corresponding quaternary ammonium derivatives. PMID:8075869

  9. Acute stress enhances heterodimerization and binding of corticosteroid receptors at glucocorticoid target genes in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Mifsud, Karen R; Reul, Johannes M H M

    2016-10-04

    A stressful event results in secretion of glucocorticoid hormones, which bind to mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) in the hippocampus to regulate cognitive and affective responses to the challenge. MRs are already highly occupied by low glucocorticoid levels under baseline conditions, whereas GRs only become substantially occupied by stress- or circadian-driven glucocorticoid levels. Currently, however, the binding of MRs and GRs to glucocorticoid-responsive elements (GREs) within hippocampal glucocorticoid target genes under such physiological conditions in vivo is unknown. We found that forced swim (FS) stress evoked increased hippocampal RNA expression levels of the glucocorticoid-responsive genes FK506-binding protein 5 (Fkbp5), Period 1 (Per1), and serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (Sgk1). Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis showed that this stressor caused substantial gene-dependent increases in GR binding and surprisingly, also MR binding to GREs within these genes. Different acute challenges, including novelty, restraint, and FS stress, produced distinct glucocorticoid responses but resulted in largely similar MR and GR binding to GREs. Sequential and tandem ChIP analyses showed that, after FS stress, MRs and GRs bind concomitantly to the same GRE sites within Fkbp5 and Per1 but not Sgk1 Thus, after stress, MRs and GRs seem to bind to GREs as homo- and/or heterodimers in a gene-dependent manner. MR binding to GREs at baseline seems to be restricted, whereas after stress, GR binding may facilitate cobinding of MR. This study reveals that the interaction of MRs and GRs with GREs within the genome constitutes an additional level of complexity in hippocampal glucocorticoid action beyond expectancies based on ligand-receptor interactions.

  10. Acute stress enhances heterodimerization and binding of corticosteroid receptors at glucocorticoid target genes in the hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A stressful event results in secretion of glucocorticoid hormones, which bind to mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) in the hippocampus to regulate cognitive and affective responses to the challenge. MRs are already highly occupied by low glucocorticoid levels under baseline conditions, whereas GRs only become substantially occupied by stress- or circadian-driven glucocorticoid levels. Currently, however, the binding of MRs and GRs to glucocorticoid-responsive elements (GREs) within hippocampal glucocorticoid target genes under such physiological conditions in vivo is unknown. We found that forced swim (FS) stress evoked increased hippocampal RNA expression levels of the glucocorticoid-responsive genes FK506-binding protein 5 (Fkbp5), Period 1 (Per1), and serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (Sgk1). Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis showed that this stressor caused substantial gene-dependent increases in GR binding and surprisingly, also MR binding to GREs within these genes. Different acute challenges, including novelty, restraint, and FS stress, produced distinct glucocorticoid responses but resulted in largely similar MR and GR binding to GREs. Sequential and tandem ChIP analyses showed that, after FS stress, MRs and GRs bind concomitantly to the same GRE sites within Fkbp5 and Per1 but not Sgk1. Thus, after stress, MRs and GRs seem to bind to GREs as homo- and/or heterodimers in a gene-dependent manner. MR binding to GREs at baseline seems to be restricted, whereas after stress, GR binding may facilitate cobinding of MR. This study reveals that the interaction of MRs and GRs with GREs within the genome constitutes an additional level of complexity in hippocampal glucocorticoid action beyond expectancies based on ligand–receptor interactions. PMID:27655894

  11. Mineralocorticoid receptors along the nephron: (/sup 3/H)aldosterone binding in rabbit tubules

    SciTech Connect

    Doucet, A.; Katz, A.I.

    1981-12-01

    To identify the site of mineralocorticoid action along the nephron, we measured the specific binding of (/sup 3/H)aldosterone to nephron segments microdissected from aldosterone-deficient rabbits. Specific binding was defined as the difference between binding measured in the absence or in the presence of 2,000-fold excess of unlabeled hormone (in 10/sup -18/ mol.cm tubule length/sup -1/ +/- SE). High specific binding capacity was found in the branched collecting tubule (108 +/- 4), the cortical collecting tubule (119 +/- 9), and the outer medullary collecting tubule (115 +/- 16), whereas specific binding was negligible in the proximal convoluted tubule (8 +/- 9), pars recta (2 +/- 6), medullary thick ascending limb (4 +/- 6), cortical thick ascending limb (6 +/- 2), and distal convoluted tubule (6 +/- 6). In cortical collecting tubules, Scatchard analysis of the specific (/sup 3/H)aldosterone binding indicated a dissociation constant (K/sub D/) of 2.2 X 10/sup -9/ and a maximum number of binding sites of 157 X 10/sup -18/ mol.cm tubule length/sup -1/. The steroid specificity was assessed from the competition of various steroids for (/sup 3/H)aldosterone binding sites. Receptors from the cortical collecting tubule revealed the following sequence of affinities: aldosterone > DOCA > spironolactone > dexamethasone > 5..cap alpha..-dihydrotestosterone = progesterone = 17..beta..-estradiol, indicating that the binding sites in the collecting tubule are mineralocorticoid receptors. These results demonstrate significant (/sup 3/H)aldosterone binding to receptors of high affinity and mineralocorticoid specificity only in the collecting tubule and suggest that this nephron segment is the target site of mineralocorticoid action in the rabbit kidney.

  12. Azepino- and diazepinoindoles: synthesis and dopamine receptor binding profiles.

    PubMed

    Kraxner, J; Hübner, H; Gmeiner, P

    2000-09-01

    Starting from the readily available building blocks 7, 10, 11, and 15, the synthesis of the fused indoles 1, 2, 5, and 6, respectively, is reported. The syntheses involved Pictet-Spengler cyclizations, Michael addition reactions, lactamization, directed metallation, and reductive amination as the key reaction steps. Radioligand displacement studies comprising the dopamine receptor subtypes D1, D2long D2short, D3, and D4.4 were performed when the diazepinoindole 6 revealed D1 and D4 affinities (Ki = 0.11 microM and 1.7 microM, respectively) which are comparable to the partial D1 agonist SKF 38393 (3b). In contrast to the benzazepine 3b, the indole based test compounds turned out less selective over the D2 and D3 receptor subtype.

  13. Dynamics of Virus-Receptor Interactions in Virus Binding, Signaling, and Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Boulant, Steeve; Stanifer, Megan; Lozach, Pierre-Yves

    2015-01-01

    During viral infection the first challenge that viruses have to overcome is gaining access to the intracellular compartment. The infection process starts when the virus contacts the surface of the host cell. A complex series of events ensues, including diffusion at the host cell membrane surface, binding to receptors, signaling, internalization, and delivery of the genetic information. The focus of this review is on the very initial steps of virus entry, from receptor binding to particle uptake into the host cell. We will discuss how viruses find their receptor, move to sub-membranous regions permissive for entry, and how they hijack the receptor-mediated signaling pathway to promote their internalization. PMID:26043381

  14. Na+ and K+ Allosterically Regulate Cooperative DNA Binding by the Human Progesterone Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Connaghan, Keith D; Heneghan, Aaron F; Miura, Michael T; Bain, David L

    2009-01-01

    Cooperativity is a common mechanism used by transcription factors to generate highly responsive yet stable gene regulation. For the two isoforms of human progesterone receptor (PR-A and PR-B), differences in cooperative DNA binding energetics may account for their differing transcriptional activation properties. Here we report on the molecular origins responsible for cooperativity, finding that it can be activated or repressed with Na+ and K+, respectively. We demonstrate that PR self-association and DNA-dependent cooperativity are linked to a monovalent cation binding event, and that this binding is coupled to modulation of receptor structure. K+ and Na+ are therefore allosteric effectors of PR function. Noting that the apparent binding affinities of Na+ and K+ are comparable to their intracellular concentrations, and that PR isoforms directly regulate the genes of a number of ion pumps and channels, these results suggest that Na+ and K+ may additionally function as physiological regulators of PR action. PMID:20000807

  15. Site-directed alkylation of multiple opioid receptors. I. Binding selectivity

    SciTech Connect

    James, I.F.; Goldstein, A.

    1984-05-01

    A method for measuring and expressing the binding selectivity of ligands for mu, delta, and kappa opioid binding sites is reported. Radioligands are used that are partially selective for these sites in combination with membrane preparations enriched in each site. Enrichment was obtained by treatment of membranes with the alkylating agent beta-chlornaltrexamine in the presence of appropriate protecting ligands. After enrichment for mu receptors, (/sup 3/H) dihydromorphine bound to a single type of site as judged by the slope of competition binding curves. After enrichment for delta or kappa receptors, binding sites for (/sup 3/H) (D-Ala2, D-Leu5)enkephalin and (3H)ethylketocyclazocine, respectively, were still not homogeneous. There were residual mu sites in delta-enriched membranes but no evidence for residual mu or delta sites in kappa-enriched membranes were found. This method was used to identify ligands that are highly selective for each of the three types of sites.

  16. Mu receptor binding of some commonly used opioids and their metabolites.

    PubMed

    Chen, Z R; Irvine, R J; Somogyi, A A; Bochner, F

    1991-01-01

    The binding affinity to the mu receptor of some opioids chemically related to morphine and some of their metabolites was examined in rat brain homogenates with 3H-DAMGO. The chemical group at position 6 of the molecule had little effect on binding (e.g. morphine-6-glucuronide Ki = 0.6 nM; morphine = 1.2 nM). Decreasing the length of the alkyl group at position 3 decreased the Ki values (morphine less than codeine less than ethylmorphine less than pholcodine). Analgesics with high clinical potency containing a methoxyl group at position 3 (e.g. hydrocodone, Ki = 19.8 nM) had relatively weak receptor binding, whilst their O-demethylated metabolites (e.g. hydromorphone, Ki = 0.6 nM) had much stronger binding. Many opioids may exert their pharmacological actions predominantly through metabolites.

  17. Hydrophobic interactions mediate binding of the glycine receptor beta-subunit to gephyrin.

    PubMed

    Kneussel, M; Hermann, A; Kirsch, J; Betz, H

    1999-03-01

    Glycine receptors (GlyRs) are ligand-gated chloride channel proteins composed of alpha- and beta-subunits. GlyRs are located to and anchored at postsynaptic sites by the receptor-associated protein gephyrin. Previous work from our laboratory has identified a core motif for gephyrin binding in the cytoplasmic loop of the GlyR beta-subunit. Here, we localized amino acid residues implicated in gephyrin binding by site-directed mutagenesis. In a novel transfection assay, a green fluorescent protein-gephyrin binding motif fusion protein was used to monitor the consequences of amino acid substitutions for beta-subunit interaction with gephyrin. Only multiple, but not single, replacements of hydrophobic side chains abolished the interaction between the two proteins. Our data are consistent with gephyrin binding being mediated by the hydrophobic side of an imperfect amphipathic helix.

  18. Monoclonal antibodies against rabbit mammary prolactin receptors. Specific antibodies to the hormone binding domain

    SciTech Connect

    Katoh, M.; Djiane, J.; Kelly, P.A.

    1985-09-25

    Three monoclonal antibodies (M110, A82, and A917) were obtained by fusing myeloma cells and spleen cells from mice immunized with partially purified rabbit mammary gland prolactin (PRL) receptors. All 3 antibodies were capable of complete inhibition of SVI-ovine prolactin (oPRL) binding to rabbit mammary PRL receptors in either particulate or soluble form. M110 showed slightly greater potency than oPRL in competing for SVI-oPRL binding. These antibodies also inhibited PRL binding to microsomal fractions from rabbit liver, kidney, adrenal, ovary, and pig mammary gland, although A82 showed poor inhibition in pig mammary gland. There was no cross-reaction of any of the 3 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for the other species tested: human (T-47D breast cancer cells) and rat (liver, ovary). In order to confirm that these antibodies are specific to the binding domain, antibodies were purified, iodinated, and binding characteristics were investigated. SVI-M110 and SVI-A82 binding was completely inhibited by lactogenic hormones, whereas nonlactogenic hormones did not cross-react. Competition of 125I-M110 by oPRL was comparable to that of SVI-oPRL by unlabeled oPRL, while SVI-A917 binding was only partially competed (30-60%) by lactogenic hormones. Tissue and species specificity of labeled antibody binding paralleled results of binding inhibition experiments using 125I-oPRL. In addition, A82 and A917 completely inhibited 125I-M110 binding. In contrast, 125I-A82 binding was stimulated by A917 and 125I-A917 binding was stimulated by A82.

  19. Marlin-1, a novel RNA-binding protein associates with GABA receptors.

    PubMed

    Couve, Andrés; Restituito, Sophie; Brandon, Julia M; Charles, Kelly J; Bawagan, Hinayana; Freeman, Katie B; Pangalos, Menelas N; Calver, Andrew R; Moss, Stephen J

    2004-04-02

    GABA(B) receptors are heterodimeric G protein-coupled receptors that mediate slow synaptic inhibition in the central nervous system. Whereas heterodimerization between GABA(B) receptor GABA(B)R1 and GABA(B)R2 subunits is essential for functional expression, how neurons coordinate the assembly of these critical receptors remains to be established. Here we have identified Marlin-1, a novel GABA(B) receptor-binding protein that associates specifically with the GABA(B)R1 subunit in yeast, tissue culture cells, and neurons. Marlin-1 is expressed in the brain and exhibits a granular distribution in cultured hippocampal neurons. Marlin-1 binds different RNA species including the 3'-untranslated regions of both the GABA(B)R1 and GABA(B)R2 mRNAs in vitro and also associates with RNA in cultured neurons. Inhibition of Marlin-1 expression via small RNA interference technology results in enhanced intracellular levels of the GABA(B)R2 receptor subunit without affecting the level of GABA(B)R1. Together our results suggest that Marlin-1 functions to regulate the cellular levels of GABA(B) R2 subunits, which may have significant effects on the production of functional GABA(B) receptor heterodimers. Therefore, our observations provide an added level of regulation for the control of GABA(B) receptor expression and for the efficacy of inhibitory synaptic transmission.

  20. Expression and Purification of Functional Ligand-binding Domains of T1R3 Taste Receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Nie,Y.; Hobbs, J.; Vigues, S.; Olson, W.; Conn, G.; Munger, S.

    2006-01-01

    Chemosensory receptors, including odor, taste, and vomeronasal receptors, comprise the largest group of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in the mammalian genome. However, little is known about the molecular determinants that are critical for the detection and discrimination of ligands by most of these receptors. This dearth of understanding is due in part to difficulties in preparing functional receptors suitable for biochemical and biophysical analyses. Here we describe in detail two strategies for the expression and purification of the ligand-binding domain of T1R taste receptors, which are constituents of the sweet and umami taste receptors. These class C GPCRs contain a large extracellular N-terminal domain (NTD) that is the site of interaction with most ligands and that is amenable to expression as a separate polypeptide in heterologous cells. The NTD of mouse T1R3 was expressed as two distinct fusion proteins in Escherichia coli and purified by column chromatography. Spectroscopic analysis of the purified NTD proteins shows them to be properly folded and capable of binding ligands. This methodology should not only facilitate the characterization of T1R ligand interactions but may also be useful for dissecting the function of other class C GPCRs such as the large family of orphan V2R vomeronasal receptors.

  1. Epidermal growth factor binding and receptor distribution in the mouse reproductive tract during development

    SciTech Connect

    Bossert, N.L.; Nelson, K.G.; Ross, K.A.; Takahashi, T.; McLachlan, J.A. )

    1990-11-01

    The ontogeny of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor in the different cell types in the neonatal and immature mouse uterus and vagina was examined. Immunohistochemical examination of prenatal and neonatal reproductive tracts with a polyclonal antibody to the EGF receptor shows immunoreactive EGF receptors as early as Day 13 of gestation. Autoradiographic analysis of tissue sections at 3 to 17 days of age (the day of birth is Day 1) demonstrates that both uterine and vaginal epithelial and stromal cells are capable of binding 125I-labeled EGF. Both the 125I-labeled EGF autoradiography and immunohistochemistry in whole tissue show higher EGF receptor levels in the uterine epithelium than the uterine stroma. The presence of EGF receptors was also confirmed by affinity labeling and Scatchard analysis of isolated uterine cell types at 7 and/or 17 days of age. However, in contrast to the autoradiography and immunohistochemistry data of intact tissue, the affinity labeling and Scatchard data of isolated cells indicate that the uterine stroma contains higher levels of EGF receptor than that of the uterine epithelium. The reason for this discrepancy between the different techniques is, as yet, unknown. Regardless of the differences in the actual numbers of EGF receptors obtained, our data demonstrate that the developing mouse reproductive tract contains immunoreactive EGF receptors that are capable of binding 125I-labeled EGF.

  2. CORAL: prediction of binding affinity and efficacy of thyroid hormone receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Toropova, A P; Toropov, A A; Benfenati, E

    2015-08-28

    Quantitative structure - activity relationships (QSARs) for binding affinity of thyroid hormone receptors based on attributes of molecular structure extracted from simplified molecular input-line entry systems (SMILES) are established using the CORAL software (http://www.insilico.eu/coral). The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) is used as the measure of the binding affinity of thyroid hormone receptors. Molecular features which are statistically reliable promoters of increase and decrease for IC50 are suggested. The examples of modifications of molecular structure which lead to the increase or to the decrease of the endpoint are represented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. A comparison of progestin and androgen receptor binding using the CoMFA technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loughney, Deborah A.; Schwender, Charles F.

    1992-12-01

    A series of 48 steroids has been studied with the SYBYL QSAR module using Relative Binding Affinities (RBAs) to progesterone and androgen receptors obtained from the literature. Models for the progesterone and androgen data were developed. Both models show regions where sterics and electrostatics correlate to binding affinity but are different for androgen and progesterone which suggests differences possibly important for receptor selectivity. The progesterone model is more predictive than the androgen (predictive r2 of 0.725 vs. 0.545 for progesterone and androgen, respectively).

  4. Albumin-based microbubbles bind up-regulated scavenger receptors following vascular injury.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Daniel R; Duryee, Michael J; Anchan, Rajeev K; Garvin, Robert P; Johnston, Michael D; Porter, Thomas R; Thiele, Geoffrey M; Klassen, Lynell W

    2010-12-24

    We have shown previously that perfluorocarbon-exposed sonicated dextrose albumin (PESDA) microbubbles bind to injured vascular tissue and can be detected with ultrasound imaging techniques. Prior studies have shown that scavenger receptors (SRs) are regulators of innate and adaptive immune responses and are involved in the progression of vascular disease such as atherosclerosis. In this study, we sought to determine the molecular mechanism of PESDA binding to balloon-injured vasculature. RT-PCR analysis of angioplastied aortas demonstrated a significantly (p ≤ 0.01) increased expression of SRs. Binding to SRs was confirmed using SR-expressing CHO cells, and this binding was blocked by competitive inhibition with the SR-binding ligands oxidized LDL and malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde-modified LDL. Confocal imaging confirmed the co-localization of PESDA microbubbles to CD36, SRB-1, and Toll-like receptor 4, but not to monocytes/macrophages. This study demonstrates that PESDA binds to SRs and that this binding is in major part dependent upon the oxidized nature of PESDA microbubble shell proteins. The extent of SR mRNA expression was increased with injury and associated with microbubble retention as defined by scanning electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. These findings clarify the mechanisms of how albumin-based microbubbles bind to injured and inflamed vasculature and further support the potential of this imaging technique to detect early vascular innate inflammatory pathophysiologic processes.

  5. Conserved residues in RF-NH₂ receptor models identify predicted contact sites in ligand-receptor binding.

    PubMed

    Bass, C; Katanski, C; Maynard, B; Zurro, I; Mariane, E; Matta, M; Loi, M; Melis, V; Capponi, V; Muroni, P; Setzu, M; Nichols, R

    2014-03-01

    Peptides in the RF-NH2 family are grouped together based on an amidated dipeptide C terminus and signal through G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) to influence diverse physiological functions. By determining the mechanisms underlying RF-NH2 signaling targets can be identified to modulate physiological activity; yet, how RF-NH2 peptides interact with GPCRs is relatively unexplored. We predicted conserved residues played a role in Drosophila melanogaster RF-NH2 ligand-receptor interactions. In this study D. melanogaster rhodopsin-like family A peptide GPCRs alignments identified eight conserved residues unique to RF-NH2 receptors. Three of these residues were in extra-cellular loops of modeled RF-NH2 receptors and four in transmembrane helices oriented into a ligand binding pocket to allow contact with a peptide. The eighth residue was unavailable for interaction; yet its conservation suggested it played another role. A novel hydrophobic region representative of RF-NH2 receptors was also discovered. The presence of rhodopsin-like family A GPCR structural motifs including a toggle switch indicated RF-NH2s signal classically; however, some features of the DMS receptors were distinct from other RF-NH2 GPCRs. Additionally, differences in RF-NH2 receptor structures which bind the same peptide explained ligand specificity. Our novel results predicted conserved residues as RF-NH2 ligand-receptor contact sites and identified unique and classic structural features. These discoveries will aid antagonist design to modulate RF-NH2 signaling.

  6. Glycophorin B is the erythrocyte receptor of Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte-binding ligand, EBL-1

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, D. C. Ghislaine; Cofie, Joann; Jiang, Lubin; Hartl, Daniel L.; Tracy, Erin; Kabat, Juraj; Mendoza, Laurence H.; Miller, Louis H.

    2009-01-01

    In the war against Plasmodium, humans have evolved to eliminate or modify proteins on the erythrocyte surface that serve as receptors for parasite invasion, such as the Duffy blood group, a receptor for Plasmodium vivax, and the Gerbich-negative modification of glycophorin C for Plasmodium falciparum. In turn, the parasite counters with expansion and diversification of ligand families. The high degree of polymorphism in glycophorin B found in malaria-endemic regions suggests that it also may be a receptor for Plasmodium, but, to date, none has been identified. We provide evidence from erythrocyte-binding that glycophorin B is a receptor for the P. falciparum protein EBL-1, a member of the Duffy-binding-like erythrocyte-binding protein (DBL-EBP) receptor family. The erythrocyte-binding domain, region 2 of EBL-1, expressed on CHO-K1 cells, bound glycophorin B+ but not glycophorin B-null erythrocytes. In addition, glycophorin B+ but not glycophorin B-null erythrocytes adsorbed native EBL-1 from the P. falciparum culture supernatants. Interestingly, the Efe pygmies of the Ituri forest in the Democratic Republic of the Congo have the highest gene frequency of glycophorin B-null in the world, raising the possibility that the DBL-EBP family may have expanded in response to the high frequency of glycophorin B-null in the population. PMID:19279206

  7. Glycophorin B is the erythrocyte receptor of Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte-binding ligand, EBL-1.

    PubMed

    Mayer, D C Ghislaine; Cofie, Joann; Jiang, Lubin; Hartl, Daniel L; Tracy, Erin; Kabat, Juraj; Mendoza, Laurence H; Miller, Louis H

    2009-03-31

    In the war against Plasmodium, humans have evolved to eliminate or modify proteins on the erythrocyte surface that serve as receptors for parasite invasion, such as the Duffy blood group, a receptor for Plasmodium vivax, and the Gerbich-negative modification of glycophorin C for Plasmodium falciparum. In turn, the parasite counters with expansion and diversification of ligand families. The high degree of polymorphism in glycophorin B found in malaria-endemic regions suggests that it also may be a receptor for Plasmodium, but, to date, none has been identified. We provide evidence from erythrocyte-binding that glycophorin B is a receptor for the P. falciparum protein EBL-1, a member of the Duffy-binding-like erythrocyte-binding protein (DBL-EBP) receptor family. The erythrocyte-binding domain, region 2 of EBL-1, expressed on CHO-K1 cells, bound glycophorin B(+) but not glycophorin B-null erythrocytes. In addition, glycophorin B(+) but not glycophorin B-null erythrocytes adsorbed native EBL-1 from the P. falciparum culture supernatants. Interestingly, the Efe pygmies of the Ituri forest in the Democratic Republic of the Congo have the highest gene frequency of glycophorin B-null in the world, raising the possibility that the DBL-EBP family may have expanded in response to the high frequency of glycophorin B-null in the population.

  8. Optical biosensor analysis in studying new synthesized bicalutamide analogs binding to androgen receptor.

    PubMed

    Fortugno, Cecilia; Varchi, Greta; Guerrini, Andrea; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain; Bertucci, Carlo

    2014-07-01

    Bicalutamide (Casodex®) is a non-steroidal anti-androgen drug used in the treatment of prostate cancer, which represents the second most common malignancy diagnosed in men worldwide. In this work, we analyze the ability of some novel bicalutamide analogs to bind the androgen receptor, by using an optical biosensor. Androgen receptor was covalently immobilized on a carboxy methyl dextran matrix. The immobilized receptor chip was then used for the binding experiments of the bicalutamide analogs. The (R)-bicalutamide dissociation constant was in good agreement to the value reported in literature obtained by using radiolabeled targets. Most of the new synthesized compounds showed higher androgen receptor binding level, when compared to the reference. Our results clearly indicate that the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique offers many advantages with respect to other available technologies in terms of studying biomolecular interactions. Moreover, this study provides an effective methodology for determining the binding affinity of novel chemical entities for the isolated androgen receptor, thus excluding possible off-target interactions occurring in conventional cell-based techniques.

  9. A Drug Delivery Strategy: Binding Enkephalin to Asialoglycoprotein Receptor by Enzymatic Galactosylation

    PubMed Central

    Christie, Michelle P.; Simerská, Pavla; Jen, Freda E.-C.; Hussein, Waleed M.; Rawi, Mohamad F. M.; Hartley-Tassell, Lauren E.; Day, Christopher J.; Jennings, Michael P.; Toth, Istvan

    2014-01-01

    Glycosylation of biopharmaceuticals can mediate cell specific delivery by targeting carbohydrate receptors. Additionally, glycosylation can improve the physico-chemical (drug-like) properties of peptide based drug candidates. The main purpose of this study was to examine if glycosylation of the peptide enkephalin could facilitate its binding to the carbohydrate receptor, asialoglycoprotein. Firstly, we described the one-pot enzymatic galactosylation of lactose modified enkephalin in the presence of uridine-5′-diphosphogalactose 4-epimerase and lipopolysaccharyl α-1,4-galactosyltransferase. Stability experiments using human plasma and Caco-2 cell homogenates showed that glycosylation considerably improved the stability of enkephalin (at least 60% remained stable after a 2 hr incubation at 37°C). In vitro permeability experiments using Caco-2 cells revealed that the permeability of mono- and trisaccharide conjugated enkephalins was 14 and 28 times higher, respectively, than that of enkephalin alone (Papp 3.1×10−8 cm/s). By the methods of surface plasmon resonance and molecular modeling, we demonstrated that the enzymatic glycosylation of enkephalin enabled binding the asialoglycoprotein receptor. The addition of a trisaccharide moiety to enkephalin improved the binding of enkephalin to the asialoglycoprotein receptor two fold (KD = 91 µM). The docking scores from molecular modeling showed that the binding modes and affinities of the glycosylated enkephalin derivatives to the asialoglycoprotein receptor complemented the results from the surface plasmon resonance experiments. PMID:24736570

  10. Identifying and quantifying two ligand-binding sites while imaging native human membrane receptors by AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfreundschuh, Moritz; Alsteens, David; Wieneke, Ralph; Zhang, Cheng; Coughlin, Shaun R.; Tampé, Robert; Kobilka, Brian K.; Müller, Daniel J.

    2015-11-01

    A current challenge in life sciences is to image cell membrane receptors while characterizing their specific interactions with various ligands. Addressing this issue has been hampered by the lack of suitable nanoscopic methods. Here we address this challenge and introduce multifunctional high-resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) to image human protease-activated receptors (PAR1) in the functionally important lipid membrane and to simultaneously localize and quantify their binding to two different ligands. Therefore, we introduce the surface chemistry to bifunctionalize AFM tips with the native receptor-activating peptide and a tris-N-nitrilotriacetic acid (tris-NTA) group binding to a His10-tag engineered to PAR1. We further introduce ways to discern between the binding of both ligands to different receptor sites while imaging native PAR1s. Surface chemistry and nanoscopic method are applicable to a range of biological systems in vitro and in vivo and to concurrently detect and localize multiple ligand-binding sites at single receptor resolution.

  11. Multiple binding sites in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: An opportunity for polypharmacolgy.

    PubMed

    Iturriaga-Vásquez, Patricio; Alzate-Morales, Jans; Bermudez, Isabel; Varas, Rodrigo; Reyes-Parada, Miguel

    2015-11-01

    For decades, the development of selective compounds has been the main goal for chemists and biologists involved in drug discovery. However, diverse lines of evidence indicate that polypharmacological agents, i.e. those that act simultaneously at various protein targets, might show better profiles than selective ligands, regarding both efficacy and side effects. On the other hand, the availability of the crystal structure of different receptors allows a detailed analysis of the main interactions between drugs and receptors in a specific binding site. Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) constitute a large and diverse family of ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) that, as a product of its modulation, regulate neurotransmitter release, which in turns produce a global neuromodulation of the central nervous system. nAChRs are pentameric protein complexes in such a way that expression of compatible subunits can lead to various receptor assemblies or subtypes. The agonist binding site, located at the extracellular region, exhibits different properties depending on the subunits that conform the receptor. In the last years, it has been recognized that nAChRs could also contain one or more allosteric sites which could bind non-classical nicotinic ligands including several therapeutically useful drugs. The presence of multiple binding sites in nAChRs offers an interesting possibility for the development of novel polypharmacological agents with a wide spectrum of actions.

  12. Identifying and quantifying two ligand-binding sites while imaging native human membrane receptors by AFM

    PubMed Central

    Pfreundschuh, Moritz; Alsteens, David; Wieneke, Ralph; Zhang, Cheng; Coughlin, Shaun R.; Tampé, Robert; Kobilka, Brian K.; Müller, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    A current challenge in life sciences is to image cell membrane receptors while characterizing their specific interactions with various ligands. Addressing this issue has been hampered by the lack of suitable nanoscopic methods. Here we address this challenge and introduce multifunctional high-resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) to image human protease-activated receptors (PAR1) in the functionally important lipid membrane and to simultaneously localize and quantify their binding to two different ligands. Therefore, we introduce the surface chemistry to bifunctionalize AFM tips with the native receptor-activating peptide and a tris-N-nitrilotriacetic acid (tris-NTA) group binding to a His10-tag engineered to PAR1. We further introduce ways to discern between the binding of both ligands to different receptor sites while imaging native PAR1s. Surface chemistry and nanoscopic method are applicable to a range of biological systems in vitro and in vivo and to concurrently detect and localize multiple ligand-binding sites at single receptor resolution. PMID:26561004

  13. Identifying and quantifying two ligand-binding sites while imaging native human membrane receptors by AFM.

    PubMed

    Pfreundschuh, Moritz; Alsteens, David; Wieneke, Ralph; Zhang, Cheng; Coughlin, Shaun R; Tampé, Robert; Kobilka, Brian K; Müller, Daniel J

    2015-11-12

    A current challenge in life sciences is to image cell membrane receptors while characterizing their specific interactions with various ligands. Addressing this issue has been hampered by the lack of suitable nanoscopic methods. Here we address this challenge and introduce multifunctional high-resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) to image human protease-activated receptors (PAR1) in the functionally important lipid membrane and to simultaneously localize and quantify their binding to two different ligands. Therefore, we introduce the surface chemistry to bifunctionalize AFM tips with the native receptor-activating peptide and a tris-N-nitrilotriacetic acid (tris-NTA) group binding to a His10-tag engineered to PAR1. We further introduce ways to discern between the binding of both ligands to different receptor sites while imaging native PAR1s. Surface chemistry and nanoscopic method are applicable to a range of biological systems in vitro and in vivo and to concurrently detect and localize multiple ligand-binding sites at single receptor resolution.

  14. Changes of insulin effect on lipogenesis and insulin binding receptors during hypokinesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macho, L.; Fickova, M.; Zorad, S.

    The effect of hypokinesia on insulin action and insulin binding to specific receptors in fat cells was studied. Male Wistar rats were exposed to hypokinesia in special adjustable plastic cages for 1, 7, 21 and 60 days, and the stimulatory effect of insulin (10 and 100 mU) on the incorporation of radiocarbon labelled glucose into lipids of fat tissue and the binding of insulin to receptors of isolated adipocytes was estimated. The stimulation of lipogenesis by insulin was slightly diminished after hypokinesia for 1 day, however, an important increase of insulin action was found in rats exposed to hypokinesia for 60 days. The decrease of insulin binding capacity of the number of binding sites per cell and of the insulin receptor density was found after 1 day of hypokinesia. In rats exposed to hypokinesia for 60 days, in agreement with the higher stimulatory affect of insulin, an increase of insulin receptor density was observed. These results showed that hypokinesia has an important influence on stimulatory action of insulin and on insulin receptors in adipocytes.

  15. Reconstitution of the receptor-binding motif of the SARS coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Freund, Natalia T; Roitburd-Berman, Anna; Sui, Jianhua; Marasco, Wayne A; Gershoni, Jonathan M

    2015-12-01

    The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (CoV) identified in 2003 has infected ∼8000 people worldwide, killing nearly 10% of them. The infection of target cells by the SARS CoV is mediated through the interaction of the viral Spike (S) protein (1255 amino acids) and its cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). The SARS CoV receptor-binding domain (amino acids N318-T509 of S protein) harbors an extended excursion along its periphery that contacts ACE2 and is designated the receptor-binding motif (RBM, amino acids S432-T486). In addition, the RBM is a major antigenic determinant, able to elicit production of neutralizing antibodies. Hence, the role of the RBM is a bi-functional bioactive surface that can be demonstrated by antibodies such as the neutralizing human anti-SARS monoclonal antibody (mAb) 80R which targets the RBM and competes with the ACE2 receptor for binding. Here, we employ phage-display peptide-libraries to reconstitute a functional RBM. This is achieved by generating a vast collection of candidate RBM peptides that present a diversity of conformations. Screening such 'Conformer Libraries' with corresponding ligands has produced short RBM constructs (ca. 40 amino acids) that can bind both the ACE2 receptor and the neutralizing mAb 80R.

  16. Prenatal protein deprivation in rats induces changes in prepulse inhibition and NMDA receptor binding.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Abraham A; Printz, David J; Butler, Pamela D; Dulawa, Stephanie C; Printz, Morton P

    2004-01-23

    Epidemiological studies suggest that prenatal malnutrition increases the risk of developing schizophrenia. Animal models indicate that prenatal protein deprivation (PPD) affects many aspects of adult brain function. We tested the hypothesis that PPD in rats would alter prepulse inhibition (PPI), which is an operational measure of sensorimotor gating that is deficient in schizophrenia patients. Additionally, we examined dopaminergic and glutaminergic receptor binding in the striatum and hippocampus, which have been suggested to play a role in the etiology of schizophrenia. Rat dams were fed normal (25%) or low (6%) protein diets beginning 5 weeks prior to, and throughout pregnancy. The pups were tested at postnatal days (PND) 35 and 56 for PPI. Striatal and hippocampal NMDA receptor, and striatal dopamine receptor binding were quantified post-mortem in a subset of these rats. Female rats exposed to PPD had reduced levels of PPI at PND 56, but not PND 35, suggesting the emergence of a sensorimotor gating deficit in early adulthood. Striatal NMDA receptor binding was increased in PPD females. A decrease in initial startle response (SR) was also observed in all PPD rats relative to control rats. These results suggest that PPD causes age- and sex-dependent decreases in PPI and increases in NMDA receptor binding. This animal model may be useful for the investigation of neurodevelopmental changes that are associated with schizophrenia in humans.

  17. Taste substance binding elicits conformational change of taste receptor T1r heterodimer extracellular domains.

    PubMed

    Nango, Eriko; Akiyama, Shuji; Maki-Yonekura, Saori; Ashikawa, Yuji; Kusakabe, Yuko; Krayukhina, Elena; Maruno, Takahiro; Uchiyama, Susumu; Nuemket, Nipawan; Yonekura, Koji; Shimizu, Madoka; Atsumi, Nanako; Yasui, Norihisa; Hikima, Takaaki; Yamamoto, Masaki; Kobayashi, Yuji; Yamashita, Atsuko

    2016-05-10

    Sweet and umami tastes are perceived by T1r taste receptors in oral cavity. T1rs are class C G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), and the extracellular ligand binding domains (LBDs) of T1r1/T1r3 and T1r2/T1r3 heterodimers are responsible for binding of chemical substances eliciting umami or sweet taste. However, molecular analyses of T1r have been hampered due to the difficulties in recombinant expression and protein purification, and thus little is known about mechanisms for taste perception. Here we show the first molecular view of reception of a taste substance by a taste receptor, where the binding of the taste substance elicits a different conformational state of T1r2/T1r3 LBD heterodimer. Electron microscopy has showed a characteristic dimeric structure. Förster resonance energy transfer and X-ray solution scattering have revealed the transition of the dimerization manner of the ligand binding domains, from a widely spread to compactly organized state upon taste substance binding, which may correspond to distinct receptor functional states.

  18. Legume receptors perceive the rhizobial lipochitin oligosaccharide signal molecules by direct binding

    PubMed Central

    Broghammer, Angelique; Krusell, Lene; Blaise, Mickaël; Sauer, Jørgen; Sullivan, John T.; Maolanon, Nicolai; Vinther, Maria; Lorentzen, Andrea; Madsen, Esben B.; Jensen, Knud J.; Roepstorff, Peter; Thirup, Søren; Ronson, Clive W.; Thygesen, Mikkel B.; Stougaard, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Lipochitin oligosaccharides called Nod factors function as primary rhizobial signal molecules triggering legumes to develop new plant organs: root nodules that host the bacteria as nitrogen-fixing bacteroids. Here, we show that the Lotus japonicus Nod factor receptor 5 (NFR5) and Nod factor receptor 1 (NFR1) bind Nod factor directly at high-affinity binding sites. Both receptor proteins were posttranslationally processed when expressed as fusion proteins and extracted from purified membrane fractions of Nicotiana benthamiana or Arabidopsis thaliana. The N-terminal signal peptides were cleaved, and NFR1 protein retained its in vitro kinase activity. Processing of NFR5 protein was characterized by determining the N-glycosylation patterns of the ectodomain. Two different glycan structures with identical composition, Man3XylFucGlcNAc4, were identified by mass spectrometry and located at amino acid positions N68 and N198. Receptor–ligand interaction was measured by using ligands that were labeled or immobilized by application of chemoselective chemistry at the anomeric center. High-affinity ligand binding was demonstrated with both solid-phase and free solution techniques. The Kd values obtained for Nod factor binding were in the nanomolar range and comparable to the concentration range sufficient for biological activity. Structure-dependent ligand specificity was shown by using chitin oligosaccharides. Taken together, our results suggest that ligand recognition through direct ligand binding is a key step in the receptor-mediated activation mechanism leading to root nodule development in legumes. PMID:22859506

  19. In vivo receptor binding of opioid drugs at the mu site

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenbaum, J.S.; Holford, N.H.; Sadee, W.

    1985-06-01

    The in vivo receptor binding of a series of opioid drugs was investigated in intact rats after s.c. administration of (/sup 3/H)etorphine tracer, which selectively binds to mu sites in vivo. Receptor binding was determined by a membrane filtration assay immediately after sacrifice of the animals and brain homogenization. Coadministration of unlabeled opioid drugs together with tracer led to a dose-dependent decrease of in vivo tracer binding. Estimates of the doses required to occupy 50% of the mu sites in vivo established the following potency rank order: diprenorphine, naloxone, buprenorphine, etorphine, levallorphan, cyclazocine, sufentanil, nalorphine, ethylketocyclazocine, ketocyclazocine, pentazocine, morphine. In vivo-in vitro differences among the relative receptor binding potencies were only partially accounted for by differences in their access to the brain and the regulatory effects of Na+ and GTP, which are expected to reduce agonist affinities in vivo. The relationship among mu receptor occupancy in vivo and pharmacological effects of the opioid drugs is described.

  20. Structural adaptability in the ligand-binding pocket of the ecdysone hormone receptor.

    PubMed

    Billas, Isabelle M L; Iwema, Thomas; Garnier, Jean-Marie; Mitschler, André; Rochel, Natacha; Moras, Dino

    2003-11-06

    The ecdysteroid hormones coordinate the major stages of insect development, notably moulting and metamorphosis, by binding to the ecdysone receptor (EcR); a ligand-inducible nuclear transcription factor. To bind either ligand or DNA, EcR must form a heterodimer with ultraspiracle (USP), the homologue of retinoid-X receptor. Here we report the crystal structures of the ligand-binding domains of the moth Heliothis virescens EcR-USP heterodimer in complex with the ecdysteroid ponasterone A and with a non-steroidal, lepidopteran-specific agonist BYI06830 used in agrochemical pest control. The two structures of EcR-USP emphasize the universality of heterodimerization as a general mechanism common to both vertebrates and invertebrates. Comparison of the EcR structures in complex with steroidal and non-steroidal ligands reveals radically different and only partially overlapping ligand-binding pockets that could not be predicted by molecular modelling and docking studies. These findings offer new perspectives for the design of insect-specific, environmentally safe insecticides. The concept of a ligand-dependent binding pocket in EcR provides an insight into the moulding of nuclear receptors to their ligand, and has potential applications for human nuclear receptors.

  1. Differential effects of chronic lorazepam and alprazolam on benzodiazepine binding and GABAA-receptor function.

    PubMed Central

    Galpern, W. R.; Miller, L. G.; Greenblatt, D. J.; Shader, R. I.

    1990-01-01

    1. Chronic benzodiazepine administration has been associated with tolerance and with downregulation of gamma-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA)-receptor binding and function. However, effects of individual benzodiazepines on brain regions have varied. 2. To compare the effects of chronic lorazepam and alprazolam, we have administered these drugs to mice for 1 and 7 days (2 mg kg-1 day-1) and determined benzodiazepine receptor binding in vivo with and without administration of CL 218,872, 25 mg kg-1 i.p., and GABA-dependent chloride uptake in 3 brain regions at these time points. 3. Benzodiazepine binding was decreased in the cortex and hippocampus at day 7 compared to day 1 of lorazepam, with an increase in CL 218,872-resistant (Type 2) sites in both regions. Maximal GABA-dependent chloride uptake was also decreased in the cortex and hippocampus at day 7. 4. Binding was decreased only in the cortex after 7 days of alprazolam, with no significant change in Type 2 binding. Maximal GABA-dependent chloride uptake was also decreased only in the cortex. 5. These data suggest that the effects of chronic benzodiazepine administration on the GABAA-receptor may be both region-specific and receptor subtype-specific. PMID:1964820

  2. Binding of retinoic acid receptor heterodimers to DNA. A role for histones NH2 termini.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, P; Mouchon, A; Lefebvre, B; Formstecher, P

    1998-05-15

    The retinoic acid signaling pathway is controlled essentially through two types of nuclear receptors, RARs and RXRs. Ligand dependent activation or repression of retinoid-regulated genes is dependent on the binding of retinoic acid receptor (RAR)/9-cis-retinoic acid receptor (RXR) heterodimers to retinoic acid response element (RARE). Although unliganded RXR/RAR heterodimers bind constitutively to DNA in vitro, a clear in vivo ligand-dependent occupancy of the RARE present in the RARbeta2 gene promoter has been reported (Dey, A., Minucci, S., and Ozato, K. (1994) Mol. Cell. Biol. 14, 8191-8201). Nucleosomes are viewed as general repressors of the transcriptional machinery, in part by preventing the access of transcription factors to DNA. The ability of hRXRalpha/hRARalpha heterodimers to bind to a nucleosomal template in vitro has therefore been examined. The assembly of a fragment from the RARbeta2 gene promoter, which contains a canonical DR5 RARE, into a nucleosome core prevented hRXRalpha/hRARalpha binding to this DNA, in conditions where a strong interaction is observed with a linear DNA template. However, histone tails removal by limited proteolysis and histone hyperacetylation yielded nucleosomal RAREs able to bind to hRXRalpha/hRARalpha heterodimers. These data establish therefore the role of histones NH2 termini as a major impediment to retinoid receptors access to DNA, and identify histone hyperacetylation as a potential physiological regulator of retinoid-induced transcription.

  3. Structural Analysis on the Pathologic Mutant Glucocorticoid Receptor Ligand-Binding Domains

    PubMed Central

    Hurt, Darrell E.; Suzuki, Shigeru; Mayama, Takafumi; Charmandari, Evangelia

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene mutations may cause familial or sporadic generalized glucocorticoid resistance syndrome. Most of the missense forms distribute in the ligand-binding domain and impair its ligand-binding activity and formation of the activation function (AF)-2 that binds LXXLL motif-containing coactivators. We performed molecular dynamics simulations to ligand-binding domain of pathologic GR mutants to reveal their structural defects. Several calculated parameters including interaction energy for dexamethasone or the LXXLL peptide indicate that destruction of ligand-binding pocket (LBP) is a primary character. Their LBP defects are driven primarily by loss/reduction of the electrostatic interaction formed by R611 and T739 of the receptor to dexamethasone and a subsequent conformational mismatch, which deacylcortivazol resolves with its large phenylpyrazole moiety and efficiently stimulates transcriptional activity of the mutant receptors with LBP defect. Reduced affinity of the LXXLL peptide to AF-2 is caused mainly by disruption of the electrostatic bonds to the noncore leucine residues of this peptide that determine the peptide's specificity to GR, as well as by reduced noncovalent interaction against core leucines and subsequent exposure of the AF-2 surface to solvent. The results reveal molecular defects of pathologic mutant receptors and provide important insights to the actions of wild-type GR. PMID:26745667

  4. Principal pathway coupling agonist binding to channel gating in nicotinic receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Won Yong; Sine, Steven M.

    2005-11-01

    Synaptic receptors respond to neurotransmitters by opening an intrinsic ion channel in the final step in synaptic transmission. How binding of the neurotransmitter is conveyed over the long distance to the channel remains a central question in neurobiology. Here we delineate a principal pathway that links neurotransmitter binding to channel gating by using a structural model of the Torpedo acetylcholine receptor at 4-Å resolution, recordings of currents through single receptor channels and determinations of energetic coupling between pairs of residues. We show that a pair of invariant arginine and glutamate residues in each receptor α-subunit electrostatically links peripheral and inner β-sheets from the binding domain and positions them to engage with the channel. The key glutamate and flanking valine residues energetically couple to conserved proline and serine residues emerging from the top of the channel-forming α-helix, suggesting that this is the point at which the binding domain triggers opening of the channel. The series of interresidue couplings identified here constitutes a primary allosteric pathway that links neurotransmitter binding to channel gating.

  5. Tension-compression asymmetry in the binding affinity of membrane-anchored receptors and ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guang-Kui; Liu, Zishun; Feng, Xi-Qiao; Gao, Huajian

    2016-03-01

    Cell adhesion plays a crucial role in many biological processes of cells, e.g., immune responses, tissue morphogenesis, and stem cell differentiation. An essential problem in the molecular mechanism of cell adhesion is to characterize the binding affinity of membrane-anchored receptors and ligands under different physiological conditions. In this paper, a theoretical model is presented to study the binding affinity between a large number of anchored receptors and ligands under both tensile and compressive stresses, and corroborated by demonstrating excellent agreement with Monte Carlo simulations. It is shown that the binding affinity becomes lower as the magnitude of the applied stress increases, and drops to zero at a critical tensile or compressive stress. Interestingly, the critical compressive stress is found to be substantially smaller than the critical tensile stress for relatively long and flexible receptor-ligand complexes. This counterintuitive finding is explained by using the Euler instability theory of slender columns under compression. The tension-compression asymmetry in the binding affinity of anchored receptors and ligands depends subtly on the competition between the breaking and instability of their complexes. This study helps in understanding the role of mechanical forces in cell adhesion mediated by specific binding molecules.

  6. Characterization of the Binding Site of Aspartame in the Human Sweet Taste Receptor.

    PubMed

    Maillet, Emeline L; Cui, Meng; Jiang, Peihua; Mezei, Mihaly; Hecht, Elizabeth; Quijada, Jeniffer; Margolskee, Robert F; Osman, Roman; Max, Marianna

    2015-10-01

    The sweet taste receptor, a heterodimeric G protein-coupled receptor comprised of T1R2 and T1R3, binds sugars, small molecule sweeteners, and sweet proteins to multiple binding sites. The dipeptide sweetener, aspartame binds in the Venus Flytrap Module (VFTM) of T1R2. We developed homology models of the open and closed forms of human T1R2 and human T1R3 VFTMs and their dimers and then docked aspartame into the closed form of T1R2's VFTM. To test and refine the predictions of our model, we mutated various T1R2 VFTM residues, assayed activity of the mutants and identified 11 critical residues (S40, Y103, D142, S144, S165, S168, Y215, D278, E302, D307, and R383) in and proximal to the binding pocket of the sweet taste receptor that are important for ligand recognition and activity of aspartame. Furthermore, we propose that binding is dependent on 2 water molecules situated in the ligand pocket that bridge 2 carbonyl groups of aspartame to residues D142 and L279. These results shed light on the activation mechanism and how signal transmission arising from the extracellular domain of the T1R2 monomer of the sweet receptor leads to the perception of sweet taste.

  7. Alterations in alpha-adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptor binding in rat brain following nonionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gandhi, V.C.; Ross, D.H.

    1987-01-01

    Microwave radiation produces hyperthermia. The mammalian thermoregulatory system defends against changes in temperature by mobilizing diverse control mechanisms. Neurotransmitters play a major role in eliciting thermoregulatory responses. The involvement of adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors was investigated in radiation-induced hyperthermia. Rats were subjected to radiation at 700 MHz frequency and 15 mW/cm/sup 2/ power density and the body temperature was raised by 2.5 degrees C. Of six brain regions investigated only the hypothalamus showed significant changes in receptor states, confirming its pivotal role in thermoregulation. Adrenergic receptors, studied by (/sup 3/H)clonidine binding, showed a 36% decrease in binding following radiation after a 2.5 degrees C increase in body temperature, suggesting a mechanism to facilitate norepinephrine release. Norepinephrine may be speculated to maintain thermal homeostasis by activating heat dissipation. Muscarinic cholinergic receptors, studied by (3H)quinuclidinyl benzilate binding, showed a 65% increase in binding at the onset of radiation. This may be attributed to the release of acetylcholine in the hypothalamus in response to heat cumulation. The continued elevated binding during the period of cooling after radiation was shut off may suggest the existence of an extra-hypothalamic heat-loss pathway.

  8. Tension-compression asymmetry in the binding affinity of membrane-anchored receptors and ligands.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guang-Kui; Liu, Zishun; Feng, Xi-Qiao; Gao, Huajian

    2016-03-01

    Cell adhesion plays a crucial role in many biological processes of cells, e.g., immune responses, tissue morphogenesis, and stem cell differentiation. An essential problem in the molecular mechanism of cell adhesion is to characterize the binding affinity of membrane-anchored receptors and ligands under different physiological conditions. In this paper, a theoretical model is presented to study the binding affinity between a large number of anchored receptors and ligands under both tensile and compressive stresses, and corroborated by demonstrating excellent agreement with Monte Carlo simulations. It is shown that the binding affinity becomes lower as the magnitude of the applied stress increases, and drops to zero at a critical tensile or compressive stress. Interestingly, the critical compressive stress is found to be substantially smaller than the critical tensile stress for relatively long and flexible receptor-ligand complexes. This counterintuitive finding is explained by using the Euler instability theory of slender columns under compression. The tension-compression asymmetry in the binding affinity of anchored receptors and ligands depends subtly on the competition between the breaking and instability of their complexes. This study helps in understanding the role of mechanical forces in cell adhesion mediated by specific binding molecules.

  9. Characterization of the Binding Site of Aspartame in the Human Sweet Taste Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Maillet, Emeline L.; Cui, Meng; Jiang, Peihua; Mezei, Mihaly; Hecht, Elizabeth; Quijada, Jeniffer; Osman, Roman; Max, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    The sweet taste receptor, a heterodimeric G protein-coupled receptor comprised of T1R2 and T1R3, binds sugars, small molecule sweeteners, and sweet proteins to multiple binding sites. The dipeptide sweetener, aspartame binds in the Venus Flytrap Module (VFTM) of T1R2. We developed homology models of the open and closed forms of human T1R2 and human T1R3 VFTMs and their dimers and then docked aspartame into the closed form of T1R2’s VFTM. To test and refine the predictions of our model, we mutated various T1R2 VFTM residues, assayed activity of the mutants and identified 11 critical residues (S40, Y103, D142, S144, S165, S168, Y215, D278, E302, D307, and R383) in and proximal to the binding pocket of the sweet taste receptor that are important for ligand recognition and activity of aspartame. Furthermore, we propose that binding is dependent on 2 water molecules situated in the ligand pocket that bridge 2 carbonyl groups of aspartame to residues D142 and L279. These results shed light on the activation mechanism and how signal transmission arising from the extracellular domain of the T1R2 monomer of the sweet receptor leads to the perception of sweet taste. PMID:26377607

  10. Selectivity in progesterone and androgen receptor binding of progestagens used in oral contraceptives

    SciTech Connect

    Kloosterboer, H.J.; Vonk-Noordegraaf, C.A.; Turpijn, E.W.

    1988-09-01

    The relative binding affinities (RBAs) of four progestational compounds (norethisterone, levonorgestrel, 3-keto-desogestrel and gestodene) for the human progesterone and androgen receptors were measured in MCF-7 cytosol and intact MCF-7 cells. For the binding to the progesterone receptor, both Org 2058 and Org 3236 (or 3-keto-desogestrel) were used as labelled ligands. The following ranking (low to high) for the RBA of the nuclear (intact cells) progesterone receptor irrespective of the ligand used is found: norethisterone much less than levonorgestrel less than 3-keto-destogestrel less than gestodene. The difference between the various progestagens is significant with the exception of that between 3-keto-desogestrel and gestodene, when Org 2058 is used as ligand. For the cytosolic progesterone receptor, the same order is found with the exception that similar RBAs are found for gestodene and 3-keto-desogestrel. The four progestagens clearly differ with respect to binding to the androgen receptor using dihydrotestosterone as labelled ligand in intact cells; the ranking (low to high) is: norethisterone less than 3 keto-desogestrel less than levonorgestrel and gestodene. The difference between 3-keto-desogestrel and levonorgestrel or gestodene is significant. The selectivity indices (ratio of the mean RBA for the progesterone receptor to that of androgen receptor) in intact cells are significantly higher for 3-keto-desogestrel and gestodene than for levonorgestrel and norethisterone. From these results we conclude that the introduction of the 18-methyl in norethisterone (levonorgestel) increases both the binding to the progesterone and androgen receptors.

  11. Importin {beta}-type nuclear transport receptors have distinct binding affinities for Ran-GTP

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, Silvia; Schlenstedt, Gabriel

    2011-03-18

    Highlights: {yields} Determination of binding properties of nuclear transport receptor/Ran-GTP complexes. {yields} Biosensor measurements provide constants for dissociation, on-rates, and off-rates. {yields} The affinity of receptors for Ran-GTP is widely divergent. {yields} Dissociation constants differ for three orders of magnitude. {yields} The cellular concentration of yeast Ran is not limiting. -- Abstract: Cargos destined to enter or leave the cell nucleus are typically transported by receptors of the importin {beta} family to pass the nuclear pore complex. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae comprises 14 members of this protein family, which can be divided in importins and exportins. The Ran GTPase regulates the association and dissociation of receptors and cargos as well as the transport direction through the nuclear pore. All receptors bind to Ran exclusively in its GTP-bound state and this event is restricted to the nuclear compartment. We determined the Ran-GTP binding properties of all yeast transport receptors by biosensor measurements and observed that the affinity of importins for Ran-GTP differs significantly. The dissociation constants range from 230 pM to 270 nM, which is mostly based on a variability of the off-rate constants. The divergent affinity of importins for Ran-GTP suggests the existence of a novel mode of nucleocytoplasmic transport regulation. Furthermore, the cellular concentration of {beta}-receptors and of other Ran-binding proteins was determined. We found that the number of {beta}-receptors altogether about equals the amounts of yeast Ran, but Ran-GTP is not limiting in the nucleus. The implications of our results for nucleocytoplasmic transport mechanisms are discussed.

  12. Insulin Mimetic Peptide Disrupts the Primary Binding Site of the Insulin Receptor.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Callum F; Margetts, Mai B; Menting, John G; Smith, Nicholas A; Smith, Brian J; Ward, Colin W; Lawrence, Michael C

    2016-07-22

    Sets of synthetic peptides that interact with the insulin receptor ectodomain have been discovered by phage display and reported in the literature. These peptides were grouped into three classes termed Site 1, Site 2, and Site 3 based on their mutual competition of binding to the receptor. Further refinement has yielded, in particular, a 36-residue Site 2-Site 1 fusion peptide, S519, that binds the insulin receptor with subnanomolar affinity and exhibits agonist activity in both lipogenesis and glucose uptake assays. Here, we report three-dimensional crystallographic detail of the interaction of the C-terminal, 16-residue Site 1 component (S519C16) of S519 with the first leucine-rich repeat domain (L1) of the insulin receptor. Our structure shows that S519C16 binds to the same site on the L1 surface as that occupied by a critical component of the primary binding site, namely the helical C-terminal segment of the insulin receptor α-chain (termed αCT). In particular, the two phenylalanine residues within the FYXWF motif of S519C16 are seen to engage the insulin receptor L1 domain surface in a fashion almost identical to the respective αCT residues Phe(701) and Phe(705) The structure provides a platform for the further development of peptidic and/or small molecule agents directed toward the insulin receptor and/or the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Binding properties of alpha-1 adrenergic receptors in rat cerebral cortex: similarity to smooth muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Minneman, K.P.

    1983-12-01

    The characteristics of alpha-1 adrenergic receptors in rat cerebral cortex were examined using the radioiodinated alpha-1 adrenergic receptor antagonist ((/sup 125/I)BE). (/sup 125/I)BE labeled a single class of high-affinity binding sites in a particulate fraction of rat cerebral cortex with mass action kinetics and a KD of 57 pM. The binding of (/sup 125/I)BE was inhibited by various alpha adrenergic receptor antagonists, partial agonists and full agonists. The potency of these compounds in competing for the (/sup 125/I)BE binding sites suggested that (/sup 125/I)BE was labeling alpha-1 adrenergic receptors in rat cerebral cortex. In the absence of a physiological concentration of NaCl in the assay medium there was a small (20%) decrease in the density of (/sup 125/I)BE binding sites with no effect on the KD value. The absence of NaCl also caused a 4-fold increase in the potency of norepinephrine in competing for (/sup 125/I)BE binding sites. All drugs competed for (/sup 125/I) BE binding sites with Hill coefficients greater than 0.86, except for oxymetazoline which had a Hill coefficient of 0.77. Scatchard analysis of specific (/sup 125/I)BE binding in the presence of various competing drugs showed that the inhibition by both agonists and antagonists was purely competitive, but the inhibition by oxymetazoline was complex. Treatment of the particulate fraction of rat cerebral cortex with 0.2 to 200 nM phenoxybenzamine for 10 min caused a dose-dependent decrease in the density of (/sup 125/I) BE binding sites which could be mostly blocked by the presence of norepinephrine during the phenoxybenzamine exposure.

  14. Receptors for vasoactive intestinal peptide in rat anterior pituitary glands: Localization of binding to lactotropes

    SciTech Connect

    Wanke, I.E.; Rorstad, O.P. )

    1990-04-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) has been implicated as a physiological PRL-releasing factor; however, characterization of VIP receptors on normal pituitaries using radioligand-binding methods has been problematic. In this study we demonstrated specific receptors for VIP in anterior pituitary glands of female rats using HPLC-purified monoiodinated (Tyr(125I)10)VIP. Binding of VIP was reversible, saturable to receptor and radioligand, regulated by guanine nucleotides, and dependent on time and temperature. Scatchard analysis of competitive binding studies indicated high and low affinity binding sites, with equilibrium dissociation constants (Kd) of 0.19 +/- 0.03 and 28 +/- 16 nM, respectively. The corresponding maximum numbers of binding sites were 158 +/- 34 fmol/mg and 11.7 +/- 6.9 pmol/mg. Binding was specific, as peptides with structural homology to VIP were less than 100th as potent as VIP. The rank order of potency of the peptides tested was VIP greater than rat (r) peptide histidine isoleucine = human (h) PHI greater than rGRF greater than bovine GRF = porcine PHI = VIP-(10-28) greater than hGRF greater than secretin greater than apamin greater than glucagon. Radioligand binding was associated primarily with lactotrope-enriched fractions prepared by unit gravity sedimentation of dispersed anterior pituitary cells. VIP stimulated PRL release from cultured rat anterior pituitary cells, with an ED50 of 1 nM. These results, comprising the first identification of specific VIP receptors in normal rat anterior pituitary tissue using radioligand-binding methods, provide additional support for a biological role of VIP in lactotrope function.

  15. Transferrin Binding to Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes Activated by Phytohemagglutinin Involves a Specific Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Galbraith, Robert M.; Werner, Phillip; Arnaud, Philippe; Galbraith, Gillian M. P.

    1980-01-01

    Immunohistological studies have indicated that membrane sites binding transferrin are present upon activated human peripheral blood lymphocytes. In this study, we have investigated transferrin uptake in human lymphocytes exposed to phytohemagglutinin (PHA), by quantitative radiobinding and immunofluorescence in parallel. In stimulated lymphocytes, binding was maximal after a 30-min incubation, being greatest at 37°C, and greater at 22°C than at 4°C. Although some shedding and endocytosis of transferrin occurred at 22° and 37°C, these factors, and resulting synthesis of new sites, did not affect measurement of binding which was found to be saturable, reversible, and specific for transferrin (Ka 0.5-2.5 × 108 M−1). Binding was greater after a 48-h exposure to PHA than after 24 h, and was maximal at 66 h. Sequential Scatchard analysis revealed no significant elevation in affinity of interaction. However, although the total number of receptors increased, the proportion of cells in which binding of ligand was detected immunohistologically increased in parallel, and after appropriate correction, the cellular density of receptors remained relatively constant throughout (60,000-80,000 sites/cell). Increments in binding during the culture period were thus due predominantly to expansion of a population of cells bearing receptors. Similar differences in binding were apparent upon comparison of cells cultured in different doses of PHA, and in unstimulated cells binding was negligible. Transferrin receptors appear, therefore, to be readily detectable only upon lymphocytes that have been activated. Images PMID:6253523

  16. Insulin and epidermal growth factor receptors in rat liver after administration of the hepatocarcinogen 2-acetylaminofluorene: ligand binding and autophosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, D.L.; Roitman, A.; Carr, B.I.; Barseghian, G.; Lev-Ran, A.

    1986-04-01

    The livers of male F344 rats which were fed 0.02% 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) for two days or more had decreased binding of insulin and epidermal growth factor (EGF) to their hepatic receptors in microsomal and Golgi fractions. Hepatic receptors which were partially purified from carcinogen-fed rats by Triton X-100 solubilization and wheat germ agglutinin affinity column chromatography also had decreased binding activity compared to receptors from normal rats. Scatchard analysis indicated that the decrease in insulin receptor binding was due to decreased receptor number whereas the change in EGF receptor binding was attributed to decreased receptor affinity. Insulin receptor phosphokinase activity was also decreased in 2-AAF-fed rats and correlated with the decrease in receptor binding. EGF receptor phosphokinase activity was unchanged in 2-AAF-fed rats when stimulated with a high concentration (1 microM) of EGF but was decreased when stimulated with low concentrations (0.01-0.1 microM) of EGF. No EGF or insulin competing activity for receptor binding was found using acid-ethanol extracts of 2-AAF-altered liver. These results suggest that 2-AAF causes different alterations in the insulin and EGF receptors of the rat liver.

  17. Allosteric antagonist binding sites in class B GPCRs: corticotropin receptor 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Supriyo; Subramanian, Govindan; Hall, Spencer; Lin, Jianping; Laoui, Abdelazize; Vaidehi, Nagarajan

    2010-08-01

    The 41 amino acid neuropeptide, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and its associated receptors CRF1-R and CRF2-R have been targeted for treating stress related disorders. Both CRF1-R and CRF2-R belong to the class B G-protein coupled receptors for which little information is known regarding the small molecule antagonist binding characteristics. However, it has been shown recently that different non-peptide allosteric ligands stabilize different receptor conformations for CRF1-R and hence an understanding of the ligand induced receptor conformational changes is important in the pharmacology of ligand binding. In this study, we modeled the receptor and identified the binding sites of representative small molecule allosteric antagonists for CRF1-R. The predicted binding sites of the investigated compounds are located within the transmembrane (TM) domain encompassing TM helices 3, 5 and 6. The docked compounds show strong interactions with H228 on TM3 and M305 on TM5 that have also been implicated in the binding by site directed mutation studies. H228 forms a hydrogen bond of varied strengths with all the antagonists in this study and this is in agreement with the decreased binding affinity of several compounds with H228F mutation. Also mutating M305 to Ile showed a sharp decrease in the calculated binding energy whereas the binding energy loss on M305 to Leu was less significant. These results are in qualitative agreement with the decrease in binding affinities observed experimentally. We further predicted the conformational changes in CRF1-R induced by the allosteric antagonist NBI-27914. Movement of TM helices 3 and 5 are dominant and generates three degenerate conformational states two of which are separated by an energy barrier from the third, when bound to NBI-27914. Binding of NBI-27914 was predicted to improve the interaction of the ligand with M305 and also enhanced the aromatic stacking between the ligand and F232 on TM3. A virtual ligand screening of 13

  18. Development of brainstem 5-HT1A receptor-binding sites in serotonin-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Massey, Caitlin A; Kim, Gloria; Corcoran, Andrea E; Haynes, Robin L; Paterson, David S; Cummings, Kevin J; Dymecki, Susan M; Richerson, George B; Nattie, Eugene E; Kinney, Hannah C; Commons, Kathryn G

    2013-09-01

    The sudden infant death syndrome is associated with a reduction in brainstem serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5-HT(1A) receptor binding, yet it is unknown if and how these findings are linked. In this study, we used quantitative tissue autoradiography to determine if post-natal development of brainstem 5-HT(1A)