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Sample records for beach isopod excirolana

  1. Biogeographic patterns in life history traits of the Pan-American sandy beach isopod Excirolana braziliensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso, Ricardo S.; Defeo, Omar

    2004-11-01

    Biogeographic patterns in life history traits of the Pan-American sandy beach isopod Excirolana braziliensis were analyzed to determine latitudinal variations along its distribution, from tropical (9°N) to temperate (39°S) sandy beaches in Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Population features exhibited systematic geographical patterns of variation: (1) an increase in individual sizes and growth rates towards temperate beaches, following an inverse relationship with mean water temperature of the surf zone; (2) a shift from almost continuous to seasonal growth from subtropical to temperate Atlantic beaches and a positive relationship between amplitude of intra-annual growth oscillations and temperature range; (3) a linear decrease in life span and an increase in natural mortality from temperate to subtropical beaches; and (4) an increase in the individual mass-at-size (length-mass relationship) from subtropical to temperate beaches. Analyses discriminated by sex were consistent with the patterns illustrated above. Local effects of temperature and beach morphodynamics are discussed. Our results demonstrate that the population dynamics of E. braziliensis is highly plastic over latitudinal gradients, with large-scale variations in temperature and concurrent environmental variables leading to an adjustment of the phenotype-environment relationship.

  2. Reproductive biology of the isopod Excirolana braziliensis at the southern edge of its geographical range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Gastón; Defeo, Omar

    2006-12-01

    A full analysis of the reproductive biology of the isopod Excirolana braziliensis Richardson 1912 was conducted in a sandy beach of Uruguay, located at the southernmost edge of its distributional range in the Atlantic Ocean. Reproductive and recruitment periods of E. braziliensis were concentrated in austral summer. Females with oostegites appeared in November, whereas total biomass, individual sizes and fecundity of ovigerous females peaked between December and January. These concurrent traits were responsible for the significant peak of juveniles in January. The size at maturity was 9.88 mm. Four embryonic developmental stages were described and identified: mean length linearly increased from stages I to III, whereas dry weight exponentially decreased from stages I to IV. The high reproductive output (0.41-0.58), reported for the first time in this isopod, exceeds the rates documented for other isopods. Reproduction of E. braziliensis at the southern edge of its range is semelparous: females produce one brood during the reproductive season, exhaust their energy reserves during incubation, and probably die at the end of the reproductive season. A macroscale comparison suggests that E. braziliensis at the southern edge of its range counteracts its narrow reproductive period by a short incubation period with larger individual mature female and embryo sizes, higher fecundity and a higher percentage of ovigerous females than in subtropical and tropical populations. These extreme reproductive indicators could be attributed to the internal retention of embryos that assures offspring survival, coupled with a high adaptation capability to environmental variations across its range.

  3. Production of Excirolana armata (Dana, 1853) (Isopoda, Cirolanidae) on an exposed sandy beach in southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petracco, Marcelo; Cardoso, Ricardo Silva; Turra, Alexander; Corbisier, Thais Navajas

    2012-09-01

    The somatic and gonad productions of the cirolanid isopod Excirolana armata were analyzed by taking monthly samples from December 2003 to November 2005 on Una beach, São Paulo state (24°S), southeastern Brazil. Sampling was performed along three fixed transects established from the base of the foredunes to the waterline. Weight-specific growth rate was used to estimate the E. armata somatic production for 2004 and 2005, separately. The gonad production was estimated based on the monthly reproductive potential (mean number of eggs/embryos per female × monthly abundance of ovigerous females with near-release broods) for 2004. The annual somatic production of E. armata population varied from 15.57 to 17.25 g AFDW m-1 year-1 and the somatic production/biomass ratio ( P s/ B) from 3.55 to 3.14 year-1 for 2004 and 2005, respectively. The P s/ B ratios were higher for males (4.02 and 3.19 year-1 for 2004 and 2005) than for females (3.10 year-1 for both years). The annual gonad production ( P g = 1.07 g AFDW m-1 year-1) contributed about 15 and 6% to the total production ( P s + P g) of females and the population, respectively. The proportion of gonad to somatic production of females ( P g/ P s) increased with individual size (ca 90% in the 7.5 mm size class), and the annual weight-specific gonad production ( P g/ B ratio) was estimated to 0.24 year-1. The high P s/ B ratios estimated for E. armata derive from the fast growth of individuals and show the importance of this population to the energy flow on Una beach ecosystem. However, the low percentage of juveniles verified in this population and in other studies of populations of the genus Excirolana is discussed as an important source of underestimation of P s/ B ratio.

  4. Biotope and biology of Armadillidium album Dollfuss, a terrestrial isopod of sandy beaches, in the SW Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vader, Wim; De Wolf, Lein

    The supralittoral isopod Armadillidium album Dollfus is common, although patchily distributed, under driftwood on the foreshore of broad sandy beaches on the outer coast of the Delta area in the SW Netherlands. The isopods are very tolerant of immersion in seawater, but are nevertheless confined to a narrow zone just above normal spring tides. A. album is a sexually reproducing isopod, with a single well-defined reproductive period in summer and a lifespan of two years. In spite of its very specialized biotope, the life cycle and reproductive strategy of A. album do not deviate substantially from those of related ubiquitous terrestrial isopods.

  5. Wolbachia in Neotropical terrestrial isopods.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Bianca L; Bouchon, Didier; Almerão, Maurício P; Araujo, Paula B

    2015-04-01

    Despite Wolbachia being widespread among terrestrial isopods, studies on this symbiotic relationship are still incipient in the Neotropical region. The aims of the present study were to investigate the presence and prevalence of Wolbachia in natural populations of terrestrial isopod species in South America, and to analyze the diversity and phylogenetic relationships of Wolbachia strains. A total of 1172 individuals representing 11 families and 35 species were analyzed. We observed distinct evolutionary scenarios according to the geographical origins of the species: strains harbored by most of the introduced species belong to the Oniclade in supergroup B and are identical to those found in their original ecozone (i.e. Palearctic). On the other hand, the strains found in native Neotropical terrestrial isopods showed low prevalence, high diversity and none of them belonged to the Oniclade, although most belonged to supergroup B. The dynamics of infection in Neotropical species seems to be the result of several events of loss and acquisition of the bacteria, which refutes the hypothesis of an ancestral acquisition of Wolbachia in Oniscidea. The presence of strains from supergroups A and F was also detected for the first time in terrestrial isopods, revealing a Wolbachia diversity previously unknown for this group of host.

  6. Long or short? Investigating the effect of beach length and other environmental parameters on macrofaunal assemblages of Maltese pocket beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deidun, A.; Schembri, P. J.

    2008-08-01

    Despite numerous published studies that have evaluated the influence of different physical parameters, including beach slope, sediment organic content and grain size, on beach macrofaunal assemblages, very few studies have investigated the influence of beach length on biotic attributes of the same assemblages. Four beaches on the Maltese Islands were sampled using pitfall traps at night for eight consecutive seasons during 2001-2003. Macrofaunal collections were dominated by arthropods, mostly isopods (especially Tylos europaeus) and tenebrionid beetles (especially Phaleria spp.). The environmental variables of beach slope, exposure to wave action, sediment organic content, mean particle diameter, log beach length, beach width and the beach deposit index (BDI) were regressed against a number of biotic parameters, including log individual abundance, total species, Shannon-Wiener ( H') diversity index value and the psammophilic fraction of the total species collected, whilst BIO-ENV and NMDS were used to identify the physical parameter which could best explain observed biotic patterns. RELATE was used to assess the long-term persistence of macrofaunal assemblages on beaches of different lengths. Results from this study suggest that, whilst the influence of beach length and beach width on individual abundance and total species number is unimportant, these 'beach-area' parameters may affect the taxonomic composition of a beach assemblage, mainly in terms of the psammophilic fraction of assemblages, as well as the permanence of macrofaunal assemblages on a beach. Shorter and narrower beaches were found to be more prone to sporadic and random events of colonisation by euryoecious species. In the absence of human disturbance and mass mortality events, beaches of limited dimensions can still maintain stable macrofaunal assemblages. Individual abundance and total species number could not be related to a single or small suite of physical parameters. The study further

  7. Local extirpations and regional declines of endemic upper beach invertebrates in southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, D. M.; Dugan, J. E.; Schooler, N. K.; Viola, S. M.

    2014-10-01

    Along the world's highly valued and populous coastlines, the upper intertidal zones of sandy beach ecosystems and the biodiversity that these zones support are increasingly threatened by impacts of human activities, coastal development, erosion, and climate change. The upper zones of beaches typically support invertebrates with restricted distributions and dispersal, making them particularly vulnerable to habitat loss and fragmentation. We hypothesized that disproportionate loss or degradation of these zones in the last century has resulted in declines of upper shore macroinvertebrates in southern California. We identified a suite of potentially vulnerable endemic upper beach invertebrates with direct development, low dispersal and late reproduction. Based on the availability of printed sources and museum specimens, we investigated historical changes in distribution and abundance of two intertidal isopod species (Tylos punctatus, Alloniscus perconvexus) in southern California. Populations of these isopods have been extirpated at numerous historically occupied sites: T. punctatus from 16 sites (57% decrease), and A. perconvexus from 14 sites (64% decrease). During the same period, we found evidence of only five colonization events. In addition, the northern range limit of the southern species, T. punctatus, moved south by 31 km (8% of range on California mainland) since 1971. Abundances of T. punctatus have declined on the mainland coast; only three recently sampled populations had abundances >7000 individuals m-1. For A. perconvexus populations, abundances >100 individuals m-1 now appear to be limited to the northern part of the study area. Our results show that numerous local extirpations of isopod populations have resulted in regional declines and in greatly reduced population connectivity in several major littoral cells of southern California. Two of the six major littoral cells (Santa Barbara and Zuma) in the area currently support 74% of the remaining isopod

  8. Patterns of taxonomic diversity among terrestrial isopods.

    PubMed

    Sfenthourakis, Spyros; Taiti, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    The publication of the world catalog of terrestrial isopods some ten years ago by Schmalfuss has facilitated research on isopod diversity patterns at a global scale. Furthermore, even though we still lack a comprehensive and robust phylogeny of Oniscidea, we do have some useful approaches to phylogenetic relationships among major clades which can offer additional insights into isopod evolutionary dynamics. Taxonomic diversity is one of many approaches to biodiversity and, despite its sensitiveness to biases in taxonomic practice, has proved useful in exploring diversification dynamics of various taxa. In the present work, we attempt an analysis of taxonomic diversity patterns among Oniscidea based on an updated world list of species containing 3,710 species belonging to 527 genera and 37 families (data till April 2014). The analysis explores species diversity at the genus and family level, as well as the relationships between species per genera, species per families, and genera per families. In addition, we consider the structure of isopod taxonomic system under the fractal perspective that has been proposed as a measure of a taxon's diversification. Finally, we check whether there is any phylogenetic signal behind taxonomic diversity patterns. The results can be useful in a more detailed elaboration of Oniscidea systematics.

  9. Bacteriophage WO in Wolbachia infecting terrestrial isopods.

    PubMed

    Braquart-Varnier, Christine; Grève, Pierre; Félix, Christine; Martin, Gilbert

    2005-11-18

    Wolbachia are maternally inherited intracellular alpha-proteobacteria that infect a wide range of arthropods. They are associated with a number of different reproductive phenotypes in arthropods and nematodes. In isopod crustacean, Wolbachia are responsible for feminization of genetic males in many species, and for cytoplasmic incompatibility in two species. In this paper, we report the first detection of phage WO from Wolbachia infecting terrestrial isopods. All Wolbachia strains tested in this study were infected with phage WO. Based on the orf7 phage sequence, we identified three different phage sequences in four Wolbachia strains. The phage of Wolbachia infecting Armadillidium vulgare seems to be not active, unlike other phages WO previously described in arthropods. PMID:16198306

  10. Bacteriophage WO in Wolbachia infecting terrestrial isopods.

    PubMed

    Braquart-Varnier, Christine; Grève, Pierre; Félix, Christine; Martin, Gilbert

    2005-11-18

    Wolbachia are maternally inherited intracellular alpha-proteobacteria that infect a wide range of arthropods. They are associated with a number of different reproductive phenotypes in arthropods and nematodes. In isopod crustacean, Wolbachia are responsible for feminization of genetic males in many species, and for cytoplasmic incompatibility in two species. In this paper, we report the first detection of phage WO from Wolbachia infecting terrestrial isopods. All Wolbachia strains tested in this study were infected with phage WO. Based on the orf7 phage sequence, we identified three different phage sequences in four Wolbachia strains. The phage of Wolbachia infecting Armadillidium vulgare seems to be not active, unlike other phages WO previously described in arthropods.

  11. Burrowing inhibition by fine textured beach fill: Implications for recovery of beach ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viola, Sloane M.; Hubbard, David M.; Dugan, Jenifer E.; Schooler, Nicholas K.

    2014-10-01

    Beach nourishment is often considered the most environmentally sound method of maintaining eroding shorelines. However, the ecological consequences are poorly understood. Fill activities cause intense disturbance and high mortality and have the potential to alter the diversity, abundance, and distribution of intertidal macroinvertebrates for months to years. Ecological recovery following fill activities depends on successful recolonization and recruitment of the entire sandy intertidal community. The use of incompatible sediments as fill material can strongly affect ecosystem recovery. We hypothesized that burrowing inhibition of intertidal animals by incompatible fine fill sediments contributes to ecological impacts and limits recovery in beach ecosystems. We experimentally investigated the influence of intertidal zone and burrowing mode on responses of beach invertebrates to altered sediment texture (28-38% fines), and ultimately the potential for colonization and recovery of beaches disturbed by beach filling. Using experimental trials in fill material and natural beach sand, we found that the mismatched fine fill sediments significantly inhibited burrowing of characteristic species from all intertidal zones, including sand crabs, clams, polychaetes, isopods, and talitrid amphipods. Burrowing performance of all five species we tested was consistently reduced in the fill material and burrowing was completely inhibited for several species. The threshold for burrowing inhibition by fine sediment content in middle and lower beach macroinvertebrates varied by species, with highest sensitivity for the polychaete (4% fines, below the USA regulatory limit of 10% fines), followed by sand crabs and clams (20% fines). These results suggest broader investigation of thresholds for burrowing inhibition in fine fill material is needed for beach animals. Burrowing inhibition caused by mismatched fill sediments exposes beach macroinvertebrates to stresses, which could depress

  12. Pathogenic effect of entomopathogenic nematode-bacterium complexes on terrestrial isopods.

    PubMed

    Sicard, Mathieu; Raimond, Maryline; Prats, Olivier; Lafitte, Alexandra; Braquart-Varnier, Christine

    2008-09-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effect of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) Steinernema carpocapsae, Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, symbiotically associated with bacteria of the genera Xenorhabdus or Photorhabdus, on the survival of eight terrestrial isopod species. The EPN species S. carpocapsae and H. bacteriophora reduced the survival of six isopod species while S. feltiae reduced survival for two species. Two terrestrial isopod species tested (Armadillidium vulgare and Armadillo officinalis) were found not to be affected by treatment with EPNs while the six other isopod species showed survival reduction with at least one EPN species. By using aposymbiotic S. carpocapsae (i.e. without Xenorhabdus symbionts), we showed that nematodes can be isopod pathogens on their own. Nevertheless, symbiotic nematodes were more pathogenic for isopods than aposymbiotic ones showing that bacteria acted synergistically with their nematodes to kill isopods. By direct injection of entomopathogenic bacteria into isopod hemolymph, we showed that bacteria had a pathogenic effect on terrestrial isopods even if they appeared unable to multiply within isopod hemolymphs. A developmental study of EPNs in isopods showed that two of them (S. carpocapsae and H. bacteriophora) were able to develop while S. feltiae could not. No EPN species were able to produce offspring emerging from isopods. We conclude that EPN and their bacteria can be pathogens for terrestrial isopods but that such hosts represent a reproductive dead-end for them. Thus, terrestrial isopods appear not to be alternative hosts for EPN populations maintained in the absence of insects. PMID:18346756

  13. Pathogenic effect of entomopathogenic nematode-bacterium complexes on terrestrial isopods.

    PubMed

    Sicard, Mathieu; Raimond, Maryline; Prats, Olivier; Lafitte, Alexandra; Braquart-Varnier, Christine

    2008-09-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effect of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) Steinernema carpocapsae, Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, symbiotically associated with bacteria of the genera Xenorhabdus or Photorhabdus, on the survival of eight terrestrial isopod species. The EPN species S. carpocapsae and H. bacteriophora reduced the survival of six isopod species while S. feltiae reduced survival for two species. Two terrestrial isopod species tested (Armadillidium vulgare and Armadillo officinalis) were found not to be affected by treatment with EPNs while the six other isopod species showed survival reduction with at least one EPN species. By using aposymbiotic S. carpocapsae (i.e. without Xenorhabdus symbionts), we showed that nematodes can be isopod pathogens on their own. Nevertheless, symbiotic nematodes were more pathogenic for isopods than aposymbiotic ones showing that bacteria acted synergistically with their nematodes to kill isopods. By direct injection of entomopathogenic bacteria into isopod hemolymph, we showed that bacteria had a pathogenic effect on terrestrial isopods even if they appeared unable to multiply within isopod hemolymphs. A developmental study of EPNs in isopods showed that two of them (S. carpocapsae and H. bacteriophora) were able to develop while S. feltiae could not. No EPN species were able to produce offspring emerging from isopods. We conclude that EPN and their bacteria can be pathogens for terrestrial isopods but that such hosts represent a reproductive dead-end for them. Thus, terrestrial isopods appear not to be alternative hosts for EPN populations maintained in the absence of insects.

  14. Reference values for feeding parameters of isopods (Porcellioscaber, Isopoda, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Drobne, Damjana; Drobne, Samo

    2014-01-01

    The advantage of using terrestrial isopods in toxicity studies is that a battery of parameters can be tested at different levels of biological complexity. Feeding parameters for example link organism level response to potential ecological consequences but a problem with using feeding parameters in toxicity tests with terrestrial isopods is their high variability. The aim of our study was to set benchmark values for feeding parameters for isopod Porcellioscaber (Isopoda, Crustacea) in laboratory-controlled experiments. In the work presented here, the daily feeding rate of the central 50% of the control population of Porcellioscaber and a correlation between feeding rate and isopod weight were set. Values outside these ranges need additional evaluation to increase the relevance of test outcomes. We suggest using benchmark values for feeding parameters as well as the coefficient of variation (a) to identify animals with altered feeding parameters with respect to controls, and (b) to assess the data quality in each experiment.

  15. Beach profile variation on Hawaiian carbonate beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, A.E.; Richmond, B.M.; Fletcher, C.H.; ,

    2000-01-01

    Beach profiles from selected Oahu and Maui beaches quantitatively document beach volume variation and change between 1994 and 1999. Along exposed, high-energy beaches, large fluctuations in beach volume, characterized primarily by the formation and erosion of extensive berms, dominate the seasonal changes. Beaches along more protected stretches of coastline show much less variation in profile morphology. Beaches on the west (leeward) coast of Oahu experienced the most seasonal variation in profile volume, followed by the north shore, east (windward) shore, and south shore. Similar to Oahu, beaches along the west coast of Maui showed the greatest overall profile variation. However, the mean variation for profiles along a single coastal reach showed little difference compared to other coastal segments. Although some beaches showed net gain or loss during the study period, most beaches remained relatively stable with change limited to a finite envelope. No island-wide trends in beach erosion or accretion were observed during the study period. However, no extreme events, such as tropical storms or hurricanes, directly influenced the Hawaiian Islands during the study period. This data set should therefore be considered as representative of typical annual beach activity. Greater variation and possible long-term change would be expected during extreme events.

  16. Beach sands

    SciTech Connect

    Fairbridge, R.W.; Lowrie, A.

    1988-01-01

    Beach sands are the residual of climatic and sea level processes interacting in an oscillating geologic continuum. The location of a shoreface is the result of tectonic, sedimentary, oceanographic, and climatic processes, all interweaving to create a single location. The combining processes include passive continental margin subsidence, lithospheric flexuring and epirogenic uplift, depositional processes, fluvial transportation traits, sediment compaction and lithostatic pressure, global wind and ocean currents, global average temperature, and insolation rate. These mechanisms are either synergistic or algebraically additive, positive or negative, and act with periodicities ranging from 10/sup 8/ to 10/sup 0/ years. Sea level oscillations have maximal impact, with climate-weather characteristics and associated oscillation ranges occurring at different periods: plate margin rifted-basin tectonics at 10/sup 8/ years, characterized by periods of major glacial activity lasting 10/sup 7/ years and sea level oscillation ranges of up to 0.5 km; regional basin evolution at 10/sup 7/ years and oscillation ranges of several hundreds of meters; local basin tectonics and sedimentation patterns and long-term sets of climate and sea level oscillation patterns at 10/sup 6/ years, with oscillation ranges of up to 125 m and averaging 50 m; individual glacial and sea level cycles (controlled by planetary orbital motions and insolation) at 10/sup 5/ and 10/sup 4/ years, and oscillation ranges of up to 125 m and averaging 50 m; medium-term climate cycles at 10/sup 3/ years, characterized by peaks of storminess and oscillation ranges of meters to decameters; short-term climate-weather cycles at 10/sup 2/, 10/sup 1/, and 10/sup 0/ years, and oscillation ranges of meters to centimeters. All of these processes impact on sea level oscillations, thus, on the shoreface, leaving a residuum of beach sands.

  17. Widespread Wolbachia infection in terrestrial isopods and other crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Cordaux, Richard; Pichon, Samuel; Hatira, Houda Ben Afia; Doublet, Vincent; Grève, Pierre; Marcadé, Isabelle; Braquart-Varnier, Christine; Souty-Grosset, Catherine; Charfi-Cheikhrouha, Faouzia; Bouchon, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Wolbachia bacteria are obligate intracellular alpha-Proteobacteria of arthropods and nematodes. Although widespread among isopod crustaceans, they have seldom been found in non-isopod crustacean species. Here, we report Wolbachia infection in fourteen new crustacean species. Our results extend the range of Wolbachia infections in terrestrial isopods and amphipods (class Malacostraca). We report the occurrence of two different Wolbachia strains in two host species (a terrestrial isopod and an amphipod). Moreover, the discovery of Wolbachia in the goose barnacle Lepas anatifera (subclass Thecostraca) establishes Wolbachia infection in class Maxillopoda. The new bacterial strains are closely related to B-supergroup Wolbachia strains previously reported from crustacean hosts. Our results suggest that Wolbachia infection may be much more widespread in crustaceans than previously thought. The presence of related Wolbachia strains in highly divergent crustacean hosts suggests that Wolbachia endosymbionts can naturally adapt to a wide range of crustacean hosts. Given the ability of isopod Wolbachia strains to induce feminization of genetic males or cytoplasmic incompatibility, we speculate that manipulation of crustacean-borne Wolbachia bacteria might represent potential tools for controlling crustacean species of commercial interest and crustacean or insect disease vectors.

  18. Widespread Wolbachia infection in terrestrial isopods and other crustaceans

    PubMed Central

    Cordaux, Richard; Pichon, Samuel; Hatira, Houda Ben Afia; Doublet, Vincent; Grève, Pierre; Marcadé, Isabelle; Braquart-Varnier, Christine; Souty-Grosset, Catherine; Charfi-Cheikhrouha, Faouzia; Bouchon, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Wolbachia bacteria are obligate intracellular alpha-Proteobacteria of arthropods and nematodes. Although widespread among isopod crustaceans, they have seldom been found in non-isopod crustacean species. Here, we report Wolbachia infection in fourteen new crustacean species. Our results extend the range of Wolbachia infections in terrestrial isopods and amphipods (class Malacostraca). We report the occurrence of two different Wolbachia strains in two host species (a terrestrial isopod and an amphipod). Moreover, the discovery of Wolbachia in the goose barnacle Lepas anatifera (subclass Thecostraca) establishes Wolbachia infection in class Maxillopoda. The new bacterial strains are closely related to B-supergroup Wolbachia strains previously reported from crustacean hosts. Our results suggest that Wolbachia infection may be much more widespread in crustaceans than previously thought. The presence of related Wolbachia strains in highly divergent crustacean hosts suggests that Wolbachia endosymbionts can naturally adapt to a wide range of crustacean hosts. Given the ability of isopod Wolbachia strains to induce feminization of genetic males or cytoplasmic incompatibility, we speculate that manipulation of crustacean-borne Wolbachia bacteria might represent potential tools for controlling crustacean species of commercial interest and crustacean or insect disease vectors. PMID:22536103

  19. Global Diversification at the Harsh Sea-Land Interface: Mitochondrial Phylogeny of the Supralittoral Isopod Genus Tylos (Tylidae, Oniscidea)

    PubMed Central

    Hurtado, Luis A.; Lee, Eun J.; Mateos, Mariana; Taiti, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The supralittoral environment, at the transition between sea and land, is characterized by harsh conditions for life. Nonetheless, evolution of terrestrial isopods (Oniscidea), the only group of Crustacea fully adapted to live on land, appears to have involved a transitional step within the supralittoral. The two most basal oniscidean lineages (Ligiidae and Tylidae) have representatives that successfully colonized the supralittoral. One of them is the genus Tylos, which is found exclusively in supralittoral sandy beaches from tropical and subtropical coasts around the world. Comprehensive phylogenetic hypotheses for this genus are lacking, which are necessary for understanding the evolution and biogeography of a lineage that successfully diversified in the harsh sea-land interface. Herein, we studied the phylogenetic relationships among 17 of the 21 currently recognized species of the genus Tylos, based on sequences from four mitochondrial genes (Cytochrome Oxidase I, Cytochrome b, 16S rDNA, and 12S rDNA). Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses identified several lineages with deep divergences and discrete geographic distributions. Phylogenetic and distributional patterns of Tylos provide important clues on the biogeography and evolution of this group. Large divergences among the most basal clades are consistent with ancient splits. Due to the biological characteristics of Tylos, which likely prevent dispersal of these isopods across vast oceanic scales, we argue that tectonic events rather than trans-oceanic dispersal explain the distribution of Tylos in different continents. Overwater dispersal, however, likely enabled range expansions within some basins, and explains the colonization of volcanic oceanic islands. Present-day distributions were also likely influenced by sea level and climate changes. High levels of allopatric cryptic genetic differentiation are observed in different regions of the world, implying that the dispersal abilities of

  20. Isopod and insect root borers may benefit Florida mangroves.

    PubMed

    Simberloff, D; Brown, B J; Lowrie, S

    1978-08-18

    Far from threatening the persistence and geographic extent of red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) in Florida, wood-boring marine isopods may aid the plant to survive wave action by initiating branching of aerial prop roots. Evidence for a recent, sudden increase in density or range of one such isopod, Sphaeroma terebrans, is anecdotal and weak. Insect damage to mangrove aerial roots even before they descend to the water is at least as great as that wrought by isopods and also causes root branching. Aerial and submarine damage combine to stimulate root initiation so that, for every root produced aerially by the tree, at least 1.4 roots reach the substrate. Similar responses to herbivory, which have been reported for other plants, suggest that herbivores may both benefit and harm plants, and that their impact may be more difficult to assess in specific instances than has been realized.

  1. Virtual Beach Manager Toolset

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Virtual Beach Manager Toolset (VB) is a set of decision support software tools developed to help local beach managers make decisions as to when beaches should be closed due to predicted high levels of water borne pathogens. The tools are being developed under the umbrella of...

  2. Iridovirus infection in terrestrial isopods from Sicily (Italy).

    PubMed

    Lupetti, Pietro; Montesanto, Giuseppe; Ciolfi, Silvia; Marri, Laura; Gentile, Mariangela; Paccagnini, Eugenio; Lombardo, Bianca Maria

    2013-10-01

    During our researches on systematics and ecology of terrestrial isopods, carried out in western Sicily, some specimens showing a blue-purple coloration were collected; they belonged to four species: Armadillidium decorum Brandt, 1833, Trichoniscus panormidensis Montesanto et al., 2011, Philoscia affinis Verhoeff, 1908, Porcellio siculoccidentalis Viglianisi et al., 1992. We hypothesized that such coloration could be due, as reported in literature, to characteristic paracrystalline arrays of virions inside the tissues of blue colored specimens. Ultrastructural observations by transmission electron microscopy, on tissues of A. decorum, showed the presence of electron-dense viral particles, with a diameter of nearly 0.12μm. Dual-axis tomography, performed on specimens of A. decorum, evidenced an icosahedral structure of viral particles matching with that of Isopod Iridescent Virus (IIV). Molecular analysis, on 254bp portion of the major capsid protein (MCP) gene, allowed to place the virus into IIV-31 group, already known for other oniscidean species. The symptoms of infected individuals and the course of the disease were followed in laboratory, indicating similarities with other studies on Isopod Iridoviruses. Moreover, some notes on reproduction of infected ovigerous females are reported. Our data support unequivocal and direct evidences for the first case of IIV infection in terrestrial isopods reported in Italy.

  3. Is size-assortative mating important for rapid pigment differentiation in a freshwater isopod?

    PubMed

    Hargeby, A; Erlandsson, J

    2006-11-01

    Identifying mechanisms behind assortative mating is central to the understanding of ecological divergence and speciation. Recent studies show that populations of the freshwater isopod Asellus aquaticus can rapidly become locally differentiated when submerged Chara vegetation expands in lakes. In the novel Chara habitat, isopods have become lighter pigmented and smaller than in ancestral reed stands. In this study, we used a laboratory multiple-choice experiment to investigate assortative mating as a possible prezygotic reproductive barrier between Chara and reed isopods. Mating was assortative when Chara isopods were experimentally mixed with isopods from an adjacent reed site with large-size individuals, suggesting a partial prezygotic reproductive barrier. No deviation from random mating could, however, be detected when Chara isopods were mixed with smaller sized isopods from another reed site. In both experiments, assortative mating was apparently based on size, as Chara isopods were larger and reed isopods smaller in mixed pairs than in assortative pairs. Pigmentation did not have any clear influence on mating. We suggest that divergence in pigmentation evolved through natural selection in conjunction with size-assortative mating indirectly causing assortative mating between Chara and reed isopods. Size-assortative mating is likely a by-product of natural selection, but its importance may hypothetically be transient, if selection erodes the correlation between pigmentation and size over time.

  4. Pyrethroid pesticide effects on behavioral responses of aquatic isopods to danger cues.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Carolyn K; Poquette, Signe R; Whitlow, W Lindsay

    2014-04-01

    The present study sought to evaluate the behavioral responses of non-target organisms in order to determine whether phototactic responses of isopods to danger cues are altered as a function of exposure to the pyrethroid pesticides λ-cyhalothrin and bifenthrin. Experiments conducted on Gnorimosphaeroma oregonensis identified sublethal behavioral responses to pyrethroids, λ-cyhalothrin and bifenthrin at concentrations 0.15 ng/mL, 0.025 ng/mL, and 0.005 ng/mL. Experimental setup tested isopod phototactic responses across six treatments: control, pyrethroid, hemolymph, predator, hemolymph + pyrethroid, and predator + pyrethroid. Isopods exhibited no preference for phototactic responses in the control and pyrethroid treatments. When exposed to danger cues (hemolymph or predator), isopods exhibited significant negative phototaxis, as expected. When exposure to danger cues was combined with pyrethroids, isopods again exhibited no preference for phototactic response. Experiments indicate that pyrethroids diminish isopod's negatively phototactic response to danger cues.

  5. Detached macroalgae: Its importance to inshore sandy beach fauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, Kyla K.; Wilding, Thomas A.; Horstmeyer, Lena; Weigl, Simon; Heymans, Johanna J.

    2014-10-01

    Kelp forests shed a large proportion of their biomass through storm-mediated defoliation, senescence of kelp blades, and constant erosion of particulate organic matter from the kelp fronds. Much of this detached macroalgae drifts in the water column and is deposited on intertidal zones of beaches. Detached macroalgae may provide inshore sandy beach fauna with refuge and food subsidies in an exposed and bare environment, with limited in situ primary production. We evaluated the relationship between detached macroalgae and the density of inshore fauna, where 'inshore' was the body of water extending from low water seawards for approximately 50 m. Inshore fauna were sampled using a push-net (1 mm mesh) on 11 beaches, and using a beam-trawl (4 mm mesh) on a subset of 8 beaches. On each beach, the density of detached macroalgae in the water column was quantified, together with a suite of physico-chemical beach characteristics. Push-net samples principally comprised omnivorous and detritivorous crustaceans such as gammarid amphipods, mysids and valviferan isopods, which have limited swimming abilities and reside inshore year-round. Beam-trawl fauna were mainly carnivorous decapods and fish, which undergo seasonal inshore-offshore migrations to utilize sandy beaches as nursery habitats. Linear models predicted increases of 11% (95% CI: 3.5-19%) and 2.4% (95% CI: 0.7-4.2%) in the density of push-net and beam-trawl fauna, respectively, with a 1 ℓ.100 m-3 increase in detached macroalgae. This suggests that detached macroalgae is more important in the provision of food and shelter to small, weak-swimming detritivores/omnivores than to larger and more mobile predators. The densities of large predators were mostly explained by physical beach characteristics, which overshadowed the role of macroalgae. Maximum abundances of decapods and fish were found on wide, flat beaches with low wave heights. Large accumulations of macroalgae may inhibit the foraging efficiencies of

  6. VIEW OF THE AREA BETWEEN THE BEACH (LEFT) AND BEACH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE AREA BETWEEN THE BEACH (LEFT) AND BEACH ROAD. NOTE THE RESIDENCES ON OPPOSITE SIDE OF BEACH ROAD. VIEW FACING NORTH. - Hickam Field, Fort Kamehameha Historic Housing, Along Worchester Avenue & Hope Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  7. Size dependent differences in litter consumption of isopods: preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Vilisics, Ferenc; Szekeres, Sándor; Hornung, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A series of experiments were applied to test how leaf orientation within microcosms affect consumption rates (Experiment 1), and to discover intra-specific differences in leaf litter consumption (Experiment 2) of the common isopod species Porcellio scaber and Porcellionides pruinosus. A standardised microcosm setup was developed for feeding experiments to maintain standard conditions. A constant amount of freshly fallen black poplar litter was provided to three distinct size class (small, medium, large) of woodlice. We measured litter consumption after a fortnight. We maintained appr. constant isopod biomass for all treatments, and equal densities within each size class. We hypothesized that different size classes differ in their litter consumption, therefore such differences should occur even within populations of the species. We also hypothesized a marked difference in consumption rates for different leaf orientation within microcosms. Our results showed size-specific consumption patterns for Porcellio scaber: small adults showed the highest consumption rates (i.e. litter mass loss / isopod biomass) in high density microcosms, while medium-sized adults of lower densities ate the most litter in containers. Leaf orientation posed no significant effect on litter consumption. PMID:22536112

  8. Size dependent differences in litter consumption of isopods: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Vilisics, Ferenc; Szekeres, Sándor; Hornung, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    A series of experiments were applied to test how leaf orientation within microcosms affect consumption rates (Experiment 1), and to discover intra-specific differences in leaf litter consumption (Experiment 2) of the common isopod species Porcellio scaber and Porcellionides pruinosus. A standardised microcosm setup was developed for feeding experiments to maintain standard conditions. A constant amount of freshly fallen black poplar litter was provided to three distinct size class (small, medium, large) of woodlice. We measured litter consumption after a fortnight. We maintained appr. constant isopod biomass for all treatments, and equal densities within each size class. We hypothesized that different size classes differ in their litter consumption, therefore such differences should occur even within populations of the species. We also hypothesized a marked difference in consumption rates for different leaf orientation within microcosms. Our results showed size-specific consumption patterns for Porcellio scaber: small adults showed the highest consumption rates (i.e. litter mass loss / isopod biomass) in high density microcosms, while medium-sized adults of lower densities ate the most litter in containers. Leaf orientation posed no significant effect on litter consumption.

  9. Louisiana's statewide beach cleanup

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindstedt, Dianne M.; Holmes, Joseph C.

    1989-01-01

    Litter along Lousiana's beaches has become a well-recognized problem. In September 1987, Louisiana's first statewide beach cleanup attracted about 3300 volunteers who filled 16,000 bags with trash collected along 15 beaches. An estimated 800,173 items were gathered. Forty percent of the items were made of plastic and 11% were of polystyrene. Of all the litter collected, 37% was beverage-related. Litter from the oil and gas, commercial fishing, and maritime shipping industries was found, as well as that left by recreational users. Although beach cleanups temporarily rid Louisiana beaches of litter, the real value of the effort is in public participation and education. Civic groups, school children, and individuals have benefited by increasing their awareness of the problems of trash disposal.

  10. Transformations of mercury in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Jereb, Vesna; Horvat, Milena; Drobne, Damjana; Pihlar, Boris

    2003-03-20

    The biological cycle of mercury in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber was investigated. Testing the possibility of in vivo Hg(2+) methylation was divided into two methodologically different parts. Firstly, concentrations of total mercury and MeHg in isopods P. scaber and their environment from a Hg-unpolluted area were measured by the use of validated methods (CV AAS, CV AFS). The data obtained show that the percentage of MeHg in leaves, soil and faeces was less than 1%. In contrast, the percentage of MeHg in gut and hepatopancreas was increased to 14 and 77%, respectively, indicating methylation of Hg(2+) in the gut and its further accumulation in glands. To confirm this assumption, the second methodology was applied-a radiotracer technique with 203Hg(2+) of high specific activity. There are few radiotracer techniques for Hg-methylation assays; for our work we chose the method of Czuba et al. which includes alkaline leaching of Hg species, their extraction into dithizone-toluene, followed by specific separation of Hg dithizonates by thin-layer chromatography and gamma counting. All steps of the analytical protocol were checked and optimised by the use of aqueous solutions of 203Hg(2+) and Me(203)Hg(+). The most important finding was that cleaning-up the extract through a florisil column is not appropriate, because the column retains different percentages of Hg(2+) and MeHg(+) and consequently affects the accuracy of the final result. This optimised protocol was then applied to Hg transformation studies in the terrestrial isopod P. scaber. Leaching Hg species from P. scaber fed with 203Hg(2+) or Me(203)Hg(+) dosed food was completely efficient only at elevated temperatures. Preliminary results of methylation/demethlytion studies are rather variable but they show that both processes (Hg(2+)<-->MeHg(+)) take place in the isopod P. scaber. Additionally, an assessment of the mass balance of Hg in isopods P. scaber exposed to 203Hg(2+) indicates that volatile Hg

  11. Detection of Wolbachia (Alphaproteobacteria: rickettsiales) in three species of terrestrial isopods (crustacea: isopoda: oniscidea) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Bianca Laís; Almerão, Maurício Pereira; Bouchon, Didier; Araujo, Paula Beatriz

    2012-04-01

    Terrestrial isopods are widely infected with Wolbachia. However, little is known about the presence of bacteria in the Neotropical species. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis of presence of Wolbachia infection in the native species of terrestrial isopods, Atlantoscia floridana and Circoniscus bezzii, and in the introduced species Burmoniscus meeusei.

  12. Bacterial symbionts in the hepatopancreas of isopods: diversity and environmental transmission.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongjie; Brune, Andreas; Zimmer, Martin

    2007-07-01

    The midgut glands (hepatopancreas) of terrestrial isopods contain bacterial symbionts. We analysed the phylogenetic diversity of hepatopancreatic bacteria in isopod species from various suborders colonizing marine, semiterrestrial, terrestrial and freshwater habitats. Hepatopancreatic bacteria were absent in the marine isopod Idotea balthica (Valvifera). The symbiotic bacteria present in the midgut glands of the freshwater isopod Asellus aquaticus (Asellota) were closely related to members of the proteobacterial genera Rhodobacter, Burkholderia, Aeromonas or Rickettsiella, but differed markedly between populations. By contrast, species of the suborder Oniscidea were consistently colonized by the same phylotypes of hepatopancreatic bacteria. While symbionts in the semiterrestrial isopod Ligia oceanica (Oniscidea) were close relatives of Pseudomonas sp. (Gammaproteobacteria), individuals of the terrestrial isopod Oniscus asellus (Oniscidea) harboured either 'Candidatus Hepatoplasma crinochetorum' (Mollicutes) or 'Candidatus Hepatincola porcellionum' (Rickettsiales), previously described as symbionts of another terrestrial isopod, Porcellio scaber. These two uncultivated bacterial taxa were consistently present in each population of six and three different species of terrestrial isopods, respectively, collected in different geographical locations. However, infection rates of individuals within a population ranged between 10% and 100%, rendering vertical transmission unlikely. Rather, feeding experiments suggest that 'Candidatus Hepatoplasma crinochetorum' is environmentally transmitted to the progeny.

  13. The response of macrofauna communities and shorebirds to macrophyte wrack subsidies on exposed sandy beaches of southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugan, Jenifer E.; Hubbard, David M.; McCrary, Michael D.; Pierson, Mark O.

    2003-10-01

    To investigate the influence of marine macrophyte wrack subsidies on community structure, relationships between community attributes, including species richness, abundance, and biomass of macrofauna and abundance of shorebirds, and a variety of factors, including the standing crop of wrack and beach morphodynamics, were examined on 15 exposed sandy beaches on the southern California coast. The beaches sampled were primarily modally intermediate morphodynamic types, and three were groomed regularly. Species richness, abundance, and biomass of the macrofauna were high compared to values reported for similar beach types in other regions and were not predicted by morphodynamics or other physical factors. Overall species richness and abundance, and the species richness, abundance, and biomass of wrack-associated fauna and selected taxa were significantly correlated with the standing crop of macrophyte wrack. Wrack-associated macrofauna, such as amphipods, isopods, and insects, made up an average of >37% of the species on ungroomed beaches and comprised 25% or more of the total abundance on half of those beaches. The abundance of two shorebird species, plovers that forage using visual cues, was positively correlated with the standing crop of wrack and with the abundance of wrack-associated invertebrates. Significant differences in community structure, including depressed species richness, abundance, and biomass of macrofauna, especially for wrack-associated taxa, were associated with beach grooming and provided strong evidence for the bottom-up effects of wrack subsidies. Grooming also reduced the prey available to vertebrate predators, such as shorebirds. Substantial ecological effects of the large-scale disturbance and removal of organic material, food resources, and habitat are associated with beach grooming. These results suggest that macrophyte wrack subsidies strongly influence macrofaunal community structure, higher trophic levels, and ecological processes on

  14. Fate of microplastics in the marine isopod Idotea emarginata.

    PubMed

    Hämer, Julia; Gutow, Lars; Köhler, Angela; Saborowski, Reinhard

    2014-11-18

    Plastic pollution is an emerging global threat for marine wildlife. Many species of birds, reptiles, and fishes are directly impaired by plastics as they can get entangled in ropes and drown or they can ingest plastic fragments which, in turn, may clog their stomachs and guts. Microplastics of less than 1 mm can be ingested by small invertebrates, but their fate in the digestive organs and their effects on the animals are yet not well understood. We embedded fluorescent microplastics in artificial agarose-based food and offered the food to marine isopods, Idotea emarginata. The isopods did not distinguish between food with and food without microplastics. Upon ingestion, the microplastics were present in the stomach and in the gut but not in the tubules of the midgut gland which is the principal organ of enzyme-secretion and nutrient resorption. The feces contained the same concentration of microplastics as the food which indicates that no accumulation of microplastics happens during the gut passage. Long-term bioassays of 6 weeks showed no distinct effects of continuous microplastic consumption on mortality, growth, and intermolt duration. I. emarginata are able to prevent intrusion of particles even smaller than 1 μm into the midgut gland which is facilitated by the complex structure of the stomach including a fine filter system. It separates the midgut gland tubules from the stomach and allows only the passage of fluids and chyme. Our results indicate that microplastics, as administered in the experiments, do not clog the digestive organs of isopods and do not have adverse effects on their life history parameters. PMID:25289587

  15. Fate of microplastics in the marine isopod Idotea emarginata.

    PubMed

    Hämer, Julia; Gutow, Lars; Köhler, Angela; Saborowski, Reinhard

    2014-11-18

    Plastic pollution is an emerging global threat for marine wildlife. Many species of birds, reptiles, and fishes are directly impaired by plastics as they can get entangled in ropes and drown or they can ingest plastic fragments which, in turn, may clog their stomachs and guts. Microplastics of less than 1 mm can be ingested by small invertebrates, but their fate in the digestive organs and their effects on the animals are yet not well understood. We embedded fluorescent microplastics in artificial agarose-based food and offered the food to marine isopods, Idotea emarginata. The isopods did not distinguish between food with and food without microplastics. Upon ingestion, the microplastics were present in the stomach and in the gut but not in the tubules of the midgut gland which is the principal organ of enzyme-secretion and nutrient resorption. The feces contained the same concentration of microplastics as the food which indicates that no accumulation of microplastics happens during the gut passage. Long-term bioassays of 6 weeks showed no distinct effects of continuous microplastic consumption on mortality, growth, and intermolt duration. I. emarginata are able to prevent intrusion of particles even smaller than 1 μm into the midgut gland which is facilitated by the complex structure of the stomach including a fine filter system. It separates the midgut gland tubules from the stomach and allows only the passage of fluids and chyme. Our results indicate that microplastics, as administered in the experiments, do not clog the digestive organs of isopods and do not have adverse effects on their life history parameters.

  16. [Comparison of the zymograms of isopod (Crustacea, Peracarides) digestive tubes].

    PubMed

    Sévilla, C; Lagarrigue, J G

    1975-09-15

    The zymograms of the digestive caeca and the intestine in seven species of Isopods are established. The glucidasic activities predominate. A relative proteasic poverty is noted as well as the absence of lipases however, the esterases exist. The enzymatic pattern of the gut suggests its participation in the alimentary digestion. The enzymes distribution allows us to establish relations with the food preference of the animals. Some particularities (trypsin, alpha and beta glucosidase) favour a comparison of the marine species with the supralittoral species on one hand and with terrestrial species on the other. This fact does not exclude however the systematic interest of the zymograms.

  17. Hawaii Beach Monitoring Program: Beach Profile Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, Ann E.; Richmond, Bruce M.; Fletcher, Charles H.; Hillman, Kindra P.

    2001-01-01

    Coastal erosion is widespread and locally severe in Hawaii and other low-latitude areas. Typical erosion rates in Hawaii are in the range of 15 to 30 cm/yr (0.5 to 1 ft/yr; Hwang, 1981; Sea Engineering, Inc., 1988; Makai Ocean Engineering, Inc. and Sea Engineering, Inc.,1991). Recent studies on Oahu (Fletcher et al., 1997; Coyne et al., 1996) have shown that nearly 24%, or 27.5 km (17.1 mi) of an original 115 km (71.6 mi) of sandy shoreline (1940's) has been either significantly narrowed (17.2 km; 10.7 mi) or lost (10.3 km; 6.4 mi). Nearly one-quarter of the islands' beaches have been significantly degraded over the last half-century and all shorelines have been affected to some degree. Oahu shorelines are by far the most studied, however, beach loss has been identified on the other islands as well, with nearly 13 km (8 mi) of beach likely lost due to shoreline hardening on Maui (Makai Engineering, Inc. and Sea Engineering, Inc., 1991). Causes of coastal erosion and beach loss in Hawaii are numerous but, unfortunately, poorly understood and rarely quantified. Construction of shoreline protection structures limits coastal land loss, but does not alleviate beach loss and may actually accelerate the problem by prohibiting sediment deposition in front of the structures. Other factors contributing to beach loss include: a) reduced sediment supply; b) large storms; and, c) sea-level rise. Reduction in sand supply, either from landward or seaward (primarily reef) sources, can have a myriad of causes. Obvious causes such as beach sand mining and emplacement of structures that interrupt natural sediment transport pathways or prevent access to backbeach sand deposits, remove sediment from the active littoral system. More complex issues of sediment supply can be related to reef health and carbonate production which, in turn, may be linked to changes in water quality. Second, the accumulated effect of large storms is to transport sediment beyond the littoral system. Third

  18. Degradation of leaf litter phenolics by aquatic and terrestrial isopods.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Martin; Oliveira, Ricardo; Rodrigues, Elsa; Graça, Manuel A S

    2005-08-01

    To investigate species-specific decomposition rates of litter from native (Quercus faginea) and introduced (Eucalyptus globulus) tree species in Portugal, we monitored changes in the phenolic signature of leaf litter during decomposition as mediated by an aquatic, Proasellus coxalis (Isopoda: Asellota), and two terrestrial, Porcellio dispar and Eluma caelatum (Isopoda: Oniscidea), detritivores. Although the litter of Eucalyptus and Quercus did not differ in overall protein precipitation capacity, we detected differences in terms of contents of particular phenolic compounds and phenol oxidation products. Accordingly, we observed food-specific consumption rates in Proasellus, but not in the terrestrial isopods. Proasellus digested Eucalyptus at significantly higher rates than Quercus, whereas the opposite was the case for Eluma, and Porcellio digested both litter types equally well. Despite slight differences in detail, effects of Proasellus on changes in the signature of litter phenolics were similar for both litter types, whereas terrestrial isopods--Porcellio and Eluma, although they differed from each other--digestively degraded phenolic compounds in Eucalyptus and Quercus litter, respectively, in different ways. Overall, however, degradation of litter phenolics was similarly effective on both litter types. From these data, we conclude that decomposition of Eucalyptus litter does not proceed more slowly than of litter from native Portuguese trees.

  19. Tonic immobility in terrestrial isopods: intraspecific and interspecific variability.

    PubMed

    Quadros, Aline Ferreira; Bugs, Priscila Silva; Araujo, Paula Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    Many arthropods, including terrestrial isopods, are capable of entering a state of tonic immobility upon a mechanical disturbance. Here we compare the responses to mechanical stimulation in three terrestrial isopods Balloniscus glaber, Balloniscus sellowii and Porcellio dilatatus. We applied three stimuli in a random order and recorded whether each individual was responsive (i.e. showed tonic immobility) or not and the duration of the response. In another trial we related the time needed to elicit tonic immobility and the duration of response of each individual. Balloniscus sellowii was the least responsive species and Porcellio dilatatus was the most, with 23% and 89% of the tested individuals, respectively, being responsive. Smaller Balloniscus sellowii were more responsive than larger individuals. Porcellio dilatatus responded more promptly than the Balloniscus spp. but it showed the shortest response. Neither sex, size nor the type of stimulus explained the variability found in the duration of tonic immobility. These results reveal a large variability in tonic immobility behavior, even between closely related species, which seems to reflect a species-specific response to predators with different foraging modes.

  20. Molecular evolution of the androgenic hormone in terrestrial isopods.

    PubMed

    Cerveau, Nicolas; Bouchon, Didier; Bergès, Thierry; Grève, Pierre

    2014-04-25

    In crustaceans, the androgenic gland (AG), thanks to the synthesis of the androgenic gland hormone (AGH), controls the differentiation of the primary and secondary male sexual characters. In this study, we amplified 12 new AGH cDNAs in species belonging to five different families of the infra-order Ligiamorpha of terrestrial isopods. Putative essential amino acids for the production of a functional AGH protein exhibit signatures of negative selection and are strictly conserved including typical proteolytic cleavage motifs, a putative N-linked glycosylation motif on the A chains and the eight Cys positions. An insulin-like growth factor motif was also identified in Armadillidium AGH sequences. The phylogenetic relationships of AGH sequences allowed one to distinguish two main clades, corresponding to members of the Armadillidiidae and the Porcellionidae families which are congruent with the narrow specificity of AG heterospecific grafting. An in-depth understanding of the regulation of AGH expression would help deciphering the interaction between Wolbachia, widespread feminizing endosymbiotic bacteria in isopods, and the sex differentiation of their hosts.

  1. BACTERIA, BEACHES AND SWIMMABLE WATERS: INTRODUCING VIRTUAL BEACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Safe beaches meet water quality standards and are valued for their aesthetics and the recreational opportunities that they afford. In the United States recreational water quality assessments and beach closure decisions are presently based on samples of enterococci or Escherichia ...

  2. Virtual Beach: Decision Support Tools for Beach Pathogen Prediction

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Virtual Beach Managers Tool (VB) is decision-making software developed to help local beach managers make decisions as to when beaches should be closed due to predicted high levels of water borne pathogens. The tool is being developed under the umbrella of EPA's Advanced Monit...

  3. Isolation and Characterization of Microsatellite Loci for the Isopod Crustacean Armadillidium vulgare and Transferability in Terrestrial Isopods

    PubMed Central

    Bech, Nicolas; Grandjean, Frédéric; Cordaux, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Armadillidium vulgare is a terrestrial isopod (Crustacea, Oniscidea) which harbors Wolbachia bacterial endosymbionts. A. vulgare is the major model for the study of Wolbachia-mediated feminization of genetic males in crustaceans. As a consequence of their impact on host sex determination mechanisms, Wolbachia endosymbionts are thought to significantly influence A. vulgare evolution on various grounds, including population genetic structure, diversity and reproduction strategies. To provide molecular tools for examining these questions, we isolated microsatellite loci through 454 pyrosequencing of a repeat-enriched A. vulgare genomic library. We selected 14 markers and developed three polymorphic microsatellite multiplex kits. We tested the kits on two A. vulgare natural populations and found high genetic variation, thereby making it possible to investigate the impact of Wolbachia endosymbionts on A. vulgare nuclear variation at unprecedented resolution. In addition, we tested the transferability of these kits by cross-species amplification in five other terrestrial isopod species harboring Wolbachia endosymbionts. The microsatellite loci showed good transferability in particular in Armadillidium nasatum and Chaetophiloscia elongata, for which these markers represent promising tools for future genetic studies. PMID:24098543

  4. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci for the isopod crustacean Armadillidium vulgare and transferability in terrestrial isopods.

    PubMed

    Giraud, Isabelle; Valette, Victorien; Bech, Nicolas; Grandjean, Frédéric; Cordaux, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Armadillidium vulgare is a terrestrial isopod (Crustacea, Oniscidea) which harbors Wolbachia bacterial endosymbionts. A. vulgare is the major model for the study of Wolbachia-mediated feminization of genetic males in crustaceans. As a consequence of their impact on host sex determination mechanisms, Wolbachia endosymbionts are thought to significantly influence A. vulgare evolution on various grounds, including population genetic structure, diversity and reproduction strategies. To provide molecular tools for examining these questions, we isolated microsatellite loci through 454 pyrosequencing of a repeat-enriched A. vulgare genomic library. We selected 14 markers and developed three polymorphic microsatellite multiplex kits. We tested the kits on two A. vulgare natural populations and found high genetic variation, thereby making it possible to investigate the impact of Wolbachia endosymbionts on A. vulgare nuclear variation at unprecedented resolution. In addition, we tested the transferability of these kits by cross-species amplification in five other terrestrial isopod species harboring Wolbachia endosymbionts. The microsatellite loci showed good transferability in particular in Armadillidium nasatum and Chaetophiloscia elongata, for which these markers represent promising tools for future genetic studies. PMID:24098543

  5. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci for the isopod crustacean Armadillidium vulgare and transferability in terrestrial isopods.

    PubMed

    Giraud, Isabelle; Valette, Victorien; Bech, Nicolas; Grandjean, Frédéric; Cordaux, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Armadillidium vulgare is a terrestrial isopod (Crustacea, Oniscidea) which harbors Wolbachia bacterial endosymbionts. A. vulgare is the major model for the study of Wolbachia-mediated feminization of genetic males in crustaceans. As a consequence of their impact on host sex determination mechanisms, Wolbachia endosymbionts are thought to significantly influence A. vulgare evolution on various grounds, including population genetic structure, diversity and reproduction strategies. To provide molecular tools for examining these questions, we isolated microsatellite loci through 454 pyrosequencing of a repeat-enriched A. vulgare genomic library. We selected 14 markers and developed three polymorphic microsatellite multiplex kits. We tested the kits on two A. vulgare natural populations and found high genetic variation, thereby making it possible to investigate the impact of Wolbachia endosymbionts on A. vulgare nuclear variation at unprecedented resolution. In addition, we tested the transferability of these kits by cross-species amplification in five other terrestrial isopod species harboring Wolbachia endosymbionts. The microsatellite loci showed good transferability in particular in Armadillidium nasatum and Chaetophiloscia elongata, for which these markers represent promising tools for future genetic studies.

  6. Assimilation efficiency and toxicokinetics of 14C-lindane in the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus: the role of isopods in degradation of persistent soil pollutants.

    PubMed

    Loureiro, Susana; Sousa, J P; Nogueira, A J A; Soares, A M V M

    2002-12-01

    An achievable way to evaluate the bioavailability of a certain toxic in the environment is to measure the concentration inside soil organisms. Non-target saprotrophic organisms like isopods are often exposed to agrochemicals or other kind of persistent chemicals. In this study the isopod Porcellionides pruinosus was exposed to a constant concentration of Lindane (gamma-HCH) via food. Using toxicokinetic models the bioaccumulation and fate of the pesticide by isopods was assessed and compared with previous studies, where an unexpected decrease in gamma-HCH concentration was observed. Animal body burdens showed higher values, and a lower assimilation rate constant, although the elimination rate constant was twice the value previously observed. It was also observed that a significant amount of gamma-HCH had an unknown fate. To discover its possible destiny, a factorial experiment was carried out using two types of CO2 traps and contaminated leaves in the presence and absence of isopods. It was concluded that isopod activity might have been responsible for a more rapid biotransformation of gamma-HCH in leaves, since the amount of the pesticide is reduced in their presence.

  7. Reference values for feeding parameters of isopods (Porcellio scaber, Isopoda, Crustacea)

    PubMed Central

    Drobne, Damjana; Drobne, Samo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The advantage of using terrestrial isopods in toxicity studies is that a battery of parameters can be tested at different levels of biological complexity. Feeding parameters for example link organism level response to potential ecological consequences but a problem with using feeding parameters in toxicity tests with terrestrial isopods is their high variability. The aim of our study was to set benchmark values for feeding parameters for isopod Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea) in laboratory-controlled experiments. In the work presented here, the daily feeding rate of the central 50% of the control population of Porcellio scaber and a correlation between feeding rate and isopod weight were set. Values outside these ranges need additional evaluation to increase the relevance of test outcomes. We suggest using benchmark values for feeding parameters as well as the coefficient of variation (a) to identify animals with altered feeding parameters with respect to controls, and (b) to assess the data quality in each experiment. PMID:25561844

  8. Terrestrial isopods -- a good choice for toxicity testing of pollutants in the terrestrial environment

    SciTech Connect

    Drobne, D.

    1997-06-01

    Terrestrial isopods are suitable invertebrates for testing the relative toxicities of chemicals present in the terrestrial environment. Terrestrial isopods respond in numerous ways to elevated concentrations of chemicals in their food, but only a few of these responses can be used as toxicological endpoints. The most suitable are changes in reproduction, food consumption, moult cycle duration, and structure of the digestive glands. These responses are able to provide accurate indications of sublethal toxicity. Toxicity tests with terrestrial isopods could be much more reliable through the use of positive controls. A positive control with a reference toxicant could also be supplemented by a reference endpoint. The most suitable reference endpoint is change of food consumption rate. Toxicity testing with terrestrial isopods is a very promising method for fast, routine, and inexpensive laboratory determination of the relative toxicities of chemicals in the terrestrial environment.

  9. Morphodynamics of Prograding Beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggiero, P.

    2012-12-01

    Long-term coastal evolution often results from the cumulative effects of small residual differences between relatively large signals. In light of dire projections of sea level rise over the next several decades to century, there is a strong societal need for accurate forecasts of net interannual- to decadal-scale coastal change. However, our present understanding of the processes responsible for storm-induced erosion and coastal recession is significantly more advanced than our knowledge of coastal recovery during calm periods. To investigate the processes and morphodynamics associated with progading beaches we synthesize findings from a long-term (15 years) beach morphology monitoring program in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. Most of the beaches along the Columbia River littoral cell (northwest Oregon and southwest Washington) were eroded during the two intense winters of 1997/1998 (a major El Niño event) and 1998/1999 (a moderate La Niña event). Subsequent to these winters the beaches have exhibited net residual progradation of several meters per year resulting in significant shoreline advance. During this same period as many as two to three new foredunes formed with backshore beach profiles accumulating sand at rates of well over 10 m3/m/yr. Interestingly, these large signals of horizontal and vertical coastal advance have occurred on beaches in which nearshore morphological variability is dominated by net offshore sandbar migration. Net offshore sandbar migration follows a three-stage process; bar generation near the shoreline, seaward migration, and bar degeneration in the outer nearshore with a cyclic return period of approximately 4 to 5 years in the region. Gradients in alongshore sediment transport, net onshore directed cross-shore sediment transport within the surf zone, and cross-shore feeding from a shoreface out of equilibrium with forcing conditions may each be partially responsible for the sediment supplied to the beaches and dunes during the study

  10. Virtual Beach 3: User's Guide

    EPA Science Inventory

    Virtual Beach version 3 (VB3) is a decision support tool that constructs site-specific statistical models to predict fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations at recreational beaches. VB3 is primarily designed for beach managers responsible for making decisions regarding beac...

  11. Global diversity of marine isopods (except Asellota and crustacean symbionts).

    PubMed

    Poore, Gary C B; Bruce, Niel L

    2012-01-01

    The crustacean order Isopoda (excluding Asellota, crustacean symbionts and freshwater taxa) comprise 3154 described marine species in 379 genera in 37 families according to the WoRMS catalogue. The history of taxonomic discovery over the last two centuries is reviewed. Although a well defined order with the Peracarida, their relationship to other orders is not yet resolved but systematics of the major subordinal taxa is relatively well understood. Isopods range in size from less than 1 mm to Bathynomus giganteus at 365 mm long. They inhabit all marine habitats down to 7280 m depth but with few doubtful exceptions species have restricted biogeographic and bathymetric ranges. Four feeding categories are recognised as much on the basis of anecdotal evidence as hard data: detritus feeders and browsers, carnivores, parasites, and filter feeders. Notable among these are the Cymothooidea that range from predators and scavengers to external blood-sucking micropredators and parasites. Isopods brood 10-1600 eggs depending on individual species. Strong sexual dimorphism is characteristic of several families, notably in Gnathiidae where sessile males live with a harem of females while juvenile praniza stages are ectoparasites of fish. Protandry is known in Cymothoidae and protogyny in Anthuroidea. Some Paranthuridae are neotenous. About half of all coastal, shelf and upper bathyal species have been recorded in the MEOW temperate realms, 40% in tropical regions and the remainder in polar seas. The greatest concentration of temperate species is in Australasia; more have been recorded from temperate North Pacific than the North Atlantic. Of tropical regions, the Central Indo-Pacific is home to more species any other region. Isopods are decidedly asymmetrical latitudinally with 1.35 times as many species in temperate Southern Hemisphere than the temperate North Atlantic and northern Pacific, and almost four times as many Antarctic as Arctic species. More species are known from the

  12. Global diversity of marine isopods (except Asellota and crustacean symbionts).

    PubMed

    Poore, Gary C B; Bruce, Niel L

    2012-01-01

    The crustacean order Isopoda (excluding Asellota, crustacean symbionts and freshwater taxa) comprise 3154 described marine species in 379 genera in 37 families according to the WoRMS catalogue. The history of taxonomic discovery over the last two centuries is reviewed. Although a well defined order with the Peracarida, their relationship to other orders is not yet resolved but systematics of the major subordinal taxa is relatively well understood. Isopods range in size from less than 1 mm to Bathynomus giganteus at 365 mm long. They inhabit all marine habitats down to 7280 m depth but with few doubtful exceptions species have restricted biogeographic and bathymetric ranges. Four feeding categories are recognised as much on the basis of anecdotal evidence as hard data: detritus feeders and browsers, carnivores, parasites, and filter feeders. Notable among these are the Cymothooidea that range from predators and scavengers to external blood-sucking micropredators and parasites. Isopods brood 10-1600 eggs depending on individual species. Strong sexual dimorphism is characteristic of several families, notably in Gnathiidae where sessile males live with a harem of females while juvenile praniza stages are ectoparasites of fish. Protandry is known in Cymothoidae and protogyny in Anthuroidea. Some Paranthuridae are neotenous. About half of all coastal, shelf and upper bathyal species have been recorded in the MEOW temperate realms, 40% in tropical regions and the remainder in polar seas. The greatest concentration of temperate species is in Australasia; more have been recorded from temperate North Pacific than the North Atlantic. Of tropical regions, the Central Indo-Pacific is home to more species any other region. Isopods are decidedly asymmetrical latitudinally with 1.35 times as many species in temperate Southern Hemisphere than the temperate North Atlantic and northern Pacific, and almost four times as many Antarctic as Arctic species. More species are known from the

  13. Global Diversity of Marine Isopods (Except Asellota and Crustacean Symbionts)

    PubMed Central

    Poore, Gary C. B.; Bruce, Niel L.

    2012-01-01

    The crustacean order Isopoda (excluding Asellota, crustacean symbionts and freshwater taxa) comprise 3154 described marine species in 379 genera in 37 families according to the WoRMS catalogue. The history of taxonomic discovery over the last two centuries is reviewed. Although a well defined order with the Peracarida, their relationship to other orders is not yet resolved but systematics of the major subordinal taxa is relatively well understood. Isopods range in size from less than 1 mm to Bathynomus giganteus at 365 mm long. They inhabit all marine habitats down to 7280 m depth but with few doubtful exceptions species have restricted biogeographic and bathymetric ranges. Four feeding categories are recognised as much on the basis of anecdotal evidence as hard data: detritus feeders and browsers, carnivores, parasites, and filter feeders. Notable among these are the Cymothooidea that range from predators and scavengers to external blood-sucking micropredators and parasites. Isopods brood 10–1600 eggs depending on individual species. Strong sexual dimorphism is characteristic of several families, notably in Gnathiidae where sessile males live with a harem of females while juvenile praniza stages are ectoparasites of fish. Protandry is known in Cymothoidae and protogyny in Anthuroidea. Some Paranthuridae are neotenous. About half of all coastal, shelf and upper bathyal species have been recorded in the MEOW temperate realms, 40% in tropical regions and the remainder in polar seas. The greatest concentration of temperate species is in Australasia; more have been recorded from temperate North Pacific than the North Atlantic. Of tropical regions, the Central Indo-Pacific is home to more species any other region. Isopods are decidedly asymmetrical latitudinally with 1.35 times as many species in temperate Southern Hemisphere than the temperate North Atlantic and northern Pacific, and almost four times as many Antarctic as Arctic species. More species are known from

  14. Contemporary Parallel Diversification, Antipredator Adaptations and Phenotypic Integration in an Aquatic Isopod

    PubMed Central

    Eroukhmanoff, Fabrice; Svensson, Erik I.

    2009-01-01

    It is increasingly being recognized that predation can be a strong diversifying agent promoting ecological divergence. Adaptations against different predatory regimes can emerge over short periods of time and include many different traits. We studied antipredator adaptations in two ecotypes of an isopod (Asellus aquaticus) that have, diverged in parallel in two Swedish lakes over the last two decades. We quantified differences in escape speed, morphology and behavior for isopods from different ecotypes present in these lakes. Isopods from the source habitat (reed) coexist with mainly invertebrate predators. They are more stream-profiled and have higher escape speeds than isopods in the newly colonized stonewort habitat, which has higher density of fish predators. Stonewort isopods also show more cautious behaviors and had higher levels of phenotypic integration between coloration and morphological traits than the reed isopods. Colonization of a novel habitat with a different predation regime has thus strengthened the correlations between pigmentation and morphology and weakened escape performance. The strong signature of parallelism for these phenotypic traits indicates that divergence is likely to be adaptive and is likely to have been driven by differences in predatory regimes. Furthermore, our results indicate that physical performance, behavior and morphology can change rapidly and in concert as new habitats are colonized. PMID:19587791

  15. Ommochrome genesis in an albino strain of a terrestrial isopod.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Y; Negishi, S; Naito, J; Ikeda, R; Hasegawa, H; Nagamura, Y; Ishiguro, I

    1999-01-01

    The contents of tryptophan (Trp) metabolites and the activities of the enzymes involved in ommochrome biosynthesis were measured in an albino strain of a terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare. There was little difference between the Trp content in the albino mutant and that in the wild type, although the contents of 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-OH-Kyn), 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-OH-AA) and xanthommatin in the albino were significantly lower than those in the wild type. Tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) activity in the albino was extremely low, while the activities of Kyn-3-hydroxylase and kynureninase did not differ significantly between the two phenotypes. The extremely low activity of TDO is probably one of main reasons why almost no ommochrome pigment is produced in the albino mutant. PMID:10721113

  16. [Fungi at the beach].

    PubMed

    Szepetiuk, G; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Piérard, G E

    2010-01-01

    Fungi responsible for dermatomycoses survive in a resting phase inside diverse parts of the environment. Sand in the wet, partly wet and dry portions of the beaches frequently contains dermatophytes, yeasts and moulds. These microorganisms possibly infect skin and nails during summertime.

  17. The trophic significance of the invasive seaweed Sargassum muticum in sandy beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Francesca; Olabarria, Celia; Incera, Mónica; Garrido, Josefina

    2010-01-01

    Native and exotic seaweeds frequently lie on the beach and sustain part of the benthic food web. However, the role of exotic seaweeds as food sources for beach consumers has been poorly studied. We studied the temporal and spatial variability in the trophic significance of the invasive brown seaweed Sargassum muticum on sandy beaches. We measured the stable isotopes ( δ13C and δ15N) in the tissues of S. muticum and of invertebrate consumers and estimated the dietary biomass proportion of S. muticum during four sampling dates at two beaches and heights on the shore. Samples were collected from eight pitfall traps placed at a distance of 2 m from each other. Detrital macroalgae and seagrasses were also collected by hand within an area of 30 cm around each pitfall trap. We measured the spatial and temporal variability in the isotope composition of the beach consumers and of S. muticum using different models of analyses of variance. We then calculated the biomass proportion of S. muticum to the animal diet with a two-isotopic mixing model. The invasive alga S. muticum seemed to be one of the main food sources for the amphipod Talitrus saltator and, to a less extent, for the isopod Tylos europaeus. The importance of S. muticum was however temporally variable and decreased during spring (in March and May), probably due to the availability of native macrophytes. The supply of invasive wrack to beach food webs thus deserves more attention if we want to understand their role in influencing food web dynamics.

  18. Traits underpinning desiccation resistance explain distribution patterns of terrestrial isopods.

    PubMed

    Dias, André T C; Krab, Eveline J; Mariën, Janine; Zimmer, Martin; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Ellers, Jacintha; Wardle, David A; Berg, Matty P

    2013-07-01

    Predicted changes in soil water availability regimes with climate and land-use change will impact the community of functionally important soil organisms, such as macro-detritivores. Identifying and quantifying the functional traits that underlie interspecific differences in desiccation resistance will enhance our ability to predict both macro-detritivore community responses to changing water regimes and the consequences of the associated species shifts for organic matter turnover. Using path analysis, we tested (1) how interspecific differences in desiccation resistance among 22 northwestern European terrestrial isopod species could be explained by three underlying traits measured under standard laboratory conditions, namely, body ventral surface area, water loss rate and fatal water loss; (2) whether these relationships were robust to contrasting experimental conditions and to the phylogenetic relatedness effects being excluded; (3) whether desiccation resistance and hypothesized underlying traits could explain species distribution patterns in relation to site water availability. Water loss rate and (secondarily) fatal water loss together explained 90% of the interspecific variation in desiccation resistance. Our path model indicated that body surface area affects desiccation resistance only indirectly via changes in water loss rate. Our results also show that soil moisture determines isopod species distributions by filtering them according to traits underpinning desiccation resistance. These findings reveal that it is possible to use functional traits measured under standard conditions to predict soil biota responses to water availability in the field over broad spatial scales. Taken together, our results demonstrate an increasing need to generate mechanistic models to predict the effect of global changes on functionally important organisms.

  19. Reduction and methylation of mercury in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea) and its environment.

    PubMed

    Nolde, Natasa; Drobne, Damjana; Horvat, Milena; Jereb, Vesna

    2005-07-01

    Reduction and methylation of inorganic mercury in Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea) and its environment were studied, using a purpose-built experimental setup where Hg cycling was followed using 203Hg2+ tracer in experiments without and with isopods. In experiment without isopods, daily reduction of 203Hg2+ to 203Hg0 under sterile and nonsterile conditions was measured for three weeks to assess the contribution of bacteria to this process. In experiments with isopods, daily release of 203Hg0 was measured for two weeks. Total mercury (T203Hg) and monomethylmercury (Me203Hg) in whole animals, gut, digestive glands (hepatopancreas), food (hazelnut leaves), and feces were measured to obtain the assimilation and distribution of mercury in the animals, to investigate the origin and fate of Me203Hg, and, finally, to assess the mass balance of mercury in the experimental system. Experiment without isopods showed the important role of bacteria in reduction of 203Hg2+ to 203Hg0, especially in the first day of the experiment. Experiments with isopods showed that formation of 203Hg0 depended on the 203Hg2+ concentration in the food. The contribution of the isopod's digestive flora in reduction of 203Hg2+ to 203Hg0 was negligible. Approximately 3% of T203Hg and 2% of Me203Hg consumed was assimilated by the animals. Methylation of 203Hg2+ occurred already in the leaves before they were consumed by the isopods. Assimilation of Me203Hg from the food surprisingly was low. Also, a loss of Me203Hg was noticed when comparing assimilated and excreted Me203Hg versus consumed Me203Hg. This may be explained by the assumption that demethylation of MeHg prevailed over methylation of Hg2+ in the animal's digestive system, leading to excretion of ingested mercury as Hg2+.

  20. Widespread atypical mitochondrial DNA structure in isopods (Crustacea, Peracarida) related to a constitutive heteroplasmy in terrestrial species.

    PubMed

    Doublet, Vincent; Raimond, Roland; Grandjean, Frédéric; Lafitte, Alexandra; Souty-Grosset, Catherine; Marcadé, Isabelle

    2012-03-01

    Metazoan mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is generally composed of circular monomeric molecules. However, a few exceptions do exist and among them two terrestrial isopods Armadillidium vulgare and Porcellionides pruinosus have an atypical mtDNA composed of linear monomers associated with circular "head-to-head" dimers: a very unusual structure for animal mtDNA genome. To assess the distribution of this atypical mtDNA among isopods, we performed RFLP and Southern blot analyses on mtDNA of 16 terrestrial (Oniscidea family) and two aquatic isopod species: the marine Sphaeroma serratum (suborder Flabellifera, sister group of Oniscidea) and the freshwater Asellus aquaticus (Asellota, early derived taxon of isopod). The atypical mtDNA structure was observed in 15 terrestrial isopod species and A. aquaticus, suggesting a wide distribution of atypical mtDNA among isopods. However, a typical metazoan mtDNA structure was detected in the marine isopod S. serratum and the Oniscidea Ligia oceanica . Our results suggest two possible scenarios: an early origin of the atypical mtDNA in isopods followed by reversion to the typical ancestral mtDNA structure for several species, or a convergent appearance of the atypical mtDNA structure in two isopod suborders. We compare this distribution of the atypical mtDNA structure with the presence of a heteroplasmy also observed in the mtDNA of several terrestrial isopod species. We discuss if this transmitted heteroplasmy is vectored by the atypical mtDNA and its impact on the maintenance of the atypical mtDNA in isopods. PMID:22376074

  1. Widespread atypical mitochondrial DNA structure in isopods (Crustacea, Peracarida) related to a constitutive heteroplasmy in terrestrial species.

    PubMed

    Doublet, Vincent; Raimond, Roland; Grandjean, Frédéric; Lafitte, Alexandra; Souty-Grosset, Catherine; Marcadé, Isabelle

    2012-03-01

    Metazoan mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is generally composed of circular monomeric molecules. However, a few exceptions do exist and among them two terrestrial isopods Armadillidium vulgare and Porcellionides pruinosus have an atypical mtDNA composed of linear monomers associated with circular "head-to-head" dimers: a very unusual structure for animal mtDNA genome. To assess the distribution of this atypical mtDNA among isopods, we performed RFLP and Southern blot analyses on mtDNA of 16 terrestrial (Oniscidea family) and two aquatic isopod species: the marine Sphaeroma serratum (suborder Flabellifera, sister group of Oniscidea) and the freshwater Asellus aquaticus (Asellota, early derived taxon of isopod). The atypical mtDNA structure was observed in 15 terrestrial isopod species and A. aquaticus, suggesting a wide distribution of atypical mtDNA among isopods. However, a typical metazoan mtDNA structure was detected in the marine isopod S. serratum and the Oniscidea Ligia oceanica . Our results suggest two possible scenarios: an early origin of the atypical mtDNA in isopods followed by reversion to the typical ancestral mtDNA structure for several species, or a convergent appearance of the atypical mtDNA structure in two isopod suborders. We compare this distribution of the atypical mtDNA structure with the presence of a heteroplasmy also observed in the mtDNA of several terrestrial isopod species. We discuss if this transmitted heteroplasmy is vectored by the atypical mtDNA and its impact on the maintenance of the atypical mtDNA in isopods.

  2. Active and passive migration in boring isopods Limnoria spp. (Crustacea, Peracarida) from kelp holdfasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, Leonardo; Thiel, Martin

    2008-10-01

    Many boring isopods inhabit positively buoyant substrata (wood and algae), which float after detachment, permitting passive migration of inhabitants. Based on observations from previous studies, it was hypothesized that juvenile, subadult and male isopods migrate actively, and will rapidly abandon substrata after detachment. In contrast, reproductive females and small offspring were predicted to remain in floating substrata and thus have a high probability to disperse passively via rafting. In order to test this hypothesis, a colonization and an emigration experiment were conducted with giant kelp ( Macrocystis integrifolia), the holdfasts of which are inhabited by boring isopods from the genus Limnoria. A survey of benthic substrata in the kelp forest confirmed that limnoriids inhabited the holdfasts and did not occur in holdfast-free samples. Results of the colonization experiment showed that all life history stages of the boring isopods immigrated into young, largely uncolonized holdfasts, and after 16 weeks all holdfasts were densely colonized. In the emigration experiment, all life history stages of the isopods rapidly abandoned the detached holdfasts — already 5 min after detachment only few individuals remained in the floating holdfasts. After this initial rapid emigration of isopods, little changes in isopod abundance occurred during the following 24 h, and at the end of the experiment some individuals of all life history stages still remained in the holdfasts. These results indicate that all life history stages of Limnoria participate in both active migration and passive dispersal. It is discussed that storm-related dynamics within kelp forests may contribute to intense mixing of local populations of these burrow-dwelling isopods, and that most immigrants to young holdfasts probably are individuals emigrating from old holdfasts detached during storm events. The fact that some individuals of all life history stages and both sexes remain in floating

  3. Getting Aquainted with Beaches and Coasts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWall, Allan E.

    1980-01-01

    Explains how a shoreline is formed and how it changes, and why its changes do not always coincide with human plans. Subjects discussed include beaches, beach processes, inlets and beaches, and a marine glossary. (Author/DS)

  4. Parasitic isopods from marine fishes off Nagapattinam coast, India.

    PubMed

    Rameshkumar, Ganapathy; Ramesh, Mathan; Ravichandran, Samuthirapandian; Trilles, Jean-Paul

    2016-09-01

    This study was conducted from August 2013 to January 2014. Host fishes were collected from the Nagapattinam Coast, India. During the sampling period, 242 fishes were infested out of 1440 specimens examined from nine different species of marine fishes. A total of 267 parasitic isopods belonging to nine cymothoid species viz., Anilocra dimidiata (Bleeker 1857), Catoessa boscii (Bleeker 1857), Cymothoa indica (Schioedte and Meinert 1884), Joryma sawayah (Bowman and Tareen 1983), Nerocila arres (Bowman and Tareen 1983), N.loveni (Bovallius 1887) N. phaiopleura (Bleeker 1857), N. serra (Schioedte and Meinert 1881) and N.sundaica (Bleeker 1857) were collected. The Nerocila species were attached to the pectoral fin, the caudal peduncle and different regions of the body surface of the host fishes. The specimen belonging to the species Catoessa boscii, Cymothoa indica and Joryma sawayah were collected from the mouth and the branchial cavity of the infected fishes. Anilocra dimidiata was only found on the body surface of the host fish. The overall prevalence reached 16.80 %. A maximum prevalence was observed in C. boscii parasitizing Carangoides malabaricus (26.81 %) and a minimum prevalence in N. sundaica parasitizing Terapon puta (P = 7.31 %). The mean intensity ranged from 1 to 1.3. PMID:27605814

  5. Photosensitive neurogenic heart of the isopod crustacean Ligia exotica

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Horiguchi, Hiroko; Hariyama, Takahiko; Takano, Satoshi; Yamagishi, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    The heart of animals is regulated through the central nervous system in response to external sensory stimuli. We found, however, that the adult neurogenic heart of the isopod crustacean Ligia exotica has photosensitivity. The beat frequency of the isolated heart decreased in response to a light stimulus. Magnitude of the response was stimulus intensity dependent and the heartbeat frequency decreased to less than 80% of the dark value during illumination of the white light with an intensity of 6.0 mW cm−2. The spectral sensitivity curve of the heart photoresponse peaked at a wavelength around 520 nm. In response to 530 nm monochromatic light, the relationship between light intensity and response magnitude was linear and the threshold intensity was 7.26×1012 quanta cm−2 s−1. Bursting activity of the cardiac ganglion, which is located in the heart and acts as the cardiac pacemaker deceased in frequency in response to illumination by white light. This fact suggests that the heart photoresponse of L. exotica results from the photosensitivity of the cardiac ganglion neurons. The photoresponse of the heart therefore contributes to regulation of cardiac output in addition to other regulatory systems. PMID:16959646

  6. Sound production in the aquatic isopod Cymodoce japonica (Crustacea: Peracarida).

    PubMed

    Nakamachi, Takeru; Ishida, Hideki; Hirohashi, Noritaka

    2015-10-01

    A vast variety of acoustic behaviors and mechanisms occur in arthropods. Sound production, in particular, in insects and decapod crustaceans has been well documented. However, except for a brief, anecdotal statement, there has been no report on the acoustic behavior of aquatic isopods. We present the first empirical evidence in aquatic Isopoda that males of Cymodoce japonica produce sound by stridulation, or the rubbing together of body parts. Sound production was associated with tail-lifting behavior, suggesting that stridulation occurs on thoracic and/or abdominal somites. Acoustic analysis revealed that syllable length was similar throughout the stridulation, at a mode of 2500-3000 Hz. With a scanning electron microscope, we identified file-like structures on the inner surface of the dorsal exoskeleton. Each file consisted of 188 ± 11.1 ridges at about 0.5 μm intervals; the theoretical frequency (number of ridges per syllable length) was estimated to be 2208-3646 Hz. This finding suggests that the stridulation sounds arose from these structures. Laboratory observations show that stridulation may play a role in the threatening of other males in the context of territorial and/or reproductive competitions.

  7. Long-term Hg pollution induced Hg tolerance in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Lapanje, A; Drobne, D; Nolde, N; Valant, J; Muscet, B; Leser, V; Rupnik, M

    2008-06-01

    The aim of our work was to assess the pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) of isopod gut microbiota and pollution-induced isopod population tolerance (PIPT). Animals collected from a chronically Hg polluted and an unpolluted location were exposed for 14 days to 10microg Hg/g dry food under laboratory conditions. The lysosomal membrane stability, hepatopancreas epithelium thickness, feeding activity and animal bacterial gut microbiota composition were determined. The results confirm the hypothesis that the response to short-term Hg exposure differs for animals from the Hg polluted and the unpolluted field locations. The animals and their gut microbiota from the Hg polluted location were less affected by Hg in a short-term feeding experiment than those from the unpolluted environment. We discuss the pollution-induced population tolerance of isopods and their gut microbiota as a measure of effects of long-term environmental pollution. The ecological consequences of such phenomena are also discussed.

  8. Variation of the Beach Profile, Ocean Beach, San Francisco, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J. E.; Ho, T.; Li, A.; Perez, A.; Wong, Y.; Bissell, M.

    2006-12-01

    Ocean Beach is a 7-km-long stretch of beach that is the western boundary of the city of San Francisco with the Pacific Ocean. This beach is exposed to large winter waves produced in the North Pacific and smaller summer waves from both the North and South Pacific. Recent decades have seen an increased rate of erosion at the south end of the beach that has led to the partial collapse of a parking lot, and continued erosion threatens both public and private infrastructure. To gain an understanding of the variation in beach profiles we established six cross-shore profiles approximately 1 km apart. Each profile represents a part of the beach that experiences different wave conditions, caused by refraction across the San Francisco Bar, and thus has a different morphologic response to offshore sea conditions. The six sub-aerial profiles were measured using a total station one week apart in August 2006. All profiles increased in elevation and five of the six profiles showed the early formation or continued growth of berms. The same profiles will be re-analyzed in the autumn to determine further change, and compared to data collected by a 2004 SF-ROCKS group that also studied Ocean Beach. We will relate beach profile change to wave conditions measured at an offshore buoy to determine what wave conditions cause profile accretion or erosion. The results of this study will shed light on the processes occurring at Ocean Beach and will help us to understand why the south end of the beach is eroding.

  9. Uptake and elimination of benzo[a]pyrene in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber.

    PubMed

    van Brummelen, T C; van Straalen, N M

    1996-08-01

    In isopods from contaminated sites relatively low levels of high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been observed, which may be caused by either a low bioavailability or a high elimination rate. To shed light on this, the uptake and elimination rates of benzo[a]pyrene were estimated for the isopod Porcellio scaber. The isopod was fed contaminated food (100 microg benzo[a]pyrene/g dwt) for seven weeks followed by four weeks of untreated food. The hindguts of the animals were removed prior to analysis to exclude food material from the body. Benzo[a]pyrene concentrations were log-normally distributed among the individuals. The high inter-individual variation in benzo[a]pyrene content could not be explained from differences in sex, the estimated amount of food in the hindgut, or the body weight. A one-compartment model fitted to the isopod concentrations estimated an assimilation rate of 2.9 microg benzo[a]pyrene/g dwt day, an elimination rate constant of 1.1/day and an equilibrium concentration of 2.5 microg benzo[a]pyrene/g dwt. According to the model 68% of the isopod population had an equilibrium concentration between 1.0 and 7.2 microg benzo[a]pyrene/g dwt day with a benzo[a]pyrene half-life ranging between 0.4 and 1.3 days. The assimilation efficiency was estimated at 20 to 40% of the ingested benzo[a]pyrene. The tissue distribution of benzo[a]pyrene was investigated in a separate experiment. Trace levels of benzo[a]pyrene were detected in haemolymph samples, demonstrating absorption and transport of the compound in the isopod. It is concluded that dietary benzo[a]pyrene is available for uptake to the isopod and that low residues of the compound observed in field isopods are the result of a high elimination rate rather than a reduced bioavailability. As PAHs from soil appear to be available to soil invertebrates, the widespread contamination of the soil from atmospheric emissions is of some concern, especially since the observed

  10. Beach-cusp formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger, A.H., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Field experiments on beach-cusp formation were undertaken to document how the cuspate form develops and to test the edge-wave hypothesis on the uniform spacing of cusps. These involved observations of cusps forming from an initially plane foreshore. The cuspate form was observed to be a product of swash modification of an intertidal beach ridge as follows. A ridge, cut by a series of channels quasi-equally spaced along its length, was deposited onto the lower foreshore. The ridge migrated shoreward with flood tide, while the longshore positions of the channels remained fixed. On ebb tide, changes in swash circulation over the ridge allowed the upwash to flow shoreward through the channels and the channel mouths were eroded progressively wider until adjacent mouths met, effecting a cuspate shape. Measured spacings of cusps, ranging in size from less than 1 m to more than 12 m, agree well with computed spacings due to either zero-mode subharmonic or zero-mode synchronous edge waves. Edge-wave-induced longshore variations in run up will cause water ponded behind a ridge to converge at points of low swash and flow seaward as relatively narrow currents eroding channels spaced at one edge-wave wavelength for synchronous edge waves or one half wavelength for subharmonic edge waves. The channels are subsequently modified into cusp troughs as described above.

  11. Overview of Pacific Island carbonate beach systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richmond, B.M.; ,

    2000-01-01

    Beach systems in Pacific Islands are Holocene deposits of reef-dervied and terrigenous sediment. Thus, geologic setting is important in determining the success at which beach systems are established. Generally, older islands exhibit better beach system development. Although modern beach systems are composed of Holocene sediment, development of suitable accommodation space requires more geologic time.

  12. [Free amino acids of hemolymph of marine isopods, Sphaeroma hookers Sphaeroma serratum (Flabellifera) and Idotea balthica (Valvifera)].

    PubMed

    Charmantier, G; Charmantier, M; Voss-Foucart, M F; Jeuniaux, C

    1976-12-01

    The total concentration of the free amino acids in the hemolymph is higher (about twice the amount in three species of marine Isopods (Sphaeroma hookeri, S. serratum and Idotea balthica) than in Decapods. In the three species so far studied, the proportions of glycine and taurine are always rather high. In the Sphaeromatidae, serine is the most concentrated amino acid while the proline concentration is comparatively low. The situation is reversed in Idotea balthica. In Crustaceans, the free amino acid composition of the hemolymph thus appears, both quantitatively and qualitatively, to be a biochemical character of marine Isopods when compared to Oniscoids Isopods and to Decapods.

  13. Assemblages of terrestrial isopods (Isopoda, Oniscidea) in a fragmented forest landscape in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Tajovský, Karel; Hošek, Jan; Hofmeister, Jeňýk; Wytwer, Jolanta

    2012-01-01

    Terrestrial isopods were collected in 13 forest fragments differing in area (within the range of 0.1 and 254.5 ha), shape and composition of forest vegetation (thermophilous oak, mesophilous oak-hornbeam, thermophilous oak-hornbeam, acidophilous oak, basiphilous oak, beech oak-hornbeam, moist mixed deciduous forest, plantations of deciduous and coniferous trees), all situated in the Český kras Protected Landscape Area, Czech Republic, Central Europe. Number of sites sampled in each fragment of forest depended on its size and ranged from 1 to 7. Altogether 30 sites were sampled. Soil samples (5 per site collected twice a year) and pitfall trapping (5 traps per site in continuous operation throughout a year) during 2008-2009 yielded a total of 14 species of terrestrial isopods. The highest densities and highest epigeic activities of terrestrial isopods were recorded in the smallest fragments of woodland. Although a wider range of habitats were sampled in the larger fragments of woodland there was not a greater diversity of species there and the population densities and epigeic activities recorded there were lower. Porcellium collicola was most abundant in small fragments of woodland regardless the vegetation there. Armadillidium vulgare and Protracheoniscus politus were statistically more abundant in the larger fragments of woodland. The results indicate that forest fragmentation does not necessarily result in a decrease in the species richness of the isopod assemblages in such habitats. PMID:22536108

  14. POPULATION STRUCTURE AND ENERGETICS OF THE BOPRYID ISOPOD PARASITE ORTHIONE GRIFFENIS IN MUD SHRIMP UPOGEBIA PUGETTENSIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The population structure and energetic burden of bopyrid isopod parasite Orthione griffenis on the eastern Pacific mud shrimp Upogebia pugettensis are estimated from size and weight relationships between parasite and host. U. pugettensis weight loss increases with O. griffenis weight but the high v...

  15. Pyrene biotransformation and kinetics in the hepatopancreas of the isopod Porcellio scaber.

    PubMed

    Stroomberg, G J; Ariese, F; Gestel, C A M van; Hattum Bv, B van; Velthorst, N H; Straalen, N M van

    2004-10-01

    Various techniques exist for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) determination in environmental samples, but an adequate risk assessment of PAHs should include aspects such as bioavailability of the contaminant and biotransformation capacity of the species under investigation. In this study, we provided an analysis of the kinetics of pyrene in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber. Isopods were exposed to pyrene in their food (10 microg/g d/w) for 7 days followed by an elimination period of 7 days. The animals were dissected, and the hepatopancreases were analyzed for pyrene biotransformation products; nonmetabolised pyrene in the gut was also monitored. Concentrations of 1-hydroxypyrene in the hepatopancreas were very low. Almost all of the pyrene was found as three conjugates: pyrene-1-glucoside, pyrene-1-sulfate, and a third unknown 1-hydroxypyrene conjugate. Concentrations of the metabolites were extremely variable between individuals because of variable feeding activity. An apparent steady state was reached already after 24 hours of exposure, whereas elimination was complete 48 hours after ending the exposure. This rapid response to changes in the exposure concentration shows that terrestrial isopods have a high biotransformation capacity for PAHs. The data show that concentrations of parent PAHs will not provide a good indication of exposure in rapidly metabolizing invertebrates such as isopods; instead, pyrene metabolites may be considered a promising biomarker for bioavailability of PAH contamination in the field.

  16. Evidence for Permo-Triassic colonization of the deep sea by isopods.

    PubMed

    Lins, Luana S F; Ho, Simon Y W; Wilson, George D F; Lo, Nathan

    2012-12-23

    The deep sea is one of the largest ecosystems on Earth and is home to a highly diverse fauna, with polychaetes, molluscs and peracarid crustaceans as dominant groups. A number of studies have proposed that this fauna did not survive the anoxic events that occurred during the Mesozoic Era. Accordingly, the modern fauna is thought to be relatively young, perhaps having colonized the deep sea after the Eocene/Oligocene boundary. To test this hypothesis, we performed phylogenetic analyses of nuclear ribosomal 18S and 28S and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I and 16S sequences from isopod crustaceans. Using a molecular clock calibrated with multiple isopod fossils, we estimated the timing of deep-sea colonization events by isopods. Our results show that some groups have an ancient origin in the deep sea, with the earliest estimated dates spanning 232-314 Myr ago. Therefore, anoxic events at the Permian-Triassic boundary and during the Mesozoic did not cause the extinction of all the deep-sea fauna; some species may have gone extinct while others survived and proliferated. The monophyly of the 'munnopsid radiation' within the isopods suggests that the ancestors of this group evolved in the deep sea and did not move to shallow-water refugia during anoxic events.

  17. Isopods failed to acclimate their thermal sensitivity of locomotor performance during predictable or stochastic cooling.

    PubMed

    Schuler, Matthew S; Cooper, Brandon S; Storm, Jonathan J; Sears, Michael W; Angilletta, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Most organisms experience environments that vary continuously over time, yet researchers generally study phenotypic responses to abrupt and sustained changes in environmental conditions. Gradual environmental changes, whether predictable or stochastic, might affect organisms differently than do abrupt changes. To explore this possibility, we exposed terrestrial isopods (Porcellio scaber) collected from a highly seasonal environment to four thermal treatments: (1) a constant 20°C; (2) a constant 10°C; (3) a steady decline from 20° to 10°C; and (4) a stochastic decline from 20° to 10°C that mimicked natural conditions during autumn. After 45 days, we measured thermal sensitivities of running speed and thermal tolerances (critical thermal maximum and chill-coma recovery time). Contrary to our expectation, thermal treatments did not affect the thermal sensitivity of locomotion; isopods from all treatments ran fastest at 33° to 34°C and achieved more than 80% of their maximal speed over a range of 10° to 11°C. Isopods exposed to a stochastic decline in temperature tolerated cold the best, and isopods exposed to a constant temperature of 20°C tolerated cold the worst. No significant variation in heat tolerance was observed among groups. Therefore, thermal sensitivity and heat tolerance failed to acclimate to any type of thermal change, whereas cold tolerance acclimated more during stochastic change than it did during abrupt change.

  18. Toxicity of abamectin to the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Kolar, Lucija; Jemec, Anita; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Valant, Janez; Hrzenjak, Rok; Erzen, Nevenka Kozuh; Zidar, Primoz

    2010-06-01

    To determine effects of the antiparasitic veterinary drug abamectin on the isopod Porcellio scaber, animals were exposed for 21 days to Lufa 2.2 soil spiked at concentrations of 3-300 mg/kg dry soil. After exposure, abamectin residues in the isopods were analysed using a novel analytical method. Toxicity was evaluated on different levels of biological organisation: biochemical, cellular and the individual organism. Measurements included glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and stability of cell membranes in the digestive gland, animal mass gain or loss, food consumption, behaviour and mortality. LC50 for the effect of abamectin on survival of P. scaber was 71 mg/kg dry soil. The most obvious sublethal effects were reduced food consumption and decreased body mass (NOEC 3 mg/kg dry soil). Additionally, loss of digging activity and reduced GST activity (NOEC 30 mg/kg dry soil) and cell membrane destabilization (NOEC 10 mg/kg dry soil) were recorded. Abamectin only slightly accumulated in the isopods, with bioaccumulation factors always being <0.1. Based on these results and current information on environmental levels of abamectin, it is not likely that isopods will be affected by abamectin, but further studies with exposure through faeces are recommended.

  19. Assemblages of terrestrial isopods (Isopoda, Oniscidea) in a fragmented forest landscape in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Tajovský, Karel; Hošek, Jan; Hofmeister, Jeňýk; Wytwer, Jolanta

    2012-01-01

    Terrestrial isopods were collected in 13 forest fragments differing in area (within the range of 0.1 and 254.5 ha), shape and composition of forest vegetation (thermophilous oak, mesophilous oak-hornbeam, thermophilous oak-hornbeam, acidophilous oak, basiphilous oak, beech oak-hornbeam, moist mixed deciduous forest, plantations of deciduous and coniferous trees), all situated in the Český kras Protected Landscape Area, Czech Republic, Central Europe. Number of sites sampled in each fragment of forest depended on its size and ranged from 1 to 7. Altogether 30 sites were sampled. Soil samples (5 per site collected twice a year) and pitfall trapping (5 traps per site in continuous operation throughout a year) during 2008-2009 yielded a total of 14 species of terrestrial isopods. The highest densities and highest epigeic activities of terrestrial isopods were recorded in the smallest fragments of woodland. Although a wider range of habitats were sampled in the larger fragments of woodland there was not a greater diversity of species there and the population densities and epigeic activities recorded there were lower. Porcellium collicola was most abundant in small fragments of woodland regardless the vegetation there. Armadillidium vulgare and Protracheoniscus politus were statistically more abundant in the larger fragments of woodland. The results indicate that forest fragmentation does not necessarily result in a decrease in the species richness of the isopod assemblages in such habitats.

  20. Characterization of polymorphic microsatellite loci in the marine isopod Sphaeroma terebrans (Crustacea, Isopoda).

    PubMed

    Baratti, Mariella; Filippelli, Mariateresa; Messana, Giuseppe; Papetti, Chiara; Patarnello, Tomaso; Zane, Lorenzo

    2009-07-01

    Nine polymorphic microsatellites were characterized in the marine isopod Sphaeroma terebrans (Isopoda, Sphaeromatidae) for phylogeographic and parentage analyses. The number of alleles ranged from 3 to 10. Observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.428 to 0.950, while expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.532 to 0.889. Heterozygote deficiency was detected for one locus, possibly the result of null alleles.

  1. Evidence for widespread Wolbachia infection in isopod crustaceans: molecular identification and host feminization.

    PubMed Central

    Bouchon, D; Rigaud, T; Juchault, P

    1998-01-01

    Wolbachia are maternally inherited, intracellular, alpha proteobacteria that infect a wide range of arthropods. They cause three kinds of reproductive alterations in their hosts: cytoplasmic incompatibility, parthenogenesis and feminization. There have been many studies of the distribution of Wolbachia in arthropods, but very few crustacean species are known to be infected. We investigated the prevalence of Wolbachia in 85 species from five crustacean orders. Twenty-two isopod species were found to carry these bacteria. The bacteria were found mainly in terrestrial species, suggesting that Wolbachia came from a continental environment. The evolutionary relationships between these Wolbachia strains were determined by sequencing bacterial genes and by interspecific transfers. All the bacteria associated with isopods belonged to the Wolbachia B group, based on 16S rDNA sequence data. All the terrestrial isopod symbionts in this group except one formed an independent clade. The results of interspecific transfers show evidence of specialization of Wolbachia symbionts to their isopod hosts. They also suggest that host species plays a more important role than bacterial phylogeny in determining the phenotype induced by Wolbachia infection. PMID:9684374

  2. Beach Volume Change Using Uav Photogrammetry Songjung Beach, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, C. I.; Oh, T. S.

    2016-06-01

    Natural beach is controlled by many factors related to wave and tidal forces, wind, sediment, and initial topography. For this reason, if numerous topographic data of beach is accurately collected, coastal erosion/acceleration is able to be assessed and clarified. Generally, however, many studies on coastal erosion have limitation to analyse the whole beach, carried out of partial area as like shoreline (horizontal 2D) and beach profile (vertical 2D) on account of limitation of numerical simulation. This is an important application for prevention of coastal erosion, and UAV photogrammetry is also used to 3D topographic data. This paper analyses the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) to 3D map and beach volume change. UAV (Quadcopter) equipped with a non-metric camera was used to acquire images in Songjung beach which is located south-east Korea peninsula. The dynamics of beach topography, its geometric properties and estimates of eroded and deposited sand volumes were determined by combining elevation data with quarterly RTK-VRS measurements. To explore the new possibilities for assessment of coastal change we have developed a methodology for 3D analysis of coastal topography evolution based on existing high resolution elevation data combined with low coast, UAV and on-ground RTK-VRS surveys. DSMs were obtained by stereo-matching using Agisoft Photoscan. Using GCPs the vertical accuracy of the DSMs was found to be 10 cm or better. The resulting datasets were integrated in a local coordinates and the method proved to be a very useful fool for the detection of areas where coastal erosion occurs and for the quantification of beach change. The value of such analysis is illustrated by applications to coastal of South Korea sites that face significant management challenges.

  3. On the role of Posidonia oceanica beach wrack for macroinvertebrates of a Tyrrhenian sandy shore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombini, Isabella; Mateo, Miguel Ángel; Serrano, Oscar; Fallaci, Mario; Gagnarli, Elena; Serrano, Laura; Chelazzi, Lorenzo

    2009-01-01

    The use of Posidonia oceanica beach wrack by macroinvertebrates of the sandy beach at Burano (Tuscany, Italy) was assessed by following the colonisation dynamics of the wrack and analysing the stable isotopes 'scenario' of the main local carbon and nitrogen sources and consumers. One-hundred experimental cylinders, filled with P. oceanica wrack, were placed on the beach and sampled over a 1-month period. Abundance and species richness of macroinvertebrates in wracks varied through time. Wrack was colonised by crustaceans almost immediately after deployment of the experimental cylinders. The amphipod Talitrus saltator largely dominated the faunal assembly and, together with the isopod Tylos europaeus, occupied the wracks closer to the sealine. These were followed by dipterans, staphylinids, pselaphids and tenebrionids that occurred in drier wracks higher up on the eulittoral. Moisture content of the wrack and sand decreased through space and time. This was the primary factor explaining the spatial and temporal changes observed in macroinvertebrate abundance, with species colonising or abandoning wracks according to thresholds of environmental parameters. Isotopic analysis clearly established the absence of any direct dietary link between P. oceanica wrack and macroinvertebrates. Terrestrial food sources were also discarded. Both our experimental data and a literature search showed that the organic matter from seston as filtered by the sand is the most plausible carbon and nitrogen source for beach food webs. Even if P. oceanica wrack is not a trophic source for macroinvertebrates, it is vitally important as a physical structure that provides detritivorous and predatory species with refuge from environmentally stressful conditions.

  4. Nutrition in terrestrial isopods (Isopoda: Oniscidea): an evolutionary-ecological approach.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Martin

    2002-11-01

    The nutritional morphology, physiology and ecology of terrestrial isopods (Isopoda: Oniscidea) is significant in two respects. (1) Most oniscid isopods are truly terrestrial in terms of being totally independent of the aquatic environment. Thus, they have evolved adaptations to terrestrial food sources. (2) In many terrestrial ecosystems, isopods play an important role in decomposition processes through mechanical and chemical breakdown of plant litter and by enhancing microbial activity. While the latter aspect of nutrition is discussed only briefly in this review, I focus on the evolutionary ecology of feeding in terrestrial isopods. Due to their possessing chewing mouthparts, leaf litter is comminuted prior to being ingested, facilitating both enzymatic degradation during gut passage and microbial colonization of egested faeces. Digestion of food through endogenous enzymes produced in the caeca of the midgut glands (hepatopancreas) and through microbial enzymes, either ingested along with microbially colonized food or secreted by microbial endosymbionts, mainly takes place in the anterior part of the hindgut. Digestive processes include the activity of carbohydrases, proteases, dehydrogenases, esterases, lipases, arylamidases and oxidases, as well as the nutritional utilization of microbial cells. Absorption of nutrients is brought about by the hepatopancreas and/or the hindgut epithelium, the latter being also involved in osmoregulation and water balance. Minerals and metal cations are effectively extracted from the food, while overall assimilation efficiencies may be low. Heavy metals are stored in special organelles of the hepatopancreatic tissue. Nitrogenous waste products are excreted via ammonia in its gaseous form, with only little egested along with the faeces. Nonetheless, faeces are characterized by high nitrogen content and provide a favourable substrate for microbial colonization and growth. The presence of a dense microbial population on faecal

  5. Human Health at the Beach

    MedlinePlus

    ... near the site where polluted discharges enter the water. Pollution can also come from high concentrations of farm ... is available online. Other Beach Safety Topics Beyond water pollution, there are other potential threats to human health ...

  6. Popham Beach, Maine: An example of engineering activity that saved beach property without harming the beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Joseph T.

    2013-10-01

    Beach and property erosion on coasts is a widespread and chronic problem. Historical approaches to this issue, including seawalls and sand replenishment, are often inappropriate or too expensive. In Maine, seawalls were banned in 1983 and replenishment is too costly to employ. Replacement of storm-damaged buildings is also not allowed, and a precedent case on Popham Beach, Maine required that the owner remove an unpermitted building from a site where an earlier structure was damaged. When the most popular park in Maine, Popham Beach State Park, experienced inlet associated erosion that threatened park infrastructure (a bathhouse), temporary measures were all that the law allowed. Because it was clear that the inlet channel causing the erosion would eventually change course, the state opted to erect a temporary seawall with fallen trees at the site. This may or may not have slowed the erosion temporarily, but reassured the public that "something was being done". Once a storm cut a new tidal inlet channel and closed off the old one, tidal water still entered the former channel and continued to threaten the bathhouse. To ultimately save the property, beach scraping was employed. Sand was scraped from the lower beach to construct a sand berm that deflected the tidal current away from the endangered property. This action created enough time for natural processes to drive the remains of the former spit onto the beach and widen it significantly. Whereas many examples of engineering practices exist that endanger instead of saving beaches, this example is one of an appropriate engineering effort to rescue unwisely located beach-front property.

  7. Occurrence and assemblage composition of millipedes (Myriapoda, Diplopoda) and terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) in urban areas of Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Vilisics, Ferenc; Bogyó, Dávid; Sattler, Thomas; Moretti, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Terrestrial isopods and millipedes, members of the invertebrate macro-decomposer guild, were collected through pitfall traps in three Swiss cities (Zurich, Lucerne, Lugano). A total of 7,198 individuals of 17 isopod species (7093 ind.), and 10 millipede species (105 ind.) were captured. Besides the Alpine endemic isopod (Trichoniscus alemannicus) and millipede (Cylindroiulus verhoeffi), urban assemblages were mainly composed of widespread, native European and even cosmopolitan species, which are frequent in anthropogenic areas. Overall species richness (isopods and millipedes combined) was similar in Zurich (17 species) and Lucerne (16), while only 13 species were sampled in Lugano. According to the Sørensen index of similarity, species composition of Zurich and Lucerne were more alike, while the one of Lugano was more distinct from the other two cities. This result can be explained by the spatial proximity of Zurich and Lucerne in the north of the Alps compared to Lugano, which is located more distantly and in the south of the Alps. Dominant isopods and millipedes in Zurich and Lucerne were found to be widespread synanthropic species in temperate Europe(Porcellio scaber, Trachelipus rathkii and Ophyiulus pilosus) while the dominant isopod in Lugano (Trachelipus razzautii) is a species with a north-eastern Mediterranean distribution. Our study reveals that the urban millipede and isopod fauna in Swiss cities mainly consists of widespread species, but species of narrower distribution (e.g. Trichoniscus alemannicus, Cylindroiulus verhoeffi) may also find suitable habitats in cities. Despite some signs of biotic homogenization, our study also found compositional differences of millipede and isopod assemblages between northern and southern cities that suggest geographical effects of the regional species pool. PMID:22536109

  8. Depth-related gradients in community structure and relatedness of bivalves and isopods in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Angelika; Linse, Katrin; Ellingsen, Kari E.; Somerfield, Paul J.

    2016-05-01

    Despite increased research over the last decade, diversity patterns in Antarctic deep-sea benthic taxa and their driving forces are only marginally known. Depth-related patterns of diversity and distribution of isopods and bivalves collected in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean are analysed. The data, sampled by epibenthic sledge at 40 deep-sea stations from the upper continental slope to the hadal zone (774-6348 m) over a wide area of the Southern Ocean, comprises 619 species of isopods and 81 species of bivalves. There were more species of isopods than bivalves in all samples, and species per station varied from 2 to 85 for isopods and from 0 to 18 for bivalves. Most species were rare, with 72% of isopod species restricted to one or two stations, and 45% of bivalves. Among less-rare species bivalves tended to have wider distributions than isopods. The species richness of isopods varied with depth, showing a weak unimodal curve with a peak at 2000-4000 m, while the richness of bivalves did not. Multivariate analyses indicate that there are two main assemblages in the Southern Ocean, one shallow and one deep. These overlap over a large depth-range (2000-4000 m). Comparing analyses based on the Sørensen resemblance measure and Γ+ (incorporating relatedness among species) indicates that rare species tend to have other closely related species within the same depth band. Analysis of relatedness among species indicates that the taxonomic variety of bivalves tends to decline at depth, whereas that of isopods is maintained. This, it is speculated, may indicate that the available energy at depth is insufficient to maintain a range of bivalve life-history strategies.

  9. Occurrence and assemblage composition of millipedes (Myriapoda, Diplopoda) and terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) in urban areas of Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Vilisics, Ferenc; Bogyó, Dávid; Sattler, Thomas; Moretti, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Terrestrial isopods and millipedes, members of the invertebrate macro-decomposer guild, were collected through pitfall traps in three Swiss cities (Zurich, Lucerne, Lugano). A total of 7,198 individuals of 17 isopod species (7093 ind.), and 10 millipede species (105 ind.) were captured. Besides the Alpine endemic isopod (Trichoniscus alemannicus) and millipede (Cylindroiulus verhoeffi), urban assemblages were mainly composed of widespread, native European and even cosmopolitan species, which are frequent in anthropogenic areas. Overall species richness (isopods and millipedes combined) was similar in Zurich (17 species) and Lucerne (16), while only 13 species were sampled in Lugano. According to the Sørensen index of similarity, species composition of Zurich and Lucerne were more alike, while the one of Lugano was more distinct from the other two cities. This result can be explained by the spatial proximity of Zurich and Lucerne in the north of the Alps compared to Lugano, which is located more distantly and in the south of the Alps. Dominant isopods and millipedes in Zurich and Lucerne were found to be widespread synanthropic species in temperate Europe(Porcellio scaber, Trachelipus rathkii and Ophyiulus pilosus) while the dominant isopod in Lugano (Trachelipus razzautii) is a species with a north-eastern Mediterranean distribution. Our study reveals that the urban millipede and isopod fauna in Swiss cities mainly consists of widespread species, but species of narrower distribution (e.g. Trichoniscus alemannicus, Cylindroiulus verhoeffi) may also find suitable habitats in cities. Despite some signs of biotic homogenization, our study also found compositional differences of millipede and isopod assemblages between northern and southern cities that suggest geographical effects of the regional species pool. PMID:22536109

  10. Occurrence and assemblage composition of millipedes (Myriapoda, Diplopoda) and terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) in urban areas of Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Vilisics, Ferenc; Bogyó, Dávid; Sattler, Thomas; Moretti, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Terrestrial isopods and millipedes, members of the invertebrate macro-decomposer guild, were collected through pitfall traps in three Swiss cities (Zurich, Lucerne, Lugano). A total of 7,198 individuals of 17 isopod species (7093 ind.), and 10 millipede species (105 ind.) were captured. Besides the Alpine endemic isopod (Trichoniscus alemannicus) and millipede (Cylindroiulus verhoeffi), urban assemblages were mainly composed of widespread, native European and even cosmopolitan species, which are frequent in anthropogenic areas. Overall species richness (isopods and millipedes combined) was similar in Zurich (17 species) and Lucerne (16), while only 13 species were sampled in Lugano. According to the Sørensen index of similarity, species composition of Zurich and Lucerne were more alike, while the one of Lugano was more distinct from the other two cities. This result can be explained by the spatial proximity of Zurich and Lucerne in the north of the Alps compared to Lugano, which is located more distantly and in the south of the Alps. Dominant isopods and millipedes in Zurich and Lucerne were found to be widespread synanthropic species in temperate Europe(Porcellio scaber, Trachelipus rathkii and Ophyiulus pilosus) while the dominant isopod in Lugano (Trachelipus razzautii) is a species with a north-eastern Mediterranean distribution. Our study reveals that the urban millipede and isopod fauna in Swiss cities mainly consists of widespread species, but species of narrower distribution (e.g. Trichoniscus alemannicus, Cylindroiulus verhoeffi) may also find suitable habitats in cities. Despite some signs of biotic homogenization, our study also found compositional differences of millipede and isopod assemblages between northern and southern cities that suggest geographical effects of the regional species pool.

  11. Brain anatomy of the marine isopod Saduria entomon Linnaeus, 1758 (Valvifera, Isopoda) with special emphasis on the olfactory pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kenning, Matthes; Harzsch, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    Representatives of at least six crustacean taxa managed to establish a terrestrial life style during their evolutionary history and the Oniscidea (Isopoda) are currently held as the most successfully terrestrialized malacostracan crustaceans. The brain architecture of terrestrial isopods is fairly well understood and studies on this field suggest that the evolutionary transition from sea to land in isopods coincided with a considerable size reduction and functional loss of their first pair of antennae and associated brain areas. This finding suggests that terrestrial isopods may have no or poor abilities to detect volatile substances but that their chemosensory ecology is most likely restricted to contact chemoreception. In this study, we explored how the brain of a marine isopod and particularly its olfactory system compares to that of terrestrial relatives. Using histochemical and immunohistochemical labeling, brightfield and confocal laser-scan microscopy, we show that in the marine isopod Saduria entomon aesthetascs on the first pair of antennae provide input to a well defined deutocerebrum (DC). The deutocerebral chemosensory lobes (DCL) are divided into spherical neuropil compartments, the olfactory glomeruli (og). Secondary processing areas in the lateral protocerebrum (lPC) are supplied by a thin but distinct projection neuron tract (PNT) with a contralateral connection. Hence, contrary to terrestrial Isopoda, S. entomon has at least the neuronal substrate to perceive and process olfactory stimuli suggesting the originally marine isopod lineage had olfactory abilities comparable to that of other malacostracan crustaceans. PMID:24109435

  12. Brain anatomy of the marine isopod Saduria entomon Linnaeus, 1758 (Valvifera, Isopoda) with special emphasis on the olfactory pathway.

    PubMed

    Kenning, Matthes; Harzsch, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    Representatives of at least six crustacean taxa managed to establish a terrestrial life style during their evolutionary history and the Oniscidea (Isopoda) are currently held as the most successfully terrestrialized malacostracan crustaceans. The brain architecture of terrestrial isopods is fairly well understood and studies on this field suggest that the evolutionary transition from sea to land in isopods coincided with a considerable size reduction and functional loss of their first pair of antennae and associated brain areas. This finding suggests that terrestrial isopods may have no or poor abilities to detect volatile substances but that their chemosensory ecology is most likely restricted to contact chemoreception. In this study, we explored how the brain of a marine isopod and particularly its olfactory system compares to that of terrestrial relatives. Using histochemical and immunohistochemical labeling, brightfield and confocal laser-scan microscopy, we show that in the marine isopod Saduria entomon aesthetascs on the first pair of antennae provide input to a well defined deutocerebrum (DC). The deutocerebral chemosensory lobes (DCL) are divided into spherical neuropil compartments, the olfactory glomeruli (og). Secondary processing areas in the lateral protocerebrum (lPC) are supplied by a thin but distinct projection neuron tract (PNT) with a contralateral connection. Hence, contrary to terrestrial Isopoda, S. entomon has at least the neuronal substrate to perceive and process olfactory stimuli suggesting the originally marine isopod lineage had olfactory abilities comparable to that of other malacostracan crustaceans.

  13. Landing Techniques in Beach Volleyball

    PubMed Central

    Tilp, Markus; Rindler, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings) in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (χ2(2) = 18.19, p < 0.01) but not following serve, set, and attack actions. Following blocking, men landed more often on one foot than women. Further differences in landings following serve and attack with regard to playing technique and position were mainly observed in men. The comparison with landing techniques in indoor volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (χ2(2) = 161.4, p < 0.01) and women (χ2(2) = 84.91, p < 0.01). Beach volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball. Key Points About 1/3 of all jumping actions in beach volleyball result in a landing on one foot. Especially following block situations men land on one foot more often than women. Landing techniques are related to different techniques and positions. Landings on one foot are less common in beach volleyball than indoor volleyball. This could be a reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions. PMID:24149150

  14. Landing techniques in beach volleyball.

    PubMed

    Tilp, Markus; Rindler, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings) in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (χ(2)(2) = 18.19, p < 0.01) but not following serve, set, and attack actions. Following blocking, men landed more often on one foot than women. Further differences in landings following serve and attack with regard to playing technique and position were mainly observed in men. The comparison with landing techniques in indoor volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (χ(2)(2) = 161.4, p < 0.01) and women (χ(2)(2) = 84.91, p < 0.01). Beach volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball. Key PointsAbout 1/3 of all jumping actions in beach volleyball result in a landing on one foot.Especially following block situations men land on one foot more often than women.Landing techniques are related to different techniques and positions.Landings on one foot are less common in beach volleyball than indoor volleyball. This could be a reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions. PMID:24149150

  15. 78 FR 35596 - Special Local Regulation; Long Beach Regatta, Powerboat Race, Atlantic Ocean, Long Beach, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ... Race, Atlantic Ocean, Long Beach, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking... Atlantic Ocean off Long Beach, NY during the Long Beach Regatta Powerboat Race scheduled for August 24-25... powerboat racing regatta. The event will be held on the Atlantic Ocean off Long Beach, NY and will...

  16. 75 FR 41926 - Noise Exposure Map Notice New Smyrna Beach Municipal Airport, New Smyrna Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Notice New Smyrna Beach Municipal Airport, New Smyrna Beach, FL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation... Beach for New Smyrna Beach Municipal Airport under the provisions of 49 U.S.C. 47501 et seq....

  17. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed...

  18. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed...

  19. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed...

  20. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed...

  1. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed...

  2. Parallelism and historical contingency during rapid ecotype divergence in an isopod.

    PubMed

    Eroukhmanoff, F; Hargeby, A; Arnberg, N N; Hellgren, O; Bensch, S; Svensson, E I

    2009-05-01

    Recent studies on parallel evolution have focused on the relative role of selection and historical contingency during adaptive divergence. Here, we study geographically separate and genetically independent lake populations of a freshwater isopod (Asellus aquaticus) in southern Sweden. In two of these lakes, a novel habitat was rapidly colonized by isopods from a source habitat. Rapid phenotypic changes in pigmentation, size and sexual behaviour have occurred, presumably in response to different predatory regimes. We partitioned the phenotypic variation arising from habitat ('selection': 81–94%), lake ('history': 0.1–6%) and lake × habitat interaction ('unique diversification': 0.4–13%) for several traits. There was a limited role for historical contingency but a strong signature of selection. We also found higher phenotypic variation in the source populations. Phenotype sorting during colonization and strong divergent selection might have contributed to these rapid changes. Consequently, phenotypic divergence was only weakly influenced by historical contingency. PMID:21462414

  3. Adaptive variation in offspring size in the terrestrial isopod, Armadillidium vulgare

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brody, M.S.; Lawlor, L.R.

    1984-01-01

    Variation in the birth size of offspring of the terrestrial isopod, Armadillidium vulgare, was observed in laboratory experiments and in field populations. In the laboratory, larger offspring were produced when the mother's food supply was reduced. In field populations, larger offspring were produced during the summer, a period of reduced food availability. Smaller offspring are produced in the spring, when food is readily available. Females may be making larger young to increase survival during the more severe conditions of the summer breeding period.

  4. PAH biotransformation in terrestrial invertebrates--a new phase II metabolite in isopods and springtails.

    PubMed

    Stroomberg, Gerard J; Zappey, Herman; Steen, Ruud J C A; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Ariese, Freek; Velthorst, Nel H; van Straalen, Nico M

    2004-06-01

    Soil-living invertebrates are exposed to high concentrations of contaminants accumulating in dead organic matter, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The capacity for PAH biotransformation is not equally developed in all invertebrates. In this paper, we compare three species of invertebrates, Porcellio scaber (Isopoda), Eisenia andrei (Lumbricidae) and Folsomia candida (Collembola), for the metabolites formed upon exposure to pyrene. Metabolic products of pyrene biotransformation in extracts from whole animals or isopod hepatopancreas were compared to those found in fish bile (flounder and plaice). An optimized HPLC method was used with fluorescence detection; excitation/emission spectra were compared to reference samples of 1-hydroxypyrene and enzymatically synthesized conjugates. Enzymatic hydrolysis after fractionation was used to demonstrate that the conjugates originated from 1-hydroxypyrene. All three invertebrates were able to oxidize pyrene to 1-hydroxypyrene, however, isopods and collembolans stood out as more efficient metabolizers compared to earthworms. In contrast to fish, none of the invertebrates produced pyrene-1-glucuronide as a phase II conjugate. Both Collembola and Isopoda produced significant amounts of pyrene-1-glucoside, whereas isopods also produced pyrene-1-sulfate. A third, previously unknown, conjugate was found in both isopods and springtails, and was analysed further using electrospray and atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry. Based on the obtained mass spectra, a new conjugate is proposed: pyrene-1-O-(6"-O-malonyl)glucoside. The use of glucose-malonate as a conjugant in animal phase II biotransformation has not been described before, but is understandable in the microenvironment of soil-living invertebrates. In the earthworm, three other pyrene metabolites were observed, none of which was shared with the arthropods, although two were conjugates of 1-hydroxypyrene. Our study illustrates the great

  5. 75 FR 24997 - FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... COMMISSION FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment... Energy Point Beach, LLC (the licensee), for operation of the Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2... Licensee and Owner from ``FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC'' to ``NextEra Energy Point Beach, LLC.''...

  6. Differentiating Experts' Anticipatory Skills in Beach Volleyball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canal-Bruland, Rouwen; Mooren, Merel; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined how perceptual-motor expertise and watching experience contribute to anticipating the outcome of opponents' attacking actions in beach volleyball. To this end, we invited 8 expert beach volleyball players, 8 expert coaches, 8 expert referees, and 8 control participants with no beach volleyball experience to watch videos…

  7. Toxicity interaction between chlorpyrifos, mancozeb and soil moisture to the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus.

    PubMed

    Morgado, Rui G; Gomes, Pedro A D; Ferreira, Nuno G C; Cardoso, Diogo N; Santos, Miguel J G; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2016-02-01

    A main source of uncertainty currently associated with environmental risk assessment of chemicals is the poor understanding of the influence of environmental factors on the toxicity of xenobiotics. Aiming to reduce this uncertainty, here we evaluate the joint-effects of two pesticides (chlorpyrifos and mancozeb) on the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus under different soil moisture regimes. A full factorial design, including three treatments of each pesticide and an untreated control, were performed under different soil moisture regimes: 25%, 50%, and 75% WHC. Our results showed that soil moisture had no effects on isopods survival, at the levels assessed in this experiment, neither regarding single pesticides nor mixture treatments. Additivity was always the most parsimonious result when both pesticides were present. Oppositely, both feeding activity and biomass change showed a higher sensitivity to soil moisture, with isopods generally showing worse performance when exposed to pesticides and dry or moist conditions. Most of the significant differences between soil moisture regimes were found in single pesticide treatments, yet different responses to mixtures could still be distinguished depending on the soil moisture assessed. This study shows that while soil moisture has the potential to influence the effects of the pesticide mixture itself, such effects might become less important in a context of complex combinations of stressors, as the major contribution comes from its individual interaction with each pesticide. Finally, the implications of our results are discussed in light of the current state of environmental risk assessment procedures and some future perspectives are advanced. PMID:26539709

  8. Increased abundance of terrestrial isopod populations in terrestrial ecosystems contaminated with petrochemical wastes.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, B C; Lochmiller, R L

    2000-07-01

    Arthropods are integral components of the food chain, and because many reside in close association to the soil and its contaminants, their communities may be sensitive indicators of ecotoxicity. We examined the influence of petrochemical contaminants on the abundance of several taxonomic groups of macroarthropods, with an emphasis on isopods, residing on two reference sites and three petrochemical-contaminated sites at an abandoned oil refinery site in southwestern Oklahoma. Relative densities of surface-dwelling macroarthropod assemblages were significantly greater on contaminated sites than reference sites. Differences in terrestrial isopod populations were particularly remarkable and consistent across study sites, with densities approaching 180-fold greater on contaminated than reference sites. Similarity comparisons indicated that abundances and composition of macroarthropod assemblages sampled on the contaminated sites were more similar to one another than to the communities residing on reference sites. Although preliminary, these initial results support the hypothesis that macroarthropod assemblages, in particular isopods, are sensitive to soil contaminants and could be a valuable approach to evaluating the effects of petrochemical contamination of soils on terrestrial ecosystems.

  9. Comparison of the variable loop regions of myosin heavy chain genes from Antarctic and temperate isopods.

    PubMed

    Holmes, J M; Whiteley, N M; Magnay, J L; El Haj, A J

    2002-03-01

    The evolutionary adaptations of functional genes to life at low temperatures are not well characterised in marine and fresh water invertebrates. Temperature has been shown to affect the functional characteristics of fish muscles, with changes in the velocity of shortening and ATPase activity being associated with myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoform composition and the structure of the surface loop regions. Two PCR products spanning loops 1 and 2 of a MyHC gene from an Antarctic isopod (Glyptonotus antarcticus) were sequenced and compared with those of a temperate isopod (Idotea resecata), slow and fast fibres from lobster (Homarus gammarus) and a cold water amphipod (Eulimnogammarus verrucosus), revealing specific differences between the species, possibly related to fibre type and habitat temperature. The loop 2 region from G. antarcticus myosin was cloned and used for Northern analysis of total RNA from the other species. The cloned myosin cDNA hybridised specifically to a 6.6-kb transcript, in G. antarcticus muscle. In contrast, cDNA probes for lobster slow myosin and actin hybridised to muscle RNA from all species, demonstrating that a distinct MyHC isoform is expressed in the Antarctic isopod, as opposed to the temperate species. The inter- and intra-specific sequence differences in loop 2 region suggest that this may be a site for muscle adaptation to enable function at the low temperatures found in the Southern Ocean. PMID:11959017

  10. Temperature, physiological time, and zinc toxicity in the isopod, Porcellio scaber

    SciTech Connect

    Donker, M.H.; Van Straalen, N.M.; Abdel-Lateif, H.M.; Khalil, M.A.; Bayoumi, B.M.

    1998-08-01

    Temperature is an important controlling factor in the metabolism of ectotherms, and it may interact with the toxicity of heavy metals in a variety of ways. In this work, a study on the effect of different zinc concentrations on growth of the isopod, Porcellio scaber was conducted using four temperature levels. The results demonstrated a significant effect for both zinc and temperature on the growth rate; the interaction between zinc and temperature was also significant. The Arrhenius function was used to describe the temperature-growth rate relationship, from which estimates for the activation energy were derived. A tendency for activation energy to decrease with increasing zinc concentration was observed. Isopods exposed to 13 {micro}mol Zn/g had the highest activation energy and the highest growth rate. To analyze the effect of temperature on the internal body concentration of zinc, the exposure time was transformed into physiological time, calibrated at 15 C, for all experimental groups using the activation energies estimated earlier. The rate of zinc accumulation was derived from the relationship between internal body concentration and physiological exposure time. Differences between isopods cultured at different temperatures could be explained well by the effect of physiological exposure time. The interaction between temperature and zinc toxicity seems to be due not to increased accumulation of zinc at higher temperatures as such but to a physiological interaction with the energy metabolism.

  11. Effects of ingested nano-sized titanium dioxide on terrestrial isopods (Porcellio scaber).

    PubMed

    Jemec, Anita; Drobne, Damjana; Remskar, Maja; Sepcić, Kristina; Tisler, Tatjana

    2008-09-01

    The effects of ingested nano-sized titanium dioxide (TiO2; anatase, 15 nm) on the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea) after short-term (3-d) dietary exposure were studied. Activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), in digestive glands were affected in a dose-independent manner, but higher-level isopod endpoints, including weight change, feeding rate, food assimilation efficiency, and survival, were not affected up to the highest tested concentration of TiO2 in food (3,000 microg/g). Exposure concentrations of 0.5, 2,000, and 3,000 microg nonsonicated TiO2/g food decreased CAT and GST activities, but intermediate concentrations (1, 10, 100, and 1,000 microg/g food) did not result in significant changes of enzyme activities. When the dispersion of TiO2 was sonicated, no effects on enzyme activities or higher-level biomarkers were observed. The experimental setup with terrestrial isopods designed for dissolved chemicals also is suitable for testing the effects of ingested nanoparticles, but the presentation of toxicity data needs to be adapted according to the mode of action of the nanoparticles and their specific characteristics.

  12. Toxicity interaction between chlorpyrifos, mancozeb and soil moisture to the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus.

    PubMed

    Morgado, Rui G; Gomes, Pedro A D; Ferreira, Nuno G C; Cardoso, Diogo N; Santos, Miguel J G; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2016-02-01

    A main source of uncertainty currently associated with environmental risk assessment of chemicals is the poor understanding of the influence of environmental factors on the toxicity of xenobiotics. Aiming to reduce this uncertainty, here we evaluate the joint-effects of two pesticides (chlorpyrifos and mancozeb) on the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus under different soil moisture regimes. A full factorial design, including three treatments of each pesticide and an untreated control, were performed under different soil moisture regimes: 25%, 50%, and 75% WHC. Our results showed that soil moisture had no effects on isopods survival, at the levels assessed in this experiment, neither regarding single pesticides nor mixture treatments. Additivity was always the most parsimonious result when both pesticides were present. Oppositely, both feeding activity and biomass change showed a higher sensitivity to soil moisture, with isopods generally showing worse performance when exposed to pesticides and dry or moist conditions. Most of the significant differences between soil moisture regimes were found in single pesticide treatments, yet different responses to mixtures could still be distinguished depending on the soil moisture assessed. This study shows that while soil moisture has the potential to influence the effects of the pesticide mixture itself, such effects might become less important in a context of complex combinations of stressors, as the major contribution comes from its individual interaction with each pesticide. Finally, the implications of our results are discussed in light of the current state of environmental risk assessment procedures and some future perspectives are advanced.

  13. Study of the functional morphology of mouthparts of parasitic isopods of marine fishes

    PubMed Central

    Rameshkumar, Ganapathy; Ravichandran, Samuthirapandian; Allayie, Sartaj Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Objective To carry out a comparative study of the mouthparts and the diet of eight isopod fish parasites. Methods A description of the mouthparts, together with their diet nature, was derived both by direct observation and an interpretation of their structure. The three-dimensional study of the mouthparts of the isopod parasites was done to reveal their morphology. Results Observations revealed that these species are wholly carnivorous. Result shows how they are adapted for tearing and bolting fish food material. The mouthparts consist of a labrum, paragnaths, paired mandibles, maxillules, maxillae and maxillipeds. The labrum and the paragnaths are the least developed but peculiarly the mandibles are asymmetrical, large, stout and highly modified. The analysis of gut contents indicated that Cymothoa indica and Joryma brachysoma diet consisted of 90% to 95% of animal blood. The diet of Mothocya renardi, Ryukyua circularis and Joryma hilsae were mainly composed of mucus (80%-90%). The stomach contents of Nerocila phaeopleura and Nerocila sundaica, were dominated by body muscles (75%-83%). Conclusions The possible functions of the mouthparts, especially in feeding are discussed in light of their structure. The morphology of the mouthparts of the isopod parasites are heavily modified with their feeding behavior.

  14. Beach lamination: Nature and origin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clifton, H.E.

    1969-01-01

    A distinctive two-fold sedimentation unit characterizes lamination in the upper swash zone of beaches. Within the unit a fine and/or a heavy mineral rich layer at the base grades upward into a coarser and/or a heavy mineral poor layer at the top. This distinctive type of lamination results from grain segregation within bed flow during wave backwash. ?? 1969.

  15. The shapes of beach pebbles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wentworth, Chester K.

    1923-01-01

    There is much confusion in geologic literature as to the shapes of fluvial and beach pebbles and the differences between them, if differences exist. Though the contrary has been asserted, most geologists who have written on the subject appear to hold the view that beach pebbles are generally flatter than river pebbles, having discoid, lozenge-shaped, ellipsoid, or oval forms. It is asserted by some that these forms are produced by pushing of the rock fragments to and fro by the waves. Others have considered that the shapes of the original fragments and the inherent structure of the rock are dominant in determining the shapes of beach pebbles, and with this view the writer is in accord. That beach pebbles, even those composed of massive igneous rocks are commonly of a flattened oval form seems certain, as has been stated elsewhere, but this fact is probably to be attributed to the development of such forms from original flat fragments or from rocks of schistose structure or to the segregation of such forms under the peculiar action of the waves, rather than to their production by a specialized wave abrasion.

  16. Inside the "Long Beach Way"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This article features Long Beach Unified School District, the 2003 winner of a prestigious prize in urban education. The district of more than 90,000 students is the first winner of the award to return to the competition as a finalist. Its reappearance on the list after earning the prize in 2003 raises interesting questions about how districts…

  17. Virtual Beach 3: user's guide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cyterski, Mike; Brooks, Wesley; Galvin, Mike; Wolfe, Kurt; Carvin, Rebecca; Roddick, Tonia; Fienen, Mike; Corsi, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Virtual Beach version 3 (VB3) is a decision support tool that constructs site-specific statistical models to predict fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations at recreational beaches. VB3 is primarily designed for beach managers responsible for making decisions regarding beach closures or the issuance of swimming advisories due to pathogen contamination. However, researchers, scientists, engineers, and students interested in studying relationships between water quality indicators and ambient environmental conditions will find VB3 useful. VB3 reads input data from a text file or Excel document, assists the user in preparing the data for analysis, enables automated model selection using a wide array of possible model evaluation criteria, and provides predictions using a chosen model parameterized with new data. With an integrated mapping component to determine the geographic orientation of the beach, the software can automatically decompose wind/current/wave speed and magnitude information into along-shore and onshore/offshore components for use in subsequent analyses. Data can be examined using simple scatter plots to evaluate relationships between the response and independent variables (IVs). VB3 can produce interaction terms between the primary IVs, and it can also test an array of transformations to maximize the linearity of the relationship The software includes search routines for finding the "best" models from an array of possible choices. Automated censoring of statistical models with highly correlated IVs occurs during the selection process. Models can be constructed either using previously collected data or forecasted environmental information. VB3 has residual diagnostics for regression models, including automated outlier identification and removal using DFFITs or Cook's Distances.

  18. Sequential monitoring of beach litter using webcams.

    PubMed

    Kako, Shin'ichiro; Isobe, Atsuhiko; Magome, Shinya

    2010-05-01

    This study attempts to establish a system for the sequential monitoring of beach litter using webcams placed at the Ookushi beach, Goto Islands, Japan, to establish the temporal variability in the quantities of beach litter every 90 min over a one and a half year period. The time series of the quantities of beach litter, computed by counting pixels with a greater lightness than a threshold value in photographs, shows that litter does not increase monotonically on the beach, but fluctuates mainly on a monthly time scale or less. To investigate what factors influence this variability, the time derivative of the quantity of beach litter is compared with satellite-derived wind speeds. It is found that the beach litter quantities vary largely with winds, but there may be other influencing factors. PMID:20392465

  19. The effects of temperature, desiccation, and body mass on the locomotion of the terrestrial isopod, Porcellio laevis.

    PubMed

    Dailey, Tara M; Claussen, Dennis L; Ladd, Gregory B; Buckner, Shizuka T

    2009-06-01

    Locomotion in terrestrial isopods is strongly influenced by body size and by abiotic factors. We determined the speeds of isopods of differing masses within a linear racetrack at temperatures ranging from 15 to 35 degrees C. We also predicted maximum speeds based on the Froude number concept as originally applied to vertebrates. In addition we used a circular thermal gradient to examine the temperature preferences of isopods, and we measured the effects of desiccation on locomotion. Measured speeds of the isopods progressively increased with temperature with an overall Q(10) of 1.64 and scaling exponents ranging from 0.38 to 0.63. The predicted maximum speeds were remarkably close to the measured speeds at the highest test temperature although the scaling exponents were closer to 0.15. The isopods did not exhibit a strong thermal preference within the gradient; however, they did generally avoid temperatures above 25 degrees C. Moderate desiccation had no apparent effect on locomotor performance, but there was a progressive decrease in speed once animals had lost more than 10% of their initial body mass. Though largely restricted to moist habitats, P. laevis can easily withstand short exposures to desiccating conditions, and they are capable of effective locomotion over a wide range of temperatures. Since they are nonconglobating, active escape appears to be their primary defense when threatened under exposed conditions. Although their maximum speeds may be limited both by temperature and by their inability to change gait, these speeds are clearly adequate for survival.

  20. Recharge into a shingle beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keating, T.

    1984-04-01

    Traditionally, groundwater recharge in the U.K. has been calculated by the Penman method on a monthly basis, using values of potential evaporation derived from averaged meteorological data and monthly totals of rainfall. Recent work by K.W.F. Howard and J.W. Lloyd has shown that these monthly totals considerably underestimate recharge calculated over shorter time periods and they suggested that 1-day, or at worst, 10-day intervals should be used. In this paper field experiments to measure recharge into a shingle beach are reported. These experiments were made with a lysimeter over a 6-yr. period and have shown that recharge into the shingle occurs whenever significant precipitation occurs, even during the summer months. The Penman model is shown to be unrealistic for estimating recharge into such a beach and an alternative model for calculating recharge is proposed. This model is shown to yield good results.

  1. The Global Diversity of Parasitic Isopods Associated with Crustacean Hosts (Isopoda: Bopyroidea and Cryptoniscoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jason D.; Boyko, Christopher B.

    2012-01-01

    Parasitic isopods of Bopyroidea and Cryptoniscoidea (commonly referred to as epicarideans) are unique in using crustaceans as both intermediate and definitive hosts. In total, 795 epicarideans are known, representing ∼7.7% of described isopods. The rate of description of parasitic species has not matched that of free-living isopods and this disparity will likely continue due to the more cryptic nature of these parasites. Distribution patterns of epicarideans are influenced by a combination of their definitive (both benthic and pelagic species) and intermediate (pelagic copepod) host distributions, although host specificity is poorly known for most species. Among epicarideans, nearly all species in Bopyroidea are ectoparasitic on decapod hosts. Bopyrids are the most diverse taxon (605 species), with their highest diversity in the North West Pacific (139 species), East Asian Sea (120 species), and Central Indian Ocean (44 species). The diversity patterns of Cryptoniscoidea (99 species, endoparasites of a diverse assemblage of crustacean hosts) are distinct from bopyrids, with the greatest diversity of cryptoniscoids in the North East Atlantic (18 species) followed by the Antarctic, Mediterranean, and Arctic regions (13, 12, and 8 species, respectively). Dajidae (54 species, ectoparasites of shrimp, mysids, and euphausids) exhibits highest diversity in the Antarctic (7 species) with 14 species in the Arctic and North East Atlantic regions combined. Entoniscidae (37 species, endoparasites within anomuran, brachyuran and shrimp hosts) show highest diversity in the North West Pacific (10 species) and North East Atlantic (8 species). Most epicarideans are known from relatively shallow waters, although some bopyrids are known from depths below 4000 m. Lack of parasitic groups in certain geographic areas is likely a sampling artifact and we predict that the Central Indian Ocean and East Asian Sea (in particular, the Indo-Malay-Philippines Archipelago) hold a wealth of

  2. The Immune Cellular Effectors of Terrestrial Isopod Armadillidium vulgare: Meeting with Their Invaders, Wolbachia

    PubMed Central

    Bertaux, Joanne; Raimond, Maryline; Morel, Franck; Bouchon, Didier; Grève, Pierre; Braquart-Varnier, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Background Most of crustacean immune responses are well described for the aquatic forms whereas almost nothing is known for the isopods that evolved a terrestrial lifestyle. The latter are also infected at a high prevalence with Wolbachia, an endosymbiotic bacterium which affects the host immune system, possibly to improve its transmission. In contrast with insect models, the isopod Armadillidium vulgare is known to harbor Wolbachia inside the haemocytes. Methodology/Principal Findings In A. vulgare we characterized three haemocyte types (TEM, flow cytometry): the hyaline and semi-granular haemocytes were phagocytes, while semi-granular and granular haemocytes performed encapsulation. They were produced in the haematopoietic organs, from central stem cells, maturing as they moved toward the edge (TEM). In infected individuals, live Wolbachia (FISH) colonized 38% of the haemocytes but with low, variable densities (6.45±0.46 Wolbachia on average). So far they were not found in hyaline haemocytes (TEM). The haematopoietic organs contained 7.6±0.7×103 Wolbachia, both in stem cells and differentiating cells (FISH). While infected and uninfected one-year-old individuals had the same haemocyte density, in infected animals the proportion of granular haemocytes in particular decreased by one third (flow cytometry, Pearson's test = 12 822.98, df = 2, p<0.001). Conclusions/Significance The characteristics of the isopod immune system fell within the range of those known from aquatic crustaceans. The colonization of the haemocytes by Wolbachia seemed to stand from the haematopoietic organs, which may act as a reservoir to discharge Wolbachia in the haemolymph, a known route for horizontal transfer. Wolbachia infection did not affect the haemocyte density, but the quantity of granular haemocytes decreased by one third. This may account for the reduced prophenoloxidase activity observed previously in these animals. PMID:21533137

  3. Toxicity of imidacloprid to the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Drobne, Damjana; Blazic, Mateja; Van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Leser, Vladka; Zidar, Primoz; Jemec, Anita; Trebse, Polonca

    2008-04-01

    Imidacloprid is a neonicotinoid insecticide with neurotoxic action that, as a possible alternative for commonly used organophosphorus pesticides, has gained registration in about 120 countries for use in over 140 agricultural crops. Only few data are available on its toxicity for soil invertebrates. We therefore assessed the effects of imidacloprid on survival, weight gain, feeding rate, total protein content, glutathione S-transferase activity (GST), and digestive gland epithelial thickness in juveniles and adults of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber. After two weeks of feeding on imidacloprid-dosed food, weight gain (NOEC 5 microg/g dry food) and feeding rate (NOEC 10 microg/g) in juveniles, and feeding rate (NOEC<10 microg/g) and digestive gland epithelial thickness (NOEC<10 microg/g) in adults were most affected. In juveniles induction of GST activity and increase of total protein content per wet animal weight was detected at 5 microg/g dry food, whereas in adults a reduction of GST was observed at 25 microg/g (NOEC 10 microg/g). An estimate of actual intake rates suggests that imidacloprid affects isopods at similar exposure concentrations as insects. The toxicity of imidacloprid was similar to that of the organophosphorus pesticide diazinon, tested earlier using the same methods [Stanek, K., Drobne, D., Trebse, P., 2006. Linkage of biomarkers along levels of biological complexity in juvenile and adult diazinon fed terrestrial isopod (Porcellio scaber, Isopoda, Crustacea). Chemosphere 64, 1745-1752]. At actual environmental concentrations, diazinon poses a higher risk to P. scaber. Due to its increasing use in crop protection and higher persistence in soil, imidacloprid might however, be potentially more dangerous after long-term application. We conclude that toxicity testing with P. scaber provides relevant, repeatable, reproducible and comparable toxicity data that is useful for the risk assessment of pesticides in the terrestrial environment.

  4. Contact with beach sand among beach-goers and risk of illness

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Recently, numerous studies of fecal contamination of beach sand have triggered interest among scientists, the news media, and the general public. Evidence shows that beach sand harbors higher concentrations of fecal indicator organisms (microbes considered to indicate...

  5. Molt frequency of the isopod Porcellio scaber, as a measure of zinc-contaminated food

    SciTech Connect

    Drobne, D.; Strus, J.

    1996-02-01

    The effect of zinc-contaminated leaf litter (250--10,000 {micro}g/g dry wt.) diets on molting in Porcellio scaber, a terrestrial isopod was measured under controlled conditions. The duration of the premolt stage, the period between two successive ecdyses and the rate of molting, was followed during the exposure. Increased zinc concentration in the food caused prolongation of the molt cycle and decreased molt frequency. The duration of the premolt stage was not changed. Molt cycle was not affected drastically due to food deprivation. The application of molt cycle response to contaminated food in toxicity tests is discussed.

  6. Beach monitoring criteria: reading the fine print.

    PubMed

    Nevers, Meredith B; Whitman, Richard L

    2011-12-15

    Beach monitoring programs aim to decrease swimming-related illnesses resulting from exposure to harmful microbes in recreational waters, while providing maximum beach access. Managers are advised by the U.S. EPA to estimate microbiological water quality based on a 5-day geometric mean of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations or on a jurisdiction-specific single-sample maximum; however, most opt instead to apply a default single-sample maximum to ease application. We examined whether re-evaluation of the U.S. EPA ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) and the epidemiological studies on which they are based could increase public beach access without affecting presumed health risk. Single-sample maxima were calculated using historic monitoring data for 50 beaches along coastal Lake Michigan on various temporal and spatial groupings to assess flexibility in the application of the AWQC. No calculation on either scale was as low as the default maximum (235 CFU/100 mL) that managers typically use, indicating that current applications may be more conservative than the outlined AWQC. It was notable that beaches subject to point source FIB contamination had lower variation, highlighting the bias in the standards for these beaches. Until new water quality standards are promulgated, more site-specific application of the AWQC may benefit beach managers by allowing swimmers greater access to beaches. This issue will be an important consideration in addressing the forthcoming beach monitoring standards. PMID:22059560

  7. Beach monitoring criteria: reading the fine print

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nevers, Meredith B.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    Beach monitoring programs aim to decrease swimming-related illnesses resulting from exposure to harmful microbes in recreational waters, while providing maximum beach access. Managers are advised by the U.S. EPA to estimate microbiological water quality based on a 5-day geometric mean of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations or on a jurisdiction-specific single-sample maximum; however, most opt instead to apply a default single-sample maximum to ease application. We examined whether re-evaluation of the U.S. EPA ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) and the epidemiological studies on which they are based could increase public beach access without affecting presumed health risk. Single-sample maxima were calculated using historic monitoring data for 50 beaches along coastal Lake Michigan on various temporal and spatial groupings to assess flexibility in the application of the AWQC. No calculation on either scale was as low as the default maximum (235 CFU/100 mL) that managers typically use, indicating that current applications may be more conservative than the outlined AWQC. It was notable that beaches subject to point source FIB contamination had lower variation, highlighting the bias in the standards for these beaches. Until new water quality standards are promulgated, more site-specific application of the AWQC may benefit beach managers by allowing swimmers greater access to beaches. This issue will be an important consideration in addressing the forthcoming beach monitoring standards.

  8. USING HYDROGRAPHIC DATA AND THE EPA VIRTUAL BEACH MODEL TO TEST PREDICTIONS OF BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A modeling study of 2006 Huntington Beach (Lake Erie) beach bacteria concentrations indicates multi-variable linear regression (MLR) can effectively estimate bacteria concentrations compared to the persistence model. Our use of the Virtual Beach (VB) model affirms that fact. VB i...

  9. NOWCASTING AND FORECASTING BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATIONS USING EPA VIRTUAL BEACH SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evidence shows that traditional persistence-based beach closure decision making is inadequate, beaches are closed when they could be open and kept open when they should be closed. Intense interest is now focused on efforts to nowcast beach conditions using surrogate variables, su...

  10. VISUAL BEACH: SOFTWARE FOR ACHIEVING BEACH AESTHETIC AND PUBLIC HEALTH PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act of 2000 directs the EPA to assure that 100% of significant public beaches are managed by 2008. Under the Act EPA is developing a program to monitor beach water quality and strategies for timely notification of the public...

  11. 77 FR 50019 - Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa... establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean located east of Cocoa Beach, Florida... approximately 20 aircraft engaging in aerobatic maneuvers over the Atlantic Ocean east of Cocoa Beach,...

  12. 76 FR 54703 - Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC in the Federal Register (76 FR 124). We received... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY:...

  13. 7. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING EAST FROM BEACH; SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING EAST FROM BEACH; SHOWING 27TH BENT LANDWARD TO MAXWELL'S RESTAURANT, NEPTUNE'S GALLEY (RIGHT OF CENTER) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  14. 8. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH FROM BEACH; SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH FROM BEACH; SHOWING 17TH BENT TO END; NEPTUNE'S GALLEY TO END OF PIER - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  15. 127. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: FRAMING DETAILS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    127. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: FRAMING DETAILS Sheet 8 of 11 (#3281) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  16. 120. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    120. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF EXISTING PIER Sheet 2 of 11 (#3274) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  17. 123. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: REPAIR DETAILS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    123. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: REPAIR DETAILS Sheet 5 of 11 (#3277) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  18. 10. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH FROM BEACH; SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH FROM BEACH; SHOWING (LEFT-RIGHT) CAPTAIN'S GALLEY'S GALLEY TO END OF PIER - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  19. 130. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DETAILS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    130. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DETAILS. Sheet 11 of 11 (#3284) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  20. 125. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: MODIFIED RAMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    125. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: MODIFIED RAMP DETAILS Sheet 6A of 11 (#3279) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  1. 104. VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER TAKEN FROM BEACH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    104. VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER TAKEN FROM BEACH, LOOKING SOUTH. BANDSHELL IS AT RIGHT Photograph #1574-HB. Photographer unknown, c. 1914 - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  2. 126. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: EXTENSION DETAILS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    126. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: EXTENSION DETAILS Sheet 7 of 11 (#3280) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  3. 111. PLAN AND ELEVATION OF HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: PIER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    111. PLAN AND ELEVATION OF HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: PIER MID-SECTION TO END Sheet 2 of 9 (#3253) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  4. 129. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DIAGRAM. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    129. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DIAGRAM. Sheet lO of 11 (#3283) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  5. 124. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: RAMP DETAILS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    124. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: RAMP DETAILS Sheet 6 of 11 (#3278) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  6. 121. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    121. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF EXISTING PIER Sheet 3 of 11 (#3275) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  7. 45. VIEW OF STAIRWAY UP FROM BEACH TO PIER APPROACH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. VIEW OF STAIRWAY UP FROM BEACH TO PIER APPROACH, NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  8. 110. PLAN AND ELEVATION OF HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: PIER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    110. PLAN AND ELEVATION OF HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: PIER APPROACH TO MID-SECTION Sheet 1 of 9 (#3252) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  9. 122. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    122. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF EXTENSION TO PIER Sheet 4 of 11 (#3276) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  10. 128. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: BOAT LANDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    128. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: BOAT LANDING DETAILS Sheet 9 of 11 (#3282) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  11. BEACH ROAD SHOWING THE LAWN WITH KIAWE TREES BETWEEN THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BEACH ROAD SHOWING THE LAWN WITH KIAWE TREES BETWEEN THE ROAD AND THE BEACH. BEACH ROAD IS 14' WIDE. VIEW FACING SOUTH. - Hickam Field, Fort Kamehameha Historic Housing, Along Worchester Avenue & Hope Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  12. Host origin and tissue microhabitat shaping the microbiota of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Dittmer, Jessica; Lesobre, Jérôme; Moumen, Bouziane; Bouchon, Didier

    2016-05-01

    We present the first in-depth investigation of the host-associated microbiota of the terrestrial isopod crustacean Armadillidium vulgare. This species is an important decomposer of organic matter in terrestrial ecosystems and a major model organism for arthropod-Wolbachia symbioses due to its well-characterized association with feminizing Wolbachia 16S rRNA gene pyrotags were used to characterize its bacterial microbiota at multiple levels: (i) in individuals from laboratory lineages and field populations and (ii) in various host tissues. This integrative approach allowed us to reveal an unexpectedly high bacterial diversity, placing this species in the same league as termites in terms of symbiotic diversity. Interestingly, both animal groups belong to the same ecological guild in terrestrial ecosystems. While Wolbachia represented the predominant taxon in infected individuals, it was not the only major player. Together, the most abundant taxa represented a large scope of symbiotic interactions, including bacterial pathogens, a reproductive parasite (Wolbachia) and potential nutritional symbionts. Furthermore, we demonstrate that individuals from different populations harboured distinct bacterial communities, indicating a strong link between the host-associated microbiota and environmental bacteria, possibly due to terrestrial isopod nutritional ecology. Overall, this work highlights the need for more studies of host-microbiota interactions and bacterial diversity in non-insect arthropods. PMID:27004796

  13. Mitochondrial genome haplotype hypervariation within the isopod parasitic nematode Thaumamermis cosgrovei.

    PubMed

    Tang, Sha; Hyman, Bradley C

    2007-06-01

    Characterization of mitochondrial genomes from individual Thaumamermis cosgrovei nematodes, obligate parasites of the isopod Armadillidium vulgare, revealed that numerous mtDNA haplotypes, ranging in size from 19 to 34 kb, are maintained in several spatially separated isopod populations. The magnitude and frequency of conspecific mtDNA size variation is unprecedented among all studied size-polymorphic metazoan mitochondrial genomes. To understand the molecular basis of this hypervariation, complete nucleotide sequences of two T. cosgrovei mtDNA haplotypes were determined. A hypervariable segment, residing between the atp6 and rrnL genes, contributes exclusively to T. cosgrovei mtDNA size variation. Within this region, mtDNA coding genes and putative nonfunctional sequences have accumulated substitutions and are duplicated and rearranged to varying extents. Hypervariation at this level has enabled a first insight into the life history of T. cosgrovei. In five A. vulgare hosts infected with multiple nematodes, four carried nematodes with identical mtDNA haplotypes, suggesting that hosts may become infected by ingesting a recently hatched egg clutch or become parasitized by individuals from the same brood prior to dispersal of siblings within the soil. PMID:17435228

  14. Body shape in terrestrial isopods: A morphological mechanism to resist desiccation?

    PubMed

    Broly, Pierre; Devigne, Cédric; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis

    2015-11-01

    Woodlice are fully terrestrial crustaceans and are known to be sensitive to water loss. Their half-ellipsoidal shapes represent simple models in which to investigate theoretical assumptions about organism morphology and rates of exchange with the environment. We examine the influence of surface area and mass on the desiccation rates in three eco-morphologically different species of woodlice: Oniscus asellus, Porcellio scaber, and Armadillidium vulgare. Our analysis indicates that the rate of water loss of an individual depends on both the initial weight and the body surface area. Interspecific and intraspecific analyses show that the mass-specific water loss rate of a species decreases along with the ratio of surface area to volume. In particular, we show that body shape explains the difference in mass-specific water loss rates between A. vulgare and P. scaber. This observation also explains several known ecological patterns, for example, the distribution and survivorship of individuals. However, in addition to body size and shape, water loss in terrestrial isopods depends also on the coefficient of permeability (i.e., a measure of water loss rate per surface unit), which is high in O. asellus and lower (and at similar levels) in P. scaber and A. vulgare. We discuss morphological, physiological, and behavioral aspects of water loss avoidance in terrestrial isopods. PMID:26289755

  15. Morphological description of bacterial infection of digestive glands in the terrestrial isopod porcellio scaber (Isopoda, crustacea)

    PubMed

    Drobne; Strus; Znidarsic; Zidar

    1999-01-01

    Morphological studies of the hepatopancreas of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber revealed bacterial infection. The percentage of infected animals collected from the same site varied from 0 to 10% during the 4 years of study. Transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and light microscopy revealed that infected glands differed from those in healthy isopods. The most prominent sign was white spots between 100 and 200 &mgr;m in diameter along the entire gland. These spots were aggregations of vacuoles in the cells that were densely filled with bacteria in different phases of the developmental cycle that included the formation of small, dense, rod-shaped infective bacteria and much larger spherical multiplying cells filled with aggregates of polysomes and a chromatin network. Occasionally, large sphericles were filled with homogeneous electron-dense material. Bacteria were not observed in the cell nucleus. Small vacuoles of less than 5 &mgr;m were filled predominately with spherical bacteria but rod-shaped forms were also present in large numbers. Larger vacuoles of 10 to 20 &mgr;m in the main were densely filled with rod-shaped bacteria. According to the literature on the morphological characteristics of bacteria infecting invertebrates, those described in our study would be classified in the genus Rickettsiella. However, most recent investigations show that besides morphological investigations, genetic ones are also needed to define the taxonomic position of bacteria that infect invertebrates. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  16. Genomic characterization of symbiotic mycoplasmas from the stomach of deep-sea isopod bathynomus sp.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Huang, Jiao-Mei; Wang, Shao-Lu; Gao, Zhao-Ming; Zhang, Ai-Qun; Danchin, Antoine; He, Li-Sheng

    2016-09-01

    Deep-sea isopod scavengers such as Bathynomus sp. are able to live in nutrient-poor environments, which is likely attributable to the presence of symbiotic microbes in their stomach. In this study we recovered two draft genomes of mycoplasmas, Bg1 and Bg2, from the metagenomes of the stomach contents and stomach sac of a Bathynomus sp. sample from the South China Sea (depth of 898 m). Phylogenetic trees revealed a considerable genetic distance to other mycoplasma species for Bg1 and Bg2. Compared with terrestrial symbiotic mycoplasmas, the Bg1 and Bg2 genomes were enriched with genes encoding phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase systems (PTSs) and sodium-driven symporters responsible for the uptake of sugars, amino acids and other carbohydrates. The genome of mycoplasma Bg1 contained sialic acid lyase and transporter genes, potentially enabling the bacteria to attach to the stomach sac and obtain organic carbons from various cell walls. Both of the mycoplasma genomes contained multiple copies of genes related to proteolysis and oligosaccharide degradation, which may help the host survive in low-nutrient conditions. The discovery of the different types of mycoplasma bacteria in the stomach of this deep-sea isopod affords insights into symbiotic model of deep-sea animals and genomic plasticity of mycoplasma bacteria. PMID:27312602

  17. Terrestrial isopods congregate under a low-level beta-emitter source.

    PubMed

    Kanao, Tomoko; Miyachi, Yukihisa; Yamada, Takeshi

    2002-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is ubiquitous, but very few experiments have investigated the biological effects of the natural background radiation at very low doses (>10 mGy/yr). We examined whether the background radiation, or radiation of a slightly higher level, has a role in evoking changes in behaviors of terrestrial isopods (woodlice). Upon exposure to a source giving 15 times the background level placed at one end of a box, a significant increase in the number of woodlice gathering under the beta-source was observed with time, as compared with the sham control. Terrestrial isopods have chemoreceptors (the olfactory system) on the terminal segment of their antennae. An additional experiment confirmed the involvement of these antennae in the radiation effect on behavior. After the excision of the antennae, no beta-taxis response was observed. The behavior of the group exposed to the source giving 30 times the background tended to decrease gradually in the area of the source, and the individuals aggregated in the area away from the source. Thus, the olfactory sensor in the antennae may be an important organ involved in the prompt response to radiation exposure, and the discrimination of the radiation field strengths of radioisotopes.

  18. Host origin and tissue microhabitat shaping the microbiota of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Dittmer, Jessica; Lesobre, Jérôme; Moumen, Bouziane; Bouchon, Didier

    2016-05-01

    We present the first in-depth investigation of the host-associated microbiota of the terrestrial isopod crustacean Armadillidium vulgare. This species is an important decomposer of organic matter in terrestrial ecosystems and a major model organism for arthropod-Wolbachia symbioses due to its well-characterized association with feminizing Wolbachia 16S rRNA gene pyrotags were used to characterize its bacterial microbiota at multiple levels: (i) in individuals from laboratory lineages and field populations and (ii) in various host tissues. This integrative approach allowed us to reveal an unexpectedly high bacterial diversity, placing this species in the same league as termites in terms of symbiotic diversity. Interestingly, both animal groups belong to the same ecological guild in terrestrial ecosystems. While Wolbachia represented the predominant taxon in infected individuals, it was not the only major player. Together, the most abundant taxa represented a large scope of symbiotic interactions, including bacterial pathogens, a reproductive parasite (Wolbachia) and potential nutritional symbionts. Furthermore, we demonstrate that individuals from different populations harboured distinct bacterial communities, indicating a strong link between the host-associated microbiota and environmental bacteria, possibly due to terrestrial isopod nutritional ecology. Overall, this work highlights the need for more studies of host-microbiota interactions and bacterial diversity in non-insect arthropods.

  19. Body shape in terrestrial isopods: A morphological mechanism to resist desiccation?

    PubMed

    Broly, Pierre; Devigne, Cédric; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis

    2015-11-01

    Woodlice are fully terrestrial crustaceans and are known to be sensitive to water loss. Their half-ellipsoidal shapes represent simple models in which to investigate theoretical assumptions about organism morphology and rates of exchange with the environment. We examine the influence of surface area and mass on the desiccation rates in three eco-morphologically different species of woodlice: Oniscus asellus, Porcellio scaber, and Armadillidium vulgare. Our analysis indicates that the rate of water loss of an individual depends on both the initial weight and the body surface area. Interspecific and intraspecific analyses show that the mass-specific water loss rate of a species decreases along with the ratio of surface area to volume. In particular, we show that body shape explains the difference in mass-specific water loss rates between A. vulgare and P. scaber. This observation also explains several known ecological patterns, for example, the distribution and survivorship of individuals. However, in addition to body size and shape, water loss in terrestrial isopods depends also on the coefficient of permeability (i.e., a measure of water loss rate per surface unit), which is high in O. asellus and lower (and at similar levels) in P. scaber and A. vulgare. We discuss morphological, physiological, and behavioral aspects of water loss avoidance in terrestrial isopods.

  20. Environmental- and growth stage-related differences in the susceptibility of terrestrial isopods to UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Morgado, Rui; Ferreira, Nuno G C; Tourinho, Paula; Ribeiro, Fabianne; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2013-09-01

    Global environmental changes are nowadays one of the most important issues affecting terrestrial ecosystems. One of its most significant expressions is the increasing ultraviolet radiation (UVR) arising from the human-induced depletion in ozone layer. Therefore, to investigate the effects of UVR on the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus a multiple biomarker approach was carried out. Two experiments were performed in order to analyze the importance of the exposure environment and the growth stage on the UV-induced damages. First, adult individuals were exposed to UVR in three exposure environments (soil, soil with leaves, and plaster). Thereafter, three growth stages using soil as the exposure condition were tested. Integrated biomarker responses (IBR) suggested that UV effects were higher in plaster, and mostly identified by changes in acetylcholinesterase and glutathione-S-transferases activities, lipid peroxidation rates, and total energy available. The effects in soil and soil with leaves were not so clear. In the growth stages' experiment, juveniles and pre-adults were found to be more affected than adults, with the greatest differences between irradiated and non-irradiated isopods occurring in energy-related parameters. Our findings suggest that soil surface-living macrofauna may be prone to deleterious effects caused by UVR, highlighting the importance of taking the media of exposure and growth stage in account.

  1. Genomic characterization of symbiotic mycoplasmas from the stomach of deep-sea isopod bathynomus sp.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Huang, Jiao-Mei; Wang, Shao-Lu; Gao, Zhao-Ming; Zhang, Ai-Qun; Danchin, Antoine; He, Li-Sheng

    2016-09-01

    Deep-sea isopod scavengers such as Bathynomus sp. are able to live in nutrient-poor environments, which is likely attributable to the presence of symbiotic microbes in their stomach. In this study we recovered two draft genomes of mycoplasmas, Bg1 and Bg2, from the metagenomes of the stomach contents and stomach sac of a Bathynomus sp. sample from the South China Sea (depth of 898 m). Phylogenetic trees revealed a considerable genetic distance to other mycoplasma species for Bg1 and Bg2. Compared with terrestrial symbiotic mycoplasmas, the Bg1 and Bg2 genomes were enriched with genes encoding phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase systems (PTSs) and sodium-driven symporters responsible for the uptake of sugars, amino acids and other carbohydrates. The genome of mycoplasma Bg1 contained sialic acid lyase and transporter genes, potentially enabling the bacteria to attach to the stomach sac and obtain organic carbons from various cell walls. Both of the mycoplasma genomes contained multiple copies of genes related to proteolysis and oligosaccharide degradation, which may help the host survive in low-nutrient conditions. The discovery of the different types of mycoplasma bacteria in the stomach of this deep-sea isopod affords insights into symbiotic model of deep-sea animals and genomic plasticity of mycoplasma bacteria.

  2. Ultrastructure and mineral distribution in the tergal cuticle of the terrestrial isopod Titanethes albus. Adaptations to a karst cave biotope.

    PubMed

    Hild, Sabine; Neues, Frank; Znidarsic, Nada; Strus, Jasna; Epple, Matthias; Marti, Othmar; Ziegler, Andreas

    2009-12-01

    Composition and spatial distribution of organic and inorganic materials within the cuticle of isopods vary between species. These variations are related to the behaviour and habitat of the animal. The troglobiotic isopod Titanethes albus lives in the complete darkness of caves in the Slovenian Karst. This habitat provides constant temperature and saturated humidity throughout the year and inconsistent food supply. These conditions should have lead to functional adaptations of arthropod cuticles. However, studies on structure and composition of cave arthropod cuticles are rare and lacking for terrestrial isopods. We therefore analysed the tergite cuticle of T. albus using transmission and field-emission electron microscopy, confocal micro-Raman spectroscopic imaging, quantitative X-ray diffractometry, thermogravimetric analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The ultrastructure of the epicuticle suggests a poor resistance against water loss. A weak interconnection between the organic and mineral phase within the endo- and exocuticle, a comparatively thin apical calcite layer, and almost lack of magnesium within the calcite crystal lattice suggest that the mechanical strength of the cuticle is low in the cave isopod. This may possibly be of advantage in maintaining high cuticle flexibility and reducing metabolic expenditures. PMID:19632333

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of "Candidatus Hepatoplasma crinochetorum" Ps, a Bacterial Symbiont in the Hepatopancreas of the Terrestrial Isopod Porcellio scaber.

    PubMed

    Collingro, Astrid; Kostanjšek, Rok; Toenshoff, Elena R; Schulz, Frederik; Schuster, Lisa; Domann, Daryl; Horn, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    "Candidatus Hepatoplasma crinochetorum" Ps is an extracellular symbiont residing in the hepatopancreas of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber. Its genome is highly similar to that of the close relative "Ca. Hepatoplasma crinochetorum" Av from Armadillidium vulgare. However, instead of a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas system, it encodes a type I restriction modification system. PMID:26272556

  4. Isolation, characterization and PCR multiplexing of microsatellite loci for two sub-species of terrestrial isopod Porcellio dilatatus (Crustacea, Oniscidea).

    PubMed

    Michaud, Caroline; Chupeau, Cassandre; Bech, Nicolas; Thierry, Magali; Sicard, Mathieu; Greve, Pierre; Beltran-Bech, Sophie

    2016-04-01

    Several microsatellite markers have already been developed for different terrestrial isopod species such as Armadillidium vulgare, A. nasatum and Porcellionides pruinosus. In all these species, the endosymbiont Wolbachia has a feminizing effect that generates a female bias in sex ratio and reduces the number of reproductive males. Thus this can potentially decrease the genetic diversity of host populations. However, in some other isopod species, Wolbachia induces cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI); the most commonly described effect of Wolbachia in arthropods. The CI by rendering some crossings incompatible can reduce the gene flow and strengthen genetic differentiation between isopod populations. To date, the influence of Wolbachia inducing CI on population structure of terrestrial isopods has never been investigated. In this study, we developed 10 polymorphic microsatellite markers shared by two sub-species of Porcellio dilatatus. Crossings between the two sub-species are partially incompatible due to two CI-inducing Wolbachia strains. These new microsatellite markers will allow us to investigate the effect of CI on host genetic differentiation in this species complex. PMID:26943350

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of "Candidatus Hepatoplasma crinochetorum" Ps, a Bacterial Symbiont in the Hepatopancreas of the Terrestrial Isopod Porcellio scaber.

    PubMed

    Collingro, Astrid; Kostanjšek, Rok; Toenshoff, Elena R; Schulz, Frederik; Schuster, Lisa; Domann, Daryl; Horn, Matthias

    2015-08-13

    "Candidatus Hepatoplasma crinochetorum" Ps is an extracellular symbiont residing in the hepatopancreas of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber. Its genome is highly similar to that of the close relative "Ca. Hepatoplasma crinochetorum" Av from Armadillidium vulgare. However, instead of a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas system, it encodes a type I restriction modification system.

  6. Iranian terrestrial isopods of the family Cylisticidae Verhoeff, 1949 with a description of a new species (Isopoda, Oniscidea).

    PubMed

    Kashani, Ghasem M

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the terrestrial isopods of the family Cylisticidae in Iran are investigated. Geographical distributions of two formerly reported species from Iran, namely Cylisticoides angulatus Schmalfuss, 2003 and Cylisticus rotundifrons (Schmalfuss, 1986), are expanded. Cylisticus masalicus sp. n. is described and its diagnostic characters are figured.

  7. First recorded cave-dwelling terrestrial isopods (Isopoda: Oniscidea) in Iran with a description of a new species .

    PubMed

    Kashani, Ghasem M; Malekhosseini, Mohammad-Javad; Sadeghi, Saber

    2013-11-08

    Cave-dwelling terrestrial isopods from the province of Kohgiluyeh and Boyerahmad, southwestern Iran, are reported here. These include three accidental and one troglobitic species namely Protracheoniscus gakalicus n. sp., which is also the first recorded troglobitic species from the genus Protracheoniscus. The new species is readily distinguished by the lack of eyes and pigmentation.

  8. Iranian terrestrial isopods of the family Cylisticidae Verhoeff, 1949 with a description of a new species (Isopoda, Oniscidea)

    PubMed Central

    Kashani, Ghasem M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In the present study, the terrestrial isopods of the family Cylisticidae in Iran are investigated. Geographical distributions of two formerly reported species from Iran, namely Cylisticoides angulatus Schmalfuss, 2003 and Cylisticus rotundifrons (Schmalfuss, 1986), are expanded. Cylisticus masalicus sp. n. is described and its diagnostic characters are figured. PMID:27199591

  9. Isolation, characterization and PCR multiplexing of microsatellite loci for two sub-species of terrestrial isopod Porcellio dilatatus (Crustacea, Oniscidea).

    PubMed

    Michaud, Caroline; Chupeau, Cassandre; Bech, Nicolas; Thierry, Magali; Sicard, Mathieu; Greve, Pierre; Beltran-Bech, Sophie

    2016-04-01

    Several microsatellite markers have already been developed for different terrestrial isopod species such as Armadillidium vulgare, A. nasatum and Porcellionides pruinosus. In all these species, the endosymbiont Wolbachia has a feminizing effect that generates a female bias in sex ratio and reduces the number of reproductive males. Thus this can potentially decrease the genetic diversity of host populations. However, in some other isopod species, Wolbachia induces cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI); the most commonly described effect of Wolbachia in arthropods. The CI by rendering some crossings incompatible can reduce the gene flow and strengthen genetic differentiation between isopod populations. To date, the influence of Wolbachia inducing CI on population structure of terrestrial isopods has never been investigated. In this study, we developed 10 polymorphic microsatellite markers shared by two sub-species of Porcellio dilatatus. Crossings between the two sub-species are partially incompatible due to two CI-inducing Wolbachia strains. These new microsatellite markers will allow us to investigate the effect of CI on host genetic differentiation in this species complex.

  10. Assessment of swimming associated health effects in marine bathing beach: an example from Morib beach (Malaysia).

    PubMed

    Praveena, Sarva Mangala; Pauzi, Norfasmawati Mohd; Hamdan, Munashamimi; Sham, Shaharuddin Mohd

    2015-03-15

    A survey among beachgoers was conducted to determine the swimming associated health effects experienced and its relationship with beach water exposure behaviour in Morib beach. For beach water exposure behaviour, the highest frequency of visit among the respondents was once a year (41.9%). For ways of water exposure, whole body exposure including head was the highest (38.5%). For duration of water exposure, 30.8% respondents prefer to be in water for about 30 min with low possibilities of accidental ingestion of beach water. A total of 30.8% of beachgoers in Morib beach were reported of having dermal symptoms. Bivariate analysis showed only water activity, water contact and accidental ingestion of beach water showed significant association with swimming associated health effects experienced by swimmers. This study output showed that epidemiological study can be used to identify swimming associated health effects in beach water exposed to faecal contamination.

  11. Five years of beach drainage survey on a macrotidal beach (Quend-Plage, northern France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bain, Olivier; Toulec, Renaud; Combaud, Anne; Villemagne, Guillaume; Barrier, Pascal

    2016-07-01

    A drainage system was installed in 2008 on the macrotidal beach of Quend-Plage, close to Abbeville (Somme, northern France), following a period of significant erosion of recreational areas. The "Direction départementale des territoires et de la mer" (French Coastal Department Authority) has requested a biannual survey in order to validate the beach drainage setup and its efficiency. This paper presents the methodology used for this survey, and the response of the coastal system to this soft engineering method for preventing erosion. These five years of drainage operation have strongly modified the morphology of the beach. Three main modifications occurred: (i) accretion of the upper beach and foredune, (ii) erosion of the lower and middle beach and (iii) a slight shift in directions of the beach bars and troughs. These morphological changes finally led to the stabilization of the beach.

  12. Locomotor activity and zonation of upper shore arthropods in a sandy beach of north central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaramillo, E.; Contreras, H.; Duarte, C.; Avellanal, M. H.

    2003-10-01

    The tenebrionid beetle Phalerisida maculata Kulzer, the talitrid amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata Nicolet and the oniscid isopod Tylos spinulosus Dana are semi-terrestrial burrowing species, which coexist on sandy beaches of north central Chile (28-30°S). During the night, these scavengers emerge to make downshore migrations. Given the similarity in niches of these three species (all are known to include macroalgal detritus in their diet) and their relatively high abundance on that beaches, there is the potential for some degree of interaction, both inter- and intraspecific. Field studies were carried out to examine zonation of these burrowing organisms and eventual time and/or space partitioning of locomotor activity during night hours. Locomotor activity on the beach surface was analyzed over 12 h periods during spring and neap tides of September and December 2000, and March 2001. Scavengers moving over the beach surface were captured using pitfall traps buried with their rims flush with the beach surface along a transect extended from the foot of the dunes to the highest levels reached by the swashes. Every 1 h the captured animals in the traps were collected. Locomotor activity was also studied in the laboratory with chambers equipped with infrared recording systems (actographs). Data downloaded from the actographs were graphed to obtain a display of locomotor activity per 15 min interval during the course of the 7 day experiments. Results show space partitioning of burrowed organisms and time partitioning in the locomotor activity of O. tuberculata, T. spinulosus and P. maculata over the beach surface. Circular statistics showed that usually the activity peaks of O. tuberculata were more different from those of P. maculata and T. spinulosus than those of the last two species when compared with each other. Intraspecific differences were also found in the surface locomotor activity, primarily between juveniles and adults of O. tuberculata. Interseasonal

  13. Long Beach's Pivotal Turn around RTI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Judy

    2008-01-01

    This article briefly describes the tiered approach to intervention adopted by the Long Beach Unified School District. Long Beach Unified School District is the state's third largest urban school district with more than 90,000 students, 84 percent of whom are minority and 68 percent of whom qualify for free and reduced price lunch, and where over…

  14. PREDICTING BACTERIAL CONCENTRATION ON THE NATION'S BEACHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A classical example of the failure of institutions and environmental technology to protect the nation's aesthetic, recreational, and public health values is represented by the July-August, 1999 Huntington Beach, California beach closure. This multi-million dollar regional public ...

  15. A Study of Sandy Beach Zonation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Steve K.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the study of sandy beach zonations as a seashore activity for either high school or lower-level college courses in biology, ecology, or marine biology. Students first draw a profile of a beach scene and then collect specimens from the zones of the shore. In a laboratory, students identify their specimens and relate them to the beach…

  16. Effects of beach cast cleaning on beach quality, microbial food web, and littoral macrofaunal biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malm, Torleif; Råberg, Sonja; Fell, Sabine; Carlsson, Per

    2004-06-01

    At the end of the summer, drifting filamentous red algae cover shallow bottoms and accumulate in huge cast walls on the open shores of the non-tidal central Baltic Sea. The hypotheses that beach cleaning increases water clarity, decreases the organic content of the sand, and increases the species diversity in the shallow zone closest to the shore, were tested through field investigations and experiments. Cleaned shorelines were compared with un-cleaned shorelines at two sites with different intensity of beach cleaning in a rural area of SE Sweden. The results show that water clarity was significantly increased off the intensively cleaned beach but not off the moderately cleaned one. Similarly, the total leakage of nitrogenous compounds decreased off the intensively cleaned beach, but not off the moderately cleaned. The organic content of the sand was lower on both cleaned beaches compared with nearby un-cleaned beaches. The total animal biomass was significantly lower on the intensively cleaned beach compared with the un-cleaned beach, but the moderately cleaned beach gave no such effect. The difference in biodiversity and community structure between cleaned and un-cleaned beaches was insignificant. The most obvious difference in species composition was a much higher number of planktivore opossum shrimps of the genus Mysis and Praunus on the un-cleaned beaches. The bacterial production and the amount of ciliates larger than 20 mm were also higher on un-cleaned beaches, indicating that the microbial food web off the un-cleaned beaches is stimulated by the discharge of decomposing algal material. The conclusion of the study is that mechanical cleaning reduces the organic content of the beach sand and may change the water quality and microbial production, but the effect on the macrofaunal biodiversity is insignificant.

  17. Dynamics of Shengjini beach (Albania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gashi, Ferim; Nikolli, Pal

    2015-04-01

    Dynamics of Shengjini beach (Albania) Pal Nikolli , Ferim GASHI Through archaeological and historical data, presentations of ancient topographic, cartographic materials (topographic maps obtained at different periods from 1870 to 1990), aerial photographs (2007), satellite images (2014) and direct measurements, paper defines and analyzes the position of the coastline of Shengjini beach (Lezha) from century XVI until today. The coastline of the Shengjini city (port) to Drin River estuary is oriented north-south direction and is approximately 10.5 km long. This part of the coast is sandy and sediment comes mainly from the River Drin and distributed by currents along the coast. In this paper are make provision for the position of the coastline in the future and analyzed the possibilities of human intervention in the coastal environment , etc. This work forms the basis for the issuance of necessary data required for various projections at the coastal environment Shëngjini. Results of this study will have a significant impact on state policies for integrated management of the coastal zone in the study and development of tourism. Key words: GIS, Remonte Sennsing, cartography, management of coastal zone, tourism, environment.

  18. Horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) reproductive activity on Delaware Bay beaches: Interactions with beach characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.R.; Pooler, P.S.; Loveland, R.E.; Botton, M.L.; Michels, S.F.; Weber, R.G.; Carter, Daniel B.

    2002-01-01

    We used results from a survey of horseshoe crab reproductive activity that was conducted in 1999 throughout Delaware Bay to examine the relationship between estimates of spawning females and egg deposition and analyze how that relationship varies with geography, time within a spawning season, beach morphology, and wave energy. We found that beach morphology and wave energy interacted with density of spawning females to explain variation in the density and distribution of eggs and larvae. For example, the quantity of eggs in surface sediment (i.e., eggs that are potentially available to foraging shorebirds) was associated with the density of spawning females, beach morphology, and wave energy. The association between beach morphology and live eggs in surface sediment was strong especially in late May (Percent Reduction in Error = 86% from regression tree model) where egg density was an order of magnitude higher on beaches <15 m wide (3.38*105 m-2; 90% CI: 2.29*105, 4.47*105) compared to wider beaches (1.49*104 m-2; 90% CI: 4.47*103, 2.53*104). Results also indicate that, among bay-front beaches, horseshoe crabs prefer to spawn on narrow beaches, possibly because of reduced wave energy. At peak periods of spawning activity, density of spawning females was inversely related to foreshore width on mid-latitude beaches within Delaware Bay (t = -2.68, 7 df, p = 0.03). Because the distribution of eggs across the foreshore varied with beach morphology and widened as the spawning season progressed, methods used to sample eggs need to be robust to variation in beach morphology and applicable regardless of when the samples are taken. Because beach morphology and wave energy were associated with the quantity of eggs in surface sediment, certain beach types may be critical to the conservation of shorebird foraging habitat.

  19. Patterns of urban mercury contamination detected by bioindication with terrestrial isopods.

    PubMed

    Pedrini-Martha, Veronika; Sager, Manfred; Werner, Richard; Dallinger, Reinhard

    2012-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a trace element with high toxicological impact on potential receptors, including human beings. Global Hg emissions are predicted to increase significantly during the next 40 years. After emission, the metal is transported by air currents and precipitations, leading to increasing depositions even in areas far from emission sources. In the terrestrial environment, Hg is subjected to redistribution and transformation into different inorganic and metal-organic species that are taken up by vegetation and soil organisms. In the present study, the woodlouse (Porcellio scaber) was used as a biological indicator of total Hg pollution in the city of Dornbirn (province of Vorarlberg), Austria. Woodlice were collected from 30 sampling points scattered over the city area, 25 of them situated within a rectangular transect crossing the city area from west-northwest to east-southeast, starting near the Rheintal motorway and ending at the slopes of the Bregenzer Wald hills. In addition to woodlice, soil substrate samples were collected at nine of the selected sampling points. Total Hg concentrations were measured in isopod tissues and soil substrate samples by means of an Hg analyzer. Total Hg concentrations in isopod tissues were significantly correlated with Hg soil contents (P < 0.05). Moreover, a gradient of increasing Hg concentrations was observed in isopod samples along the transect across Dornbirn, with the lowest concentrations detected in woodlouse samples near the Rheintal motorway and the highest levels toward the ascending slopes of the Bregenzer Wald hills. This gradient of increasing Hg concentrations across the city matches a concomitant increase in wet precipitations along the same direction, indicating that deposition by wet precipitation may be an important source for Hg contamination in the city of Dornbirn. Overall, the degree of Hg contamination across the study area can be regarded as rather low, i.e., comparable with concentrations observed

  20. In field conditions, commercial pigment grade TiO2 was not harmful to terrestrial isopods but reduced leaf litter fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Jemec, Anita; Kos, Monika; Drobne, Damjana; Koponen, Ismo Kalevi; Vukić, Jovan; Ferreira, Nuno G C; Loureiro, Susana; McShane, Heather V A

    2016-11-15

    We investigated the effects of a commercial pigment grade rutile TiO2 on the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber in three locations that differed in terms of abiotic and biotic conditions: the laboratory, open air, and the closed barn. Mortality and isopod energy reserves (digestive gland total proteins, lipids and carbohydrates) were not affected following 14days exposure to up to 1000mg TiO2 per kg dry leaves (mg/kg) under any experimental scenario. However, in the field tests, isopods consumption of TiO2-coated leaves was reduced compared to that of uncoated leaves and the decrease was not dose-dependent. The highest reduction was in the closed barn (45-56%) rather than in the open-air (38-40%). In laboratory-based food choice tests, isopods neither preferred nor avoided leaves coated with TiO2, suggesting that rather than sensing the TiO2 on the leaves directly, the isopods under open-air and barn exposure responded to altered attractiveness and/or palatability of the TiO2 amended leaves. We propose that this could be due to altered microbial population on the leaves, a hypothesis that requires further investigation. Although short-term exposure to atmospheric deposition of up to 1000mg/kg commercial TiO2 is unlikely to pose an immediate threat to isopod mortality and energy balance, reduced leaf feeding may have implications for the decomposition of plant material. PMID:27481455

  1. In field conditions, commercial pigment grade TiO2 was not harmful to terrestrial isopods but reduced leaf litter fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Jemec, Anita; Kos, Monika; Drobne, Damjana; Koponen, Ismo Kalevi; Vukić, Jovan; Ferreira, Nuno G C; Loureiro, Susana; McShane, Heather V A

    2016-11-15

    We investigated the effects of a commercial pigment grade rutile TiO2 on the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber in three locations that differed in terms of abiotic and biotic conditions: the laboratory, open air, and the closed barn. Mortality and isopod energy reserves (digestive gland total proteins, lipids and carbohydrates) were not affected following 14days exposure to up to 1000mg TiO2 per kg dry leaves (mg/kg) under any experimental scenario. However, in the field tests, isopods consumption of TiO2-coated leaves was reduced compared to that of uncoated leaves and the decrease was not dose-dependent. The highest reduction was in the closed barn (45-56%) rather than in the open-air (38-40%). In laboratory-based food choice tests, isopods neither preferred nor avoided leaves coated with TiO2, suggesting that rather than sensing the TiO2 on the leaves directly, the isopods under open-air and barn exposure responded to altered attractiveness and/or palatability of the TiO2 amended leaves. We propose that this could be due to altered microbial population on the leaves, a hypothesis that requires further investigation. Although short-term exposure to atmospheric deposition of up to 1000mg/kg commercial TiO2 is unlikely to pose an immediate threat to isopod mortality and energy balance, reduced leaf feeding may have implications for the decomposition of plant material.

  2. Tar loads on Omani beaches

    SciTech Connect

    Badawy, M.I.; Al-Harthy, F.T. )

    1991-11-01

    Owing to Oman's geographic position and long coastal line, the coastal areas of Oman are particularly vulnerable to oil pollution from normal tanker operations, illegal discharges, and accidental spills as well as local sources of oil input. UNEP carried out a survey on the coasts of Oman to determine the major sources of oil pollution and concluded that the major shoreline pollution problems in Oman arose from operational discharges of oil from passing vessels traffic. The oil, because of the high sea and air temperatures in the area, was subjected to relatively high rates of evaporation and photo-oxidation and tended to arrive at the coast as heavy petroleum particulate residues (tar balls). The aim of the present study was to measure the loads of tar balls in Omani coastal areas and to identify the source of oil pollutants on beaches.

  3. Sunburn risk factors at Galveston beaches.

    PubMed

    Shoss-Glaich, Adrienne B; Uchida, Tatsuo; Wagner, Richard F

    2004-07-01

    Although the beach is a well-recognized environment for sunburn injury, specific risk factors for sunburn and their interactions are poorly understood. In this epidemiologic study, variables related to sunburn injury at the beach were analyzed. Beachgoers exposed to more than 4 hours of sun at the beach were significantly more likely to sunburn compared with those with less exposure. Other significant sunburn risk factors were lack of sunscreen use or use of sunscreen with a Sun Protection Factor of 15 or less and Fitzpatrick Skin Types I and II. Reasonable sunburn avoidance strategies should include limiting duration of sun exposure to fewer than 4 hours per day.

  4. Developmental Toxicity of Endocrine Disrupters Bisphenol A and Vinclozolin in a Terrestrial Isopod

    PubMed Central

    van Gestel, C. A. M.; Soares, A. M. V. M.

    2010-01-01

    Studies of the effects of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on invertebrates are still largely underrepresented. This work aims to fill this gap by assessing the effects of bisphenol A (BPA) and vinclozolin (Vz) on the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (common rough woodlouse). Male adult and sexually undifferentiated juvenile woodlice were exposed to the toxicants. Effects on molting regime and growth were investigated independently for males and female woodlice after sexual differentiation. Both chemicals elicited developmental toxicity to P. scaber by causing overall decreased growth. Nevertheless, BPA induced molting, whereas Vz delayed it. Although the LC50 values for juvenile and adult survival were fairly similar, juvenile woodlice showed an increased chronic sensitivity to both chemicals, and female woodlice were most the sensitive to BPA. We recommend the use of adults, juveniles, female, and male woodlice, as well as a large range of toxicant concentrations, to provide valuable information regarding differential dose responses, effects, and threshold values for EDCs. PMID:20148245

  5. Platinum uptake by the freshwater isopod Asellus aquaticus in urban rivers.

    PubMed

    Rauch, S; Morrison, G M

    1999-09-01

    Platinum has been increasing in the environment as a result of emissions from catalytic converters. The platinum emitted is principally located in the vicinity of roads but might be transported to urban rivers through highway and urban run-off water. Platinum concentrations in the freshwater isopod Asellus aquaticus were measured for two urban rivers and a stormwater detention pond. Concentrations ranged from 0.04 to 12.4 micrograms g-1 for direct analysis and from 0.16 to 4.5 micrograms g-1 after depuration. Analyses of water, pore water and sediments indicate that platinum in urban rivers is mostly found in the sediments and these provide the major contribution of platinum to Asellus aquaticus. Exposure experiments showed the importance of platinum speciation for uptake.

  6. The Terrestrial Isopod Microbiome: An All-in-One Toolbox for Animal–Microbe Interactions of Ecological Relevance

    PubMed Central

    Bouchon, Didier; Zimmer, Martin; Dittmer, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial symbionts represent essential drivers of arthropod ecology and evolution, influencing host traits such as nutrition, reproduction, immunity, and speciation. However, the majority of work on arthropod microbiota has been conducted in insects and more studies in non-model species across different ecological niches will be needed to complete our understanding of host–microbiota interactions. In this review, we present terrestrial isopod crustaceans as an emerging model organism to investigate symbiotic associations with potential relevance to ecosystem functioning. Terrestrial isopods comprise a group of crustaceans that have evolved a terrestrial lifestyle and represent keystone species in terrestrial ecosystems, contributing to the decomposition of organic matter and regulating the microbial food web. Since their nutrition is based on plant detritus, it has long been suspected that bacterial symbionts located in the digestive tissues might play an important role in host nutrition via the provisioning of digestive enzymes, thereby enabling the utilization of recalcitrant food compounds (e.g., cellulose or lignins). If this were the case, then (i) the acquisition of these bacteria might have been an important evolutionary prerequisite for the colonization of land by isopods, and (ii) these bacterial symbionts would directly mediate the role of their hosts in ecosystem functioning. Several bacterial symbionts have indeed been discovered in the midgut caeca of terrestrial isopods and some of them might be specific to this group of animals (i.e., Candidatus Hepatoplasma crinochetorum, Candidatus Hepatincola porcellionum, and Rhabdochlamydia porcellionis), while others are well-known intracellular pathogens (Rickettsiella spp.) or reproductive parasites (Wolbachia sp.). Moreover, a recent investigation of the microbiota in Armadillidium vulgare has revealed that this species harbors a highly diverse bacterial community which varies between host populations

  7. Molecular systematics and biodiversity of oniscidean isopods in the groundwater calcretes of central Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Javidkar, Mohammad; Cooper, Steven J B; King, Rachael A; Humphreys, William F; Bertozzi, Terry; Stevens, Mark I; Austin, Andrew D

    2016-11-01

    Groundwater calcrete aquifers of central Western Australia have been shown to contain a high diversity of stygobiont (subterranean aquatic) invertebrates, with each species confined to an individual calcrete and the entire system resembling a 'subterranean archipelago' containing hundreds of isolated calcretes. Here, we utilised alternative sampling techniques above the water table and uncovered a significant fauna of subterranean terrestrial oniscidean isopods from the calcretes. We explored the diversity and evolution of this fauna using molecular analyses based on one mitochondrial gene, Cytochrome C Oxidase Subunit I (COI), two Ribosomal RNA genes (28S and 18S), and one protein coding nuclear gene, Lysyl-tRNA Synthetase (LysRS). The results from 12 calcretes showed the existence of 36 divergent DNA lineages belonging to four oniscidean families (Paraplatyarthridae, Armadillidae, Stenoniscidae and Philosciidae). Using a combination of phylogenetic and species delimitation methods, we hypothesized the occurrence of at least 27 putative new species of subterranean oniscideans, of which 24 taxa appeared to be restricted to an individual calcrete, lending further support to the "subterranean island hypothesis". Three paraplatyarthrid species were present on adjacent calcretes and these exceptions possessed more ommatidia and body pigments compared with the calcrete-restricted taxa, and are likely to represent troglophiles. The occurrence of stenoniscid isopods in the calcretes of central Western Australia, a group previously only known from the marine littoral zone, suggests a link to the marine inundation of the Eucla basin during the Late Eocene. The current oniscidean subterranean fauna consists of groups known to be subtropical, littoral and benthic, reflecting different historical events that have shaped the evolution of the fauna in the calcretes. PMID:27469380

  8. Fish mucus versus parasitic gnathiid isopods as sources of energy and sunscreens for a cleaner fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckes, Maxi; Dove, Sophie; Siebeck, Ulrike E.; Grutter, Alexandra S.

    2015-09-01

    The cleaning behaviour of the bluestreak cleaner wrasse Labroides dimidiatus is extensively used as a model system for understanding cooperation. It feeds mainly on blood-sucking gnathiid isopods and also on the epidermal mucus of client fish; the nutritional quality of these foods, however, is unknown. The epidermal mucus of reef fish contains ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing compounds (mycosporine-like amino acids, MAAs), which are only obtained via the diet; nevertheless, while La. dimidiatus has high amounts of MAAs in its mucus, their source is unknown. Therefore, the energetic value (calories and protein estimated using carbon and nitrogen) and MAA level in gnathiids and mucus from several clients [parrotfishes, wrasses (Labridae), and a snapper (Lutjanidae)] were determined. The energetic value of mucus and gnathiids varied among fishes. Overall, carbon, nitrogen, calories, and protein per dry weight were higher in the mucus of most client species compared to gnathiids. Thus, depending on the client species, mucus may be energetically more advantageous for cleaner wrasse to feed on than gnathiids. UV absorbance, a confirmed proxy for MAA levels, indicated high MAA levels in mucus, whereas gnathiids had no detectable MAAs. This suggests that La. dimidiatus obtain MAAs from mucus but not from gnathiids. Hence, in addition to energy, the mucus of some clients also provides La. dimidiatus with the added bonus of UV-absorbing compounds. This may explain why cleaner fish prefer to feed on mucus over gnathiid isopods. The likely costs and benefits to clients of the removal of UV protecting mucus and parasitic gnathiids, respectively, and the variation in benefits gained by cleaner fish from feeding on these foods may explain some variation in cooperation levels in cleaning interactions.

  9. The Mutualistic Side of Wolbachia-Isopod Interactions: Wolbachia Mediated Protection Against Pathogenic Intracellular Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Braquart-Varnier, Christine; Altinli, Mine; Pigeault, Romain; Chevalier, Frédéric D; Grève, Pierre; Bouchon, Didier; Sicard, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    Wolbachia is a vertically transmitted endosymbiont whose radiative success is mainly related to various host reproductive manipulations that led to consider this symbiont as a conflictual reproductive parasite. However, lately, some Wolbachia have been shown to act as beneficial symbionts by protecting hosts against a broad range of parasites. Still, this protection has been mostly demonstrated in artificial Wolbachia-host associations between partners that did not co-evolved together. Here, we tested in two terrestrial isopod species Armadillidium vulgare and Porcellio dilatatus whether resident Wolbachia (native or non-native) could confer protection during infections with Listeria ivanovii and Salmonella typhimurium and also during a transinfection with a Wolbachia strain that kills the recipient host (i.e., wVulC in P. dilatatus). Survival analyses showed that (i) A. vulgare lines hosting their native Wolbachia (wVulC) always exhibited higher survival than asymbiotic ones when infected with pathogenic bacteria (ii) P. dilatatus lines hosting their native wDil Wolbachia strain survived the S. typhimurium infection better, while lines hosting non-native wCon Wolbachia strain survived the L. ivanovii and also the transinfection with wVulC from A. vulgare better. By studying L. ivanovii and S. typhimurium loads in the hemolymph of the different host-Wolbachia systems, we showed that (i) the difference in survival between lines after L. ivanovii infections were not linked to the difference between their pathogenic bacterial loads, and (ii) the difference in survival after S. typhimurium infections corresponds to lower loads of pathogenic bacteria. Overall, our results demonstrate a beneficial effect of Wolbachia on survival of terrestrial isopods when infected with pathogenic intracellular bacteria. This protective effect may rely on different mechanisms depending on the resident symbiont and the invasive bacteria interacting together within the hosts. PMID:26733946

  10. Molecular systematics and biodiversity of oniscidean isopods in the groundwater calcretes of central Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Javidkar, Mohammad; Cooper, Steven J B; King, Rachael A; Humphreys, William F; Bertozzi, Terry; Stevens, Mark I; Austin, Andrew D

    2016-11-01

    Groundwater calcrete aquifers of central Western Australia have been shown to contain a high diversity of stygobiont (subterranean aquatic) invertebrates, with each species confined to an individual calcrete and the entire system resembling a 'subterranean archipelago' containing hundreds of isolated calcretes. Here, we utilised alternative sampling techniques above the water table and uncovered a significant fauna of subterranean terrestrial oniscidean isopods from the calcretes. We explored the diversity and evolution of this fauna using molecular analyses based on one mitochondrial gene, Cytochrome C Oxidase Subunit I (COI), two Ribosomal RNA genes (28S and 18S), and one protein coding nuclear gene, Lysyl-tRNA Synthetase (LysRS). The results from 12 calcretes showed the existence of 36 divergent DNA lineages belonging to four oniscidean families (Paraplatyarthridae, Armadillidae, Stenoniscidae and Philosciidae). Using a combination of phylogenetic and species delimitation methods, we hypothesized the occurrence of at least 27 putative new species of subterranean oniscideans, of which 24 taxa appeared to be restricted to an individual calcrete, lending further support to the "subterranean island hypothesis". Three paraplatyarthrid species were present on adjacent calcretes and these exceptions possessed more ommatidia and body pigments compared with the calcrete-restricted taxa, and are likely to represent troglophiles. The occurrence of stenoniscid isopods in the calcretes of central Western Australia, a group previously only known from the marine littoral zone, suggests a link to the marine inundation of the Eucla basin during the Late Eocene. The current oniscidean subterranean fauna consists of groups known to be subtropical, littoral and benthic, reflecting different historical events that have shaped the evolution of the fauna in the calcretes.

  11. The Mutualistic Side of Wolbachia–Isopod Interactions: Wolbachia Mediated Protection Against Pathogenic Intracellular Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Braquart-Varnier, Christine; Altinli, Mine; Pigeault, Romain; Chevalier, Frédéric D.; Grève, Pierre; Bouchon, Didier; Sicard, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    Wolbachia is a vertically transmitted endosymbiont whose radiative success is mainly related to various host reproductive manipulations that led to consider this symbiont as a conflictual reproductive parasite. However, lately, some Wolbachia have been shown to act as beneficial symbionts by protecting hosts against a broad range of parasites. Still, this protection has been mostly demonstrated in artificial Wolbachia-host associations between partners that did not co-evolved together. Here, we tested in two terrestrial isopod species Armadillidium vulgare and Porcellio dilatatus whether resident Wolbachia (native or non-native) could confer protection during infections with Listeria ivanovii and Salmonella typhimurium and also during a transinfection with a Wolbachia strain that kills the recipient host (i.e., wVulC in P. dilatatus). Survival analyses showed that (i) A. vulgare lines hosting their native Wolbachia (wVulC) always exhibited higher survival than asymbiotic ones when infected with pathogenic bacteria (ii) P. dilatatus lines hosting their native wDil Wolbachia strain survived the S. typhimurium infection better, while lines hosting non-native wCon Wolbachia strain survived the L. ivanovii and also the transinfection with wVulC from A. vulgare better. By studying L. ivanovii and S. typhimurium loads in the hemolymph of the different host-Wolbachia systems, we showed that (i) the difference in survival between lines after L. ivanovii infections were not linked to the difference between their pathogenic bacterial loads, and (ii) the difference in survival after S. typhimurium infections corresponds to lower loads of pathogenic bacteria. Overall, our results demonstrate a beneficial effect of Wolbachia on survival of terrestrial isopods when infected with pathogenic intracellular bacteria. This protective effect may rely on different mechanisms depending on the resident symbiont and the invasive bacteria interacting together within the hosts. PMID:26733946

  12. Lysosomal membrane stability in laboratory- and field-exposed terrestrial isopods Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Nolde, Natasa; Drobne, Damjana; Valant, Janez; Padovan, Ingrid; Horvat, Milena

    2006-08-01

    Two established methods for assessment of the cytotoxicity of contaminants, the lysosomal latency (LL) assay and the neutral red retention (NRR) assay, were successfully applied to in toto digestive gland tubes (hepatopancreas) of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea). In vitro exposure of isolated gland tubes to copper was used as a positive control to determine the performance of the two methods. Lysosomal latency and the NRR assay were then used on in vivo (via food) laboratory-exposed animals and on field populations. Arbitrarily selected criteria for determination of the fitness of P. scaber were set on the basis of lysosomal membrane stability (LMS) as assessed with in toto digestive gland tubes. Decreased LMS was detected in animals from all polluted sites, but cytotoxicity data were not in agreement with concentrations of pollutants. Lysosomal membrane stability in the digestive gland tubes of animals from an environment in Idrija, Slovenia that was highly polluted with mercury (260 microg/g dry wt food and 1,600 microg/g dry wt soil) was less affected than LMS in laboratory animals fed with 5 and 50 microg Hg/g dry weight for 3 d. This probably indicates tolerance of P. scaber to mercury in the mercury-polluted environment and/or lower bioavailability of environmental mercury. In animals from the vicinity of a thermal power plant with environmental mercury concentrations three to four orders of magnitude lower than those in Idrija, LMS was severely affected. In general, the LL assay was more sensitive than the NRR assay. The LMS assay conducted on digestive gland tubes of terrestrial isopods is highly recommended for integrated biomarker studies.

  13. Influence of dimethoate on acetylcholinesterase activity and locomotor function in terrestrial isopods.

    PubMed

    Engenheiro, Elizabeth L; Hankard, Peter K; Sousa, José P; Lemos, Marco F; Weeks, Jason M; Soares, Amadeu M V M

    2005-03-01

    Locomotor behavior in terrestrial organisms is crucial for burrowing, avoiding predators, food seeking, migration, and reproduction; therefore, it is a parameter with ecological relevance. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is a nervous system enzyme inhibited by several compounds and widely used as an exposure biomarker in several organisms. Moreover, changes in energy reserves also may indicate an exposure to a stress situation. The aim of this study is to link biomarkers of different levels of biological organization in isopods exposed to increasing doses of dimethoate in semifield conditions. Locomotor parameters, AChE activity, and energy reserves (lipid, glycogen, and protein contents) were evaluated in the isopod Porcellio dilatatus after 48-h and 10-d exposure to dimethoate-contaminated soil. Results showed a clear impairment of both locomotor and AChE activity during the entire study, although effects were more pronounced after 48 h. Most locomotor parameters and AChE activity showed a clear dose-response relationship. By contrast, no clear trend was observed on energetic components. A positive and significant relationship was found between AChE activity and those locomotor parameters indicating activity, and the opposite was observed with those locomotor parameters indicating confusion and disorientation. The results obtained in this study enhance the importance of linking biochemical responses to parameters with ecological relevance at individual level, the value of locomotor behavior as an important marker to assess effects of toxicants, and also the usefulness and the acquisition of ecological relevance by AChE as a biomarker, by linking it with ecologically relevant behavioral parameters.

  14. The Different Faces of San Francisco's Ocean Beach: Analyzing Sand Size and Beach Shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grove, K.; Labit, R.; Lui, S.; Rodriquez, I.; Yi, C.; Yu, M.

    2004-12-01

    Ocean Beach is located along the western edge of San Francisco adjacent to the Pacific Ocean. Erosion along the southern part of the beach is threatening a nearby highway and water treatment plant. To better understand this beach and the processes that form it, our SF-ROCKS research group collected data from seven locations along its length. We used an auto-level surveying instrument to measure beach profiles and we collected sand samples that were measured using sieves and a sieve shaker. We plotted profiles and grain-size data using Excel and Surfer software. The sediment is mostly fine sand, and the means of all samples range between 0.19-0.26 mm. There may be little variation along the beach because only small sand grains have survived the long journey from their Sierra Nevada source. Profile shape does vary along the beach. The profile at the northern end is about three times wider than the profile at the southern end. The northern profile is flatter overall, but all profiles had a steep beach face in August, when the data were collected. The differences in beach profiles may be related to position relative to the offshore bar, which appears to provide sand to the northern part of the beach. Our group will collect more data in November to see what changes have occurred after the large-wave season has begun. We will use Surfer software to compare summer and fall profiles, to see where sediment has been added and where sediment has been removed. We will also compare our results to the data collected by Dr. Patrick Barnard and his research group at the U.S. Geological Survey, who are using an All-Terrain Vehicle to measure beach profiles and a camera to measure sediment size. We will use our analysis of beach variations to make recommendations for reducing beach erosion.

  15. Morphodynamics of a mesotidal rocky beach: Palmeras beach, Gorgona Island National Natural Park, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-García, A. M.; Bernal, G. R.; Osorio, A. F.; Botero, V.

    2014-10-01

    The response of a rocky beach to different possible combinations of hydrodynamic conditions (tides, waves, oceanic currents) has been little studied. In this work, the morphodynamic response to different hydrodynamic forcing is evaluated from sedimentological and geomorphological analysis in seasonal and medium term (19 years) scale in Palmeras beach, located in the southwest of Gorgona Island National Natural Park (NNP), a mesotidal rocky island on the Colombian Pacific continental shelf. Palmeras is an important nesting area of two types of marine turtles, with no anthropogenic stress. In the last years, coastal erosion has reduced the beach width, restricting the safe areas for nesting and conservation of these species. Until now, the sinks, sources, reservoirs, rates, and paths of sediments were unknown, as well as their hydrodynamic forcing. The beach seasonal variability, from October 2010 to August 2012, was analyzed based on biweekly or monthly measurements of five beach profiles distributed every 200 m along the 1.2 km of beach length. The main paths for sediment transport were defined from the modeling of wave currents with the SMC model (Coastal Modeling System), as well as the oceanic currents, simulated for the dry and wet seasons of 2011 using the ELCOM model (Estuary and Lake COmputer Model). Extreme morphologic variations over a time span of 19 years were analyzed with the Hsu and Evans beach static equilibrium parabolic model, from one wave diffraction point which dominates the general beach plan shape. The beach lost 672 m3/m during the measuring period, and erosional processes were intensified during the wet season. The beach trends responded directly to a wave mean energy flux change, resulting in an increase of up to 14 m in the width northward and loss of sediments in the beach southward. This study showed that to obtain the integral morphodynamic behavior of a rocky beach it is necessary to combine information of hydrodynamic, sedimentology

  16. Effects of beach replenishment on intertidal invertebrates: A 15-month, eight beach study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooldridge, Tyler; Henter, Heather J.; Kohn, Joshua R.

    2016-06-01

    Beach replenishment is an increasingly popular means to remediate coastal erosion, but no consensus exists regarding how long replenishment affects sandy beach intertidal invertebrates, key components of beach ecosystems. We monitored the intertidal invertebrate community for fifteen months following a replenishment project at eight beaches, each with replenished and control sections, across San Diego County. Nearly all taxa showed major declines in abundance immediately following replenishment. Populations of talitrid amphipods and the bean clam Donax gouldii recovered within one year, sooner than in previous studies. On some beaches, populations of the mole crab Emerita analoga bloomed four months after replenishment and were more numerous on replenished portions of beaches at that time. Mole crab populations subsequently declined and no longer differed by treatment. The polychaete community, composed of Scolelepis sp. and several other numerically important taxa, showed a strong replenishment-induced reduction in abundance that persisted through the end of the study. The large negative effect of replenishment on polychaetes, coupled with their overall importance to the invertebrate community, resulted in a more than twofold reduction in overall invertebrate abundance on replenished beaches at 15 months. Such reductions may have far reaching consequences for sandy beach ecosystems, as community declines can reduce prey availability for shorebirds and fish. As this and other recent studies have revealed longer times for the recovery of intertidal invertebrates than previously observed, longer study periods and more cautious estimates regarding the magnitude, variability, and duration of impacts of beach replenishment for management decision-making are warranted.

  17. Macrodebris and microplastics from beaches in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Laglbauer, Betty J L; Franco-Santos, Rita Melo; Andreu-Cazenave, Miguel; Brunelli, Lisa; Papadatou, Maria; Palatinus, Andreja; Grego, Mateja; Deprez, Tim

    2014-12-15

    The amount of marine debris in the environment is increasing worldwide, which results in an array of negative effects to biota. This study provides the first account of macrodebris on the beach and microplastics in the sediment (shoreline and infralittoral) in relation to tourism activities in Slovenia. The study assessed the quality and quantity of macrodebris and the quality, size and quantity of microplastics at six beaches, contrasting those under the influences of tourism and those that were not. Beach cleanliness was estimated using the Clean Coast Index. Tourism did not seem to have an effect on macrodebris or microplastic quantity at beaches. Over 64% of macrodebris was plastic, and microplastics were ubiquitous, which calls for classification of plastics as hazardous materials. Standard measures for marine debris assessment are needed, especially in the form of an all-encompassing debris index. Recommendations for future assessments are provided for the Adriatic region.

  18. Plastics and beaches: a degrading relationship.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Patricia L; Biesinger, Mark C; Grifi, Meriem

    2009-01-01

    Plastic debris in Earth's oceans presents a serious environmental issue because breakdown by chemical weathering and mechanical erosion is minimal at sea. Following deposition on beaches, plastic materials are exposed to UV radiation and physical processes controlled by wind, current, wave and tide action. Plastic particles from Kauai's beaches were sampled to determine relationships between composition, surface textures, and plastics degradation. SEM images indicated that beach plastics feature both mechanically eroded and chemically weathered surface textures. Granular oxidation textures were concentrated along mechanically weakened fractures and along the margins of the more rounded plastic particles. Particles with oxidation textures also produced the most intense peaks in the lower wavenumber region of FTIR spectra. The textural results suggest that plastic debris is particularly conducive to both chemical and mechanical breakdown in beach environments, which cannot be said for plastics in other natural settings on Earth.

  19. Macrodebris and microplastics from beaches in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Laglbauer, Betty J L; Franco-Santos, Rita Melo; Andreu-Cazenave, Miguel; Brunelli, Lisa; Papadatou, Maria; Palatinus, Andreja; Grego, Mateja; Deprez, Tim

    2014-12-15

    The amount of marine debris in the environment is increasing worldwide, which results in an array of negative effects to biota. This study provides the first account of macrodebris on the beach and microplastics in the sediment (shoreline and infralittoral) in relation to tourism activities in Slovenia. The study assessed the quality and quantity of macrodebris and the quality, size and quantity of microplastics at six beaches, contrasting those under the influences of tourism and those that were not. Beach cleanliness was estimated using the Clean Coast Index. Tourism did not seem to have an effect on macrodebris or microplastic quantity at beaches. Over 64% of macrodebris was plastic, and microplastics were ubiquitous, which calls for classification of plastics as hazardous materials. Standard measures for marine debris assessment are needed, especially in the form of an all-encompassing debris index. Recommendations for future assessments are provided for the Adriatic region. PMID:25440193

  20. Sea level anomalies exacerbate beach erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theuerkauf, Ethan J.; Rodriguez, Antonio B.; Fegley, Stephen R.; Luettich, Richard A.

    2014-07-01

    Sea level anomalies are intra-seasonal increases in water level forced by meteorological and oceanographic processes unrelated to storms. The effects of sea level anomalies on beach morphology are unknown but important to constrain because these events have been recognized over large stretches of continental margins. Here, we present beach erosion measurements along Onslow Beach, a barrier island on the U.S. East Coast, in response to a year with frequent sea level anomalies and no major storms. The anomalies enabled extensive erosion, which was similar and in most places greater than the erosion that occurred during a year with a hurricane. These results highlight the importance of sea level anomalies in facilitating coastal erosion and advocate for their inclusion in beach-erosion models and management plans. Sea level anomalies amplify the erosive effects of accelerated sea level rise and changes in storminess associated with global climate change.

  1. What Is the Impact of Beach Debris?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Jax, Dan

    2003-01-01

    Presents a marine education activity. Students construct a web of changes that shows potential problems caused by solid waste on beaches. They then determine whether each change is an increase or a decrease from previous conditions. (Author/SOE)

  2. Mixed sediment beach processes: Kachemak Bay, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggiero, P.; Adams, P.N.; Warrick, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Mixed sediment beaches are morphologically distinct from and more complex than either sand or gravel only beaches. Three digital imaging techniques are employed to quantify surficial grain size and bedload sediment transport rates along the mixed sediment beaches of Kachemak Bay, Alaska. Applying digital imaging procedures originally developed for quickly and efficiently quantifying grain sizes of sand to coarse sediment classes gives promising results. Hundreds of grain size estimates lead to a quantitative characterization of the region's sediment at a significant reduction in cost and time as compared to traditional techniques. Both the sand and coarse fractions on this megatidal beach mobilize into self-organized bedforms that migrate alongshore with a seasonally reflecting the temporal pattern of the alongshore component of wave power. In contrast, the gravel bedforms also migrate in the cross-shore without significant seasonally suggesting that swash asymmetry is sufficient to mobilize the gravel even during low energy summer conditions. ?? 2007 ASCE.

  3. Plastics and beaches: a degrading relationship.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Patricia L; Biesinger, Mark C; Grifi, Meriem

    2009-01-01

    Plastic debris in Earth's oceans presents a serious environmental issue because breakdown by chemical weathering and mechanical erosion is minimal at sea. Following deposition on beaches, plastic materials are exposed to UV radiation and physical processes controlled by wind, current, wave and tide action. Plastic particles from Kauai's beaches were sampled to determine relationships between composition, surface textures, and plastics degradation. SEM images indicated that beach plastics feature both mechanically eroded and chemically weathered surface textures. Granular oxidation textures were concentrated along mechanically weakened fractures and along the margins of the more rounded plastic particles. Particles with oxidation textures also produced the most intense peaks in the lower wavenumber region of FTIR spectra. The textural results suggest that plastic debris is particularly conducive to both chemical and mechanical breakdown in beach environments, which cannot be said for plastics in other natural settings on Earth. PMID:18834997

  4. Do predator cues influence turn alternation behavior in terrestrial isopods Porcellio laevis Latreille and Armadillidium vulgare Latreille?

    PubMed

    Hegarty, Kevin G; Kight, Scott L

    2014-07-01

    Terrestrial isopods (Crustacea: Oniscidea) make more alternating maze turns in response to negative stimuli, a navigational behavior that corrects divergence from a straight line. The present study investigates this behavioral pattern in two species, Porcellio laevis Latreille and Armadillidium vulgare Latreille, in response to short-term vs. long-term exposure to indirect cues from predatory ants. Neither isopod species increased the number of alternating turns in response to short-term indirect exposure to ants, but both species made significantly more alternating turns following continuous indirect exposure to ants for a period of one-week. These results are surprising given differences in behavioral and morphological predator defenses between these species (the Armadillidiidae curl into defensive postures when attacked, whereas the Porcellionidae flee). The marked similarity in alternating turn behavior of the two families suggests evolutionary conservation of antipredator navigation mechanisms. PMID:24954552

  5. Effects of microclimate on behavioural and life history traits of terrestrial isopods: implications for responses to climate change

    PubMed Central

    Dixie, Bernice; White, Hollie; Hassall, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The sensitivity of terrestrial isopods to changes in both temperature and moisture make them suitable models for examining possible responses of arthropod macro-decomposers to predicted climate change. Effects of changes in both temperature and relative humidity on aggregation, growth and survivorship of species of isopods contrasting in their morphological and physiological adaptations to moisture stress have been investigated in laboratory microcosms. All three traits were more sensitive to a reduction in relative humidity of 20–25% than they were to an increase in temperature of 5–6 °C. These results suggest that predicted changes in climate in south east England may reduce the extent to which soil animals stimulate microbial activity and hence carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from soils in the future. This may help to mitigate the potential for a positive feedback between increased CO2 emissions from soils, and increased greenhouse effects causing an increase in soil temperatures. PMID:26261446

  6. Effects of microclimate on behavioural and life history traits of terrestrial isopods: implications for responses to climate change.

    PubMed

    Dixie, Bernice; White, Hollie; Hassall, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The sensitivity of terrestrial isopods to changes in both temperature and moisture make them suitable models for examining possible responses of arthropod macro-decomposers to predicted climate change. Effects of changes in both temperature and relative humidity on aggregation, growth and survivorship of species of isopods contrasting in their morphological and physiological adaptations to moisture stress have been investigated in laboratory microcosms. All three traits were more sensitive to a reduction in relative humidity of 20-25% than they were to an increase in temperature of 5-6 °C. These results suggest that predicted changes in climate in south east England may reduce the extent to which soil animals stimulate microbial activity and hence carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from soils in the future. This may help to mitigate the potential for a positive feedback between increased CO2 emissions from soils, and increased greenhouse effects causing an increase in soil temperatures.

  7. Do predator cues influence turn alternation behavior in terrestrial isopods Porcellio laevis Latreille and Armadillidium vulgare Latreille?

    PubMed

    Hegarty, Kevin G; Kight, Scott L

    2014-07-01

    Terrestrial isopods (Crustacea: Oniscidea) make more alternating maze turns in response to negative stimuli, a navigational behavior that corrects divergence from a straight line. The present study investigates this behavioral pattern in two species, Porcellio laevis Latreille and Armadillidium vulgare Latreille, in response to short-term vs. long-term exposure to indirect cues from predatory ants. Neither isopod species increased the number of alternating turns in response to short-term indirect exposure to ants, but both species made significantly more alternating turns following continuous indirect exposure to ants for a period of one-week. These results are surprising given differences in behavioral and morphological predator defenses between these species (the Armadillidiidae curl into defensive postures when attacked, whereas the Porcellionidae flee). The marked similarity in alternating turn behavior of the two families suggests evolutionary conservation of antipredator navigation mechanisms.

  8. Nowcasting Beach Advisories at Ohio Lake Erie Beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francy, Donna S.; Darner, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    Data were collected during the recreational season of 2007 to test and refine predictive models at three Lake Erie beaches. In addition to E. coli concentrations, field personnel collected or compiled data for environmental and water-quality variables expected to affect E. coli concentrations including turbidity, wave height, water temperature, lake level, rainfall, and antecedent dry days and wet days. At Huntington (Bay Village) and Edgewater (Cleveland) during 2007, the models provided correct responses 82.7 and 82.1 percent of the time; these percentages were greater than percentages obtained using the previous day?s E. coli concentrations (current method). In contrast, at Villa Angela during 2007, the model provided correct responses only 61.3 percent of the days monitored. The data from 2007 were added to existing datasets and the larger datasets were split into two (Huntington) or three (Edgewater) segments by date based on the occurrence of false negatives and positives (named ?season 1, season 2, season 3?). Models were developed for dated segments and for combined datasets. At Huntington, the summed responses for separate best models for seasons 1 and 2 provided a greater percentage of correct responses (85.6 percent) than the one combined best model (83.1 percent). Similar results were found for Edgewater. Water resource managers will determine how to apply these models to the Internet-based ?nowcast? system for issuing water-quality advisories during 2008.

  9. Monitoring beach changes using GPS surveying techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Robert; Leach, Mark P.; Paine, Jeffrey G.; Cardoza, Michael A.

    1993-01-01

    The adaptation of Global Positioning System (GPS) surveying techniques to beach monitoring activities is a promising response to this challenge. An experiment that employed both GPS and conventional beach surveying was conducted, and a new beach monitoring method employing kinematic GPS surveys was devised. This new method involves the collection of precise shore-parallel and shore-normal GPS positions from a moving vehicle so that an accurate two-dimensional beach surface can be generated. Results show that the GPS measurements agree with conventional shore-normal surveys at the 1 cm level, and repeated GPS measurements employing the moving vehicle demonstrate a precision of better than 1 cm. In addition, the nearly continuous sampling and increased resolution provided by the GPS surveying technique reveals alongshore changes in beach morphology that are undetected by conventional shore-normal profiles. The application of GPS surveying techniques combined with the refinement of appropriate methods for data collection and analysis provides a better understanding of beach changes, sediment transport, and storm impacts.

  10. Description of two new species and redescription of one species of agnarid terrestrial isopods (Oniscidea, Agnaridae) from western Iran

    PubMed Central

    Kashani, Ghasem M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The present study reports on three species of terrestrial isopods from western Iran. The genus Mongoloniscus Verhoeff, 1930 is recorded for the first time from Iran, with description of a new species: M. persicus sp. n. Protracheoniscus ehsani sp. n. is described and P. darevskii Borutzky, 1975 is redescribed based on Iranian specimens. The diagnostic characters of these species are figured and their geographical distribution is presented on a map. PMID:25317061

  11. Influence of soil pH on the toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles to the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus.

    PubMed

    Tourinho, Paula S; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Lofts, Stephen; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2013-12-01

    The effects of soil pH on the toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) to the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus were evaluated. Isopods were exposed to a natural soil amended with CaCO3 to reach 3 different pH(CaCl2) levels (4.5, 6.2, and 7.3) and to standard LUFA 2.2 soil (pH 5.5) spiked with ZnO NPs (30 nm), non-nano ZnO (200 nm), and ionic Zn as ZnCl₂. Toxicity was expressed based on total Zn concentration in soil, as well as total Zn and free Zn²⁺ ion concentrations in porewater. Compared with ZnO-spiked soils, the ZnCl₂-spiked soils had lower pH and higher porewater Ca²⁺ and Zn levels. Isopod survival did not differ between Zn forms and soils, but survival was higher for isopods exposed to ZnO NPs at pH 4.5. Median effect concentrations (EC50s) for biomass change showed similar trends for all Zn forms in all soils, with higher values at intermediate pH. Median lethal concentration (LC50) and EC50 values based on porewater Zn or free Zn ion concentrations were much lower for ZnO than for ionic zinc. Zn body concentrations increased in a dose-related manner, but no effect of soil pH was found. It is suggested not only that dissolved or free Zn in porewater contributed to uptake and toxicity, but also that oral uptake (i.e., ingestion of soil particles) could be an important additional route of exposure.

  12. The agnarid terrestrial isopods (Isopoda, Oniscidea, Agnaridae) of the province of Qazvin, Iran, with a description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Eshaghi, Behjat; Kiabi, Bahram H; Kashani, Ghasem M

    2015-01-01

    Six species of terrestrial isopods from the province of Qazvin, central Iran, are recorded. Three species, Hemilepistusklugii (Brandt, 1833), Protracheoniscusehsani Kashani, 2014 and Mongoloniscuspersicus Kashani, 2014, were previously reported from the province. Hemilepistuselongatus Budde-Lund, 1885 and Protracheoniscusmajor (Dollfus, 1903) are recorded for the first time, and one species, Protracheoniscussarii sp. n., is described as new. The diagnostic characters of the new species are figured.

  13. Description of two new species and redescription of one species of agnarid terrestrial isopods (Oniscidea, Agnaridae) from western Iran.

    PubMed

    Kashani, Ghasem M

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports on three species of terrestrial isopods from western Iran. The genus Mongoloniscus Verhoeff, 1930 is recorded for the first time from Iran, with description of a new species: M. persicus sp. n. Protracheoniscus ehsani sp. n. is described and P. darevskii Borutzky, 1975 is redescribed based on Iranian specimens. The diagnostic characters of these species are figured and their geographical distribution is presented on a map.

  14. Morphological and physiological development of anterior thoracic stretch receptors in two isopods, Armadillidium vulgare and Ligia exotica.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Masazumi; Ohata, Ayako; Niida, Akiyoshi

    2007-07-01

    Abdominal muscle receptor organs (MROs) monitor the position and movement of abdomen in crustaceans. Thoracic segments of decapods are fused and immovable. It is speculated that MROs had retrograded simple shape, N-cells that lost receptor muscles, a receptor cell and accessory nerves. We focused on the effect of segmental movement in respect to thoracic N-cells and MROs in isopods that have movable thoracic segments. Armadillidium vulgare rolled up its body segments. Ligia exotica swam by quick movement of the posterior thoracic segments. Both isopods possessed N-cells and MROs in the thorax. N-cells were a simple structure, but N-cells from the second and third thoracic segments of A. vulgare had a muscle strand. MROs(T3-T4) (from the third and fourth thoracic segments) of A. vulgare had two receptor muscles. MROs(T3-T4) of L. exotica had one long receptor muscle. N-cells of both species and MROs of A. vulgare showed slowly adapting stretch-activated discharges. MROs of L. exotica showed both slowly and rapidly adapting discharges. The stretch-activated responses of N-cells and MROs inhibited each other. N-cells or MROs in the thorax of isopods are not related to the segmental structure. The morphology and physiology of N-cells and MROs are specialized to species-specific behaviors. PMID:17473927

  15. Reproductive toxicity of the endocrine disrupters vinclozolin and bisphenol A in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Latreille, 1804).

    PubMed

    Lemos, M F L; van Gestel, C A M; Soares, A M V M

    2010-02-01

    Endocrine Disruptor Compounds (EDCs) have been largely studied concerning their effects on vertebrates. Nevertheless, invertebrates as targets for these chemicals have been neglected and few studies are available. Specifically for edaphic invertebrates, data concerning the effects of EDCs is residual. Influences of EDCs on the reproduction systems of these organisms, with consequences at the population level, are expected but have not been confirmed. This work aimed to study the effects of bisphenol A (BPA) and vinclozolin (Vz) on the reproduction of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber. Isopods were coupled and exposed to increasing concentrations of Vz and BPA and the females' reproductive cycle followed for 56d. Both compounds elicited reproductive toxicity. Vz and BPA decreased female reproductive allocation. Vz reduced pregnancy duration; increased the abortion percentage; decreased the number of pregnancies; and decreased the number of juveniles per female while BPA increased abortions at the lowest and highest test concentrations. The reproductive endpoints presented in here are indicative of the possible impact that this type of compounds might have on isopod population dynamics, which may eventually lead to population decline.

  16. Demography of some non-native isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) in a Mid-Atlantic forest, USA

    PubMed Central

    Hornung, Elisabeth; Szlavecz, Katalin; Dombos, Miklós

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduced species dominate the terrestrial isopod fauna in most inland habitats of North America, including urban landscapes. These non-native species are often very abundant and thus potentially play a significant role in detritus processing. We monitored isopod assemblages in an urban forest for a year to examine the relationship between surface activity and abiotic environmental factors, and to analyze reproductive characteristics that might contribute to their successful establishment. Using pitfall trap samples we recorded five species, two of which, Trachelipus rathkii and Cylisticus convexus, were highly abundant. We determined size, sex and reproductive state of each individual. Surface activity of both species reflected variability in abiotic stress factors for isopods, such as soil moisture and soil temperature. Early spring the main trigger was soil temperature while later in the season increasing temperature and decreasing soil moisture jointly affected population dynamics. Activity significantly correlated with soil moisture. The temporal pattern of sex ratios supported the secondary sex ratio hypothesis. Males dominated the samples on the onset of the mating season in search of females. The pattern was reversed as females searched for suitable microsites for their offspring. Size independent fecundity decreased as conditions became more stressful late in the season. PMID:26261445

  17. Multiple Conserved Heteroplasmic Sites in tRNA Genes in the Mitochondrial Genomes of Terrestrial Isopods (Oniscidea).

    PubMed

    Chandler, Christopher H; Badawi, Myriam; Moumen, Bouziane; Grève, Pierre; Cordaux, Richard

    2015-04-24

    Mitochondrial genome structure and organization are relatively conserved among metazoans. However, in many isopods, especially the terrestrial isopods (Oniscidea), the mitochondrial genome consists of both ∼14-kb linear monomers and ∼28-kb circular dimers. This unusual organization is associated with an ancient and conserved constitutive heteroplasmic site. This heteroplasmy affects the anticodon of a tRNA gene, allowing this single locus to function as a "dual" tRNA gene for two different amino acids. Here, we further explore the evolution of these unusual mitochondrial genomes by assembling complete mitochondrial sequences for two additional Oniscidean species, Trachelipus rathkei and Cylisticus convexus. Strikingly, we find evidence of two additional heteroplasmic sites that also alter tRNA anticodons, creating additional dual tRNA genes, and that are conserved across both species. These results suggest that the unique linear/circular organization of isopods' mitochondrial genomes may facilitate the evolution of stable mitochondrial heteroplasmies, and, conversely, once such heteroplasmies have evolved, they constrain the multimeric structure of the mitochondrial genome in these species. Finally, we outline some possible future research directions to identify the factors influencing mitochondrial genome evolution in this group.

  18. Demography of some non-native isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) in a Mid-Atlantic forest, USA.

    PubMed

    Hornung, Elisabeth; Szlavecz, Katalin; Dombos, Miklós

    2015-01-01

    Introduced species dominate the terrestrial isopod fauna in most inland habitats of North America, including urban landscapes. These non-native species are often very abundant and thus potentially play a significant role in detritus processing. We monitored isopod assemblages in an urban forest for a year to examine the relationship between surface activity and abiotic environmental factors, and to analyze reproductive characteristics that might contribute to their successful establishment. Using pitfall trap samples we recorded five species, two of which, Trachelipusrathkii and Cylisticusconvexus, were highly abundant. We determined size, sex and reproductive state of each individual. Surface activity of both species reflected variability in abiotic stress factors for isopods, such as soil moisture and soil temperature. Early spring the main trigger was soil temperature while later in the season increasing temperature and decreasing soil moisture jointly affected population dynamics. Activity significantly correlated with soil moisture. The temporal pattern of sex ratios supported the secondary sex ratio hypothesis. Males dominated the samples on the onset of the mating season in search of females. The pattern was reversed as females searched for suitable microsites for their offspring. Size independent fecundity decreased as conditions became more stressful late in the season.

  19. Linkage of biomarkers along levels of biological complexity in juvenile and adult diazinon fed terrestrial isopod (Porcellio scaber, Isopoda, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Stanek, Katja; Drobne, Damjana; Trebse, Polonca

    2006-09-01

    In parallel laboratory experiments, we determined the effect of a typical representative of organophosphorous pesticides, diazinon, on AChE activity, lipid, protein and glycogen content, weight change, feeding activity and mortality of juvenile and adult terrestrial isopods Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea). Organophosphorous pesticides (OP) are among the most extensively used pesticides, which have replaced organochlorine pesticides. OPs inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE), resulting in neurotoxicity. They have more widespread effects on non-target organisms than do organochlorine pesticides. The aim of this study was to link effect of diazinon on target enzyme to energy reserves and to integrated biomarker responses in juvenile and adult P. scaber. The non-observed effect concentration (NOEC) for AChE activity after diazinon exposure in two weeks toxicity study with isopods was below 5 microg/g diazinon. There was a good agreement between concentrations at which AChE and survival were affected (10 microg/g diazinon in juveniles, 100 microg/g diazinon in adults). We revealed a link among AChE activity, protein content and mortality. Glycogen and lipid content, feeding activity and weight change were not affected in two weeks diazinon exposure up to 100 microg/g diazinon. Juveniles were affected at concentrations that were an order of magnitude lower than those provoking similar effects on adults. Recommendations are made for future toxicity studies with terrestrial isopods.

  20. Demography of some non-native isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) in a Mid-Atlantic forest, USA.

    PubMed

    Hornung, Elisabeth; Szlavecz, Katalin; Dombos, Miklós

    2015-01-01

    Introduced species dominate the terrestrial isopod fauna in most inland habitats of North America, including urban landscapes. These non-native species are often very abundant and thus potentially play a significant role in detritus processing. We monitored isopod assemblages in an urban forest for a year to examine the relationship between surface activity and abiotic environmental factors, and to analyze reproductive characteristics that might contribute to their successful establishment. Using pitfall trap samples we recorded five species, two of which, Trachelipusrathkii and Cylisticusconvexus, were highly abundant. We determined size, sex and reproductive state of each individual. Surface activity of both species reflected variability in abiotic stress factors for isopods, such as soil moisture and soil temperature. Early spring the main trigger was soil temperature while later in the season increasing temperature and decreasing soil moisture jointly affected population dynamics. Activity significantly correlated with soil moisture. The temporal pattern of sex ratios supported the secondary sex ratio hypothesis. Males dominated the samples on the onset of the mating season in search of females. The pattern was reversed as females searched for suitable microsites for their offspring. Size independent fecundity decreased as conditions became more stressful late in the season. PMID:26261445

  1. An holistic approach to beach erosion vulnerability assessment.

    PubMed

    Alexandrakis, George; Poulos, Serafim Ε

    2014-01-01

    Erosion is a major threat for coasts worldwide, beaches in particular, which constitute one of the most valuable coastal landforms. Vulnerability assessments related to beach erosion may contribute to planning measures to counteract erosion by identifying, quantifying and ranking vulnerability. Herein, we present a new index, the Beach Vulnerability Index (BVI), which combines simplicity in calculations, easily obtainable data and low processing capacity. This approach provides results not only for different beaches, but also for different sectors of the same beach and enables the identification of the relative significance of the processes involved. It functions through the numerical approximation of indicators that correspond to the mechanisms related to the processes that control beach evolution, such as sediment availability, wave climate, beach morhodynamics and sea level change. The BVI is also intended to be used as a managerial tool for beach sustainability, including resilience to climate change impact on beach erosion. PMID:25123815

  2. Setting conservation targets for sandy beach ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Linda; Nel, Ronel; Holness, Stephen; Sink, Kerry; Schoeman, David

    2014-10-01

    Representative and adequate reserve networks are key to conserving biodiversity. This begs the question, how much of which features need to be placed in protected areas? Setting specifically-derived conservation targets for most ecosystems is common practice; however, this has never been done for sandy beaches. The aims of this paper, therefore, are to propose a methodology for setting conservation targets for sandy beach ecosystems; and to pilot the proposed method using data describing biodiversity patterns and processes from microtidal beaches in South Africa. First, a classification scheme of valued features of beaches is constructed, including: biodiversity features; unique features; and important processes. Second, methodologies for setting targets for each feature under different data-availability scenarios are described. From this framework, targets are set for features characteristic of microtidal beaches in South Africa, as follows. 1) Targets for dune vegetation types were adopted from a previous assessment, and ranged 19-100%. 2) Targets for beach morphodynamic types (habitats) were set using species-area relationships (SARs). These SARs were derived from species richness data from 142 sampling events around the South African coast (extrapolated to total theoretical species richness estimates using previously-established species-accumulation curve relationships), plotted against the area of the beach (calculated from Google Earth imagery). The species-accumulation factor (z) was 0.22, suggesting a baseline habitat target of 27% is required to protect 75% of the species. This baseline target was modified by heuristic principles, based on habitat rarity and threat status, with final values ranging 27-40%. 3) Species targets were fixed at 20%, modified using heuristic principles based on endemism, threat status, and whether or not beaches play an important role in the species' life history, with targets ranging 20-100%. 4) Targets for processes and 5

  3. Advanced Decision-Support for Coastal Beach Health: Virtual Beach 3.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    Virtual Beach is a free decision-support system designed to help beach managers and researchers construct, evaluate, and operate site-specific statistical models that can predict levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) based on environmental conditions that are more readily mea...

  4. Transformation of Palm Beach Community College to Palm Beach State College: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basiratmand, Mehran

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this single-site case study was to examine the organization and leadership change process of Palm Beach State College, a publicly funded institution in Florida, as it embarked on offering bachelor's degree programs. The study examined the organizational change process and the extent to which Palm Beach State College's organization…

  5. Beach-goer behavior during a retrospectively detected algal bloom at a Great Lakes beach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Algal blooms occur among nutrient rich, warm surface waters and may adversely impact recreational beaches. During July – September 2003, a prospective study of beachgoers was conducted on weekends at a public beach on a Great Lake in the United States. We measured each beac...

  6. 76 FR 37700 - Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... notice regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed...

  7. 77 FR 5793 - Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act; Availability of BEACH Act Grants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... potential risks associated with water contact activities in the coastal recreation waters that do not meet... Water Act (CWA) as amended by the Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health (BEACH) Act..., and local governments to support microbiological monitoring and public notification of the...

  8. Predictive Modeling of Microbial Indicators for Timely Beach Notifications and Advisories at Marine Beaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Marine beaches are occasionally contaminated by unacceptably high levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) that exceed EPA water quality criteria. Here we describe application of a recent version of the software package Virtual Beach tool (VB 3.0.6) to build and evaluate multiple...

  9. Threats to sandy beach ecosystems: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defeo, Omar; McLachlan, Anton; Schoeman, David S.; Schlacher, Thomas A.; Dugan, Jenifer; Jones, Alan; Lastra, Mariano; Scapini, Felicita

    2009-01-01

    We provide a brief synopsis of the unique physical and ecological attributes of sandy beach ecosystems and review the main anthropogenic pressures acting on the world's single largest type of open shoreline. Threats to beaches arise from a range of stressors which span a spectrum of impact scales from localised effects (e.g. trampling) to a truly global reach (e.g. sea-level rise). These pressures act at multiple temporal and spatial scales, translating into ecological impacts that are manifested across several dimensions in time and space so that today almost every beach on every coastline is threatened by human activities. Press disturbances (whatever the impact source involved) are becoming increasingly common, operating on time scales of years to decades. However, long-term data sets that describe either the natural dynamics of beach systems or the human impacts on beaches are scarce and fragmentary. A top priority is to implement long-term field experiments and monitoring programmes that quantify the dynamics of key ecological attributes on sandy beaches. Because of the inertia associated with global climate change and human population growth, no realistic management scenario will alleviate these threats in the short term. The immediate priority is to avoid further development of coastal areas likely to be directly impacted by retreating shorelines. There is also scope for improvement in experimental design to better distinguish natural variability from anthropogenic impacts. Sea-level rise and other effects of global warming are expected to intensify other anthropogenic pressures, and could cause unprecedented ecological impacts. The definition of the relevant scales of analysis, which will vary according to the magnitude of the impact and the organisational level under analysis, and the recognition of a physical-biological coupling at different scales, should be included in approaches to quantify impacts. Zoning strategies and marine reserves, which have not

  10. Feeding behaviour of the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus Brandt, 1833 (Crustacea, Isopoda) in response to changes in food quality and contamination.

    PubMed

    Loureiro, Susana; Sampaio, Alexandra; Brandão, Ana; Nogueira, António J A; Soares, Amadeu M V M

    2006-10-01

    Soil decomposition is mainly dependent on the nature and characteristics of organic matter within the soil, the environmental conditions and the activity of microorganisms and soil fauna. Isopods play an important role in decomposition through litter fragmentation and stimulating and/or ingesting fungi and bacteria. The aim of this study was to jointly evaluate the effect of different food types and the effect of heavy metal contamination of those foods through isopod feeding performance assays. These studies used the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus. After feeding with different leaf types for the study on feeding performance, alder leaves were chosen for the contamination experiments. Feeding parameters like consumption, assimilation, egestion and growth ratios were calculated and compared among treatments and food type. Lower quality food decreased isopods performance. Exotic food types were shown to be less preferred than alder or oak leaves. Contaminated food also resulted in a decrease in performance among the feeding parameters studies, although isopods can tolerate in certain cases high amounts of heavy metals. For this reason it is possible that in future this crustacean can be used as bioindicators of soil contamination or in the evaluation of contaminated sites or remediation processes.

  11. Beach science in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nevers, Meredith B.; Byappanahalli, Murulee N.; Edge, Thomas A.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring beach waters for human health has led to an increase and evolution of science in the Great Lakes, which includes microbiology, limnology, hydrology, meteorology, epidemiology, and metagenomics, among others. In recent years, concerns over the accuracy of water quality standards at protecting human health have led to a significant interest in understanding the risk associated with water contact in both freshwater and marine environments. Historically, surface waters have been monitored for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci), but shortcomings of the analytical test (lengthy assay) have resulted in a re-focusing of scientific efforts to improve public health protection. Research has led to the discovery of widespread populations of fecal indicator bacteria present in natural habitats such as soils, beach sand, and stranded algae. Microbial source tracking has been used to identify the source of these bacteria and subsequently assess their impact on human health. As a result of many findings, attempts have been made to improve monitoring efficiency and efficacy with the use of empirical predictive models and molecular rapid tests. All along, beach managers have actively incorporated new findings into their monitoring programs. With the abundance of research conducted and information gained over the last 25 years, “Beach Science” has emerged, and the Great Lakes have been a focal point for much of the ground-breaking work. Here, we review the accumulated research on microbiological water quality of Great Lakes beaches and provide a historic context to the collaborative efforts that have advanced this emerging science.

  12. Ontogeny of behavioural adaptations in beach crustaceans: some temporal considerations for integrated coastal zone management and conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naylor, E.; Kennedy, F.

    2003-10-01

    So-called "typical" behavioural responses of coastal animals to particular stimuli have previously been shown often to vary cyclically in phase with diel or tidal cycles in the environment. Less well-studied are differences in the behaviour of adults and juveniles of the same species at the same time of day or tidal state, or in response to the same stimulus. Experimental studies of such differences in behaviour are reviewed and compared for three species of beach crustaceans, namely, the crab Carcinus maenas, the isopod Eurydice pulchra and the amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata. Juvenile, but not adult, Carcinus will entrain circatidal rhythmicity after exposure to artificial tidal cycles of immersion/emersion; juvenile, but not adult, Eurydice express pronounced free-running circatidal swimming rhythms at neap tides as well as at springs; and, in Orchestoidea, juveniles and adults express patterns of daily locomotor activity that are complementary, both on the shore and in the laboratory. These ontogenetic differences are discussed in relation to distributional and behavioural differences between adults and juveniles in each species, drawing attention to their adaptive significance and wider implications for coastal management and conservation.

  13. Micro-scale distribution of some arthropods inhabiting a Mediterranean sandy beach in relation to environmental parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombini, Isabella; Fallaci, Mario; Chelazzi, Lorenzo

    2005-11-01

    A study on the spatial distribution of two tenebrionids and an isopod species was conducted at a small extent. Two species of the genus Phaleria were chosen because of their sympatric distribution and apparently similar adaptations to the beach environment. These scavenger species were studied in association to Tylos europaeus. Distributions, both perpendicular and parallel to the shoreline, were studied simultaneously with a grid of 20 × 20 pitfall traps arranged at a distance of 1 m from each other. Faunal samples were collected at two different hours of the night and core samples of sand were taken next to each pitfall trap for successive laboratory analysis. An index of dispersion was applied to test for aggregation of all species and of environmental parameters on the total, across- and long-shore. Kolmogorov-Smirnov two-sample test was used to compare the distributions between species. Regression analyse were applied to evaluate relationships between environmental parameters and species distributions. The study showed that the distribution of Phaleria species and T. europaeus was scale-dependent. The species and the values of the environmental parameters showed aggregated distributions both across- and long-shore. Aggregations of each Phaleria species differed according to their resting and foraging phases. For all species, sand moisture and salinity were the most important parameters explaining distribution. Granulometric parameters were correlated with the choice of the resting areas of both Phaleria species, whereas the spatial distribution of T. europaeus was correlated to the distribution of the organic matter.

  14. USING PUBLIC-DOMAIN MODELS TO ESTIMATE BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stretches of beach along popular Huntington Beach, California are occassionally closed to swimming due to high levels of bacteria. One hypothesized source is the treated wastewater plume from the Orange County Sanitation District's (OCSD) ocean outfall. While three independent sc...

  15. Route No. 1 near east end, view toward Overton Beach ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Route No. 1 near east end, view toward Overton Beach and Lake Mead, view to northeast - Route No. 1-Overton-Lake Mead Road, Between Overton Beach & Park Boundary, 6 miles south of Overton, Overton, Clark County, NV

  16. Molecular insight into lignocellulose digestion by a marine isopod in the absence of gut microbes

    PubMed Central

    King, Andrew J.; Cragg, Simon M.; Li, Yi; Dymond, Jo; Guille, Matthew J.; Bowles, Dianna J.; Bruce, Neil C.; Graham, Ian A.; McQueen-Mason, Simon J.

    2010-01-01

    The digestion of lignocellulose is attracting attention both in terms of basic research into its metabolism by microorganisms and animals, and also as a means of converting plant biomass into biofuels. Limnoriid wood borers are unusual because, unlike other wood-feeding animals, they do not rely on symbiotic microbes to help digest lignocellulose. The absence of microbes in the digestive tract suggests that limnoriid wood borers produce all the enzymes necessary for lignocellulose digestion themselves. In this study we report that analysis of ESTs from the digestive system of Limnoria quadripunctata reveals a transcriptome dominated by glycosyl hydrolase genes. Indeed, > 20% of all ESTs represent genes encoding putative cellulases, including glycosyl hydrolase family 7 (GH7) cellobiohydrolases. These have not previously been reported in animal genomes, but are key digestive enzymes produced by wood-degrading fungi and symbiotic protists in termite guts. We propose that limnoriid GH7 genes are important for the efficient digestion of lignocellulose in the absence of gut microbes. Hemocyanin transcripts were highly abundant in the hepatopancreas transcriptome. Based on recent studies indicating that these proteins may function as phenoloxidases in isopods, we discuss a possible role for hemocyanins in lignin decomposition. PMID:20212162

  17. Diel ontogenetic shift in parasitic activity in a gnathiid isopod on Caribbean coral reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikkel, P. C.; Ziemba, R. E.; Sears, W. T.; Wheeler, J. C.

    2009-06-01

    Ontogenetic niche shifts are characteristic of organisms with complex life cycles such as many marine invertebrates. Research has focused primarily on changes in habitat or diet. However, ontogenetic changes can also occur in the temporal pattern of foraging. Gnathiid isopods feed on fish blood throughout their larval stages and are the primary food item for cleaning organisms on coral reefs. At sites in Australia and the Caribbean, gnathiid larvae exhibit size-related differences in diel activity. However, it is unclear whether this is due to interspecific or intraspecific variation in behavior. Fish were deployed in cages near sunset on shallow reefs off St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands and allowed to be infected with larval gnathiids. Larvae collected from fish retrieved near midnight developed into adults, with most developing into females. In contrast, approximately 80% of gnathiids collected after first light developed into second or third stage larvae, and nearly all of the remaining, large, individuals developed into males. Comparison of ITS2 gene regions from individuals collected in emergence traps from the same reefs during the day versus during the night revealed no differences in this highly variable region. Thus, gnathiid larvae at this locality shift their time of activity as they develop, and larvae developing into males remain active over a longer time period than those developing into females.

  18. Multi-Infections of Feminizing Wolbachia Strains in Natural Populations of the Terrestrial Isopod Armadillidium Vulgare

    PubMed Central

    Valette, Victorien; Bitome Essono, Paul-Yannick; Le Clec’h, Winka; Johnson, Monique; Bech, Nicolas; Grandjean, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Maternally inherited Wolbachia (α-Proteobacteria) are widespread parasitic reproductive manipulators. A growing number of studies have described the presence of different Wolbachia strains within a same host. To date, no naturally occurring multiple infections have been recorded in terrestrial isopods. This is true for Armadillidium vulgare which is known to harbor non simultaneously three Wolbachia strains. Traditionally, such Wolbachia are detected by PCR amplification of the wsp gene and strains are characterized by sequencing. The presence of nucleotide deletions or insertions within the wsp gene, among these three different strains, provides the opportunity to test a novel genotyping method. Herein, we designed a new primer pair able to amplify products whose lengths are specific to each Wolbachia strain so as to detect the presence of multi-infections in A. vulgare. Experimental injections of Wolbachia strains in Wolbachia-free females were used to validate the methodology. We re-investigated, using this novel method, the infection status of 40 females sampled in 2003 and previously described as mono-infected based on the classical sequencing method. Among these females, 29 were identified as bi-infected. It is the first time that naturally occuring multiple infections of Wolbachia are detected within an individual A. vulgare host. Additionally, we resampled 6 of these populations in 2010 to check the infection status of females. PMID:24324814

  19. Variations of immune parameters in terrestrial isopods: a matter of gender, aging and Wolbachia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicard, Mathieu; Chevalier, Frédéric; de Vlechouver, Mickaël; Bouchon, Didier; Grève, Pierre; Braquart-Varnier, Christine

    2010-09-01

    Ecological factors modulate animal immunocompetence and potentially shape the evolution of their immune systems. Not only environmental parameters impact on immunocompetence: Aging is one major cause of variability of immunocompetence between individuals, and sex-specific levels of immunocompetence have also been frequently described. Moreover, a growing core of data put in light that vertically transmitted symbionts can dramatically modulate the immunocompetence of their hosts. In this study, we addressed the influence of gender, age and the feminising endosymbiont Wolbachia ( wVulC) on variations in haemocyte density, total PO activity and bacterial load in the haemolymph of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare. This host-symbiont system is of particular interest to address this question since: (1) wVulC was previously shown as immunosuppressive in middle-aged females and (2) wVulC influences sex determination. We show that age, gender and Wolbachia modulate together immune parameters in A. vulgare. However, wVulC, which interacts with aging, appears to be the prominent factor interfering with both PO activity and haemocyte density. This interference with immune parameters is not the only aspect of wVulC virulence on its host, as reproduction and survival are also altered.

  20. Axially aligned organic fibers and amorphous calcium phosphate form the claws of a terrestrial isopod (Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Vittori, Miloš; Srot, Vesna; Žagar, Kristina; Bussmann, Birgit; van Aken, Peter A; Čeh, Miran; Štrus, Jasna

    2016-08-01

    Skeletal elements that are exposed to heavy mechanical loads may provide important insights into the evolutionary solutions to mechanical challenges. We analyzed the microscopic architecture of dactylus claws in the woodlice Porcellio scaber and correlated these observations with analyses of the claws' mineral composition with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). Extraordinarily, amorphous calcium phosphate is the predominant mineral in the claw endocuticle. Unlike the strongly calcified exocuticle of the dactylus base, the claw exocuticle is devoid of mineral and is highly brominated. The architecture of the dactylus claw cuticle is drastically different from that of other parts of the exoskeleton. In contrast to the quasi-isotropic structure with chitin-protein fibers oriented in multiple directions, characteristic of the arthropod exoskeleton, the chitin-protein fibers and mineral components in the endocuticle of P. scaber claws are exclusively axially oriented. Taken together, these characteristics suggest that the claw cuticle is highly structurally anisotropic and fracture resistant and can be explained as adaptations to predominant axial loading of the thin, elongated claws. The nanoscale architecture of the isopod claw may inspire technological solutions in the design of durable machine elements subjected to heavy loading and wear.

  1. Axially aligned organic fibers and amorphous calcium phosphate form the claws of a terrestrial isopod (Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Vittori, Miloš; Srot, Vesna; Žagar, Kristina; Bussmann, Birgit; van Aken, Peter A; Čeh, Miran; Štrus, Jasna

    2016-08-01

    Skeletal elements that are exposed to heavy mechanical loads may provide important insights into the evolutionary solutions to mechanical challenges. We analyzed the microscopic architecture of dactylus claws in the woodlice Porcellio scaber and correlated these observations with analyses of the claws' mineral composition with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). Extraordinarily, amorphous calcium phosphate is the predominant mineral in the claw endocuticle. Unlike the strongly calcified exocuticle of the dactylus base, the claw exocuticle is devoid of mineral and is highly brominated. The architecture of the dactylus claw cuticle is drastically different from that of other parts of the exoskeleton. In contrast to the quasi-isotropic structure with chitin-protein fibers oriented in multiple directions, characteristic of the arthropod exoskeleton, the chitin-protein fibers and mineral components in the endocuticle of P. scaber claws are exclusively axially oriented. Taken together, these characteristics suggest that the claw cuticle is highly structurally anisotropic and fracture resistant and can be explained as adaptations to predominant axial loading of the thin, elongated claws. The nanoscale architecture of the isopod claw may inspire technological solutions in the design of durable machine elements subjected to heavy loading and wear. PMID:27320700

  2. Cation regulation by the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) during dehydration in air.

    PubMed

    Koh, Huishan; Wright, Jonathan

    2011-06-01

    Many terrestrial arthropods display tight osmotic and ionic regulation of the hemolymph during dehydration. In this study, we sought to quantify the level of regulation of the major hemolymph cations in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda, Oniscidea). Inulin space measurements showed that the hemolymph comprises 52 ± 2.2% of the hydrated water content but contributes 71 ± 9.8% of water losses during desiccation. Hemolymph concentrations of Na+, K+ and Ca²+ were measured in variably dehydrated animals using ion-selective microelectrodes and compared with predicted concentrations assuming no regulation. Na+ and Ca²+ are quite tightly regulated, showing respective concentration increases of 20.8% and 7.1% following a 50% reduction in hemolymph volume, but K+ showed no measurable regulation. The excreted cation fraction during desiccation is negligible. Sites of ion sequestration were examined by injecting ²²Na and ⁴⁵Ca into the hemolymph of hydrated animals and assaying tissue-specific activities following dehydration. Na+ is apparently sequestered non-specifically by an unknown mechanism. Ca²+ accumulates in the dorsal somatic tissues, possibly in the calcium pool of the cuticle. How A. vulgare avoids significant disruptions of E(m) and neuromuscular function in the absence of K+ regulation, and how it sequesters Na+, both pose intriguing challenges for future work. PMID:21335098

  3. Cannibalism and Predation as Paths for Horizontal Passage of Wolbachia between Terrestrial Isopods

    PubMed Central

    Le Clec’h, Winka; Chevalier, Frédéric D.; Genty, Lise; Bertaux, Joanne; Bouchon, Didier; Sicard, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    The alpha-proteobacteria Wolbachia are the most widespread endosymbionts in arthropods and nematodes. Mainly maternally inherited, these so-called sex parasites have selected several strategies that increase their vertical dispersion in host populations. However, the lack of congruence between the Wolbachia and their host phylogenies suggests frequent horizontal transfers. One way that could be used for horizontal Wolbachia transfers between individuals is predation. The aim of this study was to test whether horizontal passage of Wolbachia is possible when an uninfected terrestrial isopod eats an infected one. After having eaten Armadillidium vulgare harbouring Wolbachia, the predator-recipients (the two woodlice A. vulgare and Porcellio dilatatus dilatatus) that were initially Wolbachia-free were tested positive for the presence of Wolbachia both by quantitative PCR and Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH). Even if the titers were low compared to vertically infected individuals, this constitutes the first demonstration of Wolbachia occurrence in various organs of an initially uninfected host after eating an infected one. PMID:23593179

  4. Evidence for recombination between feminizing Wolbachia in the isopod genus Armadillidium.

    PubMed

    Verne, Sébastien; Johnson, Monique; Bouchon, Didier; Grandjean, Frédéric

    2007-08-01

    Wolbachia are maternally inherited endosymbiotic alpha-Proteobacteria infecting a wide range of arthropods. Wolbachia induce feminization in many terrestrial isopod species, particularly in the genus Armadillidium (Crustacea, Oniscidea). The diversity of Wolbachia strains infecting Armadillidium species was examined. Results reveal that natural populations of A. vulgare contain three different Wolbachia strains (wVulC, wVulM and wVulP). The wsp gene and its 3'-adjacent region show evidence that two recombination events have occurred between two of these strains. In both cases, multiple statistical analyses suggest that a small gene fragment of a strain closely related to wVulM (minor parent) is inserted into the genome of another strain closely related to wVulC (major parent). Although multiple infections in a single individual have never been demonstrated in natural population, the existence of recombination between feminizing strains suggests that bi-infections are possible, or at least that bi-infections can be maintained sufficiently long enough to allow recombination. Recombination events increase genetic diversity of Wolbachia found in Armadillidium species and may play a role in the ability of Wolbachia strains to invade new hosts. PMID:17537593

  5. Cannibalism and predation as paths for horizontal passage of Wolbachia between terrestrial isopods.

    PubMed

    Le Clec'h, Winka; Chevalier, Frédéric D; Genty, Lise; Bertaux, Joanne; Bouchon, Didier; Sicard, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    The alpha-proteobacteria Wolbachia are the most widespread endosymbionts in arthropods and nematodes. Mainly maternally inherited, these so-called sex parasites have selected several strategies that increase their vertical dispersion in host populations. However, the lack of congruence between the Wolbachia and their host phylogenies suggests frequent horizontal transfers. One way that could be used for horizontal Wolbachia transfers between individuals is predation. The aim of this study was to test whether horizontal passage of Wolbachia is possible when an uninfected terrestrial isopod eats an infected one. After having eaten Armadillidium vulgare harbouring Wolbachia, the predator-recipients (the two woodlice A. vulgare and Porcellio dilatatus dilatatus) that were initially Wolbachia-free were tested positive for the presence of Wolbachia both by quantitative PCR and Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH). Even if the titers were low compared to vertically infected individuals, this constitutes the first demonstration of Wolbachia occurrence in various organs of an initially uninfected host after eating an infected one. PMID:23593179

  6. Multi-infections of feminizing Wolbachia strains in natural populations of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Valette, Victorien; Bitome Essono, Paul-Yannick; Le Clec'h, Winka; Johnson, Monique; Bech, Nicolas; Grandjean, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Maternally inherited Wolbachia (α-Proteobacteria) are widespread parasitic reproductive manipulators. A growing number of studies have described the presence of different Wolbachia strains within a same host. To date, no naturally occurring multiple infections have been recorded in terrestrial isopods. This is true for Armadillidium vulgare which is known to harbor non simultaneously three Wolbachia strains. Traditionally, such Wolbachia are detected by PCR amplification of the wsp gene and strains are characterized by sequencing. The presence of nucleotide deletions or insertions within the wsp gene, among these three different strains, provides the opportunity to test a novel genotyping method. Herein, we designed a new primer pair able to amplify products whose lengths are specific to each Wolbachia strain so as to detect the presence of multi-infections in A. vulgare. Experimental injections of Wolbachia strains in Wolbachia-free females were used to validate the methodology. We re-investigated, using this novel method, the infection status of 40 females sampled in 2003 and previously described as mono-infected based on the classical sequencing method. Among these females, 29 were identified as bi-infected. It is the first time that naturally occurring multiple infections of Wolbachia are detected within an individual A. vulgare host. Additionally, we resampled 6 of these populations in 2010 to check the infection status of females. PMID:24324814

  7. Diel variation in ammonia excretion, glutamine levels, and hydration status in two species of terrestrial isopods.

    PubMed

    Wright, Jonathan C; Peña-Peralta, Mariasol

    2005-01-01

    Terrestrial isopods (suborder Oniscidea) excrete most nitrogen diurnally as volatile ammonia, and ammonia-loaded animals accumulate nonessential amino acids, which may constitute the major nocturnal nitrogen pool. This study explored the relationship between ammonia excretion, glutamine storage/mobilization, and water balance, in two sympatric species Ligidium lapetum (section Diplocheta), a hygric species; and Armadillidium vulgare (Section Crinocheta), a xeric species capable of water-vapor absorption (WVA). Ammonia excretion (12-h), tissue glutamine levels, and water contents were measured following field collection of animals at dusk and dawn. In both species, diurnal ammonia excretion exceeded nocturnal excretion four- to fivefold while glutamine levels increased four- to sevenfold during the night. Most glutamine was accumulated in the somatic tissues ("body wall"). While data support the role of glutamine in nocturnal nitrogen storage, potential nitrogen mobilization from glutamine breakdown (162 micromol g(-1) in A. vulgare) exceeds measured ammonia excretion (2.5 micromol g(-1)) over 60-fold. This may serve to generate the high hemolymph ammonia concentrations (and high P(NH3)) seen during volatilization. The energetic cost of ammonia volatilization is discussed in the light of these findings. Mean water contents were similar at dusk and dawn in both species, indicating that diel cycles of water depletion and replenishment were not occurring. PMID:15578188

  8. Variations of immune parameters in terrestrial isopods: a matter of gender, aging and Wolbachia.

    PubMed

    Sicard, Mathieu; Chevalier, Frédéric; De Vlechouver, Mickaël; Bouchon, Didier; Grève, Pierre; Braquart-Varnier, Christine

    2010-09-01

    Ecological factors modulate animal immunocompetence and potentially shape the evolution of their immune systems. Not only environmental parameters impact on immunocompetence: Aging is one major cause of variability of immunocompetence between individuals, and sex-specific levels of immunocompetence have also been frequently described. Moreover, a growing core of data put in light that vertically transmitted symbionts can dramatically modulate the immunocompetence of their hosts. In this study, we addressed the influence of gender, age and the feminising endosymbiont Wolbachia (wVulC) on variations in haemocyte density, total PO activity and bacterial load in the haemolymph of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare. This host-symbiont system is of particular interest to address this question since: (1) wVulC was previously shown as immunosuppressive in middle-aged females and (2) wVulC influences sex determination. We show that age, gender and Wolbachia modulate together immune parameters in A. vulgare. However, wVulC, which interacts with aging, appears to be the prominent factor interfering with both PO activity and haemocyte density. This interference with immune parameters is not the only aspect of wVulC virulence on its host, as reproduction and survival are also altered. PMID:20676599

  9. The glycosylated androgenic hormone of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Grève, Pierre; Braquart-Varnier, Christine; Strub, Jean-Marc; Félix, Christine; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Martin, Gilbert

    2004-05-01

    It appears from grafting experiments that the androgenic hormone (AH) of terrestrial isopods has a narrow species-specificity [J. Crust. Biol. 19 (1999) 684], even if AH of different species shared common epitopes [Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 125 (2002) 218]. To date only the glycosylated AH of the woodlouse Armadillidium vulgare has been deciphered by us [Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 839 (1998) 111; Eur. J. Biochem. 262 (1999) 727] and [Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 264 (1999) 419] have confirmed the primary structure of this protein. We reported in the present paper the characterization of the AH in another species Porcellio scaber by a combination of microsequencing, mass spectrometry, and molecular cloning. We found only one glycoform which consisted of two peptide chains, A and B, of 31 and 44 amino acids, respectively, with A chain carrying on Asn18 a N-glycosylated moiety, size of which has been determined by MALDI-MS measurements. The expected structure of the glycosylation was proposed. The deduced amino acid sequence of the AH precursor was mainly identical to the one obtained independently by another group [Zool. Sci. 20 (2003) 75]. We also showed that AH gene is exclusively expressed in androgenic glands. Sequence comparison with A. vulgare and P. scaber (population of Japan) AH was discussed. PMID:15081839

  10. Characterization and cDNA cloning of androgenic gland hormone of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Okuno, A; Hasegawa, Y; Ohira, T; Katakura, Y; Nagasawa, H

    1999-10-22

    The sex differentiation in crustaceans is known to be controlled by a peptide hormone called androgenic gland hormone (AGH). AGH was extracted and purified from the androgenic glands (AGs) of the male isopod Armadillidium vulgare by high-performance liquid chromatography. AGH consisted of two peptide chains and their N-terminal amino acid sequences were determined. A cDNA encoding AGH was cloned by PCR and sequenced. The cDNA had an open reading frame of 432 bp, which encoded a preproAGH consisting of a signal peptide (21 residues), B chain (44 residues), C peptide (46 residues), and A chain (29 residues). Through processing, the A and B chains might form a heterodimer interlinked by disulfide bonds. The A chain possessed a putative N-linked glycosylation site. A Northern blot analysis using the cDNA as a probe detected a hybridization signal with 0.8 kb in the RNA preparation only from the AGs. PMID:10529379

  11. Partial characterization of vitellin and localization of vitellogenin production in the terrestrial isopod, Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Okuno, A; Katayama, H; Nagasawa, H

    2000-07-01

    Vitellins were purified separately from ovaries and eggs of the isopod, Armadillidium vulgare. Ovarian vitellin consisted of at least six proteins with relative molecular masses of 205, 200, 185, 180, 122 and 112 kDa. The larger four proteins disappeared in eggs within a week after oviposition and a 59-kDa protein appeared thereafter. The amino-terminal amino acid sequences of these vitellin proteins were identical except for the ovarian 112 kDa, egg 112 kDa and 59 kDa proteins, and showed considerable similarity to those of known vitellogenins from other animals. Comparison of tryptic peptide maps of the 122 and 112 kDa proteins from eggs on reversed-phase HPLC and sequence identification of two randomly selected peaks having the same retention times indicated that two peptides were mostly similar in sequence. PCR-assisted cloning of the 5' region of a cDNA (591 bp) encoding vitellogenin revealed the presence of a signal peptide consisting of 16 amino acid residues and clarified the structural relationship among the protein components except for the ovarian 112 kDa and the egg 59 kDa proteins. Northern blot analysis revealed that the fat body is the main vitellogenin producing organ. PMID:11007182

  12. Inverted repeats and genome architecture conversions of terrestrial isopods mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Doublet, Vincent; Helleu, Quentin; Raimond, Roland; Souty-Grosset, Catherine; Marcadé, Isabelle

    2013-09-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is usually depicted as a circular molecule, however, there is increasing evidence that linearization of mtDNA evolved independently many times in organisms such as fungi, unicellular eukaryotes, and animals. Recent observations in various models with linear mtDNA revealed the presence of conserved inverted repeats (IR) at both ends that, when they become single-stranded, may be able to fold on themselves to create telomeric-hairpins involved in genome architecture conversions. The atypical mtDNA of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea: Oniscidea) composed of linear monomers and circular dimers is an interesting model to study genome architecture conversions. Here, we present the mtDNA control region sequences of two species of the genus Armadillidium: A. vulgare and A. pelagicum. All features of arthropods mtDNA control regions are present (origin of replication, poly-T stretch, GA and TA-rich blocks and one variable domain), plus a conserved IR. This IR can potentially fold into a hairpin structure and is present in two different orientations among the A. vulgare populations: either in one sense or in its reverse complement. This polymorphism, also observed in a single individual (heteroplasmy), might be a signature of genome architecture conversions from linear to circular monomeric mtDNA via successive opening and closing of the molecules. PMID:24068302

  13. The glycosylated androgenic hormone of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Grève, Pierre; Braquart-Varnier, Christine; Strub, Jean-Marc; Félix, Christine; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Martin, Gilbert

    2004-05-01

    It appears from grafting experiments that the androgenic hormone (AH) of terrestrial isopods has a narrow species-specificity [J. Crust. Biol. 19 (1999) 684], even if AH of different species shared common epitopes [Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 125 (2002) 218]. To date only the glycosylated AH of the woodlouse Armadillidium vulgare has been deciphered by us [Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 839 (1998) 111; Eur. J. Biochem. 262 (1999) 727] and [Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 264 (1999) 419] have confirmed the primary structure of this protein. We reported in the present paper the characterization of the AH in another species Porcellio scaber by a combination of microsequencing, mass spectrometry, and molecular cloning. We found only one glycoform which consisted of two peptide chains, A and B, of 31 and 44 amino acids, respectively, with A chain carrying on Asn18 a N-glycosylated moiety, size of which has been determined by MALDI-MS measurements. The expected structure of the glycosylation was proposed. The deduced amino acid sequence of the AH precursor was mainly identical to the one obtained independently by another group [Zool. Sci. 20 (2003) 75]. We also showed that AH gene is exclusively expressed in androgenic glands. Sequence comparison with A. vulgare and P. scaber (population of Japan) AH was discussed.

  14. Anaerobic bacteria in the gut of terrestrial isopod Crustacean Porcellio scaber.

    PubMed

    Kostanjsek, R; Lapanje, A; Rupnik, M; Strus, J; Drobne, D; Avgustin, G

    2004-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria from Porcellio scaber hindgut were identified and, subsequently, isolated using molecular approach. Phylogenetic affiliation of bacteria associated with the hindgut wall was determined by analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences which were retrieved directly from washed hindguts of P. scaber. Sequences from bacteria related to obligate anaerobic bacteria from genera Bacteroides and Enterococcus were retrieved, as well as sequences from 'A1 subcluster' of the wall-less mollicutes. Bacteria from the genus Desulfotomaculum were isolated from gut wall and cultivated under anaerobic conditions. In contrast to previous reports which suggested the absence of anaerobic bacteria in the isopod digestive system due to short retention time of the food in the tube-like hindgut, frequent renewal of the gut cuticle during the moulting process, and unsuccessful attempts to isolate anaerobic bacteria from this environment our results indicate the presence of resident anaerobic bacteria in the gut of P. scaber, in spite of apparently unsuitable, i.e. predominantly oxic, conditions.

  15. Molecular insight into lignocellulose digestion by a marine isopod in the absence of gut microbes.

    PubMed

    King, Andrew J; Cragg, Simon M; Li, Yi; Dymond, Jo; Guille, Matthew J; Bowles, Dianna J; Bruce, Neil C; Graham, Ian A; McQueen-Mason, Simon J

    2010-03-23

    The digestion of lignocellulose is attracting attention both in terms of basic research into its metabolism by microorganisms and animals, and also as a means of converting plant biomass into biofuels. Limnoriid wood borers are unusual because, unlike other wood-feeding animals, they do not rely on symbiotic microbes to help digest lignocellulose. The absence of microbes in the digestive tract suggests that limnoriid wood borers produce all the enzymes necessary for lignocellulose digestion themselves. In this study we report that analysis of ESTs from the digestive system of Limnoria quadripunctata reveals a transcriptome dominated by glycosyl hydrolase genes. Indeed, > 20% of all ESTs represent genes encoding putative cellulases, including glycosyl hydrolase family 7 (GH7) cellobiohydrolases. These have not previously been reported in animal genomes, but are key digestive enzymes produced by wood-degrading fungi and symbiotic protists in termite guts. We propose that limnoriid GH7 genes are important for the efficient digestion of lignocellulose in the absence of gut microbes. Hemocyanin transcripts were highly abundant in the hepatopancreas transcriptome. Based on recent studies indicating that these proteins may function as phenoloxidases in isopods, we discuss a possible role for hemocyanins in lignin decomposition.

  16. Spermiophagic activity in the female genital system of some species of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Halophilosciidae).

    PubMed

    Mazzei, Veronica; Longo, Guglielmo; Brundo, Maria Violetta

    2014-08-01

    The females of some species of the family Halophilosciidae receive in the course of mating a quantity of sperm considerably redundant with respect to the number of eggs that can be fertilized; this is possible thanks to the peculiar morpho-functional organization that characterizes their genital system and that allows them to store the sperm not only in the great seminal receptacle but also within the ovary. While most of the sperm stay free in the lumen of the seminal receptacle, a part of those present in the ovary undergoes a process of capture by the follicular cells with consequent internalization within endocellular cavities. This process concerns exclusively the immotile tail, that characterizes the peculiar spermatozoon of the isopods and which is essentially of proteic nature. After their capture the sperm tails undergo a gradual process of digestion, which seems to be apparently realized without the intervention of lysosomes. The possible role of this spermiophagic activity might be to represent a significant trophic paternal investment aimed at improving the fitness of the female and of the offsprings.

  17. Multi-infections of feminizing Wolbachia strains in natural populations of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Valette, Victorien; Bitome Essono, Paul-Yannick; Le Clec'h, Winka; Johnson, Monique; Bech, Nicolas; Grandjean, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Maternally inherited Wolbachia (α-Proteobacteria) are widespread parasitic reproductive manipulators. A growing number of studies have described the presence of different Wolbachia strains within a same host. To date, no naturally occurring multiple infections have been recorded in terrestrial isopods. This is true for Armadillidium vulgare which is known to harbor non simultaneously three Wolbachia strains. Traditionally, such Wolbachia are detected by PCR amplification of the wsp gene and strains are characterized by sequencing. The presence of nucleotide deletions or insertions within the wsp gene, among these three different strains, provides the opportunity to test a novel genotyping method. Herein, we designed a new primer pair able to amplify products whose lengths are specific to each Wolbachia strain so as to detect the presence of multi-infections in A. vulgare. Experimental injections of Wolbachia strains in Wolbachia-free females were used to validate the methodology. We re-investigated, using this novel method, the infection status of 40 females sampled in 2003 and previously described as mono-infected based on the classical sequencing method. Among these females, 29 were identified as bi-infected. It is the first time that naturally occurring multiple infections of Wolbachia are detected within an individual A. vulgare host. Additionally, we resampled 6 of these populations in 2010 to check the infection status of females.

  18. Cation regulation by the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) during dehydration in air.

    PubMed

    Koh, Huishan; Wright, Jonathan

    2011-06-01

    Many terrestrial arthropods display tight osmotic and ionic regulation of the hemolymph during dehydration. In this study, we sought to quantify the level of regulation of the major hemolymph cations in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda, Oniscidea). Inulin space measurements showed that the hemolymph comprises 52 ± 2.2% of the hydrated water content but contributes 71 ± 9.8% of water losses during desiccation. Hemolymph concentrations of Na+, K+ and Ca²+ were measured in variably dehydrated animals using ion-selective microelectrodes and compared with predicted concentrations assuming no regulation. Na+ and Ca²+ are quite tightly regulated, showing respective concentration increases of 20.8% and 7.1% following a 50% reduction in hemolymph volume, but K+ showed no measurable regulation. The excreted cation fraction during desiccation is negligible. Sites of ion sequestration were examined by injecting ²²Na and ⁴⁵Ca into the hemolymph of hydrated animals and assaying tissue-specific activities following dehydration. Na+ is apparently sequestered non-specifically by an unknown mechanism. Ca²+ accumulates in the dorsal somatic tissues, possibly in the calcium pool of the cuticle. How A. vulgare avoids significant disruptions of E(m) and neuromuscular function in the absence of K+ regulation, and how it sequesters Na+, both pose intriguing challenges for future work.

  19. Variations of immune parameters in terrestrial isopods: a matter of gender, aging and Wolbachia.

    PubMed

    Sicard, Mathieu; Chevalier, Frédéric; De Vlechouver, Mickaël; Bouchon, Didier; Grève, Pierre; Braquart-Varnier, Christine

    2010-09-01

    Ecological factors modulate animal immunocompetence and potentially shape the evolution of their immune systems. Not only environmental parameters impact on immunocompetence: Aging is one major cause of variability of immunocompetence between individuals, and sex-specific levels of immunocompetence have also been frequently described. Moreover, a growing core of data put in light that vertically transmitted symbionts can dramatically modulate the immunocompetence of their hosts. In this study, we addressed the influence of gender, age and the feminising endosymbiont Wolbachia (wVulC) on variations in haemocyte density, total PO activity and bacterial load in the haemolymph of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare. This host-symbiont system is of particular interest to address this question since: (1) wVulC was previously shown as immunosuppressive in middle-aged females and (2) wVulC influences sex determination. We show that age, gender and Wolbachia modulate together immune parameters in A. vulgare. However, wVulC, which interacts with aging, appears to be the prominent factor interfering with both PO activity and haemocyte density. This interference with immune parameters is not the only aspect of wVulC virulence on its host, as reproduction and survival are also altered.

  20. Diel variation in ammonia excretion, glutamine levels, and hydration status in two species of terrestrial isopods.

    PubMed

    Wright, Jonathan C; Peña-Peralta, Mariasol

    2005-01-01

    Terrestrial isopods (suborder Oniscidea) excrete most nitrogen diurnally as volatile ammonia, and ammonia-loaded animals accumulate nonessential amino acids, which may constitute the major nocturnal nitrogen pool. This study explored the relationship between ammonia excretion, glutamine storage/mobilization, and water balance, in two sympatric species Ligidium lapetum (section Diplocheta), a hygric species; and Armadillidium vulgare (Section Crinocheta), a xeric species capable of water-vapor absorption (WVA). Ammonia excretion (12-h), tissue glutamine levels, and water contents were measured following field collection of animals at dusk and dawn. In both species, diurnal ammonia excretion exceeded nocturnal excretion four- to fivefold while glutamine levels increased four- to sevenfold during the night. Most glutamine was accumulated in the somatic tissues ("body wall"). While data support the role of glutamine in nocturnal nitrogen storage, potential nitrogen mobilization from glutamine breakdown (162 micromol g(-1) in A. vulgare) exceeds measured ammonia excretion (2.5 micromol g(-1)) over 60-fold. This may serve to generate the high hemolymph ammonia concentrations (and high P(NH3)) seen during volatilization. The energetic cost of ammonia volatilization is discussed in the light of these findings. Mean water contents were similar at dusk and dawn in both species, indicating that diel cycles of water depletion and replenishment were not occurring.

  1. Inverted repeats and genome architecture conversions of terrestrial isopods mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Doublet, Vincent; Helleu, Quentin; Raimond, Roland; Souty-Grosset, Catherine; Marcadé, Isabelle

    2013-09-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is usually depicted as a circular molecule, however, there is increasing evidence that linearization of mtDNA evolved independently many times in organisms such as fungi, unicellular eukaryotes, and animals. Recent observations in various models with linear mtDNA revealed the presence of conserved inverted repeats (IR) at both ends that, when they become single-stranded, may be able to fold on themselves to create telomeric-hairpins involved in genome architecture conversions. The atypical mtDNA of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea: Oniscidea) composed of linear monomers and circular dimers is an interesting model to study genome architecture conversions. Here, we present the mtDNA control region sequences of two species of the genus Armadillidium: A. vulgare and A. pelagicum. All features of arthropods mtDNA control regions are present (origin of replication, poly-T stretch, GA and TA-rich blocks and one variable domain), plus a conserved IR. This IR can potentially fold into a hairpin structure and is present in two different orientations among the A. vulgare populations: either in one sense or in its reverse complement. This polymorphism, also observed in a single individual (heteroplasmy), might be a signature of genome architecture conversions from linear to circular monomeric mtDNA via successive opening and closing of the molecules.

  2. Quantitative assessment of effects of zinc on the histological structure of the hepatopancreas of terrestrial isopods.

    PubMed

    Odendaal, J P; Reinecke, A J

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of zinc exposure on the histological structure of the hepatopancreas of Porcellio laevis. Woodlice were experimentally exposed to various concentrations (1000, 4000, and 8000 mg. kg(-1)) of zinc sulphate. Hepatopancreas samples of exposed isopods were histologically prepared and analysed with Leica QWin image analysis software. The B-cells in hepatopancreases of zinc sulphate - exposed woodlice were reduced in size to varying degrees, compared to that of the control, Percentage Cellular Area (PCA) of the hepatopancreas samples revealed that zoning occurred through the length of hepatopancreas lobes. Analysis of the PCA data of hepatopancreases of P. laevis exposed to the zinc sulphate revealed that there was a decline in PCA, in all the zones, compared to those in the control. The Z3 zone (the part from the middle to three quarters to the back of the tubule) was shown to be the best suited, if PCAs are to be considered as a biomarker in woodlouse toxicity studies.

  3. An experimental field test of susceptibility to ectoparasitic gnathiid isopods among Caribbean reef fishes.

    PubMed

    Coile, A M; Sikkel, P C

    2013-06-01

    Susceptibility to infestation by a gnathiid isopod (Gnathia marleyi: Crustacea: Isopoda) was examined among 16 species from 9 families and 3 orders of common Caribbean reef fishes off St. John, United States Virgin Islands. Fish were placed in cages during times of peak gnathiid activity. Individuals from most (n=14) species were compared against a single species (French Grunt, Haemulon flavolineatum) that served as a standard and effectively controlled for the effects of habitat and variation in gnathiid abundance on exposure to and the likelihood and intensity of host infestation by gnathiids. All species were susceptible to infestation by gnathiids, with individual hosts harbouring up to 368 gnathiids. However, there was significant variation in levels of infestation among the 14 comparison species. Controlling for body size, nocturnal species from the families Haemulidae and Lutjanidae had the highest gnathiid infestation. Our finding that haemulids and lutjanids are particularly susceptible has important implications for the role of gnathiids in Caribbean reef food webs, given the role members of these families play in trophic connectivity between reefs and associated habitats. To our knowledge this is the first manipulative field study to examine variation among potential hosts in susceptibility to an ectoparasite in any terrestrial or aquatic system and is the greatest number of teleost hosts documented for any gnathiid species.

  4. Effect of forced fasting on magnesium and manganese regulation in a terrestrial isopod, Porcellio spinicornis Say

    SciTech Connect

    Bercovitz, K.; Alikhan, M.A. )

    1989-07-01

    The amount of toxic and non-toxic elements assimilated by primary consumers from their environment depends as much on the form, as on concentration of these elements in the food. In superficially contaminated sites, the majority of elements detected in plant material are present as a blanket deposit of fine particles on leaf surfaces, and these are easily removed as the consumed material passes through the alimentary canal. In contrast, trace metals stored in the plant tissue are not readily available as they have been taken up via roots and are firmly bound within the plant tissue. Earlier studies have shown that mean concentrations of magnesium (Mg) and manganese (Mn) in whole woodlice are correlated with levels in their diet. Both metals are regulated by terrestrial isopods during their intermoult- and moult-cycles. The present study provides information on the regulation of Mg and Mn tissue concentrations during forced fasting in adult, intermoult male and female Porcellio spinicornis Say (Porcellionidae, Isopoda). Mg, the principal cation in the soft tissues is a well known activator of many enzymes of the glycolytic systems. Mn, on the other hand, plays a special role in digestive and catabolic processes.

  5. Tracer Studies In A Laboratory Beach Subjected To Waves

    EPA Science Inventory

    This work investigated the washout of dissolved nutrients from beaches due to waves by conducting tracer studies in a laboratory beach facility. The effects of waves were studied in the case where the beach was subjected to the tide, and that in which no tidal action was present...

  6. POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (PCR) TECHNOLOGY IN VISUAL BEACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2000, the US Congress passed the Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act under which the EPA has the mandate to manage all significant public beaches by 2008. As a result, EPA, USGS and NOAA are developing the Visual Beach program which consists of software eq...

  7. Monitoring of beach enteromorpha variation with near shore video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yali; Yu, Xinsheng; Yan, Zhijin; Yi, Weidong

    2014-07-01

    Beach is an important coastal protective barrier and tourism resources. Beach environment monitoring can help beach managers to make feasible decisions. Digital image of video monitoring technology can provide high resolution information of temporal and spatial variation of near shore in real time. The application of Video monitoring technology has been implemented in Qingdao's Shilaoren beach. The clustering method based on Gaussian mixture model is applied to extract beach enteromorpha changs for the digital images. Analysis results show that, the period of enteromorpha in Qingdao's Shilaoren beach was mainly from the early July to the mid-August in 2011, and the decline of enteromorpha is mainly associated with the rising temperature in the mid-August. Storm has significant impact on the beach enteromorpha. Tourists' activity space on the beach will decrease due to the enteromorpha covering on the beach, which affects beach tourism activities. Therefore, it's necessary to make preventive measures to avoid enteromorpha piling up on the beach, which is of great importance to the bathing beach environment and tourism development.

  8. Landscape Visual Quality and Meiofauna Biodiversity on Sandy Beaches.

    PubMed

    Felix, Gabriela; Marenzi, Rosemeri C; Polette, Marcos; Netto, Sérgio A

    2016-10-01

    Sandy beaches are central economic assets, attracting more recreational users than other coastal ecosystems. However, urbanization and landscape modification can compromise both the functional integrity and the attractiveness of beach ecosystems. Our study aimed at investigating the relationship between sandy beach artificialization and the landscape perception by the users, and between sandy beach visual attractiveness and biodiversity. We conducted visual and biodiversity assessments of urbanized and semiurbanized sandy beaches in Brazil and Uruguay. We specifically examined meiofauna as an indicator of biodiversity. We hypothesized that urbanization of sandy beaches results in a higher number of landscape detractors that negatively affect user evaluation, and that lower-rated beach units support lower levels of biodiversity. We found that urbanized beach units were rated lower than semiurbanized units, indicating that visual quality was sensitive to human interventions. Our expectations regarding the relationship between landscape perception and biodiversity were only partially met; only few structural and functional descriptors of meiofauna assemblages differed among classes of visual quality. However, lower-rated beach units exhibited signs of lower environmental quality, indicated by higher oligochaete densities and significant differences in meiofauna structure. We conclude that managing sandy beaches needs to advance beyond assessment of aesthetic parameters to also include the structure and function of beach ecosystems. Use of such supporting tools for managing sandy beaches is particularly important in view of sea level rise and increasing coastal development.

  9. Beaches in Motion. Interaction and Environmental Change. Secondary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee County School District, Ft. Myers, FL. Dept. of Environmental Education and Instructional Development Services.

    The terms "high energy" and "low energy" refer to the amount of energy a wave has that reaches the face of a beach. In this student guide, two types of beaches are investigated. The objective is to be able to identify whether a beach is of high or low energy. Background information is provided, as well as instructions and worksheets for activities…

  10. 107. VIEW OF BEACH DEVELOPMENT ON NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    107. VIEW OF BEACH DEVELOPMENT ON NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. SECTION OF PIER IS IN BACKGROUND Photograph #1579-HB. Photographer unknown, c. 1930-31 prior to replacement of original light standards in 1930-31 - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  11. Beach Sand Analysis for Indicators of Microbial Contamination

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditional beach monitoring has focused on water quality, with little attention paid to health risks associated with beach sand. Recent research has reported that fecal indicator bacteria, as well as human pathogens can be found in beach sand and may constitute a risk to human h...

  12. 103. VIEW OF BEACH STRUCTURES ON NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    103. VIEW OF BEACH STRUCTURES ON NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTHEAST; PACIFIC ELECTRIC RAILWAY CAR (UPPER LEFT), CONCESSION STANDS (LOWER LEFT), BANDSHELL (RIGHT), AND PIER IN BACKGROUND Photograph #5352-HB. Photographer unknown, c. 1914 - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  13. Landscape Visual Quality and Meiofauna Biodiversity on Sandy Beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felix, Gabriela; Marenzi, Rosemeri C.; Polette, Marcos; Netto, Sérgio A.

    2016-10-01

    Sandy beaches are central economic assets, attracting more recreational users than other coastal ecosystems. However, urbanization and landscape modification can compromise both the functional integrity and the attractiveness of beach ecosystems. Our study aimed at investigating the relationship between sandy beach artificialization and the landscape perception by the users, and between sandy beach visual attractiveness and biodiversity. We conducted visual and biodiversity assessments of urbanized and semiurbanized sandy beaches in Brazil and Uruguay. We specifically examined meiofauna as an indicator of biodiversity. We hypothesized that urbanization of sandy beaches results in a higher number of landscape detractors that negatively affect user evaluation, and that lower-rated beach units support lower levels of biodiversity. We found that urbanized beach units were rated lower than semiurbanized units, indicating that visual quality was sensitive to human interventions. Our expectations regarding the relationship between landscape perception and biodiversity were only partially met; only few structural and functional descriptors of meiofauna assemblages differed among classes of visual quality. However, lower-rated beach units exhibited signs of lower environmental quality, indicated by higher oligochaete densities and significant differences in meiofauna structure. We conclude that managing sandy beaches needs to advance beyond assessment of aesthetic parameters to also include the structure and function of beach ecosystems. Use of such supporting tools for managing sandy beaches is particularly important in view of sea level rise and increasing coastal development.

  14. Landscape Visual Quality and Meiofauna Biodiversity on Sandy Beaches.

    PubMed

    Felix, Gabriela; Marenzi, Rosemeri C; Polette, Marcos; Netto, Sérgio A

    2016-10-01

    Sandy beaches are central economic assets, attracting more recreational users than other coastal ecosystems. However, urbanization and landscape modification can compromise both the functional integrity and the attractiveness of beach ecosystems. Our study aimed at investigating the relationship between sandy beach artificialization and the landscape perception by the users, and between sandy beach visual attractiveness and biodiversity. We conducted visual and biodiversity assessments of urbanized and semiurbanized sandy beaches in Brazil and Uruguay. We specifically examined meiofauna as an indicator of biodiversity. We hypothesized that urbanization of sandy beaches results in a higher number of landscape detractors that negatively affect user evaluation, and that lower-rated beach units support lower levels of biodiversity. We found that urbanized beach units were rated lower than semiurbanized units, indicating that visual quality was sensitive to human interventions. Our expectations regarding the relationship between landscape perception and biodiversity were only partially met; only few structural and functional descriptors of meiofauna assemblages differed among classes of visual quality. However, lower-rated beach units exhibited signs of lower environmental quality, indicated by higher oligochaete densities and significant differences in meiofauna structure. We conclude that managing sandy beaches needs to advance beyond assessment of aesthetic parameters to also include the structure and function of beach ecosystems. Use of such supporting tools for managing sandy beaches is particularly important in view of sea level rise and increasing coastal development. PMID:27376939

  15. Beach Cusps: Spatial distribution and time evolution at Massaguaçú beach (SP), Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, H. H.; Siegle, E.; Sousa, P. H.

    2013-05-01

    Beach cusps are crescentic morphological structures observed on the foreshore of beaches characterized by steep seaward protruding extensions, called cusp horns, and gently sloped landward extensions, called cusp embayments. Their formation depends on the grain size, beach slope, tidal range and incoming waves. Cusps are best developed on gravel or shingle beaches, small tidal range with a large slope for incoming waves generate a well-developed swash excursion. These structures are quickly responding to wave climate and tidal range, changing the position of the rhythmic features on the beach face. Beach cusps are favored by normal incoming waves, while oblique waves tend to wash these features out. This study aims to analyze the spatial distribution and temporal evolution of rhythmic features such as beach cusps in Massaguaçú embayment (Caraguatatuba, northern coast of São Paulo, Brazil). This embayment has an extension of 7.5 km with reflective beaches cusped mainly in its more exposed central portion. The data set for this study consists of a series of video images (Argus system), covering a stretch of the beach. Visible beach cusps were digitalized from these rectified images. Results obtained from the images were related to the wave climate, water level and the storm surges. Results show that the cusps on the upper portion of the foreshore were more regular and present than the cusps on the lower portion of the foreshore due to the tidal modulation of wave action. The cusp spacing on the upper portion of the foreshore is of about 38 m and the lower portion of the foreshore is of about 28 m and their presence was correlated with the wave direction and water elevation. As expected, waves approaching with shore-normal angles (southeast direction) were favorable to the formation of beach cusps while the waves from the southwest, south, east and northeast generated a longshore current that reduced or destroyed any rhythmic feature. Other important forcing was

  16. Contrasting Phylogeography of Sandy vs. Rocky Supralittoral Isopods in the Megadiverse and Geologically Dynamic Gulf of California and Adjacent Areas

    PubMed Central

    Hurtado, Luis A.; Lee, Eun Jung; Mateos, Mariana

    2013-01-01

    Phylogeographic studies of animals with low vagility and restricted to patchy habitats of the supralittoral zone, can uncover unknown diversity and shed light on processes that shaped evolution along a continent’s edge. The Pacific coast between southern California and central Mexico, including the megadiverse Gulf of California, offers a remarkable setting to study biological diversification in the supralittoral. A complex geological history coupled with cyclical fluctuations in temperature and sea level provided ample opportunities for diversification of supralittoral organisms. Indeed, a previous phylogeographic study of Ligia, a supralittoral isopod that has limited dispersal abilities and is restricted to rocky patches, revealed high levels of morphologically cryptic diversity. Herein, we examined phylogeographic patterns of Tylos, another supralittoral isopod with limited dispersal potential, but whose habitat (i.e., sandy shores) appears to be more extensive and connected than that of Ligia. We conducted Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. These analyses revealed multiple highly divergent lineages with discrete regional distributions, despite the recognition of a single valid species for this region. A traditional species-diagnostic morphological trait distinguished several of these lineages. The phylogeographic patterns of Tylos inside the Gulf of California show a deep and complex history. In contrast, patterns along the Pacific region between southern California and the Baja Peninsula indicate a recent range expansion, probably postglacial and related to changes in sea surface temperature (SST). In general, the phylogeographic patterns of Tylos differed from those of Ligia. Differences in the extension and connectivity of the habitats occupied by Tylos and Ligia may account for the different degrees of population isolation experienced by these two isopods and their contrasting phylogeographic

  17. Bioaccumulation of cadmium and lead and its effects on hepatopancreas morphology in three terrestrial isopod crustacean species.

    PubMed

    Mazzei, V; Longo, G; Brundo, M V; Sinatra, F; Copat, C; Oliveri Conti, G; Ferrante, M

    2014-12-01

    This study was designed to compare cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) bioaccumulation in three species of oniscidean isopods - Armadillidium granulatum Brandt, Armadillidium vulgare (Latreille) and Porcellio laevis Latreille which were exposed for three weeks to a contaminated diet, and to determine the morphological and ultrastructural changes in hepatopancreas. Metal accumulation, determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), was linearly associated with the exposed concentration and was a function of the metal and the species tested. All three species accumulated lower levels of Pb than Cd. A. vulgare accumulated the largest concentration of Pb, especially at the higher doses, whereas P. laevis showed the greatest Cd accumulation, and the highest Cd concentration was lethal for all exposed species. The highest concentrations of Pb and Cd induced significant changes both in the general morphology of tubules and in the ultrastructural organization of epithelial cells in hepatopancreas. Some Pb/Cd induced alterations include: brush border disorganization; reduction of the basal labyrinth formed by the plasma membrane; condensation of some cytoplasm areas and of chromatin; rough endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial alterations; increase of secondary lysosomes and of type B granules in S cells. Some of the ultrastructural changes observed overlap with those induced by prolonged starvation, whereas others can be useful biomarkers of heavy metal toxicity. This study has confirmed that in terrestrial isopods, the accumulation of the different metals occurs in a species-specific manner; therefore ecological monitoring and assessment studies should consider each species individually. The research has confirmed that in the terrestrial isopods the accumulation of the different metals occurs in a species-specific way; therefore each species should first be evaluated in view of its employ in biomonitoring programs.

  18. Bioaccumulation of cadmium and lead and its effects on hepatopancreas morphology in three terrestrial isopod crustacean species.

    PubMed

    Mazzei, V; Longo, G; Brundo, M V; Sinatra, F; Copat, C; Oliveri Conti, G; Ferrante, M

    2014-12-01

    This study was designed to compare cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) bioaccumulation in three species of oniscidean isopods - Armadillidium granulatum Brandt, Armadillidium vulgare (Latreille) and Porcellio laevis Latreille which were exposed for three weeks to a contaminated diet, and to determine the morphological and ultrastructural changes in hepatopancreas. Metal accumulation, determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), was linearly associated with the exposed concentration and was a function of the metal and the species tested. All three species accumulated lower levels of Pb than Cd. A. vulgare accumulated the largest concentration of Pb, especially at the higher doses, whereas P. laevis showed the greatest Cd accumulation, and the highest Cd concentration was lethal for all exposed species. The highest concentrations of Pb and Cd induced significant changes both in the general morphology of tubules and in the ultrastructural organization of epithelial cells in hepatopancreas. Some Pb/Cd induced alterations include: brush border disorganization; reduction of the basal labyrinth formed by the plasma membrane; condensation of some cytoplasm areas and of chromatin; rough endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial alterations; increase of secondary lysosomes and of type B granules in S cells. Some of the ultrastructural changes observed overlap with those induced by prolonged starvation, whereas others can be useful biomarkers of heavy metal toxicity. This study has confirmed that in terrestrial isopods, the accumulation of the different metals occurs in a species-specific manner; therefore ecological monitoring and assessment studies should consider each species individually. The research has confirmed that in the terrestrial isopods the accumulation of the different metals occurs in a species-specific way; therefore each species should first be evaluated in view of its employ in biomonitoring programs. PMID:25279851

  19. Facilitation and predation structure a grassland detrital food web: the responses of soil nematodes to isopod processing of litter.

    PubMed

    Bastow, Justin L

    2011-09-01

    1. Detritus can support successive consumers, whose interactions may be structured by changes in the condition of their shared resource. One model of such species interactions is a processing chain, in which consumers feeding on the resource in a less processed state change the resource condition for subsequent consumers. 2. In a series of experiments, the hypothesis was tested that a common detritivore, the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber, affects soil nematodes through the processing of plant litter. Different detrital resources were added to soil from a California coastal prairie in order to simulate litter processing by the detritivore. Treatments that included only whole grass litter corresponded to detrital food webs lacking detritivores, while treatments that included mixtures of P. scaber faeces and grass litter corresponded to different densities or feeding rates of P. scaber. 3. Simulated litter processing by P. scaber increased the abundance of bacterivorous nematodes by between 32% and 202% after 24-44 days in laboratory experiments, but had no effect on fungivorous or predaceous nematodes. 4. In a subsequent field experiment, however, fungivorous nematodes were suppressed by isopod litter processing while bacterivores showed no response. Instead, P. scaber processing of litter increased the abundance of predaceous nematodes in the field experiment by 176%. 5. When simulated litter processing of litter was crossed in laboratory experiments with predaceous nematode addition (comparable to the response of predators in the field experiment), the abundance of bacterivores was increased by isopod processing of litter (by an average of 122%), but suppressed by elevated densities of predaceous nematodes (by an average of 41%). 6. This suggests that litter processing by P. scaber facilitates the bacterial channel of the soil food web, but that predaceous nematodes suppress the response of bacterivores in the field. Processing chain interactions may

  20. Long-term toxicity of five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for the terrestrial isopods Oniscus asellus and Porcellio scaber

    SciTech Connect

    Brummelen, T.C. van; Gestel, C.A.M. van; Verweij, R.A.

    1996-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a common component of soil pollution, yet little is known of the ecotoxicological risks these compounds may pose to life in soil. This article reports the ecotoxicity of five PAHs for two terrestrial isopod species. Isopods were exposed to food contaminated with four different concentrations of either fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene (up to 4 {micro}mol/g), benz[a]anthracene, or benzo[a]pyrene (up to 1.25 {micro}mol/.g). Exposure of Porcellio scaber lasted 16 weeks, and no adverse effects on survival, growth, or total protein (only females tested) were observed in any of the treatments. A small but significant reduction in growth of Oniscus asellus was observed at 47 weeks of exposure to 0.125 {micro}mol benz[a]anthracene-g{sup {minus}1} dry weight and higher concentrations. A significant stimulation of the reproduction of O. asellus was observed in some of the phenanthrene, fluoranthene, benz[a]anthracene, and benzo[a]pyrene treatments; a larger proportion of the females were gravid, which resulted in a higher number of juveniles per female. Exposure did not significantly affect brood size, weight of the mother after release of the juveniles, or the survival of the juveniles upon starvation. Total protein content of females was significantly reduced at 0.4 {micro}mol fluorene g{sup {minus}1} dry weight and higher concentrations. Growth and protein content of isopods is likely to be affected by PAH exposure only at highly contaminated sites. The ecological consequences of stimulated reproduction and possible DNA damage are poorly understood and require further attention because soil invertebrates may be exposed to PAHs over many generations.

  1. An Interview with Beatrice Beach Szekely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner-Khamsi, Gita

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Beatrice Beach Szekely, a comparative education scholar that specialized in the Soviet Union. She was editor of the journal "Soviet Education" from 1970 to 1989. During the interview, Szekely talked about how she became personally involved in Russian/Soviet studies of education. She related that her interest…

  2. Cosmology at the Beach Lecture: Wayne Hu

    ScienceCinema

    Wayne Hu

    2016-07-12

    Wayne Hu lectures on Secondary Anisotropy in the CMB. The lecture is the first in a series of 3 he delivered as part of the "Cosmology at the Beach" winter school organized by Berkeley Lab's George Smoot in Los Cabos, Mexico from Jan. 12-16, 2009.

  3. Beaches, Dunes, and Barrier Islands. Habitat Pac.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish and Wildlife Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    The materials in this educational packet are designed for use with students in grades 4 through 7. They consist of a leader overview, teaching guides and student data sheets for three activities, and a poster. The leader overview describes the nature of beaches, dunes, and barrier islands, tracing their development, settlement, and management and…

  4. Cosmology at the Beach Lecture: Wayne Hu

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Hu

    2009-03-02

    Wayne Hu lectures on Secondary Anisotropy in the CMB. The lecture is the first in a series of 3 he delivered as part of the "Cosmology at the Beach" winter school organized by Berkeley Lab's George Smoot in Los Cabos, Mexico from Jan. 12-16, 2009.

  5. Creating the Higbee Beach Butterfly Garden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiles, Eric, And Others

    1994-01-01

    Recently, the popularity of butterfly watching has skyrocketed, and Higbee Beach Wildlife Management Area has emerged as a mecca. This article describes the site, garden design, vegetation, planting and weeding strategies, and tips for using the garden as a model. Lists bloom periods for plant species used at the garden. (LZ)

  6. Phoresy of the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis marelatus by a non-host organism, the isopod Porcellio scaber.

    PubMed

    Eng, Michael S; Preisser, Evan L; Strong, Donald R

    2005-02-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes are widespread in nature and commonly used in the biological control of insect pests. However, we understand little about how these organisms disperse. We show in a laboratory setting that the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis marelatus is phoretically dispersed by a non-host organism, the isopod Porcellio scaber. These species both inhabit tunnels excavated in the roots and lower stems of bush lupine (Lupinus arboreus) by the nematodes' primary prey, larvae of the ghost moth Hepialus californicus. Phoretic dispersal via P. scaber may play a role in the metapopulation dynamics of this nematode.

  7. Trophic niche shifts driven by phytoplankton in sandy beach ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergamino, Leandro; Martínez, Ana; Han, Eunah; Lercari, Diego; Defeo, Omar

    2016-10-01

    Stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) together with chlorophyll a and densities of surf diatoms were used to analyze changes in trophic niches of species in two sandy beaches of Uruguay with contrasting morphodynamics (i.e. dissipative vs. reflective). Consumers and food sources were collected over four seasons, including sediment organic matter (SOM), suspended particulate organic matter (POM) and the surf zone diatom Asterionellopsis guyunusae. Circular statistics and a Bayesian isotope mixing model were used to quantify food web differences between beaches. Consumers changed their trophic niche between beaches in the same direction of the food web space towards higher reliance on surf diatoms in the dissipative beach. Mixing models indicated that A. guyunusae was the primary nutrition source for suspension feeders in the dissipative beach, explaining their change in dietary niche compared to the reflective beach where the proportional contribution of surf diatoms was low. The high C/N ratios in A. guyunusae indicated its high nutritional value and N content, and may help to explain the high assimilation by suspension feeders at the dissipative beach. Furthermore, density of A. guyunusae was higher in the dissipative than in the reflective beach, and cell density was positively correlated with chlorophyll a only in the dissipative beach. Therefore, surf diatoms are important drivers in the dynamics of sandy beach food webs, determining the trophic niche space and productivity. Our study provides valuable insights on shifting foraging behavior by beach fauna in response to changes in resource availability.

  8. The effect of beach slope on tidal influenced saltwater intrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Z.; Shen, C.; Jin, G.; Xin, P.; Hua, G.; Tao, X.; Zhao, J.

    2015-12-01

    Beach slope changes the tidal induced saltwater-freshwater circulations in coastal aquifers. However, the effect of beach slope on tidal influenced saltwater-freshwater mixing process is far from understood. Based on sand flume experiments and numerical simulations, we investigated the intrusion process of saltwater into freshwater under tidal forcing and variable beach slopes. The sand flume experiment results show that milder slope induces larger upper saline plume (USP) and seaward salt wedge interface (SWI) under tidal forcing. While, the steady state SWI keeps stagnant with different beach slopes. Consistent with the previous research, our numerical simulations also show a lager flux exchange across the milder beach induced by the tidal fluctuations. The groundwater table fluctuates more intensify with deeper beach slope. The next step of our study will pay attention to the effect of beach slope on the instability of USP which induces the salt-fingering flow.

  9. Seawater temperature effect on metal accumulation and toxicity in the subantarctic Macquarie Island isopod, Exosphaeroma gigas.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Alexander; King, Catherine K; Hill, Nicole A; Cooper, Ashley; Townsend, Ashley T; Mondon, Julie A

    2016-08-01

    Very little is currently known of subantarctic nearshore invertebrates' sensitivity to environmental metals and the role of temperature in this relationship. This study investigated Cu and Zn toxicity in the common subantarctic intertidal isopod, Exosphaeroma gigas, and the influence of temperature on Cu toxicity and bioaccumulation kinetics. Adult E. gigas are insensitive to Cu and Zn at concentrations of 3200 and 7400μg/L respectively in non-renewal tests at 5.5°C (ambient subtidal temperature) over 14days. Under renewed exposures over the same temperature and time period the LC50 for copper was 2204μg/L. A 10-fold increase in Cu body burden occurred relative to zinc, indicating E. gigas has different strategies for regulating the two metals. Copper toxicity and time to mortality both increased with elevated temperature. However, temperature did not significantly affect Cu uptake rate and efflux rate constants derived from biodynamic modelling at lower Cu concentrations. These results may be attributable to E. gigas being an intertidal species with physiological mechanisms adapted to fluctuating environmental conditions. Cu concentrations required to elicit a toxicity response indicates that E. gigas would not be directly threatened by current levels of Cu or Zn present in Macquarie Island intertidal habitats, with the associated elevated temperature fluctuations. This study provides evidence that the sensitivity of this subantarctic intertidal species to metal contaminants is not as high as expected, and which has significance for the derivation of relevant guidelines specific to this distinct subpolar region of the world. PMID:27367827

  10. Microscopical and functional aspects of calcium-transport and deposition in terrestrial isopods.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Andreas; Fabritius, Helge; Hagedorn, Monica

    2005-01-01

    Terrestrial isopods (Crustacea) are excellent model organisms to study epithelial calcium-transport and the regulation of biomineralization processes. They molt frequently and resorb cuticular CaCO(3) before the molt to prevent excessive loss of Ca(2+) ions when the old cuticle is shed. The resorbed mineral is stored in CaCO(3) deposits within the ecdysial gap of the first four anterior sternites. After the molt, the deposits are quickly resorbed to mineralise the posterior part of the new cuticle. The deposits contain numerous small spherules composed of an organic matrix and amorphous CaCO(3), which has a high solubility and, therefore, facilitates quick mobilization of Ca(2+) and HCO(3)(-) ions. During the formation and resorption of the deposits large amounts of Ca(2+), HCO(3)(-) and H(+) are transported across the anterior sternal epithelial cells. Within the last years, various light and electron microscopical techniques have been used to characterize the CaCO(3) deposits and the cellular mechanisms involved in biomineralization. The work on the CaCO(3) deposits includes studies on the ultrastructure of the deposits, the sequence of events during deposit formation and dissolution, and the mineral composition of the sternal deposits. The differentiation of the anterior sternal epithelial cells and the mechanisms of epithelial ion transport required for the mineralization and demineralisation of the deposits was studied using various analytical light and electron microscopical techniques including polarized light microscopy, immunocytochemistry, electron microprobe analysis, electron energy loss spectroscopy and electron spectroscopic imaging. Comparative analysis of deposit morphology and the differentiation of the sternal epithelia provide information on the evolution of CaCO(3) deposit formation in relation to the degree of adaptation to terrestrial environments.

  11. Global diversity of fish parasitic isopod crustaceans of the family Cymothoidae

    PubMed Central

    Smit, Nico J.; Bruce, Niel L.; Hadfield, Kerry A.

    2014-01-01

    Of the 95 known families of Isopoda only a few are parasitic namely, Bopyridae, Cryptoniscidae, Cymothoidae, Dajidae, Entoniscidae, Gnathiidae and Tridentellidae. Representatives from the family Cymothoidae are obligate parasites of both marine and freshwater fishes and there are currently 40 recognised cymothoid genera worldwide. These isopods are large (>6 mm) parasites, thus easy to observe and collect, yet many aspects of their biodiversity and biology are still unknown. They are widely distributed around the world and occur in many different habitats, but mostly in shallow waters in tropical or subtropical areas. A number of adaptations to an obligatory parasitic existence have been observed, such as the body shape, which is influenced by the attachment site on the host. Cymothoids generally have a long, slender body tapering towards the ends and the efficient contour of the body offers minimum resistance to the water flow and can withstand the forces of this particular habitat. Other adaptations to this lifestyle include small sensory antennae and eyes; a very heavily thickened and calcified cuticle for protection; and sharply curved hooks on the ends of the pereopods which allows these parasites to attach to the host. Most cymothoids are highly site and host specific. Some of these parasitic cymothoids have been reported to parasitise the same host fish species for over 100 years, showing this species specificity. The site of attachment on the host (gills, mouth, external surfaces or inside the host flesh) can also be genus or species specific. This paper aims to provide a summary of our current knowledge of cymothoid biodiversity and will highlight their history of discovery, morphology, relationships and classification, taxonomic diversity and ecology. PMID:25180163

  12. Host tissues as microhabitats for Wolbachia and quantitative insights into the bacterial community in terrestrial isopods.

    PubMed

    Dittmer, J; Beltran-Bech, S; Lesobre, J; Raimond, M; Johnson, M; Bouchon, D

    2014-05-01

    Animal-bacterial symbioses are highly dynamic in terms of multipartite interactions, both between the host and its symbionts as well as between the different bacteria constituting the symbiotic community. These interactions will be reflected by the titres of the individual bacterial taxa, for example via host regulation of bacterial loads or competition for resources between symbionts. Moreover, different host tissues represent heterogeneous microhabitats for bacteria, meaning that host-associated bacteria might establish tissue-specific bacterial communities. Wolbachia are widespread endosymbiotic bacteria, infecting a large number of arthropods and filarial nematodes. However, relatively little is known regarding direct interactions between Wolbachia and other bacteria. This study represents the first quantitative investigation of tissue-specific Wolbachia-microbiota interactions in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare. To this end, we obtained a more complete picture of the Wolbachia distribution patterns across all major host tissues, integrating all three feminizing Wolbachia strains (wVulM, wVulC, wVulP) identified to date in this host. Interestingly, the different Wolbachia strains exhibited strain-specific tissue distribution patterns, with wVulM reaching lower titres in most tissues. These patterns were consistent across different host genetic backgrounds and might reflect different co-evolutionary histories between the Wolbachia strains and A. vulgare. Moreover, Wolbachia-infected females carried higher total bacterial loads in several, but not all, tissues, irrespective of the Wolbachia strain. Taken together, this quantitative approach indicates that Wolbachia is part of a potentially more diverse bacterial community, as exemplified by the presence of highly abundant bacterial taxa in the midgut caeca of several A. vulgare populations. PMID:24750488

  13. Histological studies on the marsupium of two terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea)

    PubMed Central

    Csonka, Diána; Halasy, Katalin; Hornung, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The marsupium, a brood pouch in peracarid crustaceans (Crustacea, Malacostraca) has evolved in terrestrial environment for providing nutrition and optimal conditions for embryogenesis. In the present study we give details on the histology and ultrastructure of its constituting elements such as oostegites and cotyledons. Marsupia of two different eco-morphological types of woodlice, namely the non-conglobating species Trachelipus rathkii Brandt, 1833 and the conglobating species Cylisticus convexus De Geer, 1778 were investigated. Light microscopic (LM) studies showed some differences in the main structure of the two species’ brood pouch: in Trachelipus rathkii, a ‘clinger’ type woodlice, the oostegites bend outwards during brood incubation as growing offspring require more space, while in Cylisticus convexus, a ‘roller’ type isopod, the sternites arch into the body cavity to ensure space for developing offspring and still allowing conglobation of the gravid females. The quantitative analysis of the oostegites’ cuticle proved that the outer part is about 2.5 - 3 times thicker compared to the inner part in both species. Electron microscopic (TEM) examinations show only small histological differences in the oostegites and cotyledon structure of the two species. Cellular elements and moderately electron dense fleecy precipitate are found in the hemolymph space between the two cuticles of oostegites. The cells contain PAS positive polysaccharide areas. TEM studies revealed some differences in the cotyledon ultrastructure of the two species. Cotyledons of Trachelipus rathkii consist of cells with cristate mitochondria and granular endoplasmic reticulum with cisterns. Cotyledons of Cylisticus convexus consist of cells with densely cristate mitochondria and ribosomes attached to vesicular membrane structures. In both species cells with electron dense bodies were observed. We conclude that - besides the differences in marsupial shapes - the fine

  14. Patterns of the Non-Indigenous Isopod Cirolana harfordi in Sydney Harbour

    PubMed Central

    Bugnot, Ana B.; Coleman, Ross A.; Figueira, Will F.; Marzinelli, Ezequiel M.

    2014-01-01

    Biological introductions can alter the ecology of local assemblages and are an important driver of global environmental change. The first step towards understanding the impact of a non-indigenous species is to study its distribution and associations in the invaded area. In Sydney Harbour, the non-indigenous isopod Cirolana harfordi has been reported in densities up to 0.5 individuals per cm2 in mussel-beds. Abundances of this species have, however, been largely overlooked in other key habitats. The first aim of this study was to evaluate the abundances and distribution of C. harfordi across different habitats representative of Sydney Harbour. Results showed that C. harfordi occurred in oyster and mussel-beds, being particularly abundant in oyster-beds. We also aimed to determine the role of C. harfordi as a predator, scavenger and detritus feeder by investigating the relationships between densities of C. harfordi and (i) the structure of the resident assemblages, and (ii) deposited organic matter in oyster-beds. Densities of C. harfordi were not related to the structure of the assemblages, nor amounts of deposited organic matter. These findings suggested little or no ecological impacts of C. harfordi in oyster-beds. These relationships may, however, affect other variables such as growth of individuals, or be disguised by high variability of assemblages among different locations. Future studies should, therefore, test the impacts of C. harfordi on the size of organisms in the assemblage and use manipulative experiments to control for spatial variation. This study is the first published work on the ecology of the invasion of C. harfordi and provides the starting-point for the study of the impacts of this species in Sydney Harbour. PMID:24466227

  15. Histological studies on the marsupium of two terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea).

    PubMed

    Csonka, Diána; Halasy, Katalin; Hornung, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    The marsupium, a brood pouch in peracarid crustaceans (Crustacea, Malacostraca) has evolved in terrestrial environment for providing nutrition and optimal conditions for embryogenesis. In the present study we give details on the histology and ultrastructure of its constituting elements such as oostegites and cotyledons. Marsupia of two different eco-morphological types of woodlice, namely the non-conglobating species Trachelipusrathkii Brandt, 1833 and the conglobating species Cylisticusconvexus De Geer, 1778 were investigated. Light microscopic (LM) studies showed some differences in the main structure of the two species' brood pouch: in Trachelipusrathkii, a 'clinger' type woodlice, the oostegites bend outwards during brood incubation as growing offspring require more space, while in Cylisticusconvexus, a 'roller' type isopod, the sternites arch into the body cavity to ensure space for developing offspring and still allowing conglobation of the gravid females. The quantitative analysis of the oostegites' cuticle proved that the outer part is about 2.5 - 3 times thicker compared to the inner part in both species. Electron microscopic (TEM) examinations show only small histological differences in the oostegites and cotyledon structure of the two species. Cellular elements and moderately electron dense fleecy precipitate are found in the hemolymph space between the two cuticles of oostegites. The cells contain PAS positive polysaccharide areas. TEM studies revealed some differences in the cotyledon ultrastructure of the two species. Cotyledons of Trachelipusrathkii consist of cells with cristate mitochondria and granular endoplasmic reticulum with cisterns. Cotyledons of Cylisticusconvexus consist of cells with densely cristate mitochondria and ribosomes attached to vesicular membrane structures. In both species cells with electron dense bodies were observed. We conclude that - besides the differences in marsupial shapes - the fine structure of the oostegites and

  16. Physiological properties of the gut lumen of terrestrial isopods (Isopoda: Oniscidea): adaptive to digesting lignocellulose?

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Martin; Brune, Andreas

    2005-05-01

    Since any given trait of an organism is considered to represent either an adaptation to the environment or a phylogenetic constraint, most physiological gut characteristics should be adaptive in terms of optimizing digestion and utilization of the respective food source. Among the Crustacea, the taxon Oniscidea (Isopoda) is the only suborder that includes, and essentially consists of, species inhabiting terrestrial environments, feeding on food sources different from those of most other Crustacea (i.e., terrestrial leaf litter). Microelectrodes were used to assay physiological characteristics of the gut lumen from representatives of four families of terrestrial isopods: Trichoniscus pusillus (Trichoniscidae), Oniscus asellus (Oniscidae), Porcellio scaber (Porcellionidae), and Trachelipus rathkii (Trachelipodidae). Microsensor measurements of oxygen pressure (Clark-type oxygen microelectrodes) revealed that O2-consuming processes inside the gut lumen created steep radial oxygen gradients. Although all guts were oxic in the periphery, the radial center of the posterior hindgut was micro-oxic or even anoxic in the adults of the larger species. The entire gut lumen of all examined species was strongly oxidizing (Pt microelectrodes; apparent redox potential, Eh: +600-700 mV). Such conditions would allow for the coexistence of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms, with both oxidative and fermentative activities contributing to digestion. Although bacterial O2 consumption was also observed in the midgut glands (hepatopancreas), they remained entirely oxic, probably owing to their large surface-to-volume ratio and high oxygen fluxes across the hepatopancreatic epithelium into the gland lumen. Measurements with pH microelectrodes (LIX-type) showed a slight pH gradient from acidic conditions in the anterior hindgut to neutral conditions in the posterior hindgut of O. asellus, P. scaber and T. rathkii. By contrast, the pH in the hindgut lumen of T. pusillus was almost

  17. Host tissues as microhabitats for Wolbachia and quantitative insights into the bacterial community in terrestrial isopods.

    PubMed

    Dittmer, J; Beltran-Bech, S; Lesobre, J; Raimond, M; Johnson, M; Bouchon, D

    2014-05-01

    Animal-bacterial symbioses are highly dynamic in terms of multipartite interactions, both between the host and its symbionts as well as between the different bacteria constituting the symbiotic community. These interactions will be reflected by the titres of the individual bacterial taxa, for example via host regulation of bacterial loads or competition for resources between symbionts. Moreover, different host tissues represent heterogeneous microhabitats for bacteria, meaning that host-associated bacteria might establish tissue-specific bacterial communities. Wolbachia are widespread endosymbiotic bacteria, infecting a large number of arthropods and filarial nematodes. However, relatively little is known regarding direct interactions between Wolbachia and other bacteria. This study represents the first quantitative investigation of tissue-specific Wolbachia-microbiota interactions in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare. To this end, we obtained a more complete picture of the Wolbachia distribution patterns across all major host tissues, integrating all three feminizing Wolbachia strains (wVulM, wVulC, wVulP) identified to date in this host. Interestingly, the different Wolbachia strains exhibited strain-specific tissue distribution patterns, with wVulM reaching lower titres in most tissues. These patterns were consistent across different host genetic backgrounds and might reflect different co-evolutionary histories between the Wolbachia strains and A. vulgare. Moreover, Wolbachia-infected females carried higher total bacterial loads in several, but not all, tissues, irrespective of the Wolbachia strain. Taken together, this quantitative approach indicates that Wolbachia is part of a potentially more diverse bacterial community, as exemplified by the presence of highly abundant bacterial taxa in the midgut caeca of several A. vulgare populations.

  18. Testis follicles ultrastructure of three species of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda Oniscidea).

    PubMed

    Mazzei, V; Longo, G; Brundo, M V

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the research, carried out on three species of terrestrial isopods - Armadillidium granulatum, Halophiloscia hirsuta and Trichoniscus alexandrae - is to bring a first consistent contribution to the knowledge of the ultrastructural organization of the testis follicles. The testis follicles are seat of a remarkable dynamic activity of their cell components (somatic cells and germ cells) that results in a continuous variation, related to the trend of spermatogenesis, of their morphology, organization and of the relationships between the two cell populations. The somatic cells, known in literature as follicular cells, nurse cells or Sertoli cells, are arranged at the periphery of the follicle to form an epithelial layer of variable thickness resting on a thin basal lamina in turn surrounded by a discontinuous network of muscle cells. In A. granulatum and H. hirsuta, two types of Sertoli cells are present: a first type, the nurse cells, envelop the spermatids in cavities within their cytoplasm and through their secretion activity play a fundamental role in the formation of the spermatophores; moreover, they phagocytizes the residual cytoplasm of spermatids. A second type of Sertoli cells shows features that leave clearly identify its supporting role to the spermatophores in formation. In T. alexandrae, instead, only one type of Sertoli cells, the nurse cell, is present, whose features are widely superimposable to those observed in the other two species. Moreover, two septa of Sertoli cells depart from the periphery of the testis follicle to constitute an articulated compartmentalization of the follicle itself, probably targeted to realize at its inside a series of microenvironments functionally diversified in order to meets the needs of the different stages of the spermatogenic cycle.

  19. A Transcriptomic Analysis of Cave, Surface, and Hybrid Isopod Crustaceans of the Species Asellus aquaticus

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, Bethany A.; Gross, Joshua B.; Speiser, Daniel I.; Oakley, Todd H.; Patel, Nipam H.; Gould, Douglas B.; Protas, Meredith E.

    2015-01-01

    Cave animals, compared to surface-dwelling relatives, tend to have reduced eyes and pigment, longer appendages, and enhanced mechanosensory structures. Pressing questions include how certain cave-related traits are gained and lost, and if they originate through the same or different genetic programs in independent lineages. An excellent system for exploring these questions is the isopod, Asellus aquaticus. This species includes multiple cave and surface populations that have numerous morphological differences between them. A key feature is that hybrids between cave and surface individuals are viable, which enables genetic crosses and linkage analyses. Here, we advance this system by analyzing single animal transcriptomes of Asellus aquaticus. We use high throughput sequencing of non-normalized cDNA derived from the head of a surface-dwelling male, the head of a cave-dwelling male, the head of a hybrid male (produced by crossing a surface individual with a cave individual), and a pooled sample of surface embryos and hatchlings. Assembling reads from surface and cave head RNA pools yielded an integrated transcriptome comprised of 23,984 contigs. Using this integrated assembly as a reference transcriptome, we aligned reads from surface-, cave- and hybrid- head tissue and pooled surface embryos and hatchlings. Our approach identified 742 SNPs and placed four new candidate genes to an existing linkage map for A. aquaticus. In addition, we examined SNPs for allele-specific expression differences in the hybrid individual. All of these resources will facilitate identification of genes and associated changes responsible for cave adaptation in A. aquaticus and, in concert with analyses of other species, will inform our understanding of the evolutionary processes accompanying adaptation to the subterranean environment. PMID:26462237

  20. Quantifying Beach Response to Episodic Large Wave Events, a Predictive Empirical Model, Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J. E.; Barnard, P. L.

    2006-12-01

    Predicting beach response on an event scale is extremely difficult due to highly variable spatial and temporal conditions, lack of data on antecedent beach morphology, generic model shortcomings, and uncertainty of local forcing parameters. Each beach system is unique and classical beach erosion models may not be applicable to many high-energy beaches, especially those receiving large long-period waves. Therefore, developing an empirical model is the best way to predict future beach response at a given site. Based on 12 closely spaced (temporally) GPS topographic surveys during the winter of 2005-2006 at Ocean Beach, in San Francisco, California, we have developed a predictive empirical model that relates sub-aerial beach response to observed wave height, period, and direction. The model will provide important information to coastal managers, who will be able to better predict and mitigate possible loss from a forecasted wave event. Ocean Beach, located immediately south of the Golden Gate in San Francisco, is a high-energy, intermediate- slope beach that is exposed to waves generated in both the North and South Pacific. Winter breaking wave heights frequently reach 4 m and can exceed 7 m, with periods sometimes greater than 20 s. Our observations demonstrate that large seasonal variations in the sub-aerial beach profile are likely forced by several single large wave events. These events have led to the partial destruction of a recreational parking lot at the south end of the beach where an erosion hot spot is currently located, and continued erosion will threaten other parts of public infrastructure. This study, in combination with other ongoing research at Ocean Beach, will provide valuable insight that will not only aid local personnel in their management decisions but also contribute to a better understanding of sediment transport at high-energy beaches.

  1. Multiple Conserved Heteroplasmic Sites in tRNA Genes in the Mitochondrial Genomes of Terrestrial Isopods (Oniscidea)

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, Christopher H.; Badawi, Myriam; Moumen, Bouziane; Grève, Pierre; Cordaux, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial genome structure and organization are relatively conserved among metazoans. However, in many isopods, especially the terrestrial isopods (Oniscidea), the mitochondrial genome consists of both ∼14-kb linear monomers and ∼28-kb circular dimers. This unusual organization is associated with an ancient and conserved constitutive heteroplasmic site. This heteroplasmy affects the anticodon of a tRNA gene, allowing this single locus to function as a “dual” tRNA gene for two different amino acids. Here, we further explore the evolution of these unusual mitochondrial genomes by assembling complete mitochondrial sequences for two additional Oniscidean species, Trachelipus rathkei and Cylisticus convexus. Strikingly, we find evidence of two additional heteroplasmic sites that also alter tRNA anticodons, creating additional dual tRNA genes, and that are conserved across both species. These results suggest that the unique linear/circular organization of isopods’ mitochondrial genomes may facilitate the evolution of stable mitochondrial heteroplasmies, and, conversely, once such heteroplasmies have evolved, they constrain the multimeric structure of the mitochondrial genome in these species. Finally, we outline some possible future research directions to identify the factors influencing mitochondrial genome evolution in this group. PMID:25911226

  2. Immunohistochemical study of androgenic gland hormone: localization in the male reproductive system and species specificity in the terrestrial isopods.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Yuriko; Okuno, Atsuro; Nagasawa, Hiromichi

    2002-02-01

    Androgenic gland hormone (AGH) is responsible for male sexual differentiation in crustaceans. AGH of the terrestrial isopod, Armadillidium vulgare, is a heterodimetric glycoprotein. To determine the distribution of AGH in the male reproductive system, an immunohistochemical study was carried out using antibodies raised against different components of the proAGH molecule of A. vulgare, for example, the whole molecule of recombinant proAGH expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli-rAGH), the N-terminal nonapeptide of the B chain, and the N-terminal octapeptide of the A chain. The androgenic gland (AG) showed strong immunoreactivity to all three of these antibodies, while the testis, the seminal vesicle, and the vas deferens did not show immunostaining. To examine the species specificity of AGH, the male reproductive systems in nine species of Oniscidea were examined immunohistochemically with antibody raised against E. coli-rAGH. A positive reaction was observed in the AGs of species belonging to the Armadillidiidae, Porcellionidae, and Scyphacidae families. Immunoreactivity was strongest in A. vulgare and was stronger in Armadillidiidae than in Porcellionidae or in Scyphacidae. These results suggest that structural similarity of AGH may exist among some terrestrial isopods, although AGH seems to harbor a relatively high degree of species specificity. PMID:11884067

  3. Reckless males, rational females: dynamic trade-off between food and shelter in the marine isopod Idotea balthica.

    PubMed

    Vesakoski, Outi; Merilaita, Sami; Jormalainen, Veijo

    2008-11-01

    Habitat choice of herbivores is expected to be a resolution of a trade-off between food and shelter. The resolution of this trade-off may, however, be dynamic within a species because distinct phenotypes may value these factors differently and the value may vary temporally. We studied this hypothesis in the marine herbivore Idotea balthica (Isopoda), by simultaneously manipulating both food and shelter, and investigated whether the resolution of the trade-off differed between sexes, colour morphs and day and night (i.e. high and low predation risk). Isopods chose between exposing and concealing backgrounds in which the quantity or quality of food varied. When choosing between the backgrounds in the absence of food, females preferred the concealment more than males did. However, in a trade-off situation the isopods traded shelter for food, and females more so than males. Thus, males' lower preference for the shelter was not counterbalanced by a stronger preference for food. The microhabitat use also differed between night and day showing adaptation to diurnally fluctuating predation risk. We suggest that microhabitat utilization of females is more strongly tied to variation in risk and resources than that of males, for whom other factors, such as seeking mates, may be more important. PMID:18692551

  4. Effects of soil and dietary exposures to Ag nanoparticles and AgNO₃ in the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus.

    PubMed

    Tourinho, Paula S; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Jurkschat, Kerstin; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2015-10-01

    The effects of Ag-NPs and AgNO3 on the isopod Porcellionides pruinosus were determined upon soil and dietary exposures. Isopods avoided Ag in soil, with EC50 values of ∼16.0 and 14.0 mg Ag/kg for Ag-NPs and AgNO3, respectively. Feeding inhibition tests in soil showed EC50s for effects on consumption ratio of 127 and 56.7 mg Ag/kg, respectively. Although similar EC50s for effects on biomass were observed for nanoparticulate and ionic Ag (114 and 120 mg Ag/kg dry soil, respectively), at higher concentrations greater biomass loss was found for AgNO3. Upon dietary exposure, AgNO3 was more toxic, with EC50 for effects on biomass change being >1500 and 233 mg Ag/kg for Ag-NPs and AgNO3, respectively. The difference in toxicity between Ag-NPs and AgNO3 could not be explained from Ag body concentrations. This suggests that the relation between toxicity and bioavailability of Ag-NPs differs from that of ionic Ag in soils.

  5. Deep down: Isopod biodiversity of the Kuril-Kamchatka abyssal area including a comparison with data of previous expeditions of the RV Vityaz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsner, Nikolaus O.; Malyutina, Marina V.; Golovan, Olga A.; Brenke, Nils; Riehl, Torben; Brandt, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    This study focusses on the isopod biodiversity in the abyssal area southeast of the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench. The KuramBio (Kuril-Kamchatka Biodiversity Studies) expedition in summer 2012 collected altogether 10,169 isopods from 21 C-EBS hauls at 12 stations, belonging to 19 families, 73 genera and 207 species from the depth range between 4830 and 5780 m. Munnopsidae and Desmosomatidae were the most abundant and species-rich families, Eurycope (Munnopsidae) and Macrostylis (Macrostylidae) the most abundant genera. An nMDS plot on the basis of the Cosine similarity index reveals no clear pattern and all hauls to be different from each other. We compared our data with 12 stations from the same depth range sampled by the Russian RV Vityaz about 50 years ago and were able to identify several species collected by the RV Vityaz. The identified isopod species belonged to the families Munnopsidae, Macrostylidae, Haploniscidae, Desmosomatidae, Ischnomesidae and Nannoniscidae. Of the 333 individuals collected by the RV Vityaz, Haploniscidae and Munnopsidae were the most abundant families. Desmosomatidae were only represented by <1% of the isopod individuals. However, the rarefaction curves of both the KuramBio and the Vityaz samples are not approaching an asymptote, indicating that even after repeated sampling just a part of the local fauna has been recorded so far.

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of “Candidatus Hepatoplasma crinochetorum” Ps, a Bacterial Symbiont in the Hepatopancreas of the Terrestrial Isopod Porcellio scaber

    PubMed Central

    Kostanjšek, Rok; Toenshoff, Elena R.; Schulz, Frederik; Schuster, Lisa; Domann, Daryl; Horn, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    “Candidatus Hepatoplasma crinochetorum” Ps is an extracellular symbiont residing in the hepatopancreas of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber. Its genome is highly similar to that of the close relative “Ca. Hepatoplasma crinochetorum” Av from Armadillidium vulgare. However, instead of a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas system, it encodes a type I restriction modification system. PMID:26272556

  7. The link between antioxidant enzymes catalase and glutathione S-transferase and physiological condition of a control population of terrestrial isopod (Porcellio scaber).

    PubMed

    Jemec, Anita; Lešer, Vladka; Drobne, Damjana

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate if the activities of catalase and glutathione S-transferase in a control population of terrestrial isopods (Porcellio scaber) are correlated with the physiological condition of the isopods. For this purpose, the activities of these enzymes were analysed in isopods from a stock population and in parallel, the physiological condition of the same specimens was assessed using a histological approach based on epithelial thickness and lipid droplets. We found a correlation between antioxidant enzymes and the physiological condition of the isopods. This implies that these enzymes could be used as predictive indicators of the physiological condition in a stock population before comprehensive toxicological studies are conducted and also in control group after the experiment. When a control group is found to be very heterogeneous in terms of physiological condition, the experiment should be repeated with a larger number of experimental animals. The findings of this study will contribute to more accurate experimental design of toxicity tests when using biomarkers. This should encourage other researchers to increase their effort to know the physiological state of their test organisms.

  8. The expression of one ankyrin pk2 allele of the WO prophage is correlated with the Wolbachia feminizing effect in isopods

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The maternally inherited α-Proteobacteria Wolbachia pipientis is an obligate endosymbiont of nematodes and arthropods, in which they induce a variety of reproductive alterations, including Cytoplasmic Incompatibility (CI) and feminization. The genome of the feminizing wVulC Wolbachia strain harboured by the isopod Armadillidium vulgare has been sequenced and is now at the final assembly step. It contains an unusually high number of ankyrin motif-containing genes, two of which are homologous to the phage-related pk1 and pk2 genes thought to contribute to the CI phenotype in Culex pipiens. These genes encode putative bacterial effectors mediating Wolbachia-host protein-protein interactions via their ankyrin motifs. Results To test whether these Wolbachia homologs are potentially involved in altering terrestrial isopod reproduction, we determined the distribution and expression of both pk1 and pk2 genes in the 3 Wolbachia strains that induce CI and in 5 inducing feminization of their isopod hosts. Aside from the genes being highly conserved, we found a substantial copy number variation among strains, and that is linked to prophage diversity. Transcriptional analyses revealed expression of one pk2 allele (pk2b2) only in the feminizing Wolbachia strains of isopods. Conclusions These results reveal the need to investigate the functions of Wolbachia ankyrin gene products, in particular those of Pk2, and their host targets with respect to host sex manipulation. PMID:22497736

  9. Relationships between sand and water quality at recreational beaches.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Matthew C; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Piggot, Alan M; Klaus, James S; Zhang, Yifan

    2011-12-15

    Enterococci are used to assess the risk of negative human health impacts from recreational waters. Studies have shown sustained populations of enterococci within sediments of beaches but comprehensive surveys of multiple tidal zones on beaches in a regional area and their relationship to beach management decisions are limited. We sampled three tidal zones on eight South Florida beaches in Miami-Dade and Broward counties and found that enterococci were ubiquitous within South Florida beach sands although their levels varied greatly both among the beaches and between the supratidal, intertidal and subtidal zones. The supratidal sands consistently had significantly higher (p < 0.003) levels of enterococci (average 40 CFU/g dry sand) than the other two zones. Levels of enterococci within the subtidal sand correlated with the average level of enterococci in the water (CFU/100mL) for the season during which samples were collected (r(s) = 0.73). The average sand enterococci content over all the zones on each beach correlated with the average water enterococci levels of the year prior to sand samplings (r(s) = 0.64) as well as the average water enterococci levels for the month after sand samplings (r(s) = 0.54). Results indicate a connection between levels of enterococci in beach water and sands throughout South Florida's beaches and suggest that the sands are one of the predominant reservoirs of enterococci impacting beach water quality. As a result, beaches with lower levels of enterococci in the sand had fewer exceedences relative to beaches with higher levels of sand enterococci. More research should focus on evaluating beach sand quality as a means to predict and regulate marine recreational water quality.

  10. Relationships Between Sand and Water Quality at Recreational Beaches

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Matthew C.; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.; Piggot, Alan M.; Klaus, James S.; Zhang, Yifan

    2011-01-01

    Enterococci are used to assess the risk of negative human health impacts from recreational waters. Studies have shown sustained populations of enterococci within sediments of beaches but comprehensive surveys of multiple tidal zones on beaches in a regional area and their relationship to beach management decisions are limited. We sampled three tidal zones on eight South Florida beaches in Miami-Dade and Broward counties and found that enterococci were ubiquitous within South Florida beach sands although their levels varied greatly both among the beaches and between the supratidal, intertidal and subtidal zones. The supratidal sands consistently had significantly higher (p<0.003) levels of enterococci (average 40 CFU/g dry sand) than the other two zones. Levels of enterococci within the subtidal sand correlated with the average level of enterococci in the water (CFU/100mL) for the season during which samples were collected (rs= 0.73). The average sand enterococci content over all the zones on each beach correlated with the average water enterococci levels of the year prior to sand samplings (rs=0.64) as well as the average water enterococci levels for the month after sand samplings (rs=0.54). Results indicate a connection between levels of enterococci in beach water and sands throughout South Florida’s beaches and suggest that the sands are one of the predominant reservoirs of enterococci impacting beach water quality. As a result, beaches with lower levels of enterococci in the sand had fewer exceedences relative to beaches with higher levels of sand enterococci. More research should focus on evaluating beach sand quality as a means to predict and regulate marine recreational water quality. PMID:22071324

  11. Integrated protecting plan for beach erosion. A case study in Plaka beach, E. Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrakis, Stelios; Alexandrakis, George; Kozyrakis, George; Hatziyanni, Eleni; Kampanis, Nikolaos

    2015-04-01

    Coastal zones are among the most active areas on Earth, being subjected to extreme wind / wave conditions, thus vulnerable to erosion. In Greece and Crete in particular, beach zones are extremely important for the welfare of the inhabitants, since, apart for the important biological and archaeological value of the beach zones, the socio-economic value is critical since a great number of human activities are concentrated in such areas (touristic facilities, fishing harbors etc.). The present study investigates the erosional procedures observed in Plaka beach, E. Crete, Greece, a highly touristic developed area with great archaeological interest and proposes a cost-effective solution. The factors taken into consideration for the proposed solution in reducing the erosion of the beach were the study of the climatological, geological and geomorphological regime of the area, the recent (~70 years) shifting of the coastline through the study of topographic maps, aerial photographs and satellite images, the creation of detailed bathymetric and seabed classification maps of the area and finally, a risk analysis in terms of erosional phenomena. On the basis of the above, it is concluded that the area under investigation is subjected to an erosional rate of about 1 m/10 years and the total land-loss for the past 70 years is about 4600 m2. Through the simulation of the wave regime we studied 3 possible scenarios, the "do-nothing" scenario, the construction of a detached submerged breakwater at the depth of 3 meters and, finally, the armoring of the existing beach-wall through the placement of appropriate size and material boulders, forming an artificial slope for the reducing of the wave breaking energy and a small scale nourishment plan. As a result, through the modeling of the above, the most appropriate and cost-effective solution was found to be the third, armoring of the existing coastal wall and nourishment of the beach periodically, thus the further undermining of the

  12. Geotechnical properties of the Cassino Beach mud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Cláudio R. R.; Alves, Antonio M. L.

    2009-03-01

    Knowledge of the marine soils properties, together with hydrodynamic and climatic data, plays an important role for a better understanding of the dynamic behavior of sandy and muddy coasts. This paper deals with reporting and basic interpretation of two campaigns of exploration and characterization of the mud of Cassino Beach, southern Brazil, carried out during the years of 2004 and 2005. Samples were obtained by means of cores collected at some locations offshore, and were submitted to various laboratory geotechnical tests, including determination of the physical index, grain size distribution, Atterberg limits, and shear resistance by both triaxial and shear vane tests. Results confirm the existence of a very soft soil deposit offshore Cassino Beach, highly plastic, compressible, and viscous, forming an important database for further studies.

  13. Sand Beach Bacteria: Enumeration and Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Khiyama, H. M.; Makemson, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    Bacteria in the water-saturated sand of a relatively unpolluted sand beach were enumerated by direct microscope and viable counting. The number of interstitial bacteria was estimated to be a significant fraction of the total number of bacteria present. Three hundred sixty-two strains were isolated and submitted to cultural and biochemical tests. Fermentational abilities and the production of indole suggested that a significant number of these bacteria were symbiotically associated with resident metazoans. PMID:4356458

  14. Virginia Beach search and rescue experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rais, Houra; Mansfield, Arthur W.; Huxtable, Barton D.; Chotoo, Kancham

    2000-08-01

    In May, 1998, the NASA Search and Rescue Mission conducted a SAR crash detection test in the swampy area south and west of Virginia Beach. A number of aircraft parts were hidden in the dense foliage. The radar used was the Navy P-3 with the ERIM XLC and UHF SAR, providing fine resolution imagery with full polarimetry and an IFSAR capability. This paper reports preliminary results of this test.

  15. Zinc, among a 'cocktail' of metal pollutants, is responsible for the absence of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber from the vicinity of a primary smelting works.

    PubMed

    Hopkin, S P; Hames, C A

    1994-03-01

    : Porcellio scaber Latreille (Crustacea: Isopoda) of one month in age were reared for a year on leaf litter of field maple (Acer campestre) contaminated in the laboratory with a range of concentrations of cadmium, copper, lead or zinc. The metals were applied topically to the leaves as nitrates. Growth and survival, numbers of live offspring produced by females that matured, and concentrations of metals in adult isopods at the end of the experiment were measured.'Critical concentrations' of metals in food at which all the isopods died before producing offspring were 100 μg Cd g(-1), 100 μg Cu g(-1), 2000 μg Pb g(-1) and 1000 μg Zn g(-1) (on a dry weight basis). The relative toxicities of the four metals in the laboratory were compared with concentrations of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in surface leaf litter in the vicinity of a primary smelting works at Avonmouth, South West England. The results support the hypothesis that the absence of Porcellio scaber from sites in the immediate vicinity of the factory is due to zinc poisoning. Although cadmium is approximately ten times more toxic to isopods than zinc in the laboratory, zinc is most likely to be killing isopods in the field because its concentration is always at least 30 times higher than cadmium in Avonmouth leaf litter, and more than 100 times higher at most sites.Populations of Porcellio scaber survive in field sites where surface leaf litter contains up to 5000 μg Zn g(-1). This is at least five times higher than the 'critical concentration' in laboratory experiments. Thus, the methodology for assessing metal toxicity described in this paper, exaggerates the potential effects of metals to isopods in the field. Such differences between laboratory and field toxicities of metals should be taken into account when environmental protection levels for metals are being proposed for soil invertebrates based on ecotoxicological tests conducted in the laboratory.

  16. The influence of metal speciation on the bioavailability and sub-cellular distribution of cadmium to the terrestrial isopod, Porcellio dilatatus.

    PubMed

    Calhôa, Carla Filipa; Monteiro, Marta S; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Mann, Reinier M

    2011-04-01

    Cadmium is a non-essential toxic metal that is able to bioaccumulate in both flora fauna and has the potential to biomagnify in some food chains. However, the form in which cadmium is presented to consumers can alter the bioavailability and possibly the internal distribution of assimilated Cd. Previous studies in our laboratory highlighted differences in Cd assimilation among isopods when they were provided with a plant-based food with either Cd biologically incorporated into plant tissue or superficially amended with ionic Cd(2+). Cd is known for its high affinity for sulphur ligands in cysteine residues which form the basis for metal-binding proteins such as metallothionein. This study compares Cd assimilation efficiency (AE) in Porcellio dilatatus fed with food amended with either cadmium cysteinate or cadmium nitrate in an examination of the influence of Cd speciation on metal bioavailability followed by an examination of the sub-cellular distribution using a centrifugal fractionation protocol. As hypothesized the AE of Cd among isopods fed with Cd(NO(3))(2) (64%, SE=5%) was higher than AE for isopods fed with Cd(Cys)(2) (20%, SE=3%). The sub-cellular distribution also depended on the Cd species provided. Those isopods fed Cd(Cys)(2) allocated significantly more Cd to the cell debris and organelles fractions at the expense of allocation to metal-rich granules (MRG). The significance of the difference in sub-cellular distribution with regard to toxicity is discussed. This paper demonstrates that the assimilation and internal detoxification of Cd is dependent on the chemical form of Cd presented to the isopod.

  17. Rescues conducted by surfers on Australian beaches.

    PubMed

    Attard, Anna; Brander, Robert W; Shaw, Wendy S

    2015-09-01

    This study describes the demographics, occurrence, location, primary hazards and outcomes involved in rescues performed by surfers on Australian beaches. Conservative estimates suggest that the number of rescues conducted by Australian surfers each year is on par with the number conducted by volunteer surf lifesavers. Surfers perform a considerable number of serious rescues in both lifesaver/lifeguard patrolled (45%) and unpatrolled (53%) beach locations. Rip currents represent the major physical hazard leading to rescue (75%) and the dominant emotional response of people rescued is one of panic (85%). Most surfer rescue events occur during conditions of moderate waves and sunny, fine weather with the highest proportion of rescues occurring on quiet beaches with few people around (26%). Swimming is the activity associated with most rescue events (63%), followed by board riding (25%). Males aged 18-29 represent the largest demographic of people rescued. Surfers with prior water-safety training are more likely to perform a higher number of rescues, however ability to perform rescues is not associated with formal training, but rather number of years' experience surfing. Seventy-eight percent of surfers were happy to help, while 28% expressed feelings of annoyance or inconvenience, generally towards unwary swimmers. Results of this research suggest that 63% of surfers feel they have saved a life. This value may be enhanced through improved training of surfers in basic water safety rescue techniques.

  18. Intensified coastal development behind nourished beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Scott; Lazarus, Eli; Limber, Patrick; Goldstein, Evan; Thorpe, Curtis; Ballinger, Rhoda

    2016-04-01

    Population density, housing development, and property values in coastal counties along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts continue to rise despite increasing hazard from storm impacts. Since the 1970s, beach nourishment, which involves importing sand to deliberately widen an eroding beach, has been the main strategy in the U.S. for protecting coastal properties from erosion and flooding hazards. Paradoxically, investment in hazard protection may intensify development. Here, we examine the housing stock of all existing shorefront single-family homes in Florida - a microcosm of U.S. coastal hazards and development - to quantitatively compare development in nourishing and non-nourishing towns. We find that nourishing towns now account for more than half of Florida's coastline, and that houses in nourishing towns are larger and more numerous. Even as the mean size of single-family homes nationwide has grown steadily since 1970, Florida's shorefront stock has exceeded the national average by 34%, and in nourishing towns by 45%. This emergent disparity between nourishing and non-nourishing towns in Florida demonstrates a pattern of intensifying coastal risk, and is likely representative of a dominant trend in coastal development more generally. These data lend empirical support to the hypothesis that US coastal development and hazard mitigation through beach nourishment have become dynamically coupled.

  19. Understanding beach health throughout the Great Lakes -- continuing research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2012-01-01

    The overall mission of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Beach Health Initiative is to provide science-based information and methods that will allow beach managers to more accurately make beach closure and advisory decisions, understand the sources and physical processes affecting beach contaminants, and understand how science-based information can be used to mitigate and restore beaches and protect the public. The USGS, in collaboration with many Federal, State, and local agencies and universities, has conducted research on beach-health issues in the Great Lakes Region for more than a decade. The work consists of four science elements that align with the initiative's mission: real-time assessments of water quality; coastal processes; pathogens and source tracking; and data analysis, interpretation, and communication. The ongoing or completed research for each of these elements is described in this fact sheet.

  20. Shifts in the microbial community composition of Gulf Coast beaches following beach oiling.

    PubMed

    Newton, Ryan J; Huse, Susan M; Morrison, Hilary G; Peake, Colin S; Sogin, Mitchell L; McLellan, Sandra L

    2013-01-01

    Microorganisms associated with coastal sands serve as a natural biofilter, providing essential nutrient recycling in nearshore environments and acting to maintain coastal ecosystem health. Anthropogenic stressors often impact these ecosystems, but little is known about whether these disturbances can be identified through microbial community change. The blowout of the Macondo Prospect reservoir on April 20, 2010, which released oil hydrocarbons into the Gulf of Mexico, presented an opportunity to examine whether microbial community composition might provide a sensitive measure of ecosystem disturbance. Samples were collected on four occasions, beginning in mid-June, during initial beach oiling, until mid-November from surface sand and surf zone waters at seven beaches stretching from Bay St. Louis, MS to St. George Island, FL USA. Oil hydrocarbon measurements and NOAA shoreline assessments indicated little to no impact on the two most eastern beaches (controls). Sequence comparisons of bacterial ribosomal RNA gene hypervariable regions isolated from beach sands located to the east and west of Mobile Bay in Alabama demonstrated that regional drivers account for markedly different bacterial communities. Individual beaches had unique community signatures that persisted over time and exhibited spatial relationships, where community similarity decreased as horizontal distance between samples increased from one to hundreds of meters. In contrast, sequence analyses detected larger temporal and less spatial variation among the water samples. Superimposed upon these beach community distance and time relationships, was increased variability in bacterial community composition from oil hydrocarbon contaminated sands. The increased variability was observed among the core, resident, and transient community members, indicating the occurrence of community-wide impacts rather than solely an overprinting of oil hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria onto otherwise relatively stable sand

  1. 109. VIEW OF SOUTHEAST SIDE OF PIER TAKEN FROM BEACH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    109. VIEW OF SOUTHEAST SIDE OF PIER TAKEN FROM BEACH, LOOKING WEST. VIEW SHOWS ART DECO BUILDINGS ADDED IN 1931 AND 5TH TEE ADDED IN 1940 Photograph #5369-HB. Photographer unknown, c. 1945, based on clothing of sunbathers; view probably taken in mid-1945 after the U.S. Army vacated the pier and it was reopened to the public. - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  2. Summer E. coli patterns and responses along 23 Chicago beaches.

    PubMed

    Whitman, Richard L; Nevers, Meredith B

    2008-12-15

    Concentrations of E. coli in recreational beach water are highly variable both locally and temporally, but a broader understanding of these fluctuations may be explained through coastal observations. Currently, beach contamination study approaches tend to be site-specific under the belief that politically delineated beaches are unique and management of beaches cannot be regionally oriented. E. coli data collected over five years from 23 Chicago beaches clearly identified ambient linked patterns at the regional scale. Temporal fluctuations were similar, with all beaches having simultaneous peaks and troughs of E. coli concentrations. Spatially, E. coli concentrations for beaches more closely situated were more closely correlated, indicating spatial autocorrelation. Julian day, wave height, and barometric pressure explained up to 40% of the variation, a value comparable to individual, less parsimonious site-specific models. Day of sampling could explain the majority of the variation in E. coli concentrations, more so than beach, depth, or time of day. Comparing beaches along a targeted coastline allows a better understanding of inherent background regional fluctuations and, ultimately, better predictions of E. coli concentrations in coastal recreational water.

  3. Summer E. coli patterns and responses along 23 Chicago beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitman, R.L.; Nevers, M.B.

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of E. coli in recreational beach water are highly variable both locally and temporally, but a broader understanding of these fluctuations may be explained through coastal observations. Currently, beach contamination study approaches tend to be site-specific underthe belief that politically delineated beaches are unique and management of beaches cannot be regionally oriented. E. coli data collected over five years from 23 Chicago beaches clearly identified ambient linked patterns at the regional scale. Temporal fluctuations were similar, with all beaches having simultaneous peaks and troughs of E. coli concentrations. Spatially, E. coli concentrations for beaches more closely situated were more closely correlated, indicating spatial autocorrelation. Julian day, wave height, and barometric pressure explained up to 40% of the variation, a value comparable to individual, less parsimonious site-specific models. Day of sampling could explain the majority of the variation in E. coli concentrations, more so than beach, depth, or time of day. Comparing beaches along a targeted coastline allows a better understanding of inherent background regional fluctuations and, ultimately, better predictions of E. coli concentrations in coastal recreational water.

  4. Shore litter along sandy beaches of the Gulf of Oman.

    PubMed

    Claereboudt, Michel R

    2004-11-01

    Beach debris abundance and weight were estimated from surveys on 11 beaches of the Gulf of Oman along the Omani coast. Debris were collected on two occasions from 100 m transects, sorted and categorized by origin and type. Overall contaminations ranged from 0.43 to 6.01 items m(-1) of beach front on different beaches with a mean value of 1.79+/-1.04 gm(-1) (95% C.I). In terms of weight, contamination levels ranged from 7.8 to 75.44 gm(-1) of beach front with a mean contamination of 27.02+/-14.48 gm(-1) (95% C.I). In terms of numbers of items, plastic debris ranked first on all beaches followed by either wood items or other organic materials such as cigarette butts. Industrial debris remained few on all beaches (<10%). Most debris had a local origin and, in terms of numbers, were associated with beach recreational activities whereas fishing debris represented the largest proportion of the debris in terms of weight. There were notable differences between beaches in the relative abundance of recreation-related and fishing-related debris. PMID:15530520

  5. Changes along a seawall and natural beaches: Fourchon, LA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mossa, Joann; Nakashima, Lindsay D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper compares shoreline and beach morphology changes and responses to storms from 1985 to 1988 along sections of a rapidly eroding coast at the Bayou Lafourche headland, Louisiana. A beach consisting of a cement-filled bag seawall and nourishment was compared with natural beaches to the west and east of the project. Local patterns of beach response could be attributed to several recent processes and historical conditions. Hurricane Gilbert, which made landfall in Mexico, caused about 70% of the sediment loss on both the artificially-stablized and the natural shorelines over this three-year period.

  6. Using a watershed-centric approach to identify potentially impacted beaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beaches can be affected by a variety of contaminants. Of particular concern are beaches impacted by human fecal contamination and urban runoff. This poster demonstrates a methodology to identify potentially impacted beaches using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Since h...

  7. The influence of anthropic actions on the evolution of an urban beach: Case study of Marineta Cassiana beach, Spain.

    PubMed

    Pagán, J I; Aragonés, L; Tenza-Abril, A J; Pallarés, P

    2016-07-15

    Coastal areas have been historically characterized as being a source of wealth. Nowadays, beaches have become more relevant as a place for rest and leisure. This had led to a very high population pressure due to rapid urbanisation processes. The impacts associated with coastal tourism, demand the development of anthropic actions to protect the shoreline. This paper has studied the impacts of these actions on the Marineta Cassiana beach, in Denia, Spain. This particular Mediterranean beach has traditionally suffered a major shoreline regression, and the beach nourishments carried out in the 1980s would not have achieved the reliability desired. This research has analysed the historic evolution of the beach and its environment for a period of 65years (1950-2015). A Geographic Information System (GIS) has been used to integrate and perform a spatial analysis of urban development, soil erosion, stream flow, swell, longshore transport, submerged vegetation species and shoreline evolution. The results show how the anthropic actions have affected the shoreline. After the excessive urban development of the catchments, there is no natural sediment supply to the beach. The change in the typology of the sediment, from pebbles to sand, during the beach nourishments has led to a crucial imbalance in the studied area. Moreover, the beach area gained has disappeared, affecting the Posidonia oceanica meadow, and incrementing the erosion rates. The findings obtained are relevant, not only in the management and maintenance of the beaches, but also, in the decision-making for future nourishments.

  8. The influence of anthropic actions on the evolution of an urban beach: Case study of Marineta Cassiana beach, Spain.

    PubMed

    Pagán, J I; Aragonés, L; Tenza-Abril, A J; Pallarés, P

    2016-07-15

    Coastal areas have been historically characterized as being a source of wealth. Nowadays, beaches have become more relevant as a place for rest and leisure. This had led to a very high population pressure due to rapid urbanisation processes. The impacts associated with coastal tourism, demand the development of anthropic actions to protect the shoreline. This paper has studied the impacts of these actions on the Marineta Cassiana beach, in Denia, Spain. This particular Mediterranean beach has traditionally suffered a major shoreline regression, and the beach nourishments carried out in the 1980s would not have achieved the reliability desired. This research has analysed the historic evolution of the beach and its environment for a period of 65years (1950-2015). A Geographic Information System (GIS) has been used to integrate and perform a spatial analysis of urban development, soil erosion, stream flow, swell, longshore transport, submerged vegetation species and shoreline evolution. The results show how the anthropic actions have affected the shoreline. After the excessive urban development of the catchments, there is no natural sediment supply to the beach. The change in the typology of the sediment, from pebbles to sand, during the beach nourishments has led to a crucial imbalance in the studied area. Moreover, the beach area gained has disappeared, affecting the Posidonia oceanica meadow, and incrementing the erosion rates. The findings obtained are relevant, not only in the management and maintenance of the beaches, but also, in the decision-making for future nourishments. PMID:27065444

  9. MEETING IN MEXICO: NOWCASTING AND FORECASTING BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATION USING EPA'S VIRTUAL BEACH SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beaches in the United States of (North) America are subject to closure when bacterial counts exceed water quality criteria. Many authorities base these decisions on water samples that typically require at least 18 hours to analyze. This persistence approach, or model, often leads...

  10. NOWCASTING AND FORECASTING BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATION USING THE EPA VIRTUAL BEACH SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beaches are subject to closure when bacterial counts exceed water quality criteria. Many authorities base these decisions on sample counts, which typically require a day or more to analyze. Sometimes called the persistence model, because conditions are assumed to persist, experie...

  11. 77 FR 13519 - Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ..., Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes establishing a safety zone on the navigable waters of the Atlantic Ocean in..., 2012 through June 3, 2012, the United States Navy will host an air show event over the Atlantic...

  12. 77 FR 27120 - Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ..., Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will establish a temporary safety zone on the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of Virginia... restrict vessel traffic movement on the Atlantic Ocean to protect mariners from the hazards associated...

  13. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber as a biomarker of organophosphorus compounds in food.

    PubMed

    Stanek, Katja; Gabrijelcic, Elizabeta; Drobne, Damjana; Trebse, Polonca

    2003-09-01

    This paper describes the toxicity of organophosphorus pesticide diazinon in juvenile and adult terrestrial isopods Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea). The woodlice were exposed to different concentrations of diazinon added to food (5, 10, 50, and 100 or 150 micrograms/g dry food). Weight change and food assimilation efficiency were determined two and four weeks after the exposure. The activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in surviving animals was measured at the end of the experiment. The results show that woodlice exposed to diazinon do not significantly differ from controls in growth and feeding rate. The reduction of AChE activity was observed at the lowest diazinon exposure (5 and 10 micrograms/g dry food). These results suggest that AChE activity might prove a useful biomarker, indicating low levels of organophosphates in food.

  14. 'Candidatus Rhabdochlamydia porcellionis', an intracellular bacterium from the hepatopancreas of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea: Isopoda).

    PubMed

    Kostanjsek, Rok; Strus, Jasna; Drobne, Damjana; Avgustin, Gorazd

    2004-03-01

    Intracellular bacteria were observed in the hepatopancreas of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and electron microscopic observations were used to determine the taxonomic position of these intracellular bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis and a complex developmental cycle affiliate these bacteria to the order Chlamydiales, within which they form a distinctive lineage, close to the family Simkaniaceae. They share <92 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with their closest relative and <88 % similarity with other members of the order Chlamydiales. A specific signature oligonucleotide sequence was identified and used as a probe, enabling the identification of intracellular bacteria in infected hepatopancreatic tissue. According to the distinctive morphology of their elementary bodies, which are rod-shaped rather than spherical and contain translucent oblong structures, their genomic properties and their crustacean host, the name 'Candidatus Rhabdochlamydia porcellionis' is proposed for intracellular bacteria in the hepatopancreas of P. scaber.

  15. Consumption of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) by the isopod idotea chelipes (pallas) in lake Grevelingen, after the growing season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groenendijk, A. M.

    Autumn and winter consumption of eelgrass ( Zostera marina L.) by the isopod Idotea chelipes (Pallas) was calculated by means of estimating biomass of both Idotea and eelgrass in the field, and consumption experiments in the laboratory. During the research period, September 1978 to March 1979, Idotea was found to be most abundant (in terms of biomass) invertebrate species in the eelgrass beds of Lake Grevelingen. Calculations show that Idotea can only play a minor role in the breakdown of eelgrass after the growing season: only between 2.9 and 5.8% (maximally) of the standing crop of eelgrass at the 3 permanent plots was consumed by this invertebrate. The fast decline of the standing eelgrass crop after the growing season in mainly due to transport of large leaf fragments (>10 cm) from the eelgrass beds by wind and wave action.

  16. Assimilation and loss of sup 109 Cd and sup 65 Zn by the terrestrial isopods Oniscus asellus and Porcellio scaber

    SciTech Connect

    Hames, C.A.C.; Hopkin, S.P. )

    1991-09-01

    Terrestrial isopods (woodlice) have been the subject of numerous publications on the dynamics of metals in terrestrial invertebrates. They are of particular interest due to the ability of the hepatopancreas of woodlice to accumulate zinc, cadmium, lead and copper to very high concentrations. In a recent study, Hopkin showed that O. asellus from a zinc-contaminated site was able to excrete this metal at a faster rate than P. scaber when both species were fed an uncontaminated diet. In contrast, O. asellus had a greater affinity for cadmium and retained this metal to a much greater extent than P. scaber. In this paper, the rates of assimilation and excretion of two of these metals have been quantified by feeding O. asellus and P. scaber on leaves contaminated with radioactive isotopes of zinc and cadmium.

  17. Dynamics of an enzyme polymorphism in the isopod, Sphaeroma rugicauda (Leach). II. Sexual, gametic and fecundity selection.

    PubMed

    Edwards, J P; Heath, D J

    1983-10-01

    The estuarine isopod Sphaeroma rugicauda (Leach) exhibits a diallelic polymorphism at the locus coding for the enzyme Pgi. An investigation carried out during the animal's breeding season (June-July) in 1979 and 1980 indicated that the animals were mating at random. It also showed the s/s-homozygote females to be the earliest to release offspring and to be the most fecund of the three genotypes (f/f, f/s and s/s). Further, data from the wild population in 1980 and laboratory experiments indicated that male s-gametes were selected against in s/s females, resulting in offspring ratio distortions in f/s (male) X s/s (female) crosses, in favour of heterozygotes. The net effect of these selective pressures did not, however, significantly alter the genotype frequencies (found in the offspring) from expected values.

  18. Dynamics of an enzyme polymorphism in the isopod, Sphaeroma rugicauda (Leach). I. Temporal variation in genotype frequencies.

    PubMed

    Edwards, J P; Heath, D J

    1983-10-01

    A 27 month study (November, 1978 through January, 1981) of the diallelic enzyme locus, phosphoglucose isomerase (Pgi), in the estuarine isopod Sphaeroma rugicauda (Leach) revealed seasonal changes in the frequencies of the three genotypes (fast/fast, fast/slow and slow/slow). A comparison of genotype frequencies in the newly-released offspring (August) to the frequencies in the same animals ten months later during the breeding season (June), revealed a decline in heterozygote frequency and a corresponding increase in the frequency of the s/s homozygote both of which appeared to be initiated at the onset of winter, a period characterised by low temperatures and salinity. Survivorship experiments in the laboratory suggested that the increase in frequency of the s/s homozygote, at least, could be explained by this genotype being favoured at low temperatures.

  19. Holocene cemented beach deposits in Belize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gischler, Eberhard; Lomando, Anthony J.

    1997-06-01

    Two types of cemented beach deposits occur on reef islands off the coast of Belize. These are (1) intertidal beachrock that is dominantly cemented by marine aragonite and high-magnesium-calcite cements, and (2) supratidal cayrock that is cemented mainly by vadose low-magnesium-calcite cements. Besides differences in position relative to present sea level and resulting early diagenesic features, beachrock and cayrock can be distinguished on the basis of differences in composition, texture, geographical position, and age. Whereas the composition of beachrock is similar to that of the adjacent marginal reef sediments, cayrock is enriched in benthic foraminifera. Intertidal beachrock is moderately to well sorted and well cemented, while supratidal cayrock is very well sorted, poorly cemented and friable. Beachrock occurs preferentially on windward beaches of sand-shingle Gays on the middle and southern barrier reefs and on the isolated platforms Glovers and Lighthouse Reefs. Cayrock only occurs on larger mangrove-sand Gays of the isolated platforms Turneffe Islands, Lighthouse Reef, and the northern barrier reef. 14C-dating of ten whole-rock and mollusk shell samples produced calibrated dates between AD 345 and AD 1435 for beachrock and between BC 1085 and AD 1190 for cayrock. The large-scale distribution of beachrock in Belize supports the contention that physical processes such as water agitation rather than biological processes control beachrock formation and distribution. Only on windward sides of cays that are close to the reef crest, where large amounts of seawater flush the beaches, considerable amounts of cements can be precipitated to produce beachrock. Cayrock forms due to cementation in the vadose zone and is only preserved on larger, stable mangrove-sand cays.

  20. Phylogeography of Supralittoral Rocky Intertidal Ligia Isopods in the Pacific Region from Central California to Central Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Hurtado, Luis A.; Mateos, Mariana; Santamaria, Carlos A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Ligia isopods are widely distributed in the Pacific rocky intertidal shores from central California to central Mexico, including the Gulf of California. Yet, their biological characteristics restrict them to complete their life cycles in a very narrow range of the rocky intertidal supralittoral. Herein, we examine phylogeographic patterns of Ligia isopods from 122 localities between central California and central Mexico. We expect to find high levels of allopatric diversity. In addition, we expect the phylogeographic patterns to show signatures of past vicariant events that occurred in this geologically dynamic region. Methodology/Principal Findings We sequenced two mitochondrial genes (Cytochrome Oxidase I and 16S ribosomal DNA). We conducted Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses. We found many divergent clades that, in general, group according to geography. Some of the most striking features of the Ligia phylogeographic pattern include: (1) deep mid-peninsular phylogeographic breaks on the Pacific and Gulf sides of Baja peninsula; (2) within the Gulf lineages, the northern peninsula is most closely related to the northern mainland, while the southern peninsula is most closely related to the central-southern mainland; and, (3) the southernmost portion of the peninsula (Cape Region) is most closely related to the southernmost portion of mainland. Conclusions/Significance Our results shed light on the phylogenetic relationships of Ligia populations in the study area. This study probably represents the finest-scale phylogeographic examination for any organism to date in this region. Presence of highly divergent lineages suggests multiple Ligia species exist in this region. The phylogeographic patterns of Ligia in the Gulf of California and Baja peninsula are incongruent with a widely accepted vicariant scenario among phylogeographers, but consistent with aspects of alternative geological hypotheses and phylo- and biogeographic patterns of

  1. A complex evolutionary history in a remote archipelago: phylogeography and morphometrics of the Hawaiian endemic Ligia isopods.

    PubMed

    Santamaria, Carlos A; Mateos, Mariana; Taiti, Stefano; DeWitt, Thomas J; Hurtado, Luis A

    2013-01-01

    Compared to the striking diversification and levels of endemism observed in many terrestrial groups within the Hawaiian Archipelago, marine invertebrates exhibit remarkably lower rates of endemism and diversification. Supralittoral invertebrates restricted to specific coastal patchy habitats, however, have the potential for high levels of allopatric diversification. This is the case of Ligia isopods endemic to the Hawaiian Archipelago, which most likely arose from a rocky supralittoral ancestor that colonized the archipelago via rafting, and diversified into rocky supralittoral and inland lineages. A previous study on populations of this isopod from O'ahu and Kaua'i revealed high levels of allopatric differentiation, and suggested inter-island historical dispersal events have been rare. To gain a better understanding on the diversity and evolution of this group, we expanded prior phylogeographic work by incorporating populations from unsampled main Hawaiian Islands (Maui, Moloka'i, Lana'i, and Hawai'i), increasing the number of gene markers (four mitochondrial and two nuclear genes), and conducting Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses. Our study revealed new lineages and expanded the distribution range of several lineages. The phylogeographic patterns of Ligia in the study area are complex, with Hawai'i, O'ahu, and the Maui-Nui islands sharing major lineages, implying multiple inter-island historical dispersal events. In contrast, the oldest and most geographically distant of the major islands (Kaua'i) shares no lineages with the other islands. Our results did not support the monophyly of all the supralittoral lineages (currently grouped into L. hawaiensis), or the monophyly of the terrestrial lineages (currently grouped into L. perkinsi), implying more than one evolutionary transition between coastal and inland forms. Geometric-morphometric analyses of three supralittoral clades revealed significant body shape differences among them. A taxonomic

  2. A Complex Evolutionary History in a Remote Archipelago: Phylogeography and Morphometrics of the Hawaiian Endemic Ligia Isopods

    PubMed Central

    Santamaria, Carlos A.; Mateos, Mariana; Taiti, Stefano; DeWitt, Thomas J.; Hurtado, Luis A.

    2013-01-01

    Compared to the striking diversification and levels of endemism observed in many terrestrial groups within the Hawaiian Archipelago, marine invertebrates exhibit remarkably lower rates of endemism and diversification. Supralittoral invertebrates restricted to specific coastal patchy habitats, however, have the potential for high levels of allopatric diversification. This is the case of Ligia isopods endemic to the Hawaiian Archipelago, which most likely arose from a rocky supralittoral ancestor that colonized the archipelago via rafting, and diversified into rocky supralittoral and inland lineages. A previous study on populations of this isopod from Oʻahu and Kauaʻi revealed high levels of allopatric differentiation, and suggested inter-island historical dispersal events have been rare. To gain a better understanding on the diversity and evolution of this group, we expanded prior phylogeographic work by incorporating populations from unsampled main Hawaiian Islands (Maui, Molokaʻi, Lanaʻi, and Hawaiʻi), increasing the number of gene markers (four mitochondrial and two nuclear genes), and conducting Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses. Our study revealed new lineages and expanded the distribution range of several lineages. The phylogeographic patterns of Ligia in the study area are complex, with Hawaiʻi, Oʻahu, and the Maui-Nui islands sharing major lineages, implying multiple inter-island historical dispersal events. In contrast, the oldest and most geographically distant of the major islands (Kauaʻi) shares no lineages with the other islands. Our results did not support the monophyly of all the supralittoral lineages (currently grouped into L. hawaiensis), or the monophyly of the terrestrial lineages (currently grouped into L. perkinsi), implying more than one evolutionary transition between coastal and inland forms. Geometric-morphometric analyses of three supralittoral clades revealed significant body shape differences among them. A

  3. Alongshore variability in beach planform, grain-size distribution and foredune height of an embayed beach: Shoalwater Bay, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weymer, B. A.; Houser, C.; Giardino, R.

    2012-12-01

    Headland-bay beaches (HBB) are common beach-types found throughout the coastlines of the world. Morphodynamics of these structurally-controlled beaches are primarily governed by geological inheritance, wave climate, tidal range and grain-size distribution, which ultimately influence sediment transport across the beach-dune system. For embayed beaches, the degree of curvature (i.e., indentation ratio) has significant implications for littoral cell circulation, which mediates both cross-shore and alongshore sediment transport. This study investigated the morphodynamic controls on longshore and cross-shore sediment transport for a macro-tidal, embayed beach in central Queensland, Australia. Freshwater Beach is a 10 km long embayed beach located in the Shoalwater Bay Training Area, ~50 km north of Yeppoon. Freshwater Beach exhibits an asymmetrical planform which is characterized by a curved "shadow zone" (adjacent to the headland), transitioning to a straight tangential segment extending to the north. The beach is subjected to a mean tidal range of 6 m and prevailing onshore-directed winds and swell from the southeast. A total of 12 topographic profiles at ~1 km spacing were taken along the entire length of the beach to characterize variation in beach slope and foredune height. Sediment samples were collected across each transect for detailed grain-size and geochemical (XRD/XRF and SEM) analysis. Additionally, ground-based LiDAR surveys were conducted along the topographic profiles and for comparison with aerial-based LiDAR surveys. Preliminary results from topographic profiles show that the largest foredunes are located in the central portion of the beach, contrary to most embayed beaches where the largest dunes are typically located downdrift of the headland. Along the exposed section, the foredunes become large (~15 m high) and are hypothesized to be supplied by onshore welded bars that act as a sediment source for the foredunes to grow. Presently the alongshore and

  4. Evaluation of potential sources and transport mechanisms of fecal indicator bacteria to beach water, Murphy Park Beach, Door County, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juckem, Paul F.; Corsi, Steven R.; McDermott, Colleen; Kleinheinz, Gregory; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Haack, Sheridan K.; Johnson, Heather E.

    2013-01-01

    Fecal Indicator Bacteria (FIB) concentrations in beach water have been used for many years as a criterion for closing beaches due to potential health concerns. Yet, current understanding of sources and transport mechanisms that drive FIB occurrence remains insufficient for accurate prediction of closures at many beaches. Murphy Park Beach, a relatively pristine beach on Green Bay in Door County, Wis., was selected for a study to evaluate FIB sources and transport mechanisms. Although the relatively pristine nature of the beach yielded no detection of pathogenic bacterial genes and relatively low FIB concentrations during the study period compared with other Great Lakes Beaches, its selection limited the number of confounding FIB sources and associated transport mechanisms. The primary sources of FIB appear to be internal to the beach rather than external sources such as rivers, storm sewer outfalls, and industrial discharges. Three potential FIB sources were identified: sand, swash-zone groundwater, and Cladophora mats. Modest correlations between FIB concentrations in these potential source reservoirs and FIB concentrations at the beach from the same day illustrate the importance of understanding transport mechanisms between FIB sources and the water column. One likely mechanism for transport and dispersion of FIB from sand and Cladophora sources appears to be agitation of Cladophora mats and erosion of beach sand due to storm activity, as inferred from storm indicators including turbidity, wave height, current speed, wind speed, sky visibility, 24-hour precipitation, and suspended particulate concentration. FIB concentrations in beach water had a statistically significant relation (p-value ‹0.05) with the magnitude of these storm indicators. In addition, transport of FIB in swash-zone groundwater into beach water appears to be driven by groundwater recharge associated with multiday precipitation and corresponding increased swash-zone groundwater discharge at

  5. RECREATIONAL BEACH WATER QUALITY MONITORING WITH QUANTITATIVE POLYMERASE CHAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recreational beaches are an important economic and aesthetic asset to communities, states and the nation as a whole. Considerable resources are expended each year in monitoring the water at these beaches for fecal indicator bacteria as a means of determining if it is safe for pu...

  6. Tracer Studies In Laboratory Beach Simulating Tidal Influences

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioremediation of oil spills on tidally influenced beaches commonly involves the addition of a nutrient solution to the contaminated region of the beach at low tide to stimulate the growth of indigenous oil-degrading bacteria. Maximizing the residentce time of nutrients in the be...

  7. 33 CFR 110.74b - Apollo Beach, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Apollo Beach, Fla. 110.74b Section 110.74b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.74b Apollo Beach, Fla. Beginning at a...

  8. 33 CFR 110.74b - Apollo Beach, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Apollo Beach, Fla. 110.74b Section 110.74b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.74b Apollo Beach, Fla. Beginning at a...

  9. 33 CFR 110.74b - Apollo Beach, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Apollo Beach, Fla. 110.74b Section 110.74b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.74b Apollo Beach, Fla. Beginning at a...

  10. Bodies that Matter: Performing White Possession on the Beach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreton-Robinson, Aileen

    2011-01-01

    Beaches remain important places within indigenous coastal peoples' territories, although the silence about our ownership is deafening. Many authors have argued that within Australian popular culture the beach is a key site where racialized and gendered transgressions, fantasies, and desires are played out, but none have elucidated how these…

  11. 33 CFR 110.74b - Apollo Beach, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Apollo Beach, Fla. 110.74b Section 110.74b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.74b Apollo Beach, Fla. Beginning at a...

  12. 33 CFR 110.74b - Apollo Beach, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Apollo Beach, Fla. 110.74b Section 110.74b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.74b Apollo Beach, Fla. Beginning at a...

  13. Microfungi diversity isolation from sandy soil of Acapulco touristic beaches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microscopic fungi diversity in marine sandy soil habitats is associated with key functions of beach ecosystems. There are few reports on their presence in Mexican beaches. Although standard methods to obtain the fungi from soil samples are established, the aim of this pilot study was to test the pla...

  14. Geographic setting influences Great Lakes beach microbiological water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haack, Sheridan K.; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Stelzer, Erin A.; Fuller, Lori M.; Brennan, Angela K.; Isaacs, Natasha M.; Johnson, Heather E.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding of factors that influence Escherichia coli (EC) and enterococci (ENT) concentrations, pathogen occurrence, and microbial sources at Great Lakes beaches comes largely from individual beach studies. Using 12 representative beaches, we tested enrichment cultures from 273 beach water and 22 tributary samples for EC, ENT, and genes indicating the bacterial pathogens Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC), Shigella spp., Salmonella spp, Campylobacter jejuni/coli, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and 108–145 samples for Bacteroides human, ruminant, and gull source-marker genes. EC/ENT temporal patterns, general Bacteroides concentration, and pathogen types and occurrence were regionally consistent (up to 40 km), but beach catchment variables (drains/creeks, impervious surface, urban land cover) influenced exceedances of EC/ENT standards and detections of Salmonella and STEC. Pathogen detections were more numerous when the EC/ENT Beach Action Value (but not when the Geometric Mean and Statistical Threshold Value) was exceeded. EC, ENT, and pathogens were not necessarily influenced by the same variables. Multiple Bacteroides sources, varying by date, occurred at every beach. Study of multiple beaches in different geographic settings provided new insights on the contrasting influences of regional and local variables, and a broader-scale perspective, on significance of EC/ENT exceedances, bacterial sources, and pathogen occurrence.

  15. Geographic setting influences Great Lakes beach microbiological water quality.

    PubMed

    Haack, Sheridan K; Fogarty, Lisa R; Stelzer, Erin A; Fuller, Lori M; Brennan, Angela K; Isaacs, Natasha M; Johnson, Heather E

    2013-01-01

    Understanding of factors that influence Escherichia coli (EC) and enterococci (ENT) concentrations, pathogen occurrence, and microbial sources at Great Lakes beaches comes largely from individual beach studies. Using 12 representative beaches, we tested enrichment cultures from 273 beach water and 22 tributary samples for EC, ENT, and genes indicating the bacterial pathogens Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC), Shigella spp. , Salmonella spp , Campylobacter jejuni/coli , and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus , and 108-145 samples for Bacteroides human, ruminant, and gull source-marker genes. EC/ENT temporal patterns, general Bacteroides concentration, and pathogen types and occurrence were regionally consistent (up to 40 km), but beach catchment variables (drains/creeks, impervious surface, urban land cover) influenced exceedances of EC/ENT standards and detections of Salmonella and STEC. Pathogen detections were more numerous when the EC/ENT Beach Action Value (but not when the Geometric Mean and Statistical Threshold Value) was exceeded. EC, ENT, and pathogens were not necessarily influenced by the same variables. Multiple Bacteroides sources, varying by date, occurred at every beach. Study of multiple beaches in different geographic settings provided new insights on the contrasting influences of regional and local variables, and a broader-scale perspective, on significance of EC/ENT exceedances, bacterial sources, and pathogen occurrence.

  16. The Beach--A Natural Protection from the Sea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sensabaugh, William M.

    1983-01-01

    The beach and sand dunes are the first line of defense protecting the land from the sea. The effectiveness of the beach is caused by its sloping surface which dissipates the energy of waves and by the flexibility of the slope which changes as the waves change. The process and rate of accretion and erosion are dependent on the size and frequency of…

  17. 75 FR 1373 - Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... of the potential risks associated with water contact activities in the coastal recreation waters that... Water Act (CWA) as amended by the Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health (BEACH) Act..., and local governments to support microbiological monitoring and public notification of the...

  18. WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF LAKE TEXOMA BEACHES, 1999-2001

    EPA Science Inventory

    A biological and inorganic assessment of five beaches on Lake Texoma was conducted from September 1999 through July 2001. Water samples for each beach site were divided into two groups, a swimming season and non-swimming season. Water properties such as temperature, alkalinity,...

  19. Howard Beach Youth: A Study of Racial and Ethnic Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichter, Linda S.; Lichter, S. Robert

    This assessment of the climate of racial and ethnic attitudes in Howard Beach (New York) was conducted at John Adams High School, the public school attended by the greatest number of high school children in the Howard Beach community. The survey of 1,217 students was administered in December, 1986, several weeks before the incident in which a…

  20. Falcon Beach School Closure Review. Research 87-01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg. Planning and Research Branch.

    Falcon Beach School is a small school experiencing declining school enrollment and increasing operational costs. In February, 1987, Falcon Beach School was announced as a candidate for closure. The Planning and Research Branch of Manitoba Education conducted an economic and social analysis of the school operations. This research report provides…

  1. 270. OFFICERS' QUARTERS (FORMER SUMMER COTTAGES) AT DOG PATCH BEACH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    270. OFFICERS' QUARTERS (FORMER SUMMER COTTAGES) AT DOG PATCH BEACH, C. 1939. VIEW NORTH DOWN GREENWICH ROAD TOWARD FORMER SUMMER COTTAGES, CONVERTED TO OFFICER'S QUARTERS, OVER-LOOKING DOG PATCH BEACH. - Quonset Point Naval Air Station, Roger Williams Way, North Kingstown, Washington County, RI

  2. Dramatic Improvements in Beach Water Quality Following Gull Removal

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gulls are often cited as important contributors of fecal contamination to surface waters, and some recreational beaches have used gull control measures to improve microbial water quality. In this study, gulls were chased from a Lake Michigan beach using specially trained dogs, a...

  3. At Long Beach, Success Is Measured by Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fain, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The California State University campus at Long Beach graduated 8,720 students last month. Each one got the opportunity to walk the stage, and F. King Alexander, the university's president, shook every hand. California State at Long Beach has made graduating a greater number of its 38,000 students its top priority. The slogan "Graduation Begins…

  4. Composite analysis for Escherichia coli at coastal beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bertke, E.E.

    2007-01-01

    At some coastal beaches, concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria can differ substantially between multiple points at the same beach at the same time. Because of this spatial variability, the recreational water quality at beaches is sometimes determined by stratifying a beach into several areas and collecting a sample from each area to analyze for the concentration of fecal-indicator bacteria. The average concentration of bacteria from those points is often used to compare to the recreational standard for advisory postings. Alternatively, if funds are limited, a single sample is collected to represent the beach. Compositing the samples collected from each section of the beach may yield equally accurate data as averaging concentrations from multiple points, at a reduced cost. In the study described herein, water samples were collected at multiple points from three Lake Erie beaches and analyzed for Escherichia coli on modified mTEC agar (EPA Method 1603). From the multiple-point samples, a composite sample (n = 116) was formed at each beach by combining equal aliquots of well-mixed water from each point. Results from this study indicate that E. coli concentrations from the arithmetic average of multiple-point samples and from composited samples are not significantly different (t = 1.59, p = 0.1139) and yield similar measures of recreational water quality; additionally, composite samples could result in a significant cost savings.

  5. Virtual Beach v2.2 User Guide

    EPA Science Inventory

    Virtual Beach version 2.2 (VB 2.2) is a decision support tool. It is designed to construct site-specific Multi-Linear Regression (MLR) models to predict pathogen indicator levels (or fecal indicator bacteria, FIB) at recreational beaches. MLR analysis has outperformed persisten...

  6. Evaluation of beach cleanup effects using linear system analysis.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Tomoya; Hinata, Hirofumi

    2015-02-15

    We established a method for evaluating beach cleanup effects (BCEs) based on a linear system analysis, and investigated factors determining BCEs. Here we focus on two BCEs: decreasing the total mass of toxic metals that could leach into a beach from marine plastics and preventing the fragmentation of marine plastics on the beach. Both BCEs depend strongly on the average residence time of marine plastics on the beach (τ(r)) and the period of temporal variability of the input flux of marine plastics (T). Cleanups on the beach where τ(r) is longer than T are more effective than those where τ(r) is shorter than T. In addition, both BCEs are the highest near the time when the remnants of plastics reach the local maximum (peak time). Therefore, it is crucial to understand the following three factors for effective cleanups: the average residence time, the plastic input period and the peak time.

  7. Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacts on Alabama beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayworth, J. S.; Clement, T. P.; Valentine, J. F.

    2011-12-01

    From mid June 2010 to early August 2010, the white sandy beaches along Alabama's Gulf coast were inundated with crude oil discharged from the Deepwater Horizon well. The long-term consequences of this environmental catastrophe are still unfolding. Although BP has attempted to clean up some of these beaches, there still exist many unanswered questions regarding the physical, chemical, and ecological state of the oil contaminated beach system. In this paper, we present our understanding of what is known and known to be unknown with regard to the current state of Alabama's beaches in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon disaster. Motivated by our observations of the evolving distribution of oil in Alabama's beaches and BP's clean-up activities, we offer our thoughts on the lessons learned from this oil spill disaster.

  8. Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacts on Alabama beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayworth, J. S.; Clement, T. P.; Valentine, J. F.

    2011-07-01

    From mid June 2010 to early August 2010, the white sandy beaches along Alabama's Gulf coast were inundated with crude oil discharged from the Deepwater Horizon well. The long-term consequences of this environmental catastrophe are still unfolding. Although BP has attempted to clean up some of these beaches, there still exist many unanswered questions regarding the physical, chemical, and ecological state of the oil contaminated beach system. In this paper, we present our understanding of what is known and known to be unknown with regard to the current state of Alabama's beaches in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon disaster. Motivated by our observations of the evolving distribution of oil in Alabama's beaches and BP's clean-up activities, we offer our thoughts on the lessons learned from this oil spill disaster.

  9. Probabilistic assessment of beach and dune changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger, A.H.; Stockdon, H.; Haines, J.; Krabill, W.; Swift, R.; Brock, J.

    2004-01-01

    The recent availability of spatially-dense airborne lidar data makes assessment of the vulnerability of beaches and dunes to storm impacts practical over long reaches of coast. As an initial test, elevations of the tops (D high) and bases (Dlow) of foredune ridges along a 55-km reach on the northern Outer Banks, NC were found to have considerable spatial variability suggesting that different parts of the barrier island would respond differently to storms. Comparing statistics of storm wave runup to D high and Dlow, we found that net erosion due to overwash and dune retreat should be greatest at the northern and southern ends of the study area and least in the central section. This predicted spatial pattern of storm-induced erosion is similar to the spatial pattern of long-term erosion of the shoreline which may be controlled by additional processes (such as gradients in longshore transport) as well as the cross-shore processes considered here. However, consider feedback where at erosional hot spots there is a deficit of sand (caused by gradients in longshore transport) which lead to lower dunes and enhanced erosional cross-shore processes, such as overwash. Hence, the erosional hot spots would be exacerbated, further increasing the vulnerability of the beach and dunes to net erosion.

  10. Experience of monitoring beaches for radioactive particles.

    PubMed

    Davies, Mike; McCulloch, George; Adsley, Ian

    2007-09-01

    This paper discusses some of the theoretical and practical problems that are encountered in monitoring beaches for hot particles. The experience is from operating a near-continuous monitoring program, for a period of eight years, on beaches near the Dounreay site. The reliability and failure mechanisms of the monitoring systems used will be discussed, together with remedial actions employed. The viability and performance of several types and configurations of radiation detectors will be described, along with methods by which particles might be detected, given their response to buried particles. When large areas are being monitored at high spatial resolution, which is required for efficient particle detection, the volume of data recorded for audit purposes can be very large. The use and abuse of Geographical Information Systems for this work is described. Other practical aspects of performing surveys are also discussed, including understanding health-and-safety requirements; constraints imposed by weather, tides and tidal speed; the logistics of making vehicles available to perform the work; and how a particle should be recovered once detected. PMID:17768319

  11. 75 FR 20802 - Safety Zone; New York Air Show at Jones Beach State Park, Atlantic Ocean off of Jones Beach...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ..., Atlantic Ocean off of Jones Beach, Wantagh, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed... an air show which consist of aircraft performing aerobatic maneuvers over the Atlantic Ocean off of... other aircraft over a specified area of the Atlantic Ocean off of Jones Beach State Park. Several...

  12. 78 FR 33969 - Special Local Regulations; Daytona Beach Grand Prix of the Sea, Atlantic Ocean; Daytona Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... the Sea, Atlantic Ocean; Daytona Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a special local regulation on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean... Atlantic Ocean east of Daytona Beach, Florida. Approximately 40 high-speed power boats are anticipated...

  13. The relationship between sandy beach nematodes and environmental characteristics in two Brazilian sandy beaches (Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro).

    PubMed

    Maria, Tatiana F; Paiva, Paulo; Vanreusel, Ann; Esteves, André M

    2013-03-01

    We investigated if the differences in density and nematode communities of intertidal sediments from two Brazilian sheltered sandy beaches were related to environmental characteristics. The upper tide level (UTL) and the low tide level (LTL) of both beaches were surveyed in January (austral summer) and June 2001 (austral winter) during low-spring tides, by collecting samples of nematodes and sediments. Differences in density between beaches, tidal level and seasons, and nematode community structure were investigated. Sediments from both beaches were composed of medium to very coarse sand. The highest nematode densities were found at the UTL, and significant differences between beaches, tidal levels and months were found. A total of 54 genera were found and the genera composition on both sheltered beaches was similar to other exposed worldwide sandy beaches. The density and structure of the nematode community at both beaches clearly varied along the spatial and temporal scales. Gravel percentage was the most important variable explaining the spatial distribution of the nematodes, determining the four sub-communities; this suggests that the sediment characteristics influence the nematode community, rather than physical hydrodynamic forces. Temperature and salinity were suggested to be important variables affecting the temporal variation.

  14. 75 FR 14206 - FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... revisions to 10 CFR Part 73 as discussed in a Federal Register notice dated March 27, 2009 (74 FR 13967... Requirements, 74 FR 13926, 13967 (March 27, 2009)]. The NRC staff's safety evaluation will be provided in the... COMMISSION [Docket Nos. 50-266 And 50-301; NRC-2010-0123 FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach...

  15. USING TODAY'S DATA TO CLOSE THE BEACH TODAY. QUANTITATIVE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (QPCR) RAPID BEACH CLOSINGS TOOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recreational beaches are an important economic and aesthetic asset to communities, states and the nation as a whole. Considerable resources are expended each year in the measurement of fecal indicator bacteria concentrations in the water at these beaches to determine whether thes...

  16. USING TODAY'S DATA TO CLOSE THE BEACH TODAY. QUANTITATIVE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (QPCR) RAPID BEACH CLOSING TOOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recreational beaches are an important economic and aesthetic asset to communities, states and the nation as a whole. Considerable resources are expended each year in the measurement of fecal indicator bacteria concentrations in the water at these beaches to determine whether thes...

  17. Analysis of CaCO3 deposit formation and degradation during the molt cycle of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea, Isopoda).

    PubMed

    Fabritius, Helge; Ziegler, Andreas

    2003-05-01

    Terrestrial isopods store cuticular calcium in large sternal deposits composed of an amorphous CaCO(3) compound. A large part of the deposits consists of numerous small spherules that increase the exposed surface to facilitate resorption of CaCO(3) during cuticle mineralization. It is not known how these spherules are formed and how they are dissolved. This paper presents for the first time an analysis of ultrastructural changes occurring in the sternal CaCO(3) deposits of a terrestrial isopod during their formation and degradation. Our results indicate that formation of the spherules takes place in a specialized aggregation zone, in which 10- to 30-nm-thick granules form agglomerations that then increase in size to form spherules that reveal a concentric growth pattern. Degradation of the deposits occurs in a manner that exposes a maximum of surface area on all levels of their structural organization.

  18. The responses of artificial embayed beaches to storm events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojeda, E.; Guillén, J.; Ribas, F.

    2009-09-01

    The plan-view and the profile shape of sandy beaches largely depend on the incoming wave-energy (Wright and Short, 1984). In this sense, storm events are responsible for major changes in the configuration of sandy beaches and the cumulative effect of storms and fair-weather conditions determines the morphodynamic state of a certain beach. With increasing wave energy, the beach will change from the Reflective state to the Low Tide Terrace, Transverse Bar and Rip, Rhythmic Bar and Beach, Longshore Bar and Trough and finally to the Dissipative beach state. These morphodynamic states are also observed at artificial embayed beaches, although artificial groins limit alongshore sediment transport and protect sections of the beach from waves approaching from a range of directions (Short and Masselink, 1999). This contribution focuses on the morphological changes of the shoreline and the submerged sandbars of artificial embayed (sandy) beaches due to the effect of high-wave conditions associated to storms. We characterize the morphological response of the emerged and submerged beach profile of two of the artificial embayed beaches of the Barcelona city coast (NW Mediterranean). The two embayed beaches under study are single-barred beaches subject to the same climatic conditions but with different morphological characteristics. The study comprises more than 4 years of data, from November 2001 to March 2006, obtained through an Argus video system (Holman and Stanley, 2007). The extraction of the shoreline and barline locations is accomplished using 10-minute time-exposure video images. Shorelines were extracted directly from oblique images (see Ojeda and Guillén, [2008] for a complete description) and rectified afterwards. Sandbars were inferred from the rectified time-exposure video images based on the preferential wave breaking over shallow areas, so they required a minimum significant wave height (Hs) which allowed the occurrence of a clear wave-breaking pattern. The

  19. Typical equilibrium beach profile models and their significances from different segments of a headland-bay beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Ji-tao; Ding, Yuan-ting; Cheng, Huang-xin; Li, Zhi-qiang; Chen, Zi-shen

    2016-07-01

    This study introduces three typical models on equilibrium beach profile, and discusses the application limitations of these models. Then this study examines the selections for applying these models on different coastal segments of a headland-bay beach in west Guangdong, South China, and explores the physical significances of those parameters in the models. The results indicate that: (1) Bodge's model is more in line with the equilibrium beach profile of the tangential or transitional segment, whereas Lee's model is more consistent with the shadow profile; (2) most of the parameters in three models have clear physical significances in accordance with the actual characteristics of this headland-bay beach; and (3) both the selections for the equilibrium beach profile from different segments and significances of most of the parameters in three models are in essence correlated with the morphodynamic states at various coastal locations.

  20. A 4D-microscopic analysis of the germ band in the isopod crustacean Porcellio scaber (Malacostraca, Peracarida)-developmental and phylogenetic implications.

    PubMed

    Hejnol, Andreas; Schnabel, Ralf; Scholtz, Gerhard

    2006-12-01

    Malacostracan crustaceans have evolved a conserved stereotyped cell division pattern in the post-naupliar germ band. This cleavage pattern is unique in arthropods investigated so far, and allows a combined analysis of gene expression and cell lineage during segmentation and organ development at the level of individual cells. To investigate the cell lineage in the germ band of the isopod Porcellio scaber, we used a 4D-microscopy system, which enables us to analyse every cell event in the living embryo. The study was combined with the analysis of the expression of the gene engrailed (en) at different stages of germ band formation. Our findings confirm the results of earlier investigations of the cell division pattern in the posterior part of the isopod germ band. Furthermore, we can show that in the anterior region, in contrast to the posterior part, cleavage directions are variable and cell sorting takes place-similar to other arthropod germ bands. Additionally, the gene expression pattern of en in this region is not as regular as in the post-naupliar germ band, and only later becomes regulated into its characteristic stripe pattern. The comparison of the cell lineage of P. scaber with that of other malacostracan crustaceans shows an enhancement in the velocity of cell divisions relative to the arrangement of these cells in rows in the isopod germ band. The striking similarity of the formation of the genealogical units in the anterior part suggests a sister group relationship between the peracarid taxa Tanaidacea and Isopoda.

  1. Upon exposure to Cu nanoparticles, accumulation of copper in the isopod Porcellio scaber is due to the dissolved Cu ions inside the digestive tract.

    PubMed

    Golobič, Miha; Jemec, Anita; Drobne, Damjana; Romih, Tea; Kasemets, Kaja; Kahru, Anne

    2012-11-01

    The fate of nanoparticles in organisms is of significant interest. In the current work, we used a test system with terrestrial isopods (Porcellio scaber) fed with food spiked with Cu NPs or soluble Cu salt for 14 days. Two different doses were used for spiking to yield final concentrations of 2000 and 5000 μg Cu/g dry food. After the exposure period, part of the exposed group of animals was transferred to clean food to depurate. Cu content was analyzed in the digestive glands, gut, and the 'rest' of the body. Similar patterns of (i) assimilated and depurated amounts of Cu, (ii) Cu body distribution, and (iii) effect on isopods feeding behavior were observed regardless of whether the animals were fed with Cu NPs or soluble Cu salt spiked food. Thus, Cu ions and not Cu NPs were assimilated by the digestive gland cells. Solubilization of the Cu NPs applied to the leaves was also analyzed with chemical methods and recombinant Cu-sensing bacteria. The comparison of the in vitro data on solubilization of Cu NPs and in vivo data on Cu accumulation in the animal tissues showed that about 99% of accumulated copper ions was dissolved from ingested Cu NPs in the digestive system of isopods.

  2. Toxicokinetics of Ag in the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus exposed to Ag NPs and AgNO₃ via soil and food.

    PubMed

    Tourinho, Paula S; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Morgan, A John; Kille, Peter; Svendsen, Claus; Jurkschat, Kerstin; Mosselmans, J Fred W; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2016-03-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) have been used in numerous consumer products and may enter the soil through the land application of biosolids. However, little is known about the relationship between Ag NP exposure and their bioavailability for soil organisms. This study aims at comparing the uptake and elimination kinetics of Ag upon exposures to different Ag forms (NPs and ionic Ag (as AgNO3)) in the isopod Porcellionides pruinosus. Isopods were exposed to contaminated Lufa 2.2 soil or alder leaves as food. Uptake and elimination rate constants for soil exposure did not significantly differ between Ag NPs and ionic Ag at 30 and 60 mg Ag/kg. For dietary exposure, the uptake rate constant was up to 5 times higher for Ag NPs than for AgNO3, but this was related to feeding activity and exposure concentrations, while no difference in the elimination rate constants was found. When comparing both routes, dietary exposure resulted in lower Ag uptake rate constants but elimination rate constants did not differ. A fast Ag uptake was observed from both routes and most of the Ag taken up seemed not to be eliminated. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence showed Ag in the S-cells of the hepatopancreas, thus supporting the observations from the kinetic experiment (i.e. low elimination). In addition, our results show that isopods have an extremely high Ag accumulation capacity, suggesting the presence of an efficient Ag storage compartment. PMID:26581474

  3. Toxicokinetics of Ag in the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus exposed to Ag NPs and AgNO₃ via soil and food.

    PubMed

    Tourinho, Paula S; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Morgan, A John; Kille, Peter; Svendsen, Claus; Jurkschat, Kerstin; Mosselmans, J Fred W; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2016-03-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) have been used in numerous consumer products and may enter the soil through the land application of biosolids. However, little is known about the relationship between Ag NP exposure and their bioavailability for soil organisms. This study aims at comparing the uptake and elimination kinetics of Ag upon exposures to different Ag forms (NPs and ionic Ag (as AgNO3)) in the isopod Porcellionides pruinosus. Isopods were exposed to contaminated Lufa 2.2 soil or alder leaves as food. Uptake and elimination rate constants for soil exposure did not significantly differ between Ag NPs and ionic Ag at 30 and 60 mg Ag/kg. For dietary exposure, the uptake rate constant was up to 5 times higher for Ag NPs than for AgNO3, but this was related to feeding activity and exposure concentrations, while no difference in the elimination rate constants was found. When comparing both routes, dietary exposure resulted in lower Ag uptake rate constants but elimination rate constants did not differ. A fast Ag uptake was observed from both routes and most of the Ag taken up seemed not to be eliminated. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence showed Ag in the S-cells of the hepatopancreas, thus supporting the observations from the kinetic experiment (i.e. low elimination). In addition, our results show that isopods have an extremely high Ag accumulation capacity, suggesting the presence of an efficient Ag storage compartment.

  4. The distribution and abundance of Sphaeroma terebrans, a wood-boring isopod of red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) habitat within Tampa Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, R.A.; Bell, S.S.

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the distribution, abundance, and demography of a wood boring isopod, Sphaeroma terebrans Bate, 1866, within the prop roots of the red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle L., in eight sites within Tampa Bay, Florida. Sphaeroma terebrans in Tampa Bay displayed reproductive activity year-round and bay-wide synchrony in their density pattern. On average approximately 60% (range: 25%-86%) of the intertidal aerial roots surveyed were occupied by S. terebrans. Although infestation levels by S. terebrans in Tampa Bay were similar to that of more tropical regions, the distribution of S. terebrans was not continuous throughout the study sites. A substantially higher occurrence and density of S. terebrans was found in the northern compared to more southern study sites within the Bay. Additionally, some seemingly suitable areas of the bay (i.e., Pinellas Point, Skyway, Fort Desoto) were actually unoccupied on some dates. Although sites differed in the frequency with which roots were attacked, the density of burrows and isopods in an occupied root was similar, with most attacked roots containing 3-5 burrows. The results of a transplantation experiment indicated that neither abiotic factors nor substrate quality limit the burrowing capabilities or survival of adult S. terebrans in the areas where they are absent. Instead, dispersal limitation, linked with differential juvenile survival, most likely controls isopod distribution and abundance within Tampa Bay.

  5. Environmental contaminants in the food chain, NWS Seal Beach and Seal Beach NWR

    SciTech Connect

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Byron, E.R.; Freas, K.E.; Casados, E.M.; Kidwell, J.J.

    1994-12-31

    The authors conducted a study to determine whether environmental contaminants occurred in fish and invertebrates at concentrations that could be harmful to birds feeding in the estuarine salt marsh at Seal Beach National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), which is part of Naval Weapons Station (NWS) Seal Beach. Management of the refuge is focused primarily on endangered species, especially the light-footed clapper rail and the California least tern. Important food-chain organisms taken by rails (e.g., crabs and snails) and least terns (small fish) were sampled and analyzed for inorganic and organic contaminants that might be related to Navy activities at the Station. Results indicated that those contaminants are not likely to have lethal effects on rails or terns, although some chemicals (including cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, zinc and DDE) occurred at elevated concentrations in portions of the marsh. Possible sublethal effects also were evaluated and will be discussed.

  6. Wave-Induced Groundwater Flows in a Freshwater Beach Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malott, S. S.; Robinson, C. E.; O'Carroll, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Wave-induced recirculation across the sediment-water interface can impact the transport of pollutants through a beach aquifer and their ultimate flux into coastal waters. The fate of nutrients (e.g. from septic and agricultural sources) and fecal indicator bacteria (e.g. E. coil) near the sediment-water interface are of particular concern as these pollutants often lead to degradation of recreational water quality and nearshore ecosystems. This paper presents detailed field measurements of groundwater flows in a freshwater beach aquifer on Lake Huron over periods of intensified wave conditions. Quantifying wave-driven processes in a freshwater beach aquifer enables wave effects to be studied in isolation from density and tidal effects that complicate groundwater flows in marine beaches. Water exchange across the sediment-water interface and groundwater flow patterns were measured using groundwater wells, arrays of vertically nested pressure transducers and manometers. Results show that wave action induces rapid infiltration/exfiltration across the sediment-water interface and a larger recirculation cell through the beach aquifer. Field data is used to validate a numerical groundwater model of wave-induced groundwater flows. While prior studies have simulated the effects of waves on beach groundwater flows, this study is the first attempt to validate these sophisticated modeling approaches. Finally, field data illustrating the impact of wave-induced groundwater flows on nutrient and bacteria fate and transport in beach aquifers will also be presented.

  7. New methodology for describing the equilibrium beach profile applied to the Valencia's beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragonés, L.; Serra, J. C.; Villacampa, Y.; Saval, J. M.; Tinoco, H.

    2016-04-01

    Mathematical models used for the understanding of coastal seabed morphology play a key role in beach nourishment projects. These projects have become the fundamental strategy for coastal maintenance during the last few years. Accordingly, the accuracy of these models is vital to optimize the costs of coastal regeneration projects. Planning of such interventions requires methodologies that do not generate uncertainties in their interpretation. A study and comparison of mathematical simulation models of the coastline is carried out in this paper, as well as elements that are part of the model that are a source of uncertainty. The equilibrium profile (EP) and the offshore limit corresponding to the depth of closure (DoC) have been analyzed taking into account different timescale ranges. The results have thus been compared using data sets from three different periods which are identified as present, past and future. Accuracy in data collection for the beach profiles and the definition of the median grain size calculation using collected samples are the two main factors that have been taken into account in this paper. These data can generate high uncertainties and can produce a lack of accuracy in nourishment projects. Together they can generate excessive costs due to possible excess or shortage of sand used for the nourishment. The main goal of this paper is the development of a new methodology to increase the accuracy of the existing equilibrium beach profile models, providing an improvement to the inputs used in such models and in the fitting of the formulae used to obtain seabed shape. This new methodology has been applied and tested on Valencia's beaches.

  8. TESTING A BEACH BACTERIA MODEL IN LAKE MICHIGAN AND SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beach closures due to high bacterial concentrations deprive the public and disrupt the tourist industry. Almost half the Lake Michigan beaches are closed more than 10% of the time. In 1999 the six-mile long beach in Huntington Beach, California was closed in July and August. Due ...

  9. 75 FR 59966 - Safety Zone; New York Air Show at Jones Beach State Park, Wantagh, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... over the Atlantic Ocean off of Jones Beach State Park. DATES: This rule is effective October 29, 2010... Show at Jones Beach State Park, Atlantic Ocean off of Jones Beach, Wantagh, NY, in the Federal Register... aircraft over a specified area of the Atlantic Ocean off of Jones Beach State Park. The safety zone...

  10. 77 FR 26229 - Meloy Channel, U.S. Coast Guard Base Miami Beach, FL; Restricted Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers 33 CFR Part 334 Meloy Channel, U.S. Coast Guard Base Miami Beach... the U.S. Coast Guard Base Miami Beach, Florida (Base Miami Beach). Base Miami Beach is composed of multiple U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) units, both land and waterside. The facility has one of the...

  11. 77 FR 42652 - Meloy Channel, U.S. Coast Guard Base Miami Beach, FL; Restricted Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers 33 CFR Part 334 Meloy Channel, U.S. Coast Guard Base Miami Beach... 334 to establish a new restricted area in the waters surrounding the U.S. Coast Guard Base Miami Beach, Florida (Base Miami Beach). Base Miami Beach is composed of multiple U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) units,...

  12. Nourishment practices on Australian sandy beaches: a review.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Belinda C; Jones, Alan R; Goodwin, Ian D; Bishop, Melanie J

    2012-12-30

    It is predicted that the coastal zone will be among the environments worst affected by projected climate change. Projected losses in beach area will negatively impact on coastal infrastructure and continued recreational use of beaches. Beach nourishment practices such as artificial nourishment, replenishment and scraping are increasingly used to combat beach erosion but the extent and scale of projects is poorly documented in large areas of the world. Through a survey of beach managers of Local Government Areas and a comprehensive search of peer reviewed and grey literature, we assessed the extent of nourishment practices in Australia. The study identified 130 beaches in Australia that were subject to nourishment practices between 2001 and 2011. Compared to projects elsewhere, most Australian projects were small in scale but frequent. Exceptions were nine bypass projects which utilised large volumes of sediment. Most artificial nourishment, replenishment and beach scraping occurred in highly urbanised areas and were most frequently initiated in spring during periods favourable to accretion and outside of the summer season of peak beach use. Projects were generally a response to extreme weather events, and utilised sand from the same coastal compartment as the site of erosion. Management was planned on a regional scale by Local Government Authorities, with little monitoring of efficacy or biological impact. As rising sea levels and growing coastal populations continue to put pressure on beaches a more integrated approach to management is required, that documents the extent of projects in a central repository, and mandates physical and biological monitoring to help ensure the engineering is sustainable and effective at meeting goals.

  13. Synthesis study of an erosion hot spot, Ocean Beach, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Hansen, Jeff E.; Erikson, Li H.

    2012-01-01

    A synthesis of multiple coastal morphodynamic research efforts is presented to identify the processes responsible for persistent erosion along a 1-km segment of 7-km-long Ocean Beach in San Francisco, California. The beach is situated adjacent to a major tidal inlet and in the shadow of the ebb-tidal delta at the mouth of San Francisco Bay. Ocean Beach is exposed to a high-energy wave climate and significant alongshore variability in forcing introduced by varying nearshore bathymetry, tidal forcing, and beach morphology (e.g., beach variably backed by seawall, dunes, and bluffs). In addition, significant regional anthropogenic factors have influenced sediment supply and tidal current strength. A variety of techniques were employed to investigate the erosion at Ocean Beach, including historical shoreline and bathymetric analysis, monthly beach topographic surveys, nearshore and regional bathymetric surveys, beach and nearshore grain size analysis, two surf-zone hydrodynamic experiments, four sets of nearshore wave and current experiments, and several numerical modeling approaches. Here, we synthesize the results of 7 years of data collection to lay out the causes of persistent erosion, demonstrating the effectiveness of integrating an array of data sets covering a huge range of spatial scales. The key findings are as follows: anthropogenic influences have reduced sediment supply from San Francisco Bay, leading to pervasive contraction (i.e., both volume and area loss) of the ebb-tidal delta, which in turn reduced the regional grain size and modified wave focusing patterns along Ocean Beach, altering nearshore circulation and sediment transport patterns. In addition, scour associated with an exposed sewage outfall pipe causes a local depression in wave heights, significantly modifying nearshore circulation patterns that have been shown through modeling to be key drivers of persistent erosion in that area.

  14. Beach boundary layer: a framework for addressing recreational water quality impairment at enclosed beaches.

    PubMed

    Grant, Stanley B; Sanders, Brett F

    2010-12-01

    Nearshore waters in bays, harbors, and estuaries are frequently contaminated with human pathogens and fecal indicator bacteria. Tracking down and mitigating this contamination is complicated by the many point and nonpoint sources of fecal pollution that can degrade water quality along the shore. From a survey of the published literature, we propose a conceptual and mathematical framework, the "beach boundary layer model", for understanding and quantifying the relative impact of beach-side and bay-side sources of fecal pollution on nearshore water quality. In the model, bacterial concentration in ankle depth water C(ankle) [bacteria L(-3)] depends on the flux m'' [bacteria L(-2) T(-1)] of fecal bacteria from beach-side sources (bather shedding, bird and dog feces, tidal washing of sediments, decaying vegetation, runoff from small drains, and shallow groundwater discharge), a cross-shore mass transfer velocity k [L T(-1)] that accounts for the physics of nearshore transport and mixing, and a background concentration C(bay) [bacteria L(-3)] attributable to bay-side sources of pollution that impact water quality over large regions (sewage outfalls, creeks and rivers): C(ankle) = m''/k + C(bay). We demonstrate the utility of the model for identifying risk factors and pollution sources likely to impact shoreline water quality, and evaluate the model's underlying assumptions using computational fluid dynamic simulations of flow, turbulence, and mass transport in a trapezoidal channel.

  15. Kennedy Space Center ocean beach erosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, A. J.; Obrien, M. P.

    1973-01-01

    Dune barrier erosion and possible breakthrough due to storm and hurricane wave activity is studied near Mosquito Lagoon, in Kennedy Space Center property. The results of a geological as well as hydrodynamic appraisal of the problem area indicate that no inlet has existed across the dune barrier since 500 A.D., and that there is little likelihood of a possible breakthrough inlet remaining open permanently, primarily because the relatively shallow lagoon does not contain enough volume of water to maintain an inlet between the ocean and the lagoon. It is therefore recommended that only minimal measures, such as closing up the man-made passes across the dunes, be carried out to ensure continuation of the action of natural beach maintaining processes.

  16. Active osmoregulatory ion uptake across the pleopods of the isopod Idotea baltica (Pallas): electrophysiological measurements on isolated split endo- and exopodites mounted in a micro-ussing chamber.

    PubMed

    Postel, U; Becker, W; Brandt, A; Luck-Kopp, S; Riestenpatt, S; Weihrauch, D; Siebers, D

    2000-04-01

    The mechanism of active, osmoregulatory ion uptake was investigated in the pleopods of the marine isopod Idotea baltica (Pallas). Using isolated split half-podites of isopods acclimated to brackish water (20 salinity) mounted in a micro-Ussing chamber and symmetrically superfused with identical haemolymph-like salines, a mean short-circuit current I(sc) of -445 microA cm(-)(2) was measured in endopodites 3-5, corresponding to an inwardly directed transcellular movement of negative charge. Application of ouabain (5 mmol l(-)(1)) to the basolateral superfusate resulted in the almost total abolition of the I(sc) (reduced from -531 to -47 microA cm(-)(2)), suggesting that the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase is the driving force for active, electrogenic uptake of NaCl. In contrast, mean I(sc) values close to zero were found in preparations of all exopodites and in endopodites 1 and 2. The specific activities of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase corresponded with these results. Specific activities were highest in posterior endopodites 3-5 and depended on ambient salinity. In all other rami, the activities were much lower and independent of ambient salinity. Activities in posterior endopodites 3-5 were lowest in isopods acclimated to 30 salinity (2-4 micromol P(i )mg(-)(1 )protein h(-)(1)), increased in individuals kept in 20 salinity (8.4 micromol P(i )mg(-)(1 )protein h(-)(1)) and were highest in isopods acclimated to 15 salinity (18.2 micromol P(i )mg(-)(1 )protein h(-)(1)). When specimens were transferred from 30 to 40 salinity, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity increased in the posterior endopodites. The electrophysiological and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity measurements show that active electrogenic ion transport in this species occurs almost exclusively in posterior endopodites 3-5. The endopodite of the fifth pleopod of I. baltica exhibited a microscopic structure remarkably similar to that described for the lamellae of the phyllobranchiae of brachyurans. It is composed of two opposed epithelial

  17. Mechanical grooming and beach award status are associated with low strandline biodiversity in Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilburn, Andre S.

    2012-07-01

    Beach grooming and beach award status are both shown to be associated with low macroinvertebrate taxon richness in Scotland. Previous studies in California have revealed that mechanical raking to remove wrack from sandy beaches has negative ecological consequences for coastal ecosystems. In the current study the presence and absence of eight common taxa that inhabit beached wrack on sandy beaches in Scotland was assessed at 60 sites, 24 of which were groomed and 29 of which were in receipt of a beach award. On average 4.86 of the eight taxa were found to be present on ungroomed beaches, whereas only 1.13 taxa were present on groomed beaches. Thus, beach grooming seems to be having a major effect on the biodiversity of beach macroinvertebrates in Scotland. Fewer macroinvertebrate taxa were also found on award (1.5) compared to non-award (4.38) beaches. It was also revealed that award beaches were much more likely to be groomed than non-award beaches, with 69% of award beaches surveyed being groomed compared to only 6% of non-award beaches. This pattern is surprising as the awarding bodies discourage the removal of seaweed and regulations state that beached wrack should only be removed if it constitutes a nuisance. It is concluded that award status, not nuisance level, has the main factor driving most beach grooming and that this has resulted in the substantial loss of macroinvertebrate biodiversity from award beaches in Scotland. In conclusion it is shown that beach grooming has a substantial negative impact upon strandline macroinvertebrate biodiversity in Scotland and that grooming is much more likely to occur on award beaches.

  18. Effects of Rainfall on E. coli Concentrations at Door County, Wisconsin Beaches

    PubMed Central

    Kleinheinz, Gregory T.; McDermott, Colleen M.; Hughes, Sarah; Brown, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    Rainfall and its associated storm water runoff have been associated with transport of many pollutants into beach water. Fecal material, from a variety of animals (humans, pets, livestock, and wildlife), can wash into beach water following rainfall and result in microbial contamination of the beach. Many locales around the world issue pre-emptive beach closures associated with rainfall. This study looked at eight beaches located in Door County, Wisconsin, on Lake Michigan to determine the impact of rainfall on E. coli concentrations in beach water. Water samples were collected from beach water and storm water discharge pipes during rainfall events of 5 mm in the previous 24 hours. Six of the eight beaches showed a significant association between rainfall and elevated beach water E. coli concentrations. The duration of the impact of rainfall on beach water E. coli concentrations was variable (immediate to 12 hours). Amount of rainfall in the days previous to the sampling did not have significant impact on the E. coli concentrations measured in beach water. Presence of storm water conveyance pipes adjacent to the beach did not have a uniform impact on beach water E. coli concentrations. This study suggests that each beach needs to be examined on its own with regard to rain impacts on E coli concentrations in beach water. PMID:20182543

  19. 24. Photocopy of photograph (from Division of Beaches and Parks, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Photocopy of photograph (from Division of Beaches and Parks, State of California, Department of Natural Resources) Photographer unknown, Date unknown MAP OF SUTTER'S FORT - Sutter's Fort, L & Twenty-Seventh Streets, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  20. 25. SAME AREA, FROM LEFT TO RIGHT: PATH, BEACH DRIVE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. SAME AREA, FROM LEFT TO RIGHT: PATH, BEACH DRIVE, AND PARK ROAD ATOP ROCK FACE. NOTE STONE INFILL MIMICKING NATURAL STONE OUTCROPPING. VIEW N. - Rock Creek Park Road System, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  1. Modes of embayed beach dynamics: analysis reveals emergent timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, K. T.; Murray, A.; Limber, P. W.; Ells, K. D.

    2013-12-01

    Embayed beaches, or beaches positioned between rocky headlands, exhibit morphologic changes over many length and time scales. Beach sediment is transported as a result of the day-to-day wave forcing, causing patterns of erosion and accretion. We use the Rocky Coastline Evolution Model (RCEM) to investigate how patterns of shoreline change depend on wave climate (the distribution of wave-approach angles) and beach characteristics. Measuring changes in beach width through time allows us to track the evolution of the shape of the beach and the movement of sand within it. By using Principle Component Analysis (PCA), these changes can be categorized into modes, where the first few modes explain the majority of the variation in the time series. We analyze these modes and how they vary as a function of wave climate and headland/bay aspect ratio. In the purposefully simple RCEM, sediment transport is wave-driven and affected by wave shadowing behind the headlands. The rock elements in our model experiments (including the headlands) are fixed and unerodable so that this analysis can focus purely on sand dynamics between the headlands, without a sand contribution from the headlands or cliffs behind the beach. The wave climate is characterized by dictating the percentage of offshore waves arriving from the left and the percentage of waves arriving from high angles (very oblique to the coastline orientation). A high-angle dominated wave climate tends to amplify coastline perturbations, whereas a lower-angle wave climate is diffusive. By changing the headland/bay aspect ratio and wave climate, we can perform PCA analysis of generalized embayed beaches with differing anatomy and wave climate forcings. Previous work using PCA analysis of embayed beaches focused on specific locations and shorter timescales (<30 years; Short and Trembanis, 2004). By using the RCEM, we can more broadly characterize beach dynamics over longer timescales. The first two PCA modes, which explain a

  2. 1. Oblique view: east side, from Condado Lagoon Beach on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Oblique view: east side, from Condado Lagoon Beach on southeast (context) - Puente Guillermo Esteves, Spanning San Antonio Channel at PR-25 (Juan Ponce de Leon Avenue), San Juan, San Juan Municipio, PR

  3. Type and Quantity of Shipborne Garbage at Selected Tropical Beaches

    PubMed Central

    Husain, Mohd-Lokman

    2016-01-01

    Marine debris is widely distributed at the coastal area of the global oceans; however, shipborne garbage source studies are still lacking to document the pollution in Malaysia Territorial Water. Thus, this study has adopted a standard method of beach marine debris survey at five beaches and inspected 115 vessels to assess the type and amount of debris from shipping source stranded on the beach. This study found that vessel visiting Malaysian ports observed the MARPOL 73/78 Annex V requirements; however, identified objects from shipping activity (1.3%; 2 items/km) found on the beaches indicate that there are vessels disposing of garbage illegally at sea. Therefore, there is a need to promote the use of biodegradable material and introduce environmental education to increase awareness on the vessel.

  4. 2. VIEW SHOWING NATURAL SAND BEACH ON KIDNEY LAKE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SHOWING NATURAL SAND BEACH ON KIDNEY LAKE, LOOKING WEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Kidney Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.7 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  5. 11. BEACH TOILET BUILDING, OFFICE AND FIRST AID BUILDING, PLANS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. BEACH TOILET BUILDING, OFFICE AND FIRST AID BUILDING, PLANS, ELEVATIONS AND SECTIONS Drawing No. 103-07 - Glen Echo Park, Crystal Swimming Pool, 7300 McArthur Boulevard, Glen Echo, Montgomery County, MD

  6. 18. SAND BEACH WITH SUNBATHERS AND UMBRELLAS. VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. SAND BEACH WITH SUNBATHERS AND UMBRELLAS. VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST. NORTHWEST ELEVATION OF REFRESHMENT STAND Photocopy of 1930-1940 photograph - Glen Echo Park, Crystal Swimming Pool, 7300 McArthur Boulevard, Glen Echo, Montgomery County, MD

  7. Overview of the area leading to beaching ramp, looking across ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview of the area leading to beaching ramp, looking across water of west loch. View facing southwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Waipio Peninsula, Waipo Peninsula, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  8. VIEW INLAND (MAUKA) FROM BEACH ROAD. NOTE THE APPROXIMATE 46' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW INLAND (MAUKA) FROM BEACH ROAD. NOTE THE APPROXIMATE 46' DISTANCE BETWEEN RESIDENCES 26 AND 28 WORCHESTER AVENUE. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST. - Hickam Field, Fort Kamehameha Historic Housing, Along Worchester Avenue & Hope Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  9. 7. Alternate view of collapsed Panama Mount on beach. Note ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Alternate view of collapsed Panama Mount on beach. Note concrete ring, metal rail and exposed rebar. Looking 320° NW. - Fort Funston, Panama Mounts for 155mm Guns, Skyline Boulevard & Great Highway, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  10. Geographic variation in sandy beach macrofauna community and functional traits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodil, I. F.; Compton, T. J.; Lastra, M.

    2014-10-01

    Sandy beaches are a common ocean-dominated ecosystem along the north coast of Spain. We conducted field surveys at 39 beaches distributed between 1° and 9°W, ca. 2000 km along this geographic region to document broad patterns of macrobenthic communities, and to describe their association with variables characterising both the beach environment and the characteristics of the adjacent ocean waters. Macrofaunal functional traits are considered to be an informative measure that can be useful for many ecosystem-level questions, as they are based on what organisms do (i.e., their ecological function) rather than on their identification alone. Boosted regression-trees analysis showed that the occurrence of the main taxonomic groups and feeding guilds were differentially associated with the prevailing beach features along this coastline. The occurrence (presence/absence) of molluscs was best explained by the concentration of chlorophyll-a and wave exposure whereas those of crustaceans and polychaetes were best explained by an ensemble of variables including beach slope, sea surface temperature and grain size. A comparison of the feeding guilds demonstrated that the occurrence of suspension feeders was best explained by chlorophyll-a and wave exposure, whereas the occurrence of deposit feeders was best explained by beach slope, sea surface temperature and chlorophyll-a. The occurrence of predators and scavengers was best explained by sea surface temperature and beach slope. Based on the patterns presented here, we confirm that the upwelling events that occur regularly on this coastline are a structuring agent for beach communities. Future work needs to examine the role of the oceanographic conditions of the region for they might represent the driving forces behind large-scale shifts in macrofauna communities.

  11. Evaluation of airborne topographic lidar for quantifying beach changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger, A.H.; Krabill, W.B.; Swift, R.N.; Brock, J.; List, J.; Hansen, M.; Holman, R.A.; Manizade, S.; Sontag, J.; Meredith, A.; Morgan, K.; Yunkel, J.K.; Frederick, E.B.; Stockdon, H.

    2003-01-01

    A scanning airborne topographic lidar was evaluated for its ability to quantify beach topography and changes during the Sandy Duck experiment in 1997 along the North Carolina coast. Elevation estimates, acquired with NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), were compared to elevations measured with three types of ground-based measurements - 1) differential GPS equipped all-terrain vehicle (ATV) that surveyed a 3-km reach of beach from the shoreline to the dune, 2) GPS antenna mounted on a stadia rod used to intensely survey a different 100 m reach of beach, and 3) a second GPS-equipped ATV that surveyed a 70-km-long transect along the coast. Over 40,000 individual intercomparisons between ATM and ground surveys were calculated. RMS vertical differences associated with the ATM when compared to ground measurements ranged from 13 to 19 cm. Considering all of the intercomparisons together, RMS ??? 15 cm. This RMS error represents a total error for individual elevation estimates including uncertainties associated with random and mean errors. The latter was the largest source of error and was attributed to drift in differential GPS. The ??? 15 cm vertical accuracy of the ATM is adequate to resolve beach-change signals typical of the impact of storms. For example, ATM surveys of Assateague Island (spanning the border of MD and VA) prior to and immediately following a severe northeaster showed vertical beach changes in places greater than 2 m, much greater than expected errors associated with the ATM. A major asset of airborne lidar is the high spatial data density. Measurements of elevation are acquired every few m2 over regional scales of hundreds of kilometers. Hence, many scales of beach morphology and change can be resolved, from beach cusps tens of meters in wavelength to entire coastal cells comprising tens to hundreds of kilometers of coast. Topographic lidars similar to the ATM are becoming increasingly available from commercial vendors and should, in the future

  12. Microbes in Beach Sands: Integrating Environment, Ecology and Public Health.

    PubMed

    Whitman, Richard; Harwood, Valerie J; Edge, Thomas A; Nevers, Meredith; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Vijayavel, Kannappan; Brandão, João; Sadowsky, Michael J; Alm, Elizabeth Wheeler; Crowe, Allan; Ferguson, Donna; Ge, Zhongfu; Halliday, Elizabeth; Kinzelman, Julie; Kleinheinz, Greg; Przybyla-Kelly, Kasia; Staley, Christopher; Staley, Zachery; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M

    2014-09-01

    Beach sand is a habitat that supports many microbes, including viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa (micropsammon). The apparently inhospitable conditions of beach sand environments belie the thriving communities found there. Physical factors, such as water availability and protection from insolation; biological factors, such as competition, predation, and biofilm formation; and nutrient availability all contribute to the characteristics of the micropsammon. Sand microbial communities include autochthonous species/phylotypes indigenous to the environment. Allochthonous microbes, including fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and waterborne pathogens, are deposited via waves, runoff, air, or animals. The fate of these microbes ranges from death, to transient persistence and/or replication, to establishment of thriving populations (naturalization) and integration in the autochthonous community. Transport of the micropsammon within the habitat occurs both horizontally across the beach, and vertically from the sand surface and ground water table, as well as at various scales including interstitial flow within sand pores, sediment transport for particle-associated microbes, and the large-scale processes of wave action and terrestrial runoff. The concept of beach sand as a microbial habitat and reservoir of FIB and pathogens has begun to influence our thinking about human health effects associated with sand exposure and recreational water use. A variety of pathogens have been reported from beach sands, and recent epidemiology studies have found some evidence of health risks associated with sand exposure. Persistent or replicating populations of FIB and enteric pathogens have consequences for watershed/beach management strategies and regulatory standards for safe beaches. This review summarizes our understanding of the community structure, ecology, fate, transport, and public health implications of microbes in beach sand. It concludes with recommendations for future work in

  13. Microbes in Beach Sands: Integrating Environment, Ecology and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Whitman, Richard; Harwood, Valerie J.; Edge, Thomas A.; Nevers, Meredith; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Vijayavel, Kannappan; Brandão, João; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Alm, Elizabeth Wheeler; Crowe, Allan; Ferguson, Donna; Ge, Zhongfu; Halliday, Elizabeth; Kinzelman, Julie; Kleinheinz, Greg; Przybyla-Kelly, Kasia; Staley, Christopher; Staley, Zachery; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Beach sand is a habitat that supports many microbes, including viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa (micropsammon). The apparently inhospitable conditions of beach sand environments belie the thriving communities found there. Physical factors, such as water availability and protection from insolation; biological factors, such as competition, predation, and biofilm formation; and nutrient availability all contribute to the characteristics of the micropsammon. Sand microbial communities include autochthonous species/phylotypes indigenous to the environment. Allochthonous microbes, including fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and waterborne pathogens, are deposited via waves, runoff, air, or animals. The fate of these microbes ranges from death, to transient persistence and/or replication, to establishment of thriving populations (naturalization) and integration in the autochthonous community. Transport of the micropsammon within the habitat occurs both horizontally across the beach, and vertically from the sand surface and ground water table, as well as at various scales including interstitial flow within sand pores, sediment transport for particle-associated microbes, and the large-scale processes of wave action and terrestrial runoff. The concept of beach sand as a microbial habitat and reservoir of FIB and pathogens has begun to influence our thinking about human health effects associated with sand exposure and recreational water use. A variety of pathogens have been reported from beach sands, and recent epidemiology studies have found some evidence of health risks associated with sand exposure. Persistent or replicating populations of FIB and enteric pathogens have consequences for watershed/beach management strategies and regulatory standards for safe beaches. This review summarizes our understanding of the community structure, ecology, fate, transport, and public health implications of microbes in beach sand. It concludes with recommendations for future

  14. Models for predicting recreational water quality at Lake Erie beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francy, Donna S.; Darner, Robert A.; Bertke, Erin E.

    2006-01-01

    Data collected from four Lake Erie beaches during the recreational seasons of 2004-05 and from one Lake Erie beach during 2000-2005 were used to develop predictive models for recreational water quality by means of multiple linear regression. The best model for each beach was based on a unique combination of environmental and water-quality explanatory variables including turbidity, rainfall, wave height, water temperature, day of the year, wind direction, and lake level. Two types of outputs were produced from the models: the predicted Escherichia coli concentration and the probability that the bathing-water standard will be exceeded. The model for one of beaches, Huntington Reservation (Huntington), was validated in 2005. For 2005, the Huntington model yielded more correct responses and better predicted exceedance of the standard than did current methods for assessing recreational water quality, which are based on the previous day's E. coli concentration. Predictions based on the Huntington model have been available to the public through an Internet-based 'nowcasting' system since May 30, 2006. The other beach models are being validated for the first time in 2006. The methods used in this study to develop and test predictive models can be applied at other similar coastal beaches.

  15. Marine debris contamination along undeveloped tropical beaches from northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Isaac R; Friedrich, Ana Cláudia; Ivar do Sul, Juliana Assunção

    2009-01-01

    We hypothesize that floating debris leaving polluted coastal bays accumulate on nearby pristine beaches. We examined composition, quantities and distribution of marine debris along approximately 150 km of relatively undeveloped, tropical beaches in Costa do Dendê (Bahia, Brazil). The study site is located south of Salvador City, the largest urban settlement from NE Brazil. Strong spatial variations were observed. Plastics accounted for 76% of the sampled items, followed by styrofoam (14%). Small plastic fragments resultant from the breakdown of larger items are ubiquitous all over the area. Because the dominant littoral drift in Bahia is southward, average beach debris densities (9.1 items/m) along Costa do Dendê were threefold higher than densities previously observed north of Salvador City. River-dominated and stable beaches had higher debris quantities than unstable, erosional beaches. Areas immediately south of the major regional embayments (Camamu and Todos os Santos) were the preferential accumulation sites, indicating that rivers draining populous areas are the major source of debris to the study site. Our results provide baseline information for future assessments. Management actions should focus on input prevention at the hydrographic basin level rather than on cleaning services on beaches.

  16. Global diversity patterns in sandy beach macrofauna: a biogeographic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rafael Barboza, Francisco; Defeo, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Unlike the advances generated on land, the knowledge of global diversity patterns in marine ecosystems is limited to a small number of studies. For sandy beaches, which dominate the world’s ocean shores, previous meta-analyses highlighted the role of beach morphodynamics in explaining species richness patterns. Oceanographic variables and historical processes have not been considered, even though they could be main predictors of community structure. Our work, based on 256 sandy beaches around the world, analysed species richness considering for the first time temperature, salinity and primary productivity. Biogeographic units (realms, provinces and ecoregions) were used to incorporate historical factors in modelling processes. Ecoregions, which implicitly include isolation and coastal complexity among other historical geographic factors, best represented trends in species richness worldwide. Temperature was a main predictor of species richness, which increased from temperate to tropical sandy beaches. Species richness increased with tide range and towards wide beaches with gentle slopes and fine grains, which is consistent with the hypothesis that habitat availability has an important role in structuring sandy beach communities. The role of temperature and habitat availability suggests that ocean warming and sea level rise could affect the distribution of obligate species living in these narrow ecosystems. PMID:26411697

  17. Coastal processes influencing water quality at Great Lakes beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2013-01-01

    In a series of studies along the Great Lakes, U.S. Geological Survey scientists are examining the physical processes that influence concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria and related pathogens at recreational beaches. These studies aim to estimate human health risk, improve management strategies, and understand the fate and transport of microbes in the nearshore area. It was determined that embayed beaches act as traps, accumulating Escherichia coli (E. coli) and other bacteria in the basin and even in beach sand. Further, shear stress and wave run-up could resuspend accumulated bacteria, leading to water-contamination events. These findings are being used to target beach design and circulation projects. In previous research, it was determined that E. coli followed a diurnal pattern, with concentrations decreasing throughout the day, largely owing to solar inactivation, but rebounding overnight. Studies at a Chicago beach identified the impact of wave-induced mass transport on this phenomenon, a finding that will extend our understanding of bacterial fate in the natural environment. In another series of studies, scientists examined the impact of river outfalls on bacteria concentrations, using mechanistic and empirical modeling. Through these studies, the models can indicate range and extent of impact, given E. coli concentration in the source water. These findings have been extended to extended lengths of coastlines and have been applied in beach management using empirical predictive modeling. Together, these studies are helping scientists identify and eliminate threats to human and coastal health.

  18. Global diversity patterns in sandy beach macrofauna: a biogeographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Barboza, Francisco Rafael; Defeo, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Unlike the advances generated on land, the knowledge of global diversity patterns in marine ecosystems is limited to a small number of studies. For sandy beaches, which dominate the world's ocean shores, previous meta-analyses highlighted the role of beach morphodynamics in explaining species richness patterns. Oceanographic variables and historical processes have not been considered, even though they could be main predictors of community structure. Our work, based on 256 sandy beaches around the world, analysed species richness considering for the first time temperature, salinity and primary productivity. Biogeographic units (realms, provinces and ecoregions) were used to incorporate historical factors in modelling processes. Ecoregions, which implicitly include isolation and coastal complexity among other historical geographic factors, best represented trends in species richness worldwide. Temperature was a main predictor of species richness, which increased from temperate to tropical sandy beaches. Species richness increased with tide range and towards wide beaches with gentle slopes and fine grains, which is consistent with the hypothesis that habitat availability has an important role in structuring sandy beach communities. The role of temperature and habitat availability suggests that ocean warming and sea level rise could affect the distribution of obligate species living in these narrow ecosystems. PMID:26411697

  19. Global diversity patterns in sandy beach macrofauna: a biogeographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Barboza, Francisco Rafael; Defeo, Omar

    2015-09-28

    Unlike the advances generated on land, the knowledge of global diversity patterns in marine ecosystems is limited to a small number of studies. For sandy beaches, which dominate the world's ocean shores, previous meta-analyses highlighted the role of beach morphodynamics in explaining species richness patterns. Oceanographic variables and historical processes have not been considered, even though they could be main predictors of community structure. Our work, based on 256 sandy beaches around the world, analysed species richness considering for the first time temperature, salinity and primary productivity. Biogeographic units (realms, provinces and ecoregions) were used to incorporate historical factors in modelling processes. Ecoregions, which implicitly include isolation and coastal complexity among other historical geographic factors, best represented trends in species richness worldwide. Temperature was a main predictor of species richness, which increased from temperate to tropical sandy beaches. Species richness increased with tide range and towards wide beaches with gentle slopes and fine grains, which is consistent with the hypothesis that habitat availability has an important role in structuring sandy beach communities. The role of temperature and habitat availability suggests that ocean warming and sea level rise could affect the distribution of obligate species living in these narrow ecosystems.

  20. Does temperature and oxygen affect duration of intramarsupial development and juvenile growth in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea, Malacostraca)?

    PubMed Central

    Horváthová, Terézia; Antol, Andrzej; Czarnoleski, Marcin; Kramarz, Paulina; Bauchinger, Ulf; Labecka, Anna Maria; Kozłowski, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract According to the temperature-size rule (TSR), ectotherms developing under cold conditions experience slower growth as juveniles but reach a larger size at maturity. Whether temperature alone causes this phenomenon is unknown, but oxygen limitation can play a role in the temperature-size relationship. Oxygen may become limited under warm conditions when the resulting higher metabolism creates a greater demand for oxygen, especially in larger individuals. We examined the independent effects of oxygen concentration (10% and 22% O2) and temperature (15 °C and 22 °C) on duration of ontogenic development, which takes place within the maternal brood pouch (marsupium), and juvenile growth in the terrestrial isopod common rough woodlouse (Porcellio scaber). Individuals inside the marsupium undergo the change from the aqueous to the gaseous environment. Under hypoxia, woodlice hatched from the marsupium sooner, but their subsequent growth was not affected by the level of oxygen. Marsupial development and juvenile growth were almost three times slower at low temperature, and marsupial development was longer in larger females but only in the cold treatment. These results show that temperature and oxygen are important ecological factors affecting developmental time and that the strength of the effect likely depends on the availability of oxygen in the environment. PMID:26261441

  1. Spectroscopic parameters of the cuticle and ethanol extracts of the fluorescent cave isopod Mesoniscus graniger (Isopoda, Oniscidea)

    PubMed Central

    Giurginca, Andrei; Šustr, Vladimír; Tajovský, Karel; Giurginca, Maria; Matei, Iulia

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The body surface of the terrestrial isopod Mesoniscus graniger (Frivaldsky, 1863) showed blue autofluorescence under UV light (330–385 nm), using epifluorescence microscopy and also in living individuals under a UV lamp with excitation light of 365 nm. Some morphological cuticular structures expressed a more intense autofluorescence than other body parts. For this reason, only the cuticle was analyzed. The parameters of autofluorescence were investigated using spectroscopic methods (molecular spectroscopy in infrared, ultraviolet-visible, fluorescence, and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy) in samples of two subspecies of Mesoniscus graniger preserved in ethanol. Samples excited by UV light (from 350 to 380 nm) emitted blue light of wavelengths 419, 420, 441, 470 and 505 nm (solid phase) and 420, 435 and 463 (ethanol extract). The results showed that the autofluorescence observed from living individuals may be due to some β-carboline or coumarin derivatives, some crosslinking structures, dityrosine, or due to other compounds showing similar excitation-emission characteristics. PMID:26261444

  2. First record of Wolbachia in South American terrestrial isopods: Prevalence and diversity in two species of Balloniscus (Crustacea, Oniscidea)

    PubMed Central

    Almerão, Mauricio Pereira; Fagundes, Nelson Jurandi Rosa; de Araújo, Paula Beatriz; Verne, Sébastien; Grandjean, Frédéric; Bouchon, Didier; Araújo, Aldo Mellender

    2012-01-01

    Wolbachia are endosymbiotic bacteria that commonly infect arthropods, inducing certain phenotypes in their hosts. So far, no endemic South American species of terrestrial isopods have been investigated for Wolbachia infection. In this work, populations from two species of Balloniscus (B. sellowii and B. glaber) were studied through a diagnostic PCR assay. Fifteen new Wolbachia 16S rDNA sequences were detected. Wolbachia found in both species were generally specific to one population, and five populations hosted two different Wolbachia 16S rDNA sequences. Prevalence was higher in B. glaber than in B. sellowii, but uninfected populations could be found in both species. Wolbachia strains from B. sellowii had a higher genetic variation than those isolated from B. glaber. AMOVA analyses showed that most of the genetic variance was distributed among populations of each species rather than between species, and the phylogenetic analysis suggested that Wolbachia strains from Balloniscus cluster within Supergroup B, but do not form a single monophyletic clade, suggesting multiple infections for this group. Our results highlight the importance of studying Wolbachia prevalence and genetic diversity in Neotropical species and suggest that South American arthropods may harbor a great number of diverse strains, providing an interesting model to investigate the evolution of Wolbachia and its hosts. PMID:23413179

  3. Reduced survival and body size in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber from a metal-polluted environment.

    PubMed

    Jones, D T; Hopkin, S P

    1998-01-01

    Terrestrial isopods (woodlice) may show trade-offs in life history parameters when exposed to toxins. We have shown previously [Jones and Hopkin (1996) Functional Ecology 10, 741-750] that woodlice which survive to reproduce in sites heavily polluted with metals from an industrial smelting works do not alter their reproductive allocation. This study investigates whether there are differences in the survival and body size of Porcellio scaber from these same populations. Specimens were collected from eight sites at different distances from the Avonmouth smelter, UK. The sites represented a gradient of concentrations of Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu in the woodlice, from background levels to a grossly contaminated sites close to the smelter. In laboratory trials, the number of days survived by starved males showed a significant decline with increased concentrations of Zn in those animals. The maximum size of both sexes declined significantly from the least to the most polluted sites. The most polluted sites had significantly fewer large animals. The cost of detoxifying assimilated metals appears to be reduced energy reserves and smaller body size.

  4. Effects of starvation on body composition and cold tolerance in the collembolan Orchesella cincta and the isopod Porcellio scaber.

    PubMed

    Verhoef, H A.; Nedved, O; Lavy, D

    1997-10-01

    The effects of long-term starvation on the body composition of the isopod Porcellio scaber (Latreille) and the collembolan Orchesella cincta (L.) were studied, by determining the body composition in starved and fed animals. A period under summer conditions (19 degrees C, 75% RH and L/D 16/8 photoperiod), was followed by a period under winter conditions (5 degrees C, 75% RH and LD 6/18 photoperiod). O. cincta was held under summer conditions for 3weeks, during which its protein and lipid content decreased, while its water content increased. In P. scaber, the same occurred during the 6weeks they were kept under summer conditions. During subsequent weeks under winter conditions, changes in cold tolerance of the animals were investigated. Cold tolerance and haemolymph osmolality were measured once a week. Starved animals had lower cold tolerance than fed ones. For P. scaber a decreased haemolymph osmolality was found in starved animals compared to fed ones. This is assumed to be caused by a combination of the consumption of carbohydrates out of the haemolymph and of protein reserves and the accumulation of body water. O. cincta appeared to be capable of osmoregulation, as haemolymph osmolality did not differ between starved and fed animals, despite differences in body water content. Decreased cold tolerance in starved animals of both species may be caused by increased water content or, more probably, by the decrease in reserves needed to produce cryoprotective substances.

  5. Altered physiological conditions of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber as a measure of subchronic TiO2 effects.

    PubMed

    Srpčič, Anja Menard; Drobne, Damjana; Novak, Sara

    2015-03-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) show low toxic potential against a variety of environmental organisms when measured by conventional toxicity endpoints. However, the question is whether the conventional measures of toxicity can define the adverse effects of nanoparticles. The aim of this study was to asses the potential toxic and cytotoxic effects of the ingested nano-TiO2 (anatase, <25 nm) on a terrestrial isopod, Porcellio scaber. In addition to conventional toxicity parameters, the physiological condition of the animals was assessed. Following 28-day feeding exposure to nano-TiO2 at concentrations up to 5,000 μg nano-TiO2/g leaf dry weight, no toxic or cytotoxic effects were demonstrated. However, the physiological condition of the animals was affected in a dose-dependent manner. The physiological state of organisms is an important parameter to assess the potential population implications due to the exposure to nanomaterials. Therefore, we suggest that only if both, the physiological state of the animals exposed to nano-TiO2 and the conventional toxicity markers show no effects, the exposure dose can be interpreted as non-hazardous.

  6. Behavioral response in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea) offered a choice of uncontaminated and cadmium-contaminated food.

    PubMed

    Zidar, Primoz; Bozic, Janko; Strus, Jasna

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this study was to find out whether Porcellio scaber discriminates against Cd-contaminated food. The foraging behavior in animals offered uncontaminated and Cd-contaminated food simultaneously was quantified for 48-h employing computer-aided video tracking. To see whether the isopods' selection of less contaminated food could diminish the influence Cd on food consumption, growth, metal assimilation, moulting and mortality, Cd-dosed food (20, 45, 200 and 450 mg kg(-1) dry weight) was offered together with untreated food for 3 weeks. Data from the video tracking experiments revealed that animals visited Cd-dosed food as often as untreated food, but spent much less time near Cd-dosed food. Discrimination against Cd-contaminated food increased with previous experience with contaminated food and/or with increased Cd body burden. In 3 weeks exposure uncontaminated food preference rose with time of exposure and cadmium concentration in food and reached a maximal preference ratio of 65% (untreated food): 35% (Cd-dosed food). The decreased consumption of Cd-dosed food was compensated by the increased consumption of control food. Cadmium body burden increased with time of exposure and cadmium concentration in food consumed, while the influence of Cd on food consumption, growth and moulting was diminished.

  7. Transition from marine to terrestrial ecologies: changes in olfactory and tritocerebral neuropils in land-living isopods.

    PubMed

    Harzsch, S; Rieger, V; Krieger, J; Seefluth, F; Strausfeld, N J; Hansson, B S

    2011-05-01

    In addition to the ancestors of insects, representatives of five lineages of crustaceans have colonized land. Whereas insects have evolved sensilla that are specialized to allow the detection of airborne odors and have evolved olfactory sensory neurons that recognize specific airborne ligands, there is so far little evidence for aerial olfaction in terrestrial crustaceans. Here we ask the question whether terrestrial Isopoda have evolved the neuronal substrate for the problem of detecting far-field airborne chemicals. We show that conquest of land of Isopoda has been accompanied by a radical diminution of their first antennae and a concomitant loss of their deutocerebral olfactory lobes and olfactory computational networks. In terrestrial isopods, but not their marine cousins, tritocerebral neuropils serving the second antenna have evolved radical modifications. These include a complete loss of the malacostracan pattern of somatotopic representation, the evolution in some species of amorphous lobes and in others lobes equipped with microglomeruli, and yet in others the evolution of partitioned neuropils that suggest modality-specific segregation of second antenna inputs. Evidence suggests that Isopoda have evolved, and are in the process of evolving, several novel solutions to chemical perception on land and in air.

  8. First record of Wolbachia in South American terrestrial isopods: Prevalence and diversity in two species of Balloniscus (Crustacea, Oniscidea).

    PubMed

    Almerão, Mauricio Pereira; Fagundes, Nelson Jurandi Rosa; de Araújo, Paula Beatriz; Verne, Sébastien; Grandjean, Frédéric; Bouchon, Didier; Araújo, Aldo Mellender

    2012-12-01

    Wolbachia are endosymbiotic bacteria that commonly infect arthropods, inducing certain phenotypes in their hosts. So far, no endemic South American species of terrestrial isopods have been investigated for Wolbachia infection. In this work, populations from two species of Balloniscus (B. sellowii and B. glaber) were studied through a diagnostic PCR assay. Fifteen new Wolbachia 16S rDNA sequences were detected. Wolbachia found in both species were generally specific to one population, and five populations hosted two different Wolbachia 16S rDNA sequences. Prevalence was higher in B. glaber than in B. sellowii, but uninfected populations could be found in both species. Wolbachia strains from B. sellowii had a higher genetic variation than those isolated from B. glaber. AMOVA analyses showed that most of the genetic variance was distributed among populations of each species rather than between species, and the phylogenetic analysis suggested that Wolbachia strains from Balloniscus cluster within Supergroup B, but do not form a single monophyletic clade, suggesting multiple infections for this group. Our results highlight the importance of studying Wolbachia prevalence and genetic diversity in Neotropical species and suggest that South American arthropods may harbor a great number of diverse strains, providing an interesting model to investigate the evolution of Wolbachia and its hosts.

  9. The diversity of terrestrial isopods in the natural reserve "Saline di Trapani e Paceco" (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) in northwestern Sicily.

    PubMed

    Messina, Giuseppina; Pezzino, Elisa; Montesanto, Giuseppe; Caruso, Domenico; Lombardo, Bianca Maria

    2012-01-01

    Ecosystems comprising coastal lakes and ponds are important areas for preserving biodiversity. The natural reserve "Saline di Trapani e Paceco" is an interesting natural area in Sicily, formed by the remaining strips of land among salt pans near the coastline. From January 2008 to January 2010, pitfall trapping was conducted in five sampling sites inside the study area. The community of terrestrial isopods was assessed using the main diversity indices. Twenty-four species were collected, only one of them endemic to western Sicily: Porcellio siculoccidentalis Viglianisi, Lombardo & Caruso, 1992. Two species are new to Sicily: Armadilloniscus candidus Budde-Lund, 1885 and Armadilloniscus ellipticus (Harger, 1878). This is high species richness for a single reserve in Sicily. The extended sampling period also allowed us to study species phenology. Most of the species exhibited higher activity in spring than in autumn while some species also exhibited lower activity in the summer. The species richness revealed that the study area is in an acceptable conservation status; Shannon and Pielou indices also confirmed a more or less even distribution of individuals belonging to different species.

  10. Prolonged feeding of terrestrial isopod (Porcellio scaber, Isopoda, Crustacea) on TiO (2) nanoparicles. Absence of toxic effect.

    PubMed

    Novak, Sara; Drobne, Damjana; Menard, Anja

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticles of titanium dioxide are one of most widely used nanomaterials in different products in everyday use and in industry, but very little is known about their effects on non- target cells and tissues. Terrestrial isopods were exposed to food dosed with nano-TiO(2) to give final nominal concentration 1000 and 2000 µg TiO(2)/g dry weight of food. The effects of ingested nano-TiO(2) on the model invertebrate Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea) after short-term (3 and 7 days) and prolonged (14 and 28 days) dietary exposure was assessed by conventional toxicity measures such as feeding rate, weight change and mortality. Cell membrane destabilization was also investigated. No severe toxicity effects were observed after 3, 7, 14 or 28 days of dietary exposure to nano-TiO(2), but some animals, particularly those exposed to lower concentrations of nanoparticles, had severely destabilized digestive cell membranes. It was concluded that strong destabilization of the cell membrane was sporadic, and neither concentration- nor time-related. Further research is needed to confirm this sporadic toxic effect of nanoparticles.

  11. "Candidatus Bacilloplasma," a novel lineage of Mollicutes associated with the hindgut wall of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea: Isopoda).

    PubMed

    Kostanjsek, Rok; Strus, Jasna; Avgustin, Gorazd

    2007-09-01

    Pointed, rod-shaped bacteria colonizing the cuticular surface of the hindgut of the terrestrial isopod crustacean Porcellio scaber (Crustacea: Isopoda) were investigated by comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and electron microscopy. The results of phylogenetic analysis, and the absence of a cell wall, affiliated these bacteria with the class Mollicutes, within which they represent a novel and deeply branched lineage, sharing less than 82.6% sequence similarity to known Mollicutes. The lineage has been positioned as a sister group to the clade comprising the Spiroplasma group, the Mycoplasma pneumoniae group, and the Mycoplasma hominis group. The specific signature sequence was identified and used as a probe in in situ hybridization, which confirmed that the retrieved sequences originate from the attached rod-shaped bacteria from the hindgut of P. scaber and made it possible to detect these bacteria in their natural environment. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed a spherically shaped structure at the tapered end of the rod-shaped bacteria, enabling their specific and exclusive attachment to the tip of the cuticular spines on the inner surface of the gut. Specific adaptation to the gut environment, as well as phylogenetic positioning, indicate the long-term association and probable coevolution of the bacteria and the host. Taking into account their pointed, rod-shaped morphology and their phylogenetic position, the name "Candidatus Bacilloplasma" has been proposed for this new lineage of bacteria specifically associated with the gut surface of P. scaber.

  12. Physiological plasticity is key to the presence of the isopod Idotea baltica (Pallas) in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Hannah L.; Nylund, Göran; Eriksson, Susanne P.

    2014-01-01

    The low salinity of the Baltic Sea presents a physiological challenge to marine species. The marine isopod Idotea baltica is notably dominant among the shallow sublittoral of the Baltic Sea in association with Fucus vesiculosus, with permanent populations documented in salinities as low as 3 psu. To investigate the role of physiological plasticity in the successful colonisation of the Baltic by I. baltica three populations from the Swedish coast were here studied, one from the Kattegat (Malmö) and two from the Baltic Sea (Kalmar and Öregrund). These three sites cover the geographic range of this species within the Baltic Sea on the Swedish coast, and also the salinity range of this species within the Baltic Sea (10-5 psu). Individuals from these populations were exposed in the laboratory to a fully crossed experiment with the factors salinity and food source, to test for differences in the physiology of these populations under different conditions that may indicate local adaptation, or no differences that indicate physiological plasticity to differing salinity and food source. Metabolic rate, growth and thermal tolerance responses did not differ between the three populations across salinity treatments after a 12 week exposure. The results of this study indicate that the physiology of adult I. baltica is highly plastic with regard to salinity; this plasticity is likely to have facilitated their colonisation of the Baltic Sea.

  13. Ultrastructure and mineral composition of the cornea cuticle in the compound eyes of a supralittoral and a marine isopod.

    PubMed

    Alagboso, Francisca I; Reisecker, Christian; Hild, Sabine; Ziegler, Andreas

    2014-08-01

    The cuticle of the cornea in Crustacea is an interesting example of a composite material compromising between two distinct functions. As part of the dioptric apparatus of the ommatidia within the complex eye it forms transparent micro-lenses that should as well maintain the mechanical stability of the head capsule. We analyzed the ultrastructure and composition of the isopod cornea cuticle of the terrestrial species Ligia oceanica and the marine Sphaeroma serratum. We used a variety of tissue preparation methods, electron microscopic techniques as well as electron microprobe analysis and Raman spectroscopic imaging. The results reveal various structural adaptations that likely increase light transmission. These are an increase in the thickness of the epicuticle, a reduction of the thickness of the outer layer of calcite, a spatial restriction of pore canals to interommatidial regions, and, for S. serratum only, an increase in calcite crystal size. In both species protein-chitin fibrils within the proximal exocuticle form a peculiar reticular structure that does not occur within the cuticle of the head capsule. In L. oceanica differential mineralization results in a spherically shaped interface between mineralized and unmineralized endocuticle, likely an adaptation to increase the refractive power of the cornea maintaining the mechanical stability of the cuticle between the ommatidia. The results show that the habitat and differences in the general structure of the animal's cuticle affect the way in which the cornea is adapted to its optical function.

  14. [Sodium flux as a function of the salinity of the medium in the Isopod crustacean Sphaeroma serratum (Fabricius)].

    PubMed

    Thuet, P

    1981-09-01

    The crustacean isopod Sphaeroma serratum, in steady state towards its medium, shows intensive sodium fluxes which have been evaluated by several different technics. In normal sea water (SW) the Na influx reaches 37.9 +/- 9.8 and the outflux represents 35.1 +/- 9.3 microEq h-1 100 mg-1. Renewable internal Na constitute three kinetic compartments whose turnover rate are 228.9; 63.2 +/- 14.6; 13.0 +/- 4.3%. h-1 respectively. The volume of the faster kinetic compartment is equal to 32.0 +/- 2.7% of the wet weight and it is likely equivalent to the extracellular space. In half diluted sea water (SW 1/2) the Na influx is 9.6 +/- 1.5 while outflux is found to be 9.3 +/- 2.2 microEq h-1 100 mg-1. The potential difference between internal and external media is equal to -2.0 +/- 0.4 mV in SW and -5.1 +/- 1.0 mV in SW 1/2. The ratio of the unidirectional fluxes in SW matches the electrochemical gradient, however in SW 1/2 the existence of an active Na influx is plausible.

  15. Investigation of medium-term barred beach behavior using 28-year beach profile data and Rotated Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuriyama, Yoshiaki; Yanagishima, Shinichi

    2016-05-01

    A 28-year beach profile dataset for a stretch of the Hasaki coast in Japan was examined using Rotated Empirical Orthogonal Function (REOF) analysis to investigate the cross-shore variation in the characteristics of beach profile change. The data were obtained weekly, on a micro-tidal wave-dominated intermediate beach, along a survey line extending from the backshore to a water depth of approximately 5 m. REOF analysis using the first eight empirical orthogonal functions led to the study area being divided into five unique zones based on beach profile change patterns, namely the backshore, the foreshore, the inner and outer transition zones and the bar-trough zone. Although these zones were notably distinct from one another, the profiles in foreshore and the shoreward part of the inner transition zone changed in the same way over periods of 6 and 12 months.

  16. Weather and environmental factors associated with F+ coliphages and fecal indicator bacteria in beach sand at two recreational marine beaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies have demonstrated that fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and pathogens may be present in beach sand and suggest an increased risk of enteric illness among beachgoers contacting sand. During the 2007 National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational (NEEAR...

  17. The Impacts of Back-Beach Barriers on Sandy Beach Morphology Along the California Coast and Implications for Coastal Change with Future Sea-Level Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harden, E. L.

    2010-12-01

    Coastal squeeze, or foreshore narrowing, is a result of marine encroachment, such as sea-level rise in the presence of a back-beach barrier, terrestrial encroachment, such as coastal development, or both. In California, the permanent coastal population increased by almost 10 million people between 1980 and 2003, and an additional 130 million beachgoers visit Southern California beaches each year. Beaches in California are an important component of the state and federal economy and provide hundreds of thousands of jobs. Approximately 14% of the California coast from Marin County to the Mexican border is artificially armored with seawalls, rip rap, or revetment, more than half of which protects back-beach developments or lower-lying dynamic regions like harbors and dunes. Many sandy beaches that do not have back-beach armoring are still restricted by commercial and residential infrastructure, parking lots, and roadways. Although these types of coastal infrastructure are not back-beach barriers by intentional design like seawalls and rip rap, they still restrict beaches from landward migration and can cause significant placement loss of the beach. Nearly 67 km, or 44% of the total length of sandy coastline from Long Beach to the U.S.-Mexico border is backed by such infrastructure. This study is part of a broader effort to catalog the extent to which California’s beaches are restricted in the back beach, to describe the effects of back-beach barriers on sandy beach morphology, and to predict how these different beaches might behave with future sea-level rise. Beach morphology, shoreface characteristics, and historical rates of shoreline change were compared between select beaches with back-beach barriers and unrestricted beaches using 1997 LiDAR data and shoreline rates of change published in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Assessment of Shoreline Change report. Although preliminary results of the morphological analysis show that there is no statistically

  18. Users' Perception as a Tool to Improve Urban Beach Planning and Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervantes, Omar; Espejel, Ileana; Arellano, Evarista; Delhumeau, Sheila

    2008-08-01

    Four beaches that share physiographic characteristics (sandy, wide, and long) but differ in socioeconomic and cultural terms (three are located in northwestern Mexico and one in California, USA) were evaluated by beach users. Surveys (565) composed of 36 questions were handed out to beach users on weekends and holidays in 2005. The 25 questions that revealed the most information were selected by factor analysis and classified by cluster analysis. Beach users’ preferences were assigned a value by comparing the present survey results with the characteristics of an “ideal” recreational urban beach. Cluster analysis separated three groups of questions: (a) services and infrastructure, (b) recreational activities, and (c) beach conditions. Cluster linkage distance ( r = 0.82, r = 0.78, r = 0.67) was used as a weight and multiplied by the value of beach descriptive factors. Mazatlán and Oceanside obtained the highest values because there are enough infrastructure and services; on the contrary, Ensenada and Rosarito were rated medium and low because infrastructure and services are lacking. The presently proposed method can contribute to improving current beach evaluations because the final score represents the beach users’ evaluation of the quality of the beach. The weight considered in the present study marks the beach users’ preferences among the studied beaches. Adding this weight to beach evaluation will contribute to more specific beach planning in which users’ perception is considered.

  19. Understanding beach health throughout the Great Lakes-Entering a new era of investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2010-01-01

    For over a decade, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been a leader in the science of beach health. The overall mission of this work is to provide science-based information and methods that will allow beach managers to more accurately make beach closure and advisory decisions, understand the sources and physical processes affecting beach contaminants, and understand how science-based information can be used to mitigate and restore beaches and protect the public. The work consists of four science elements-real-time assessments; pathogens and microbial source tracking; coastal processes; and data analysis, interpretation, and communication - which are described in this fact sheet. Some of the key questions for USGS beach research are the following: Are there better ways to inform the public whether they can use a beach without risking their health? How do new rapid analytical methods compare to traditional methods for determining concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria at beaches? Are pathogens present at beaches and, if so, how do they get to the beach, and what is their source? How do sand movement and wave action on the beach affect fecal-indicator-bacteria and pathogen concentrations in the lake water? What are the best indicators of pathogenic microorganisms? With so many potential sources of fecal contamination at a beach, what methods can be used to distinguish the contributions from humans? What characteristics of beaches contribute most to influencing bacterial indicator and pathogen concentrations in beach sands and groundwater?

  20. Late Pleistocene raised beaches of coastal Estremadura, central Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetti, Michael M.; Haws, Jonathan A.; Funk, Caroline L.; Daniels, J. Michael; Hesp, Patrick A.; Bicho, Nuno F.; Minckley, Thomas A.; Ellwood, Brooks B.; Forman, Steven L.

    2009-12-01

    We present new stratigraphic, sedimentological, and chronological data for a suite of tectonically raised beaches dating to Marine Isotope Stages 5, 4, and 3 along the Estremadura coast of west-central Portugal. The beach deposits are found in association with ancient tidal channels and coastal dunes, pollen bearing mud and peat, and Middle Paleolithic archaeological sites that confirm occupation of the coastal zone by Neanderthal populations. The significance of these deposits is discussed in terms of the archaeological record, the tectonic and geomorphic evolution of the coast, and correlation with reconstructions of global climate and eustatic sea-level change. Direct correlation between the Estremadura beach sections is complicated by the tectonic complexity of the area and the age of the beach deposits (which are near or beyond the limit of radiocarbon dating). Evidence from multiple sites dated by AMS radiocarbon and optical luminescence methods suggests broad synchroneity in relative sea-level changes along this coast during Marine Isotope Stage 3. Two beach complexes with luminescence and radiocarbon age control date to about 35 ka and 42 ka, recording a rise in relative sea level around the time of Heinrich Event 4 at 39 ka. Depending on assumptions about eustatic sea level at the time they were deposited, we estimate that these beaches have been uplifted at rates of 0.4-4.3 mm yr -1 by the combined effects of tectonic, halokinetic, and isostatic processes. Uplift rates of 1-2 mm yr -1 are likely if the beaches represent sea level stands at roughly 40 m below modern, as suggested by recent eustatic sea level reconstructions. Evidence from coastal bluffs and the interior of the study area indicates extensive colluvial, fluvial, and aeolian sedimentation beginning around 31 ka and continuing into the Holocene. These geomorphic adjustments are related to concomitant changes in climate and sea level, providing context that improves our understanding of Late

  1. Effects of beach morphology and waves on onshore larval transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimura, A.; Reniers, A.; Paris, C. B.; Shanks, A.; MacMahan, J.; Morgan, S.

    2015-12-01

    Larvae of intertidal species grow offshore, and migrate back to the shore when they are ready to settle on their adult substrates. In order to reach the habitat, they must cross the surf zone, which is characterized as a semi-permeable barrier. This is accomplished through physical forcing (i.e., waves and current) as well as their own behavior. Two possible scenarios of onshore larval transport are proposed: Negatively buoyant larvae stay in the bottom boundary layer because of turbulence-dependent sinking behavior, and are carried toward the shore by streaming of the bottom boundary layer; positively buoyant larvae move to the shore during onshore wind events, and sink to the bottom once they encounter high turbulence (i.e., surf zone edge), where they are carried by the bottom current toward the shore (Fujimura et al. 2014). Our biophysical Lagrangian particle tracking model helps to explain how beach morphology and wave conditions affect larval distribution patterns and abundance. Model results and field observations show that larval abundance in the surf zone is higher at mildly sloped, rip-channeled beaches than at steep pocket beaches. Beach attributes are broken up to examine which and how beach configuration factors affect larval abundance. Modeling with alongshore uniform beaches with variable slopes reveal that larval populations in the surf zone are negatively correlated with beach steepness. Alongshore variability enhances onshore larval transport because of increased cross-shore water exchange by rip currents. Wave groups produce transient rip currents and enhance cross-shore exchange. Effects of other wave components, such as wave height and breaking wave rollers are also considered.

  2. Heart Rate and Motion Analysis by GPS in Beach Soccer

    PubMed Central

    Castellano, Julen; Casamichana, David

    2010-01-01

    Although beach soccer has become increasingly popular in recent years very little scientific research has been conducted into the sport. A pilot study was carried out with the aim of examining the physiological (heart rate) and physical (motion analysis) responses of beach soccer players during competitive matches. Ten players (age 25.5 ± 0.5 years; height 1.80 ± 0.08 m; weight 78.2 ± 5.6 kg.) were studied over five beach soccer matches. The physiological demands were analysed by measuring heart rate (HR) using telemetric devices, while the physical profile was evaluated by recording motion and speed by means of GPS devices. During competitive matches, players obtained a HRmean of 165.2 bpm (86.5% HRmax), with 59.3% of the time participating (TP) corresponding to values above 90% of the HRmax. The distance covered per minute of participation was 97.7 m, with 9.5% of this distance corresponding to high-intensity running and 2.5% to sprint; the work:rest ratio was 1.4:1 and the maximum speed 21.7 km·h-1. These results showed that beach soccer is an intermittent physical activity of greater intensity than other team games. It requires a major contribution from the anaerobic system as emphasis is placed on players making quick bursts of high-intensity activity separated by brief rest periods. Key points The distance covered per minute of play is around 100 m. Beach soccer is an intermittent sport with a work:rest ratio of 1.4:1. The playing surface in beach soccer is an important handicap to obtain maximum speeds. Beach soccer has a high physiological intensity, with more than half of the game is spent at intensities above 90 % of the HRmax. PMID:24149392

  3. Monitoring and modeling nearshore dredge disposal for indirect beach nourishment, Ocean Beach, San Francisco

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Hanes, Daniel M.; Lescinski, Jamie; Elias, Edwin

    2007-01-01

    Nearshore dredge disposal was performed during the summer of 2005 at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA, a high energy tidal and wave environment. This trial run was an attempt to provide a buffer to a reach of coastline where wave attack during the winter months has had a severe impact on existing sewage infrastructure. Although the subsequent beach response was inconclusive, after one year the peak of the disposal mound had migrated ~100 m toward the shore, providing evidence that annual dredge disposal at this site could be beneficial over the long-term by at the very least providing: 1) additional wave dissipation during storms 2) compatible sediment to feed nearshore bars, 3) sediment cover on an exposed sewage outfall pipe, and 4) a viable alternative to the shoaling offshore disposal site. Numerical modeling suggests that despite the strong tidal currents in the region, wave forcing is the dominant factor moving the sediment slowly toward shore, and placing sediment at just slightly shallower depths (e.g. 9 m) in the future would have a more immediate impact.

  4. Size at the onset of maturity (SOM) revealed in length-weight relationships of brackish amphipods and isopods: An information theory approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, Emanuela; Mancinelli, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    In amphipods and other small-sized crustaceans, allometric relationships are conventionally analysed by fitting the standard model Y = a·Xb (X and Y are, e.g., body length and weight, respectively) whose scaling exponent b is assumed to be constant. However, breakpoints in allometric relationships have long been documented in large-sized crustaceans, ultimately determined by ontogenetic, abrupt variations in the value of b. Here, the existence of breakpoints in length-weight relationships was investigated in four amphipod (i.e., Gammarus aequicauda, Gammarus insensibilis, Microdeutopus gryllotalpa, and Dexamine spinosa) and three isopod species (i.e., Lekanesphaera hookeri, Sphaeroma serratum, and Cymodoce truncata) from three Mediterranean lagoons. The power of two candidate linear models fitted to log10-transformed data - a simple model assuming a constant exponent b and a segmented model assuming b to vary after a breakpoint - was compared using a parsimonious selection strategy based on the Akaike information criterion. The segmented model with a breakpoint provided the most accurate fitting of length-weight data in the majority of the species analysed; non-conclusive results were obtained only for D. spinosa and C. truncata, of which a limited number of specimens was examined. Model parameters were consistent for amphipod and isopod species collected across the three different habitats; the generality of the results was further supported by a literature search confirming that the identified breakpoints corresponded with ontogenetic discontinuities related with sexual maturation in all the species investigated. In this study, segmented regression models were revealed to provide a statistically accurate and biologically meaningful description of length-weight relationships of common amphipod and isopod species. The methodological limitations of the approach are considered, while the practical implications for secondary production estimates are discussed.

  5. Observations on the Activity and Life History of the Scavenging Isopod Natatolana borealisLilljeborg (Isopoda: Cirolanidae) from Loch Fyne, Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Y. M.; Moore, P. G.

    1996-02-01

    The activity and life history of the cirolanid isopod Natatolana borealisLilljeborg has been studied using (primarily) fish-baited traps deployed at a deep-water station (190 m) in Loch Fyne, Scotland. A voracious scavenger, it burrows into soft mud, emerging to feed when suitable food odours are detected in the water. Isopods were attracted significantly to baited vs. non-baited traps. Underwater video observations revealed that most animals were active in the vicinity of traps, that capture efficiency was low, but retention complete. Only traps on the sea-bed captured mancas or juveniles in any numbers. Any seasonal pattern in catch rate through the year was confounded by high variability. Only one (manca-)brooding female was ever caught in a trap (in April). It is assumed that brooding females desist from feeding. The sex ratio of isopods in most trap collections was thus significantly male dominated. Mancas were trapped during February to August. Growth rate was slowest in adults and was similar for males and females. The maximum growth rate occurred during autumn associated with the seasonal cycle in bottom water temperatures. Longevity was estimated (by following peaks in the size-frequency distributions with time) to be c. 2·5 years, with sexual maturity (based on oostegites/spurred appendix masculinae) achieved after c. 19 months. Semelparity is suggested. A low incidence of an unnamed epicaridean parasite is reported from the Clyde population. Natatolana borealisalso carried peritrich ciliate epizoites on their antennae. Possible predators are swimming crabs and gadid fish, e.g. whiting and cod.

  6. Isopods of the genus Ligia as potential biomonitors of trace metals from the gulf of California and pacific coast of the Baja California peninsula.

    PubMed

    García-Hernández, Jaqueline; Hurtado, Luis A; Leyva-García, Germán; Güido-Moreno, Adrián; Aguilera-Márquez, Daniela; Mazzei, Veronica; Ferrante, Margherita

    2015-02-01

    Supralittoral and high intertidal coastal zones are exposed to pollution from both marine and terrestrial sources and undergo higher deposition rates than the subtidal zone. It is therefore important to identify organisms for this section of the coastal area that can be tolerant to contaminants. The aim of this study was to determine if supralittoral isopods of the genus Ligia can be used as biomonitors, since they are abundant and widely distributed. For this purpose, concentrations of trace elements were determined in Ligia isopods in toto from 26 locations across the Gulf of California and Pacific coast of the Baja California peninsula, which were collected during the summers of 2009 and 2010. The concentrations of trace elements followed the order of; Zn≥Cu>As>Cd>Pb>Hg. Elevated concentrations of copper (up to 1010 μg/g) were detected in Ligia from Santa Rosalía (SRo), a locality where industrial mining of copper has historically occurred. Industrial and municipal sewage discharges appear to have contributed to the high concentrations of zinc (326 μg/g) and lead (144 μg/g) found in organisms from Guaymas location. The high mercury concentration in organisms from Mazatlán (M) (2.01 μg/g) was associated with a thermoelectric plant. Natural sources of metals were also detected; coastal upwelling appears to be associated with high cadmium concentrations in Ligia from Punta Baja (PB) (256 μg/g) in the Pacific coast, whereas hydrothermal vents may have contributed to high concentrations of arsenic at Ensenada (E) (61 μg/g). Our results suggest that Ligia isopods reflect the natural and anthropogenic inputs of trace metals in the environment and could potentially be used as biomonitor organisms of the intertidal rocky shores of the Gulf of California and Pacific coast. PMID:25463869

  7. Isopods of the genus Ligia as potential biomonitors of trace metals from the gulf of California and pacific coast of the Baja California peninsula.

    PubMed

    García-Hernández, Jaqueline; Hurtado, Luis A; Leyva-García, Germán; Güido-Moreno, Adrián; Aguilera-Márquez, Daniela; Mazzei, Veronica; Ferrante, Margherita

    2015-02-01

    Supralittoral and high intertidal coastal zones are exposed to pollution from both marine and terrestrial sources and undergo higher deposition rates than the subtidal zone. It is therefore important to identify organisms for this section of the coastal area that can be tolerant to contaminants. The aim of this study was to determine if supralittoral isopods of the genus Ligia can be used as biomonitors, since they are abundant and widely distributed. For this purpose, concentrations of trace elements were determined in Ligia isopods in toto from 26 locations across the Gulf of California and Pacific coast of the Baja California peninsula, which were collected during the summers of 2009 and 2010. The concentrations of trace elements followed the order of; Zn≥Cu>As>Cd>Pb>Hg. Elevated concentrations of copper (up to 1010 μg/g) were detected in Ligia from Santa Rosalía (SRo), a locality where industrial mining of copper has historically occurred. Industrial and municipal sewage discharges appear to have contributed to the high concentrations of zinc (326 μg/g) and lead (144 μg/g) found in organisms from Guaymas location. The high mercury concentration in organisms from Mazatlán (M) (2.01 μg/g) was associated with a thermoelectric plant. Natural sources of metals were also detected; coastal upwelling appears to be associated with high cadmium concentrations in Ligia from Punta Baja (PB) (256 μg/g) in the Pacific coast, whereas hydrothermal vents may have contributed to high concentrations of arsenic at Ensenada (E) (61 μg/g). Our results suggest that Ligia isopods reflect the natural and anthropogenic inputs of trace metals in the environment and could potentially be used as biomonitor organisms of the intertidal rocky shores of the Gulf of California and Pacific coast.

  8. Pyrene metabolites in the hepatopancreas and gut of the isopod Porcellio scaber, a new biomarker for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure in terrestrial ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Stroomberg, G.J.; Knecht, J.A. de; Ariese, F.; Gestel, C.A.M. Van; Velthorst, N.H.

    1999-10-01

    The object of this study was to investigate the formation of pyrene metabolites by the isopod Porcellio scaber as a possible tool in the environmental risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure in terrestrial ecosystems. The formation of pyrene metabolites was studied after either pulse exposure to a single high dose, or prolonged exposure (14 d) to a lower dosage. Exposure studies were carried out with unlabeled or radiolabeled pyrene, ion pair chromatography was used for analysis, and reference conjugates were synthesized. The authors also measured pyrene metabolites in field-exposed animals, to explore their use as biomarkers of PAH exposure. Analysis of the hepatopancreas and gut of single isopods revealed the formation of five products, one of which was 1-hydroxypyrene. Four of the remaining products were identified as phase 2 metabolites of 1-hydroxypyrene, with UV absorption and fluorescence characteristics similar to that of pyrene. One metabolite was identified as pyrene-1-glucoside, which is in accordance with high rates of glucosidation, reported for these isopods. Another conjugate was identified as pyrene-1-sulfate. None of the metabolites coeluted with a pyrene-1-glucuronide reference obtained from fish bile. A fifth metabolite detected by on-line scintillation detection did not exhibit any absorption at 340 nm, possibly because one of the aromatic rings of pyrene had lost its aromatic character. Although pyrene is not known for its toxicity, it usually co-occurs with other PAHs that are transformed into toxic products. Investigating the metabolism of pyrene can provide information with regard to the biotransformation capacity of invertebrate species and uptake and elimination kinetics. Because pyrene is one of the most predominant PAHs in the environment, analysis of its metabolites provides an extra tool for the environmental risk assessment of ecosystems with regard to PAH exposure, bioavailability, and biotransformation.

  9. Low faunal diversity on Maltese sandy beaches: fact or artefact?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deidun, Alan; Azzopardi, Marthese; Saliba, Stephen; Schembri, Patrick J.

    2003-10-01

    Eight sandy beaches on Malta and two on Gozo were sampled for macrofauna to test the hypothesis that Maltese beaches have an intrinsically low diversity. Stations distributed in the supralittoral (dry zone), mediolittoral (wet zone) and upper infralittoral (submerged zone to 1 m water depth) were sampled by sieving core samples and standardised searching during daytime, and pitfall trapping and standardised sweeping of the water column using a hand-net at night, as appropriate. Physical parameters of the sediment were measured and human occupancy of the beaches was estimated. From the supralittoral and mediolittoral, 39 species represented by 1584 individuals were collected by the combined techniques of pitfall trapping, sieving and standard searching. For Ramla beach, which had the highest diversity, 267 individuals representing 25 infaunal species were collected by sieving from a combined volume of 1.175 m 3 of sand, and 149 individuals representing 28 epifaunal species were collected by standardised searching from a combined area of 700 m 2 of sand during two winter and two summer sampling sessions between 1992 and 1993. For nine other beaches sampled during the summer of 2000, only six macrofaunal species were collected from core samples, with overall population densities ranging from 4.13 to 45.45 individuals m -2. Only 92 individuals belonging to 12 species were collected by hand-net from the uppermost infralittoral of five beaches sampled using this method during the summer of 2000. Taxa of gastropods, bivalves, decapods, mysids and staphylinid beetles generally abundant on Mediterranean sandy beaches, were entirely absent from the beaches sampled. Few correlations that could explain the impoverishment of Maltese sandy beaches were found between physical parameters and faunal abundances, and other factors such as inadequate sampling effort, human disturbance and marine pollution were also excluded; however, seasonally biased sampling may partly explain the

  10. Planview Geometry and morphological characteristics of pocket beaches on the Catalan coast (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, D.; Guillén, J.; López, L.; Pellegrino, V.

    2009-07-01

    Coastal planform studies are a relevant initial stage before launching detailed dynamic field experiments. The aim of this study is to define the planform characteristics of 72 Catalan pocket beaches, natural and man-made, and to determine their sheltering effect, embaymentization and their status of equilibrium. Planform measurements were performed on SIGPAC, 1:5000 orthophoto sets and wave climate was provided by Puertos del Estado (Wana model). Planform parameters were applied and coastal planview indexes were determined. The study shows that the Catalan pocket beaches display a wide range of indentation, suggesting that no single structural, tectonic or morphological control dominates their planform. The man-made pocket beaches typically display indentations which are smaller than those shown by natural pocket beaches. Headland spacing and beach area are positively correlated. The more indented bays are, the shorter their beaches become. Low-indented pocket beaches are the widest and the longest ones. Deep indentation contributes towards beach protection and energy dissipation which counteracts rip efficiency and inhibits the formation of mega-rips. Pocket beaches often show gradual and moderate alongshore changes in texture and beach morphology. One third of the Catalan pocket beaches are "sediment starved", i.e., 60% and more of their embayed shorelines are deprived of beach sediments. Examination of the status of equilibrium demonstrates that most of the Catalan pocket beaches are in an unstable mode, with indentation ratios that are unrelated to the wave obliquity.

  11. Water quality, weather and environmental factors associated with fecal indicator organism density in beach sand at two recreational marine beaches.

    PubMed

    Heaney, Christopher D; Exum, Natalie G; Dufour, Alfred P; Brenner, Kristen P; Haugland, Richard A; Chern, Eunice; Schwab, Kellogg J; Love, David C; Serre, Marc L; Noble, Rachel; Wade, Timothy J

    2014-11-01

    Recent studies showing an association between fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) in sand and gastrointestinal (GI) illness among beachgoers with sand contact have important public health implications because of the large numbers of people who recreate at beaches and engage in sand contact activities. Yet, factors that influence fecal pollution in beach sand remain unclear. During the 2007 National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational (NEEAR) Water Study, sand samples were collected at three locations (60 m apart) on weekend days (Sat, Sun) and holidays between June and September at two marine beaches - Fairhope Beach, AL and Goddard Beach, RI - with nearby publicly-owned treatment works (POTWs) outfalls. F(+) coliphage, enterococci, Bacteroidales, fecal Bacteroides spp., and Clostridium spp. were measured in sand using culture and qPCR-based calibrator-cell equivalent methods. Water samples were also collected on the same days, times and transects as the 144 sand samples and were assayed using the same FIO measurements. Weather and environmental data were collected at the time of sample collection. Mean FIO concentrations in sand varied over time, but not space. Enterococci CFU and CCE densities in sand were not correlated, although other FIOs in sand were. The strongest correlation between FIO density in sand and water was fecal Bacteroides CCE, followed by enterococci CFU, Clostridium spp. CCE, and Bacteroidales CCE. Overall, the factors associated with FIO concentrations in sand were related to the sand-water interface (i.e., sand-wetting) and included daily average densities of FIOs in water, rainfall, and wave height. Targeted monitoring that focuses on daily trends of sand FIO variability, combined with information about specific water quality, weather, and environmental factors may inform beach monitoring and management decisions to reduce microbial burdens in beach sand. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do

  12. Water quality, weather and environmental factors associated with fecal indicator organism density in beach sand at two recreational marine beaches

    PubMed Central

    Heaney, Christopher D.; Exum, Natalie G.; Dufour, Alfred P.; Brenner, Kristen P.; Haugland, Richard A.; Chern, Eunice; Schwab, Kellogg J.; Love, David C.; Serre, Marc L.; Noble, Rachel; Wade, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies showing an association between fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) in sand and gastrointestinal (GI) illness among beachgoers with sand contact have important public health implications because of the large numbers of people who recreate at beaches and engage in sand contact activities. Yet, factors that influence fecal pollution in beach sand remain unclear. During the 2007 National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational (NEEAR) Water Study, sand samples were collected at three locations (60 m apart) on weekend days (Sat, Sun) and holidays between June and September at two marine beaches — Fairhope Beach, AL and Goddard Beach, RI — with nearby publicly-owned treatment works (POTWs) outfalls. F+ coliphage, enterococci, Bacteroidales, fecal Bacteroides spp., and Clostridium spp. were measured in sand using culture and qPCR-based calibrator-cell equivalent methods. Water samples were also collected on the same days, times and transects as the 144 sand samples and were assayed using the same FIO measurements. Weather and environmental data were collected at the time of sample collection. Mean FIO concentrations in sand varied over time, but not space. Enterococci CFU and CCE densities in sand were not correlated, although other FIOs in sand were. The strongest correlation between FIO density in sand and water was fecal Bacteroides CCE, followed by enterococci CFU, Clostridium spp. CCE, and Bacteroidales CCE. Overall, the factors associated with FIO concentrations in sand were related to the sand–water interface (i.e., sand-wetting) and included daily average densities of FIOs in water, rainfall, and wave height. Targeted monitoring that focuses on daily trends of sand FIO variability, combined with information about specific water quality, weather, and environmental factors may inform beach monitoring and management decisions to reduce microbial burdens in beach sand. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors

  13. Beach groin acts as barrier to longshore transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-09-01

    The Bergen Avenue Groin in Harvey Cedars, N.J., a storm protection structure that confines alongshore-moving sediment to create wider beaches, has been found to act as a barrier to longshore sediment transport according to Michael S. Bruno, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, N.J. Using a wave transformation-shoreline evolution model, Bruno examined the effectiveness of an existing stone groin on a commercially and historically valuable beach. His findings were summarized at the 21st Union of Panamerican Engineers meeting hosted by the American Association of Engineering Societies held in Washington, D.C., August 19-24.Groins are low, narrow jetties made of timber, stone, concrete, or steel that extend roughly perpendicular to the shoreline. They are designed to protect the shore from erosion by currents, tides or waves, or to trap sand and littoral drift to build up or make a beach. The advantage of a groin is that it is a permanent solution to beach erosion, as opposed to the continuing process of beach replenishment required in nonstructural processes such as beachfills. This same permanence, however, is often the downfall of structural solutions because of the long-term deleterious consequences associated with such devices.

  14. Scour of Sand-Gravel Beaches in Front of Seawalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xharde, Regis; Frandsen, Jannette; Gauvin-Tremblay, Olivier

    2015-11-01

    Large-scale physical experiments were conducted in the 5m-wide, 5m-deep and 120m-long wave flume at the Quebec Coastal Laboratory of the national scientific research institute (INRS) to evaluate wave-induced scour depth (ds) at vertical seawalls and on natural beaches. In the initial part of the study, the equilibrium beach profile of a mixed sand-gravel beach with a mean grain size diameter of 12 mm was studied for various beach slopes using regular and irregular waves with intermediate water depths (h0 ∈ [2.3; 3.8] m) and different wave heights. In the second part of the study, a vertical seawall fronted by a 1:10 sloping mixed sand-gravel beach was tested for more than 50 wave trains using regular and irregular waves with various water depths at the seawall (hw) , wave heights and wave periods. The scour depth at the toe of the seawall is highly dependent on the form of wave breaking onto the structure. Sea states where plunging breakers occur directly onto the wall generate jets of water that may penetrate to the seabed and cause a local scour hole immediately adjacent to the seawall. Scour depth is maximum when Hb/hw>1 and Xb/Hb <1, where Hb is the breaker height and Xb the distance from the seawall of the breaking wave. Comparison with existing semi-empirically derived scour prediction equations was performed.

  15. Predicting 'very poor' beach water quality gradings using classification tree.

    PubMed

    Thoe, Wai; Choi, King Wah; Lee, Joseph Hun-wei

    2016-02-01

    A beach water quality prediction system has been developed in Hong Kong using multiple linear regression (MLR) models. However, linear models are found to be weak at capturing the infrequent 'very poor' water quality occasions when Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentration exceeds 610 counts/100 mL. This study uses a classification tree to increase the accuracy in predicting the 'very poor' water quality events at three Hong Kong beaches affected either by non-point source or point source pollution. Binary-output classification trees (to predict whether E. coli concentration exceeds 610 counts/100 mL) are developed over the periods before and after the implementation of the Harbour Area Treatment Scheme, when systematic changes in water quality were observed. Results show that classification trees can capture more 'very poor' events in both periods when compared to the corresponding linear models, with an increase in correct positives by an average of 20%. Classification trees are also developed at two beaches to predict the four-category Beach Water Quality Indices. They perform worse than the binary tree and give excessive false alarms of 'very poor' events. Finally, a combined modelling approach using both MLR model and classification tree is proposed to enhance the beach water quality prediction system for Hong Kong.

  16. Predicting 'very poor' beach water quality gradings using classification tree.

    PubMed

    Thoe, Wai; Choi, King Wah; Lee, Joseph Hun-wei

    2016-02-01

    A beach water quality prediction system has been developed in Hong Kong using multiple linear regression (MLR) models. However, linear models are found to be weak at capturing the infrequent 'very poor' water quality occasions when Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentration exceeds 610 counts/100 mL. This study uses a classification tree to increase the accuracy in predicting the 'very poor' water quality events at three Hong Kong beaches affected either by non-point source or point source pollution. Binary-output classification trees (to predict whether E. coli concentration exceeds 610 counts/100 mL) are developed over the periods before and after the implementation of the Harbour Area Treatment Scheme, when systematic changes in water quality were observed. Results show that classification trees can capture more 'very poor' events in both periods when compared to the corresponding linear models, with an increase in correct positives by an average of 20%. Classification trees are also developed at two beaches to predict the four-category Beach Water Quality Indices. They perform worse than the binary tree and give excessive false alarms of 'very poor' events. Finally, a combined modelling approach using both MLR model and classification tree is proposed to enhance the beach water quality prediction system for Hong Kong. PMID:26837834

  17. Feminization of the Isopod Cylisticus convexus after Transinfection of the wVulC Wolbachia Strain of Armadillidium vulgare

    PubMed Central

    Badawi, Myriam; Grève, Pierre; Cordaux, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive parasites such as Wolbachia are able to manipulate the reproduction of their hosts by inducing parthenogenesis, male-killing, cytoplasmic incompatibility or feminization of genetic males. Despite extensive studies, no underlying molecular mechanism has been described to date. The goal of this study was to establish a system with a single Wolbachia strain that feminizes two different isopod species to enable comparative analyses aimed at elucidating the genetic basis of feminization. It was previously suggested that Wolbachia wVulC, which naturally induces feminization in Armadillidium vulgare, induces the development of female secondary sexual characters in transinfected Cylisticus convexus adult males. However, this does not demonstrate that wVulC induces feminization in C. convexus since feminization is the conversion of genetic males into functional females that occurs during development. Nevertheless, it suggests that C. convexus may represent a feminization model suitable for further development. Knowledge about C. convexus sexual differentiation is also essential for comparative analyses, as feminization is thought to take place just before or during sexual differentiation. Consequently, we first described gonad morphological differentiation of C. convexus and compared it with that of A. vulgare. Then, wVulC was injected into male and female C. convexus adult individuals. The feminizing effect was demonstrated by the combined appearance of female secondary sexual characters in transinfected adult males, as well as the presence of intersexes and female biases in progenies in which wVulC was vertically transmitted from transinfected mothers. The establishment of a new model of feminization of a Wolbachia strain in a heterologous host constitutes a useful tool towards the understanding of the molecular mechanism of feminization. PMID:26047139

  18. Feminization of the Isopod Cylisticus convexus after Transinfection of the wVulC Wolbachia Strain of Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Badawi, Myriam; Grève, Pierre; Cordaux, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive parasites such as Wolbachia are able to manipulate the reproduction of their hosts by inducing parthenogenesis, male-killing, cytoplasmic incompatibility or feminization of genetic males. Despite extensive studies, no underlying molecular mechanism has been described to date. The goal of this study was to establish a system with a single Wolbachia strain that feminizes two different isopod species to enable comparative analyses aimed at elucidating the genetic basis of feminization. It was previously suggested that Wolbachia wVulC, which naturally induces feminization in Armadillidium vulgare, induces the development of female secondary sexual characters in transinfected Cylisticus convexus adult males. However, this does not demonstrate that wVulC induces feminization in C. convexus since feminization is the conversion of genetic males into functional females that occurs during development. Nevertheless, it suggests that C. convexus may represent a feminization model suitable for further development. Knowledge about C. convexus sexual differentiation is also essential for comparative analyses, as feminization is thought to take place just before or during sexual differentiation. Consequently, we first described gonad morphological differentiation of C. convexus and compared it with that of A. vulgare. Then, wVulC was injected into male and female C. convexus adult individuals. The feminizing effect was demonstrated by the combined appearance of female secondary sexual characters in transinfected adult males, as well as the presence of intersexes and female biases in progenies in which wVulC was vertically transmitted from transinfected mothers. The establishment of a new model of feminization of a Wolbachia strain in a heterologous host constitutes a useful tool towards the understanding of the molecular mechanism of feminization. PMID:26047139

  19. Precursor structure, distribution and possible functions of pigment-dispersing hormone (PDH) in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Latreille).

    PubMed

    Fouda, Maged Mohamed Ali; Hiragaki, Susumu; Tufail, Muhammad; Shao, Qi-Miao; Takeda, Makio

    2010-12-01

    Pigment-dispersing hormone (PDH) is an 18 amino acid neuropeptide that induces pigment migration in Decapoda and serves as a circadian neurotransmitter in the locomotor activity rhythm in Drosophila. In this study, a cDNA encoding PDH was cloned from adult brains of the pill bug, Armadillidium vulgare (Av). The cDNA comprising 529 bp encodes a peptide (AvPDH) that consists of a putative 26 amino acid signal peptide, and a 34 amino acid PDH-precursor-related peptide containing an 18 amino acid mature peptide. The peptide shows a high sequence identity (55-77%) to crustacean β-PDHs and insect PDFs. The tissue-specific expression pattern was examined by reverse transcription PCR. The transcript is expressed in the brain strongly and ventral nerve cord weakly, but the signal was not detected in the intestinal tract. A similar expression profile appeared in Western blot analyses. Western blot analyses with timed samples showed more intense expression of PDH-like antigen at night. PDH-like immunohistochemical reactivity (PDH-ir) was detected in the optic lobe, anteromedian protocerebrum, accessory lobe, tritocerebrum, and suboesophageal ganglion but the reactivity was faint or nil in the pseudofrontal organ (sinus gland). These results were substantiated by in situ hybridization. Co-localization using anti-Gryllus bimaculatus (Gb)-PDF, anti-Bombyx mori (Bm)-CLK, and anti-Bm-CYC showed a co-localization of these antigens in the optic lobe and SOG. The results provide the first structural and immunocytochemical identification of PDH neurons in terrestrial isopods, and the co-localization of PDH with CLK and CYC supports its possible involvement in circadian clock. A day/night rhythm of PDH content is also a new feature. PMID:20637211

  20. Distribution, life cycle and demography in a brackish water population of the isopod Cyathura carinata (Kröyer) (Crustacea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ólafsson, Einar B.; Persson, Lars-Eric

    1986-11-01

    Cyathura carinata, an infaunal, fossorial, isopod is a dominant member of a brackish, shallow water macrobenthic community on the south coast of Sweden. It has a bi-annual life-cycle. Breeding occurs in June-July, and a single brood of between 18-63 eggs per female is produced. The eggs take about 3-4 weeks to develop, the juveniles emerge in mid-late July. Initial recruitment in the study area was estimated to be 1480-1850 juveniles m -2 for 1981-1983 year classes. About 5% of the recruits survive to reproductive age two years later. Growth was characterized by fast growth during summer-autumn, stagnation in winter, and a slow start in spring. Females and males were not separated until just prior to reproduction (i.e. in June of the second year). At this stage males were larger than females and sex ratio was 1:1. During the breeding season, the abundance of males decreased rapidly due to post-reproductive death. Females continued to live, carrying the developing eggs in their brood pouches. Adult females die shortly after the young are released. The entire generation of reproductive adults (two years of age) has died by mid August. No evidence of the stated protogynous hermaphroditism was found in our study. Cohort production was 1·83 g wet wt m -2 for the 1980 cohort and 1·33 for the 1981 cohort. P/B-ratios were 2·12 for the 1980 cohort and 2·48 for the 1981 cohort. The P/B-ratios found were closest to those calculated by the method of Waters when an accurate estimate of mortality was available.

  1. Sexual sterilization of the daggerblade grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) by the bopyrid isopod Probopyrus pandalicola (Isopoda: Bopyridae).

    PubMed

    Sherman, Michele B; Curran, Mary Carla

    2015-02-01

    Probopyrus pandalicola is a bopyrid isopod that infects several palaemonid shrimp species, including the daggerblade grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio . The parasite can have several negative effects on its host, including loss of hemolymph, reduced reproductive potential, and decreased molting frequency and growth. To date, there are conflicting reports on whether Probopyrus pandalicola affects the reproductive capability of both male and female daggerblade grass shrimp. The purpose of this study was to determine whether infection by Probopyrus pandalicola resulted in the sexual sterilization of Palaemonetes pugio , and if the reproductive capability of male and/or female shrimp was restored after the bopyrid was removed. We found that parasitized and deparasitized males were able to fertilize the eggs of unparasitized females successfully, as 18.9 ± 7.1% and 42.7 ± 5.2% of the females paired with them became ovigerous in 4 wk, respectively. Neither parasitized nor deparasitized females became ovigerous when placed with unparasitized males during the 4-wk period. However, 45.4 ± 20.6% of deparasitized females did become ovigerous within 10 wk. Despite the fact that female shrimp are able to reproduce again when no longer parasitized, the majority of females remain infected with the bopyrid for their entire lives. Therefore, the sexual sterilization of female shrimp could potentially have a significant impact on estuarine food webs, as grass shrimp are conduits of detrital energy and a food source for many recreationally and commercially important species in estuaries on the East Coast of the United States and in the Gulf of Mexico.

  2. [Relationship between water transfers and the salinity of the environment in the isopod crustacean Sphaeroma serratum (Fabricius)].

    PubMed

    Thuet, P

    1978-12-01

    The isopod Crustacean Sphaeroma serratum is isotonic to the medium in sea water and hypertonic in diluted media. The drinking rate is 15.9 microliter in SW and 3.2 microliter 24 h-1 100 mg-1 wet weight in 50% SW. The extracellular space is 28.4% in SW and 27.0% of the wet weight in 50% SW. The rate of urine production, calculated from the half time for the loss of sodium diatriazoate is 11.8 mg in SW and 42.9 mg 24 h-1 100 mg-1 wet weight in 50% SW. 95% of the diffusion fluxes of water take place through the pleopods: their surface is about 62.6 mm2 in a 100 mg weighing animal. The activation energy of water molecules is 15.0 kcal/mol between +5 degrees C and +15 degrees C and 6.7 kcal/mol between +15 degrees C and +25 degrees C. The diffusion permeability coefficient Pd is 1.71 X 10(-4) cm/sec in SW and 0.70 X 10(-4) cm/sec in 50% SW. The osmotic permeability coefficient Pos has a mean value of 1.91 X 10(-4) cm/sec in SW and 1.24 X 10(-4) cm/sec in 50% SW. Our results are compared with those obtained in other Crustaceans and in Fishes. Their validity is discussed (influence of unstirred layers, solute-solvent interaction). They are explained according to the different theories dealing with the water transit through the membranes.

  3. The EMPACT Beaches Project Results from a Study on Microbiological Monitoring in Recreational Waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EMPACT (Environmental Monitoring for Public Access and Community Tracking) Beaches project has attempted to define which characteristics are most signifi cant with regard to monitoring approaches. This project examined five beach environments to determine the factors that mos...

  4. Wave energy level and geographic setting correlate with Florida beach water quality.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhixuan; Reniers, Ad; Haus, Brian K; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Kelly, Elizabeth A

    2016-03-15

    Many recreational beaches suffer from elevated levels of microorganisms, resulting in beach advisories and closures due to lack of compliance with Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. We conducted the first statewide beach water quality assessment by analyzing decadal records of fecal indicator bacteria (enterococci and fecal coliform) levels at 262 Florida beaches. The objectives were to depict synoptic patterns of beach water quality exceedance along the entire Florida shoreline and to evaluate their relationships with wave condition and geographic location. Percent exceedances based on enterococci and fecal coliform were negatively correlated with both long-term mean wave energy and beach slope. Also, Gulf of Mexico beaches exceeded the thresholds significantly more than Atlantic Ocean ones, perhaps partially due to the lower wave energy. A possible linkage between wave energy level and water quality is beach sand, a pervasive nonpoint source that tends to harbor more bacteria in the low-wave-energy environment.

  5. Health effects associated with cyanobacteria exposure among beach attendees in Puerto Rico

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyanobacteria and their toxins are associated with adverse human health effects, although among marine waters, the pyrrhophyta, including dinoflagellates are more recognized as health hazards. We recruited beach attendees during summer 2009, at Boquerón Beach, Puerto Rico...

  6. 77 FR 5185 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway Albermarle Sound to Sunset Beach...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ... Albermarle Sound to Sunset Beach, Scotts Hill, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary... Figure Eight Beach Homeowners Association, who owns and operates the Figure Eight Swing Bridge across...

  7. Assessment of the aesthetic quality of a selection of beaches in the Firth of Forth, Scotland.

    PubMed

    Somerville, S E; Miller, K L; Mair, J M

    2003-09-01

    The aesthetic quality of fourteen beaches in the Firth of Forth, Scotland was surveyed between May and July 2002 using a protocol designed by the UK's National Aquatic Litter Group (NALG). Local authority beach cleaning regimes influence the amount of litter found on beaches. Frequent and thorough beach cleaning is necessary to maintain high aesthetic standards. Bathing and amenity beaches achieved higher aesthetic quality than non-bathing and non-amenity beaches. The aesthetic quality of rural and urban beaches was very similar. The NALG protocol appears more complicated to use than other beach litter surveys. However, the classification system generates results that are easily interpreted by the general public. Furthermore, the NALG protocol could be combined with coastal zone management plans as a useful environmental performance indicator. PMID:12932501

  8. Recreational water exposures and health effects at a tropical and a runoff impacted beach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Studies conducted by the EPA at beaches with nearby treated sewage discharges established associations between gastrointestinal (GI) illnesses among swimmers and measurements of fecal indicator bacteria, Enterococcus and Bacteroidales (marine beaches only) measured by...

  9. Wave energy level and geographic setting correlate with Florida beach water quality.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhixuan; Reniers, Ad; Haus, Brian K; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Kelly, Elizabeth A

    2016-03-15

    Many recreational beaches suffer from elevated levels of microorganisms, resulting in beach advisories and closures due to lack of compliance with Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. We conducted the first statewide beach water quality assessment by analyzing decadal records of fecal indicator bacteria (enterococci and fecal coliform) levels at 262 Florida beaches. The objectives were to depict synoptic patterns of beach water quality exceedance along the entire Florida shoreline and to evaluate their relationships with wave condition and geographic location. Percent exceedances based on enterococci and fecal coliform were negatively correlated with both long-term mean wave energy and beach slope. Also, Gulf of Mexico beaches exceeded the thresholds significantly more than Atlantic Ocean ones, perhaps partially due to the lower wave energy. A possible linkage between wave energy level and water quality is beach sand, a pervasive nonpoint source that tends to harbor more bacteria in the low-wave-energy environment. PMID:26892203

  10. Beach litter occurrence in sandy littorals: The potential role of urban areas, rivers and beach users in central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poeta, Gianluca; Conti, Luisa; Malavasi, Marco; Battisti, Corrado; Acosta, Alicia Teresa Rosario

    2016-11-01

    Litter washed ashore on the coastline, also called beach litter, constitutes one of the most obvious signs of marine litter pollution. Surveys of beach litter represent a fundamental tool for monitoring pollution in the marine environment and have been used world-wide to classify and quantify marine litter. Identifying the sources of marine and beach litter is, together with education, the prime weapon in combating this type of pollution. This work investigates the impact of three main potential land sources on litter occurrence: urban areas, rivers and beach users. Three sources were analyzed simultaneously on a broad scale (Lazio region, central Italy) using a random sampling design and fitting a generalized linear mixed-effect model. The results show that urban areas are the main drivers for the occurrence of marine litter along central Italy's coastal ecosystems, suggesting that the presence of such litter on Lazio beaches could be effectively reduced by identifying failings in recycling and waste collection procedures and by improving waste processing systems and sewage treatment in urban areas.

  11. A method for determining average beach slope and beach slope variability for U.S. sandy coastlines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doran, Kara S.; Long, Joseph W.; Overbeck, Jacquelyn R.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Assessment of Hurricane-Induced Coastal Erosion Hazards compares measurements of beach morphology with storm-induced total water levels to produce forecasts of coastal change for storms impacting the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coastlines of the United States. The wave-induced water level component (wave setup and swash) is estimated by using modeled offshore wave height and period and measured beach slope (from dune toe to shoreline) through the empirical parameterization of Stockdon and others (2006). Spatial and temporal variability in beach slope leads to corresponding variability in predicted wave setup and swash. For instance, seasonal and storm-induced changes in beach slope can lead to differences on the order of 1 meter (m) in wave-induced water level elevation, making accurate specification of this parameter and its associated uncertainty essential to skillful forecasts of coastal change. A method for calculating spatially and temporally averaged beach slopes is presented here along with a method for determining total uncertainty for each 200-m alongshore section of coastline.

  12. External costs of coastal beach pollution: an hedonic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Wilman, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    A technique for inputing a monetary value to the loss in beach recreational services that would result from a hypothetical oil spill in the Georges Bank area combines an oil-spill risk analysis model with a hedonic pricing model of the market for tourist accommodations on Cape Cod and Martha's Vineyard. The estimate of beach pollution costs associated with offshore oil development allows a rational judgment of whether the benefits of developing offshore oil outweigh the costs. The method is an effort to improve the economic efficiency of coastal zone management. The report concludes with a discussion of the many sources of uncertainty and suggestions for overcoming them. Five appendices present information on the models, variables, questionnaire responses, beaches, and factor patterns. 7 figures, 27 tables.

  13. Radioactive minerals in the Yakataga beach placers, southern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moxham, Robert M.

    1952-01-01

    Radioactivity of nine samples of beach placer deposits in the Yakataga area, southern Alaska, was studied in 1948. The samples were given to the Geological Survey by prospectors operating in the area operating in the area. The heavy-mineral fractions from the concentrates average 0.044 percent equivalent uranium. Three minerals, all members of the zircon group, contain the radioactive material in the sample; one mineral is uranium-bearing, the other two are thorium-bearing. Unless the concentration of radioactive minerals in the beach deposits is considerably higher than the present qualitative data indicate, the placers at Yakataga beach do not constitute a feasible source of supply of radioactive materials.

  14. Factors influencing the detection of beach plastic debris.

    PubMed

    Lavers, Jennifer L; Oppel, Steffen; Bond, Alexander L

    2016-08-01

    Marine plastic pollution is a global problem with considerable ecological and economic consequences. Quantifying the amount of plastic in the ocean has been facilitated by surveys of accumulated plastic on beaches, but existing monitoring programmes assume the proportion of plastic detected during beach surveys is constant across time and space. Here we use a multi-observer experiment to assess what proportion of small plastic fragments is missed routinely by observers, and what factors influence the detection probability of different types of plastic. Detection probability across the various types of plastic ranged from 60 to 100%, and varied considerably by observer, observer experience, and biological material present on the beach that could be confused with plastic. Blue fragments had the highest detection probability, while white fragments had the lowest. We recommend long-term monitoring programmes adopt survey designs accounting for imperfect detection or at least assess the proportion of fragments missed by observers. PMID:27363010

  15. Equilibrium shoreline response of a high wave energy beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, M. L.; Guza, R. T.; O'Reilly, W. C.; Hansen, J. E.; Barnard, P. L.

    2011-04-01

    Four years of beach elevation surveys at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, California, are used to extend an existing equilibrium shoreline change model, previously calibrated with fine sand and moderate energy waves, to medium sand and higher-energy waves. The shoreline, characterized as the cross-shore location of the mean high water contour, varied seasonally by between 30 and 60 m, depending on the alongshore location. The equilibrium shoreline change model relates the rate of horizontal shoreline displacement to the hourly wave energy E and the wave energy disequilibrium, the difference between E and the equilibrium wave energy that would cause no change in the present shoreline location. Values for the model shoreline response coefficients are tuned to fit the observations in 500 m alongshore segments and averaged over segments where the model has good skill and the estimated effects of neglected alongshore sediment transport are relatively small. Using these representative response coefficients for 0.3 mm sand from Ocean Beach and driving the model with much lower-energy winter waves observed at San Onofre Beach (also 0.3 mm sand) in southern California, qualitatively reproduces the small seasonal shoreline fluctuations at San Onofre. This consistency suggests that the shoreline model response coefficients depend on grain size and may be constant, and thus transportable, between sites with similar grain size and different wave climates. The calibrated model response coefficients predict that for equal fluctuations in wave energy, changes in shoreline location on a medium-grained (0.3 mm) beach are much smaller than on a previously studied fine-grained (0.2 mm) beach.

  16. Predaceous ants, beach replenishment, and nest placement by sea turtles.

    PubMed

    Wetterer, James K; Wood, Lawrence D; Johnson, Chris; Krahe, Holly; Fitchett, Stephanie

    2007-10-01

    Ants known for attacking and killing hatchling birds and reptiles include the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren), tropical fire ant [Solenopsis geminata (Fabr.)], and little fire ant [Wasmannia auropunctata (Roger)]. We tested whether sea turtle nest placement influenced exposure to predaceous ants. In 2000 and 2001, we surveyed ants along a Florida beach where green turtles (Chelonia mydas L.), leatherbacks (Dermochelys coriacea Vandelli), and loggerheads (Caretta caretta L.) nest. Part of the beach was artificially replenished between our two surveys. As a result, mean beach width experienced by nesting turtles differed greatly between the two nesting seasons. We surveyed 1,548 sea turtle nests (2000: 909 nests; 2001: 639 nests) and found 22 ant species. S. invicta was by far the most common species (on 431 nests); S. geminata and W. auropunctata were uncommon (on 3 and 16 nests, respectively). In 2000, 62.5% of nests had ants present (35.9% with S. invicta), but in 2001, only 30.5% of the nests had ants present (16.4% with S. invicta). Turtle nests closer to dune vegetation had significantly greater exposure to ants. Differences in ant presence on turtle nests between years and among turtle species were closely related to differences in nest placement relative to dune vegetation. Beach replenishment significantly lowered exposure of nests to ants because on the wider beaches turtles nested farther from the dune vegetation. Selective pressures on nesting sea turtles are altered both by the presence of predaceous ants and the practice of beach replenishment.

  17. Equilibrium shoreline response of a high wave energy beach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, M.L.; Guza, R.T.; O'Reilly, W. C.; Hansen, J.E.; Barnard, P.L.

    2011-01-01

    Four years of beach elevation surveys at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, California, are used to extend an existing equilibrium shoreline change model, previously calibrated with fine sand and moderate energy waves, to medium sand and higher-energy waves. The shoreline, characterized as the cross-shore location of the mean high water contour, varied seasonally by between 30 and 60 m, depending on the alongshore location. The equilibrium shoreline change model relates the rate of horizontal shoreline displacement to the hourly wave energy E and the wave energy disequilibrium, the difference between E and the equilibrium wave energy that would cause no change in the present shoreline location. Values for the model shoreline response coefficients are tuned to fit the observations in 500 m alongshore segments and averaged over segments where the model has good skill and the estimated effects of neglected alongshore sediment transport are relatively small. Using these representative response coefficients for 0.3 mm sand from Ocean Beach and driving the model with much lower-energy winter waves observed at San Onofre Beach (also 0.3 mm sand) in southern California, qualitatively reproduces the small seasonal shoreline fluctuations at San Onofre. This consistency suggests that the shoreline model response coefficients depend on grain size and may be constant, and thus transportable, between sites with similar grain size and different wave climates. The calibrated model response coefficients predict that for equal fluctuations in wave energy, changes in shoreline location on a medium-grained (0.3 mm) beach are much smaller than on a previously studied fine-grained (0.2 mm) beach. Copyright ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. Beach and dunal system monitoring at Su Giudeu beach, Sardinia (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balzano, Andrea; Sulis, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Even if coastal floods are quite rare events in Sardinia (Italy) at present, they have had dramatic consequences for coastal communities, particularly in conjunction with river flooding. However, flood risk (defined as the product of event probability, vulnerability and value of assets) is expected to increase significantly in the future, due to climate change, defence degradation and sea level rise. Sardinia island has a costal length of approximately 1.900 km including minor neighbouring islands (25% of the entire Italian coasts) and the estimation of the potential exposure of coastal communities to flooding is therefore a critical task. To date methods for achieving this have been based on modelling of coastal inundation using hydrodynamic or GIS-based models of varying complexity. The Dept of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Architecture at the University of Cagliari is carrying out a comprehensive activity of coastal flooding risk mapping at the regional scale within the framework of a scientific collaboration with the Sardinian Regional Authority for the Hydrographic District, that includes monitoring and scientific activities along the entire Sardinian coast. Bathymetry and topographical surveys, sediment characterization, waves and currents measurements, hydrodynamic and morphodynamic modelling are planned, focusing on critical extended areas. In this paper we present an overview of the entire activity programme and give an in-depth account of the ongoing monitoring survey of the dunal system of the Su Giudeu beach (Southern Sardinia, 50 km far from the city of Cagliari). Su Giudeu is a sandy, bay-shaped beach, extending for about 1200 m between two headlands, evolving under waves with a predominant direction of 220-240°N (Scirocco wind). The survey is expected to provide evidence of the response of the remarkable dunal system to wave runup occurring during storm events, to be used in the verification of existing numerical models of dune erosion.

  19. Conquered from the Deep Sea? A New Deep-Sea Isopod Species from the Antarctic Shelf Shows Pattern of Recent Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Riehl, Torben; Kaiser, Stefanie

    2012-01-01

    The Amundsen Sea, Antarctica, is amongst the most rapidly changing environments of the world. Its benthic inhabitants are barely known and the BIOPEARL 2 project was one of the first to biologically explore this region. Collected during this expedition, Macrostylis roaldi sp. nov. is described as the first isopod discovered on the Amundsen-Sea shelf. Amongst many characteristic features, the most obvious characters unique for M. roaldi are the rather short pleotelson and short operculum as well as the trapezoid shape of the pleotelson in adult males. We used DNA barcodes (COI) and additional mitochondrial markers (12S, 16S) to reciprocally illuminate morphological results and nucleotide variability. In contrast to many other deep-sea isopods, this species is common and shows a wide distribution. Its range spreads from Pine Island Bay at inner shelf right to the shelf break and across 1,000 m bathymetrically. Its gene pool is homogenized across space and depth. This is indicative for a genetic bottleneck or a recent colonization history. Our results suggest further that migratory or dispersal capabilities of some species of brooding macrobenthos have been underestimated. This might be relevant for the species’ potential to cope with effects of climate change. To determine where this species could have survived the last glacial period, alternative refuge possibilities are discussed. PMID:23145160

  20. Functional morphology of parasitic isopods: understanding morphological adaptations of attachment and feeding structures in Nerocila as a pre-requisite for reconstructing the evolution of Cymothoidae.

    PubMed

    Nagler, Christina; Haug, Joachim T

    2016-01-01

    Parasites significantly influence food webs and ecosystems and occur all over the world in almost every animal group. Within crustaceans there are numerous examples of ectoparasites; for example, representatives of the isopod group Cymothoidae. These obligatory parasitic isopods are relatively poorly studied regarding their functional morphology. Here we present new details of the morphological adaptations to parasitism of the cymothoiid ingroup Nerocila with up-to-date imaging methods (macro photography, stereo imaging, fluorescence photography, micro CT, and histology). Central aspects of the study were (1) the morphology of the mouthparts and (2) the attachment on the host, hence the morphology of the thoracopods. The mouthparts (labrum, mandibles, paragnaths, maxillulae, maxillae, maxillipeds) form a distinct mouth cone and are most likely used for true sucking. The mouthparts are tightly "folded" around each other and provide functional rails for the only two moving mouthparts, mandible and maxillula. Both are not moving in an ancestral-type median-lateral movement, but are strongly tilted to move more in a proximal-distal axis. New details concerning the attachment demonstrate that the angular arrangement of the thoracopods is differentiated to impede removal by the host. The increased understanding of morphological adaptation to parasitism of modern forms will be useful in identifying disarticulated (not attached to the host) fossil parasites. PMID:27441121

  1. Surface adsorption of metals onto the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus and the isopod Porcellio scaber is negligible compared to absorption in the body.

    PubMed

    Vijver, Martina G; Wolterbeek, Hubert Th; Vink, Jos P M; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2005-03-20

    In terrestrial organisms, bioaccumulation is usually based on a summation of the amount of metal adsorbed to the body wall and absorbed into the body. The relative proportions of metal adsorption and absorption are usually not quantified. In this study, the distinction between adsorbed and absorbed metals was investigated in two different terrestrial species exposed to metals for 2 weeks. The earthworm Lumbricus rubellus was chosen as representative for organisms mainly taking up metals via the dermal route, and the isopod Porcellio scaber as an organism taking up metals mainly via the alimentary tract. Cross-sections of whole animals were made using a cryostat and accumulated metals were localized by means of a phosphor screen (autoradiography). Radiolabels were used to determine the distribution of metals over the different organs and to distinguish between adsorption and absorption. Cd in the earthworm was mainly found in tissues of the chloragogenous region, whereas Zn was also found in various other organs and in the connective tissue. In the isopod, both Cd and Zn were mainly located in the hepatopancreas. Adsorbed amounts of Cd and Zn were negligible compared to internalized Cd and Zn concentrations for both organisms. Consequently, when focusing on effects of metal uptake for the organism itself, there is no need to correct for adsorption. This suggests that adsorption to the epidermis is not a rate limiting step in metal uptake by soil invertebrates.

  2. Functional morphology of parasitic isopods: understanding morphological adaptations of attachment and feeding structures in Nerocila as a pre-requisite for reconstructing the evolution of Cymothoidae

    PubMed Central

    Haug, Joachim T.

    2016-01-01

    Parasites significantly influence food webs and ecosystems and occur all over the world in almost every animal group. Within crustaceans there are numerous examples of ectoparasites; for example, representatives of the isopod group Cymothoidae. These obligatory parasitic isopods are relatively poorly studied regarding their functional morphology. Here we present new details of the morphological adaptations to parasitism of the cymothoiid ingroup Nerocila with up-to-date imaging methods (macro photography, stereo imaging, fluorescence photography, micro CT, and histology). Central aspects of the study were (1) the morphology of the mouthparts and (2) the attachment on the host, hence the morphology of the thoracopods. The mouthparts (labrum, mandibles, paragnaths, maxillulae, maxillae, maxillipeds) form a distinct mouth cone and are most likely used for true sucking. The mouthparts are tightly “folded” around each other and provide functional rails for the only two moving mouthparts, mandible and maxillula. Both are not moving in an ancestral-type median-lateral movement, but are strongly tilted to move more in a proximal-distal axis. New details concerning the attachment demonstrate that the angular arrangement of the thoracopods is differentiated to impede removal by the host. The increased understanding of morphological adaptation to parasitism of modern forms will be useful in identifying disarticulated (not attached to the host) fossil parasites. PMID:27441121

  3. Bioavailability of cobalt and iron from citric-acid-adsorbed CoFe2O4 nanoparticles in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber.

    PubMed

    Romih, Tea; Drašler, Barbara; Jemec, Anita; Drobne, Damjana; Novak, Sara; Golobič, Miha; Makovec, Darko; Susič, Robert; Kogej, Ksenija

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether citric acid adsorbed onto cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles (NPs) influences the bioavailability of their constituents Co and Fe. Dissolution of Co and Fe was assessed by two measures: (i) in aqueous suspension using chemical analysis, prior to application onto the food of test organisms; and (ii) in vivo, measuring the bioavailability in the model terrestrial invertebrate (Porcellio scaber, Isopoda, Crustacea). The isopods were exposed to citric-acid-adsorbed CoFe2O4 NPs for 2 weeks, and tissue accumulation of Co and Fe was assessed. This was compared to pristine CoFe2O4 NPs, and CoCl2 and Fe(III) salts as positive controls. The combined data shows that citric acid enhances free metal ion concentration from CoFe2O4 NPs in aqueous suspension, although in vivo, very similar amounts of assimilated Co were found in isopods exposed to both types of NPs. Therefore, evaluation of the dissolution in suspension by chemical means is not a good predictor of metal assimilation of this model organism; body assimilation of Co and Fe is rather governed by the physiological capacity of P. scaber for the uptake of these metals. Moreover, we propose that citric acid, due to its chelating properties, may hinder the uptake of Co that dissolves from citric-acid-adsorbed CoFe2O4 NPs, if citric acid is present in sufficient quantity.

  4. Swash zone characteristics at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erikson, L.H.; Hanes, D.M.; Barnard, P.L.; Gibbs, A.E.

    2007-01-01

    Runup data collected during the summer of 2005 at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA are analyzed and considered to be typical summer swash characteristics at this site. Analysis shows that the beach was dissipative with Iribarren numbers between 0.05 and 0.4 and that infragravity energy dominated. Foreshore slopes were mild between 0.01 and 0.05 with swash periods on the order of a minute. Predicted runup heights obtained with six previously developed analytical runup formulae were compared to measured extreme runup statistics. Formulations dependent on offshore wave height, foreshore slope and deep water wavelength gave reasonable results.

  5. 76 FR 48879 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Alabama Beach Mouse General Conservation Plan for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Alabama Beach Mouse General... endangered Alabama beach mouse (Peromyscus polionotus ammobates) in Baldwin County, Alabama. The GCP analyzes... availability of the proposed GCP and the dEIS. These documents analyze the take of the Alabama beach...

  6. GREAT LAKES BEACH CLOSURES: USING SATELLITE IMAGES TO IDENTIFY AREAS AT RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Are people getting sick from swimming at Great Lakes beaches? Some are. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, swimmers are experiencing an increase in bacterial borne illnesses from swimming at many popular Great Lakes beaches. The beaches in the Great Lak...

  7. 75 FR 67214 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events; Wrightsville Channel, Wrightsville Beach, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... Beach, NC in the Federal Register (75 FR 56024). We received no comments on the proposed rule. No public... Battleship Full and Half Iron Distance Triathlon,'' to be held on the waters adjacent to Wrightsville Beach... 13, 2010, the Wilmington YMCA will sponsor the ``Beach 2 Battleship Full and Half Iron...

  8. 76 FR 9278 - Safety Zone; Fourth Annual Offshore Challenge, Sunny Isles Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... Guard proposes to establish a temporary safety zone in the Atlantic Ocean east of Sunny Isles Beach... held in the Atlantic Ocean offshore of Sunny Isles Beach, Florida. Approximately 50 offshore power... safety zone around a race area in the Atlantic Ocean offshore of Sunny Isles Beach, Florida. Persons...

  9. 76 FR 29642 - Special Local Regulations; Miami Super Boat Grand Prix, Miami Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... establishing special local regulations on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean east of ] Miami Beach, Florida... will be held on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean east of Miami Beach, Florida. Approximately 25 high... Atlantic Ocean east of Miami Beach, Florida during the Miami Super Boat Grand Prix. The special...

  10. 33 CFR 334.990 - Long Beach Harbor, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Long Beach Harbor, Calif.; naval... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.990 Long Beach.... Naval Base Los Angeles, Long Beach, California, and such agencies as he may designate....

  11. 33 CFR 80.160 - Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Beach, NY. 80.160 Section 80.160 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... to Atlantic Beach, NY. (a) A line drawn from the Shinnecock Inlet East Breakwater Light to Shinnecock... southernmost extremity of the spit of land at the western end of Oak Beach. (d) A line drawn from Jones...

  12. 33 CFR 334.990 - Long Beach Harbor, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Long Beach Harbor, Calif.; naval... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.990 Long Beach.... Naval Base Los Angeles, Long Beach, California, and such agencies as he may designate....

  13. 33 CFR 80.160 - Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Beach, NY. 80.160 Section 80.160 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... to Atlantic Beach, NY. (a) A line drawn from the Shinnecock Inlet East Breakwater Light to Shinnecock... southernmost extremity of the spit of land at the western end of Oak Beach. (d) A line drawn from Jones...

  14. 33 CFR 100.106 - Freeport Grand Prix, Long Beach, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Freeport Grand Prix, Long Beach... Beach, NY. (a) Regulated area. The regulated area is a trapezoidal area on the coastal Atlantic waters of Long Island to the south of Long Beach, New York. The regulated area is one and one quarter...

  15. 76 FR 16297 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Cerritos Channel, Long Beach, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Cerritos Channel, Long Beach, CA... of the Commodore Schuyler F. Heim Drawbridge across Cerritos Channel, mile 4.9, at Long Beach, CA... Channel, at Long Beach, CA. The drawbridge navigation span provides a vertical clearance of 37 feet...

  16. 78 FR 47191 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Albemarle Sound to Sunset Beach, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-05

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Albemarle Sound to Sunset Beach, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (AICW), Wrightsville Beach, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... Wrightsville Beach, NC. The deviation is necessary to facilitate electrical system and equipment upgrades...

  17. 33 CFR 80.160 - Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Beach, NY. 80.160 Section 80.160 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... to Atlantic Beach, NY. (a) A line drawn from the Shinnecock Inlet East Breakwater Light to Shinnecock... southernmost extremity of the spit of land at the western end of Oak Beach. (d) A line drawn from Jones...

  18. 76 FR 28025 - Edison Mission Holding Beach, LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Edison Mission Holding Beach, LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order... Mission Holding Beach, LLC (EMHB) filed a petition for declaratory order requesting that the Federal...), that it will acquire from, and then lease back to their current owner, AES Huntington Beach, LLC....

  19. 77 FR 27624 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Cerritos Channel, Long Beach, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Cerritos Channel, Long Beach, CA.... Heim Drawbridge across Cerritos Channel, mile 4.9, at Long Beach, CA. The deviation is necessary to... Drawbridge, mile 4.9, over Cerritos Channel, at Long Beach, CA. The drawbridge navigation span provides...

  20. 40 CFR 227.10 - Hazards to fishing, navigation, shorelines or beaches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., shorelines or beaches. 227.10 Section 227.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Environmental Impact § 227.10 Hazards to fishing, navigation, shorelines or beaches. (a) Wastes which may... present a hazard to shorelines or beaches may be dumped only at sites and under conditions which...