Science.gov

Sample records for beach rock heron

  1. Epilithic cyanobacterial communities of a marine tropical beach rock (Heron Island, Great Barrier Reef): diversity and diazotrophy.

    PubMed

    Díez, Beatriz; Bauer, Karolina; Bergman, Birgitta

    2007-06-01

    The diversity and nitrogenase activity of epilithic marine microbes in a Holocene beach rock (Heron Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia) with a proposed biological calcification "microbialite" origin were examined. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequences from the dominant mat (a coherent and layered pink-pigmented community spread over the beach rock) and biofilms (nonstratified, differently pigmented microbial communities of small shallow depressions) were retrieved using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and a clone library was retrieved from the dominant mat. The 16S rRNA gene sequences and morphological analyses revealed heterogeneity in the cyanobacterial distribution patterns. The nonheterocystous filamentous genus Blennothrix sp., phylogenetically related to Lyngbya, dominated the mat together with unidentified nonheterocystous filaments of members of the Pseudanabaenaceae and the unicellular genus Chroococcidiopsis. The dominance and three-dimensional intertwined distribution of these organisms were confirmed by nonintrusive scanning microscopy. In contrast, the less pronounced biofilms were dominated by the heterocystous cyanobacterial genus Calothrix, two unicellular Entophysalis morphotypes, Lyngbya spp., and members of the Pseudanabaenaceae family. Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides and Alphaproteobacteria phylotypes were also retrieved from the beach rock. The microbial diversity of the dominant mat was accompanied by high nocturnal nitrogenase activities (as determined by in situ acetylene reduction assays). A new DGGE nifH gene optimization approach for cyanobacterial nitrogen fixers showed that the sequences retrieved from the dominant mat were related to nonheterocystous uncultured cyanobacterial phylotypes, only distantly related to sequences of nitrogen-fixing cultured cyanobacteria. These data stress the occurrence and importance of nonheterocystous epilithic cyanobacteria, and it is hypothesized that such epilithic cyanobacteria are

  2. 77 FR 2966 - Rock River Beach, Inc.; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Rock River Beach, Inc.; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the...: Exemption from Licensing. b. Project No.: 14345-000. c. Filing Date: January 5, 2012. d. Applicant: Rock River Beach, Inc. e. Name of Project: Rock River Beach Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: On the Rock...

  3. 77 FR 73636 - Rock River Beach, Inc.; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ...] Rock River Beach, Inc.; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and Soliciting... No.: P-14345-001. c. Date filed: November 23, 2012. d. Applicant: Rock River Beach, Inc. e. Name of Project: Rock River Beach Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: On the Rock River, in the Town of Onota...

  4. 78 FR 48155 - Rock River Beach, Inc.; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing With the Commission; Intent To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ... hydroelectric application has been filed with the Commission and is available for public inspection. a. Type of...: Rock River Beach, Inc. e. Name of Project: Rock River Beach Hydroelectric Project f. Location: On the...

  5. Heron conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kushlan, J.A.; Hafner, H.

    2000-01-01

    Herons are large, popular and, in many cases, spectacular birds found in wetlands world-wide, both tropical and temperate, natural and man-made. Some populations are very small and localized, some have decreased, some have expanded their ranges, and a few are pests of human activities. In the fifteen years since the publication of the latest monographic treatment of the family, The Herons Handbook, there has been a tremendous increase in our knowledge of heron status and conservation requirements, set against a backdrop of increasing concern about the future of the world?s wetland habitats. This book provides a comprehensive update following two distinct threads. The status and conservation needs of herons are first presented on a regional basis, in a series of chapters set at a continental or subcontinental scale. Over 200 biologists and heron conservationists have contributed to the data summarized here, and the very latest census and survey results provide the most up-to-date and detailed picture of heron populations currently available. Chapters discussing several critical issues in heron conservation follow, tending to focus on the international nature of the problems.

  6. From Sand to Rock: a teaching activity to introduce beach dynamics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravina, Teresita

    2015-04-01

    The Italian coastline is about 7,500 km long; approximately 53% of the coastlines are low or deltaic coastlines, while 3,240 km were mainly composed of sand or gravel beaches. Most of the Italian coastal environment suffers from intense and growing urbanization, tourism and industry pressure, which could partly explain that 42% of Italian beaches experience erosion. Terracina is situated Lazio (Central Italy), a region strongly impacted by coastal erosion, and for this reason we organized a teaching activity, carried out with fourth year high school classes, in order to help students to understand sand beach dynamics, acquisition of geology issues and land conservation and preservation skills. We decided to focus our activity on the mineralogical composition of beach sand in order to relate beach formations with the geological evolution of the territory. Sand beach minerals were used as tracers in order to support students to understand dynamics that influence beach formations. In addition to mineral characteristic recognition, this activity allows us to introduce the beach balance concept and the phenomena that regulate sediment balance, in order to allow students to consider beaches as a resource which needs to be preserved. Sand mineralogical composition data is treated in a worksheet to elaborate simple statistical analysis in order to recognize the mineral composition of Terracina beach sand's rock sources. This exercise allows students to find relationships between regional geology and beach sand's composition. Finally, statistical evidence could be compared with geological maps of the area in order to find the probable provenance of sand's rock source and rocks recognition thanks to related morphologies. Our main purpose was to help students to understand that beaches are dynamic systems subject to anthropogenic pressure and for this reason they needed to be preserved. Proposed teaching activities involve topics related to students' living territory and to

  7. Beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richmond, Bruce M.

    2009-01-01

    Beaches are shoreline accumulations of loose sand, gravel or a mixture of the two, that are formed primarily by the action of waves. Beach sediment can be derived from a variety of sources including insular shelves, the adjacent land and upland sources, or other beach locations through alongshore movement of material. Beaches provide critical coastal habitat, such as nesting sites for sea turtles; they act as a buffer protecting adjacent land from storm wave attack; and they are an important cultural and recreational resource. Island beaches are the same as those on the continents, but island beach characteristics typically change over very short distances on account of rapid changes in coastline orientation, exposure to waves, and sediment source.

  8. The Influence of Ephemeral Beaches on Alongshore Variability of Hard-rock Cliff Erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vann Jones, E. C.; Rosser, N. J.; Brain, M.; Varley, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    The role of abrasion of rock cliffs is typically considered in the long-term presence of a beach. During monthly monitoring of hard rock cliff erosion along the North Yorkshire coast, UK, we have observed a number of small ephemeral beaches of highly variable duration and extent. The erosive significance of the temporary presence of sediment at the cliffs is unknown and we set out to examine whether observed alongshore variability in erosion can be linked to the presence of ephemeral beaches. We explore the temporal and spatial variability in sediment deposition and transport along a low-sediment rock coast foreshore, the controlling marine conditions and the effects on cliff erosion. We focus on a 500 m wide embayment set into 70 m high hard rock cliffs consisting of horizontally bedded Jurassic mudstone, shale, siltstone and sandstone. The bay has a wide, shallow gradient foreshore up to 300 m wide with highly variable topography. With the exception of an ephemeral beach (of widths up to approximately 150 m alongshore and 10 m cross-shore) the rock foreshore is typically sand-free, with failed material from the cliffs quickly removed from the cliff toe by the sea leaving only boulders. The high tidal range (6 m) and storm wave environment of the North Sea result in variable marine conditions at the site. We use magnetic sand tracers and a grid of foreshore and cliff face magnets to examine the sand transport across the foreshore and to identify the vertical extent of cliff face impacted by sand. We monitor the driving marine conditions on the foreshore using a network of current meters and wave pressure sensors. Erosion of the cliff face across the whole bay is monitored at high-resolution using terrestrial laser scanning to examine the spatial distribution of abrasion and the influence of the ephemeral beach.

  9. Formation of 'Beach Rock' at Siesta Key, Florida and its influence on barrier island development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spurgeon, D.; Davis, R.A.; Shinnu, E.A.

    2003-01-01

    Seaward-dipping strata of carbonate-cemented shell debris located along the coast of Siesta Key on the Gulf Coast of the Florida peninsula have long been interpreted to be beachrock equivalent in age to the Pleistocene Anastasia Formation (Stage 5e) of the east coast of Florida. Detailed examination of thin sections along with radiometric dating and isotopic analyses demonstrates clearly that this is a Holocene deposit that is not beachrock but was lithified in a meteoric environment. Whole rock dates, dates from shells only, and from cement only demonstrate that these beach deposits were in place by at least 1800 yr BP and might have been there as long ago as 4300 yr BP. This means that some type of barrier island was in place at that time. Previous investigations have depicted Siesta Key as having a maximum age of 3000 yr with these deposits being located about 2 km landward of the beach deposits. This suggests that the beach deposits might have been the site of the original position of Siesta Key. These data also indicate that sea level must have been near its present position at the time that these foreshore beach deposits were deposited; sometime between 1800 and 4300 yr ago. This scenario indicates that sea level along this coastal reach probably reached its present level at least about 2000 yr ago. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Who are the important predators of sea turtle nests at Wreck Rock beach?

    PubMed Central

    Booth, David T.

    2017-01-01

    Excessive sea turtle nest predation is a problem for conservation management of sea turtle populations. This study assessed predation on nests of the endangered loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) at Wreck Rock beach adjacent to Deepwater National Park in Southeast Queensland, Australia after a control program for feral foxes was instigated. The presence of predators on the nesting dune was evaluated by tracking plots (2 × 1 m) every 100 m along the dune front. There were 21 (2014–2015) and 41 (2015–2016) plots established along the dune, and these were monitored for predator tracks daily over three consecutive months in both nesting seasons. Predator activities at nests were also recorded by the presence of tracks on top of nests until hatchlings emerged. In addition, camera traps were set to record the predator activity around selected nests. The tracks of the fox (Vulpes vulpes) and goanna (Varanus spp) were found on tracking plots. Tracking plots, nest tracks and camera traps indicated goanna abundance varied strongly between years. Goannas were widely distributed along the beach and had a Passive Activity Index (PAI) (0.31 in 2014–2015 and 0.16 in 2015–2016) approximately seven times higher than that of foxes (PAI 0.04 in 2014–2015 and 0.02 in 2015–2016). Five hundred and twenty goanna nest visitation events were recorded by tracks but no fox tracks were found at turtle nests. Camera trap data indicated that yellow-spotted goannas (Varanus panoptes) appeared at loggerhead turtle nests more frequently than lace monitors (V. varius) did, and further that lace monitors only predated nests previously opened by yellow-spotted goannas. No foxes were recorded at nests with camera traps. This study suggests that large male yellow-spotted goannas are the major predator of sea turtle nests at the Wreck Rock beach nesting aggregation and that goanna activity varies between years. PMID:28674666

  11. Who are the important predators of sea turtle nests at Wreck Rock beach?

    PubMed

    Lei, Juan; Booth, David T

    2017-01-01

    Excessive sea turtle nest predation is a problem for conservation management of sea turtle populations. This study assessed predation on nests of the endangered loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) at Wreck Rock beach adjacent to Deepwater National Park in Southeast Queensland, Australia after a control program for feral foxes was instigated. The presence of predators on the nesting dune was evaluated by tracking plots (2 × 1 m) every 100 m along the dune front. There were 21 (2014-2015) and 41 (2015-2016) plots established along the dune, and these were monitored for predator tracks daily over three consecutive months in both nesting seasons. Predator activities at nests were also recorded by the presence of tracks on top of nests until hatchlings emerged. In addition, camera traps were set to record the predator activity around selected nests. The tracks of the fox (Vulpes vulpes) and goanna (Varanus spp) were found on tracking plots. Tracking plots, nest tracks and camera traps indicated goanna abundance varied strongly between years. Goannas were widely distributed along the beach and had a Passive Activity Index (PAI) (0.31 in 2014-2015 and 0.16 in 2015-2016) approximately seven times higher than that of foxes (PAI 0.04 in 2014-2015 and 0.02 in 2015-2016). Five hundred and twenty goanna nest visitation events were recorded by tracks but no fox tracks were found at turtle nests. Camera trap data indicated that yellow-spotted goannas (Varanus panoptes) appeared at loggerhead turtle nests more frequently than lace monitors (V. varius) did, and further that lace monitors only predated nests previously opened by yellow-spotted goannas. No foxes were recorded at nests with camera traps. This study suggests that large male yellow-spotted goannas are the major predator of sea turtle nests at the Wreck Rock beach nesting aggregation and that goanna activity varies between years.

  12. Organochlorine poisoning of herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Swineford, D.M.; Locke, L.N.

    1979-01-01

    Over a period of years interested individuals have submitted many dead or moribund herons of various species to our laboratory to learn whether the birds had been affected by diseases or organochlorine poisoning. Residue concentrations in carcasses of birds and mammals are considered the best measure of sublethal exposure, whereas residues in brains are best to use for diagnosing death by most organochlorine chemicals.... The purpose of the present paper is to document the occurrence and concentration of organochlorine residues in the brains of herons from various areas in the United States. By comparing these residue concentrations with laboratory-determined diagnostic lethal levels, we conclude that some herons were killed by organochlorine poisoning; others were at least seriously endangered by the residues they carried. Complete results of carcass analyses for these and other herons, as well as further details? on residues in brains, will be reported elsewhere. Overall, we analyzed carcasses or brains of more than 70 herons found dead or moribund and 36 others taken in planned collections. Residue levels in carcasses of many herons were not high enough to warrant analysis of brains. In the present paper we compare carcass and brain residues of dieldrin in 23 herons of which both carcass and brain were analyzed.

  13. 14. The Herons (Ardeidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kushlan, J.A.; Hancock, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Herons and their close relatives, the egrets and bitterns, comprise sixty species in total and are found all over the world except in polar regions, and are a strikingly beautiful part of the wetlands they inhabit. They are particularly abundant and popular in South West USA, especially Florida. Herons are a diverse group, easily recognized by their long legs, necks and bills. Many species are notable for their sociality as they feed, roost, and nest together in single or mixed species assemblages. The authors have extensive experience of research and observation of these birds and this book provides an up to date comprehensive review of the herons of the world. Covering their biology, distribution, description, systematics, breeding, feeding, and conservation, James Hancock and James Kushlan have distilled their lifetimes' research on the heron into one volume. This volume is complemented by beautiful color paintings especially painted for the book, color photographs, and distribution maps.

  14. Head stabilization in herons.

    PubMed

    Katzir, G; Schechtman, E; Carmi, N; Weihs, D

    2001-07-01

    We examined head stabilization in relation to body mass and length of legs in four heron species (little egrets, Egretta garzetta; night herons, Nycticorax nycticorax; squacco herons, Ardeola ralloides; and cattle egrets, Bubulcus ibis: Aves: Ardeidae). Head stabilization, under controlled, sinusoidal, perch perturbations was mostly elicited at frequencies lower than 1 Hz. Maximal perturbation amplitudes sustained were positively correlated with leg length and maximal perturbation frequencies sustained were negatively correlated with body mass and with leg length. The species differed significantly in average maximal perturbation amplitudes sustained. Combinations of amplitude and frequency for which stabilization was achieved were bounded by a decreasing concave "envelope" curve in the frequency-amplitude plane, with inter specific differences in "envelope". As physical constraints, we tested maximal vertical acceleration, which translates into a line defined by the product of frequency2 x amplitude, and maximal vertical velocity, which translates into a line defined by the product of frequency x amplitude. Both relations were in good agreement with the experimental results for all but squacco herons. The results support predictions based on mechanical considerations and may explain the predominance of motor patterns employed by herons while foraging.

  15. Sedimentology, geochemistry and rock magnetic properties of beach sands in Galapagos Islands - implications for nesting marine turtles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Cruz, L.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Vazquez-Gutierrez, F.; Carranza-Edwards, A.

    2007-12-01

    Marine turtles are well known for their navigation ability in the open ocean and fidelity to nesting beaches. Green turtle adult females migrate from foraging areas to island nesting beaches, traveling hundreds or thousands of kilometers each way. The marine turtle breeding in the Galapagos Islands is the Green Sea Turtle (Chelonia mydas agassisi); fairly common throughout the islands but with nesting sites located at Las Bachas (Santa Cruz), Barahona and Quinta Playa (Isabela), Salinas (Baltra), Gardner Bay (Española) and Bartolomé Islet. In order to characterize and to identify the geochemical signature of nesting marine turtle beaches in Galapagos Islands, sedimentological, geochemical and rock magnetic parameters are used. A total of one hundred and twenty sand samples were collected in four beaches to relate compositional characteristics between equivalent areas, these are: Las Bachas, Salinas, Barahona and Quinta Playa. Grain size is evaluated using laser particle analysis (Model Coulter LS 230). Bulk ICP-MS geochemical analysis is performed, following trace elements are analyzed: Al, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Ba, Pb, Fe, Mn, K, Na, Mg, Sr, Ca and Hg; and low-field magnetic susceptibility is measured in all samples at low and high frequencies. Granulometric analysis showed that Barahona and Quinta Playa are characterized for fine grained sands. In contrast, Salinas and Las Bachas exhibit medium to coarse sands. Trace metals concentrations and magnetic susceptibility show different distribution patterns in the beach sands. Calcium is the most abundant element in the samples. In particular, Co, K, and Na show similar concentrations in the four beaches. Las Bachas beach shows highest concentrations of Pb and Hg (maximum values 101.1 and 118.5 mg/kg, respectively), we suggest that the enrichment corresponds to an anthropogenic signal. Salinas beach samples show high concentrations of Fe, V, Cr, Zn, Mn and the highest values of magnetic susceptibility (maximum

  16. Assessment of gamma radiation exposure and distribution of natural radioactivity in beach sands associated with plutonic rocks of Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Argyrios; Koroneos, Antonios; Christofides, Georgios; Stoulos, Stylianos

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to evaluate the activity concentrations of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th, 228Th and 40K along beaches of Greece associated with plutonic rocks. They range from 6-940, 1-2292, 5-10143, 5-9953 and 27-1319 Bq/kg respectively, with some of them representing the highest values of natural radioactivity measured in sediments in Greece. The investigated beaches include Sithonia peninsula (Chalkidiki, N. Greece), some islands of the Aegean Sea (Mykonos, Paros, Naxos, Serifos, Ikaria), the area of Kavala (N. Greece), Samothraki island, NE Chalkidiki and Maronia (NE Greece). Several of these places are associated with high touristic activity such as Mykonos, Naxos, Paros, Serifos, Ikaria, Sithonia and Kavala. The (% wt.) heavy magnetic fraction (HM) (allanite, amphibole, mica, clinopyroxene, magnetite and hematite), the heavy non-magnetic fraction (HNM) (monazite, zircon, titanite and apatite) and the total heavy fraction (TH), were correlated with the concentrations of the measured radionuclides in the bulk samples. The heavy fractions seem to control the activity concentrations of 238U and 232Th of all the samples, showing some local differences in the main 238U and 232Th mineral carrier. The measured radionuclides in the beach sands were normalized to the respective values measured in the granitic rocks, which are their most probable parental rocks, so as to provide data upon their enrichment or depletion. The highest values of the equivalent dose have been reported in Mykonos, Naxos, Kavala and Sithonia. The annual equivalent dose which should be limited to at least 1 mSv y-1, varies between 0.003 and 0.759 mSv y-1 for tourists and from 0.012 to 3.164 mSv y-1 for local people working on the beach.

  17. Counting Heron Triangles with Constraints

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-25

    A3 INTEGERS 13 (2013) COUNTING HERON TRIANGLES WITH CONSTRAINTS Pantelimon Stănică Applied Mathematics, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey...12, Revised: 10/12/12, Accepted: 1/13/13, Published: 1/25/13 Abstract Heron triangles have the property that all three of their sides as well as their...area are positive integers. In this paper, we give some estimates for the number of Heron triangles with two of their sides fixed. We provide a

  18. Heron Island, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Heron Island is located at the sourthern end of Australia's 2,050 km-long Great Barrier Reef. Surrounded by coral reef and home to over 1000 species of fish, scuba divers and scientists alike are drawn to the island's resort and research station. The true-color image above was taken by Space Imaging's Ikonos satellite with a resolution of 4 meters per pixel-high enough to see individual boats tied up at the small marina. The narrow channel leading from the marina to the ocean was blasted and dredged decades ago, before the island became a national park. Since then the Australian government has implemented conservation measures, such as limiting the number of tourists and removing or recycling, instead of incinerating, all trash. One of the applications of remote sensing data from Ikonos is environmental monitoring, including studies of coral reef health. For more information about the island, read Heron Island. Image by Robert Simmon, based on data copyright Space Imaging

  19. Heron's Remarkable Triangle Area Formula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Bernard M.

    1993-01-01

    Presents Heron's original geometric proof to his formula to calculate the area of a triangle. Attempts to improve on this proof by supplying a chain of reasoning that leads quickly from premises to the conclusion. (MDH)

  20. Heron's Remarkable Triangle Area Formula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Bernard M.

    1993-01-01

    Presents Heron's original geometric proof to his formula to calculate the area of a triangle. Attempts to improve on this proof by supplying a chain of reasoning that leads quickly from premises to the conclusion. (MDH)

  1. Salmonellosis in a captive heron colony

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, L.N.; Ohlendorf, H.M.; Shillinger, R.B.; Jareed, T.

    1974-01-01

    Salmonellosis caused by Salmonella typhimurium was one of several factors responsible for losses among young herons being held at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. The infection was demonstrated in five black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax), three common egrets (Casmerodius albus), two little blue herons (Florida caerulea), one cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis), one snowy egret (Leucophoyx thula) and one Louisiana heron (Hydranassa tricolor). The disease was characterized by emaciation, focal liver necrosis, and frequently by a caseo-necrotic enteritis.

  2. Assessment of gamma radiation exposure of beach sands in highly touristic areas associated with plutonic rocks of the Atticocycladic zone (Greece).

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, A; Koroneos, A; Christofides, G; Papadopoulou, L; Tzifas, I; Stoulos, S

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to evaluate the activity concentrations of (238)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th, (228)Th and (40)K along beaches close to the plutonic rocks of the Atticocycladic zone that ranged from 15 to 628, 12-2292, 16-10,143, 14-9953 and 191-1192 Bq/kg respectively. A sample from island of Mykonos contained the highest (232)Th content measured in sediments of Greece. The heavy magnetic fraction and the heavy non-magnetic fraction as well as the total heavy fraction, were correlated with the concentrations of the measured radionuclides in the bulk samples. The heavy fractions seem to control the activity concentrations of (238)U and (232)Th of all the samples, showing some local differences in the main (238)U and (232)Th mineral carrier. Similar correlations have been found between (238)U, (232)Th content and rare earth elements concentrations. The measured radionuclides in the beach sands were normalized to the respective values measured in the granitic rocks, which at least in most cases are their most probable parental rocks, so as to provide data upon their enrichment or depletion. Since the Greek beaches are among the most popular worldwide the annual effective dose equivalent received due to sand exposure has been estimated and found to vary between 0.002 and 0.379 mSv y(-1) for tourists and from 0.018 to 3.164 mSv y(-1) for local people working on the beach. The values corresponding to ordinary sand samples are orders of magnitude lower than the limit of 1 mSv y(-1), only in the case of heavy minerals-rich sands the dose could reach or exceed the recommended maximum limit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of trace element concentrations in grey heron and black-crowned night heron chicks.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungsoo; Oh, Jong-Min

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe) concentrations were measured in the prey and liver of grey heron (Ardea cinerea) and black-crowned night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) chicks (24-26 days after hatching) at the Pyeongtaek colony, Korea in 2001 (n = 10, respectively) and 2008 (n = 11 and n = 10). Cadmium and Pb concentrations in livers of grey heron (Cd geomean 0.06, Pb 3.90 μg/g dw) and black-crowned night heron (Cd 0.20, Pb 4.24 μg/g dw) chicks were increased with diet concentrations of grey heron (Cd 0.18, Pb 1.76 μg/g dw) and black-crowned night heron (Cd 0.20, Pb 3.96 μg/g dw) chicks. Cadmium and Pb concentrations in prey items of grey heron and black-crowned night heron chicks were a good predictor of chick liver concentrations. Cadmium concentrations in livers of both heron species collected at the Pyeongtaek heronry were relatively low and within the background level (<3 μg/g dw) for birds. Five of 20 (25.0%) grey heron and 4 of 18 (22.2%) black-crowned night heron chicks were higher than the background level for lead (>6 μg/g dw). Prey Cd and Pb concentrations were within the range of other heron and egret studies. Manganese, Zn, and Fe concentrations in grey heron and black-crowned night heron chicks were within the background or normal physiological levels reported earlier in other birds including herons and egrets.

  4. Organochlorine residues and mortality of herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Swineford, D.M.; Locke, L.N.

    1981-01-01

    Since 1966, 72 herons found dead or moribund in the field have been analyzed for organochlorine chemicals. In addition, 36 herons were obtained through systematic collections, and carcasses were analyzed to determine sublethal exposure to organochlorines. Brains of birds found dead or moribund were analyzed to determine whether the birds had died of organochlorine poisoning. Residues of DDE were found most frequently (96 of 105 carcasses analyzed), PCBs were second (detected in 90 carcasses), and dieldrin and TDE (detected in 37 and 35 carcasses, respectively) were about equal as third and fourth most frequent. Endrin, mirex, toxaphene, and HCB were found least often (8, 9, 9, and 9 carcasses, respectively). At least one organochlorine was found in each carcass, except for six heron chicks found dead in a Maryland heronry. DDE and PCBs were present in highest concentrations; they exceeded 100 ppm in two birds each. Organochlorine concentrations were almost always higher in adult herons than in immature birds. All birds that had hazardous or lethal concentrations in the brain were adults, and most were great blue herons (Ardea herodias). Dieldrin was the chemical most often considered responsible for death. Herons died of suspected DDT and dieldrin poisoning years after the chemicals were banned in the United States. More than 20 percent of the herons found dead or moribund had lethal or hazardous concentrations of organochlorines in the brain.

  5. Organochlorine residues and mortality of herons.

    PubMed

    Ohlendorf, H M; Swineford, D M; Locke, L N

    1981-03-01

    Since 1966, 72 herons found dead or moribund in the field have been analyzed for organochlorine chemicals. In addition, 36 herons were obtained through systematic collections, and carcasses were analyzed to determine sublethal exposure to organochlorines. Brains of birds found dead or moribund were analyzed to determine whether the birds had died of organochlorine poisoning. Residues of DDE were found most frequently (96 of 105 carcasses analyzed), PCBs were second (detected in 90 carcasses), and dieldrin and TDE (detected in 37 and 35 carcasses, respectively) were about equal as third and fourth most frequent. Endrin, mirex, toxaphene, and HCB were found least often (8, 9, 9, and 9 carcasses, respectively). At least one organochlorine was found in each carcass, except for six heron chicks found dead in a Maryland heronry. DDE and PCBs were present in highest concentrations; they exceeded 100 ppm in two birds each. Organochlorine concentrations were almost always higher in adult herons than in immature birds. All birds that had hazardous or lethal concentrations in the brain were adults, and most were great blue herons (Ardea herodias). Dieldrin was the chemical most often considered responsible for death. Herons died of suspected DDT and dieldrin poisoning years after the chemicals were banned in the United States. More than 20 percent of the herons found dead or moribund had lethal or hazardous concentrations of organochlorines in the brain.

  6. Key areas for wintering North American herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mikuska, T.; Kushlan, J.A.; Hartley, S.

    1998-01-01

    Nearly all North American heron populations are migratory, but details of where they winter are little known. Locations where North American herons winter were identified using banding recovery data. North American herons winter from Canada through northern South America but especially in eastern North America south of New York, Florida, California, Louisiana, Texas, Mexico and Cuba, these areas accounting for 63% of winter recoveries. We identified regions where recoveries for various species clustered as "key areas." These forty-three areas constitute a network of areas that hold sites that likely are important to wintering North American herons. Within each area, we identify specific sites that are potentially important to wintering herons. The relative importance of each area and site within the network must be evaluated by further on the ground inventory. Because of biases inherent in the available data, these hypothesized key areas are indicative rather than exhaustive. As a first cut, this network of areas can serve to inform further inventory activities and can provide an initial basis to begin planning for the year-round conservation of North American heron populations.

  7. Key areas for wintering North American herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mikuska, T.; Kushlan, J.A.; Hartley, S.

    1998-01-01

    Nearly all North American heron populations are migratory, but details of where they winter are little known. Locations where North American herons winter were identified using banding recovery data. North American herons winter from Canada through northern South America but especially in eastern North America south of New York, Florida, California, Louisiana, Texas, Mexico and Cuba, these areas accounting for 63% of winter recoveries. We identified regions where recoveries for various species clustered as 'key areas.' These forty-three areas constitute a network of areas that hold sites that likely are important to wintering herons. The relative importance of each area and site within the network must be evaluated by further on the ground inventory. Because of biases inherent in the available data, these hypothesized key areas are indicative rather than exhaustive. As a first cut, this network of areas can serve to inform further inventory activities and can provide an initial basis to begin planning for the year-round conservation of North American heron populations.

  8. A Description of a Family of Heron Quadrilaterals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sastry, K. R. S.

    2005-01-01

    Mathematical historians place Heron in the first century. Right-angled triangles with integer sides and area had been determined before Heron, but he discovered such a "non" right-angled triangle, viz 13, 14, 15; 84. In view of this, triangles with integer sides and area are named "Heron triangles." The Indian mathematician Brahmagupta, born in…

  9. A Description of a Family of Heron Quadrilaterals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sastry, K. R. S.

    2005-01-01

    Mathematical historians place Heron in the first century. Right-angled triangles with integer sides and area had been determined before Heron, but he discovered such a "non" right-angled triangle, viz 13, 14, 15; 84. In view of this, triangles with integer sides and area are named "Heron triangles." The Indian mathematician Brahmagupta, born in…

  10. Industrial strength herons: The Black-crowns of Baltimore

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R.M.; Anders, V.P.; Miles-Iverson, K.

    1990-01-01

    The largest night-heron colony in Maryland is located at the foot of the Key Bridge in Dundalk, Maryland, in an industrial area. Foraging herons were followed from the colony during May-July, . Most birds followed landed near industrial/urban sites. Availability of perches and lights (at night) may serve to enhance the heron's prey capture success.

  11. Rocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Alice

    This science unit is designed for limited- and non-English speaking students in a Chinese bilingual education program. The unit covers rock material, classification, characteristics of types of rocks, and rock cycles. It is written in Chinese and simple English. At the end of the unit there is a list of main terms in both English and Chinese, and…

  12. `HERON` as a dark matter detector?

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J.S.; Bandler, S.R.; Brouer, S.M.; Enss, C.; Lanou, R.E.; Maris, H.J.; More, T.; Seidel, G.M.

    1996-10-01

    ``{bold HERON}``, which is the acronym for `` {bold He}lium: {bold Ro}ton detection of {bold N}eutrinos``, is a project whose principal goal is a next generation detector of solar neutrinos from the p-p and {sup 7}Be branches. It will utilize superfluid helium as the target material and employ event energy transport out of the target by phonon and roton processes unique to helium. Many of the challenges presented for dark matter detection are very similar to those for low energy solar neutrinos. We present new results from our feasibility studies for {bold HERON} which indicate an asymmetry in the roton emission distribution from stopping particles and the ability to detect simultaneously the ultraviolet fluorescence photons also emitted. These features are potentially valuable for solar neutrino detection and the question is explored as to whether or not the same helium technique could be valuable for WIMP dark matter detection.

  13. Attempted kleptoparasitism of osprey by great blue herons

    Treesearch

    John R. Squires

    1998-01-01

    Two attempts of kleptoparisitism of Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) by Great Blue Herons (Ardea herodias) were observed in Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming. Two herons vocalized and bill thrusted at Ospreys as they emerged from the water following dives for fish. Although both attempts were unsuccessful (the Ospreys failed to capture a fish), the intensity of...

  14. The shapes of beach pebbles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wentworth, Chester K.

    1923-01-01

    There is much confusion in geologic literature as to the shapes of fluvial and beach pebbles and the differences between them, if differences exist. Though the contrary has been asserted, most geologists who have written on the subject appear to hold the view that beach pebbles are generally flatter than river pebbles, having discoid, lozenge-shaped, ellipsoid, or oval forms. It is asserted by some that these forms are produced by pushing of the rock fragments to and fro by the waves. Others have considered that the shapes of the original fragments and the inherent structure of the rock are dominant in determining the shapes of beach pebbles, and with this view the writer is in accord. That beach pebbles, even those composed of massive igneous rocks are commonly of a flattened oval form seems certain, as has been stated elsewhere, but this fact is probably to be attributed to the development of such forms from original flat fragments or from rocks of schistose structure or to the segregation of such forms under the peculiar action of the waves, rather than to their production by a specialized wave abrasion.

  15. Beach Erosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Two miles of beach at Cape Canaveral eroded by construction of a port and jetties was recently restored. Such work in harbors of many cities often disrupts normal flow of sand for many miles along coasts. Brevard County, FL residents now enjoy a 400 ft. wide public beach in an area in imminent danger of destructive erosion just a year previously. Before and after aerial photos show how more than two miles of beach were rebuilt with 2.7 million cubic yards of sand helping abate the erosion problem caused by construction of jetties. NASA volunteered its remote-sensing technology and instrumented aircraft to provide low-altitude color infrared photography about every three months since 1972.

  16. Helminth communities of herons (Aves: Ardeidae) in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Mario; D'Alessio, Nicola; Di Prisco, Francesca; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Galiero, Giorgio; Cerrone, Anna; Barca, Lorella; Kinsella, John M; Aznar, Francisco J

    2016-08-01

    The helminth communities of nine species of herons from southern Italy were studied and compared. Of 24 taxa found including seven digeneans, seven nematodes, six cestodes and four acanthocephalans, only five taxa were found in more than one heron species, and five of the 21 taxa that could be identified to species level were classified as 'heron specialists'. The total number of helminth species per heron species ranged from 1 in Botaurus stellaris to 9 in Ixobrychus minutus with infection levels generally low. A statistical comparison was carried out for herons with a sample size >5. At the infracommunity level, only I. minutus clearly differed from other heron species. Diversity parameters of heminth infracommunities did not significantly differ among heron species. Species richness ranged from just 0.3 to 2.3 helminth taxa per individual host, and the Brillouin index, from 0 to 0.3. Total helminth abundance did not exceed 40 worms per host except in a single case of Ardeola ralloides. Infracommunities clearly were dominated by single helminth species. The present study confirms a depauperate helminth community in herons from southern Italy. Comparison with data from Spain and the Czech Republic showed strong quantitative similarities with values obtained in the present study. Results also suggest that the composition of local helminth communities are strongly variable depending on geographical location as is demonstrated by comparison with data from other European areas. However, whether herons in Europe naturally host depauperate helminth communities or these communities are depauperate because of other factors is unknown. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cytochrome P450 and organochlorine contaminants in black-crowned night-herons from the Chesapeake Bay region, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Rattner, B.A.; Melancon, M.J.; Rice, C.P.; Riley, W. Jr.; Eisemann, J.; Hines, R.K.

    1997-11-01

    Black-crowned night-heron offspring were collected from a relatively uncontaminated coastal reference site and two sites in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. Hepatic microsomal activities of benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylase and ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase were elevated in pipping embryos from the Baltimore Harbor colony compared to the reference site, whereas values in embryos from the Rock Creek Park colony were intermediate. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and metabolites in pipping embryos from both sites in the Chesapeake watershed were greater than at the reference site but below the known threshold for reproductive impairment. However, concentrations of 10 arylhydrocarbon receptor-active polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and estimated toxic equivalents were up to 37-fold greater in embryos collected from these two sites in the Chesapeake Bay region, with values for toxic congeners 77 and 126 exceeding those observed in pipping heron embryos from the Great Lakes. Monooxygenase activity of pipping embryos was associated with concentrations of several organochlorine pesticides, total PCBs, arylhydrocarbon receptor-active PCB congeners, and toxic equivalents, providing further evidence of the value of cytochrome P450 as a biomarker of organic contaminant exposure. Organochlorine contaminant levels were greater in 10-d-old nestlings from Baltimore Harbor than the reference site but had no apparent effect on monooxygenase activity or growth. These findings demonstrate induction of cytochrome P450 in pipping black-crowned night-heron embryos in the Chesapeake Bay region, probably by exposure to PCB congeners of local origin, and the accumulation of organochlorine pesticides and metabolites in nestling herons from Baltimore Harbor. Biomonitoring and additional waterbird species that appear to be more sensitive to PCBs than black-crowned night-herons is recommended to document health of waterbirds and remediation of the Chesapeake Bay.

  18. Steatitis in egrets and herons from Japan.

    PubMed

    Neagari, Yasuko; Arii, Suzue; Udagawa, Mai; Onuma, Manabu; Odaya, Yoshiya; Kawasaki, Takeshi; Tenpaku, Makio; Hayama, Hisayo; Harada, Ken-ichi; Mizukami, Masaya; Murata, Koichi

    2011-01-01

    More than 70 egrets and herons were found sick or dead at an agricultural water reservoir in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan between September and October 2008. The birds showed weakness, lethargy, and inability to fly before death. Postmortem findings included large amounts of firm subcutaneous and cavitary fat comprised of necrotic adipose tissues with infiltrates of heterophils and macrophages. The birds were diagnosed with steatitis on the basis of the gross lesions and histopathology. Egrets with steatitis had low blood levels of vitamin E. High counts of cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa) were found in the reservoir concurrent with the outbreak of steatitis. No microcystin was detected in the reservoir water or the livers from the egrets. This is the first report of steatitis in wild birds in Japan.

  19. Carbofuran poisoning in herons: diagnosis using cholinesterase reactivation techniques.

    PubMed

    Hunt, K A; Hooper, M J; Littrell, E E

    1995-04-01

    Exposure to the carbamate insecticide carbofuran was detected using brain cholinesterase (ChE) reactivation techniques in heron carcasses collected from a potential pesticide exposure incident. Great egrets (Nycticorax nycticorax), great blue herons (Ardea herodias), and black-crowned night herons (Casmerodius albus) were exposed to carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl methylcarbamate) either by dermal exposure while wading or through ingestion of contaminated food items. Carcasses may have been in the field up to 5 days prior to collection. Brain ChE, substantially inhibited in most samples, increased 7.9-208% in the reactivation assay after 4 to 96 hours at 37 C, providing evidence of exposure to a carbamate pesticide. Crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) identified in the crops of some herons contained carbofuran residues of up to 0.6 parts per million wet weight, providing additional evidence of exposure. Reactivated brain ChE in several samples approached the range of control values.

  20. The use of feathers to monitor heavy metal contamination in herons, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, J; Koo, T-H

    2007-10-01

    This study measured concentrations of iron, manganese, zinc, copper, lead, and cadmium in environmental substrates (water and sediment) as well as in the diet and feathers of Black-crowned Night Heron Nycticorax nycticorax and Grey Heron Ardea cinerea chicks from Pyeongtaek heronry, Gyeonggi-do, Korea. Zinc and cadmium concentrations in sediment were relatively high, but lead was low. In the diet, only copper concentrations were higher in Black-crowned Night Herons than in Grey Herons. Cadmium concentrations in the diet of two heron species from a Pyeongtaek heron colony were also higher than reported in other studies. In feathers, iron, copper, and lead concentrations were significantly different between heron species. Iron and copper concentrations were higher in Black-crowned Night Heron chicks than in Grey Heron chicks, but lead concentrations were not. Therefore, with the exception of lead, heavy metal concentrations in feathers were not related to concentrations in the diet. Zinc, iron, and lead concentrations in heron feathers were within the ranges reported by other heron studies, but manganese, copper, and cadmium were much higher. Lead and cadmium concentrations in feathers of Black-crowned Night Heron and Grey Heron chicks were elevated to lead and cadmium concentrations in the diet. Therefore, we suggest that lead and cadmium concentrations in heron feathers reflect contamination of breeding sites and are useful bioindicators of local contamination.

  1. Evidence from nature: interspecies spread of heron hepatitis B viruses.

    PubMed

    Lin, Li; Prassolov, Alexej; Funk, Anneke; Quinn, Laura; Hohenberg, Heinz; Frölich, Kai; Newbold, John; Ludwig, Arne; Will, Hans; Sirma, Hüseyin; Steinbach, Falko

    2005-05-01

    Heron hepatitis B viruses (HHBVs) in three subspecies of free-living great blue herons (Ardea herodias) from Florida, USA, were identified and characterized. Eight of 13 samples were positive in all assays used, whereas sera from egrets, which are also members of the family Ardeidae, were negative in the same assays. Comparative phylogenetic analysis of viral DNA sequences from the preS/S region of previously reported and novel HHBV strains isolated from captive grey herons (Germany) and free-ranging great blue herons (USA), respectively, revealed a strong conservation (95 % sequence similarity) with two separate clusters, implying a common ancestor of all strains. Our data demonstrate for the first time that different subspecies of herons are infected by HHBV and that these infections exist in non-captive birds. Phylogenetic analysis and the fact that the different heron species are geographically isolated populations suggest that lateral transmission, virus adaptation and environmental factors all play a role in HHBV spreading and evolution.

  2. Cytochrome P450 and organochlorine contaminants in black-crowned night-herons from the Chesapeake Bay region, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, Barnett A.; Melancon, Mark J.; Rice, Clifford P.; Riley, Walter; Eisemann, John D.; Hines, Randy K.

    1997-01-01

    Black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) offspring were collected from a relatively uncontaminated coastal reference site (next to Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge, VA, USA) and two sites in the Chesapeake Bay watershed (Baltimore Harbor, MD and Rock Creek Park, Washington, DC, USA). Hepatic microsomal activities of benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylase and ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase were significantly elevated (up to sixfold and ninefold induction, respectively) in pipping embryos from the Baltimore Harbor colony compared to the reference site, whereas values in embryos from the Rock Creek Park colony were intermediate. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and metabolites in pipping embryos from both sites in the Chesapeake watershed were greater than at the reference site but below the known threshold for reproductive impairment. However, concentrations of 10 arylhydrocarbon receptor-active polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and estimated toxic equivalents were up to 37-fold greater in embryos collected from these two sites in the Chesapeake Bay region, with values for toxic congeners 77 and 126 exceeding those observed in pipping heron embryos from the Great Lakes. Monooxygenase activity of pipping embryos was associated with concentrations of several organochlorine pesticides, total PCBs, arylhydrocarbon receptor-active PCB congeners, and toxic equivalents (r = 0.30–0.59), providing further evidence of the value of cytochrome P450 as a biomarker of organic contaminant exposure. Organochlorine contaminant levels were greater in 10-d-old nestlings from Baltimore Harbor than the reference site but had no apparent effect on monooxygenase activity or growth. These findings demonstrate induction of cytochrome P450 in pipping black-crowned night-heron embryos in the Chesapeake Bay region, probably by exposure to PCB congeners of local origin, and the accumulation of organochlorine pesticides and metabolites in nestling herons from Baltimore

  3. Cytochrome P450 and organochlorine contaminants in black-crowned night-herons from the Chesapeake Bay region, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Melancon, M.J.; Rice, C.P.; Riley, W.; Eisemann, J.; Hines, R.K.

    1997-01-01

    Black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) offspring were collected from a relatively uncontaminated coastal reference site (next to Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge, VA, USA) and two sites in the Chesapeake Bay watershed (Baltimore Harbor, MD and Rock Creek Park, Washington, DC, USA). Hepatic microsomal activities of benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylase and ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase were significantly elevated (up to sixfold and ninefold induction, respectively) in pipping embryos from the Baltimore Harbor colony compared to the reference site, whereas values in embryos from the Rock Creek Park colony were intermediate. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and metabolites in pipping embryos from both sites in the Chesapeake watershed were greater than at the reference site but below the known threshold for reproductive impairment. However, concentrations of 10 arylhydrocarbon receptor-active polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and estimated toxic equivalents were up to 37-fold greater in embryos collected from these two sites in the Chesapeake Bay region, with values for toxic congeners 77 and 126 exceeding those observed in pipping heron embryos from the Great Lakes. Monooxygenase activity of pipping embryos was associated with concentrations of several organochlorine pesticides, total PCBs, arylhydrocarbon receptor-active PCB congeners, and toxic equivalents (r = 0.30-0.59), providing further evidence of the value of cytochrome P450 as a biomarker of organic contaminant exposure. Organochlorine contaminant levels were greater in 10-d-old nestlings from Baltimore Harbor than the reference site but had no apparent effect on monooxygenase activity or growth. These findings demonstrate induction of cytochrome P450 in pipping black-crowned night-heron embryos in the Chesapeake Bay region, probably by exposure to PCB congeners of local origin, and the accumulation of organochlorine pesticides and metabolites in nestling herons from Baltimore

  4. Sand and nest temperatures and an estimate of hatchling sex ratio from the Heron Island green turtle ( Chelonia mydas) rookery, Southern Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, David T.; Freeman, Candida

    2006-11-01

    Sand and nest temperatures were monitored during the 2002-2003 nesting season of the green turtle, Chelonia mydas, at Heron Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Sand temperatures increased from ˜ 24°C early in the season to 27-29°C in the middle, before decreasing again. Beach orientation affected sand temperature at nest depth throughout the season; the north facing beach remained 0.7°C warmer than the east, which was 0.9°C warmer than the south, but monitored nest temperatures were similar across all beaches. Sand temperature at 100 cm depth was cooler than at 40 cm early in the season, but this reversed at the end. Nest temperatures increased 2-4°C above sand temperatures during the later half of incubation due to metabolic heating. Hatchling sex ratio inferred from nest temperature profiles indicated a strong female bias.

  5. Cytochrome P450 and organochlorine contaminants in black-crowned night-herons from the Chesapeake Bay region, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Melancon, M.J.; Rice, C.P.; Riley, W.; Eisemann, J.; Hines, R.K.

    1997-01-01

    Black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) offspring were collected from a relatively uncontaminated coastal reference site (next to Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge, VA, USA) and two sites in the Chesapeake Bay watershed (Baltimore Harbor, MD and Rock Creek Park, Washington, D.C., USA). Hepatic microsomal activities of benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylase and ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase were significantly elevated (up to sixfold and ninefold induction, respectively) in pipping embryos from the Baltimore Harbor colony compared to the reference site, whereas values in embryos from the Rock Creek Park colony were intermediate. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and metabolites in pipping embryos from both sites in the Chesapeake watershed were greater than at the reference site, but below known threshold for reproductive impairment. However, concentrations of 10 arylhydrocarbon-receptor active PCB congeners and estimated toxic equivalents were up to 37-fold greater in embryos collected from these two sites in the Chesapeake Bay region, with values for toxic congeners 77 and 126 exceeding those observed in pipping heron embryos from the Great Lakes. Monooxygenase activity of pipping embryos was frequently associated with concentrations of organochlorine contaminants and toxic equivalents (r = 0.30 to 0.59), providing further evidence of the value of cytochrome P450 as a biomarker of organic contaminant exposure. Organochlorine contaminant levels were greater in 10-d-old nestlings from Baltimore Harbor than the reference site, but had no apparent effect on monooxygenase activity or growth. These findings demonstrate induction of cytochrome P450 in pipping black-crowned night-heron embryos in the Chesapeake Bay region, probably by exposure to PCB congeners of local origin, and the accumulation of organochlorine pesticides and metabolites in nestling herons from Baltimore Harbor.

  6. National List of Beaches

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has published a list of coastal recreation waters adjacent to beaches (or similar points of access) used by the public in the U.S. The list, required by the Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act (BEACH Act), identifies waters that are subject to a state beach water quality monitoring and public notification program consistent with the National Beach Guidance and Required Performance Criteria for BEACH Act Grants.

  7. Rates of single-copy DNA evolution in herons.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, F H

    1987-01-01

    DNA-DNA hybridization was used to discover the extent of single-copy DNA similarity among 13 species of herons and one ibis. Genetic distances among taxa were summarized as Tm values in a folded matrix. From this matrix, trees with the same branching pattern were constructed by least squares under one of two assumptions: (1) that sister branches are equal in length and (2) that sister branches are not necessarily equal in length. The residual sums of squares of these trees were compared by F-test to see whether the branches of the tree built under assumption (2) fit the matrix data significantly better than those of the tree built under assumption (1). By this method the existence of different rates of DNA evolution in different heron lineages was established. Bittern single-copy DNA has evolved at a rate approximately 25% faster, and boat-billed heron (Cochearius) and rufescent tiger heron (Tigrisoma lineatum) DNA has evolved approximately 19% slower, than that of day and night herons. It appears that the differences in rates of DNA evolution may increase proportionally with genealogical distance.

  8. Beach profile variation on Hawaiian carbonate beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, A.E.; Richmond, B.M.; Fletcher, C.H.; ,

    2000-01-01

    Beach profiles from selected Oahu and Maui beaches quantitatively document beach volume variation and change between 1994 and 1999. Along exposed, high-energy beaches, large fluctuations in beach volume, characterized primarily by the formation and erosion of extensive berms, dominate the seasonal changes. Beaches along more protected stretches of coastline show much less variation in profile morphology. Beaches on the west (leeward) coast of Oahu experienced the most seasonal variation in profile volume, followed by the north shore, east (windward) shore, and south shore. Similar to Oahu, beaches along the west coast of Maui showed the greatest overall profile variation. However, the mean variation for profiles along a single coastal reach showed little difference compared to other coastal segments. Although some beaches showed net gain or loss during the study period, most beaches remained relatively stable with change limited to a finite envelope. No island-wide trends in beach erosion or accretion were observed during the study period. However, no extreme events, such as tropical storms or hurricanes, directly influenced the Hawaiian Islands during the study period. This data set should therefore be considered as representative of typical annual beach activity. Greater variation and possible long-term change would be expected during extreme events.

  9. 76 FR 35873 - Blue Heron Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ...] Blue Heron Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and Soliciting Comments... Heron Hydro LLC. e. Name of Project: Ball Mountain Dam Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: At the U.S..., Blue Heron Hydro LLC, 113 Bartlett Road, Plainfield, Vermont 05667. (802) 454-1874. i. FERC Contact:...

  10. Can Beach Cleans Do More Than Clean-Up Litter? Comparing Beach Cleans to Other Coastal Activities

    PubMed Central

    Wyles, Kayleigh J.; Pahl, Sabine; Holland, Matthew; Thompson, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    Coastal visits not only provide psychological benefits but can also contribute to the accumulation of rubbish. Volunteer beach cleans help address this issue, but may only have limited, local impact. Consequently, it is important to study any broader benefits associated with beach cleans. This article examines the well-being and educational value of beach cleans, as well as their impacts on individuals’ behavioral intentions. We conducted an experimental study that allocated students (n = 90) to a beach cleaning, rock pooling, or walking activity. All three coastal activities were associated with positive mood and pro-environmental intentions. Beach cleaning and rock pooling were associated with higher marine awareness. The unique impacts of beach cleaning were that they were rated as most meaningful but linked to lower restorativeness ratings of the environment compared with the other activities. This research highlights the interplay between environment and activities, raising questions for future research on the complexities of person-environment interactions. PMID:28546642

  11. Beach slopes of Florida: Bradenton Beach to Clearwater Beach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Overbeck, Jacquelyn R.; Doran, Kara S.

    2015-01-01

    The National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project derives features of beach morphology from lidar elevation data for the purpose of understanding and predicting storm impacts to our nation's coastlines. This dataset defines mean beach slopes along the United States Southeast Gulf of Mexico from Bradenton Beach to Clearwater Beach, Florida for data collected at various times between 1998 and 2010. For further information regarding data collection and/or processing methods refer to USGS Open-File Report 2015–1053 (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2015/1053/).

  12. Heavy metal concentrations in diet and livers of Black-crowned Night Heron Nycticorax nycticorax and Grey Heron Ardea cinerea chicks from Pyeongtaek, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungsoo; Koo, Tae-Hoe

    2007-07-01

    This study presents concentrations of iron, manganese, zinc, copper, lead and cadmium in diet and livers of Black-crowned Night Heron Nycticorax nycticorax and Grey Heron Ardea cinerea chicks from Pyeongtaek, Gyeonggi-do, Korea. Heavy metal concentrations of heron chicks were not related to concentrations in the diet. Copper concentrations were significantly greater in the diet of Black-crowned Night Herons (geometric mean = 13.6 wet microg/g) than Grey Herons (7.45 wet microg/g), other metal concentrations did not differ between the diet of two species. Manganese (respectively 3.20 wet microg/g, 1.41 wet microg/g) and cadmium (respectively 13.4 wet microg/kg, 1.41 wet microg/kg) concentrations were higher in livers of Black-crowned Night Heron chicks than Grey Heron chicks, but zinc, iron, copper and lead concentrations in livers did not differ in between two herons. The essential elements were at background levels, however copper concentrations were relatively higher than previously reported from Korea. Lead and cadmium concentrations were within background levels for herons.

  13. A Bird Eye View of Australia Heron Island

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-29

    Heron Island is located in Queensland, Australia, approximately 45 miles (72 kilometers) off the Australian mainland, to the northeast of Gladstone. Part of Australia's Great Barrier Reef, the island is an evergreen coral cay surrounded by Wistari coral reef. Although just 42 acres in size, the island is home to a large resort and the University of Queensland's Heron Island Research Station. The island is famous for diving and snorkeling and is a World Heritage-Listed Marine National Park. It is one of two locations on the Great Barrier Reef that are serving as bases for in-water validation activities for NASA's Coral Reef Airborne Laboratory (CORAL) mission, which is studying the condition and function of the Great Barrier Reef and selected reef systems worldwide using NASA's airborne Portable Remote Imaging Spectrometer (PRISM) instrument from an altitude of 28,000 feet (8,500 meters). The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra spacecraft acquired this image of Heron Island and its surroundings on December 22, 2001. The island appears at the left of the reef (Heron Reef) in the center of the image. Vegetation is red on the image. The image covers an area of 10.3 by 18.6 miles (16.5 by 30.0 kilometers), and is located at 23.5 degrees south, 151.9 degrees east. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20900

  14. STS-73 Liftoff - Across water with Blue Heron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A Great Blue Heron seems oblivious to the trememdous spectacle of light and sound generated by a Shuttle liftoff, as the Space Shuttle Columbia soars skyward from Launch Pad 39B. Columbia lifted off at 9:53:00 a.m. EDT, October 20. On board are a crew of seven and the U.S. Microgravity Laboratory-2

  15. STS-73 Liftoff - Across water with Blue Heron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A Great Blue Heron seems oblivious to the trememdous spectacle of light and sound generated by a Shuttle liftoff, as the Space Shuttle Columbia soars skyward from Launch Pad 39B. Columbia lifted off at 9:53:00 a.m. EDT, October 20. On board are a crew of seven and the U.S. Microgravity Laboratory-2

  16. Visual fields and eye movements in herons (Ardeidae).

    PubMed

    Martin, G R; Katzir, G

    1994-01-01

    The visual fields and eye movements of three heron species (Ardeidae; Ciconiiformes): the cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis), the squacco heron (Ardeola ralloides), the western reef heron (Egretta gularis schistacea) were determined in alert, restrained birds using an ophthalmoscopic technique. All three species can gain panoramic visual coverage of the frontal field around the bill, and a bird standing with its bill horizontal can view its own feet binocularly. The region in which binocular overlap is possible is long (approximately 170 degrees) and narrow (maximum width approximately 20 degrees). Monocular field width in a horizontal plane is approximately 170 degrees. Retinal binocular overlap can be abolished by eye movements at all elevations in the frontal field. At the frontal margins of the monocular fields the retinal and optical field margins do not coincide; the retinal field margin lies between 9 degrees and 12.5 degrees inside the optical field margin. This results in a blind sector at the margin of each eye's optical field. Consequently the visually functional retinal binocular field widths are significantly narrower than the optical binocular fields. When retinal binocularity is abolished by eye movements, optical binocular fields are still retained. Thus, estimates of binocular overlap based only upon the appearance of the pupils will be erroneous. The comprehensive nature of vision beneath the bill is probably closely associated with the herons' visually guided, stealthy, foraging techniques, which result in the single-strike capture of mobile, highly evasive prey.

  17. The Heron Network--Changing the Ways Students Learn Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beeth, Michael E.; Wagler, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Describes teaching that encourages students to pose and solve authentic questions about science and math, describe the impacts of the academic and social culture in which they live, and use technology both in the design of their investigations and to communicate their findings. The Heron Network is comprised of the Web sites constructed by these…

  18. Comparative Petrographic Maturity of River and Beach Sand, and Origin of Quartz Arenites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferree, Rob A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes a deterministic computer model that incorporates: (1) initial framework composition; (2) abrasion factors for quartz, feldspar, and rock fragments; and (3) a fragmentation ratio for rock fragments to simulate the recycling of coastal sands by rivers and beaches. (TW)

  19. Comparative Petrographic Maturity of River and Beach Sand, and Origin of Quartz Arenites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferree, Rob A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes a deterministic computer model that incorporates: (1) initial framework composition; (2) abrasion factors for quartz, feldspar, and rock fragments; and (3) a fragmentation ratio for rock fragments to simulate the recycling of coastal sands by rivers and beaches. (TW)

  20. Beaches National Summary

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA annually publishes a national summary report about beach closings and advisories for the previous year's swimming season.

  1. Nesting season food habits of 4 species of Herons and Egrets at Lake Okeechobee, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    Based on the composition of nestling regurgitations collected during 3 breeding seasons, fish were the most important prey group for Great Egrets (Ardea alba: N = 200 nest-day samples; aggregate percent biomass [APB] = 73.4%), Snowy Egrets (Egretta thula: N = 115; APB = 91.4%), and Tricolored Herons (E. tricolor. N = 68; APB = 97.3%). For Little Blue Herons (E. caerulerr. N = 57), grass shrimp (Palaemoneles paludosus; APB = 39.7%) ranked higher in overall importance than all fishes combined (APB = 36.5%). Dietary overlap, as measured by Schoener's Similarity Index, was greatest between Snowy Egrets and Tricolored Herons (77%) and lowest between Tricolored Herons and Little Blue Herons (30%). Diet diversity, as measured by Shannon's Index, was highest for Great Egrets (2.04), intermediate for Snowy Egrets (1.71) and Tricolored Herons (1.68), and lowest for Little Blue Herons (1.60). Great Egrets ate a wider variety of fish species and sizes, especially larger fishes, and more crayfish than the other species. Little Blue Herons ate fewer fish and more grass shrimp and insects, and ate smaller forage fishes than Tricolored Herons but similar-sized fish as Snowy Egrets. The coarse-scale trophic composition of Snowy Egret and Tricolored Heron diets did not differ significantly, but Tricolored Herons ate larger forage fishes than Snowy Egrets. Pronounced interannual and intercolony variation in diet composition suggested that Great Egrets and Little Blue Herons switched prey types as hydrologic conditions and habitat availability changed. Conversely, lack of such variation suggested that Snowy Egrets and Tricolored Herons adjusted their foraging tactics to ensure contin-ued encounters with preferred prey despite changing habitat conditions. These results are generally consistent with other published data, help confirm some generalizations about foraging strategies and patterns of niche differentiation among these ecologically similar species, and have implications for

  2. Nesting season food habits of 4 species of herons and egrets at Lake Okeechobee, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Jeff P.

    1997-01-01

    Based on the composition of nestling regurgitations collected during 3 breeding seasons, fish were the most important prey group for Great Egrets (Ardea alba: N = 200 nest-day samples; aggregate percent biomass [APB] = 73.4%), Snowy Egrets (Egretta thula: N = 115; APB = 91.4%), and Tricolored Herons (E. tricolor: N = 68; APB = 97.3%). For Little Blue Herons (E. caerulea: N = 57), grass shrimp (Palaemonetes paludosus; APB = 39.7%) ranked higher in overall importance than all fishes combined (APB = 36.5%). Dietary overlap, as measured by Schoener's Similarity Index, was greatest between Snowy Egrets and Tricolored Herons (77%) and lowest between Tricolored Herons and Little Blue Herons (30%). Diet diversity, as measured by Shannon's Index, was highest for Great Egrets (2.04), intermediate for Snowy Egrets (1.71) and Tricolored Herons (1.68), and lowest for Little Blue Herons (1.60). Great Egrets ate a wider variety of fish species and sizes, especially larger fishes, and more crayfish than the other species. Little Blue Herons ate fewer fish and more grass shrimp and insects, and ate smaller forage fishes than Tricolored Herons but similar-sized fish as Snowy Egrets. The coarse-scale trophic composition of Snowy Egret and Tricolored Heron diets did not differ significantly, but Tricolored Herons ate larger forage fishes than Snowy Egrets. Pronounced interannual and intercolony variation in diet composition suggested that Great Egrets and Little Blue Herons switched prey types as hydrologic conditions and habitat availability changed. Conversely, lack of such variation suggested that Snowy Egrets and Tricolored Herons adjusted their foraging tactics to ensure continued encounters with preferred prey despite changing habitat conditions. These results are generally consistent with other published data, help confirm some generalizations about foraging strategies and patterns of niche differentiation among these ecologically similar species, and have implications for

  3. Trace element residues in eggshells of grey heron (Ardea cinerea) and black-crowned night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) from Nallihan Bird Paradise, Ankara-Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ayaş, Zafer

    2007-05-01

    Concentrations of four trace elements (Cd, Ni, Cu and Pb) were determined in eggshells of grey heron (Ardea cinerea) and black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) from Nallihan Bird Paradise, which is located in the northern part of Sariyar Dam Reservoir, Turkey. Results indicated that, within the same area, these ardeid species differed in the levels of Cd, Cu and Pb in their eggshells (generally grey heron > night heron), possibly because females may have foraged in different habitats and regions. Geometric means found for Cd, Ni, Cu and Pb in eggshells were 0.931 mg/kg, 0.405 mg/kg, 6.755 mg/kg and 4.567 mg/kg, respectively, for grey heron; and 0.230 mg/kg, 0.220 mg/kg, 1.369 mg/kg and 1.108 mg/kg, respectively, for night heron. High bioaccumulation from sediments to eggshells occured for Cu and Pb, while Cd and Ni exhibited low accumulation. Bioaccumulation ratios were calculated as 19.63 (Cu) and 22.9 (Pb) in eggshells of grey herons. In conclusion, eggshells of grey herons appeared to be good bioindicators for monitoring of Cu and Pb in Nallihan Bird Paradise.

  4. Virtual Beach Manager Toolset

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Virtual Beach Manager Toolset (VB) is a set of decision support software tools developed to help local beach managers make decisions as to when beaches should be closed due to predicted high levels of water borne pathogens. The tools are being developed under the umbrella of...

  5. Virtual Beach Manager Toolset

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Virtual Beach Manager Toolset (VB) is a set of decision support software tools developed to help local beach managers make decisions as to when beaches should be closed due to predicted high levels of water borne pathogens. The tools are being developed under the umbrella of...

  6. Cattle egrets are less able to cope with light refraction than are other herons.

    PubMed

    Katzir; Strod; Schechtman; Hareli; Arad

    1999-03-01

    The majority of heron species (Aves, Ardeidae) forage on aquatic prey in shallow water. Prey detection, aiming and the beginning of the capture strikes are performed while the heron's eyes are above water. For most angles, as a result of air/water light refraction, the apparent image available to a heron is vertically displaced from the prey's real position. Herons must therefore correct for refraction. We tested the hypothesis that species that forage in aquatic habitats should be more able to correct for image disparity than those of terrestrial habitats. The ability of hand-reared herons of four species to capture stationary prey (fish) underwater (submerged) or in air (aerial) was tested. Three species (little egret Egretta garzetta, squacco heron Ardeola ralloides, and night heron Nycticorax nycticorax) normally forage in aquatic habitats while the fourth (cattle egret Bubulcus ibis) forages in terrestrial habitats. No individuals missed aerial prey. Success rates of little egrets and of squacco herons with submerged prey were high, while night herons became less successful with increased prey depth and/or distance. In cattle egrets, success rate was low and negatively correlated with prey depth. The observed interspecific differences may thus be related to (1) differential ability to correct for air/water light refraction and (2) the species' foraging behaviour. We suggest that cattle egrets are in the process of losing their ability to cope with submerged prey. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  7. Patterns of resource partitioning by nesting herons and ibis: how are odonata exploited?

    PubMed

    Samraoui, Farrah; Nedjah, Riad; Boucheker, Abdennour; Alfarhan, Ahmed H; Samraoui, Boudjéma

    2012-04-01

    Herons and ibis are colonially nesting waders which, owing to their number, mobility and trophic role as top predators, play a key role in aquatic ecosystems. They are also good biological models to investigate interspecific competition between sympatric species and predation; two processes which structure ecological communities. Odonata are also numerous, diverse, mobile and can play an important role in aquatic ecosystems by serving as prey for herons and ibis. A relationship between prey size and bird predator has been observed in Numidia wetlands (NE Algeria) after analyzing food boluses regurgitated by six species of birds (Purple Heron, Black-crowned Night Heron, Glossy Ibis, Little Egret, Squacco Heron and Cattle Egret) during the breeding period, which also shows a temporal gradient for the six species. Both the Levins index and preliminary multivariate analysis of the Odonata as prey fed to nestling herons and ibis, indicated a high degree of resource overlap. However, a distinction of prey based on taxonomy (suborder and family) and developmental stage (larvae or adults) reveals a clear size dichotomy with large-sized predators (Purple Heron, Black-crowned Night Heron and Glossy Ibis) preying on large preys like Aeshnids and Libellulids and small-sized predators feeding mainly on small prey like Zygoptera. Overall, the resource utilization suggests a pattern of resource segregation by coexisting nesting herons and ibis based on the timing of reproduction, prey types, prey size and foraging microhabitats.

  8. VIEW OF THE AREA BETWEEN THE BEACH (LEFT) AND BEACH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE AREA BETWEEN THE BEACH (LEFT) AND BEACH ROAD. NOTE THE RESIDENCES ON OPPOSITE SIDE OF BEACH ROAD. VIEW FACING NORTH. - Hickam Field, Fort Kamehameha Historic Housing, Along Worchester Avenue & Hope Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  9. Concentrations of Cd, Pb, Mn and Zn in feathers and diet in heron chicks in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungsoo; Oh, Jong-Min

    2015-01-01

    The feathers and diet items of grey heron (Ardea cinerea) and black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) chicks were collected at the Pyeongtaek colony, Korea in 2002 and 2008, and Cd, Pb, Mn and Zn concentrations were measured. Cd and Zn concentrations were higher in both species in 2008 than 2002 and were higher in grey herons than black-crowned night-herons in 2002. In 2008, Cd concentrations were higher in black-crowned night-herons than grey herons; Zn concentrations did not differ between species. Pb and Mn concentrations did not differ between species; however, there were yearly differences. Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations of feathers and diet were significantly correlated when species and years were combined. However, the predictive power of these relationships was limited because of species and yearly differences. All heron chicks had concentrations of Cd (<2 μg/g dw) and Pb (<4 μg/g dw) consistent with background concentrations for wild birds. Mn and Zn concentrations were within the range reported for other heron and egret species.

  10. Natural infections of Clinostomum complanatum (Trematoda: Clinostomatidae) in wild herons and egrets, Tottori Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Aohagi, Y; Shibahara, T; Machida, N; Yamaga, Y; Kagota, K; Hayashi, T

    1992-07-01

    Nycticorax nycticorax, Ardea cinerea, Egretta garzetta, and Egretta intermedia were naturally infected with Clinostomum complanatum (Trematoda: Clinostomatidae) among fourteen wild herons, seven wild egrets and one wild bittern evaluated at the Veterinary Hospital of Tottori University, Tottori, Japan. The latter three species of heron and egrets are reported for the first time as definitive hosts of this parasite in Japan.

  11. 76 FR 27366 - Blue Heron Paper Company, Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Paid...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... pulp and paper. Information shows that Blue Heron Paper Company, through bankruptcy, was assigned a... affected by increased imports of pulp and paper. The amended notice applicable to TA-W-73,448 is hereby... Employment and Training Administration Blue Heron Paper Company, Including Workers Whose Unemployment...

  12. 76 FR 5147 - Blue Heron Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Motions To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Blue Heron Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and... Heron Hydro LLC. e. Name of Project: Ball Mountain Dam Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: U.S. Army..., Blue Heron Hydro LLC, 113 Bartlett Road, Plainfield, Vermont 05667. (802) 454 1874. i. FERC Contact:...

  13. Viremia in young herons and ibis infected with Venezuelan encephalitis virus.

    PubMed

    Dickerman, R W; Bonacorsa, C M; Scherer, W F

    1976-12-01

    Fifty-seven of 61 nestling, 8- to 30-day-old herons of three species (Black-crowned Night Heron, Great Egret, and Snowy Egret), developed viremia lasting one to three days following subcutaneous inoculation with small doses of endemic or epidemic strains of Venezuelan encephalitis virus from Mexico, Guatemala or Venezuela. Two epidemic strains from Guatemala or Venezuela stimulated levels of viremia similar to those following infection with enzootic strains. Great Egrets, Striated and Boat-billed Herons and Scarlet Ibis older than 30 days of age developed viremias of lower levels and shorter durtions than did young birds. Marked differences in levles of viremia were not observed among Black-crowned Night Herons, Great Egrets, or Snowy Egrets. Over 50% of viremic blood samples from herons 8-30 days of age contained 1000 or more chick embryo cell culture plaque forming units of Venezuelan encephalitis per ml, levels sufficient to infect some vector species mosquitoes.

  14. Social foraging and feeding environment of the black-crowned night heron in an industrialized estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R.M.; Hatfield, J.S.; Link, W.A.

    1991-01-01

    A nesting colony of more than 300 pairs of Black-crowned Night-Herons in the Patapsco River estuary, Baltimore Harber, Maryland was monitored from May to July 1988. The departure direction and departure time of each Heron was recorded during mornjng and evening observations at the colony. In addition, individual Herons were followed to landing sites in the estuary with small boats and aircraft. Herons appear to be quite social in foraging and may concentrate their feeding in some of the most industrialized parts of the estuary. Night-Herons may prosper in urban environments because some of their prey are attracted to intense shoreline illumination at night. New quantitative methods were developed to cope with the lack of statistical independence when dealing with social species.

  15. Eustrongylidiasis in eastern great blue herons (Ardea herodias).

    PubMed

    Ziegler, A F; Welte, S C; Miller, E A; Nolan, T J

    2000-01-01

    The nematode Eustrongylides ignotus was found in peritoneal lesions of several great blue herons (Ardea herodias) submitted for necropsy from a wildlife rehabilitation center in northern Delaware. Prior to death, signs of disease included ataxia, emaciation, weakness, and anemia. Blood collection was not uniformly performed, but in cases where it was performed, affected birds demonstrated abnormal clinical hematology. Postmortem findings included numerous lesions associated with verminous peritonitis. Significant histologic granulomatous response to the presence of these organisms was noted, particularly in the proventricular specimens. Other organs involved included intestine, spleen, pancreas, and liver.

  16. Louisiana's statewide beach cleanup

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindstedt, Dianne M.; Holmes, Joseph C.

    1989-01-01

    Litter along Lousiana's beaches has become a well-recognized problem. In September 1987, Louisiana's first statewide beach cleanup attracted about 3300 volunteers who filled 16,000 bags with trash collected along 15 beaches. An estimated 800,173 items were gathered. Forty percent of the items were made of plastic and 11% were of polystyrene. Of all the litter collected, 37% was beverage-related. Litter from the oil and gas, commercial fishing, and maritime shipping industries was found, as well as that left by recreational users. Although beach cleanups temporarily rid Louisiana beaches of litter, the real value of the effort is in public participation and education. Civic groups, school children, and individuals have benefited by increasing their awareness of the problems of trash disposal.

  17. A Comprehensive Study on Coastline Process and Sedimentary Dynamics, Sardinera Beach, Mona Island, P.R.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Delga, A. M.; Ramirez, W. R.

    2008-12-01

    Sardinera beach in Mona Island, Puerto Rico, has a great recreational and ecological value and is an important research place to gather information on shoreline processes in an area far from the main land and with only scarce man made influences. Beach rock exposures present along the shoreline in Sardinera Beach have increased considerably during the last decade. A new management plan is being developed for Mona Island and the Department of Natural Resources (DNRA) of Puerto Rico wants to better understand the beach sand dynamics on this and other Mona Island beaches. This research includes field and laboratory work that characterize coastal sedimentary processes and helps to better understand the shoreline changes as well as seasonal variations in sand movement and composition. This work also establish the logistics and methodology basis for further studies that will expand to other Mona Island beaches. Benchmarks, GPS coordinates, and landmarks were used to establish ten permanent beach profiles along Sardinera Beach. Beach profiles were (and will be) measured monthly. Sardinera Beach sands are composed mostly of carbonate (CaCO3) components, products of the combination of biological, chemical and diagenetic processes, high grade of micritization, and of lithic limestone fragments. Sand composition differences between Sardinera Beach, the Mona Shelf and adjacent beach, reef crest and reef lagoon systems suggest Sardinera sands are not replenished by the modern marine components produced in these environments. The input of "fresh bioclasts" in this beach seems to be limited by natural (beach rock) and mane made (dock) barriers along the shore and by alteration in the current patterns produced by the man made aperture of the reef. Sardinera's micritized and recrystalized sand deposits seem to have been re-transported between the reefal lagoon and the beach. Sand volume analysis indicates a total sand loss of 1,322 m3 between the months of September to April

  18. A Water Quality Study: Heron's Head Park, San Francisco, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, A.; Wu, K.; Neiss, J.

    2007-12-01

    Heron's Head Park, formerly known as Pier 98, is a 24-acre restored wetland, owned and operated by the Port of San Francisco and situated at the base of the Hunter's Point Power Plant. Heron's Head is a unique environment that is built on landfill and is now a thriving marsh maintained primarily by youth and community volunteers. Adjacent to the park stands a PG&E power plant (closed May 2006), a county waste transfer station, and a combined sewer overflow (CSO) pipe. The park is bordered by San Francisco Bay on the north, east and south sides of the park. We examined the levels of ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate and fecal coliform at nine sites around the park. Utilizing historical data from other San Francisco Bay sites and other similar estuarine settings in California, we assessed the health of the Bay waters surrounding the park. We found the levels of ammonia, nitrate, nitrite and phosphates to be within the parameters of historical San Francisco Bay data and similar to settings such as Elkhorn Slough, Tomales Bay and Tijuana Estuary. In our study we did find a potential hazard to human health. Fecal coliform concentrations in waters that border the park range from 340 MPN/100 mL - 24,000 MPN/100 mL. This level significantly exceeds Environmental Protection Agency recommendations of 300 MPN/100 mL for human contact with water.

  19. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF EGRET AND HERON BROOD REDUCTION.

    PubMed

    Mock, Douglas W; Parker, Geoffrey A

    1986-05-01

    Data from great egrets and great blue herons were used to test a fundamental assumption of Lack's brood-reduction hypothesis, that mortality is brood-size dependent. This was confirmed for the largest brood sizes (4 and 3), which, in egrets, also have the highest sib-fighting rates. Broods of one, however, experienced paradoxically high mortality, especially early in the season. The hypothesis is advanced that parents desert unprofitably small broods when sufficient time remains for production of a larger brood. A simple game-theory model shows that this parental desertion may hinge primarily on the overall costs of renesting. Egret brood reduction caused by sibling aggression (siblicide) occurred later than less aggressive forms of brood reduction. The inclusive fitness of senior broodmates is maximized by the successful fledging of all sibs, and the physical superiority of seniors (in food-handling for herons; food-handling and aggression for egrets) usually suffices to guarantee their own welfare in brood competitions. Finally, it is shown that the last chick in asynchronously hatching broods represents two kinds of reproductive value (RV) to the parents-"extra RV" (obtained despite the survival of elder sibs) and "insurance RV" (obtained only when at least one elder sib dies first)-which can be distinguished from field data. This approach can be used in comparisons with other asynchronous species for partitioning the fitness contributions of marginal offspring. © 1986 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  20. [Landscape influence on the Grey Herons colonies distribution].

    PubMed

    Boisteau, Benjamin; Marion, Loïc

    2006-03-01

    We analysed the spatial relationship between the location and the size of the 112 grey heron colonies existing in 1994 in the two refuge areas after their decline of the species in the 19th century in France: South Brittany (Loire-Atlantique and Morbihan), and eastern France (Haute-Saône, Saône-et-Loire, Meurthe-et-Moselle, Vosges). We tested 35 variables describing the hydrographical network surrounding the colonies from a local to a regional scale using a Geographic Information System. The results show that, whatever the scale, the distribution of the breeding colonies was not governed by the same elements of the hydrographical network in the different areas. Two strategies of spatial utilization were observed between the western and the eastern parts of France. Moreover, two quite distinct situations were also distinguished between Morbihan and Loire-Atlantique. This study stresses that the type and the spatial organization of the hydrographical elements, but also of the history of the populations, are important in the distribution of the Grey Heron colonies.

  1. Mercury and cause of death in great white herons

    SciTech Connect

    Spalding, M.G.; Sundlof, S.F. ); Djork, R.D.; Powell, G.V.N. )

    1994-10-01

    Mercury contamination is suspected to adversely affect wading birds in southern Florida. To determine the magnitude of contamination associated with cause of death we followed 3 adult and 19 juvenile radio-tagged great white herons (Ardea herodias occidentalis), recovered them soon after death, and determined liver mercury content and cause of death. Birds that died from acute causes had less (P < 0.001) mercury in their livers (geometric [bar x] [GM] = 1.77 ppm wet mass [wm], range 0.6-4.0 ppm, n = 9) than did those that died of chronic, often multiple, diseases (GM = 9.76 ppm, range 2.9-59.4 ppm, n = 13). Juvenile herons that migrated to mainland Florida accumulated more (P = 0.009) mercury in their livers than those that did not migrate. Kidney disease and gout were present in birds that died with >25 ppm wm liver mercury. Although detrimental to the health of wading birds, mercury contamination is presumably more detrimental to their reproductive efforts; therefore, an understanding of its ill effects is important in the management of these birds. 29 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Feeding habitat use by colonially-breeding herons, egrets, and ibises in North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Thomas W.; Osborn, Ronald G.

    1978-01-01

    Nine species of herons, egrets, and ibises were followed by airplane from a nesting colony near Beaufort, North Carolina to their feeding sites. Except for Cattle Egrets, which flew exclusively to fields and dumps, the birds flew mainly to saltmarsh habitat. The selection of feeding habitats by Great Egrets and Louisiana Herons was directly related to tidal depth. The Great Egret was the only species that effectively used eelgrass beds, and its use of this habitat was restricted to between 1.5 h before and after low tide. We suspect that shorter-legged herons did not use eelgrass regularly because the water was too deep. Most Great Egrets, White Ibises, Louisiana Herons, and Snowy Egrets used areas near the colony (<4 km). Great Egrets, Black-crowned Night Herons, and White Ibises flew farther from the colony at high than at low tide. Great Egrets traveled farther from the colony when they used thermals; rate of travel to feeding sites was the same, however, whether or not they used thermals. Aggressive encounters were observed at the landing sites of Great Egrets, Louisiana Herons, Snowy Egrets, and Black-crowned Night Herons. In contrast to the other species studied, Cattle Egrets and White Ibises often flew in groups to feeding sites. Indirect evidence supports the hypothesis that colonies can act as "information centres," wherein unsuccessful birds follow successful ones to better feeding locations.

  3. Population trends and environmental contaminants in herons in the Tennessee Valley, 1980-81

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, W.J.; Pullin, B.P.; Swineford, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias) eggs (N = 40) collected in 1980 from four of the largest colonies in the Tennessee Valley contained organochlorine pesticide, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), and chromium concentrations below those associated with reduced productivity. Low concentrations of organochlorine pesticide and PCB residues also were found in eggs (N = 31) from three of the larger Black-crowned Night-Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) colonies in the Tennessee Valley. However, DDE concentrations in two of the Black-crowned Night-Heron eggs exceeded levels associated with reduced nesting success. Mercury was found in all eggs of both species with residues ranging to a high of 2.0 ppm; residues of this magnitude have not been identified as reducing nesting success of either of these two species. Green-backed Heron (Butorides striatus) eggs collected in 1981 near a former DDT manufacturing site in the Tennessee Valley had the highest DDE concentrations ever reported for this species; the effect of these high concentrations on productivity is not known. Eggshell thickness of Great Blue Heron, Green-backed Heron, and Black- crowned Night-Heron eggs averaged 7.5%, 7.6%, and 3% thinner, respectively, than shell thickness of eggs collected before 1947. This amount of thinning is not deleterious; intraclutch variation in shell thickness is often this high. Shell thickness in all three species was correlated (P lt 0.1) with DDE concentrations. The number of nesting pairs of Great Blue Herons and Black-crowned Night-Herons at each of the colonies studied has been stable or increasing during the previous decade. These population data, combined with the residue data, suggest that organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, mercury, and chromium are not adversely affecting these populations. However, we did not assess nesting success which would be a requisite for confirming this.

  4. A Look at the Generalized Heron Problem through the Lens of Majorization-Minimization

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Eric C.; Lange, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    In a recent issue of this journal, Mordukhovich, Nam, and Salinas pose and solve an interesting non-differentiable generalization of the Heron problem in the framework of modern convex analysis. In the generalized Heron problem, one is given k + 1 closed convex sets in ℝd equipped with its Euclidean norm and asked to find the point in the last set such that the sum of the distances to the first k sets is minimal. In later work, the authors generalize the Heron problem even further, relax its convexity assumptions, study its theoretical properties, and pursue subgradient algorithms for solving the convex case. Here, we revisit the original problem solely from the numerical perspective. By exploiting the majorization-minimization (MM) principle of computational statistics and rudimentary techniques from differential calculus, we are able to construct a very fast algorithm for solving the Euclidean version of the generalized Heron problem. PMID:25242816

  5. Radiotelemetry locates wintering grounds of DDE-contaminated black-crowned night-herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Blus, L.J.

    1986-01-01

    This study was designed to determine if night-herons nesting at Ruby Lake, Nevada, shared a common wintering area with lesser contaminated night-herons nesting farther north in Oregon and Idaho. Radiotelemetry (29 transmitters) and banding studies indicated that the lesser-contaminated Oregon-Idaho night-herons wintered primarily in coastal Mexico (mean 22-23'N latitude), while the Ruby Lake night-herons wintered in the southwestern United States with some in the interior of northern Mexico (mean 29-30?N latitude). We believe the nearly disjunct wintering areas for the populations, and the apparent differing pollutant loads on the wintering areas accounted for the 3-fold higher DDE egg residues at Ruby Lake. Findings from this study emphasize the influence migration patterns can have on pollutants accumulated by populations of migratory birds nesting in relatively unpolluted areas and at relatively short distances apart (400 km).

  6. Hawaii Beach Monitoring Program: Beach Profile Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, Ann E.; Richmond, Bruce M.; Fletcher, Charles H.; Hillman, Kindra P.

    2001-01-01

    Coastal erosion is widespread and locally severe in Hawaii and other low-latitude areas. Typical erosion rates in Hawaii are in the range of 15 to 30 cm/yr (0.5 to 1 ft/yr; Hwang, 1981; Sea Engineering, Inc., 1988; Makai Ocean Engineering, Inc. and Sea Engineering, Inc.,1991). Recent studies on Oahu (Fletcher et al., 1997; Coyne et al., 1996) have shown that nearly 24%, or 27.5 km (17.1 mi) of an original 115 km (71.6 mi) of sandy shoreline (1940's) has been either significantly narrowed (17.2 km; 10.7 mi) or lost (10.3 km; 6.4 mi). Nearly one-quarter of the islands' beaches have been significantly degraded over the last half-century and all shorelines have been affected to some degree. Oahu shorelines are by far the most studied, however, beach loss has been identified on the other islands as well, with nearly 13 km (8 mi) of beach likely lost due to shoreline hardening on Maui (Makai Engineering, Inc. and Sea Engineering, Inc., 1991). Causes of coastal erosion and beach loss in Hawaii are numerous but, unfortunately, poorly understood and rarely quantified. Construction of shoreline protection structures limits coastal land loss, but does not alleviate beach loss and may actually accelerate the problem by prohibiting sediment deposition in front of the structures. Other factors contributing to beach loss include: a) reduced sediment supply; b) large storms; and, c) sea-level rise. Reduction in sand supply, either from landward or seaward (primarily reef) sources, can have a myriad of causes. Obvious causes such as beach sand mining and emplacement of structures that interrupt natural sediment transport pathways or prevent access to backbeach sand deposits, remove sediment from the active littoral system. More complex issues of sediment supply can be related to reef health and carbonate production which, in turn, may be linked to changes in water quality. Second, the accumulated effect of large storms is to transport sediment beyond the littoral system. Third

  7. Feeding habitat selection by great blue herons and great egrets nesting in east central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.; Galli, J.

    2002-01-01

    Great Blue Herons (Ardea herodias) and Great Egrets (Casmerodius albus) partitioned feeding habitat based on wetland size at Peltier Lake rookery in cast central Minnesota. Great Blue Herons preferred large water-bodies ( greater than or equal to350 ha), whereas Great Egrets fed most often at small ponds (<25 ha). Forty-nine percent of Great Blue Herons used wetlands 301 - 400 hectares in size and 83% of Great Egrets fed in wetlands <100 ha in size. Great Blue Herons selected large wetlands more often than expected both at the regional (30-km radius) and local (4-km radius) scales. Habitat use by Great Egrets was in proportion to availability at the regional scale, but they selected smaller wetlands for feeding more often than expected at a local scale. The median flight distance of Great Blue Herons was 2.7 km, similar to distances reported elsewhere. Great Egrets flew farther to feeding sites than Great Blue Herons, and flew farther (median = 13.5 km) than reported in other geographic areas. Received 22 September 2001, accepted 5 November 2001.

  8. BACTERIA, BEACHES AND SWIMMABLE WATERS: INTRODUCING VIRTUAL BEACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Safe beaches meet water quality standards and are valued for their aesthetics and the recreational opportunities that they afford. In the United States recreational water quality assessments and beach closure decisions are presently based on samples of enterococci or Escherichia ...

  9. BACTERIA, BEACHES AND SWIMMABLE WATERS: INTRODUCING VIRTUAL BEACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Safe beaches meet water quality standards and are valued for their aesthetics and the recreational opportunities that they afford. In the United States recreational water quality assessments and beach closure decisions are presently based on samples of enterococci or Escherichia ...

  10. Sand supply to beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aagaard, Troels

    2017-04-01

    In most cases, beaches and dunes are built by sand that has been transported onshore from the shoreface. While this has been known for a long time, we are still not able to quantitatively predict onshore sediment transport and sand supply to beaches. Sediment transport processes operating during brief, high-energy stormy conditions - when beaches erode and sand moves offshore - are fairly well known and they can be modelled with a reasonable degree of confidence. However, the slower onshore sand transport leading to beach recovery under low-to-moderate energy conditions - and the reason why beaches and dunes exist in the first place - is not yet well understood. This severely limits our capability to understand and predict coastal behaviour on long time scales, for example in response to changing sea level or wave conditions. This paper will discuss issues and recent developments in sediment transport measurement and prediction on the lower and upper shoreface and into the swash zone. The focus will be on the integration and upscaling of small-scale deterministic process measurements into parametric models that may increase modelling capabilities of coastal behaviour on larger temporal and spatial scales.

  11. Virtual Beach: Decision Support Tools for Beach Pathogen Prediction

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Virtual Beach Managers Tool (VB) is decision-making software developed to help local beach managers make decisions as to when beaches should be closed due to predicted high levels of water borne pathogens. The tool is being developed under the umbrella of EPA's Advanced Monit...

  12. Virtual Beach: Decision Support Tools for Beach Pathogen Prediction

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Virtual Beach Managers Tool (VB) is decision-making software developed to help local beach managers make decisions as to when beaches should be closed due to predicted high levels of water borne pathogens. The tool is being developed under the umbrella of EPA's Advanced Monit...

  13. Beach slopes of Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doran, Kara S.; Long, Joesph W.; Birchler, Justin J.; Weber, Kathryn M.

    2016-01-01

    The National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project derives features of beach morphology from lidar elevation data for the purpose of understanding and predicting storm impacts to our nation's coastlines. This dataset defines mean beach slopes along the United States Northeast Atlantic Ocean for Massachusetts for data collected at various times between 2000 and 2013. For further information regarding data collection and/or processing methods refer to USGS Open-File Report 2015–1053 (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2015/1053/).

  14. Morphodynamics of Prograding Beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggiero, P.

    2012-12-01

    Long-term coastal evolution often results from the cumulative effects of small residual differences between relatively large signals. In light of dire projections of sea level rise over the next several decades to century, there is a strong societal need for accurate forecasts of net interannual- to decadal-scale coastal change. However, our present understanding of the processes responsible for storm-induced erosion and coastal recession is significantly more advanced than our knowledge of coastal recovery during calm periods. To investigate the processes and morphodynamics associated with progading beaches we synthesize findings from a long-term (15 years) beach morphology monitoring program in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. Most of the beaches along the Columbia River littoral cell (northwest Oregon and southwest Washington) were eroded during the two intense winters of 1997/1998 (a major El Niño event) and 1998/1999 (a moderate La Niña event). Subsequent to these winters the beaches have exhibited net residual progradation of several meters per year resulting in significant shoreline advance. During this same period as many as two to three new foredunes formed with backshore beach profiles accumulating sand at rates of well over 10 m3/m/yr. Interestingly, these large signals of horizontal and vertical coastal advance have occurred on beaches in which nearshore morphological variability is dominated by net offshore sandbar migration. Net offshore sandbar migration follows a three-stage process; bar generation near the shoreline, seaward migration, and bar degeneration in the outer nearshore with a cyclic return period of approximately 4 to 5 years in the region. Gradients in alongshore sediment transport, net onshore directed cross-shore sediment transport within the surf zone, and cross-shore feeding from a shoreface out of equilibrium with forcing conditions may each be partially responsible for the sediment supplied to the beaches and dunes during the study

  15. Virtual Beach 3: User's Guide

    EPA Science Inventory

    Virtual Beach version 3 (VB3) is a decision support tool that constructs site-specific statistical models to predict fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations at recreational beaches. VB3 is primarily designed for beach managers responsible for making decisions regarding beac...

  16. Virtual Beach 3: User's Guide

    EPA Science Inventory

    Virtual Beach version 3 (VB3) is a decision support tool that constructs site-specific statistical models to predict fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations at recreational beaches. VB3 is primarily designed for beach managers responsible for making decisions regarding beac...

  17. Metal concentration in the tourist beaches of South Durban: An industrial hub of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Vetrimurugan, E; Shruti, V C; Jonathan, M P; Roy, Priyadarsi D; Kunene, N W; Villegas, Lorena Elizabeth Campos

    2017-04-15

    South Durban basin of South Africa has witnessed tremendous urban, industrial expansion and mass tourism impacts exerting significant pressure over marine environments. 43 sediment samples from 7 different beaches (Bluff beach; Ansteys beach; Brighton beach; Cutting beach; Isipingo beach; Tiger Rocks beach; Amanzimtoti beach) were analyzed for acid leachable metals (ALMs) Fe, Mg, Mn, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Co, Pb, Cd, Zn and Hg. The metal concentrations found in all the beaches were higher than the background reference values (avg. in μgg(-1)) for Cr (223-352), Cu (27.67-42.10), Mo (3.11-4.70), Ni (93-118), Co (45.52-52.44), Zn (31.26-57.01) and Hg (1.13-2.36) suggesting the influence of industrial effluents and harbor activities in this region. Calculated geochemical indexes revealed that extreme contamination of Cr and Hg in all the beach sediments and high Cr and Ni levels poses adverse biological effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessing habitat use by breeding great blue herons (Ardea herodias) on the upper Mississippi River, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirsch, E.M.; Ickes, B.; Olsen, D.A.

    2008-01-01

    Approximately 7,610 to 3,175 pairs of Great Blue Herons (Ardea herodias) nested along 420 river km of the Uppert Mississippi River (UMR) from 1993 to 2003. Numbers declined precipitously in the mid-1990s stabilizing somewhat in the early 2000s. The average number of nests in colonies was 349 (SD = 283). Annual colony turn over rate for the eleven year period was 0.15 and ranged from 0.06 to 0.29 each year. The number of years that a colony was active was positively correlated with the average number of nests present while the colony was active. Of the eight colonies active in 1993 that averaged more than 349 nests, four were abandoned by 2003. Only one colony grew to greater than 349 nests during the study period. Custer et al. (2004) suggested that herons on the UMR may be limited by forage resources or foraging habitat and social factors, as evidenced by the even spacing of colonies that reflects the maximum feeding range of herons on the river. To rule out nesting and foraging habitat limitation, landscape habitat features of terrestrial and aquatic areas were examined for colony areas and areas without colonies. Available fish monitoring data were used to examine potential interactions between herons and forage resources. Colony areas did not differ from areas without colonies in any habitat feature. Indices of potential heron forage fish increased from 1993 to 2002, although low indices of fish abundance in 1993 were likely influenced by flood conditions that year. Although fish availability to herons is related to flows and water levels, available data suggested that herons did not negatively impact their potential forage base. Numbers of herons were not correlated with indices of fish abundance from the preceding year on a pool-wide scale. Indices of fish abundance were higher within 5 km of colonies than farther than 5 km from colonies, and indices of fish abundance increased from June through August both near and far from colonies. Numbers of herons and

  19. Organochlorines and mercury in eggs of coastal terns and herons in California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Custer, T.W.; Lowe, Roy W.; Rigney, M.; Cromartie, E.

    1988-01-01

    In San Franciso Bay, California, USA, concentrations of DDE and mercury in eggs differed among Caspian Tern, Forster's Tern, Black-crowned Night-Heron, and Snowy Egret in 1982. Geometric mean DDE concentrations were higher (P < 0.05) in Caspian Tern eggs (6.93 ppm, wet weight) than in eggs of other species (1.92-2.84 ppm). Mean mercury concentrations were significantly greater in Caspian Tern (1.25 ppm) and forster's Tern (0.90 ppm) eggs than in night-herons (0.41 ppm), but night-heron eggs contained higher concentrations of mercury than did the eggs of Snowy Egrets (0.21 ppm). There were no significant differences among species for mean concentrations of trans-nonachlor or PCBs; other organochlorines occurred in fewer than half of the samples, so means were not compared. Caspian Tern eggs from San Francisco Bay had higher PCB concentrations (4.85 ppm) than did eggs of this species from San Diego Bay, California (1.70 ppm) or Elkhorn Slough, California (1.83 ppm), but we detected no significant differences in mean concentrations of other organochlorines. DDE concentrations in 5 of 47 (10.6%) night-heron eggs from San Francisco Bay exceeded 8 ppm, a level associated with impaired reproduction in this species. DDE concentrations were negatively correlated with eggshell thickness in night-herons and egrets.

  20. Organochlorines and selenium in California night-heron and egret eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohlendorf, Harry M.; Marois, Katherine C.

    1990-01-01

    Exceptionally high concentrations of DDE were found in black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) (geometric mean 8.62 μg g−1 wet wt.) and great egret (Casmerodius albus) (24.0 μg g−1) eggs collected from the Imperial Valley (Salton Sea), California in 1985. DDE concentrations in 14 of the 87 (16%) randomly selected night-heron eggs from six colonies (two in San Francisco Bay, three in the San Joaquin Valley, and one at Salton Sea) were higher than those associated with reduced reproductive success of night-herons (8 μg g−1). In addition, mean shell thickness of night-heron eggs collected from the San Joaquin Valley and from San Francisco Bay during 1982–1984 was significantly less than pre-DDT thickness and was negatively correlated (r=−0.50, n=75, P<0.0001) with DDE concentration. Mean selenium concentration in night-heron eggs from Salton Sea (1.10 μg g−1) was significantly higher than in eggs from three locations in the San Joaquin Valley, and in egret eggs from Salton Sea.

  1. [Bioindication of organochlorine pesticides by night heron in Taihu wetland ecosystem].

    PubMed

    Dong, Yuanhua; An, Qiong; Gong, Zhongming; Wang, Hui

    2002-02-01

    Based on field ecological investigation on the colony of herons in Yuantouzhu of Taihu in 1999, the regurgitated foods by chicks of night heron were collected for prey type identification and chemical analysis. Besides, eggs of night heron, and sediments and waters in foraging habitats were sampled for chemical analysis as well. alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, gamma-HCH, Aldrin, Dieldrin, Endrin, Heptachlor, Heptachlor epoxide, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDT were determined in laboratory by gas chromatography. The results indicated that HCH isomers, DDT and its metabolites could be detected in various environments and preys of night heron, although the organochlorined chemicals were banned for almost 20 years. Moreover, The results showed that eggs of night heron could accumulate organochlorine pesticides by as much as a factor of 10(3)-10(4), which can make chemical analysis much easier. So they are good bio-indicators for organochlorine contamination level in wetland environments.

  2. Growth rates of great egret, snowy egret and black-crowned night-heron chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Peterson, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    Growth rates of Great Erget (Casmerodius albus), Snowy Erget (Egretta thula), and Black-crowned Night-Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) chicks to 18 days-of-age were estimated from repeated measurements of chicks in broods of three young. Weight gain (g/day) or increase in length (mm/day) of forearm, tarsus, or culmen did not between Black-crowned Night-Heron chicks at a colony in Rhode Island and a colony in Texas (USA). In Black-crowned night-Herons and Great Egrets, the last chick (C-chick) to hatch had lower growth rates than the first (A-) or second (B-) hatched chick. Black-crowned Night-Heron and Great Egret A-chicks gained weight faster than Snowy Egret A-chicks; however growth rates of the forearm, tarsus, or culmen each were not different among the three species. Equations based on the growth rate of culmen, forearm, or tarsus for repeatedly measured A-chicks estimated age of Great Egret, Snowy Egret, and Black-crowned Night-Heron chicks collected elsewhere to within two days of known age.

  3. Feeding behavior and diet of free ranging black crowned night herons on a catfish aquaculture facility in Mississippi

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The impacts of many species of piscivorous birds on aquaculture are well documented in the southeastern United States; however, specific studies of black-crowned night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) in these areas are lacking. It was observed that black-crowned night herons opportunistically exploit ...

  4. Influence of landscape features on the location of grey heron Ardea cinerea colonies in Poland.

    PubMed

    Manikowska-Ślepowrońska, Brygida; Lazarus, Magdalena; Żółkoś, Katarzyna; Zbyryt, Adam; Kitowski, Ignacy; Jakubas, Dariusz

    We analysed hydrographic and habitat factors influencing the location of 207 colonies of the grey heron Ardea cinerea in Poland. We compared areas of particular habitats in three buffers around colonies (0-1, 0-10, 0-20km) among eight regions differing in their proportions of studied habitats. We found the highest inter-region dissimilarities in areas covered by water bodies (all scales) and pastures (0-1km). We recognized some indicator habitats characteristic of the majority (water bodies, pastures) or of some (seacoast, inland marshes, urbanized zone) regions. The habitat selectivity index showed that grey herons in buffer 0-1km preferred pastures and water bodies in seven regions and rivers in one subprovince. In buffer 0-10km, forests and urban zones were preferred in seven and five subprovinces, respectively. Our study revealed that both aquatic and non-aquatic habitats are important for the distribution of the grey heron colonies in Poland.

  5. Florida atlas of breeding sites for herons and their allies: 1976-1978

    SciTech Connect

    Nesbitt, S.A.; Ogden, J.C.; Kale, H.W. II; Patty, B.W.; Rowse, L.A.

    1982-08-01

    The first atlas of heron colonies was published in 1978 (Osborn and Custer 1978) and covered the Atlantic coast from Maine to Florida for 1975 and 1976. This atlas is an update of heron colonies for the Atlantic coast of Florida and an initial heron colony coverage for the Florida gulf Coast and inland colonies, 1976 through 1978. Aerial surveys were conducted in April and mid-summer over the Florida peninsula, east of the Ochlockonee River. A total of 295 active nesting colonies, with 22 different species, were located in the three-year period. Colony locations are shown on 1:250,000 USGS maps and Florida county maps. Colony data forms follow each county map and include information on location, date of census, estimated number of nesting pairs, site description, nesting substrate and proximity to human development.

  6. Cholinesterase activity in black-crowned night-herons exposed to fenthion-treated water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, G.J.; Spann, J.W.; Hill, E.F.

    1986-01-01

    Fenthion, (O,O-Dimethyl O-(3-methyl-4-(methylthio)phenyl) phosphorothioate), a widely used mosquito control agent, has caused wildlife mortality. To simulate a shallow wetland environment, an exposure chamber was used containing water treated with fenthion at 1 and 10 times the field application rate of 112 g active ingredient (AI)/ha. This system permitted an evaluation of exposure routes and the effects of fenthion in a representative species of wading bird, the black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax). The results suggested that herons received only a dermal exposure, and that their brain acetylcholinesterase activity was not significantly inhibited. In contrast, however, plasma butyrylcholinesterase activity was inhibited, suggesting the herons were exposed to the insecticide. The application rates and types of exposures were not life-threatening in this species.

  7. Vision and Foraging in Cormorants: More like Herons than Hawks?

    PubMed Central

    White, Craig R.; Day, Norman; Butler, Patrick J.; Martin, Graham R.

    2007-01-01

    Background Great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo L.) show the highest known foraging yield for a marine predator and they are often perceived to be in conflict with human economic interests. They are generally regarded as visually-guided, pursuit-dive foragers, so it would be expected that cormorants have excellent vision much like aerial predators, such as hawks which detect and pursue prey from a distance. Indeed cormorant eyes appear to show some specific adaptations to the amphibious life style. They are reported to have a highly pliable lens and powerful intraocular muscles which are thought to accommodate for the loss of corneal refractive power that accompanies immersion and ensures a well focussed image on the retina. However, nothing is known of the visual performance of these birds and how this might influence their prey capture technique. Methodology/Principal Findings We measured the aquatic visual acuity of great cormorants under a range of viewing conditions (illuminance, target contrast, viewing distance) and found it to be unexpectedly poor. Cormorant visual acuity under a range of viewing conditions is in fact comparable to unaided humans under water, and very inferior to that of aerial predators. We present a prey detectability model based upon the known acuity of cormorants at different illuminances, target contrasts and viewing distances. This shows that cormorants are able to detect individual prey only at close range (less than 1 m). Conclusions/Significance We conclude that cormorants are not the aquatic equivalent of hawks. Their efficient hunting involves the use of specialised foraging techniques which employ brief short-distance pursuit and/or rapid neck extension to capture prey that is visually detected or flushed only at short range. This technique appears to be driven proximately by the cormorant's limited visual capacities, and is analogous to the foraging techniques employed by herons. PMID:17653266

  8. Vision and foraging in cormorants: more like herons than hawks?

    PubMed

    White, Craig R; Day, Norman; Butler, Patrick J; Martin, Graham R

    2007-07-25

    Great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo L.) show the highest known foraging yield for a marine predator and they are often perceived to be in conflict with human economic interests. They are generally regarded as visually-guided, pursuit-dive foragers, so it would be expected that cormorants have excellent vision much like aerial predators, such as hawks which detect and pursue prey from a distance. Indeed cormorant eyes appear to show some specific adaptations to the amphibious life style. They are reported to have a highly pliable lens and powerful intraocular muscles which are thought to accommodate for the loss of corneal refractive power that accompanies immersion and ensures a well focussed image on the retina. However, nothing is known of the visual performance of these birds and how this might influence their prey capture technique. We measured the aquatic visual acuity of great cormorants under a range of viewing conditions (illuminance, target contrast, viewing distance) and found it to be unexpectedly poor. Cormorant visual acuity under a range of viewing conditions is in fact comparable to unaided humans under water, and very inferior to that of aerial predators. We present a prey detectability model based upon the known acuity of cormorants at different illuminances, target contrasts and viewing distances. This shows that cormorants are able to detect individual prey only at close range (less than 1 m). We conclude that cormorants are not the aquatic equivalent of hawks. Their efficient hunting involves the use of specialised foraging techniques which employ brief short-distance pursuit and/or rapid neck extension to capture prey that is visually detected or flushed only at short range. This technique appears to be driven proximately by the cormorant's limited visual capacities, and is analogous to the foraging techniques employed by herons.

  9. Concentration and bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticide residues in herons and their prey in wetlands of Thermaikos Gulf, Macedonia, Greece.

    PubMed

    Albanis, T A; Hela, D; Papakostas, G; Goutner, V

    1996-04-05

    Concentrations of the principal organochlorine insecticides were determined in eggs and freshly dead chicks of the Squacco heron (Ardeola ralloides), Little Egret (Egretta garzetta) and Night Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), as well as in frogs (Rana sp.), the main heron prey. Material was collected from the wetlands of the Thermaikos Gulf (Macedonia, northern Greece) in 1992 and 1993. Residues of the organochlorine pesticides alpha-BHC, beta-BHC, lindane, 4,4'-DDD, 4,4'-DDE, heptachlor and dieldrin were found in the eggs, chicks and prey of the herons. alpha-BHC, beta-BHC, and lindane had highest concentration in the Night Heron and lowest in the Little Egret. In all samples examined, the bioconcentration factors (BCF) of these compounds had very high values. BCF of pollutants for the eggs of the Squacco Heron were at lower levels than those of its chicks. BCF for frogs were in almost all cases lower than those for the other samples. Biomagnification factor (BMF) for 4,4'-DDE and beta-BHC had the highest values of all other compounds (except in the Night Heron). BMF for the eggs of the Squacco Heron were greater than for its chicks. Variation in the pesticide contents in the different heron species is attributed to different feeding habits; the exception being the occurrence of dieldrin in eggs only and 4,4'-DDE as a remnant of past spraying. Amounts of pesticides detected in this study are too low to affect eggshell thickness in the Squacco Heron or have other effects on the wildlife of the area.

  10. Periclimenaeus denticulodigitus sp. nov. (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae: Pontoniinae), from Heron Island, Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Bruce, A J

    2014-01-03

    An unusual species of the genus Periclimenaeus Borradaile, 1915 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae Pontoniinae) from Heron Island, Queensland, Australia, collected by Dr Niel Bruce in 1979, is described and illustrated. Periclimenaeus denticulodigitus sp. nov., an ascidian associate was collected from coral reef at 7.0 m and presents some interesting new features. It increases to 17 the number of Periclimenaeus known from Heron Island, Queensland, and to 28 the number of species known from Australia. The new species has the second pereiopod fingers minutely denticulate and unique to the genus.

  11. A novel primary bile acid in the Shoebill stork and herons and its phylogenetic significance.

    PubMed

    Hagey, L R; Schteingart, C D; Ton-Nu, H-T; Hofmann, A F

    2002-05-01

    The Shoebill stork, an enigma phylogenetically, was found to contain as its dominant biliary bile acid 16alpha-hydroxychenodeoxycholic acid, a heretofore undescribed bile acid. The bile acid occurred as its taurine N-acyl amidate; structure was established by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS). A search for this novel bile acid in other Ciconiiformes showed that it constituted >92% of biliary bile acids in five of nine herons in the Ardidae, but was absent in all other families (Ciconiidae, Threskiornithidae, Scopidae, Phoenicopteridae). The presence of this biochemical trait in the Shoebill stork and certain herons suggests that these birds are closely related.

  12. Skeletal deformities and mortality in grey herons (Ardea cinerea) at Besthorpe heronry, Nottinghamshire.

    PubMed

    Feltrer, Y; Draper, E R C; Perkins, M; Cunningham, A A

    2006-10-14

    Dead and sick grey heron chicks with multiple fractures of the leg and wing bones and/or bone deformities have been reported at Besthorpe Nature Reserve heronry in north Nottinghamshire since 1996. Forty-five grey heron carcases were examined, 35 from the Besthorpe colony and 10 from other colonies where bone disease was not known to occur. On the basis of the results of radiological studies, postmortem examinations, peripheral quantitative computed tomography scanning and four-point bending tests, it was concluded that the skeletal abnormalities were probably due to metabolic bone disease.

  13. Eustrongylides and pesticide levels in a great blue heron shot in Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Windingstad, R.M.; Swineford, D.M.

    1981-01-01

    The parasitic roundworm, Eustrongylides ignotus Jagersk, has been known to cause mortality and morbidity in members of the heron family in the eastern states of North America. To date no previous records exist for this nematode in Wisconsin. Even though eustrongylidiosis was first detected in the District of Columbia in 1926 by Chapin (1926), it was not until 1976 that this parasite was found in the midwest, in central Indiana (Winterfield and Kazacos 1977). The purpose of this report is to document the occurrence of this nematode even further westward, in Wisconsin, and to show the debilitating effect it can have on herons.

  14. Sand hazards on tourist beaches.

    PubMed

    Heggie, Travis W

    2013-01-01

    Visiting the beach is a popular tourist activity worldwide. Unfortunately, the beach environment is abundant with hazards and potential danger to the unsuspecting tourist. While the traditional focus of beach safety has been water safety oriented, there is growing concern about the risks posed by the sand environment on beaches. This study reports on the death and near death experience of eight tourists in the collapse of sand holes, sand dunes, and sand tunnels. Each incident occurred suddenly and the complete burial in sand directly contributed to the victims injury or death in each case report. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Getting Aquainted with Beaches and Coasts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWall, Allan E.

    1980-01-01

    Explains how a shoreline is formed and how it changes, and why its changes do not always coincide with human plans. Subjects discussed include beaches, beach processes, inlets and beaches, and a marine glossary. (Author/DS)

  16. Getting Aquainted with Beaches and Coasts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWall, Allan E.

    1980-01-01

    Explains how a shoreline is formed and how it changes, and why its changes do not always coincide with human plans. Subjects discussed include beaches, beach processes, inlets and beaches, and a marine glossary. (Author/DS)

  17. Volcanoes on the Beach?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinert, Katrin

    2009-01-01

    How could a rock formed by volcanic activity get to this shoreline, surrounded by sedimentary rocks? That was the question a group of third-grade students asked--and answered--during an inquiry-based summer camp. Over a two week timeframe, the students practiced basic inquiry skills such as observing; measuring; describing and drawing; sharing…

  18. Volcanoes on the Beach?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinert, Katrin

    2009-01-01

    How could a rock formed by volcanic activity get to this shoreline, surrounded by sedimentary rocks? That was the question a group of third-grade students asked--and answered--during an inquiry-based summer camp. Over a two week timeframe, the students practiced basic inquiry skills such as observing; measuring; describing and drawing; sharing…

  19. The heron that laid the golden egg: metals and metalloids in ibis, darter, cormorant, heron, and egret eggs from the Vaal River catchment, South Africa.

    PubMed

    van der Schyff, V; Pieters, R; Bouwman, H

    2016-06-01

    Metal pollution issues are afforded the highest priority in developing countries. Only one previous study has addressed metals in African bird eggs. We determined the concentration of metals and metalloids in bird eggs from four sites in the Vaal River catchment (VRC) of South Africa to provide data on the current situation. We analysed 16 pools of 77 heron, ibis, darter, egret, and cormorant eggs for 18 metals and metalloids using ICP-MS. We found high concentrations of gold (Au), uranium (U), thallium (Tl), and platinum (Pt) in Grey Heron eggs from Baberspan. Great white egrets from Bloemhof Dam had high concentrations of mercury (Hg). Multivariate analyses revealed strong associations between Au and U, and between palladium (Pd) and Pt. The toxic reference value (TRV) for Hg was exceeded in seven pools. Selenium exceeded its TRV in one pool; in the same pool, copper (Cu) reached its TRV. Compared with other studies, VRC bird eggs had high concentrations of contaminants. Based on these high concentrations, human health might be at risk as Grey Herons and humans share similar food and are therefore exposed to the same contaminants.

  20. Cross-Shore Exchange on Natural Beaches

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    words) The cross-shore exchange of material is examined on beaches of varying morphology and hydrodynamics. On a dissipative, rip-channeled beach...cross-shore exchange of material is examined on beaches of varying morphology and hydrodynamics. On a dissipative, rip-channeled beach in Monterey...Onshore and offshore exchange occurs by various processes, depending on beach morphology , beach slope, wave conditions, and resulting current patterns

  1. Hydraulic, geotechnical, geomorphic, and biologic data for the Cache River/Heron Pond area in southern Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmes, Jr., Robert R.

    1996-01-01

    Heron Pond, located in extreme southern Illinois, lies immediately adjacent to the upper Cache River. The upper Cache River is encroaching on Heron Pond, which has raised the issue of the possibility of a failure of the Heron Pond wall, the area between Heron Pond and the upper Cache River. Hydraulic, geotechnical, geomorphic, and biologic data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Illinois Department of Natural Resources, Office of Water Resources (IDNR/OWR) for use in designing a mitigation plan by the IDNR/OWR to prevent the failure of the Heron Pond wall. The river is sluggish during floods with velocities generally 1-2 feet per second. Biologic activity in the area have increased bank instability, which already is a problem because of saturated soils in the Heron Pond wall. In the area adjacent to the Heron Pond, the right descending bank of the upper Cache River receded 0.5 foot between September 21, 1995 and June 25, 1996. Comparisons between two surveys, 1958 and 1995, indicate that the channel near the discontinued USGS streamflow-gaging station near the Burlington Northern Railroad crossing has widened by more than 10 feet with less than 0.5 foot of incision.

  2. 76 FR 35875 - Blue Heron Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... Heron Hydro LLC. e. Name of Project: Townshend Dam Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: At the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Townshend Dam on the West River near the Town of Townshend, Windham County, Vermont. g. Filed Pursuant to: Federal Power Act 16 U.S.C. 791 (a)-825(r). h. Applicant Contact: Lori Barg...

  3. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers, toxaphenes, and other halogenated organic pollutants in great blue heron eggs.

    PubMed

    Champoux, Louise; Moisey, John; Muir, Derek C G

    2010-02-01

    The great blue heron (Ardea herodias) has been used as a bioindicator of the state of the St. Lawrence River (Québec, Canada) since 1996. At 5-year intervals, selected breeding colonies along the River and its estuary are visited to estimate reproductive success and determine levels of contamination. Brominated flame retardants are found in many ecosystems and are increasing in concentration in the Great Lakes, which is the source of much of the water for the St. Lawrence River. In 2001 and 2002, in addition to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlorinated pesticides, the levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated bornanes (toxaphene) congeners and non-ortho-substituted PCBs were measured for the first time in pools of great blue heron eggs. The PBDE levels in great blue heron eggs (70-1,377 ng/g wet wt) were comparable to those measured in herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs from the Great Lakes. Toxaphene was detected in great blue heron eggs at levels comparable to those of other major chlorinated pesticides. Major toxaphene congeners were octachlorobornane P44 and the nonachlorobornane P50. Environ.

  4. Intracellular yeasts in endothelial cells of a great blue heron (Ardea herodias).

    PubMed

    Millins, Caroline; Hill, Janet E; Wobeser, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Intracellular organisms in the endothelial cells of several organs of an adult great blue heron (Ardea herodias) were identified as a yeast in the family Saccharomycetales based on ultrastructural morphology and sequence data from the ribosomal RNA operon. Morphologically similar organisms of unknown identity have been described previously in Muscovy (Cairina moschata) and domestic (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) ducks.

  5. Assessment of contamination and biomarker responses in two species of herons on the St. Lawrence river.

    PubMed

    Champoux, Louise; Rodrigue, Jean; Desgranges, Jean-Luc; Trudeau, Suzanne; Hontela, Alice; Boily, Monique; Spear, Philip

    2002-10-01

    This study was undertaken to validate potential biomarkers of exposure and effects due to chemical contaminants in breeding colonies of the Great Blue Heron and the Black-crowned Night-Heron on the St. Lawrence River. Eggs and fledglings from both species were collected from many colonies along the River. The fledglings from colonies in freshwater and brackish water were more contaminated by mercury and PCBs than those from estuarine and gulf colonies. With respect to fledglings of the two heron species, some morphometric and blood biochemical measurements, including plasma thyroid hormones and retinol, were significantly different among colonies. Significant differences were also observed in liver retinoids, EROD and porphyrins among colonies. The results of this study suggest that plasma retinoids and thyroid hormones are good biomarkers of exposure and effects, and are sufficiently sensitive to reflect local and regional variations in contamination. Along with the measure of contaminants in egg and plasma, they constitute non-invasive biomarkers which represent an important criteria for long term monitoring of wildlife species. It is concluded that the Great Blue Heron is an appropriate sentinel species in the surveillance network for the St. Lawrence River.

  6. Larval dermestid beetles feeding on nestling snail kites, wood storks, and great blue herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, N.F.R.; Ogden, J.C.; Bittner, J.D.; Grau, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    In recent years abdominal lesions attributable to larval dermestid beetles (Dermestes nidum) have appeared in nestling Snail (Everglade) Kites (Rostrhamus sociabilis), Wood Storks (Mycteria americana), and Great Blue Herons (Ardea herodias). Although it appears that most nestlings affected have survived, the degree of threat posed by dermestid larvae to various avian species is as yet unclear.

  7. Larval dermestid beetles feeding on nestling snail kites, wood storks, and great blue herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, N.F.R.; Ogden, J.C.; Bittner, J.D.; Grau, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    In recent years abdominal lesions attributable to larval dermestid beetles (D. nidum) have appeared in nestling snail (Everglade) kites (R. sociabilis), wood storks (M. americana) and great blue herons (A. herodias). Although it appears that most nestlings affected have survived, the degree of threat posed by dermestid larvae to various avian species is as yet unclear.

  8. Metal concentrations, foraging distances, and fledging success of great blue herons nesting along the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River.

    PubMed

    Tiller, Brett L; Marco, J D; Rickard, W H

    2005-05-01

    An ecological risk assessment of the spatial distribution of metal concentrations along the Hanford Reach of the free-flowing Columbia River in southcentral Washington, identified great blue herons, Ardea herodias, at potential risk through the ingestion of contaminated riverine biota, especially fish. We measured metal concentrations in livers of pre-flight herons from the Hanford Reach and excrement samples taken from the same nests. Nests were distributed among three colonies situated upstream and downstream from nine retired plutonium production reactors along the river where metals in reactor coolant waters had been released directly into the river or disposed to shoreline retention basins and ditches. Distances traveled by parent herons to foraging areas along the river shore were determined by visually tracking parent birds as they flew from nests to upriver and downriver foraging sites. Foraging flight distances varied between colonies with mean distances ranging between 0.7 and 3.1 km. Cadmium, Cr, and Pb concentrations were higher in excrement than in the livers of pre-flight herons but the opposite was noted for Cu, Hg, and Zn. Highest metal concentrations of Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb, were measured in excrement taken from heron nests at the colony located upstream from all reactors. These results were consistent with metal concentrations reported in river sediment from the same regions, indicating excrement from the heron nests may be a useful indicator of dietary uptake of metals by herons. Fledging success and eggshell thickness measurements were used as an index of health of the local heron population. The results indicate that the reproductive health of great blue herons nesting along the Hanford Reach is among the highest reported in the continental United States.

  9. Summary of Annual Beach Notifications

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA gathers state-by-state data about beach closings and advisories. Between 1999 and 2012, EPA published a national summary report about the previous year's swimming season data.

  10. Pollution ecology of breeding great blue herons in the Columbia Basin, Oregon and Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Henny, C.J.; Kaiser, T.E.

    1980-01-01

    Approximately 40 pairs of Great Blue Herons (Ardea herodias) formerly nested in trees on or near Blalock Island about 95 km downstream from Richland, Washington, in the Columbia River (Nehls 1972 ). In conjunction with construction of the John Day Lock and Dam and before creating Lake Umatilla in 1968, large trees along the shoreline, including those in the heronry on Blalock Island, were removed except for about six cottonwood trees (Populus sp.) that were left standing near the south bank of the river (David Lenhart, pers. comm.). As a mitigation procedure, the Umatilla National Wildlife Refuge (Umatilla) was established in 1967. The herons subsequently established a secondary heronry in the six cottonwoods; 20 pairs were present in 1971 (Nehls 1972). The inundated trees died and deteriorated; only two trees with eight nests remained in 1976 (Henny and Kurtz 1978), and we found just two nests in one tree in 1978. With a decrease in traditional nesting sites, the birds nested on islands in big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), on channel markers in the Columbia River, and on nesting platforms constructed for Canada Geese (Branta canadensis). The purpose of this paper is to describe the breeding biology of Great Blue Herons at Umatilla and the McNary Recreation Area (McNary) in 1978 and the relationship of organochlorine residues in eggs to eggshell thickness and reproductive success. The primary reason for conducting this study was to determine if the heptachlor seed treatment that was severely affecting Canada Geese at Umatilla (Blus et al. 1979) was also a hazard to Great Blue Herons. At the same time we also investigated possible effects of other organochlorines on the herons.

  11. Comparison of polychlorinated dibenzodioxin levels with hepatic mixed-function oxidase induction in great blue herons.

    PubMed

    Bellward, G D; Norstrom, R J; Whitehead, P E; Elliott, J E; Bandiera, S M; Dworschak, C; Chang, T; Forbes, S; Cadario, B; Hart, L E

    1990-05-01

    As part of the Canadian Wildlife Service monitoring of great blue herons in British Columbia, eggs were collected from three colonies with low, intermediate, and high levels of PCDD and PCDF contamination: Nicomekl, Vancouver, and Crofton, respectively. One egg from each nest was used for chemical analysis by GC-MS; the others were hatched. Liver microsomes were prepared from the heron chicks and used for determination of cytochrome P-450-dependent activities. No erythromycin N-demethylase activity was found in any sample. Ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase activity in the Nicomekl group was similar to that in pigeons, a control altricial species. The ethoxyresorufin activity in the herons from the Crofton colony was 2.6-fold higher than in the Nicomekl group. The Vancouver colony was intermediate. No difference among the three heron colonies was found in pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylase activity, although levels were 20-33 times that in the pigeon. Chemical analysis was carried out on paired heron eggs. Vancouver and Crofton eggs contained 13.5 and 21 times the levels of 2,3,7,8-TCDD compared to the Nicomekl group. The Crofton eggs contained higher levels of several other contaminants also. A highly significant correlation (p less than .001) was found between ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase and 2,3,7,8-TCDD concentrations. The correlation coefficient did not change when ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase was compared to total chemical contamination using several toxic equivalency factors. Multiple regression analysis resulted in only one predictor variable for ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase: 2,3,7,8-TCDD.

  12. Dioxin contamination and growth and development in great blue heron embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, L.E.; Cheng, K.M.; Whitehead, P.E.; Shah, R.M.; Lewis, R.J.; Ruschkowski, S.R.; Blair, R.W.; Bennett, D.C.; Bandiera, S.M.; Norstrom, R.J. )

    1991-03-01

    A great blue heron colony located near a pulp mill in British Columbia failed to fledge young in 1987, with a concurrent sharp increase in polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) levels in their eggs. In 1988 we tested the hypothesis that the PCDD and PCDF contamination caused reproductive failure by increasing mortality of the heron embryos in ovo. Pairs of great blue heron eggs were collected from three British Columbia colonies with low, intermediate, and high levels of dioxin contamination: Nicomekl, Vancouver, and Crofton, respectively. One egg of each pair was incubated under laboratory conditions at the University of British Columbia (UBC) while the other egg was analyzed for PCDDs and PCDFs. All incubated eggs were fertile. All eggs from the Nicomekl colony hatched, while 13 of 14 eggs from Vancouver and 12 of 13 eggs from Crofton hatched. Subcutaneous edema was observed in 4 of 12 chicks from Crofton and 2 of 13 chicks from Vancouver. No edema was seen in the chicks from Nicomekl. There was a small, but significant, negative regression of plasma calcium concentration, yolk-free body weight, tibia length, wet, dry, and ash weight, beak length, and kidney and stomach weight of the hatched chicks on the tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) level of the paired eggs. Fewer down follicles were present on the heads of TCDD-contaminated chicks. Hence while dioxins did not cause mortality of the heron embryos in ovo, the depression of growth and the presence of edema are suggestive that dioxins at the levels found in the environment have an adverse effect on the development of great blue heron embryos.

  13. Beach-cusp formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger, A.H.

    1979-01-01

    Field experiments on beach-cusp formation were undertaken to document how the cuspate form develops and to test the edge-wave hypothesis on the uniform spacing of cusps. These involved observations of cusps forming from an initially plane foreshore. The cuspate form was observed to be a product of swash modification of an intertidal beach ridge as follows. A ridge, cut by a series of channels quasi-equally spaced along its length, was deposited onto the lower foreshore. The ridge migrated shoreward with flood tide, while the longshore positions of the channels remained fixed. On ebb tide, changes in swash circulation over the ridge allowed the upwash to flow shoreward through the channels and the channel mouths were eroded progressively wider until adjacent mouths met, effecting a cuspate shape. Measured spacings of cusps, ranging in size from less than 1 m to more than 12 m, agree well with computed spacings due to either zero-mode subharmonic or zero-mode synchronous edge waves. Edge-wave-induced longshore variations in run up will cause water ponded behind a ridge to converge at points of low swash and flow seaward as relatively narrow currents eroding channels spaced at one edge-wave wavelength for synchronous edge waves or one half wavelength for subharmonic edge waves. The channels are subsequently modified into cusp troughs as described above.

  14. Beach Clean-Up near Historic Beach House

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-04-12

    About 50 participants led by NASA Kennedy Space Center's Employee Resource Groups picked up about 20 bags of trash and other large debris along the center's shoreline before turtle-nesting season as a community service. Sea turtle-nesting season begins in about one month. Unlike what might be found along a public beach, all of the debris that litters Kennedy’s restricted beaches washes ashore after being discarded at sea. Of the 72 miles of beach that form the eastern boundary of Brevard County, Florida, about six of those miles line Kennedy.

  15. Longshore variability of beach states and bar types in a microtidal, storm-influenced, low-energy environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleman, N.; Robin, N.; Certain, R.; Anthony, E. J.; Barusseau, J.-P.

    2015-07-01

    Beach classification models are widely used in the literature to describe beach states in response to environmental conditions. These models were essentially developed for sandy barred to barless beaches in micro- to meso-tidal environments subject to moderate to high wave energy conditions and have been based on field studies over limited stretches of coast. Here, we further interrogate the performance of the Australian beach classification scheme by analysing beach states and corresponding bar types on a regional scale in a storm-influenced, low wave-energy, microtidal environment, using a large and unique spatial and temporal dataset of supra- and subtidal beach morphology and sedimentology. The 200 km-long coast of the Gulf of Lions in the Mediterranean consists of quasi-continuous sandy beaches with a well-developed double sandbar system. All the reported classical beach states were observed on this coast, from reflective to dissipative, along with two more unusual states: the rock platform-constrained beach state which is associated with bedrock outcrops, and the non-barred dissipative beach state which is more commonly found in large tidal-range settings. LiDAR bathymetry shows that the transitions between beach state zones are marked mainly headlands but transitions also occur progressively along stretches of continuous sandy beach. The longshore distribution of beach states and associated bar types on a regional scale can be related to the variability of hydrodynamic conditions (wave incidence and energy) and sediment characteristics (particle size). However, the influence of these parameters on beach state seems to be largely controlled by the geological context such as the presence of a river mouth, headland or rock platform. Finally, we assessed the ability of the parameter Ω, commonly used to characterise beach states, which combines wave characteristics and sediment fall velocity, to predict the observed beach states and bar types using a very large

  16. 76 FR 37700 - Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... Waterway in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina during the Myrtle Beach Triathlon. The Myrtle Beach Triathlon...

  17. 76 FR 54703 - Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The... Beach, South Carolina during the Myrtle Beach Triathlon. The Myrtle Beach Triathlon, which is comprised...

  18. Concepts in gravel beach dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buscombe, Daniel; Masselink, Gerhard

    2006-11-01

    The dominant processes in gravel beach dynamics are reviewed, highlighting some common themes which unify the various components of the gravel beach system, the repercussions of which impart on how gravel beach dynamics might be understood conceptually. In particular, gravel beach dynamics are thought to be highly dependent on the temporal and spatial variation in grain size, and the continual adjustments made by an active beach step, both of which act not only as the expression of changing morphodynamic conditions, but also as a controlling influence. Morphodynamics, the notion that the exchanges on beaches between the hydrodynamics, sediment transport, and morphological change takes the form of reciprocal relationships which are mediated through feedback mechanisms (in such a way that they cannot be thought of or studied independently) is not a new one. Yet it appears that for the gravel beach, morphodynamics must be re-defined to describe conditions where variations in sediment size are thought to deserve parity, rather than as merely a sequent entity or boundary condition. 'Morpho-sedimentary-dynamics' is a phrase coined to intuit such cause and effect, detailing the co-evolution of morphology, hydro-hydraulics and sediment properties whilst acknowledging causative pluralism, feedbacks and multiplier effects. This is the recommended conceptual framework within which to crystallise thought and organise further research for the gravel beach. Essentially, it increases the minimum number of parameters needed to describe the state of the gravel beach as a physical system. Therefore, it is advised that simplicity will be most expedient in our future modelling efforts, if complexity is to be adequately encapsulated.

  19. Observations on the Nesting Distribution of Great Blue Herons on the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Rickard, William H.; Tiller, Brett L.

    2003-10-01

    Great blue herons probably did not nest along the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River in the 1800s because of the scarcity of trees. Trees were first introduced to land along the Reach with the advent of irrigation farming in the early 1900s. Since 1950 most of the heron colonies distributed along the Hanford Reach have elected to nest in clusters of non-native trees planted 80 to 100 years ago at scattered farmhouse locations. These sites have been protected from most human intrusions by the safety and security provisions enforced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site since 1943. Reproductive success of Hanford Reach colonies is equal to or better than that of heron colonies elsewhere in the Pacific Northwest. In recent years the number of active heron colonies along the reach has declined. The causes of the observed decline are unknown to us.

  20. Nonlinear Magnetic Beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arefiev, A.; Breizman, B.

    2000-10-01

    The ion response to the rf-field in the magnetic beach problem can be essentially nonlinear. This paper presents a self-consistent theory of the rf-wave propagation and ion motion through the ion cyclotron resonance. An important ingredient of the problem is the ion flow along the magnetic field. The flow velocity limits the time the ions spend at the resonance, which in turn limits the ion energy gain. A feature that makes the problem nonlinear is that the flow accelerates under the effect of the grad B force and rf-pressure. This acceleration can produce a steep decrease in the plasma density at the resonance, resulting in partial reflection of the incident wave. *Work supported by VASIMR project at NASA and by U.S. DOE Contract DE-FG03-96ER-54346.

  1. ASCANS Lunch at Beach House

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-03-04

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. - NASA astronaut candidate Andrew Morgan looks over the beach while standing at the Beach House at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. The Beach House is a traditional gathering place for astronauts before they fly into space. The astronaut class of 2013 was selected by NASA after an extensive year-and-a-half search. The new group will help the agency push the boundaries of exploration and travel to new destinations in the solar system. To learn more about the astronaut class of 2013, visit: http://www.nasa.gov/astronauts/2013astroclass.html Photo credit: NASA/Daniel Casper

  2. Egg size and laying order of snowy egrets, great egrets, and black-crowned night-herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Frederick, P.C.

    1990-01-01

    The authors' objective was to describe egg size in relation to laying order for Great Egrets (Casmerodius albus ), Snowy Egrets (Egretta thula ), and Black-crowned Night-Herons (Nycticorax nycticorax ) in a southern Texas colony and Great Egrets in a southern Florida colony. Based on egg-size patterns in other colonial waterbirds and the occurrence of brood reduction in egrets and herons, they predicted that the final egg laid in a clutch would be smaller than those laid earlier.

  3. Beach Resilience to Coastal Structures on a Natural Beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Freyermuth, A.; Medellín, G.; Hofman, A.; Tereszkiewicz, P.; Palemón-Arcos, L.; López-González, J.

    2016-12-01

    Beach resilience plays an important role on reducing coastal risk associated to either natural or human induced perturbations affecting the coast. Field experiments were conducted in order to investigate beach resilience in Sisal, Yucatán. Both impermeable and permeable 14-m groins were designed to asses the impact of coastal structures on the beach morphology during a 24-hour period. The experiments were conducted in the spring of 2015 and 2016, allowing the assessment of both structures under similar forcing conditions. Intense sea breeze events (W>12 m/s) generated high-angle short-waves, driving alongshore transport in the swash zone. Wind, waves, tides, and currents were measured concurrently and are correlated with beach morphology evolution data derived from intense monitoring conducted during the structure deployment. The impermeable structure induced a significant beach accretion (>60 m3/day) in the updrift side of the structure causing a tremendous impact downdrift. On the other hand, the permeable groin induced a smaller but still significant accretion (40 m3/day), allowing sediment bypass throughout the structure. Furthermore, the beach surveying continued after structures removal in order to estimate the beach recovery capability. Field observations show that the impact of the structure on the morphology is negligible six days after structure removal for the impermeable groin and only one day for the permeable structure. The latter suggests the high beach resilience of the study area. We acknowledge field support provided by researchers and students at the LIPC-UNAM. Financial support was provided by CONACYT (Projects LN271544 and Cátedras 1146), DGAPA-UNAM (PAPIIT-IN107315) and Grupo BARI.

  4. Beach Volume Change Using Uav Photogrammetry Songjung Beach, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, C. I.; Oh, T. S.

    2016-06-01

    Natural beach is controlled by many factors related to wave and tidal forces, wind, sediment, and initial topography. For this reason, if numerous topographic data of beach is accurately collected, coastal erosion/acceleration is able to be assessed and clarified. Generally, however, many studies on coastal erosion have limitation to analyse the whole beach, carried out of partial area as like shoreline (horizontal 2D) and beach profile (vertical 2D) on account of limitation of numerical simulation. This is an important application for prevention of coastal erosion, and UAV photogrammetry is also used to 3D topographic data. This paper analyses the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) to 3D map and beach volume change. UAV (Quadcopter) equipped with a non-metric camera was used to acquire images in Songjung beach which is located south-east Korea peninsula. The dynamics of beach topography, its geometric properties and estimates of eroded and deposited sand volumes were determined by combining elevation data with quarterly RTK-VRS measurements. To explore the new possibilities for assessment of coastal change we have developed a methodology for 3D analysis of coastal topography evolution based on existing high resolution elevation data combined with low coast, UAV and on-ground RTK-VRS surveys. DSMs were obtained by stereo-matching using Agisoft Photoscan. Using GCPs the vertical accuracy of the DSMs was found to be 10 cm or better. The resulting datasets were integrated in a local coordinates and the method proved to be a very useful fool for the detection of areas where coastal erosion occurs and for the quantification of beach change. The value of such analysis is illustrated by applications to coastal of South Korea sites that face significant management challenges.

  5. Beach Fill and Sediment Trap at Carolina Beach, North Carolina

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    District Engineer at SAW was COL Wayne A. Hanson . .- Acoesslon vor fTIS CRA&t DTIC TAB Unannounced Q Ju3tifloation-’~~Lr S.% Distribution...On 15 October 1954, Hurricane Hazel affected the entire southeastern section of North Carolina and produced the maximum observed water level at...Carolina Beach of el +11.2. During Hurricane Hazel , Carolina Beach, which has natural ground elevations ranging from a maximum of el +10 along the

  6. Basic Remote Sensing Investigations for Beach Reconnaissance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Progress is reported on three tasks designed to develop remote sensing beach reconnaissance techniques applicable to the benthic, beach intertidal...and beach upland zones. Task 1 is designed to develop remote sensing indicators of important beach composition and physical parameters which will...ultimately prove useful in models to predict beach conditions. Task 2 is designed to develop remote sensing techniques for survey of bottom features in

  7. Quantification of Beach Profile Change

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    expression for the local 30 equilibrium slope of a beach based on wave energy considerations. The equilibrium slope was a function of the angle of repose ...though the angle of initial yield should be approximately independent of grain size for the range of material studied. If a second bar formed immediately...the waves, whereas the time scale of beach fill adjustment is several weeks to several months and depends on season of placement, fill material , and

  8. Flow cytometry for monitoring contaminant exposure in black-crowned night-herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Bickham, J.W.; Lyne, T.B.; Lewis, T.; Ruedas, L.A.; Custer, Christine M.; Melancon, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    The flow cytometry method (FCM) was employed to determine cellular DNA content of black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) embryos and 10-day-old chicks collected at sites differing in types of chemical contamination. The coefficient of variation of DNA content (CV) in blood collected from embryos suggested cytogenetic damage at a site in Louisiana known to be contaminated with petroleum. Blood CV from chicks suggested genetic damage at a site in Texas also known to be contaminated with petroleum. Spleen CVs in chicks were significantly lower than respective means from the reference site. The CVs of chick blood and liver and spleen negatively correlated, suggesting recovery of spleen and liver cells after exposure to a clastogenic compound. Thus, the lower CVs may also have been indicative of genetic damage. Based on the findings of this study, FCM is a potential indicator of certain environmental contaminants in black-crowned night-herons.

  9. Flow cytometry for monitoring contaminant exposure in black-crowned night-herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Bickham, J.W.; Lyne, T.B.; Lewis, T.; Ruedas, L.A.; Custer, Christine M.; Melancon, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    The flow cytometry method (FCM) was employed to determine cellular DNA content of black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) embryos and 10-day-old chicks collected at sites differing in types of chemical contamination. The coefficient of variation of DNA content (CV) in blood collected from embryos suggested cytogenetic damage at a site in Louisiana known to be contaminated with petroleum. Blood CV from chicks suggested genetic damage at a site in Texas also known to be contaminated with petroleum. Spleen CVs in chicks were significantly lower than respective means from the reference site. the CVs of chick blood and liver and spleen negatively correlated, suggesting recovery of spleen and liver cells after exposure to a clastogenic compound. Thus, the lower CVs may also have been indicative of genetic damage. Based on the findings of this study, FCM is a potential indicator of certain environmental contaminants in black-crowned night-herons.

  10. Food of nestling green-backed herons in West Central Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ensor, K.L.; Dusi, J.L.; White, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    Food habits of the green-backed heron have received much attention recently, though little data exists in the literature on food items fed to nestlings. Analysis of 74 nestling boluses collected between 5 May and 10 July 1985 included four categories: a) number of prey items, b) % of total individuals by number, c) % frequency of herons with that particular prey item, d) % of total diet by weight. By class, fish dominated the diet, followed by insects, amphibians, crustaceans, and arachnids in descending order. Amphibians, however, had a higher % of total diet by weight than insects. The mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) made up the largest part of the diet by # of prey items and % of total individuals by #. Bowfin (Amia calva) was the major prey item by weight. Back-swimmers (F. Notonectidae) occurred in more boluses than any other prey item. Lengths of prey items by class will also be discussed.

  11. Suspected sodium toxicity in hand-reared great blue heron (Ardea herodias) chicks.

    PubMed

    Bennett, D C; Bowes, V A; Hughes, M R; Hart, L E

    1992-01-01

    Sodium toxicity was suspected in hand-reared great blue heron (Ardea herodias) chicks fed herring frozen in brine (seawater). Affected chicks were lethargic with stiff legs that extended to the posterior, and breathing was labored. Chicks regurgitated food or refused to eat. All chicks that were fed herring exclusively and eight of the 10 chicks fed a mixed diet (herring and salmonids) died, whereas all chicks fed only salmonids survived. Renal lesions ranged from mild to marked generalized nephrosis, which was characterized by degeneration and necrosis of the proximal convoluted tubular epithelium and dilation of the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts. These observations suggest that fish frozen in brine is unsuitable food for hand-rearing of young herons.

  12. Flow cytometry for monitoring contaminant exposure in black-crowned night-herons.

    PubMed

    Custer, T W; Bickham, J W; Lyne, T B; Lewis, T; Ruedas, L A; Custer, C M; Melancon, M J

    1994-08-01

    The flow cytometry methods (FCM) was employed to determine cellular DNA content of black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) embryos and 10-day-old chicks collected at sites differing in types of chemical contamination. The coefficient of variation of DNA content (CV) in blood collected from embryos suggested cytogenetic damage at a side in Louisiana known to be contaminated with petroleum. Blood CV from chicks suggested genetic damage at a site in Texas also known to be contaminated with petroleum. Spleen CVs in chicks were significantly lower than respective means from the reference site. The CVs of chick blood and liver and spleen negatively correlated, suggesting recovery of spleen and liver cells after exposure to a clastogenic compound. Thus, the lower CVs may also have been indicative of genetic damage. Based on the findings of this study, FCM is a potential indicator of certain environmental contaminants in black-crowned night-herons.

  13. Exposure factors controlling the uptake of xenobiotic chemicals by herons and egrets through ingestion of fish

    SciTech Connect

    Henning, M.H.; Iannuzzi, T.J.; Harrington, N.W.; Shear, N.M.

    1994-12-31

    A variety of bioenergetic parameters -- or exposure factors -- ultimately control the uptake of xenobiotic chemicals by colonial fish-eating birds, such as herons and egrets. These factors, which may include feeding rate for various food sources, excretion rates, body weights, lipid contents, chemical assimilation efficiencies, and food assimilation efficiencies, are critical to the implementation of bioenergetics-based food web models commonly used to assess ecological risks. A critical evaluation of literature on avian behavior, physiology, and ecology was conducted in order to identify those variables that most strongly influence uptake of chemicals by herons and egrets. The ranges, central tendencies, and distributions of parameter values were summarized and variations between species, seasons, and chemicals were explored. The identification of appropriate distributions of exposure factors values allows the incorporation of probabilistic methods of analysis, such as Monte Carlo analysis, into ecological risk assessment.

  14. Biomonitoring environmental contamination with pipping black-crowned night heron embryos: Induction of cytochrome P450

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Melancon, M.J.; Custer, T.W.; Hothem, R.L.; King, K.A.; LeCaptain, L.J.; Spann, J.W.; Woodin, Bruce R.; Stegeman, John J.

    1993-01-01

    Cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenase activities and cytochrome P450 proteins were measured in pipping black-crowned night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) embryos collected from a reference site (next to the Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge, VA) and three polluted sites (Cat Island, Green Bay, Lake Michigan, WI; Bair Island, San Francisco Bay, CA; West Marin Island, San Francisco Bay, CA). In a laboratory study, artificially incubated night heron embryos from the reference site were treated with 3-methylcholanthrene (200 mu-g administered into the air cell 2 d before pipping) or phenobarbital (2 mg daily for 2 d before pipping). Compared to controls (untreated + vehicle-treated embryos), 3-methylcholanthrene induced a greater than five-fold increase in activities of several monooxygenases (arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase, AHH; benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylase, BROD; ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase, EROD; pentoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase, PROD) and a greater than 100-fold increase in the concentration of immunodetected cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A). Phenobarbital treatment resulted in only a slight increase in BROD activity but induced proteins recognized by antibodies to cytochrome P450 2B (CYP2B) by 2,000-fold. In a field study, activities of AHH, BROD, EROD, and ethoxycoumarin-O-dealkylase (ECOD) were up to 85-fold higher in pipping black-crowned night herons collected from Cat Island compared to other sites. Hepatic CYP1A and CYP2B cross-reactive proteins were detected in significantly more individuals from Cat Island than from the reference site. Greatest burdens of total PCBs and p, p'-DDE were detected in embryos from Cat Island. Cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenase activities and cytochrome P450 proteins (AHH, BROD, EROD, ECOD, CYP1A, CYP2B) were significantly associated with total PCB burdens (r = 0.50-0.72). These data indicate that cytochrome P450 may be a useful biomarker of exposure to some PCB mixtures in black-crowned night heron embryos.

  15. Biomonitoring environmental contamination with pipping black-crowned night heron embryos: Induction of cytochrome P450

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Melancon, M.J.; Custer, T.W.; Hothem, R.L.; King, K.A.; LeCaptain, L.J.; Spann, J.W.; Woodin, Bruce R.; Stegeman, John J.

    1993-01-01

    Cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenase activities and cytochrome P450 proteins were measured in pipping black-crowned night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) embryos collected from a reference site (next to the Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge, VA) and three polluted sites (Cat Island, Green Bay, Lake Michigan, WI; Bair Island, San Francisco Bay, CA; West Marin Island, San Francisco Bay, CA). In a laboratory study, artificially incubated night heron embryos from the reference site were treated with 3-methylcholanthrene (200 mu g administered into the air cell 2 d before pipping) or phenobarbital (2 mg daily for 2 d before pipping). Compared to controls (untreated + vehicle-treated embryos), 3-methylcholanthrene induced a greater than fivefold increase in activities of several monooxygenases (arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase, AHH; benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylase, BROD; ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase, EROD; pentoxyresorufin-O- dealkylase, PROD) and a greater than 100-fold increase in the concentration of immunodetected cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A). Phenobarbital treatment resulted in only a slight increase in BROD activity but induced proteins recognized by antibodies to cytochrome P450 2B (CYP2B) by 2,000-fold. In a field study, activities of AHH, BROD, EROD, and ethoxycoumarin-O-dealkylase (ECOD) were up to 85-fold higher in pipping black- crowned night herons collected from Cat Island compared to other sites. Hepatic CYP1A and CYP2B cross- reactive proteins were detected in significantly more individuals from Cat Island than from the reference site. Greatest burdens of total PCBs and p,p'-DDE were detected in embryos from Cat Island. Cytochrome P450- associated monooxygenase activities and cytochrome P450 proteins (AHH, BROD, EROD, ECOD, CYP1A, CYP2B) were significantly associated with total PCB burdens (r = 0.50-0.72). These data indicate that cytochrome P450 may be a useful biomarker of exposure to some PCB mixtures in black-crowned night heron embryos.

  16. Organochlorines accumulate in heron and egret chicks sampled in the Houston Ship Channel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Shipley, Frank S.; Kiesling, Russell W.

    1991-01-01

    The National Contaminant Monitoring Program (NCBP) is an effort of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to measure concentrations of DDT and other persistent chemicals in the environment and to quantify changes in these levels. The NCBP has established a network of sampling stations in segments of the environment for which Federal agencies have authority. The wildlife component of this program, administered by the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, includes the periodic sampling of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and American black ducks (Anas rubripes). In order to include an estuarine component into the NCBP, herons and egrets are being evaluated. Eggs and chicks (five, ten, and 15 days of age) of snowy egrets (Egretta thula), and black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) were collected in Naragansett Bay, RI; the Houston Ship Channel (HSC), TX; and San Francisco Bay, CA. Great egret (Casmerodius albus) eggs and chicks also were collected at the Texas colony. Eggs and chicks were analyzed for organochlorines; trace element and petroleum hydrocarbon analyses are pending. DDE and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were detected in all eggs and chicks, and they accumulated as the chicks grew. At each location, black-crowned nightheron chicks accumulated both DDE and PCBs more rapidly than snowy egrets or great egrets. PCBs accumulated more rapidly in night-heron chicks in Rhode Island than California; however, PCB accumulation for snowy egret chicks did not differ among locations. Contaminant accumulation rates in heron and egret chicks could be used as a new wetland component of the NCBP.

  17. Inter-relation of cytochrome P450 and contaminants burdens in sibling heron embryos and nestlings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.; Melancon, M.; Custer, T.; Hothem, R.

    1995-01-01

    Hepatic cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenase activities were measured in 11-day-old nestling black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) collected from a reference site (next to the Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge, Virginia) and three polluted sites (Cat Island, Green Bay, Lake Michigan, Wisconsin; Bair Island, San Francisco Bay, California; West Marin Island, San Francisco Bay, California). Activities of arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) and benzyl-oxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (BROD) weremodestly elevated (heron embryos that were often siblings of the nestlings. The present findings suggest that cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenase activity of heron nestlings may have only limited value as a biomarker of exposure at this rapid-growth life stage.

  18. Diet-related die-off of captive black-crowned night herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, J.W.; Spann, J.W.; Novilla, M.N.

    1979-01-01

    Several species of herons, which are top-level consumers in aquatic food chains, have experienced population declines in certain areas o f their normal range (7,13) -- areas in which elevated levels of various environmental pollutants are known to occur. (6) To determine the effects of environmental contaminants on the Ardeidae, a colony of black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) was established in 1972 at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. The night heron was selected as the model species because of its widespread occurrence and its ability to survive and reproduce in captivity. Birds for the colony were obtained from either the New York Zoological Park and Dallas Zoo or were wild-caught along the Maryland and Virginia coasts in 1972, 1973, and 1975. This report describes a die-off in the colony following a change in the origina of their food source. The data suggest that the mortality was diet-related, most likely caused by vitamin E deficiency. Excessive dietary thiaminase may have resulted in concurrent thiamine deficiency, but evidence for this is equivocal.

  19. Inter-relation of cytochrome P450 and contaminants burdens in sibling heron embryos and nestlings

    SciTech Connect

    Rattner, B.; Melancon, M.; Custer, T.; Hothem, R. ||

    1995-12-31

    Hepatic cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenase activities were measured in 11-day-old nestling black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) collected from a reference site (next to the Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge, Virginia) and three polluted sites (Cat Island, Green Bay, Lake Michigan, Wisconsin; Bair Island, San Francisco Bay, California; West Marin Island, San Francisco Bay, California). Activities of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) and benzyl-oxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (BROD) were modestly elevated ({<=} three-fold) in nestlings from polluted sites. Concentrations of p,p{prime}DDE, other organochlorine pesticides and total PCBs in nestlings were greatest at contaminated sites, although much lower than found in concurrently collected eggs and pipping embryos, At these low pollutant concentrations there was little correlation between monooxygenase activity and contaminant levels in nestlings. These observations markedly contrast the pronounced monooxygenase induction (up to 85-fold) and its significant correlation with total PCBS, aryl hydrocarbon receptor-active PCB congeners and toxic equivalents in concurrently collected night-heron embryos that were often siblings of the nestlings. The present findings suggest that cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenase activity of heron nestlings may have only limited value as a biomarker of exposure at this rapid-growth life stage.

  20. PCB in tissue concentrations in great blue heron occupying a Superfund site: Risk assessment implications

    SciTech Connect

    Halbrook, R.S.; Brewer, R.; Mitchell, J.M.

    1994-12-31

    Using existing ambient concentrations of chemicals and conservative assumptions, preliminary risk assessment has indicated that piscivorous wildlife along the Clinch River adjacent to the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), Oak Ridge, TN are potentially at risk from exposure to PCBs. Total PCB concentrations in great blue heron egg and chick liver tissue (7.69 {mu}g/g and 1.91 {mu}g/g, respectively) collected from a tributary to the Clinch River passing through the ORR, were significantly greater than concentrations in egg and chick liver tissue (1.24 {mu}g/g and 0.71 {mu}g/g, respectively) collected off the ORR. Mono and non-ortho CB congeners also were greater in heron tissues collected on the ORR compared to those collected off the ORR. Reproductive parameters (eggs/nest and chicks/nest) were not significantly different between locations. These data indicate that herons nesting on the ORR are exposed to PCBs, however, concentrations are insufficient to illicit a detectable adverse reproductive response in this species. Risk assessment implications are that piscivorous species utilizing habitats on the ORR are accumulating environmental contaminants greater than back ground concentrations for this region, however, only the most sensitive species are probably adversely effected. Continued monitoring will provide base-line data for evaluating natural resource damages and remediation decisions.

  1. Biomonitoring environmental contamination with pipping black-crowned night heron embryos: Induction of cytochrome P450

    SciTech Connect

    Rattner, B.A.; Melancon, M.J.; Custer, T.W.; Hothem, R.L.; King, K.A.; LeCaptain, L.J.; Spann, J.W. . Patuxent Wildlife Research Center); Woodin, B.R.; Stegeman, J.J. )

    1993-09-01

    Cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenase activities and cytochrome P450 proteins were measured in pipping black-crowned night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) embryos collected from a reference site (next to the Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge, VA) and three polluted sites (Cat Island, Green Bay, Lake Michigan, WI; Bair Island, San Francisco Bay, CA; West Marin Island, San Francisco Bay, CA). In a laboratory study, artificially incubated night heron embryos from the reference site were treated with 3-methylcholanthrene or phenobarbital. Compared to controls, 3-methylcholanthrene induced a greater than fivefold increase in activities of several monooxygenases and a greater than 100-fold increase in the concentration of immunodetected cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A). Phenobarbital treatment resulted in only a slight increase in BROD activity but induced proteins recognized by antibodies to cytochrome P450 2B (CYP2B) by 2,000-fold. In a field study, activities of AHH, BROD, EROD, and ethoxycoumarin-O-dealkylase (ECOD) were up to 85-fold higher in pipping black-crowned night herons collected from Cat Island compared to other sites. Hepatic CYP1A and CYP2B cross-reactive proteins were detected in significantly more individuals from Cat Island than from the reference site. Greatest burdens of total PCBs and p,p[prime]-DDE were detected in embryos from Cat Island. Cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenase activities and cytochrome P450 proteins (AHH, BROD, EROD, ECOD, CYP1A, CYP1B) were significantly associated with total PCB burdens.

  2. Kinematic parameters of the walking of herons, ground-feeders, and waterfowl.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Masaki

    2004-09-01

    The kinematic gait characteristics of six species of birds in three groups were compared. The groups studied were herons (Gray Herons and Little Egrets), ground-feeders (Domestic Pigeons and Gray Starlings), and waterfowl (Pintails and Black-headed Gulls). The results showed that the relative stride frequency was greater in the waterfowl than in the other species. Complementary to this, the amplitude of the movements was smaller in the waterfowl than in the others. These differences between the waterfowl and the other species might be caused by their morphological and/or physiological adaptation to swimming. Another possible cause for these differences was the magnitude of head bobbing, as the ground-feeders and herons, which walk with head bobbing, showed a large relative stride length and excursion angle, while the waterfowl, which do not head-bob, walk with a relatively short stride length and small excursion angle. Moreover, the relative magnitude of head movement during walking was especially large in Little Egrets, which showed an especially large relative stride length and excursion angle. These parameters may have some mechanical relationships with each other.

  3. Herons and egrets as proposed indicators of estuarine contamination in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Rattner, B.A.; Ohlendorf, H.M.; Melancon, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    The National Contaminant Biomonitoring Program of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Includes the sampling of freshwater fish, starlings, and duck wings. In order to include an estuarine component, herons and egrets are being evaluated. Organochlorine concentrations were measured In eggs and chicks of Snowy Egrets Egretta thula, Great Egrets Casmerodius albus, and Black-crowned Night-Herons Nycticorax nycticorax collected In Rhode Island, Texas, and California. Chicks of all species at all locations accumulated DDE and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and accumulation rates may serve as the basis for an indicator program of estuarine contamination. Biochemical re-sponses of embryos and chicks were also evaluated. Microsomal arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase and benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylase activities in livers of 10-day-old night-heron chicks were elevated at a contaminated site in San Francisco Bay, CA, when compared to a 'reference' site in Vlrginia. Quantification of liver enzyme activities may serve as a rapid cost-effective biomarker of pollutant exposure.

  4. Disseminated avian mycobacteriosis in a free-living grey heron (Ardea cinerea).

    PubMed

    Quesada-Canales, Oscar; Díaz-Delgado, Josué; Paz, Yania; Domínguez, Lucas; Bezos, Javier; Calabuig, Pascual; Suárez-Bonnet, Alejandro; Fernández, Antonio; Andrada, Marisa

    2013-09-01

    Wild birds share with humans the capacity for moving fast over large distances. During migratory movements, birds carry pathogens that can be transmitted between species. One of these concerning pathogens is Mycobacterium spp. A necropsy was performed in a grey heron (Ardea cinerea) that had been medically treated for a polyarthritic process. Grossly, firm white-yellowish nodules of various size, resembling granulomas, were observed in right carpal joint, both patellar joints, neck musculature, palate, pharynx, larynx, nasal sinuses, pericardial sac, air sacs, proventriculus and intestinal serosa, pancreas, kidneys, adrenal glands, and oviduct. Microscopically, these lesions were composed of multinucleated giant cells, large macrophages, and lymphocytes, with a central zone of necrosis and in some cases with peripheral fibrosis. Acid-fast bacilli were detected within these lesions. Lesions were cultured and Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium was identified. To the best of our knowledge this is the first description of mycobacteriosis in grey herons. Although the grey heron is currently considered a least-concern species, avian mycobacteriosis remains a threat on the conservation management of endangered avian species, and constitutes a public health concern as well.

  5. Quality of Tourist Beaches in Huatulco, SW of Mexico: Multiproxy Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retama, I.; Jonathan, M. P.; Rodriguez-Espinosa, P. F.

    2014-12-01

    40 beach water and sediment samples were collected from the inter-tidal zones of tourist beaches of Huatulco in the State of Oaxaca, South Western part of Mexico. The samples were collected in an aim to know the concentration pattern of metals (Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Zn, Co, Mn, Fe, As, Hg) in sediments and microplastics. Physico-chemical parameters like temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, conductivity and total dissolved solids, salinity and redox potential. Collection of samples was done during the peak season in April 2013. Our results from water samples indicate that the physico-chemical conditions of the beach water have been altered due to human activities in large numbers. The bioavailable metal concentrations indicate that enrichment of Pb, Cd, Cr and As and it is also supported by the higher values observed from the calculation of enrichment factor and geoaccumulation index. The higher values in the sediments is either due to natural sources like chemical weathering of rocks and external sources, which points to high tourism, agricultural activities in the region. Identification of micro-plastics was done through SEM photographs, indicating the type of plastic wastes deposited into the beach regions which can indicate the density, durability and the persistence level in the sediments. Eventhough the enrichment of metals and modification of beach water quality is observed, care need to be taken to avoid further damage to the coastal ecosystem. Keywords: Tourism, Beach sediments, Beach water, Micro plastics, Trace metals, Contamination indices, Huatulco, Mexico.

  6. 11 things a geologist thinks an engineer should know about carbonate beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halley, Robert B.; Magoon, Orville T.; Robbins, Lisa L.; Ewing, Lesley

    2002-01-01

    This is a review of the geological aspects of carbonate beaches that a geologist thinks may be useful for an engineer. Classical geologic problems of carbonate beaches, for example how ancient examples are recognized in rock sequences, are of little interest to engineers. Geologists not involved in engineering problems may find it difficult to know what an engineer should understand about carbonate beaches. Nevertheless, there are at least eleven topics that are potentially very useful for engineers to keep in mind. These eleven are chosen with as much thought going into what has been omitted as has been given to the eleven included topics. Some qualifications are in order: First, this paper does not discuss certain kinds of carbonate shorelines that are beyond the scope of engineering issues. For example, this review does not discuss very high-energy carbonate boulder beaches. These beaches are comprised of pieces of carbonate material ganging in size from ten centimeters to meters. Typically, these are high-energy storm deposits formed from pieces of either eroded carbonate rock or other large carbonate pieces such as pieces of large corals. This paper focuses on sand-sized (0.0625–2.0 mm) coastal carbonate deposits. Second, offshore beaches will not be discussed. There are many carbonate beaches that form on banks or shoals exposed at low tide, but our discussion is confined to what most people think of when they go to some tropical island and/or resort and walk out to lay on the beach. Third, this paper does not consider mixed carbonate/quartz sand beaches. While mixed beaches are common, only the end member of purely carbonate sand beaches is considered. Fourth, there will be no order of preference of the eleven topics. And lastly, these eleven topics are not consensus items. These are simply one geologist s thoughts about the aspects of carbonate beaches that would be useful for engineering colleagues to keep in mind. Where possible, general reference is

  7. Talking Rocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Dale; Corley, Brenda

    1987-01-01

    Discusses some of the ways that rocks can be used to enhance children's creativity and their interest in science. Suggests the creation of a dramatic production involving rocks. Includes basic information on sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic rocks. (TW)

  8. Talking Rocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Dale; Corley, Brenda

    1987-01-01

    Discusses some of the ways that rocks can be used to enhance children's creativity and their interest in science. Suggests the creation of a dramatic production involving rocks. Includes basic information on sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic rocks. (TW)

  9. Landing techniques in beach volleyball.

    PubMed

    Tilp, Markus; Rindler, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings) in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (χ(2)(2) = 18.19, p < 0.01) but not following serve, set, and attack actions. Following blocking, men landed more often on one foot than women. Further differences in landings following serve and attack with regard to playing technique and position were mainly observed in men. The comparison with landing techniques in indoor volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (χ(2)(2) = 161.4, p < 0.01) and women (χ(2)(2) = 84.91, p < 0.01). Beach volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball. Key PointsAbout 1/3 of all jumping actions in beach volleyball result in a landing on one foot.Especially following block situations men land on one foot more often than women.Landing techniques are related to different techniques and positions.Landings on one foot are less common in beach volleyball than indoor volleyball. This could be a reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions.

  10. Landing Techniques in Beach Volleyball

    PubMed Central

    Tilp, Markus; Rindler, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings) in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (χ2(2) = 18.19, p < 0.01) but not following serve, set, and attack actions. Following blocking, men landed more often on one foot than women. Further differences in landings following serve and attack with regard to playing technique and position were mainly observed in men. The comparison with landing techniques in indoor volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (χ2(2) = 161.4, p < 0.01) and women (χ2(2) = 84.91, p < 0.01). Beach volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball. Key Points About 1/3 of all jumping actions in beach volleyball result in a landing on one foot. Especially following block situations men land on one foot more often than women. Landing techniques are related to different techniques and positions. Landings on one foot are less common in beach volleyball than indoor volleyball. This could be a reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions. PMID:24149150

  11. Primary viraemia responses of herons to experimental infection with Murray Valley encephalitis, Kunjin and Japanese encephalitis viruses.

    PubMed

    Boyle, D B; Dickerman, R W; Marshall, I D

    1983-12-01

    Rufous night herons, Pacific herons, little egrets and intermediate egrets were experimentally infected with Murray Valley encephalitis, Kunjin or Japanese encephalitis viruses. Viraemias of at least one day's duration were detected in all birds except two intermediate egrets inoculated with a very low dose of Kunjin virus and one rufous night heron inoculated with Japanese encephalitis virus. there was usually a viraemia of 3 to 5 days' duration commencing on the first or second day and continuing until day 5 or 6 and rarely until day 7. Maximum titres tended to be higher in young birds, up to 2-5 months of age (10(4)-10(5) mouse LD50/ml), than in older birds more than 8 months of age (10(3)-10(4) mouse LD50/ml). Significant differences in maximum viraemia titres were not observed in the different species or between Murray Valley encephalitis and Kunjin viruses. Japanese encephalitis viraemias were significantly lower, but this was probably due to the high mouse brain passage level of the strain used. The onset of viraemia was earlier in intermediate egrets than in rufous night herons inoculated with similar doses of Murray Valley encephalitis virus, but no difference in the susceptibility to infection was observed. With Kunjin virus there was a significant difference in the susceptibility of intermediate egrets and rufous night herons, with rufous night herons being more susceptible to infection with low doses of virus. This difference in threshold of infection, if it extends to other species with both Kunjin and Murray Valley encephalitis viruses, may, in part, be an explanation for the greater incidence of natural infections observed in rufous night herons compared with other species and orders of water birds.

  12. Heavy metal and selenium levels in feathers of young egrets and herons from Hong Kong and Szechuan, China.

    PubMed

    Burger, J; Gochfeld, M

    1993-09-01

    Several species of herons and egrets frequently nest in colonies in areas where humans also concentrate. Since the birds feed on intermediate-sized fish that themselves concentrate pollutants, they can be used not only to assess the levels of contaminants in avian tissues but as indicators of contaminants in the environment. The concentration of heavy metals and selenium in the breast feathers of fledgling black-crowned night herons Nycticorax nycticorax and Chinese pond herons Ardeola bacchus from the Tu Jing Yan heronry outside Chengdu, Szechuan Province in China; and from fledgling black-crowned night heron, little egret Egretta garzetta, great egret Egretta alba and cattle egret Bubulcus ibis from the Mai Po heronry in Hong Kong, were determined. Breast feathers were also collected from adult great egrets in Hong Kong. Adult great egrets had significantly higher levels of all heavy metals than did young great egrets. There were no significant interspecific differences in metal levels among the young at Szechuan China, except for chromium (pond herons had higher levels). There were significant differences among the young nesting at Hong Kong for all metals examined. Great egrets had lower, and night herons had higher, levels of lead than the other young. Night herons also had the highest levels of cadmium, manganese, and selenium compared to the other young. Great egret chicks had the lowest mercury levels, while little egret had the highest levels. Lead levels for all the birds in both Hong Kong and Szechuan were among the highest in the world, and this was attributed to the continued use of leaded gasoline.

  13. 77 FR 50019 - Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa... establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean located east of Cocoa Beach, Florida during the Cocoa Beach Air Show. The Cocoa Beach Air Show will include aircraft engaging in aerobatic...

  14. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed by...

  15. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed by...

  16. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed by...

  17. 77 FR 27120 - Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The... Beach, VA to support the Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show. This action is necessary to provide for the...

  18. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed by...

  19. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed by...

  20. Palm Beach Polo: A Socially Sporting Affair.

    PubMed

    Butwin, D

    1981-10-01

    The Palm Beach Polo and Country Club in West Palm Beach, Florida, has recently become the winter capital of international Polo, and its reputation for luxurious golf, croquet, tennis, and racquetball facilities is growing as well.

  1. Feeding habitat characteristics of the great blue heron and great egret nesting along the Upper Mississippi River, 1995-1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.; Suarez, S.A.; Olsen, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    The Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias) and Great Egret (Ardea alba) nested in eight colonies along the Upper Mississippi River, USA, and individual birds were followed by airplane to feeding sites during the nesting seasons in 1995-1998. Both species used braided channel/backwater habitats for feeding more than expected, based on availability, and open pool and main navigation channel less than expected. Most individuals of both species fed 10 km away. Habitat and distance need to be considered simultaneously when assessing habitat quality for herons and egrets. The Great Blue Heron flew farther to feeding sites during the care-of-young period than during incubation and the Great Egret showed the opposite pattern. The Great Blue Heron tended to feed solitarily; only 10% of the feeding flights ended at a location where another heron was already present. About one-third of Great Egret feeding flights ended at a location with another egret already present. Colony placement on the landscape seemed to be a function of the feeding radius of each colony.

  2. β-carotene and retinoids in eggs of Great Blue Herons (Ardea herodias) in relation to St Lawrence River contamination.

    PubMed

    Boily, M H; Champoux, L; Bourbonnais, D H; Des Granges, J L; Rodrigue, J; Spear, P A

    1994-12-01

    : The potential use of retinoids and β-carotene as biomarkers in the eggs of the Great Blue Heron was investigated. In the spring of 1991, 65 eggs were collected from nine heronries (seven along the St Lawrence River and two reference sites). A method was specifically developed for the extraction and analysis of β-carotene and the retinoids in heron egg yolks by reversed-phase HPLC. When results were expressed either as the molar ratio of retinol: retinyl palmitate or as retinyl palmitate concentration, significant differences were found between colonies; however, retinyl palmitate concentration was deemed the better biomarker because it was not significantly influenced by embryonic stage of development. Retinyl palmitate concentrations in freshwater colonies were negatively related to PCB congeners Nos 105 and 118 as well as their TCDD-EQ values (p < 0.02, r (2)=0.78). Egg tetrachloro-mono-ortho biphenyl concentrations were also negatively related to retinyl palmitate (p < 0.005, r (2)=0.90). With the exception of the two mono-ortho co-planar congeners detected in the present study, the contamination levels found in heron eggs were well below those found for other bird species in the Great Lakes area and, so far, no detrimental effects have been reported in Great Blue Heron populations in Quebec. These results suggest that retinyl palmitate may be useful as a sensitive and non-invasive biomarker for monitoring organochlorine contaminant effects in the Great Blue Heron in freshwater sites.

  3. Preliminary survey of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in aquatic habitats and Great Blue Herons on the Hanford Site. [Ardea herodias

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, R.G.; Bean, R.M.; Fitzner, R.E.; Neitzel, D.A.; Rickard, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), constituents of insulating fluids used in electrical transformers and capacitors, were identified during a preliminary survey of waters, sediments, and fish from five locations on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State: Gable Mountain Pond, B Pond, West Pond, White Bluffs Slough on the Columbia River, and a pond on the Wahluke Slope. These aquatic areas are all within the foraging range of great blue herons (Ardea herodias) that nest on the Hanford Site. Of those waters that contained PCBs, concentrations were found to be somewhat over 1 ng/L, but less than 20 ng/L, and equal to or less than concentrations reported for other freshwater regions of the United States. The PCBs in sediments and fish closely resembled the chromatographic profile of Aroclor 1260, a commercial PCB mixture produced in the United States by the Monsanto Company. Concentrations of PCBs detected in the sediments were 10 to 100 times lower than those found in soils and sediments from other areas of the nation. Concentrations of PCBs in fat from Hanford great blue herons ranged from 3.6 to 10.6 ppM, while PCB concentrations in herons from other areas of the Pacific Northwest ranged from 0.6 to 15.6 ppM. Great blue herons at Hanford contained PCB isomer distributions closely matching that of Aroclor 1260; great blue herons from other locations contained isomer distributions indicating the presence of a mixture of aroclors. 21 refs., 13 figs., 8 tabs.

  4. The use of feeding habitat by a colony of herons, egrets, and ibises near Beaufort, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.

    1977-01-01

    Nine species of herons were followed to their feeding sites from a nesting colony near Beaufort, North Carolina, by airplane. Except for the Cattle Egret, which flew exclusively to fields and dumps, all other species flew mainly to saltmarsh habitat. In addition, habitats were selected in relation to tidal depth and it appears, at least for the Great Egret, that low tide habitats were preferred. Most Great Egrets, White Ibises, Louisiana Herons, and Snowy Egrets flew close to the colony and numbers decreased farther from the colony. The Great Egret, Black-crowned Night Heron, and White Ibis flew farther from the colony at high than at low tide. In addition, the species differed in distance flown from the colony. Great Egrets traveled farther from the colony when they used thermals. Rate of travel to feeding sites, however, was the same whether Great Egrets used thermals or not. Aggressive encounters were observed in the Great Egret, Louisiana Heron, Snowy Egret, and Black-crowned Night Heron. Cattle Egrets and White Ibises followed other individuals to feeding sites and it appeared as though they were using the colony as an information center. The Great Egret is the only species to effectively use eelgrass beds near Beaufort. The Great Egrets use of this habitat was restricted to about 1.5 hours on either side of low tide. We suspect that other shorter- legged species did not use eelgrass regularly because of its depth.

  5. Metal Concentrations, Foraging Distances, and Fledging Success of Great Blue Herons Nesting Along the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Tiller, Brett L.; Marco, Jeffrey D.; Rickard, William H.

    2005-05-01

    Excrement sample and livers of juvenile great blue herons were collected at nests at three widely separated colonies along the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River to test the validity of using excrement samples as indicators of metal concentrations in tissues of juvenile herons fed food collected by parent birds within a few kilometers of nests. There was no positive relation noted between metal concentrations in excrement and liver samples taken from the same nests. Statistically significant differences in metal concentrations were noted in excrement samples collected among the different heron colonies. Arsenic, Cd, Cr, and Pb concentrations (dry wt.) were higher in excrement than in liver samples but the opposite was noted for Cu, Hg, and Zn. Mercury concentrations in heron liver samples were biomagnified to a greater extent than Cd and Cr. Fledging success and eggshell thickness measurements were used as indicators of population health. These values were equivalent to or better than those noted for heron colonies elsewhere in the United States.

  6. ASCANS Lunch at Beach House

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-03-04

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. - NASA astronaut candidates, from left, Anne McClain, Christina Hammock and Jessica Meir stand on the beach overlooking the Atlantic Ocean at the Beach House at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. The Beach House is a traditional gathering place for astronauts before they fly into space. The astronaut class of 2013 was selected by NASA after an extensive year-and-a-half search. The new group will help the agency push the boundaries of exploration and travel to new destinations in the solar system. To learn more about the astronaut class of 2013, visit: http://www.nasa.gov/astronauts/2013astroclass.html Photo credit: NASA/Daniel Casper

  7. The Geomorphology of Puget Sound Beaches

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    action to the upper foreshore effect sediment transport zones and, hence, beach habitat zonation; and (2) infrequent, strong storms (return intervals...daily rise and fall of mean water level translates the swash zone (the portion of the nearshore region where the beach face is alternately covered by...exfiltration through the beach is an important component of swash- zone fluid dynamics and foreshore (the sloping portion of the beach profile lying

  8. Beach Slopes of New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doran, Kara; Long, Joseph W.; Birchler, Justin; Morgan, Karen L. M.

    2016-01-01

    The National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project derives features of beach morphology from lidar elevation data for the purpose of understanding and predicting storm impacts to our nation's coastlines. This dataset defines mean beach slopes along the United States Northeast Atlantic Ocean for New Jersey for data collected at various times between 2007 and 2014. For further information regarding data collection and/or processing methods refer to USGS Open-File Report 2015–1053 (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2015/1053/).

  9. Differentiating Experts' Anticipatory Skills in Beach Volleyball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canal-Bruland, Rouwen; Mooren, Merel; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined how perceptual-motor expertise and watching experience contribute to anticipating the outcome of opponents' attacking actions in beach volleyball. To this end, we invited 8 expert beach volleyball players, 8 expert coaches, 8 expert referees, and 8 control participants with no beach volleyball experience to watch videos…

  10. Differentiating Experts' Anticipatory Skills in Beach Volleyball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canal-Bruland, Rouwen; Mooren, Merel; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined how perceptual-motor expertise and watching experience contribute to anticipating the outcome of opponents' attacking actions in beach volleyball. To this end, we invited 8 expert beach volleyball players, 8 expert coaches, 8 expert referees, and 8 control participants with no beach volleyball experience to watch videos…

  11. Citizen science datasets reveal drivers of spatial and temporal variation for anthropogenic litter on Great Lakes beaches.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Anna; Drag, Nate; Lyandres, Olga; Neville, Sarah; Hoellein, Timothy

    2017-01-15

    Accumulation of anthropogenic litter (AL) on marine beaches and its ecological effects have been a major focus of research. Recent studies suggest AL is also abundant in freshwater environments, but much less research has been conducted in freshwaters relative to oceans. The Adopt-a-BeachTM (AAB) program, administered by the Alliance for the Great Lakes, organizes volunteers to act as citizen scientists by collecting and maintaining data on AL abundance on Great Lakes beaches. Initial assessments of the AAB records quantified sources and abundance of AL on Lake Michigan beaches, and showed that plastic AL was >75% of AL on beaches across all five Great Lakes. However, AAB records have not yet been used to examine patterns of AL density and composition among beaches of all different substrate types (e.g., parks, rocky, sandy), across land-use categories (e.g., rural, suburban, urban), or among seasons (i.e., spring, summer, and fall). We found that most AL on beaches are consumer goods that most likely originate from beach visitors and nearby urban environments, rather than activities such as shipping, fishing, or illegal dumping. We also demonstrated that urban beaches and those with sand rather than rocks had higher AL density relative to other sites. Finally, we found that AL abundance is lowest during the summer, between the US holidays of Memorial Day (last Monday in May) and Labor Day (first Monday in September) at the urban beaches, while other beaches showed no seasonality. This research is a model for utilizing datasets collected by volunteers involved in citizen science programs, and will contribute to AL management by offering priorities for AL types and locations to maximize AL reduction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Texture and composition of the Rosa Marina beach sands (Adriatic coast, southern Italy): a sedimentological/ecological approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretti, Massimo; Tropeano, Marcello; Loon, A. J. (Tom) van; Acquafredda, Pasquale; Baldacconi, Rossella; Festa, Vincenzo; Lisco, Stefania; Mastronuzzi, Giuseppe; Moretti, Vincenzo; Scotti, Rosa

    2016-06-01

    Beach sands from the Rosa Marina locality (Adriatic coast, southern Italy) were analysed mainly microscopically in order to trace the source areas of their lithoclastic and bioclastic components. The main cropping out sedimentary units were also studied with the objective to identify the potential source areas of lithoclasts. This allowed to establish how the various rock units contribute to the formation of beach sands. The analysis of the bioclastic components allows to estimate the actual role of organisms regarding the supply of this material to the beach. Identification of taxa that are present in the beach sands as shell fragments or other remains was carried out at the genus or family level. Ecological investigation of the same beach and the recognition of sub-environments (mainly distinguished on the basis of the nature of the substrate and of the water depth) was the key topic that allowed to establish the actual source areas of bioclasts in the Rosa Marina beach sands. The sedimentological analysis (including a physical study of the beach and the calculation of some statistical parameters concerning the grain-size curves) shows that the Rosa Marina beach is nowadays subject to erosion.

  13. Source discrimination of fine-grained deposits occurring on marine beaches: The Calvados beaches (eastern Bay of the Seine, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrulle, C.; Lesueur, P.; Boust, D.; Dugué, O.; Poupinet, N.; Lafite, R.

    2007-03-01

    In tide-dominated systems, fine-grained deposits occur in intertidal areas of inner estuaries as loci of convergence of fluvial and marine material. Even in the vicinity of estuaries, mud deposits are rare on open sandy beaches. This study focuses on temporary occurrences of muddy sediments on marine beaches along the Calvados coastline in Normandy, adjacent to the macrotidal Seine estuary (France). Clay mineralogy, major-minor-trace elements and radionuclides were used as particulate markers to determine the provenance of the mud deposits. The fine fraction, defined here as particles <50 μm, was analysed, in surficial muddy sediments on seven beaches between the Seine estuary and the Orne river mouth, sampled between February 2002 and June 2003. The deposits were compared to earlier Holocene relict deposits, which crop out on some beaches and on the shoreface, and to Mesozoic marls and limestones, which have detached from the coastal cliffs. The use of the three types of particulate markers revealed no significant seasonal or geographical variations between the beaches. The muddy deposits were made up of the same sedimentary pool of particles. The clay mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of these mud deposits enabled modern (i.e. present-day and earlier Holocene fine silts and clays) to be distinguished from ancient (i.e. Mesozoic) sediments. The use of radionuclides ( 60Co and 137Cs) confirmed the marine influence in the modern deposits, with a decreasing gradient along the Calvados beaches towards the east. The presence of several specific major-minor-trace elements (e.g. Ti, P) revealed that some of the fine material originated in the Seine estuary. Despite the occurrence of easily erodable rocks (i.e. clays, marls and limestones) in the coastal cliffs, this source represented a limited supply, which is only of local significance. Small rivers, such as the Orne, Dives and Touques which discharge in the study area act as secondary suppliers of fine

  14. Nest initiation and clutch size of great blue herons on the Mississippi River in relation to the 1993 flood

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Hines, R.K.; Custer, Christine M.

    1996-01-01

    Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias) eggs were collected from ten colonies between Clinton, Iowa and Royalton, Minnesota on the Mississippi River in 1993, a year of record floods in the midwestern United States. In the live southernmost colonies where record flooding occurred, Great Blue Herons initiated nesting two weeks later than herons nesting in the five northernmost colonies that were less affected by flooding. The southern nests had a-smaller average clutch size than the northern nests, but egg size was similar between south and north. Weather patterns in 1993 were similar between northern and southern colonies. We suspect that flooding of the available feeding habitat influenced nest initiation and clutch size. Data from 1995, a year without record flooding on the Mississippi River, support this hypothesis. In 1995, timing of nesting and number of eggs per clutch were similar between sites that had record flooding and sites that were less affected by flooding in 1993.

  15. Determination of hatching date for eggs of black-crowned night-herons, snowy egrets and great egrets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Pendleton, G.W.; Roach, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    Floatation of eggs in water and specific gravity of eggs of Black-crowned Night-Herons (Nycticorax nycticorax ), Snowy Egrets (Egretta thula ) and Great Egrets (Casmerodius albus ) were evaluated as methods to determine date of hatching. Although specific gravity was a better predictor of hatching date than egg flotation, both techniques were imprecise. The regression between specific gravity and the number of days before hatching differed among clutches, but not among eggs within clutches. Specific gravity of eggs predicted hatching date only to within 3.8 d for Snowy Egrets, and 4.7 d for Black-crowned Night-Herons and Great Egrets. The mean incubation period was 27.3 d for Great Egrets, 23.7 d for Snowy Egrets and 22.8 d for Black-crowned Night- Herons. For all three species, the A egg (first egg laid) had a longer incubation period than the B or C egg.

  16. [Postnatal growth patterns in eight species of herons and egrets (Ciconiiformes: Ardeidae)].

    PubMed

    Avila, Dennis Denis

    2011-06-01

    Avian postnatal growth has received considerable attention and its ecological implications have been deeply analyzed. In this current paper, I describe the patterns of culmen and tarsus growth, as well as of weight gain patterns in eight species of herons and egrets (Aves: Ardeidae) found in the Birama Swamp in Eastern Cuba. Between 1998 and 2006,714 nestlings of the following species were measured every two days: Butorides virescens, Bubulcus ibis, Egretta thula, E. tricolor, E. caerulea, E. rufescens, Ardea alba and Nycticorax nycticorax. Logistic and Gompertz equations were adjusted to data using non-lineal regression models with adult values as the asymptote. For each species, the following were determined and recorded: growth rate, age at inflexion, instantaneous growth rates at each age interval, and time taken to reach 90% of adult size. Reported hatchling sizes were similar in other localities, with a variation coefficient ranging between 10-19%. At hatch, each species exhibited differing sizes relative to adult values. In all cases, Gompertz equations were best fitted to explain more variance and lesser residuals. Rates of weight change and tarsus growth were alometrically related to the log of adult weight. Two main growth processes were identified: a physical extension in dimensions of each measurement reflecting inter-specific morphometric differences, and a lineal increase of the growth period from Green Heron to Great Egret. The Black-crowned Night Heron, Cattle Egret and Reddish Egret exhibited some unique measurement characteristics in comparison to the remaining members of the family. All results support the hypothesis that hypermorphosis, as the main evolutionary process in the microevolution of Ardeidae, is caused by a delayed final moment of growth.

  17. Vitamin E deficiency and pansteatitis in juvenile boat-billed herons (Cochlearius cochlearius).

    PubMed

    Pollock, C G; Sleeman, J M; Houle, C D; Ramsay, E C

    1999-06-01

    Steatitis due to vitamin E deficiency occurred in three 10-wk-old boat-billed herons (Cochlearius cochlearius) despite daily placement of a powdered vitamin supplement on the fish that was subsequently washed off by the parents. Physical findings included emaciation, yellow-brown subcutaneous nodules, a firm distended coelom, stomatitis, and yellow-white, submucosal pharyngeal nodules. Clinical pathology revealed heterophilic leukocytosis, anemia, hypoproteinemia, and low plasma alpha (alpha)-tocopherol levels (1.94 microg/ml and 2.14 microg/ml). Two of the chicks died of severe, diffuse pansteatitis and respiratory aspergillosis.

  18. Can beaches survive climate change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitousek, Sean; Barnard, Patrick L.; Limber, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is driving sea level rise, leading to numerous impacts on the coastal zone, such as increased coastal flooding, beach erosion, cliff failure, saltwater intrusion in aquifers, and groundwater inundation. Many beaches around the world are currently experiencing chronic erosion as a result of gradual, present-day rates of sea level rise (about 3 mm/year) and human-driven restrictions in sand supply (e.g., harbor dredging and river damming). Accelerated sea level rise threatens to worsen coastal erosion and challenge the very existence of natural beaches throughout the world. Understanding and predicting the rates of sea level rise and coastal erosion depends on integrating data on natural systems with computer simulations. Although many computer modeling approaches are available to simulate shoreline change, few are capable of making reliable long-term predictions needed for full adaption or to enhance resilience. Recent advancements have allowed convincing decadal to centennial-scale predictions of shoreline evolution. For example, along 500 km of the Southern California coast, a new model featuring data assimilation predicts that up to 67% of beaches may completely erode by 2100 without large-scale human interventions. In spite of recent advancements, coastal evolution models must continue to improve in their theoretical framework, quantification of accuracy and uncertainty, computational efficiency, predictive capability, and integration with observed data, in order to meet the scientific and engineering challenges produced by a changing climate.

  19. Can beaches survive climate change?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vitousek, Sean; Barnard, Patrick L.; Limber, Patrick W.

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is driving sea level rise, leading to numerous impacts on the coastal zone, such as increased coastal flooding, beach erosion, cliff failure, saltwater intrusion in aquifers, and groundwater inundation. Many beaches around the world are currently experiencing chronic erosion as a result of gradual, present-day rates of sea level rise (about 3 mm/year) and human-driven restrictions in sand supply (e.g., harbor dredging and river damming). Accelerated sea level rise threatens to worsen coastal erosion and challenge the very existence of natural beaches throughout the world. Understanding and predicting the rates of sea level rise and coastal erosion depends on integrating data on natural systems with computer simulations. Although many computer modeling approaches are available to simulate shoreline change, few are capable of making reliable long-term predictions needed for full adaption or to enhance resilience. Recent advancements have allowed convincing decadal to centennial-scale predictions of shoreline evolution. For example, along 500 km of the Southern California coast, a new model featuring data assimilation predicts that up to 67% of beaches may completely erode by 2100 without large-scale human interventions. In spite of recent advancements, coastal evolution models must continue to improve in their theoretical framework, quantification of accuracy and uncertainty, computational efficiency, predictive capability, and integration with observed data, in order to meet the scientific and engineering challenges produced by a changing climate.

  20. Blue Heron Paper Company: Oregon Mill Uses Model-Based Energy Assessment to Identify Energy and Cost Savings Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    2004-04-01

    Blue Heron Paper Company conducted a model-based energy assessment (MEA) to determine how to reduce effluent flow and heat load, minimize fresh water, and reduce process energy use at the company's Oregon City, Oregon, paper mill. Assessment staff recommended 15 projects, 7 of which the company considered. These projects would save an estimated 608,161 million British thermal units per year in natural gas and 990 kilowatt hours per year in electricity. Corresponding annual cost savings would be about $2.9 million per year. Furthermore, by reducing fuel requirements for the plant steam system, Blue Heron would also reduce stack gas emissions.

  1. Blue Heron Paper Company: Oregon Mill Uses Model-Based Energy Assessment to Identify Energy and Cost Savings Opportunities (Revision)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-04-01

    Blue Heron Paper Company conducted a model-based energy assessment (MEA) to determine how to reduce effluent flow and heat load, minimize fresh water, and reduce process energy use at the company's Oregon City, Oregon, paper mill. Assessment staff recommended 15 projects, 7 of which the company considered. These projects would save an estimated 608,161 million British thermal units per year in natural gas and 990 kilowatt hours per year in electricity. Corresponding annual cost savings would be about $2.9 million per year. Furthermore, by reducing fuel requirements for the plant steam system, Blue Heron would also reduce stack gas emissions.

  2. Virtual Beach 3: user's guide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cyterski, Mike; Brooks, Wesley; Galvin, Mike; Wolfe, Kurt; Carvin, Rebecca; Roddick, Tonia; Fienen, Mike; Corsi, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Virtual Beach version 3 (VB3) is a decision support tool that constructs site-specific statistical models to predict fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations at recreational beaches. VB3 is primarily designed for beach managers responsible for making decisions regarding beach closures or the issuance of swimming advisories due to pathogen contamination. However, researchers, scientists, engineers, and students interested in studying relationships between water quality indicators and ambient environmental conditions will find VB3 useful. VB3 reads input data from a text file or Excel document, assists the user in preparing the data for analysis, enables automated model selection using a wide array of possible model evaluation criteria, and provides predictions using a chosen model parameterized with new data. With an integrated mapping component to determine the geographic orientation of the beach, the software can automatically decompose wind/current/wave speed and magnitude information into along-shore and onshore/offshore components for use in subsequent analyses. Data can be examined using simple scatter plots to evaluate relationships between the response and independent variables (IVs). VB3 can produce interaction terms between the primary IVs, and it can also test an array of transformations to maximize the linearity of the relationship The software includes search routines for finding the "best" models from an array of possible choices. Automated censoring of statistical models with highly correlated IVs occurs during the selection process. Models can be constructed either using previously collected data or forecasted environmental information. VB3 has residual diagnostics for regression models, including automated outlier identification and removal using DFFITs or Cook's Distances.

  3. Sea level and diagenesis: a case study on Pleistocene beaches, Whalebone Bay, Bermuda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollbrecht, R.; Meischner, D.

    1993-07-01

    Pleistocene fluctuations of sea level have left marine and aeolian limestones intercalated with glacial red soils on the Bermuda Carbonate Platform (Atlantic, 64°50'W, 32°20'N). Successive eustatic highstands of similar amplitude drowned the tectonically stable platform and piled up similar sets of sediments. Up to three Pleistocene beaches are stacked in shorelines sections. Post-depositional diagenetic histories of these beaches can be linked to repeated changes in sea level and pore waters. This paper presents field evidence and petrographic results (microscope, X-ray, cathodoluminescence, SEMEDAX) for the diagenetic histories of two superimposed Pleistocene beaches in Whalebone Bay, Bermuda North Shore. The younger beach was deposited during isotopic stage 5e, about 120 ka ago. The age of the older beach may be isotopic stage 9 or older. Diagenesis drastically altered the older beach before the stage 5e transgression. Primary high-Mg calcite (HMC) and aragonite were no longer present. Marine skeletal grains were instead leached or recrystallized to low-Mg calcite (LMC). Primary and secondary pore space were largely reduced by LMC cement. Lines of needle relics reminiscent of marine aragonite cement occur as inclusions within syntaxial rim cements around echinoderm grains, indicating that a marine influence had at least once interrupted this period of freshwater alteration. Finally, before the rocks became buried by the sediments of the younger beach, a crust of marine, bladed HMC cement was precipitated throughout the pore space. The younger beach consists of skeletal grains that are, apart from the effects of non-selective dissolution, essentially unaltered. The sediments are only weakly lithified by cryptocrystalline LMC showing an alveolar texture, tangential fibres and other features characteristic of calichification. A younger post-depositional marine influence is not recorded. These results suggest that, under favourable conditions, diagenetic processes

  4. "Rock Garden"

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-10-14

    This false color composite image of the Rock Garden shows the rocks "Shark" and "Half Dome" at upper left and middle, respectively. Between these two large rocks is a smaller rock (about 0.20 m wide, 0.10 m high, and 6.33 m from the Lander) that was observed close-up with the Sojourner rover (see PIA00989). http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00987

  5. Organochlorine residues in young herons from the upper Mississippi River-1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Elder, J.B.; Stendell, R.C.; Hensler, G.L.; Johnson, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    Chicks of great blue herons (Ardea herodias) from four heronaries located near South St. Paul, Royalton, and Wabasha, Minnesota, and La Crosse, Wisconsin, were analyzed for organochlorines, Highest mean wet-weight concentrations, 6.43 ppm PCBs. 1.31 ppm DDE, and 1.90 ppm sigma DDT, were found in the South St. Paul chicks. Among chicks from the other three heronries, most levels were similar, but were significantly lower than levels in South St. Paul chicks. Lowest mean organochlorine levels, 0.37 ppm DDE, 0.38 ppm sigma DDT, and 0.22 ppm PCBs, were found in chicks from Royalton. All birds from South St. Paul and La Crosse contained residues of DDT and TDE whereas only one of the 10 birds from Royalton contained DDT and one contained TDE residues. Five of the 12 birds from Wabasha contained DDT; eight contained TDE. Except for PCB residues in La Crosse heron chicks, the rate of organochlorine residue accumulation in the birds was generally less than the rate of dilution caused by growth.

  6. Morphometric abnormalities in brains of great blue heron hatchlings exposed in the wild to PCDDs.

    PubMed Central

    Henshel, D S; Martin, J W; Norstrom, R; Whitehead, P; Steeves, J D; Cheng, K M

    1995-01-01

    Great blue heron hatchlings from colonies in the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia, Canada are being monitored for environmental contaminant exposure and effects by the Canadian Wildlife Service. The contaminants of concern are polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), primarily derived from kraft pulp mill effluent. The levels of PCDDs and PCDFs in eggs from the most contaminated colonies peaked in 1988 and 1989 and dropped dramatically through 1990 to 1992. Brains of heron hatchlings (taken as eggs from the wild and hatched in the laboratory) were analyzed for gross morphological abnormalities. Brains from highly contaminated colonies (Crofton, British Columbia and University of British Columbia Endowment Lands) in 1988 exhibited a high frequency of intercerebral asymmetry. The frequency of this abnormality decreased in subsequent years as the levels of TCDD and TCDD-TEQs (toxic equivalence factors) decreased. The asymmetry was significantly correlated with the level of TCDD and TCDD-TEQs in eggs taken from the same nest. Yolk-free body weight negatively correlated and the brain somatic index positively correlated with the TCDD level in such pair-matched eggs. These results indicate that gross brain morphology, and specifically intercerebral asymmetry, may be useful as a biomarker for the developmental neurotoxic effects of PCDDs and related chemicals. Images Figure 1. PMID:7556025

  7. Organochlorine residues in young herons from the upper Mississippi River-1976.

    PubMed

    Ohlendorf, H M; Elder, J B; Stendell, R C; Hensler, G L; Johnson, R W

    1979-12-01

    Chicks of great blue herons (Ardea herodias) from four heronaries located near South St. Paul, Royalton, and Wabasha, Minnesota, and La Crosse, Wisconsin, were analyzed for organochlorines, Highest mean wet-weight concentrations, 6.43 ppm PCBs. 1.31 ppm DDE, and 1.90 ppm sigma DDT, were found in the South St. Paul chicks. Among chicks from the other three heronries, most levels were similar, but were significantly lower than levels in South St. Paul chicks. Lowest mean organochlorine levels, 0.37 ppm DDE, 0.38 ppm sigma DDT, and 0.22 ppm PCBs, were found in chicks from Royalton. All birds from South St. Paul and La Crosse contained residues of DDT and TDE whereas only one of the 10 birds from Royalton contained DDT and one contained TDE residues. Five of the 12 birds from Wabasha contained DDT; eight contained TDE. Except for PCB residues in La Crosse heron chicks, the rate of organochlorine residue accumulation in the birds was generally less than the rate of dilution caused by growth.

  8. Distribution species abundance and nesting site use of Atlantic coast colonies of herons and their allies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Osborn, R.G.; Stout, W.F.

    1980-01-01

    In 1975 and 1976, 8 teams of investigators located 262 colonies of nesting herons and their allies along the Atlantic coast from Florida to Maine [USA]. Fourteen species [Ajaia ajaja, Plegadis falcinellus, Nycticorax nycticorax, Ardea herodias, Eudocimus albus, Egretta thula, Hydranassa tricolor, Bubulcus ibis, Casmerodius albus, Butorides striatus, Florida caerulea, Dichromanassa rufescens, Nyctanassa violacea and Mycteria americana] were found in Florida, numbers decreasing to 7 in Maine. Colonies censused in the extreme south and north of the study area were lower in number of species and number of adults than those in the intermediate area. More than 90% of the colony sites surveyed in 1975 were active in 1976. The total number of nesting adults per colony, number of species per colony and number of nesting adults of each species per colony in 1976 were significantly correlated with their respective values for 1975. Abandoned and new colonies may be satellites of nearby reused colonies; they had fewer individuals and species than reused colonies and were closer to reused colonies than reused colonies were to each other. [This study was part of an attempt to examine colonially nesting herons as biological indicators of environmental quality.

  9. Electron microscopic observations on the pecten of the great blue heron (Ardea herodias).

    PubMed

    Braekevelt, C R

    1991-07-01

    The pecten oculi of the great blue heron (Ardea herodias) has been examined by both light and electron microscopy. In this species the pecten is large and of the pleated type. It consists of 14-15 acordion folds that are joined apically by a more heavily pigmented bridge of tissue which holds the pecten in a fan-like shape widest at its base. As in other species it is situated over the optic nerve head and projects out into the vitreous. Within each fold are numerous capillaries, larger supply and drainage vessels and many melanocytes. The capillaries are extremely specialized vessels which display extensive microfolds on both their luminal and abluminal borders. The endothelial cell bodies are extremely thin with most organelles present in a paranuclear location. The capillaries are surrounded by thick fibrillar basal laminae which are felt to be structurally useful. Pericytes are a common feature of these capillaries. The numerous pleomorphic melanocytes which form an incomplete sheath around the capillaries and other blood vessels are also felt to be important in structural support of the pecten. The morphology of the pecten of the great blue heron is indicative of a heavy involvement in the transport of materials.

  10. Isolation and characterization of a hepatitis B virus endemic in herons.

    PubMed

    Sprengel, R; Kaleta, E F; Will, H

    1988-10-01

    A new hepadnavirus (designated heron hepatitis B virus [HHBV]) has been isolated; this virus is endemic in grey herons (Ardea cinerea) in Germany and closely related to duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) by morphology of viral particles and size of the genome and of the major viral envelope and core proteins. Despite its striking similarities to DHBV, HHBV cannot be transmitted to ducks by infection or by transfection with cloned viral DNA. After the viral genome was cloned and sequenced, a comparative sequence analysis revealed an identical genome organization of HHBV and DHBV (pre-C/C-, pre-S/S-, and pol-ORFs). An open reading frame, designated X in mammalian hepadnaviruses, is not present in DHBV. DHBV and HHBV differ by 21.6% base exchanges, and thus they are less closely related than the two known rodent hepatitis B viruses (16.4%). The nucleocapsid protein and the 17-kilodalton envelope protein sequences of DHBV and HHBV are well conserved. In contrast, the pre-S part of the 34-kilodalton envelope protein which is believed to mediate virus attachment to the cell is highly divergent (less than 50% homology). The availability of two closely related avian hepadnaviruses will now allow us to test recombinant viruses in vivo and in vitro for host specificity-determining sequences.

  11. Composition, structure and pattern of helminth assemblages associated with central European herons (Ardeidae).

    PubMed

    Sitko, Jiljí; Heneberg, Petr

    2015-02-01

    Helminths parasitizing the ardeid birds are poorly understood, and the majority of studies are limited to checklists and records of novel host-parasite interactions. Here we analyzed the prevalence, intensity and diversity of the helminth component communities associated with an extensive cohort of the five most common Czech herons (Ardea cinerea, Ardea alba, Nycticorax nycticorax, Botaurus stellaris and Ixobrychus minutus) collected in the years 1962-2013. Comparison with Ukrainian datasets supports the existence of local helminth component communities, subject to strong geographic variation. The diversity of the component communities ranged between 37.3±9.6 (A. cinerea) and 2.5±1.1 (I. minutus) species. Similarly, the frequency of particular helminths differed by over one order of magnitude, whereas the helminth load differed by over two orders of magnitude. Typically, the dominant species (Echinochasmus beleocephalus, Uroproctepisthmium bursicola, Posthodiplostomum cuticola, Apharyngostrigea cornu, Desmidocercella numidica and Neogryporhynchus cheilancristrotus) were considered local, with intermediate host species available onsite, as represented by freshwater mollusks. Of the digeneans, 52% of the species likely infected their definitive hosts outside the study area, frequently utilizing invertebrates of salt or brackish waters. For A. cinerea, the largest number of species was in adult males; however the helminth load of the adults was lower than in their juvenile counterparts. This study provides the first systematically collected evidence for the intra-annual changes of the helminth assemblages in herons.

  12. PCB and mercury contamination in great blue heron chicks associated with the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, R.; Buehler, D.; Halbrook, R.

    1995-12-31

    The great blue heron (Ardea herodias) has been selected as an environmental indicator by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory as a component of remedial investigation. Chicks were collected from four colonies from 1992 through 1994. Tissues from these chicks were analyzed to determine if PCB and mercury concentrations differed between colonies located on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and colonies located off the ORR. Chicks on the ORR contained significantly greater concentrations of PCBs in liver (P = 0.015), muscle (P = 0.060), and fat (P = 0.011) tissue compared to those collected off the ORR. Mercury concentrations also were significantly greater in liver (P = 0.025) and feather (P = 0.001) tissue collected from on-ORR chicks compared to concentrations in chicks collected off the ORR. The K-25 colony, located adjacent to the K-25 Gaseous Diffusion Plant, had significantly greater concentrations of PCBs in fat and mercury in feathers (P < 0.05) compared to the Melton Hill colony also located on the ORR. These results suggest that herons nesting adjacent to K-25 are exposed to elevated concentrations of PCBs and mercury, however, preliminary analysis of reproductive data suggests that these contaminant concentrations do not effect fecundity. The authors feel that further monitoring of these colonies is warranted in order to determine the effectiveness of remedial action.

  13. Science Rocks!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prestwich, Dorothy; Sumrall, Joseph; Chessin, Debby A.

    2010-01-01

    It all began one Monday morning. Raymond could not wait to come to large group. In his hand, he held a chunk of white granite he had found. "Look at my beautiful rock!" he cried. The rock was passed around and examined by each student. "I wonder how rocks are made?" wondered one student. "Where do they come from?"…

  14. Rock Finding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rommel-Esham, Katie; Constable, Susan D.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a literature-based activity that helps students discover the importance of making detailed observations. In an inspiring children's classic book, "Everybody Needs a Rock" by Byrd Baylor (1974), the author invites readers to go "rock finding," laying out 10 rules for finding a "perfect" rock. In this way, the…

  15. Rock Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henn, Cynthia A.

    2004-01-01

    There are many interpretations for the symbols that are seen in rock art, but no decoding key has ever been discovered. This article describes one classroom's experiences with a lesson on rock art--making their rock art and developing their own personal symbols. This lesson allowed for creativity, while giving an opportunity for integration…

  16. Collecting Rocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Rachel M.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in rock collecting with a nontechnical introduction to the subject. Following a section examining the nature and formation of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks, the booklet gives suggestions for starting a rock collection and using…

  17. Science Rocks!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prestwich, Dorothy; Sumrall, Joseph; Chessin, Debby A.

    2010-01-01

    It all began one Monday morning. Raymond could not wait to come to large group. In his hand, he held a chunk of white granite he had found. "Look at my beautiful rock!" he cried. The rock was passed around and examined by each student. "I wonder how rocks are made?" wondered one student. "Where do they come from?"…

  18. Rock Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henn, Cynthia A.

    2004-01-01

    There are many interpretations for the symbols that are seen in rock art, but no decoding key has ever been discovered. This article describes one classroom's experiences with a lesson on rock art--making their rock art and developing their own personal symbols. This lesson allowed for creativity, while giving an opportunity for integration…

  19. Rock Finding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rommel-Esham, Katie; Constable, Susan D.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a literature-based activity that helps students discover the importance of making detailed observations. In an inspiring children's classic book, "Everybody Needs a Rock" by Byrd Baylor (1974), the author invites readers to go "rock finding," laying out 10 rules for finding a "perfect" rock. In this way, the…

  20. Beach Changes at Holden Beach, North Carolina, 1970-74.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    DeWall, and Czerniak , 1980). These data, which were later converted to the LEO format, assigned *sectors 2, 3, and 4 corresponding to 720, 900, and...inter- cept and above MSL sand volume have been shown on east coast beaches (Goldsmith, Farrell, and Goldsmith, 1974; Everts and Czerniak , 1977; DeWall...Pritchett, and Galvin, 1977; DeWall, 1979; Everts, DeWall, and Czerniak , 1980). The seasonal cycle is evident in the above MSL sand volume change

  1. Geophysical Assessment of the Control of a Jetty on a Barrier Beach and Estuary System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, C.; Hubbard, S.; Delaney, C.; Seymour, D.; Blom, K.; Black, W.

    2013-12-01

    An evaluation is underway at the Goat Rock State Beach, which is located at the mouth of the Russian River near Jenner, CA. The study focuses on quantifying the influence of a man made jetty on the functioning of a barrier beach and associated implications for estuary fish habitat and flood control. Flow through the beach results from water level differences between the estuary and the ocean. When the estuary is closed or perched, one of the potential major sources of outflow from the lagoon is seepage flow through the barrier beach. The location and design of the jetty could be altering subsurface flow paths through the jetty and possibly impeding or enhancing subsurface flow where the jetty is still intact. This will result in unnatural connectivity between the ocean and the estuary leading to atypical surface water elevations and possibly salinity imbalance. Results of the assessment will enable the Sonoma County Water Agency to understand how the jetty affects formation of the barrier beach and water surface elevations within the estuary. As one aspect of the evaluation, we are using geophysical methods to monitor seepage through the jetty as well as through the beach berm. We are using multiple surface geophysical methods, including: electrical resistivity, seismic refraction, ground penetrating radar, and electromagnetic methods. In general, seismic data are being used to characterize deeper bedrock controls on beach barrier functioning such as, channeling of estuarine water beneath the barrier beach. Electrical and electromagnetic methods are being used to characterize the beach sediment layers that could contribute to preferential flow paths during tide cycles in addition to preferential flow paths created by the jetty structure. Time-lapse electrical and electromagnetic data are being used to monitor moisture changes and mixing of saline and fresh water within the beach berm. Ground penetrating radar data are being used to delineate the geometry of the

  2. 76 FR 4891 - Blue Heron Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Motions To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ... Heron Hydro LLC. e. Name of Project: Townshend Dam Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Townshend Dam on the West River near the Town of Townshend, Windham County, Vermont. g. Filed Pursuant to: Federal Power Act, 16 U.S.C. 791(a)-825(r). h. Applicant Contact: Lori Barg, Blue...

  3. 75 FR 70729 - Blue Heron Hydro, LLC; Notice of Applications Tendered for Filing With the Commission and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ... Project; Townshend Dam Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: Both projects would be constructed at existing... Act 16 U.S.C. 791(a)-825(r). h. Applicant Contact: Lori Barg, Blue Heron Hydro, LLC 113 Bartlett Road... average annual generation of approximately 6,000 megawatt-hours (MWh). The Townshend Dam Hydroelectric...

  4. Perfluorinated compound concentrations in great blue heron eggs near St. Paul, Minnesota, USA, in 1993 and 2010-2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Thomas W.; Dummer, Paul M.; Custer, Christine M.; Wu, Qian; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Trowbridge, Annette

    2013-01-01

    A great blue heron (Ardea herodias) colony on Pig's Eye Island on the Mississippi River near St. Paul, Minnesota, USA, is located near several potential perfluorinated compound (PFC) sources. The PFC concentrations in great blue heron eggs reported from a 1993 collection from the Pig's Eye colony were among the highest measured in bird eggs worldwide. The objective of this investigation was to determine whether PFC concentrations in great blue heron eggs at the Pig's Eye colony have changed since 1993. Total PFC concentrations in great blue heron eggs collected at the Pig's Eye colony in 2010 and 2011 (geometric mean = 340 and 492 ng/g wet wt) were 60% lower than the 1993 collection (1,015 ng/g wet wt). Among PFCs, perfluoroalkyl sulfonate concentrations were lower and perfluoroalkyl carboxylate concentrations were higher in the 2010 and 2011 collections. Two of 20 (10%) of the eggs analyzed from Pig's Eye in 2010 and 2011 were >1,000 ng PFCs/g wet weight and the maximum PFC value (2,506 ng PFCs/g wet wt) measured in 2010 and 2011 was among the highest PFC concentration reported in bird eggs. These high concentrations are at levels associated with physiological and neurological effects in birds.

  5. Perfluorinated compound concentrations in great blue heron eggs near St. Paul, Minnesota, USA, in 1993 and 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Custer, Thomas W; Dummer, Paul M; Custer, Christine M; Wu, Qian; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Trowbridge, Annette

    2013-04-01

    A great blue heron (Ardea herodias) colony on Pig's Eye Island on the Mississippi River near St. Paul, Minnesota, USA, is located near several potential perfluorinated compound (PFC) sources. The PFC concentrations in great blue heron eggs reported from a 1993 collection from the Pig's Eye colony were among the highest measured in bird eggs worldwide. The objective of this investigation was to determine whether PFC concentrations in great blue heron eggs at the Pig's Eye colony have changed since 1993. Total PFC concentrations in great blue heron eggs collected at the Pig's Eye colony in 2010 and 2011 (geometric mean=340 and 492 ng/g wet wt) were 60% lower than the 1993 collection (1,015 ng/g wet wt). Among PFCs, perfluoroalkyl sulfonate concentrations were lower and perfluoroalkyl carboxylate concentrations were higher in the 2010 and 2011 collections. Two of 20 (10%) of the eggs analyzed from Pig's Eye in 2010 and 2011 were >1,000 ng PFCs/g wet weight and the maximum PFC value (2,506 ng PFCs/g wet wt) measured in 2010 and 2011 was among the highest PFC concentration reported in bird eggs. These high concentrations are at levels associated with physiological and neurological effects in birds.

  6. Ecological risk assessment in a large river-reservoir. 7: Environmental contaminant accumulation and effects in great blue heron

    SciTech Connect

    Halbrook, R.S.; Brewer, R.L. Jr.; Buehler, D.A.

    1999-04-01

    Past plant operations and waste disposal on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) have introduced an assortment of potentially harmful contaminants into the surrounding environment. Elevated concentrations of mercury (Hg) and PCBs have been found in fish collected from aquatic systems on the ORR, and a screening level risk assessment has identified piscivorous wildlife downstream from the ORR as being at risk. As a component of an ecological risk assessment of a large river-reservoir system, the great blue heron (Ardea herodias) was chosen as an endpoint species to evaluate potential adverse effects of contaminants on piscivorous wildlife using aquatic systems on or downstream of the ORR. Eggs and chick liver, muscle, and fat samples were collected from two heron colonies located on and two colonies located off the ORR. Samples were analyzed for PCBs, mercury, chromium, and arsenic to determine if differences existed among colonies. Mean mercury and PCB concentrations were greater in eggs and chick tissues collected from colonies located on the ORR. However, no biologically significant differences were observed in fecundity or in egg physical measurements or chick physiological measurements between study locations. The results of this study do not indicate that the contaminant burdens in great blue heron chicks and eggs have a detrimental effect on heron populations utilizing aquatic habitats on the ORR.

  7. Environmental contaminants in great blue herons (Ardea herodias) from the lower Columbia and Willamette Rivers, Oregon and Washington, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, C.M.; Anthony, R.G.

    1999-12-01

    Great blue heron (Ardea herodias) eggs and prey items were collected from six colonies in Oregon and Washington, USA, during 1994 to 1995. Contaminant concentrations, reproductive success, and biomagnification factors were determined and effects of residue levels were measured by H4IIE rat hepatoma bioassays. Mean residue concentrations in heron eggs and prey items were generally low. However, elevated concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were detected in eggs and prey from Ross Island on the Willamette River. Biomagnification factors varied among sites. Sites were not significantly different in H4IIE tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQs), although the TCDD-EQ for Karlson Island was 9 to 20 times greater than that of any other site. Large differences existed between toxic equivalents calculated from egg residue concentrations and TCDD-EQs, which indicated nonadditive interactions among the compounds. Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents and nest failure were positively correlated with TCDD concentration. Fledging and reproductive rates were similar to those determined for healthy heron populations, however, indicating that any adverse effects were occurring at the individual level and not at the colony level. Their results support the use of great blue herons as a biomonitor for contamination in aquatic ecosystems. Their relatively low sensitivity to organochlorine contaminants and high trophic position allows contaminant accumulation and biomagnification without immediate adverse effects that are often seen in other, more sensitive species.

  8. Responses of nestling black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) to aquatic and terrestrial recreational activities: a manipulative study

    Treesearch

    Esteban Fernandez-Juricic; Patrick A. Zollner; Cherie LeBlanc Fisher; Lynne M. Westphal

    2007-01-01

    We assessed the effects of the presence and the frequency of canoe and pedestrian disturbance during two breeding seasons on multiple behavioral responses (scanning, freezing, grooming, sleeping, moving, wing-raising, and standing-up) of Black-crowned Night Heron ( Nycticorax nycticorax ) nestlings in a breeding colony in southeast Chicago. Short-...

  9. [A reservoir of Shigella of avian origin: herons and birds of prey of the zoological garden in Tananarive].

    PubMed

    Vicens, R; Richard, C; Coulanges, P; Rasoamamunjy, M A

    1987-01-01

    The authors record the bacteriological characters of four Shigella strains: S. dysenteriae 2 and S. boydii 9, respectively isolated in a bird-of-prey and in three herons, kept in the zoological Garden in Antananarivo. The significance of this Malgasian avian reservoir of Shigella is discussed.

  10. Huntington Beach activity surges ahead

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, S.D.

    1981-02-01

    Enhanced recovery pilot projects in the Huntington Beach oil field in S. California are described. The projects include steam drive of the AA zone from an offshore platform; steam drive of 3 separate onshore areas of the TM zone; and huff and puff carbon dioxide in the A-37 zone. An alkaline pilot flood also was initiated in the lower main zone in 1978. The described are discussed, citing advantages of the methods selected in each instance.

  11. Contact with beach sand among beach-goers and risk of illness

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Recently, numerous studies of fecal contamination of beach sand have triggered interest among scientists, the news media, and the general public. Evidence shows that beach sand harbors higher concentrations of fecal indicator organisms (microbes considered to indicate...

  12. Contact with beach sand among beach-goers and risk of illness

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Recently, numerous studies of fecal contamination of beach sand have triggered interest among scientists, the news media, and the general public. Evidence shows that beach sand harbors higher concentrations of fecal indicator organisms (microbes considered to indicate...

  13. Reproductive success of the Black-crowned Night Heron at Alcatraz Island, San Francisco Bay, California, 1990-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hothem, Roger L.; Hatch, Daphne

    2004-01-01

    Nesting chronology, habitat use, subcolony use, and hatchability were documented for the Black-crowned Night Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) nesting at Alcatraz Island, San Francisco Bay, California during 1990-2002. Reproductive success was estimated using the Mayfield method and compared among years. Totals of monitored nests per year ranged from 68 in 2001 to 341 in 1996, with a trend of declining numbers since 1996. An increase in numbers of the Western Gull (Larus occidentalis), the Black-crowned Night Heron’s primary competitor, occurred during the same period. Overall reproductive success of the Black-crowned Night Heron at Alcatraz Island was below the 13-year average of 56.4% since 1996. During the study, the average number of chicks fledged per nest each year ranged from 0.46 to 1.27, which is less than the two chicks per nest suggested as a requirement for a sustained population. Embryos in five of 187 failed Black-crowned Night Heron eggs were deformed. In 1990 and 1991, eggs were analyzed for a wide range of contaminants, but none appeared to be sufficiently elevated to have caused the observed deformities. Based on these relatively low levels of contaminants, a high hatchability rate (94.5%), and relatively low levels of embryotoxicity, contaminants did not appear to significantly affect Black-crowned Night Heron reproduction at Alcatraz Island. However, predation by the Common Raven (Corvus corax) and Western Gull, interspecific competition with the Western Gull, habitat deterioration, and possible human disturbance are likely factors contributing to the decline in Black-crowned Night Heron reproductive success on Alcatraz Island in recent years.

  14. Classification of beach response to extreme storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burvingt, Olivier; Masselink, Gerd; Russell, Paul; Scott, Tim

    2017-10-01

    Extreme storms are responsible for rapid changes to coastlines worldwide. During the 2013/14 winter, the west coast of Europe experienced a sequence of large, storm-induced wave events, representing the most energetic period of waves in the last 60 years. The southwest coast of England underwent significant geomorphological change during that period, but exhibited a range of spatially variable and complex morphological responses, despite being subjected to the same storm sequence. Here, we use the 2013/14 storm response along the southwest coast of England as a natural field laboratory and explain this variability in storm response through the introduction and evaluation of a new classification of how sandy and gravel beaches respond to extreme storms. Cluster analysis was conducted using an unique data set of pre- and post-storm airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data from 157 beach sites based on the net volumetric change (dQnet) and a novel parameter, the longshore variation index (LVI) which quantifies the alongshore morphological variability in beach response. Four main beach response types were identified: (1) fully exposed beaches that experienced large and alongshore uniform sediment losses (dQnet ≈ 100 m3·m- 1); (2) semi-exposed beaches that experienced medium alongshore uniform sediment losses (dQnet ≈ 50 m3·m- 1); (3) sheltered short beaches that experienced limited net sediment change and alongshore variability in beach response; and (4) sheltered long beaches that experienced considerable alongshore variability in beach response and large gross sediment change, but limited net sediment change. The key factors in determining the type of beach response are: exposure to the storm waves, angle of storm wave approach and the degree to which the beach is embayed. These factors are universally applicable on many exposed coastlines worldwide, so the response classification presented here is expected to be widely applicable.

  15. 'Escher' Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Chemical Changes in 'Endurance' Rocks

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    This false-color image taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows a rock dubbed 'Escher' on the southwestern slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' Scientists believe the rock's fractures, which divide the surface into polygons, may have been formed by one of several processes. They may have been caused by the impact that created Endurance Crater, or they might have arisen when water leftover from the rock's formation dried up. A third possibility is that much later, after the rock was formed, and after the crater was created, the rock became wet once again, then dried up and developed cracks. Opportunity has spent the last 14 sols investigating Escher, specifically the target dubbed 'Kirchner,' and other similar rocks with its scientific instruments. This image was taken on sol 208 (Aug. 24, 2004) by the rover's panoramic camera, using the 750-, 530- and 430-nanometer filters.

    The graph above shows that rocks located deeper into 'Endurance Crater' are chemically altered to a greater degree than rocks located higher up. This chemical alteration is believed to result from exposure to water.

    Specifically, the graph compares ratios of chemicals between the deep rock dubbed 'Escher,' and the more shallow rock called 'Virginia,' before (red and blue lines) and after (green line) the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity drilled into the rocks. As the red and blue lines indicate, Escher's levels of chlorine relative to Virginia's went up, and sulfur down, before the rover dug a hole into the rocks. This implies that the surface of Escher has been chemically altered to a greater extent than the surface of Virginia. Scientists are still investigating the role water played in influencing this trend.

    These data were taken by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

  16. 'Escher' Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Chemical Changes in 'Endurance' Rocks

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    This false-color image taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows a rock dubbed 'Escher' on the southwestern slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' Scientists believe the rock's fractures, which divide the surface into polygons, may have been formed by one of several processes. They may have been caused by the impact that created Endurance Crater, or they might have arisen when water leftover from the rock's formation dried up. A third possibility is that much later, after the rock was formed, and after the crater was created, the rock became wet once again, then dried up and developed cracks. Opportunity has spent the last 14 sols investigating Escher, specifically the target dubbed 'Kirchner,' and other similar rocks with its scientific instruments. This image was taken on sol 208 (Aug. 24, 2004) by the rover's panoramic camera, using the 750-, 530- and 430-nanometer filters.

    The graph above shows that rocks located deeper into 'Endurance Crater' are chemically altered to a greater degree than rocks located higher up. This chemical alteration is believed to result from exposure to water.

    Specifically, the graph compares ratios of chemicals between the deep rock dubbed 'Escher,' and the more shallow rock called 'Virginia,' before (red and blue lines) and after (green line) the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity drilled into the rocks. As the red and blue lines indicate, Escher's levels of chlorine relative to Virginia's went up, and sulfur down, before the rover dug a hole into the rocks. This implies that the surface of Escher has been chemically altered to a greater extent than the surface of Virginia. Scientists are still investigating the role water played in influencing this trend.

    These data were taken by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

  17. UGC 4599: Revealing the Extended Structure of a Hoag’s Object Analog with HERON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusco, Michael; Thilker, David A.; Wen, Fufang; Xia, Junjie; Storment, Stephen; Brosch, Noah; Longstaff, Francis; Kennefick, Julia D.; Rich, Robert Michael; Halos and Environments of Nearby galaxies (HERON) Team

    2017-01-01

    The Halos and Environments of Nearby Galaxies (HERON) survey utilizes a specialized telescope for imaging low surface brightness halos and galaxy environments. One such galaxy is UGC 4599, whose HERON images show improvements in observing the extended low luminosity structure as compared to previous studies. UGC 4599 is a nearby Hoag-Type Ring Galaxy with an extremely extended HI disk. Hoag's Object is characterized by a blue star-forming ring surrounding an older yellow nucleus. In the case of UGC 4599, the nuclear region was previously revealed to closely follow a De Vaucouleurs luminosity profile, suggesting the object to be at least elliptical-like. While previous photometric studies of UGC 4599 were focused mainly on the bright core and star forming ring of the galaxy, the HERON survey is able to probe the fainter, extended halo. With an eight hour integration time, we find spiral structure surrounding the core and ring of UGC 4599. The main ring of the galaxy is broken with an m=2 (180 degree) symmetry, suggesting a two armed spiral structure. However, once the core and ring of UGC 4599 are modeled with the software GALFIT, a well defined m=1 (single arm) spiral emerges, extending from the central region to several times the radius of the ring. Though the ring appears to break in two places, the spiral structure may be comprised of mainly one dominant arm. In late type galaxies, the pitch angle of spiral arms has been shown to correlate well with the mass of the central Supermassive Black Hole (SMBH) in an M-P relation. The pitch angle of the one arm spiral of UGC 4599 is measured to be roughly P=9 degrees, corresponding to a SMBH mass for UGC 4599 of between 107 and 108 solar masses (further constrained pitch angle measurements forthcoming). The outermost edge of UGC 4599 as detected in our imaging may be modeled as an extension of this one armed spiral, or as yet another ring feature. Due to many bright foreground stars, there is difficulty in ascertaining

  18. Beach Observations using Quadcopter Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yi-Chung; Wang, Hsing-Yu; Fang, Hui-Ming; Hsiao, Sung-Shan; Tsai, Cheng-Han

    2017-04-01

    Beaches are the places where the interaction of the land and sea takes place, and it is under the influence of many environmental factors, including meteorological and oceanic ones. To understand the evolution or changes of beaches, it may require constant monitoring. One way to monitor the beach changes is to use optical cameras. With careful placements of ground control points, land-based optical cameras, which are inexpensive compared to other remote sensing apparatuses, can be used to survey a relatively large area in a short time. For example, we have used terrestrial optical cameras incorporated with ground control points to monitor beaches. The images from the cameras were calibrated by applying the direct linear transformation, projective transformation, and Sobel edge detector to locate the shoreline. The terrestrial optical cameras can record the beach images continuous, and the shorelines can be satisfactorily identified. However, the terrestrial cameras have some limitations. First, the camera system set a sufficiently high level so that the camera can cover the whole area that is of interest; such a location may not be available. The second limitation is that objects in the image have a different resolution, depending on the distance of objects from the cameras. To overcome these limitations, the present study tested a quadcopter equipped with a down-looking camera to record video and still images of a beach. The quadcopter can be controlled to hover at one location. However, the hovering of the quadcopter can be affected by the wind, since it is not positively anchored to a structure. Although the quadcopter has a gimbal mechanism to damp out tiny shakings of the copter, it will not completely counter movements due to the wind. In our preliminary tests, we have flown the quadcopter up to 500 m high to record 10-minnte video. We then took a 10-minute average of the video data. The averaged image of the coast was blurred because of the time duration of

  19. 77 FR 5793 - Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act; Availability of BEACH Act Grants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... Water Act (CWA) as amended by the Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health (BEACH) Act... past to apply for BEACH Act grants to implement effective and comprehensive coastal recreation water... recreation water monitoring and public notification programs (``development grants''). This notice...

  20. USING HYDROGRAPHIC DATA AND THE EPA VIRTUAL BEACH MODEL TO TEST PREDICTIONS OF BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A modeling study of 2006 Huntington Beach (Lake Erie) beach bacteria concentrations indicates multi-variable linear regression (MLR) can effectively estimate bacteria concentrations compared to the persistence model. Our use of the Virtual Beach (VB) model affirms that fact. VB i...

  1. 77 FR 13519 - Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY... Virginia Beach, VA. This action is necessary to provide for the safety of life on navigable waters during...

  2. 77 FR 14321 - Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... Waterway in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina during the Myrtle Beach Triathlon. The Myrtle Beach Triathlon... individual submitting the comment (or signing the comment, if submitted on behalf of an association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review a Privacy Act notice regarding our public dockets in the January...

  3. USING HYDROGRAPHIC DATA AND THE EPA VIRTUAL BEACH MODEL TO TEST PREDICTIONS OF BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A modeling study of 2006 Huntington Beach (Lake Erie) beach bacteria concentrations indicates multi-variable linear regression (MLR) can effectively estimate bacteria concentrations compared to the persistence model. Our use of the Virtual Beach (VB) model affirms that fact. VB i...

  4. 78 FR 35596 - Special Local Regulation; Long Beach Regatta, Powerboat Race, Atlantic Ocean, Long Beach, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ... Race, Atlantic Ocean, Long Beach, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking... Atlantic Ocean off Long Beach, NY during the Long Beach Regatta Powerboat Race scheduled for August 24-25, 2013. This action is necessary to provide for the safety of life of participants and spectators...

  5. NOWCASTING AND FORECASTING BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATIONS USING EPA VIRTUAL BEACH SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evidence shows that traditional persistence-based beach closure decision making is inadequate, beaches are closed when they could be open and kept open when they should be closed. Intense interest is now focused on efforts to nowcast beach conditions using surrogate variables, su...

  6. NOWCASTING AND FORECASTING BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATIONS USING EPA VIRTUAL BEACH SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evidence shows that traditional persistence-based beach closure decision making is inadequate, beaches are closed when they could be open and kept open when they should be closed. Intense interest is now focused on efforts to nowcast beach conditions using surrogate variables, su...

  7. Beach monitoring criteria: reading the fine print

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nevers, Meredith B.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    Beach monitoring programs aim to decrease swimming-related illnesses resulting from exposure to harmful microbes in recreational waters, while providing maximum beach access. Managers are advised by the U.S. EPA to estimate microbiological water quality based on a 5-day geometric mean of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations or on a jurisdiction-specific single-sample maximum; however, most opt instead to apply a default single-sample maximum to ease application. We examined whether re-evaluation of the U.S. EPA ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) and the epidemiological studies on which they are based could increase public beach access without affecting presumed health risk. Single-sample maxima were calculated using historic monitoring data for 50 beaches along coastal Lake Michigan on various temporal and spatial groupings to assess flexibility in the application of the AWQC. No calculation on either scale was as low as the default maximum (235 CFU/100 mL) that managers typically use, indicating that current applications may be more conservative than the outlined AWQC. It was notable that beaches subject to point source FIB contamination had lower variation, highlighting the bias in the standards for these beaches. Until new water quality standards are promulgated, more site-specific application of the AWQC may benefit beach managers by allowing swimmers greater access to beaches. This issue will be an important consideration in addressing the forthcoming beach monitoring standards.

  8. 8. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH FROM BEACH; SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH FROM BEACH; SHOWING 17TH BENT TO END; NEPTUNE'S GALLEY TO END OF PIER - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  9. 7. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING EAST FROM BEACH; SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING EAST FROM BEACH; SHOWING 27TH BENT LANDWARD TO MAXWELL'S RESTAURANT, NEPTUNE'S GALLEY (RIGHT OF CENTER) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  10. 123. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: REPAIR DETAILS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    123. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: REPAIR DETAILS Sheet 5 of 11 (#3277) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  11. 126. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: EXTENSION DETAILS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    126. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: EXTENSION DETAILS Sheet 7 of 11 (#3280) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  12. 128. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: BOAT LANDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    128. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: BOAT LANDING DETAILS Sheet 9 of 11 (#3282) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  13. 122. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    122. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF EXTENSION TO PIER Sheet 4 of 11 (#3276) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  14. 127. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: FRAMING DETAILS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    127. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: FRAMING DETAILS Sheet 8 of 11 (#3281) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  15. 110. PLAN AND ELEVATION OF HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: PIER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    110. PLAN AND ELEVATION OF HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: PIER APPROACH TO MID-SECTION Sheet 1 of 9 (#3252) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  16. 120. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    120. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF EXISTING PIER Sheet 2 of 11 (#3274) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  17. 125. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: MODIFIED RAMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    125. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: MODIFIED RAMP DETAILS Sheet 6A of 11 (#3279) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  18. 129. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DIAGRAM. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    129. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DIAGRAM. Sheet lO of 11 (#3283) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  19. 124. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: RAMP DETAILS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    124. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: RAMP DETAILS Sheet 6 of 11 (#3278) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  20. 130. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DETAILS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    130. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DETAILS. Sheet 11 of 11 (#3284) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  1. 45. VIEW OF STAIRWAY UP FROM BEACH TO PIER APPROACH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. VIEW OF STAIRWAY UP FROM BEACH TO PIER APPROACH, NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  2. 111. PLAN AND ELEVATION OF HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: PIER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    111. PLAN AND ELEVATION OF HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: PIER MID-SECTION TO END Sheet 2 of 9 (#3253) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  3. 10. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH FROM BEACH; SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH FROM BEACH; SHOWING (LEFT-RIGHT) CAPTAIN'S GALLEY'S GALLEY TO END OF PIER - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  4. 104. VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER TAKEN FROM BEACH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    104. VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER TAKEN FROM BEACH, LOOKING SOUTH. BANDSHELL IS AT RIGHT Photograph #1574-HB. Photographer unknown, c. 1914 - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  5. 121. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    121. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF EXISTING PIER Sheet 3 of 11 (#3275) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  6. BEACH ROAD SHOWING THE LAWN WITH KIAWE TREES BETWEEN THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BEACH ROAD SHOWING THE LAWN WITH KIAWE TREES BETWEEN THE ROAD AND THE BEACH. BEACH ROAD IS 14' WIDE. VIEW FACING SOUTH. - Hickam Field, Fort Kamehameha Historic Housing, Along Worchester Avenue & Hope Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  7. 'Earhart' Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This false-color image taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows a rock informally named 'Earhart' on the lower slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' The rock was named after the pilot Amelia Earhart. Like 'Escher' and other rocks dotting the bottom of Endurance, scientists believe fractures in Earhart could have been formed by one of several processes. They may have been caused by the impact that created Endurance Crater, or they might have arisen when water leftover from the rock's formation dried up. A third possibility is that much later, after the rock was formed, and after the crater was created, the rock became wet once again, then dried up and developed cracks. Rover team members do not have plans to investigate Earhart in detail because it is located across potentially hazardous sandy terrain. This image was taken on sol 219 (Sept. 4) by the rover's panoramic camera, using its 750-, 530- and 430-nanometer filters.

  8. Rock flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matveyev, S. N.

    1986-01-01

    Rock flows are defined as forms of spontaneous mass movements, commonly found in mountainous countries, which have been studied very little. The article considers formations known as rock rivers, rock flows, boulder flows, boulder stria, gravel flows, rock seas, and rubble seas. It describes their genesis as seen from their morphological characteristics and presents a classification of these forms. This classification is based on the difference in the genesis of the rubbly matter and characterizes these forms of mass movement according to their source, drainage, and deposit areas.

  9. Geophysical Assessment of the Control of a Jetty on a Barrier Beach and Estuary System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, C.; Hubbard, S. S.; Peterson, J.; Blom, K.; Black, W.; Delaney, C.; Mendoza, J.

    2014-12-01

    An evaluation is underway at the Goat Rock State Park, located at the mouth of the Russian River near Jenner, CA, to quantify the influence of a man made jetty on the functioning of a barrier beach and associated implications for estuary fish habitat and flood control. Flow through the beach results from water level differences between the estuary and the ocean. When the estuary is closed or perched, one of the major sources of outflow from the lagoon is seepage flow through the barrier beach. The location and design of the jetty could be altering subsurface flow paths through the jetty and possibly impeding subsurface flow where the jetty is still intact. This will result in unnatural connectivity between the ocean and the estuary leading to atypical surface water elevations and possibly salinity imbalance. We are monitoring seepage through the jetty and beach berm with multiple surface and borehole geophysical methods, including: electrical resistivity (ERT), seismic refraction (SR), ground penetrating radar (GPR), and electromagnetic methods (EM). We use SR data to characterize deeper bedrock controls on beach barrier functioning; ERT and EM methods to characterize the beach sediment layers that could contribute to preferential flow paths during tide cycles in addition to preferential flow paths created by the jetty structure; time-lapse ERT and EM data to monitor moisture changes and mixing of saline and fresh water within the beach berm, and borehole ERT and GPR data to delineate the geometry of the (often buried) jetty. Preliminary ERT and EM results indicate two preferential flow paths through zones of missing jetty structure, while time-lapse borehole ERT data is expected to image saltwater flow impedance in zones of intact jetty structure. All data are being integrated with topography, tidal, borehole, and hydrological information and the results of the assessment will enable the Sonoma County Water Agency to develop the feasibility of alternatives to the

  10. Investigation of Stinson Beach Park storm damage and evaluation of alternative shore protection measures

    SciTech Connect

    Ecker, R.M.; Whelan, G.

    1984-07-01

    An investigation was made of storm damage during the winter of 1982-83 to the National Park Service's Stinson Beach Park. The investigation included an assessment of the storm damage, evaluation of physical processes contributing to the damage, subsequent beach recovery, and the feasibility of implementing shoreline protection measure to reduce future risk. During the winter of 1982-83, the beach was almost completely denuded of sand, wave overwash damaged the foredune, vegetation on the foredune was destroyed, and backshore flooding occurred. Two structures and a parking lot were endangered as the shoreline receded. Subsequent recovery of the park beach was rapid. By January 1982 sand had moved back onshore and a beach berm was beginning to reform. The foredune and dune vegetation received the only permanent damage. Four shoreline protection alternatives were evaluated. These include no action, dune development/enhancement, construction of a rock riprap revetment, and offshore installation of artificial seaweed. The first costs (estimated costs, excluding maintenance) range from about $90,000 to $475,000. The least-cost protection measure is riprap revetment, which protects the two structures and parking lot endangered during the 1982-83 winter storms. Construction of a foredune along the entire park beach is the highest cost protection measure. If no shore protection action measures are implemented, wave overwash of the foredune can be expected to occur on the average of every 2 to 3 years, and beach degradation, similar to that during the 1982-83 winter, can be expected to occur on the average of every 10 to 12 years. 12 references, 19 figures, 18 tables.

  11. Brain cholinesterase activity of nestling great egrets snowy egrets and black-crowned night-herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Ohlendorf, H.M.

    1989-01-01

    Inhibition of brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity in birds is often used to diagnose exposure or death from organophosphorus or carbamate pesticides. Brain ChE activity in the young of altricial species increases with age; however, this relationship has only been demonstrated in the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris). Brain ChE activity of nestling great egrets (Casmerodius albus) collected from a colony in Texas (USA) increased significantly with age and did not differ among individuals from different nests. Brain ChE activity of nestling snowy egrets (Egretta thula) and black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) collected in one colony each from Rhode Island, Texas and California (USA) also increased significantly with age and did not differ among individuals from different nests or colonies. This study further demonstrates that age must be considered when evaluating exposure of nestling altricial birds to ChE inhibitors.

  12. Brain cholinesterase activity of nestling great egrets, snowy egrets, and black-crowned night-herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Ohlendorf, H.M.

    1989-01-01

    Inhibition of brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity in birds is often used to diagnose exposure or death from organophosphorus or carbmate pesticides. Brain ChE activity in the young of altricial species increase with age; however, this relationship has only been demonstrated in the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris). Brain ChE activity of nestling great egrets (Casmerodius albus) collected from a colony in Texas increased significantly with age and did not differ among individuals from different nests. Brain ChE activity of nestling snowy egrets (Egretta thula) and black-crowned night -herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) collected in one colony each from Rhode Island, Texas, and California also increased significantly with age and did not differ among individuals from different nests or colonies. This study further demonstrates that age must be considered when evaluating exposure of nestling altricial birds to ChE inhibitors.

  13. Current impact of DDE on black-crowned night-herons in the intermountain west

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Blus, L.J.; Krynitsky, A.J.; Bunck, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    Organochlorine contamination was studied in 8 black-crowned night heron (N. nycticorax) populations nesting in Washington, Oregon and Nevada [USA] in 1978-1980. DDE was detected in 220 eggs sampled; eggshell thickness was negatively correlated with residues of DDE and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). Other contaminants were detected in .ltoreq. 35% of the eggs. Except for the 2 Columbia River colonies in which local DDE contamination was a probable compounding factor, a strong north-south clinal pattern of DDE residues among colonies existed. Southern colonies were most contaminated, and productivity was below population maintenance in 1 colony (Ruby Lake). At DDE levels in eggs > 8 ppm, clutch size and productivity decreased, and the incidence of cracked eggs increased. No evidence of breeding-ground DDE-DDT contamination was found except along the Columbia River.

  14. Population ecology of the great blue heron with special reference to western Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Bethers, M.R.

    1971-01-01

    Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias) begin nesting in western Oregon about 1 month earlier than reported from the Philadelphia region and about 2 months earlier than reported from Southern Alberta. The number of young fledged per nesting pair in Oregon was 2.04 in 1970 which was nearly identical to the 1.91 believed necessary to maintain a stable population in the northern United States. The level of p,p'DDE reported from two eggs in Oregon was within the same range as that reported from 40 eggs in Alberta. Although some thin-shelled eggs were being laid in Alberta, the observed production was believed sufficient for maintaining a stable population. Production rates reported from a heronry in central California suggested that the population there was also remaining fairly stable.

  15. Primary immunoglobulin response of herons to infection with Venezuelan encephalitis virus.

    PubMed

    Powers, C D; Dickerman, R W

    1975-02-01

    Seven to nine days after inoculation with a replicating antigen, Venezuelan encephalitis virus, hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies were present in plasma of 18 to 20 black-crowned night herons (BCNH), 14 of 15 great egrets (ge) , and 7 of 7 snowy egrets (SE). 19S (immunoglobulin M) precedes 7S (immunoglobulin G) antibodies in all but one bird of six GE, six SE, and six BCNH. 19S antibodies were detected for only 2 to 4 weeks post-inoculation. The induction period for both types of antibody was prolonged by 2 to 6 days as compared with earlier studies in gallinaceous birds using nonreplicating antigens. A marked delay in reaching peak titer of 7S antibodies was also observed. Hemagglutination inhibition tests were nearly as sensitive as neutralization tests for detecting 19S and early 7S antibodies. Size of virus inoculum did not measurably affect time of induction or titer of antibodies.

  16. Brain cholinesterase activity of nestling great egrets, snowy egrets and black-crowned night-herons.

    PubMed

    Custer, T W; Ohlendorf, H M

    1989-07-01

    inhibition of brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity in birds is often used to diagnose exposure or death from organophosphorus or carbamate pesticides. Brain ChE activity in the young of altricial species increases with age; however, this relationship has only been demonstrated in the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris). Brain ChE activity of nestling great egrets (Casmerodius albus) collected from a colony in Texas (USA) increased significantly with age and did not differ among individuals from different nests. Brain ChE activity of nestling snowy egrets (Egretta thula) and black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) collected in one colony each from Rhode Island, Texas and California (USA) also increased significantly with age and did not differ among individuals from different nests or colonies. This study further demonstrates that age must be considered when evaluating exposure of nestling altricial birds to ChE inhibitors.

  17. Primary immunoglobulin response of herons to infection with Venezuelan encephalitis virus.

    PubMed Central

    Powers, C D; Dickerman, R W

    1975-01-01

    Seven to nine days after inoculation with a replicating antigen, Venezuelan encephalitis virus, hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies were present in plasma of 18 to 20 black-crowned night herons (BCNH), 14 of 15 great egrets (ge) , and 7 of 7 snowy egrets (SE). 19S (immunoglobulin M) precedes 7S (immunoglobulin G) antibodies in all but one bird of six GE, six SE, and six BCNH. 19S antibodies were detected for only 2 to 4 weeks post-inoculation. The induction period for both types of antibody was prolonged by 2 to 6 days as compared with earlier studies in gallinaceous birds using nonreplicating antigens. A marked delay in reaching peak titer of 7S antibodies was also observed. Hemagglutination inhibition tests were nearly as sensitive as neutralization tests for detecting 19S and early 7S antibodies. Size of virus inoculum did not measurably affect time of induction or titer of antibodies. PMID:1112617

  18. Transfer and accumulation of organochlorines from black-crowned night-heron eggs to chicks

    SciTech Connect

    Custer, T.W.; Custer, C.M.

    1995-03-01

    Eggs and sibling 1-, 3-, and 5-d-old chicks from seven black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) broods were collected from Green Bay, Wisconsin, and analyzed for organochlorines. The concentration of nine organochlorines either decreased or remained the same as the chicks grew older. In contrast, the total mass of these nine organochlorines increased or remained the same as the chicks grew older. Accumulation rates of mass between egg and 5-d-old chicks for each of the nine organochlorines were positive and varied from 0.2 {mu}g/d (p,p{prime}-DDT) to 42 {mu}g/d (PCBs). These results suggest that the loss of contaminant mass from eggs to chicks reported in some earlier studies was because the entire carcass was not analyzed. These results also support the use of contaminant accumulation rates as an indicator of local contamination.

  19. Notification: Review of Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act (BEACH Act) Grants for Beach Monitoring and Public Notification

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Project #OPE-FY15-0056, July 14, 2015. The Office of Inspector General (OIG) for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) plans to begin research on Office of Water grants for beach monitoring and public notification under the BEACH Act.

  20. Coral reef origins of atmospheric dimethylsulfide at Heron Island, southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swan, Hilton B.; Jones, Graham B.; Deschaseaux, Elisabeth S. M.; Eyre, Bradley D.

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric dimethylsulfide (DMSa), continually derived from the world's oceans, is a feed gas for the tropospheric production of new sulfate particles, leading to cloud condensation nuclei that influence the formation and properties of marine clouds and ultimately the Earth's radiation budget. Previous studies on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia, have indicated coral reefs are significant sessile sources of DMSa capable of enhancing the tropospheric DMSa burden mainly derived from phytoplankton in the surface ocean; however, specific environmental evidence of coral reef DMS emissions and their characteristics is lacking. By using on-site automated continuous analysis of DMSa and meteorological parameters at Heron Island in the southern GBR, we show that the coral reef was the source of occasional spikes of DMSa identified above the oceanic DMSa background signal. In most instances, these DMSa spikes were detected at low tide under low wind speeds, indicating they originated from the lagoonal platform reef surrounding the island, although evidence of longer-range transport of DMSa from a 70 km stretch of coral reefs in the southern GBR was also observed. The most intense DMSa spike occurred in the winter dry season at low tide when convective precipitation fell onto the aerially exposed platform reef. This co-occurrence of events appeared to biologically shock the coral resulting in a seasonally aberrant extreme DMSa spike concentration of 45.9 nmol m-3 (1122 ppt). Seasonal DMS emission fluxes for the 2012 wet season and 2013 dry season campaigns at Heron Island were 5.0 and 1.4 µmol m-2 day-1, respectively, of which the coral reef was estimated to contribute 4 % during the wet season and 14 % during the dry season to the dominant oceanic flux.

  1. Fluoride accumulation and bone strength in wild black-crowned night-herons.

    PubMed

    Henny, C J; Burke, P M

    1990-01-01

    Fluoride was measured in femurs of black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) living adjacent to a phosphate processing complex near Pocatello, Idaho. Fluoride (ash wt.) in femurs ranged from 540 micrograms/g to 11,000 micrograms/g and increased (P = 0.0001) with age, but with no difference (P = 0.80) between sexes. Adult males (greater than or equal to 4 years) contained 5,409 micrograms/g compared to 6,042 micrograms/g for adult females. The tibiotarsus (= tibiae in text) increased in diameter with age (P = 0.015) in this study; fluoride was nearly related (P = 0.065) to the increase. As the diameter increased with age, wall thickness decreased (P = 0.011) suggesting excessive internal bone resorption, but fluoride concentrations were not implicated in the relationship (p = 0.64). The apparent increase in diameter and decrease in wall thickness may have partially neutralized each other's effects on strength. Although significantly higher concentrations of fluoride were present in adults than in Third Year herons, no significant change in bone strength (maximum load or modulus of rupture) was detected between the two age classes, but three of the four comparisons showed adults with less strength (i.e., a hint of diminished strength with age). The tibiae of Hatch Year birds were significantly weaker than documented in older age classes, but incomplete growth was thought responsible. The strong relationship between age and fluoride concentrations reduced our ability to separate a "fluoride effect" from an "age effect." Other authors believed fluoride was responsible for an increase in bone diameter and the fluoride residues encountered in adults were within the range indicative of poisoning in cattle.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Relative patterns and rates of evolution in heron nuclear and mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, F H; Jones, C E; McCracken, K G

    2000-03-01

    Mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence data from 15 species of herons (Aves: Ardeidae), representing 13 genera, were compared with DNA hybridization data of single-copy nuclear DNA (scnDNA) from the same species in a taxonomic congruence assessment of heron phylogeny. The two data sets produced a partially resolved, completely congruent estimate of phylogeny with the following basic structure: (Tigrisoma, Cochlearius, (((Zebrilus, (Ixobrychus, Botaurus)), (((Ardea, Casmerodius), Bubulcus), ((Egretta thula, Egretta caerulea, Egretta tricolor), Syrigma), Butorides, Nycticorax, Nyctanassa)))). Because congruence indicated similar phylogenetic information in the two data sets, we used the relatively unsaturated DNA hybridization distances as surrogates of time to examine graphically the patterns and rates of change in cytochrome b distances. Cytochrome b distances were computed either from whole sequences or from partitioned sequences consisting of transitions, transversions, specific codon site positions, or specific protein-coding regions. These graphical comparisons indicated that unpartitioned cytochrome b has evolved at 5-10 times the rate of scnDNA. Third-position transversions appeared to offer the most useful sequence partition for phylogenetic analysis because of their relatively fast rate of substitution (two times that of scnDNA) and negligible saturation. We also examined lineage-based rates of evolution by comparing branch length patterns between the nuclear and cytochrome b trees. The degree of correlation in corresponding branch lengths between cytochrome b and DNA hybridization trees depended on DNA sequence partitioning. When cytochrome b sequences were not partitioned, branch lengths in the cytochrome b and DNA hybridization trees were not correlated. However, when cytochrome b sequences were reduced to third-position transversions (i.e., unsaturated, relatively fast changing data), branch lengths were correlated. This finding suggests that lineage

  3. Fluoride accumulation and bone strength in wild black-crowned night-herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Burke, P.M.

    1990-01-01

    Fluoride was measured in femurs of black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) living adjacent to a phosphate processing complex near Pocatello, Idaho. Fluoride (ash wt.) in femurs ranged from 540 micrograms/g to 11,000 micrograms/g and increased (P = 0.0001) with age, but with no difference (P = 0.80) between sexes. Adult males (greater than or equal to 4 years) contained 5,409 micrograms/g compared to 6,042 micrograms/g for adult females. The tibiotarsus (= tibiae in text) increased in diameter with age (P = 0.015) in this study; fluoride was nearly related (P = 0.065) to the increase. As the diameter increased with age, wall thickness decreased (P = 0.011) suggesting excessive internal bone resorption, but fluoride concentrations were not implicated in the relationship (p = 0.64). The apparent increase in diameter and decrease in wall thickness may have partially neutralized each other's effects on strength. Although significantly higher concentrations of fluoride were present in adults than in Third Year herons, no significant change in bone strength (maximum load or modulus of rupture) was detected between the two age classes, but three of the four comparisons showed adults with less strength (i.e., a hint of diminished strength with age). The tibiae of Hatch Year birds were significantly weaker than documented in older age classes, but incomplete growth was thought responsible. The strong relationship between age and fluoride concentrations reduced our ability to separate a 'fluoride effect' from an 'age effect.' Other authors believed fluoride was responsible for an increase in bone diameter and the fluoride residues encountered in adults were within the range indicative of poisoning in cattle.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Organochlorine contaminant exposure and effects in pipping black-crowned night-herons in Delaware Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Hoffman, D.J.; Melancon, M.J.; Olsen, G.H.; Parsons, K.C.; Schmidt, S.R.

    1998-01-01

    Pea Patch Island in Delaware Bay is the site of the largest heronry north of Florida. From 1989-93. the population of 9 species of wading birds numbered approximately 12,000 pairs. but has recently declined to 7,000 pairs. Because Delaware Bay is a major shipping channel. and receives anthropogenic releases of toxic substances from agricultural, industrial and municipal point and nonpoint sources, contaminant exposure and effects to the heronry have been an ongoing concern. In 1997, piping black-crowned night-herons (BCNHs) wee collected from separate nests at Pea Patch Island (N=l5), and from a coastal reference site, Middle Island (N=9), in Rehoboth Bay. DE. There was neither evidence of malformations nor hepatic histopathological lesions, and body and liver weights did not differ between sites. Biomarkers of petroleum hydrocarbons, polyhalogenated contaminant and metal exposure (cytochrome P450 induction and oxidative stress responses) did not differ (P>0.05) between sites, however, activities of benzyloxy- and ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase were greater in 3 of 15 embryos from Pea Patch Island compared to Middle Island. Concentrations of 21 organochlorine pesticides and metabolites were relatively low at both sites. with p,.p'DDE values well below the threshold associated with eggshell thinning. Although total PCB concentration was modestly elevated (P<0.05) in Pea Patch Island BCNH embryos, levels of axylhydrocarbon-receptor active PCB congeners. dioxins, dibenzofurans and Toxic Equivalents were low and did not differ between sites. Surprisingly, organochlorine contaminant exposure and effects in Delaware Bay BCNHs appear to be considerably less than that observed and recently reported (ETC 16:2315-2322,1997) for herons residing in the Chesapeake Bay.

  5. Organochlorine residues in eggs of black-crowned night-herons from Colorado and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McEwen, L.C.; Stafford, C.J.; Hensler, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    Eggs of black-crowned night-herons N. nycticorax were collected for analysis from 7 nesting sites in Colorado and Wyoming in 1979. One egg was taken/nest from as many as 20 nests/site during early incubation. The nests were marked and revisited after hatching, but before fledging, to record the number of live young. DDE was detected in all collected eggs (147) at a mean concentration of 3.1 ppm, fresh basis (residue means were geometric). Mean DDE at the 7 sites varied from 1.8-7.6 ppm. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were detected in 81 eggs (mean 1.0 ppm); the highest mean at any site was 2.2 ppm. Twelve other organochlorines were each detected in 1-30 eggs, usually at a concentration of lt 1.0 ppm. Mean total organochlorines in the eggs from the 7 sites ranged from 2.0-10.1 ppm and the median number of compounds/egg ranged from 1-5. Eggshell thickness was negatively correlated (P lt 0.001, r = -0.585) with DDE levels in the 147 eggs. Average shell thickness (0.258 +- 0.030 mm) was 8.8% lower than the average thickness (0.283 +- 0.016 mm) of 40 pre-DDT eggs from this region. The nesting sites with the highest DDE and total organochlorine residues in the eggs had the thinnest shells, produced the fewest young and had more nonviable eggs and dead young. At 4 of 7 sites, the average number of live young/nest was lt 2.0, the minimum long-term mean required for population maintenance. The source of the contaminants found in the heron eggs in this study was not determined.

  6. Documenting the global impacts of beach sand mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, R.; Griffith, A.

    2009-04-01

    significant rise in global sea level over the coming decades. Most governments recognize the local impacts of sand mining and mining activities are illegal in many localities. However, enforcement of these protections has been problematic and there has been little pressure to stop the practice from local or international environmental groups. In many cases, addressing the issue of sand mining requires addressing the local issues that allow it to persist. This includes poverty, corruption, and unregulated development. In areas where beach sand mining significantly supports the local economy, care needs to be given that local workers are given alternative means of income, and builders are provided an affordable substitute for the sand (e.g. crushed rock). Regardless, it is time for both academics and NGOs to address the cumulative environmental impacts of the direct destruction of the world's beaches through mining activities.

  7. Assessment of swimming associated health effects in marine bathing beach: an example from Morib beach (Malaysia).

    PubMed

    Praveena, Sarva Mangala; Pauzi, Norfasmawati Mohd; Hamdan, Munashamimi; Sham, Shaharuddin Mohd

    2015-03-15

    A survey among beachgoers was conducted to determine the swimming associated health effects experienced and its relationship with beach water exposure behaviour in Morib beach. For beach water exposure behaviour, the highest frequency of visit among the respondents was once a year (41.9%). For ways of water exposure, whole body exposure including head was the highest (38.5%). For duration of water exposure, 30.8% respondents prefer to be in water for about 30 min with low possibilities of accidental ingestion of beach water. A total of 30.8% of beachgoers in Morib beach were reported of having dermal symptoms. Bivariate analysis showed only water activity, water contact and accidental ingestion of beach water showed significant association with swimming associated health effects experienced by swimmers. This study output showed that epidemiological study can be used to identify swimming associated health effects in beach water exposed to faecal contamination.

  8. Fossilization of nanobes studied by transmission electron microscopy and constraints related to their population - recent and late quaternary reefbanks (San Salvador Island, the Bahamas; Heron Island, Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hladil, J.; Gemperle, A.; Carew, J. L.; Bosak, P.; Slavik, L.; Pruner, P.; Charvatova, K.; Mylroie, J. E.; Jell, J. S.

    2003-04-01

    boundaries. The X-ray diffraction data suggest that calcite prevails. The massive nanobe population corresponds to early stages of emergence of banks (according to diagenetic and microbial successions). The short-term nanobe bloom had to be concurrent with early fungal growth in corroded rock micropores. However, the residual nanobe populations survived a die off of the early bloom of nannobes and are still alive (˜ 3 × 103 /{mm3}). A small number of nanobes are spread by endolithic cyanobacteria even in situations, that are not favorable for expansion of nanobe populations (examples from the Heron Island, Australia). / Project A3013209 "Weathering products".

  9. PREDICTING BACTERIAL CONCENTRATION ON THE NATION'S BEACHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A classical example of the failure of institutions and environmental technology to protect the nation's aesthetic, recreational, and public health values is represented by the July-August, 1999 Huntington Beach, California beach closure. This multi-million dollar regional public ...

  10. A Study of Sandy Beach Zonation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Steve K.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the study of sandy beach zonations as a seashore activity for either high school or lower-level college courses in biology, ecology, or marine biology. Students first draw a profile of a beach scene and then collect specimens from the zones of the shore. In a laboratory, students identify their specimens and relate them to the beach…

  11. PREDICTING BACTERIAL CONCENTRATION ON THE NATION'S BEACHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A classical example of the failure of institutions and environmental technology to protect the nation's aesthetic, recreational, and public health values is represented by the July-August, 1999 Huntington Beach, California beach closure. This multi-million dollar regional public ...

  12. A Study of Sandy Beach Zonation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Steve K.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the study of sandy beach zonations as a seashore activity for either high school or lower-level college courses in biology, ecology, or marine biology. Students first draw a profile of a beach scene and then collect specimens from the zones of the shore. In a laboratory, students identify their specimens and relate them to the beach…

  13. Long Beach's Pivotal Turn around RTI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Judy

    2008-01-01

    This article briefly describes the tiered approach to intervention adopted by the Long Beach Unified School District. Long Beach Unified School District is the state's third largest urban school district with more than 90,000 students, 84 percent of whom are minority and 68 percent of whom qualify for free and reduced price lunch, and where over…

  14. Heavy metal concentrations in great blue heron fecal castings in Washington State: A technique for monitoring regional and global trends in environmental contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzner, R.E.; Gray, G.H.; Hinds, W.T.

    1995-09-01

    Growing concern over the world`s environment necessitates development of methods to monitor environmental changes over time. Various proposals involving {open_quotes}literally{close_quotes} thousands of useful ecological indicators have been published over the past two or three decades, including the theoretical foundations for the use of indicators in ecosystem-based monitoring. Sampling of animals often requires a choice between killing individuals in the field to allow measurement, or using a non-destructive sampling technique. Sampling of feathers to determine metal concentrations in tropical Pacific Rim birds, including herons, was reported by Burger, Burger and Gochfeld, and Burger et al. While collection of feathers did not harm the birds, the feathers still had to be plucked from the birds. We report a method that does not involve disturbing the birds. Great blue herons (Ardea herodius) feed at the top of a diverse but reasonably well understood food web. The birds are colonial during their reproductive season, and gather into identifiable, replicable, and annually repeated groups, using the same nests (usually in trees) for years at a time. Herons maintain nests free of regurgitated prey parts and nestling fecal materials by discarding detritus and fecal sacs over the nest edge. This behavior produces a {open_quotes}rain{close_quotes} of fecal matter including identifiable discarded or undigested items (e.g., bones) that reflect the food on which herons prey. Collecting this material provides a quantifiable estimate of contaminants in the food web and makes the heron a prime sampling target. We discuss here the results of a two-year study designed to determine the relationship between heavy metal residues in heron fecal castings and those in heron tissues from the same colonies. We also evaluated whether analysis of heron excrement was a reliable indication of heavy metals in the environment. 12 refs., 2 tabs.

  15. Effects of beach cast cleaning on beach quality, microbial food web, and littoral macrofaunal biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malm, Torleif; Råberg, Sonja; Fell, Sabine; Carlsson, Per

    2004-06-01

    At the end of the summer, drifting filamentous red algae cover shallow bottoms and accumulate in huge cast walls on the open shores of the non-tidal central Baltic Sea. The hypotheses that beach cleaning increases water clarity, decreases the organic content of the sand, and increases the species diversity in the shallow zone closest to the shore, were tested through field investigations and experiments. Cleaned shorelines were compared with un-cleaned shorelines at two sites with different intensity of beach cleaning in a rural area of SE Sweden. The results show that water clarity was significantly increased off the intensively cleaned beach but not off the moderately cleaned one. Similarly, the total leakage of nitrogenous compounds decreased off the intensively cleaned beach, but not off the moderately cleaned. The organic content of the sand was lower on both cleaned beaches compared with nearby un-cleaned beaches. The total animal biomass was significantly lower on the intensively cleaned beach compared with the un-cleaned beach, but the moderately cleaned beach gave no such effect. The difference in biodiversity and community structure between cleaned and un-cleaned beaches was insignificant. The most obvious difference in species composition was a much higher number of planktivore opossum shrimps of the genus Mysis and Praunus on the un-cleaned beaches. The bacterial production and the amount of ciliates larger than 20 mm were also higher on un-cleaned beaches, indicating that the microbial food web off the un-cleaned beaches is stimulated by the discharge of decomposing algal material. The conclusion of the study is that mechanical cleaning reduces the organic content of the beach sand and may change the water quality and microbial production, but the effect on the macrofaunal biodiversity is insignificant.

  16. Sargent Beach, Texas: A Study of Logistical Constructability Issues on a Large Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    Falls, Texas ). There are numerous quarries which produce granite from a Precambrian formation of rocks known as the Llano Uplift . Stone from this...REPRODUCE LEGIBLY ON BLACK AND WHITE MICROFICHE. SARGENT BEACH, TEXAS : A STUDY OF LOGISTICAL CONSTRUCTABILITY ISSUES ON A LARGE PROJECT Accesion For NTIS...Finally, I would like to thank my family for the support they have provided me throughout my attendance at the University of Texas and my entire

  17. Dynamics of Shengjini beach (Albania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gashi, Ferim; Nikolli, Pal

    2015-04-01

    Dynamics of Shengjini beach (Albania) Pal Nikolli , Ferim GASHI Through archaeological and historical data, presentations of ancient topographic, cartographic materials (topographic maps obtained at different periods from 1870 to 1990), aerial photographs (2007), satellite images (2014) and direct measurements, paper defines and analyzes the position of the coastline of Shengjini beach (Lezha) from century XVI until today. The coastline of the Shengjini city (port) to Drin River estuary is oriented north-south direction and is approximately 10.5 km long. This part of the coast is sandy and sediment comes mainly from the River Drin and distributed by currents along the coast. In this paper are make provision for the position of the coastline in the future and analyzed the possibilities of human intervention in the coastal environment , etc. This work forms the basis for the issuance of necessary data required for various projections at the coastal environment Shëngjini. Results of this study will have a significant impact on state policies for integrated management of the coastal zone in the study and development of tourism. Key words: GIS, Remonte Sennsing, cartography, management of coastal zone, tourism, environment.

  18. Art Rocks with Rock Art!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickett, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses rock art which was the very first "art." Rock art, such as the images created on the stone surfaces of the caves of Lascaux and Altimira, is the true origin of the canvas, paintbrush, and painting media. For there, within caverns deep in the earth, the first artists mixed animal fat, urine, and saliva with powdered minerals…

  19. Art Rocks with Rock Art!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickett, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses rock art which was the very first "art." Rock art, such as the images created on the stone surfaces of the caves of Lascaux and Altimira, is the true origin of the canvas, paintbrush, and painting media. For there, within caverns deep in the earth, the first artists mixed animal fat, urine, and saliva with powdered minerals…

  20. Natural radioactivity distribution and gamma radiation exposure of beach sands close to Kavala pluton, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Argyrios; Koroneos, Antonios; Christofides, Georgios; Stoulos, Stylianos

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to evaluate the activity concentrations of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th, 228Th and 40K along the beaches of Kavala being adjacent to the rock-types of the Kavala pluton. These ranged from 14-940, 16-1710, 26- 4547, 27-4488 and 194-1307 Bq/kg respectively, representing the highest values of natural radioactivity measured in sediments of Greece. The (%wt.) heavy magnetic (HM) (allanite, amphibole, mica, clinopyroxene, magnetite and hematite) fraction, the heavy non-magnetic (HNM) (monazite, zircon, titanite and apatite) fraction and the total heavy fraction (TH), were correlated with the concentrations of the measured radionuclides in the bulk samples. The heavy fractions seem to control the activity concentrations of 238U and 232Th of all the samples, showing some local differences in the main 238U and 232Th mineral carrier. The measured radionuclides in the beach sands were normalized to the respective values measured in the granitic rocks, which are their most probable parental rocks, so as to provide data upon their enrichment or depletion. The annual equivalent dose varies between 0.01 and 0.35 mSv y-1 for tourists and from 0.03 to 1.48 mSv y-1 for local people working on the beach.

  1. Terby's Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    27 January 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows some of the light-toned, layered, sedimentary rock outcrops in northern Terby Crater. Terby is located along the north edge of Hellas Planitia. The sedimentary rocks might have been deposited in a greater, Hellas-filling sea -- or not. Today, the rocks are partly covered by dark-toned sediment and debris.

    Location near: 27.2oS, 285.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  2. Opportunity Rocks!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This high-resolution image captured by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera shows in superb detail a portion of the puzzling rock outcropping that scientists are eagerly planning to investigate. Presently, Opportunity is on its lander facing northeast; the outcropping lies to the northwest. These layered rocks measure only 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall and are thought to be either volcanic ash deposits or sediments carried by water or wind. The small rock in the center is about the size of a golf ball.

  3. Observations of indirect filial cannibalism in response to nest failure of Black-crowned Night-Herons (Nycticorax nycticorax)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brussee, Brianne E.; Coates, Peter S.; Dwight, Ian; Young, Laura G.

    2017-01-01

    During 2011, four separate instances of indirect filial cannibalism, whereby adults consumed their young that died from unknown causes, were observed using video-monitoring techniques in a nesting colony of Black-crowned Night-Herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) on Alcatraz Island. Though they were not observed actively killing their young, in all four observations adult Black-crowned Night-Herons consumed their young following death (i.e., indirect filial cannibalism). We could not determine cause of chick mortality, but parental neglect was likely a contributing factor in at least two instances. Indirect filial cannibalism is not commonly documented among birds, and understanding how cannibalism contributes to nest failure can help researchers better understand factors that limit nesting populations.

  4. Perfluorinated compounds and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in great blue heron eggs from Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Kannan, K.; Tao, L.; Saxena, A.R.; Route, B.

    2009-01-01

    In 2007 archived great blue heron (Ardea herodias) eggs collected from Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, IN, (Indiana Dunes) in 1993 were analyzed for 11 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and 7 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate, the major contributor to total PFC concentrations, were below the toxicity thresholds estimated for bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), but within the toxicity threshold estimated for white leghorn chickens (Gallus domesticus). The ranking of PBDE congener concentrations by percent concentration (PBDE-47 > -99 > -100 > -153 > -154 > -28 > -183) was consistent with the Penta-PBDE formulation. Total PBDE concentrations in great blue heron eggs from Indiana Dunes were elevated and probably reflect local contamination from highly urbanized and industrialized inputs into Lake Michigan. Polybrominated diphenyl ether concentrations were within levels associated with altered reproductive behavior in other avian species and based on trends in other Great Lakes birds are probably higher today.

  5. The cercaria of Galactosomum bearupi Pearson, 1973 (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) at Heron and Masthead Islands, Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    PubMed

    Beuret, J; Scott, D A; Pearson, J C

    2000-05-01

    Magnacercous cercariae, all morphologically identical but with different coloured tails, were found naturally infecting the intertidal prosobranch gastropod Clypeomorus batillariaeformis Habe & Kosuge (Cerithiidae) at Heron and Masthead Islands. Several species of coral-dwelling fishes were exposed to magnacercous cercariae. Active ingestion by the fish, followed by the complete development of the metacercaria in the optic lobes, occurred in Pomacentrus molluccensis Bleeker, but not in Dascyllus aruanus (L.), where development stopped short after encystment. All cercariae turned out to belong to the same species, Galactosomum bearupi Pearson, 1973. Natural infections of G. bearupi metacercariae were found in eight species of fish at Heron Island: Pomacentrus molluccensis, P. wardi Whitley, P. bankanensis Bleeker, P. flavicauda Whitley, Stegastes cf. fasciolatus (Ogilby), Sillago maculata Quoy & Gaimard, S. cf. ciliata Cuvier and Crenimugil crenilabris (Forsskål). This represents the fourth account of the cercaria of a species of Galactosomum.

  6. The observed relationship between wave conditions and beach response, Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, J.E.; Barnard, P.L.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding how sandy beaches respond to storms is critical for effective sediment management and developing successful erosion mitigation efforts. However, only limited progress has been made in relating observed beach changes to wave conditions, with one of the major limiting factors being the lack of temporally dense beach topography and nearshore wave data in most studies. This study uses temporally dense beach topographic and offshore wave data to directly link beach response and wave forcing with generally good results. Ocean Beach is an open coast high-energy sandy beach located in San Francisco, CA, USA. From April 2004 through the end of 2008, 60 three-dimensional topographic beach surveys were conducted on approximately a monthly basis, with more frequent “short-term surveys during the winters of 2005-06 and 2006-07. Shoreline position data from the short-term surveys show good correlation with offshore wave height, period, and direction averaged over several days prior to the survey (mean R*=0.54 for entire beach). There is, however, considerable alongshore variation in model performance, with R- values ranging from 0.81 to 0.19 for individual sections of the beach. After wave height, the direction of wave approach was the most important factor in determining the response of the shoreline, followed by wave period. Our results indicate that an empirical predictive model of beach response to wave conditions at Ocean Beach is possible with frequent beach mapping and wave data, and that such a model could be useful to coastal managers. 

  7. Horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) reproductive activity on Delaware Bay beaches: Interactions with beach characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.R.; Pooler, P.S.; Loveland, R.E.; Botton, M.L.; Michels, S.F.; Weber, R.G.; Carter, Daniel B.

    2002-01-01

    We used results from a survey of horseshoe crab reproductive activity that was conducted in 1999 throughout Delaware Bay to examine the relationship between estimates of spawning females and egg deposition and analyze how that relationship varies with geography, time within a spawning season, beach morphology, and wave energy. We found that beach morphology and wave energy interacted with density of spawning females to explain variation in the density and distribution of eggs and larvae. For example, the quantity of eggs in surface sediment (i.e., eggs that are potentially available to foraging shorebirds) was associated with the density of spawning females, beach morphology, and wave energy. The association between beach morphology and live eggs in surface sediment was strong especially in late May (Percent Reduction in Error = 86% from regression tree model) where egg density was an order of magnitude higher on beaches <15 m wide (3.38*105 m-2; 90% CI: 2.29*105, 4.47*105) compared to wider beaches (1.49*104 m-2; 90% CI: 4.47*103, 2.53*104). Results also indicate that, among bay-front beaches, horseshoe crabs prefer to spawn on narrow beaches, possibly because of reduced wave energy. At peak periods of spawning activity, density of spawning females was inversely related to foreshore width on mid-latitude beaches within Delaware Bay (t = -2.68, 7 df, p = 0.03). Because the distribution of eggs across the foreshore varied with beach morphology and widened as the spawning season progressed, methods used to sample eggs need to be robust to variation in beach morphology and applicable regardless of when the samples are taken. Because beach morphology and wave energy were associated with the quantity of eggs in surface sediment, certain beach types may be critical to the conservation of shorebird foraging habitat.

  8. Evaluation of an extendable pole-net to collect heron eggs in the canopy of tall trees

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hines, R.K.; Custer, T.W.

    1995-01-01

    A pole, extendable from 2 to 8 m, with a nylon-mesh collecting net, was used to retrieve eggs from nests of Great Blue Herons (Ardea herodias) in the canopy of floodplain forests. A total of 200 eggs was collected for contaminant analysis from ten colonies along the upper Mississippi River during the spring of 1993. Low egg breakage (1%) and acceptable survival of embryos in an incubator to pipping (55%) indicated that the device was useful.

  9. Evaluation of an extendable pole-net to collect heron eggs in the canopy of tall trees

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hines, R.K.; Custer, T.W.

    1995-01-01

    A pole, extendable from 2 to 8 m, with a nylon-mesh collecting net, was used to retrieve eggs from nests of Great Blue Herons (Ardea herodias) in the canopy of floodplain forests. A total of 200 eggs was collected for contaminant analysis from ten colonies along the upper Mississippi River during the spring of 1993. Low egg breakage (1%) and acceptable survival of embryos in an incubator to pipping (55%) indicated that the device was useful.

  10. Are the toxic sediments deposited at Flix reservoir affecting the Ebro river biota? Purple heron eggs and nestlings as indicators.

    PubMed

    Cotín, Javier; García-Tarrasón, Manuel; Jover, Lluis; Sanpera, Carolina

    2012-07-01

    The Flix reservoir, in the low course of the Ebro River, contains thousands of tons of polluted sediments, accumulated from the activities of a chemical factory. An ongoing project is working toward removing these pollutants. Piscivore birds like the purple heron (Ardea purpurea) may be useful bioindicators, so eggs and nestling feathers were sampled during the 2006-2008 breeding seasons at three localities: a reference site situated upstream and two potentially affected by the toxic muds; one at the focal area and one at a distal area, the Ebro Delta. The samples were analyzed for isotopic signatures of ¹⁵N and ¹³C and concentrations of heavy metals and selenium. Baseline nitrogen signatures were higher in riverine sites than in the delta. Nitrogen together with carbon signatures adequately discriminated riverine and deltaic ecosystems. Mercury levels are highly influenced by the polluted sediments at Flix and pose potential risks for the birds, as they are among the highest ever recorded in heron species. Selenium and copper concentrations probably derive from other sources. Except for mercury, heavy metals and selenium levels were below toxic levels. Purple heron eggs and nestling feathers have demonstrated their usefulness as bioindicators for pollution in the river biota; feathers in particular show pollutant impacts on a strict local basis. A long series of study years is necessary in dynamic ecosystems such as this, so continued monitoring of the heron population at Flix is advisable to trace the effects of the toxic muds, particularly during their removal, because of the high levels of mercury detected.

  11. White Rock

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-05-21

    White Rock is the unofficial name for this unusual landform which was first observed during NASA Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970 and is now shown here in an image from NASA Mars Odyssey spacecraft.

  12. Rock Garden

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This false color composite image of the Rock Garden shows the rocks 'Shark' and 'Half Dome' at upper left and middle, respectively. Between these two large rocks is a smaller rock (about 0.20 m wide, 0.10 m high, and 6.33 m from the Lander) that was observed close-up with the Sojourner rover (see PIA00989).

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  13. 75 FR 1373 - Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... AGENCY Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... Water Act (CWA) as amended by the Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health (BEACH) Act... Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health (BEACH) Act of 2000 amends the Clean Water Act to better protect...

  14. 75 FR 82382 - Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... AGENCY Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... Water Act (CWA) as amended by the Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health (BEACH) Act... Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health (BEACH) Act of 2000 amends the Clean Water Act to better protect...

  15. Beach Advisory and Closing Online Notification (BEACON) system

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Beach Advisory and Closing Online Notification system (BEACON) is a colletion of state and local data reported to EPA about beach closings and advisories. BEACON is the public-facing query of the Program tracking, Beach Advisories, Water quality standards, and Nutrients database (PRAWN) which tracks beach closing and advisory information.

  16. Cytochrome P450 and contaminant concentrations in nestling black-crowned night-herons and their interrelation with sibling embryos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, Barnett A.; Melancon, Mark J.; Custer, Thomas W.; Hothem, Roger L.

    1996-01-01

    Hepatic cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenase activities were measured in 11-d-old nestling black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) collected from a reference site (next to Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge, VA, USA) and three contaminated sites (Cat Island, Green Bay, WI, USA; Bair Island, San Francisco Bay, CA, USA; and West Marin Island, San Francisco Bay, CA, USA). Arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase and benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylase activities of nestlings from contaminated sites were only slightly elevated (less than threefold) compared with the reference site. Organochlorine pesticide and total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in nestlings were greatest at contaminated sites, although much lower than found in concurrently collected eggs and pipping embryos. Pollutant concentrations of nestlings were rarely associated with monooxygenase activity. In contrast, concurrently collected pipping heron embryos (often siblings of the nestlings) exhibited pronounced monooxygenase induction (means at contaminated sites were elevated up to sevenfold and values of some embryos exceeded 25-fold induction). Furthermore, monooxygenase activity of pipping embryos was significantly correlated with total PCBs, arylhydrocarbon receptor-active PCB congeners, and toxic equivalents. The modest monooxygenase responses of heron nestlings suggest that this biomarker may have only limited value during this rapid-growth life stage.

  17. Biomarkers of contaminant exposure in common terns and black-crowned night herons in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Smith, G.J.; Rattner, B.A.

    1993-01-01

    Morphological and biochemical indexes of contaminant exposure were examined in hatching common terns (Sterna hirundo) and black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) from industrialized and non-industrialized locations in the Great Lakes. In 1984, naturally incubated, pipping common tern and black-crowned night heron embryos collected from industrialized locations exhibited smaller femur-length-to-body-weight ratios, elevated hepatic microsomal aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activities, and lower hepatic DNA concentrations (P lt 0.05). In addition, a high incidence of subcutaneous edema was noted in pipping herons (P lt 0.01). In 1985, reduced hatching success was observed for laboratory-incubated common tern eggs collected from the industrialized sites, compared to non-industrialized sites (P lt 0.01). Day-old hatchlings exhibited reduced femur-length-to-body-weight ratio, developmental anomalies, and elevated hepatic AHH activity (P lt 0.05). For hatching common terns studied in 1984 and 1985, femur-length-to-body-weight ratio was inversely related to AHH activity (r = -0.67, P ltoreq 0.05) and inversely related to log-transformed PCB concentrations (r = -0.70, P ltoreq 0.05) of unincubated eggs from the same colony. The activity of AHH in hatching terns was also directly related (r = 0.71, P ltoreq 0.05) to log-transformed PCB concentrations in unincubated eggs. Other examined contaminants, including DDE, other organochlorine pesticides, and mercury, were not directly related to these effects.

  18. Determination of hatching date for eggs of black-crowned night-herons, snowy egrets and great egrets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Pendleton, G.W.; Roach, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    Flotation of eggs in water and specific gravity of eggs of Black-crowned Night-Herons (Nycticorax nycticorax), Snowy Egrets (Egretta thula) and Great Egrets (Casmerodius albus) were evaluated as methods to determine date of hatching. Length of incubation and duration of hatching period were also documented for each species. Although species gravity was a better predictor of hatching date than egg flotation, both techniques were imprecise. The regression between specific gravity and the number of days before hatching differed among clutches, but not among eggs within clutches. Specific gravity of eggs predicted hatching data only to within 3.8 d for Snowy Egrets, adn 4.7 d for Black-crowned Night-Herons and Great Egrets. The mean incubation period was 27.3 d for Great Egrets, 23.7 d for Snowy Egrets and 22.8 d for Black-crowned Night-Herons. For all three species, the A egg (first egg laid) had a longer incubation period than the B or C egg. For all three species, the number of days between hatching of A and B eggs was significantly less (median - 1 d) than between hatching of B and C eggs (median = 2 d).

  19. Biomarkers of contaminant exposure in common terns and black-crowned night herons in the Great Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.J.; Smith, G.J.; Rattner, B.A. . Patuzent Wildlife Research Center)

    1993-06-01

    Morphological and biochemical indexes of contaminant exposure were examined in hatching common terns (Sterna hirundo) and black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) from industrialized and nonindustrialized locations in the Great Lakes. In 1984, naturally incubated, pipping common tern and black-crowned night heron embryos collected from industrialized locations exhibited smaller femur-length-to-body-weight ratios, elevated hepatic microsomal aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activities, and lower hepatic DNA concentrations. In addition, a high incidence of subcutaneous edema was noted in pipping herons. In 1985, reduced hatching success was observed for laboratory-incubated common tern eggs collected from the industrialized sites, compared to nonindustrialized sites. Day-old hatchlings exhibited reduced femur-length-to-body-weight ratio, developmental anomalies, and elevated hepatic AHH activity. For hatching common terns studied in 1984 and 1985, femur-length-to-body-weight ratio was inversely related to AHH activity and inversely related to log-transformed PCB concentrations of unincubated eggs from the same colony. The activity of AHH in hatching terns was also directly related to log-transformed PCB concentrations in unincubated eggs. Other examined contaminants, including DDE, other organochlorine pesticides, and mercury, were not directly related to these effects.

  20. Reproduction, mortality, and heavy metal concentrations in great blue herons from three colonies in Washington and Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Henny, C.J.; Anderson, A.; Fitzner, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    We collected eggs in nests, hatchlings and eggs with advanced embryos on the ground, and prefledgling young of Great Blue Herons (Ardea herodias) at three nesting colonies in Washington and Idaho. Intact fish were also collected on the ground at the Idaho colony. The Ft. Lewis colony near Puget Sound in Washington and the Lake Chatcolet colony in northern Idaho were located near areas extensively polluted with heavy metals from minning or smelting activities. The Hanford Reservation colony near Richland, Washington was located some distance from point sources of heavy metal pollution. Heavy metals in heron samples were generally low and were all below concentrations known to induce mortality or adversely affect reproductive success. The elevated copper in one of three prefledglings from Ft. Lewis paralleled that found in an occasional nestling of several species of birds in other studies; the significance of this relationship is unclear. Breeding herons apparently fed near their colonies in areas removed from the sites of heaviest contamination, but birds in the Lake Chatcolet colony were preying on fish containing as much as 6 mu-g/g lead.

  1. Cytochrome P450 and contaminant concentrations in nestling black-crowned night-herons and their interrelation with sibling embryos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Melancon, M.J.; Custer, T.W.; Hothem, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    Hepatic cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenase activities were measured in 11-day-old nestling black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) collected from a reference site (next to Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge, VA) and three contaminated sites (Cat Island, Green Bay, WI; Bair Island, San Francisco Bay, CA; West Marin Island, San Francisco Bay, CA). Arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) and benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (BROD) activities of nestlings from contaminated sites were only slightly elevated (less than threefold) compared to the reference site. Organochlorine pesticide and total PCB concentrations in nestlings were greatest at contaminated sites, although much lower than found in concurrently collected eggs and pipping embryos. Pollutant concentrations of nestlings were rarely associated with monooxygenase activity. In contrast, concurrently collected pipping heron embryos (often siblings of the nestlings) exhibited pronounced monooxygenase induction (means at contaminated sites elevated up to sevenfold and values of some embryos exceeded 25-fold induction). Furthermore, monooxygenase activity of pipping embryos was significantly correlated with total PCBs, arylhydrocarbon receptor-active PCB congeners and toxic equivalents. The modest monooxygenase responses of heron nestlings suggest that this biomarker may have only limited value during this rapid-growth life stage.

  2. Organochlorine contaminant exposure and reproductive success of black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) nesting in Baltimore harbor, Maryland.

    PubMed

    Rattner, B A; McGowan, P C; Hatfield, J S; Hong, C S; Chu, S G

    2001-07-01

    The declining size of the Baltimore Harbor black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) colony has been hypothesized to be linked to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure. In 1998, a "sample egg" was collected from 65 black-crowned night-heron nests (each containing > or = three eggs) for contaminant analysis, and the remaining eggs in these 65 nests, plus four two-egg nests, were monitored for hatching and fledging success. Eggs were also collected from 12 nests at Holland Island, a reference site in southern Chesapeake Bay. Samples were analyzed for 26 organochlorine pesticides and metabolities and 145 PCB congeners. Pesticide and metabolite concentrations, including p,p'-DDE, were well below thresholds associated with adverse reproductive effects at both sites. Average concentration of total PCBs, 12 Ah receptor-active PCB congeners, and toxic equivalents in eggs from Baltimore Harbor were greater (up to 35-fold) than that observed in Holland Island samples. Overall nest success at the Baltimore Harbor heronry was estimated by the Mayfield method to be 0.74, and the mean number of young fledged/hen was 2.05, which is within published productivity estimates for maintaining a stable black-crowned night-heron population. Using logistic regression, no significant relationships were found between organochlorine contaminant concentrations in sample eggs and hatching, fledging, or overall reproductive success. Processes other than poor reproduction (e.g., low postfledging survival, emigration, habitat degradation) may be responsible for the declining size of the Baltimore Harbor colony.

  3. Cytochrome P450 and contaminant concentrations in nestling black-crowned night-herons and their interrelation with sibling embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Rattner, B.A.; Melancon, M.J.; Custer, T.W.; Hothem, R.L.

    1996-05-01

    Hepatic cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenase activities were measured in 11-d-old nestling black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) collected from a reference site (next to Chincoteague National Wildlife Reguge, VA, USA) and three contaminated sites (Cat Island, Green Bay, WI, USA; Bair Island, San Francisco Bay, CA, USA; and West Marin Island, San Francisco Bay, CA, USA). Arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase and benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylase activities of nestlings from contaminated sites were only slightly elevated (less than threefold) compared with the reference site. Organochlorine pesticide and total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in nestlings were greatest at contaminated sites, although much lower than found in concurrently collected eggs and pipping embryos. Pollutant concentrations of nestlings were rarely associated with monooxygenase activity. In contrast, concurrently collected pipping heron embryos (often siblings of the nestlings) exhibited pronounced monooxygenase induction (means at contaminated sites were elevated up to sevenfold and values of some embryos exceeded 25-fold induction). Furthermore, monooxygenase activity of pipping embryos was significantly correlated with total PCBs, arylhydrocarbon receptor-active PCB congeners, and toxic equivalents. The modest monooxygenase responses of heron nestlings suggest that this biomarker may have only limited value during this rapid-growth life stage.

  4. Lead accumulation in feathers of nestling black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) experimentally treated in the field.

    PubMed

    Golden, Nancy H; Rattner, Barnett A; Cohen, Jonathan B; Hoffman, David J; Russek-Cohen, Estelle; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2003-07-01

    Although lead can attain high concentrations in feathers, interpretation of the biological significance of this phenomenon is difficult. As part of an effort to develop and validate noninvasive methods to monitor contaminant exposure in free-ranging birds, lead uptake by feathers of nestling black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) was evaluated in a controlled exposure study. Four- to 6-d-old heron nestlings (one/nest) at Chincoteague Bay, Virginia (USA), received a single intraperitoneal injection of dosing vehicle (control, n = 7) or a dose of lead nitrate in water (0.01, 0.05, or 0.25 mg Pb/g body wt of nestling; n = 6 or 7/dose) chosen to yield feather lead concentrations found at low- to moderately polluted sites. Nestlings were euthanized at 15 d of age. Lead accumulation in feathers was associated with concentrations in bone, kidney, and liver (r = 0.32-0.74, p < 0.02) but exhibited only modest dose dependence. Blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity was inhibited by lead, although effects on other biochemical endpoints were marginal. Tarsus growth rate was inversely related to feather lead concentration. Culmen growth rate was depressed in nestlings treated with the highest dose of lead but not correlated with feather lead concentration. These findings provide evidence that feathers of nestling herons are a sensitive indicator of lead exposure and have potential application for the extrapolation of lead concentrations in other tissues and the estimation of environmental lead exposure in birds.

  5. Organochlorine contaminant exposure and reproductive success of Black-Crowned Night Herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) nesting in Baltimore Harbor, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; McGowan, P.C.; Hatfield, J.S.; Hong, C.-S.; Chu, S.G.

    2001-01-01

    The declining size of the Baltimore Harbor black-crowned night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) colony has been hypothesized to be linked to PCB exposure. In 1998, a 'sample egg' was collected from 65 black-crowned night heron nests (each containing > three eggs) for contaminant analysis, and the remaining eggs in these 65 nests, plus four two-egg nests, were monitored for hatching and fledging success. Eggs were also collected from 12 nests at Holland Island, a reference site in southern Chesapeake Bay. Samples were analyzed for 26 organochlorine pesticides and metabolites, and 145 PCB congeners. Pesticide and metabolite concentrations, including p,p'-DDE, were well below thresholds associated with adverse reproductive effects at both sites. Average concentration of total PCBs, 12 Ah receptor-active PCB congeners, and toxic equivalents in eggs from Baltimore Harbor were greater (up to 35- fold) than that observed in Holland Island samples. Overall nest success at the Baltimore Harbor heronry was estimated by the Mayfield method to be 0.74, and the mean number of young fledged/hen was 2.05, which is within published productivity estimates for maintaining a stable black-crowned night heron population. Using logistic regression, no significant relationships were found between organochlorine contaminant concentrations in sample eggs and hatching, fledging, or overall reproductive success. Processes other than poor reproduction (e.g., low post- fledging survival, emigration, habitat degradation) may be responsible for the declining size of the Baltimore Harbor colony.

  6. 'Lutefisk' Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its panoramic camera to take this image of a rock called 'Lutefisk' on the rover's 286th martian day (Oct. 22, 2004). The surface of the rock is studded with rounded granules of apparently more-resistant material up to several millimeters (0.1 inch) or more across. The visible portion of Lutefisk is about 25 centimeters (10 inches) across.

  7. Sedimentological, Geochemical and Magnetic Properties of Colima Beach Sands, Mexico - Influence of Climate and Coastal Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Guillen, L.; Carranza-Edwards, A.; Perez-Cruz, L. L.; Fucugauchi, J. U.

    2011-12-01

    Studies of sediments on beaches contribute to understanding of sedimentological processes and source, transport and dynamics of sandy coastlines. Results of a geological and geophysical study of sandy beaches on the coast of Colima, Mexico employing sedimentological, geochemical and magnetic methods are presented and used to investigate on climate and coastal processes. Colima is part of the active subduction margin in southern Mexico. We studied thirteen different beaches distributed along the coast. The coastal transect investigated crosses three river drainage basins of the Cihuatlan, Armeria and Coahuayana rivers. Along the coastline there are abundant medium to fine sands moderately sorted to well-sorted. Towards the southeast, sediments are fine-grained, darker colors and better classified compared with sediments at the northwest sector. Towards the southeast there is greater abundance of heavy minerals of volcanic origin with high-rank, higher values of natural remnant magnetization and high magnetic susceptibilities associated with the abundance of iron and titanium oxides. The magnetic hysteresis loops are characterized by saturation in low fields, suggesting titanomagnetites and magnetite as major minerals. In the plot of hysteresis ratio parameters, samples plot in the pseudo-single domain field, suggesting mixtures of single and multiple domain states. Silica is the main constituent and shows a trend to decrease towards the southeast. Results show that sediments are primarly derived from the volcanic and plutonic rocks in the margin. There is an attenuation of one order of magnitude in magnetic susceptibility in magnetic concentrates. It is inferred that there is more wave action on sands of beaches at the southeastern sector generated primarily by waves, wind and tides in volcanic rocks that outcrop in the region. Backshore area in Santiago Bay is identified as an area of protected beach off the coast where the processes of weathering of the sands seem

  8. Indicators of microbial beach water quality: preliminary findings from Teluk Kemang beach, Port Dickson (Malaysia).

    PubMed

    Praveena, Sarva Mangala; Chen, Kwan Soo; Ismail, Sharifah Norkhadijah Syed

    2013-11-15

    This study aims to determine the concentrations of total coliforms and Escherichia coli (E. coli) in beach water, Teluk Kemang beach. This study was also aimed to determine relationship between total coliforms, E. coli and physicochemical parameters. As perceived health symptoms among beach visitors are rarely incorporated in beach water studies, this element was also assessed in this study. A total of eight water sampling points were selected randomly along Teluk Kemang beach. Total coliforms concentrations were found between 20 and 1940 cfu/100ml. E. coli concentrations were between 0 and 90 cfu/100ml. Significant correlations were found between total coliforms and E. coli with pH, temperature and oxidation reduction potential. Skin and eyes symptoms were the highest reported though in small numbers. Microbiological water quality in Teluk Kemang public beach was generally safe for recreational activities except sampling location near with sewage outfall.

  9. Tar loads on Omani beaches

    SciTech Connect

    Badawy, M.I.; Al-Harthy, F.T. )

    1991-11-01

    Owing to Oman's geographic position and long coastal line, the coastal areas of Oman are particularly vulnerable to oil pollution from normal tanker operations, illegal discharges, and accidental spills as well as local sources of oil input. UNEP carried out a survey on the coasts of Oman to determine the major sources of oil pollution and concluded that the major shoreline pollution problems in Oman arose from operational discharges of oil from passing vessels traffic. The oil, because of the high sea and air temperatures in the area, was subjected to relatively high rates of evaporation and photo-oxidation and tended to arrive at the coast as heavy petroleum particulate residues (tar balls). The aim of the present study was to measure the loads of tar balls in Omani coastal areas and to identify the source of oil pollutants on beaches.

  10. Sunburn risk factors at Galveston beaches.

    PubMed

    Shoss-Glaich, Adrienne B; Uchida, Tatsuo; Wagner, Richard F

    2004-07-01

    Although the beach is a well-recognized environment for sunburn injury, specific risk factors for sunburn and their interactions are poorly understood. In this epidemiologic study, variables related to sunburn injury at the beach were analyzed. Beachgoers exposed to more than 4 hours of sun at the beach were significantly more likely to sunburn compared with those with less exposure. Other significant sunburn risk factors were lack of sunscreen use or use of sunscreen with a Sun Protection Factor of 15 or less and Fitzpatrick Skin Types I and II. Reasonable sunburn avoidance strategies should include limiting duration of sun exposure to fewer than 4 hours per day.

  11. 78 FR 33969 - Special Local Regulations; Daytona Beach Grand Prix of the Sea, Atlantic Ocean; Daytona Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Daytona Beach Grand Prix of the Sea, Atlantic Ocean; Daytona Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule... east of Daytona Beach, Florida, during the Daytona Beach Grand Prix of the Sea, a series of high-speed...

  12. 75 FR 14206 - FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... COMMISSION [Docket Nos. 50-266 And 50-301; NRC-2010-0123 FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear... Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-24 and DPR-27, issued to FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC (FPLE, the licensee), for operation of the Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (PBNP), located in Manitowoc...

  13. Gone to the Beach — Using GIS to infer how people value different beaches for salt water recreation.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estimating the non-market value of beaches for saltwater recreation is complex. An individual’s preference for a beach depends on their perception of beach characteristics. When choosing one beach over another, an individual balances these personal preferences with any addi...

  14. Morphology and composition of beach-cast Posidonia oceanica litter on beaches with different exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeone, Simone; De Falco, Giovanni

    2012-05-01

    Posidonia oceanica seagrass litter is commonly found along sandy shores in the Mediterranean region, forming structures called banquettes, which are often removed in order to allow the beach to be used for tourism. This paper evaluates the relationship between the morphology and composition of banquettes and beach exposure to dominant waves. A Real Time Kinematic Differential Global Positioning System was used to evaluate the variability of banquettes and beach morphology over a period of 1 year. Banquette samples, collected at two different levels of the beach profile (i.e. foreshore and backshore), were used to evaluate the contribution of leaves, rhizomes and sediments to the total weight. Banquettes showed a higher volume, thickness and cross-shore length on exposed beaches, whereas narrower litter deposits were found on the sheltered beach. On exposed beaches, banquettes were deposited in beach zones characterized by changes in elevation. These changes in elevation were mainly due to the deposition and erosion of sediments and secondly to the deposition and or erosion of leaf litter. On sheltered beaches, the variability in beach morphology was low and was restricted to areas where the banquettes were located. The leaf/sediment ratio changed along the cross-shore profile. On the backshore, banquettes were a mixture of sediments and leaves, whereas leaves were the main component on the foreshore, independently of the beach exposure. The processes which control the morphodynamics in the swash zone could explain the variability of banquette composition along the cross-shore profile. Finally, this study highlighted that Posidonia oceanica seagrass litter plays an important role in the geomorphology of the beachface and its removal can have a harmful impact on the beaches.

  15. Morphodynamics of a mesotidal rocky beach: Palmeras beach, Gorgona Island National Natural Park, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-García, A. M.; Bernal, G. R.; Osorio, A. F.; Botero, V.

    2014-10-01

    The response of a rocky beach to different possible combinations of hydrodynamic conditions (tides, waves, oceanic currents) has been little studied. In this work, the morphodynamic response to different hydrodynamic forcing is evaluated from sedimentological and geomorphological analysis in seasonal and medium term (19 years) scale in Palmeras beach, located in the southwest of Gorgona Island National Natural Park (NNP), a mesotidal rocky island on the Colombian Pacific continental shelf. Palmeras is an important nesting area of two types of marine turtles, with no anthropogenic stress. In the last years, coastal erosion has reduced the beach width, restricting the safe areas for nesting and conservation of these species. Until now, the sinks, sources, reservoirs, rates, and paths of sediments were unknown, as well as their hydrodynamic forcing. The beach seasonal variability, from October 2010 to August 2012, was analyzed based on biweekly or monthly measurements of five beach profiles distributed every 200 m along the 1.2 km of beach length. The main paths for sediment transport were defined from the modeling of wave currents with the SMC model (Coastal Modeling System), as well as the oceanic currents, simulated for the dry and wet seasons of 2011 using the ELCOM model (Estuary and Lake COmputer Model). Extreme morphologic variations over a time span of 19 years were analyzed with the Hsu and Evans beach static equilibrium parabolic model, from one wave diffraction point which dominates the general beach plan shape. The beach lost 672 m3/m during the measuring period, and erosional processes were intensified during the wet season. The beach trends responded directly to a wave mean energy flux change, resulting in an increase of up to 14 m in the width northward and loss of sediments in the beach southward. This study showed that to obtain the integral morphodynamic behavior of a rocky beach it is necessary to combine information of hydrodynamic, sedimentology

  16. Effects of beach replenishment on intertidal invertebrates: A 15-month, eight beach study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooldridge, Tyler; Henter, Heather J.; Kohn, Joshua R.

    2016-06-01

    Beach replenishment is an increasingly popular means to remediate coastal erosion, but no consensus exists regarding how long replenishment affects sandy beach intertidal invertebrates, key components of beach ecosystems. We monitored the intertidal invertebrate community for fifteen months following a replenishment project at eight beaches, each with replenished and control sections, across San Diego County. Nearly all taxa showed major declines in abundance immediately following replenishment. Populations of talitrid amphipods and the bean clam Donax gouldii recovered within one year, sooner than in previous studies. On some beaches, populations of the mole crab Emerita analoga bloomed four months after replenishment and were more numerous on replenished portions of beaches at that time. Mole crab populations subsequently declined and no longer differed by treatment. The polychaete community, composed of Scolelepis sp. and several other numerically important taxa, showed a strong replenishment-induced reduction in abundance that persisted through the end of the study. The large negative effect of replenishment on polychaetes, coupled with their overall importance to the invertebrate community, resulted in a more than twofold reduction in overall invertebrate abundance on replenished beaches at 15 months. Such reductions may have far reaching consequences for sandy beach ecosystems, as community declines can reduce prey availability for shorebirds and fish. As this and other recent studies have revealed longer times for the recovery of intertidal invertebrates than previously observed, longer study periods and more cautious estimates regarding the magnitude, variability, and duration of impacts of beach replenishment for management decision-making are warranted.

  17. Feasibility Report on Navigation Improvements for Mexico Beach Inlet, Mexico Beach, Florida.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    COESAM/PDFC-89/02 FEASIBILITY REPORT ON NAVIGATION IMPROVEMENTS 6.4 FOR MEXICO BEACH INLET MEXICO BEACH, FLORIDA %1 4Y 2 1 US Army Corps AMRH18 of...OVY ACCESSION NO. S. RIECIPIENS CATALOG MUICR COESA4/PDFC-89/02 & Feasibility Report on Navigation Improvements Feasibility Report for Mexico Beach...Inlet March 1989 Mexico Beach, Florida S. PERFORMING Ono. REPORT NUNSCR 7. AtjTHOR(s) 11- CONTRACT Oft GRANT NUMB5ER(.) Halter W. Burdin Kenneth P

  18. Differentiating experts' anticipatory skills in beach volleyball.

    PubMed

    Cañal-Bruland, Rouwen; Mooren, Merel; Savelsbergh, Geert J P

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we examined how perceptual-motor expertise and watching experience contribute to anticipating the outcome of opponents' attacking actions in beach volleyball. To this end, we invited 8 expert beach volleyball players, 8 expert coaches, 8 expert referees, and 8 control participants with no beach volleyball experience to watch videos of attack sequences that were occluded at three different times and to predict the outcome of these situations. Results showed that expert players and coaches (who were both perceptual-motor experts) outperformed the expert referees (who were watching experts but did not have the same motor expertise) and the control group in the latest occlusion condition (i.e., at spiker-ball contact). This finding suggests that perceptual-motor expertise may contribute to successful action anticipation in beach volleyball.

  19. What Is the Impact of Beach Debris?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Jax, Dan

    2003-01-01

    Presents a marine education activity. Students construct a web of changes that shows potential problems caused by solid waste on beaches. They then determine whether each change is an increase or a decrease from previous conditions. (Author/SOE)

  20. What Is the Impact of Beach Debris?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Jax, Dan

    2003-01-01

    Presents a marine education activity. Students construct a web of changes that shows potential problems caused by solid waste on beaches. They then determine whether each change is an increase or a decrease from previous conditions. (Author/SOE)

  1. Macrodebris and microplastics from beaches in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Laglbauer, Betty J L; Franco-Santos, Rita Melo; Andreu-Cazenave, Miguel; Brunelli, Lisa; Papadatou, Maria; Palatinus, Andreja; Grego, Mateja; Deprez, Tim

    2014-12-15

    The amount of marine debris in the environment is increasing worldwide, which results in an array of negative effects to biota. This study provides the first account of macrodebris on the beach and microplastics in the sediment (shoreline and infralittoral) in relation to tourism activities in Slovenia. The study assessed the quality and quantity of macrodebris and the quality, size and quantity of microplastics at six beaches, contrasting those under the influences of tourism and those that were not. Beach cleanliness was estimated using the Clean Coast Index. Tourism did not seem to have an effect on macrodebris or microplastic quantity at beaches. Over 64% of macrodebris was plastic, and microplastics were ubiquitous, which calls for classification of plastics as hazardous materials. Standard measures for marine debris assessment are needed, especially in the form of an all-encompassing debris index. Recommendations for future assessments are provided for the Adriatic region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Plastics and beaches: a degrading relationship.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Patricia L; Biesinger, Mark C; Grifi, Meriem

    2009-01-01

    Plastic debris in Earth's oceans presents a serious environmental issue because breakdown by chemical weathering and mechanical erosion is minimal at sea. Following deposition on beaches, plastic materials are exposed to UV radiation and physical processes controlled by wind, current, wave and tide action. Plastic particles from Kauai's beaches were sampled to determine relationships between composition, surface textures, and plastics degradation. SEM images indicated that beach plastics feature both mechanically eroded and chemically weathered surface textures. Granular oxidation textures were concentrated along mechanically weakened fractures and along the margins of the more rounded plastic particles. Particles with oxidation textures also produced the most intense peaks in the lower wavenumber region of FTIR spectra. The textural results suggest that plastic debris is particularly conducive to both chemical and mechanical breakdown in beach environments, which cannot be said for plastics in other natural settings on Earth.

  3. Mixed sediment beach processes: Kachemak Bay, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggiero, P.; Adams, P.N.; Warrick, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Mixed sediment beaches are morphologically distinct from and more complex than either sand or gravel only beaches. Three digital imaging techniques are employed to quantify surficial grain size and bedload sediment transport rates along the mixed sediment beaches of Kachemak Bay, Alaska. Applying digital imaging procedures originally developed for quickly and efficiently quantifying grain sizes of sand to coarse sediment classes gives promising results. Hundreds of grain size estimates lead to a quantitative characterization of the region's sediment at a significant reduction in cost and time as compared to traditional techniques. Both the sand and coarse fractions on this megatidal beach mobilize into self-organized bedforms that migrate alongshore with a seasonally reflecting the temporal pattern of the alongshore component of wave power. In contrast, the gravel bedforms also migrate in the cross-shore without significant seasonally suggesting that swash asymmetry is sufficient to mobilize the gravel even during low energy summer conditions. ?? 2007 ASCE.

  4. Transfer and accumulation of organochlorines from black-crowned night-heron eggs to chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Custer, Christine M.

    1995-01-01

    Eggs and sibling 1-, 3-, and 5-d-old chicks from seven black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) broods were collected from Green Bay, Wisconsin, and analyzed for organochlorines. The concentration (mu-g/g) of nine organochlorines either decreased (n = 7) or remained the same (n = 2) as the chicks grew older. In contrast, the total mass (mu-g) of these nine organochlorines increased (n = 7) or remained the same (n = 2) as the chicks grew older. Accumulation rates of mass (mu-g/d) between egg and 5-d-old chicks for each of the nine organochlorines were positive and varied from 0.2 mu-g/d (p,p'-DDT) to 42 mu-g/d (PCBs). These results suggest that the loss of contaminant mass from eggs to chicks reported in some earlier studies was because the entire carcass was not analyzed (i.e., not including skin, gastrointestinal tract, etc.). These results also support the use of contaminant accumulation rates as an indicator of local contamination.

  5. Transfer and accumulation of organochlorines from black-crowned night-heron eggs to chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Custer, Christine M.

    1995-01-01

    Eggs and sibling 1-, 3-, and 5-d-old chicks from seven black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) broods were collected from Green Bay, Wisconsin, and analyzed for organochlorines. The concentration (A?g/g) of nine organochlo-rines either decreased (n = 7) or remained the same (n = 2) as the chicks grew older. In contrast, the total mass (A?g) of these nine organochlorines increased (n = 7) or remained the same (n = 2) as the chicks grew older. Accumulation rates of mass (A?g/d) between egg and 5-d-old chicks for each of the nine organochlorines were positive and varied from 0.2 A?g/d (p,pa??-DDT) to 42 A?g/d (PCBs). These results suggest that the loss of contaminant mass from eggs to chicks reported in some earlier studies was because the entire carcass was not analyzed (i.e., not including skin, gastrointestinal tract, etc.). These results also support the use of contaminant accumulation rates as an indicator of local contamination.

  6. Reproduction of black-crowned night-herons related to predation and contaminants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Rattner, B.A.; Melancon, M.J.; Henny, C.J.

    1996-01-01

    Reproductive characteristics were studied at five colonies of Black-crowned Night-Herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) in south central Washington (4) and north central Oregon (1) in 1991. Predation (primarily avian) was a major factor that adversely affected reproductive success in three colonies and was relatively unimportant in two colonies. The mean number of young surviving to 14 days of age in each colony ranged from 0.47 to 1.94 per nesting female (includes recycling efforts). Unadjusted nest success at each I colony ranged from 31 to 84% (including recycling efforts). Clutch size and incidence of recycling also varied markedly by colony. Residues of DDE, total PCBs, and related compounds were relatively low in most eggs, and mean eggshell thinning by colony ranged from 7 to 11 %. Cytochrome P-450 enzyme (EROD, PROD, and BROD) induction in livers of pipped embryos by colony ranged from low to average in comparison with other colonies throughout the U.S. Residues of dioxins (TCDD) and furans (TCDF) in eggs were generally low and apparently had little influence on reproductive success at any of the colonies.

  7. [Egg size variation in egrets and herons (Aves: Ardeidae) nesting in Birama's swamp, Cuba].

    PubMed

    Denis Avila, Dennis

    2015-03-01

    Intraclutch egg size variation in birds depends on many ecological factors and on the evolutive history of each species. In wading birds, a trend to smaller eggs with laying order has been described, but comparative reports are scarce. In this study, egg size variation patterns were described for nine Egrets and Heron species nesting in Birama' Swamp, Cuba. The patterns were described using external dimensions of 3142 eggs from 1875 nests of Butorides virescens, Bubulcus ibis, Ardea alba, Nycticorax nycticorax, Nyctanassa violacea and four Egretta species, taken in the field between 1998 and 2006. Results showed that eggs were 4.9-10% of adult weight and had volume variation coefficients between 6-9%. There were no general and consistent interspecies relationship between clutch size and egg sizes. Average volumes tend to get smaller with laying order, but it is not statistically detectable in Butorides and Bubulcus. Last egg was between 0.2% and 15% smaller than the first, showing an inverse relationship with it. Intraclutch asymmetry is light in E. thula and fluctuating around null in Bubulcus. Size only predicted laying or hatching order for the last egg, in nests with more than two eggs, with 72.4% of confidence.

  8. Retinal pigment epithelial fine structure in the great blue heron (Ardea herodias).

    PubMed

    Braekevelt, C R; Young, D L

    1994-09-01

    The fine structure of the retinal epithelium (RPE), choriocapillaris and Bruch's membrane (complexus basalis) has been studied by light and electron microscopy in the great blue heron (Ardea herodias). In this species the RPE consists of a single layer of cuboidal cells which display numerous basal (scleral) infoldings and plentiful apical (vitreal) processes which surround photoreceptor outer segments. These epithelial cells are joined laterally by a series of tight junctions located in the mid to basal region. Within the epithelial cells, smooth endoplasmic reticulum is very abundant while rough ER is not. Mitochondria (some of which are ring-shaped) and polysomes are abundant. In light-adaptation the RPE nuclei are large vesicular and basally located while the melanosomes of these cells are almost exclusively located within the apical processes. Myeloid bodies are large and numerous and often show ribosomes on their outer surface. Bruch's membrane (complexus basalis) shows the typical pentalaminate structure noted in the majority of vertebrates except teleosts. The choriocapillary endothelium is very thin facing Bruch's membrane but is only moderately fenestrated. The majority of these fenestrations show a single-layered diaphragm but double-layered diaphragms are also noted.

  9. Organochlorine contaminant assessment in great blue herons using traditional and nonlethal monitoring techniques.

    PubMed

    Cobb, G P; Norman, D M; Kendall, R J

    1994-01-01

    A nonlethal method is discussed for the evaluation of contaminant concentrations in whole eggs. Concentrations of pentachlorobenzene, hexachlorobenzene, DDE, and the PCB congeners, BZ-60, BZ-118, BZ-138, BZ-180, and BZ-170 were quantified in tissue samples from great blue herons (Ardea herodias). All tissues within whole eggs from two colonies were homogenized together and analysed for these chlorinated contaminants. Contents and chorio-allantoic membranes (CAMs) of additional whole eggs were separated and analysed. Contaminant distributions were determined for the CAM and contents of whole eggs from the same colonies. CAM tissues remaining in hatched eggs were also analysed for comparative purposes. Utilizing the distributions derived for contaminants between CAM and egg contents and the chemical concentrations determined in CAMs from hatched eggs, contaminant burdens in whole eggs were calculated. This process produced concentration estimates that described actual, whole egg burdens of chlorinated contaminants within a factor of 2 (1.03-3.7). Contaminant burdens in eggs from the two colonies were also statistically different for DDE and total PCB concentrations.

  10. Vasculature of the ophthalmic rete in night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax): scanning electron microscopy of corrosion casts.

    PubMed

    Ninomiya, Hiroyoshi

    2002-09-01

    Vasculature of the ophthalmic rete (rete ophthalmicum) in the night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) was studied using scanning electron microscopy of vascular corrosion casts and light microscopy on tissue sections. Most blood to the eyeball and a lesser volume of blood to the brain passed through the ophthalmic rete via the external ophthalmic artery. The collateral retial arterioles originated from the external ophthalmic artery forming a flat and fusiform-shaped arterial network at the ventrotemporal region of the eyeball. The arterial network was intermixed with a similar complex of the veins from the eye. The ophthalmotemporal artery, which supplied the eyeball posteriorly, and supraorbital and infraorbital arteries, which supplied the eyeball anteriorly, originated from the rete. Blood from the eye, which is a site of potential heat loss, drained into the ophthalmic rete via the ophthalmotemporal vein. On the casts of retial arterioles, slit-like cleavages at branching sites representing flap valves, which might play a role as sluice valves, were seen. In addition, marks of circularly running grooves, which might represent tufts of smooth muscle cells and might contribute to a sphincter activity, were observed. These anatomical specializations of the avian ophthalmic rete, involving parallel arrangement of arteries and veins, may function to facilitate counter-current heat exchange and to regulate blood pressure and volume to the eye and the brain.

  11. Influence of diet in the accumulation of organochlorine compounds in herons breeding in remote riverine environments.

    PubMed

    Huertas, David; Grimalt, Joan O; Jover, Lluis; Sanpera, Carola

    2016-02-01

    The composition of organochlorine compounds (OCs), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), DDTs and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), has been analyzed in eggs from cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis) and little egret (Egretta garzetta), two species of herons (family Ardeidae), nesting at the same remote riverine environment (Aiguabarreig, Ebro River). These two species were selected to evaluate the importance of diet in the accumulation of OCs. Cattle egret essentially feeds on dry grassy habitats and follow cattle or other large animals whereas little egret feeds on fish, amphibians and crustaceans captured in shallow waters. The δ(15)N and δ(13)C isotopic composition of the sampled eggs was studied and the results were consistent with these species feeding habits. In both species, the compounds accumulated the most were the less volatile and more lipophilic, e.g. PCB congeners of higher chlorination, DDT and metabolites. The distinct foraging species preferences were reflected in significant higher concentrations in little egret than cattle egret of all pollutant groups analysed. These differences were statistically significant for DDTs and PCBs (p < 0.015 and p < 0.047, respectively), e.g. the p,p'-DDE and PCB concentrations were 6 and 4.5 times higher, respectively, in the former than the latter. This strong contrast indicates that in remote environments aquatic riverine ecosystems are more efficient OC reservoirs than the terrestrial ecosystem.

  12. Organochlorines, mercury, and selenium in great blue heron eggs from Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Thomas W.; Hines, Randy K.; Stewart, Paul M.; Melancon, Mark J.; Henshel, Diane S.; Spearks, Daniel W.

    1998-01-01

    In 1993, 20 great blue heron (Ardea herodias; GBH) eggs (one per nest) were collected from a colony at the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, Indiana (INDU). The eggs were artificially incubated until pipping and were then analyzed for organochlorines, mercury, and selenium. Livers of embryos were analyzed for hepatic microsomal ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD) activity. Brains were measured for asymmetry. Egg-laying began in early April and the mean clutch size was 4.2 eggs per clutch. Organochlorine concentrations were generally low (geometric mean p,p’-DDE = 1.6 /μg/g wet weight; polychlorinated biphenyl [PCB] = 4.9 μg/g); however, one egg had elevated concentrations of p,p -DDE (13 /μg/g) and PCBs (56 /μg/g). EROD activity in the embryos analyzed from INDU was not elevated. The frequency (11%) of brain asymmetry was low. Eggshells averaged 3.4% thinner than eggshells collected prior to the use of DDT. Mercury (geometric mean = 0.9 μg/g dry weight) concentrations in GBH eggs were within background levels. Selenium (4.0 μg/g dry weight) concentrations in eggs were above background levels, but below a concentration threshold associated with reproductive impairment.

  13. 'Wopmay' Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This approximate true-color image taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows an unusual, lumpy rock informally named 'Wopmay' on the lower slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' The rock was named after the Canadian bush pilot Wilfrid Reid 'Wop' May. Like 'Escher' and other rocks dotting the bottom of Endurance, scientists believe the lumps in Wopmay may be related to cracking and alteration processes, possibly caused by exposure to water. The area between intersecting sets of cracks eroded in a way that created the lumpy appearance. Rover team members plan to drive Opportunity over to Wopmay for a closer look in coming sols. This image was taken by the rover's panoramic camera on sol 248 (Oct. 4, 2004), using its 750-, 530- and 480-nanometer filters.

  14. Long-term Variability of Beach Cusps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pianca, C.; Holman, R. A.; Siegle, E.

    2016-02-01

    The most curious morphological features observed on beaches are the cusps. Due to their rhythmic spacing, beach cusps have attracted many observers and many, often contradictory, theories as to their form. Moreover, most of the research about beach cusps has focused on their formation. Few had available long time series to study such things as the variability of alongshore and cross-shore position and spacing on the cusp field, the presence, longevity and interactions between higher and lower sets of cusps, and the processes by which cusp fields extend, shrink or change length scale. The purpose of this work is to use long-term data sets of video images from two study sites, an intermediate (Duck, USA, 26 years) and a reflective beach (Massaguaçu, Brazil, 3 years), to investigate the temporal and spatial changes of cusps conditions. Time-evolving shoreline data were first extracted using an algorithm called ASLIM (Pianca et al 2015). Cusps were then identified based on the band-passed variability of time exposure image data about this shoreline as a function of elevation relative to MSL. The identified beaches cusps will be analyzed for cusp spacing, positions (upper or lower cusps), alongshore variability, merging events, percentage of cusp events, patterns of the events and time scales of variability. Finally, the relationship of these characteristics to environmental conditions (wave, tides, beach conditions) will be studied.

  15. Monitoring beach changes using GPS surveying techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Robert; Leach, Mark P.; Paine, Jeffrey G.; Cardoza, Michael A.

    1993-01-01

    The adaptation of Global Positioning System (GPS) surveying techniques to beach monitoring activities is a promising response to this challenge. An experiment that employed both GPS and conventional beach surveying was conducted, and a new beach monitoring method employing kinematic GPS surveys was devised. This new method involves the collection of precise shore-parallel and shore-normal GPS positions from a moving vehicle so that an accurate two-dimensional beach surface can be generated. Results show that the GPS measurements agree with conventional shore-normal surveys at the 1 cm level, and repeated GPS measurements employing the moving vehicle demonstrate a precision of better than 1 cm. In addition, the nearly continuous sampling and increased resolution provided by the GPS surveying technique reveals alongshore changes in beach morphology that are undetected by conventional shore-normal profiles. The application of GPS surveying techniques combined with the refinement of appropriate methods for data collection and analysis provides a better understanding of beach changes, sediment transport, and storm impacts.

  16. Nowcasting Beach Advisories at Ohio Lake Erie Beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francy, Donna S.; Darner, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    Data were collected during the recreational season of 2007 to test and refine predictive models at three Lake Erie beaches. In addition to E. coli concentrations, field personnel collected or compiled data for environmental and water-quality variables expected to affect E. coli concentrations including turbidity, wave height, water temperature, lake level, rainfall, and antecedent dry days and wet days. At Huntington (Bay Village) and Edgewater (Cleveland) during 2007, the models provided correct responses 82.7 and 82.1 percent of the time; these percentages were greater than percentages obtained using the previous day?s E. coli concentrations (current method). In contrast, at Villa Angela during 2007, the model provided correct responses only 61.3 percent of the days monitored. The data from 2007 were added to existing datasets and the larger datasets were split into two (Huntington) or three (Edgewater) segments by date based on the occurrence of false negatives and positives (named ?season 1, season 2, season 3?). Models were developed for dated segments and for combined datasets. At Huntington, the summed responses for separate best models for seasons 1 and 2 provided a greater percentage of correct responses (85.6 percent) than the one combined best model (83.1 percent). Similar results were found for Edgewater. Water resource managers will determine how to apply these models to the Internet-based ?nowcast? system for issuing water-quality advisories during 2008.

  17. Trials of bioremediation on a beach affected by the heavy oil spill of the Prestige.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Alvarez, P; Vila, J; Garrido-Fernández, J M; Grifoll, M; Lema, J M

    2006-10-11

    The objective of this study was to assess the efficiency of several bioremediation products in accelerating the in situ biodegradation of the heavy fuel oil spill of the Prestige. Trials of bioremediation were conducted in sand, rocks and granite tiles on the beach of Sorrizo (A Coruña, NW Spain) that was polluted by the spill. Neither the added microorganisms nor the nutrients significantly enhanced the degradation rate of the fuel oil in rocks, granite tiles or sand. PAH degradation up to 80% was determined in sand and tiles. In tiles the oxygen content of the residual oil increased from 1.6% up to 8% in 90 days, which could be explained by the accumulation of products coming from the partial oxidation of the hydrocarbons. Eighteen months after the spill, the rocks of the beach were still coated by a black layer of weathered fuel oil. For this reason an oleophilic product, sunflower biodiesel was tested on a rock. The application of biodiesel accelerated the gradually clean-up of the polluted surface and could also accelerate the degradation of the residual oil.

  18. An holistic approach to beach erosion vulnerability assessment.

    PubMed

    Alexandrakis, George; Poulos, Serafim Ε

    2014-08-15

    Erosion is a major threat for coasts worldwide, beaches in particular, which constitute one of the most valuable coastal landforms. Vulnerability assessments related to beach erosion may contribute to planning measures to counteract erosion by identifying, quantifying and ranking vulnerability. Herein, we present a new index, the Beach Vulnerability Index (BVI), which combines simplicity in calculations, easily obtainable data and low processing capacity. This approach provides results not only for different beaches, but also for different sectors of the same beach and enables the identification of the relative significance of the processes involved. It functions through the numerical approximation of indicators that correspond to the mechanisms related to the processes that control beach evolution, such as sediment availability, wave climate, beach morhodynamics and sea level change. The BVI is also intended to be used as a managerial tool for beach sustainability, including resilience to climate change impact on beach erosion.

  19. Setting conservation targets for sandy beach ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Linda; Nel, Ronel; Holness, Stephen; Sink, Kerry; Schoeman, David

    2014-10-01

    Representative and adequate reserve networks are key to conserving biodiversity. This begs the question, how much of which features need to be placed in protected areas? Setting specifically-derived conservation targets for most ecosystems is common practice; however, this has never been done for sandy beaches. The aims of this paper, therefore, are to propose a methodology for setting conservation targets for sandy beach ecosystems; and to pilot the proposed method using data describing biodiversity patterns and processes from microtidal beaches in South Africa. First, a classification scheme of valued features of beaches is constructed, including: biodiversity features; unique features; and important processes. Second, methodologies for setting targets for each feature under different data-availability scenarios are described. From this framework, targets are set for features characteristic of microtidal beaches in South Africa, as follows. 1) Targets for dune vegetation types were adopted from a previous assessment, and ranged 19-100%. 2) Targets for beach morphodynamic types (habitats) were set using species-area relationships (SARs). These SARs were derived from species richness data from 142 sampling events around the South African coast (extrapolated to total theoretical species richness estimates using previously-established species-accumulation curve relationships), plotted against the area of the beach (calculated from Google Earth imagery). The species-accumulation factor (z) was 0.22, suggesting a baseline habitat target of 27% is required to protect 75% of the species. This baseline target was modified by heuristic principles, based on habitat rarity and threat status, with final values ranging 27-40%. 3) Species targets were fixed at 20%, modified using heuristic principles based on endemism, threat status, and whether or not beaches play an important role in the species' life history, with targets ranging 20-100%. 4) Targets for processes and 5

  20. Classic Rock

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beem, Edgar Allen

    2004-01-01

    While "early college" programs designed for high-school-age students are beginning to proliferate nationwide, a small New England school has been successfully educating teens for nearly four decades. In this article, the author features Simon's Rock, a small liberal arts college located in the Great Barrington, Massachusetts, that has…

  1. Virginia Beach Public Library System, Virginia Beach/Oceanfront Branch: A Community Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Carolyn L., Comp.; And Others

    This study provides an overview of the community and the status of the library through an examination of the city of Virginia Beach, including its demography and needs, as well as the history, organization, administration, and financial support of both the Virginia Beach Public Library System and the Oceanfront Branch Library. The information is…

  2. Transformation of Palm Beach Community College to Palm Beach State College: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basiratmand, Mehran

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this single-site case study was to examine the organization and leadership change process of Palm Beach State College, a publicly funded institution in Florida, as it embarked on offering bachelor's degree programs. The study examined the organizational change process and the extent to which Palm Beach State College's organization…

  3. Predictive Modeling of Microbial Indicators for Timely Beach Notifications and Advisories at Marine Beaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Marine beaches are occasionally contaminated by unacceptably high levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) that exceed EPA water quality criteria. Here we describe application of a recent version of the software package Virtual Beach tool (VB 3.0.6) to build and evaluate multiple...

  4. Beach-goer behavior during a retrospectively detected algal bloom at a Great Lakes beach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Algal blooms occur among nutrient rich, warm surface waters and may adversely impact recreational beaches. During July – September 2003, a prospective study of beachgoers was conducted on weekends at a public beach on a Great Lake in the United States. We measured each beac...

  5. Predictive Modeling of Microbial Indicators for Timely Beach Notifications and Advisories at Marine Beaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Marine beaches are occasionally contaminated by unacceptably high levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) that exceed EPA water quality criteria. Here we describe application of a recent version of the software package Virtual Beach tool (VB 3.0.6) to build and evaluate multiple...

  6. Beach-goer behavior during a retrospectively detected algal bloom at a Great Lakes beach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Algal blooms occur among nutrient rich, warm surface waters and may adversely impact recreational beaches. During July – September 2003, a prospective study of beachgoers was conducted on weekends at a public beach on a Great Lake in the United States. We measured each beac...

  7. Advanced Decision-Support for Coastal Beach Health: Virtual Beach 3.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    Virtual Beach is a free decision-support system designed to help beach managers and researchers construct, evaluate, and operate site-specific statistical models that can predict levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) based on environmental conditions that are more readily mea...

  8. Transformation of Palm Beach Community College to Palm Beach State College: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basiratmand, Mehran

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this single-site case study was to examine the organization and leadership change process of Palm Beach State College, a publicly funded institution in Florida, as it embarked on offering bachelor's degree programs. The study examined the organizational change process and the extent to which Palm Beach State College's organization…

  9. Advanced Decision-Support for Coastal Beach Health: Virtual Beach 3.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    Virtual Beach is a free decision-support system designed to help beach managers and researchers construct, evaluate, and operate site-specific statistical models that can predict levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) based on environmental conditions that are more readily mea...

  10. Beach changes from sediment delivered by streams to pocket beaches during a major flood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pranzini, Enzo; Rosas, Valentina; Jackson, Nancy L.; Nordstrom, Karl F.

    2013-10-01

    The significance of sediment delivered via storm-associated stream discharge in altering sediment characteristics, beach form, and volume is evaluated on pocket beaches with different basin characteristics and wave exposures. The focus is on changes on three beaches on Elba Island, Italy caused by a flood event in September 2002 that had an estimated recurrence interval of 200 years. Beach profiles and foreshore sediment samples were gathered in 1999 and 2000 to identify pre-storm characteristics, in September 2002 to reveal the immediate effects of the storm, and in 2003 and 2004 to reveal post-storm recovery. Foreshore sediments were finer and better sorted and contained no pebbles prior to the flood. Coarsening of the sand and granule fraction was evident after the flood, along with pebble accumulations, especially near major streams. Mean size, sorting values and percent pebbles one and two years after the flood were generally greater than pre-flood conditions but less than immediately after the flood. Beach profiles reveal conspicuous erosion immediately after the flood, when sediment delivered by streams is transported to subaqueous deltas. Thereafter, sediment moves onshore and alongshore to adjacent beaches to restore subaerial volumes. The location of streams within a compartment, relative to the location of capes and headlands, is important in determining the movement of sediment added to the beach by streams. The sites are all sheltered from the highest-energy waves from the west, facilitating longshore transport to the west. Where the largest stream is located at the east end of a compartment, sediment discharged from it is source material for the downdrift beaches to the west. Where the largest stream is at the west end of the compartment, the ability to supply sediment to the beaches to the east is restricted. Hence, broad-scale geologic controls (headlands and capes) enhance or diminish the ability of streams to influence beach change throughout the

  11. Haeundae Beach in Korea: Seasonal-to-decadal wave statistics and impulsive beach responses to typhoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hee Jun; Do, Jong-Dae; Kim, Sun Sin; Park, Won-Kyung; Jun, Kicheon

    2016-12-01

    Haeundae Beach represents Korean pocket beaches that are currently erosional and dominated by summertime typhoons. The decadal wave characteristics 9 km offshore of Haeundae Beach were analyzed using the WAM model that was validated through the 2007 wave observations. The wave statistics modelled for 1979-2007 indicates that the seasonal mean significant wave height ( H s ) is highest (0.6-0.7 m) in summer due to typhoons, in contrast to the lowest (around 0.5 m) autumn analog. The wave direction is also pronouncedly seasonal with the principal bearings of SSW and NE in the summer and winter seasons, respectively. The WAM results additionally show that the H s has gradually increased over the region of Haeundae Beach since 1993. Beach profiling during June-November 2014 shows the opposite processes of the typhoon and fair-weather on beach sands. During a typhoon, foreshore sands were eroded and then accumulated as sand bars on the surf zone. In the subsequent fair-weather, the sand bars moved back to the beach resulting in the surf-zone erosion and foreshore accretion. A total of 5 cycles of these beach-wide sand movements yielded a net retreat (up to 20 m) of the shoreline associated with large foreshore erosion. However, the surf zone only slightly accumulated as a result of the sand cycles. This was attributed to the sand escape offshore from the westernmost tip of the beach. The present study may provide an important clue to understanding the erosional processes in Haeundae Beach.

  12. Long or short? Investigating the effect of beach length and other environmental parameters on macrofaunal assemblages of Maltese pocket beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deidun, A.; Schembri, P. J.

    2008-08-01

    Despite numerous published studies that have evaluated the influence of different physical parameters, including beach slope, sediment organic content and grain size, on beach macrofaunal assemblages, very few studies have investigated the influence of beach length on biotic attributes of the same assemblages. Four beaches on the Maltese Islands were sampled using pitfall traps at night for eight consecutive seasons during 2001-2003. Macrofaunal collections were dominated by arthropods, mostly isopods (especially Tylos europaeus) and tenebrionid beetles (especially Phaleria spp.). The environmental variables of beach slope, exposure to wave action, sediment organic content, mean particle diameter, log beach length, beach width and the beach deposit index (BDI) were regressed against a number of biotic parameters, including log individual abundance, total species, Shannon-Wiener ( H') diversity index value and the psammophilic fraction of the total species collected, whilst BIO-ENV and NMDS were used to identify the physical parameter which could best explain observed biotic patterns. RELATE was used to assess the long-term persistence of macrofaunal assemblages on beaches of different lengths. Results from this study suggest that, whilst the influence of beach length and beach width on individual abundance and total species number is unimportant, these 'beach-area' parameters may affect the taxonomic composition of a beach assemblage, mainly in terms of the psammophilic fraction of assemblages, as well as the permanence of macrofaunal assemblages on a beach. Shorter and narrower beaches were found to be more prone to sporadic and random events of colonisation by euryoecious species. In the absence of human disturbance and mass mortality events, beaches of limited dimensions can still maintain stable macrofaunal assemblages. Individual abundance and total species number could not be related to a single or small suite of physical parameters. The study further

  13. Utilizing the great blue heron (Ardea herodias) in ecological risk assessments of bioaccumulative contaminants.

    PubMed

    Seston, Rita Marie; Zwiernik, Matthew John; Fredricks, Timothy Brian; Coefield, Sarah Jean; Tazelaar, Dustin Lee; Hamman, David Wayne; Paulson, John David; Giesy, John Paul

    2009-10-01

    Selection of an appropriate species is a key element of effective ecological risk assessments (ERA), especially when site-specific field studies are to be employed. Great blue herons (GBH) possess several ideal characteristics of a receptor species for the assessment of bioaccumulative compounds in the environment, such as ease of study, high potential for exposure, widespread distribution, and territorial foraging behavior. Methodologies for assessing exposure and population health are described herein. As outlined, the collection of GBH eggs, GBH nestling blood, and adult GBH blood allows for the determination of contaminant concentrations in various GBH tissues, a top-down assessment, which can be done in conjunction with predicted dietary exposure, a bottom-up assessment, to support a multiple lines of evidence approach. Additionally, population parameters, such as productivity and survival, can also be measured to elucidate if the contaminant exposure may be causing population level effects. Over the course of two years, three GBH rookeries were monitored for productivity and nestling exposure. Nests were monitored from blinds and individually accessed at multiple time points to obtain measures of nestling health, band nestlings, and collect eggs and nestling plasma. Multiple nests could frequently be accessed by climbing one tree, resulting in minimal effort to obtain the necessary sample size. Additionally, 51 adult GBH, captured in their foraging areas, were banded, and provided a blood sample. With these samples, a statistical difference in tissue based exposure was identified between the reference and target area. Statistically significant differences were also identified between the upper and lower reaches of the target area, thereby identifying a range of doses geographically which could be correlated to specific measurement endpoints. The ability to identify a dose response greatly increases the ability of the dataset to determine causation, a key goal

  14. Retinal photoreceptor fine structure in the great blue heron (Ardea herodias).

    PubMed

    Braekevelt, C R

    1994-09-01

    The morphology of the retinal photoreceptors of the great blue heron (Ardea herodias) has been investigated by light and electron microscopy. They consist of rods, single cones and double (unequal) cones present in a ratio of about 2:1:1 respectively. The rods are slender elongated cells with outer segments that reach to the retinal epithelial (RPE) cells and are surrounded by pigment-rich apical processes of the RPE cells in the light-adapted state. The rod inner segment displays an ellipsoid of mitochondria, an hyperboloid of glycogen, much rough ER, numerous polysomes, Golgi zones and autophagic vacuoles. The rod nucleus is located deep in the outer nuclear layer and the rod synaptic pedicle displays both invaginated and superficial synaptic sites. Single cones display a slightly tapered outer segment, a large electron lucent oil droplet and an ellipsoid of mitochondria in the apex of the inner segment. Double cones consist of a long thin chief member which shows an electron dense oil droplet and a shorter, stouter accessory cone with no oil droplet but a paraboloid of glycogen below the ellipsoid. As in the single cone, polysomes, RER and Golgi zones are present in the myoid region of both members of the double cone. All photoreceptor types have a connecting cilium joining inner and outer segments. Near the external limiting membrane, the chief and accessory cones show intercellular junctions. All cone photoreceptors are relatively small in diameter and hence tightly packed. While rods are felt to undergo retinomotor movements, cones are felt to move minimally or not at all. Both single and double cones display several invaginated (ribbon) synapses as well as numerous superficial (conventional) synaptic sites.

  15. Axenic culture and characterization of Giardia ardeae from the great blue heron (Ardea herodias).

    PubMed

    Erlandsen, S L; Bemrick, W J; Wells, C L; Feely, D E; Knudson, L; Campbell, S R; van Keulen, H; Jarroll, E L

    1990-10-01

    Trophozoites of Giardia ardeae were obtained from the great blue heron (Ardea herodias) and established in axenic culture using the TYI-S-33 medium. The generation time in culture for G. ardeae was 22-25 hr, which was 3-fold longer than for Giardia duodenalis (WB strain). A morphological comparison of trophozoites in the original intestinal isolate to those grown in culture revealed that they were identical for the following characteristics: a pyriform-shaped body, a ventral adhesive disc with a deep notch in the posterior border, teardrop-shaped nuclei, pleomorphism in median body structure ranging from a round-oval appearance (Giardia muris type) to that of a clawhammer (G. duodenalis type), and a single caudal flagellum on the right side (as viewed dorsally) with the left one being rudimentary. Analysis of the chromosomal migration patterns was performed by orthogonal-field-alternation gel electrophoresis and demonstrated that the pattern for G. ardeae was distinctly different from that for G. duodenalis (Portland 1-CCW strain). Bacterial symbionts were seen attached to trophozoites in the original isolate but could not be detected in cultured trophozoites using scanning electron microscopy, fluorescence light microscopy using the Hoechst 33258 dye for DNA localization, or by standard microbiological techniques using nonselective media for growing aerobic or anaerobic bacteria. This study demonstrated that avian-derived Giardia could be grown in axenic culture; based on morphological criteria and chromosomal migration patterns, that G. ardeae should be considered a distinct species; and that rationale for determining Giardia spp., based on median body structure alone, should no longer be considered adequate for classification at the species level.

  16. Primary antibody responses of herons to experimental infection with Murray Valley encephalitis and Kunjin viruses.

    PubMed

    Boyle, D B; Marshall, I D; Dickerman, R W

    1983-12-01

    Antibody responses of rufous night herons (Nycticorax caledonicus) and little egrets (Egretta garzetta) following infection with Murray Valley encephalitis and Kunjin viruses were determined. Haemagglutinin-inhibiting antibodies were first detected on day 5 or 6 after inoculation and increased rapidly, reaching maximum titres of 320 to 2560 between 10 and 20 days after inoculation. Titres declined 20-320 between 60 and 120 days after inoculation, then tended to remain stationary. Titres were 2- to 8-fold higher to infecting virus than heterologous virus. Neutralizing antibody development paralleled that of HI antibodies with titres maintained at a higher level for longer periods; however, they did eventually decline to low levels. Following MVE virus infection IgM (19S), HI antibodies were 80-100% of HI antibodies detectable on day 6 or 7 after inoculation and declined rapidly, becoming undetectable by 20 days after inoculation. With Kunjin virus infections, IgM HI antibodies represented 90-100% of HI antibodies detectable on day 6 or 7 after inoculation. Significant levels of IgM HI antibodies were still detectable 20 days after inoculation (5-30% of total HI antibodies) and, in some birds, even at 27 days after inoculation (up to 10%), IgG (7S) HI antibodies were low or undetectable on day 6 or 7 after inoculation, then increased rapidly with rapidly rising HI antibody titres. The specificity of IgM and IgG antibodies and unfractionated sera was determined by testing against Murray Valley encephalitis, Kunjin, Japanese encephalitis and West Nile virus haemagglutinating antigens. It was possible to determine with which virus a bird had been infected from the pattern of cross-reaction with these antigens. These results should provide a rational basis for the interpretation of serological results from naturally infected birds.

  17. An observational heat budget analysis of a coral reef, Heron Reef, Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKellar, Mellissa C.; McGowan, Hamish A.; Phinn, Stuart R.

    2013-03-01

    Measurements of the surface energy balance, the structure and evolution of the convective atmospheric reef layer (CARL), and local meteorology and hydrodynamics were made during June 2009 and February 2010 at Heron Reef, Australia, to establish the relative partitioning of heating within the water and atmosphere. Horizontal advection was shown to moderate temperature in the CARL and the water, having a cooling influence on the atmosphere, and providing an additional source or sink of energy to the water overlying the reef, depending on tide. The key driver of atmospheric heating was surface sensible heat flux, while heating of the reef water was primarily due to solar radiation, and thermal conduction and convection from the reef substrate. Heating and cooling processes were more defined during winter due to higher sensible and latent heat fluxes and strong diurnal evolution of the CARL. Sudden increases in water temperature were associated with inundation of warmer oceanic water during the flood tide, particularly in winter due to enhanced nocturnal cooling of water overlying the reef. Similarly, cooling of the water over the reef occurred during the ebb tide as heat was transported off the reef to the surrounding ocean. While these results are the first to shed light on the heat budget of a coral reef and overlying CARL, longer-term, systematic measurements of reef thermal budgets are needed under a range of meteorological and hydrodynamic conditions, and across various reef types to elucidate the influence on larger-scale oceanic and atmospheric processes. This is essential for understanding the role of coral reefs in tropical and sub-tropical meteorology; the physical processes that take place during coral bleaching events, and coral and algal community dynamics on coral reefs.

  18. Immunological and reproductive health assessment in herring gulls and black-crowned night herons in the Hudson–Raritan Estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grasman, Keith A.; Echols, Kathy R.; May, Thomas M.; Peterman, Paul H.; Gale, Robert W.; Orazio, Carl E.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown inexplicable declines in breeding waterbirds within western New York/New Jersey Harbor between 1996 and 2002 and elevated polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) eggs. The present study assessed associations between immune function, prefledgling survival, and selected organochlorine compounds and metals in herring gulls (Larus argentatus) and black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) in lower New York Harbor during 2003. In pipping gull embryos, lymphoid cells were counted in the thymus and bursa of Fabricius (sites of T and B lymphocyte maturation, respectively). The phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin response assessed T cell function in gull and heron chicks. Lymphocyte proliferation was measured in vitro in adult and prefledgling gulls. Reference data came from the Great Lakes and Bay of Fundy. Survival of prefledgling gulls was poor, with only 0.68 and 0.5 chicks per nest surviving to three and four weeks after hatch, respectively. Developing lymphoid cells were reduced 51% in the thymus and 42% in the bursa of gull embryos from New York Harbor. In vitro lymphocyte assays demonstrated reduced spontaneous proliferation, reduced T cell mitogen-induced proliferation, and increased B cell mitogen-induced proliferation in gull chicks from New York Harbor. The PHA skin response was suppressed 70 to 80% in gull and heron chicks. Strong negative correlations (r = –0.95 to –0.98) between the PHA response and dioxins and PCBs in gull livers was strong evidence suggesting that these chemicals contribute significantly to immunosuppression in New York Harbor waterbirds.

  19. Immunological and reproductive health assessment in herring gulls and black-crowned night herons in the Hudson-Raritan Estuary.

    PubMed

    Grasman, Keith A; Echols, Kathy R; May, Thomas M; Peterman, Paul H; Gale, Robert W; Orazio, Carl E

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies have shown inexplicable declines in breeding waterbirds within western New York/New Jersey Harbor between 1996 and 2002 and elevated polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) eggs. The present study assessed associations between immune function, prefledgling survival, and selected organochlorine compounds and metals in herring gulls (Larus argentatus) and black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) in lower New York Harbor during 2003. In pipping gull embryos, lymphoid cells were counted in the thymus and bursa of Fabricius (sites of T and B lymphocyte maturation, respectively). The phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin response assessed T cell function in gull and heron chicks. Lymphocyte proliferation was measured in vitro in adult and prefledgling gulls. Reference data came from the Great Lakes and Bay of Fundy. Survival of prefledgling gulls was poor, with only 0.68 and 0.5 chicks per nest surviving to three and four weeks after hatch, respectively. Developing lymphoid cells were reduced 51% in the thymus and 42% in the bursa of gull embryos from New York Harbor. In vitro lymphocyte assays demonstrated reduced spontaneous proliferation, reduced T cell mitogen-induced proliferation, and increased B cell mitogen-induced proliferation in gull chicks from New York Harbor. The PHA skin response was suppressed 70 to 80% in gull and heron chicks. Strong negative correlations (r = -0.95 to -0.98) between the PHA response and dioxins and PCBs in gull livers was strong evidence suggesting that these chemicals contribute significantly to immunosuppression in New York Harbor waterbirds.

  20. Health assessment of Black-crowned Night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) of the New York Harbor estuary.

    PubMed

    Newman, Scott H; Padula, Veronica M; Cray, Carolyn; Kramer, Laura D

    2007-12-01

    Blood samples from 145 Black-crowned Night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax, BCNH) chicks (mean age 3 weeks) were taken from four island colonies (Goose (2004), Canarsie Pol (2005), Hoffman (2004 and 2005) and North Brother (2004 and 2005)) in New York Harbor in 2004 and 2005 to establish baseline health reference ranges for this species and to compare health indices of birds reared on different islands. Packed cell volume (PCV) and total solids (TS) did not differ among islands in either year. Herons raised on Hoffman Island in 2004 had lower white blood cell count (WBC), and higher activities of creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate amino transferase (AST), higher concentrations of potassium (K) and phosphorous (PHOS) and lower liver derived proteins (TP, prealbumin, albumin, alpha 1 globulins, alpha 2 globulins, beta globulins and gamma globulins) compared to herons from Goose and North Brother Islands. These changes suggest compromised health in chicks reared on Hoffman Island in 2004. On Hoffman in 2005, these biochemical analytes did not differ from concentrations and enzyme activities measured from birds on other islands. Although no single etiology can explain these extensive changes, it is likely that exposure to contaminants at foraging sites used by birds nesting on Hoffman and/or changes in prey availability and abundance causing birds to forage in different locations between years, led to differences measured in blood-based health indices. Avian health assessments coupled with foraging ecology serve as an excellent method for evaluating ecosystem health of the New York Harbor estuary system.

  1. Factors influencing liver PCB concentrations in sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus), kestrels (Falco tinnunculus) and herons (Ardea cinerea) in Britain.

    PubMed

    Wienburg, Claire L; Shore, Richard F

    2004-11-01

    Large scale temporal and spatial changes in the exposure of terrestrial vertebrates to PCBs have been monitored in the UK by measuring liver residues in sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus), kestrels (Falco tinnunculus) and grey herons (Ardea cinerea) from throughout the country. Residues in the three species are typically characterised by large intra- and inter-specific variation. Data for 306 sparrowhawks, 186 kestrels and 47 herons collected between 1992 and 1997 as part of a national Predatory Bird Monitoring Scheme were examined to determine how much of this variation was explained by body condition, age and sex, rather than other factors. In all three species, body condition was the single most important factor and accounted for up to 49% of the variation in PCB liver residues; starved birds had the highest liver concentrations. Age and sex were also significant but of lesser importance. Adult sparrowhawks and kestrels had liver PCB residues that were 2 to 10-fold higher than in first-year birds. Sex did not affect residue magnitude in a consistent manner. PCB concentrations in the liver were higher in males than females in both first-year and adult kestrels and in first-year sparrowhawks, but adult female sparrowhawks had similar PCB residues to adult males. Liver residues also varied seasonally. PCB concentrations in first-year sparrowhawks increased during the first year following fledging and a similar pattern was detected in adult female sparrowhawks following egg laying. When these physiological factors were taken into account, it was evident that while kestrels with high fat scores had significantly lower PCB concentrations than either sparrowhawks or herons, liver residues were similar in all three species when birds were in a starved condition. Overall during 1992-1997, the combined influence of body condition, age and sex explained more of the variation in liver PCB concentrations than species differences or other factors, such as geographical variation

  2. Lead accumulation in feathers of nestling black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) experimentally treated in the field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Golden, N.H.; Rattner, B.A.; Cohen, J.B.; Hoffman, D.J.; Russek-Cohen, E.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Although lead can attain high concentrations in feathers, interpretation of the biological significance of this phenomenon is difficult. As part of an effort to develop and validate non-invasive methods to monitor contaminant exposure in free-ranging birds, lead uptake by feathers of nestling black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) was evaluated in a controlled exposure study. Four to six day-old heron nestlings (one/nest) at Chincoteague Bay, Virginia, received a single intraperitoneal injection of dosing vehicle (control; n=7) or a dose of lead nitrate in water (0.01, 0.05, or 0.25 mg Pb/g body weight of nestling; n=6 or 7/dose) chosen to yield feather lead concentrations found at low to moderately polluted sites. Nestlings were euthanized at 15 days of age. Lead accumulation in feathers was associated with concentrations in bone, kidney, and liver (r = 0.32 - 0.74, p < 0.02), but exhibited only modest dose-dependence. Blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity was inhibited by lead, although effects on other biochemical endpoints were marginal. Tarsus growth rate was inversely related to feather lead concentration. Culmen growth rate was depressed in nestlings treated with the highest dose of lead, but not correlated with feather lead concentration. These findings provide evidence that feathers of nestling herons are a sensitive indicator of lead exposure and have potential application for the extrapolation of lead concentrations in other tissues and the estimation of environmental lead exposure in birds.

  3. Effects of lead in nestling black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) experimentally dosed in the field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Golden, N.H.; Rattner, B.A.; Cohen, J.B.; Hoffman, D.J.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Lead is a known environmental toxicant, and poisoning resulting from the ingestion of lead shot has been well-documented in many species of waterfowl. However, much less is known regarding exposure and effects of free environmental lead in species of birds other than waterfowl. In an attempt to evaluate toxicity of lead to herons and to determine the usefulness of feathers as a non-invasive exposure-monitoring tool, black-crowned night-heron nestlings were dosed with lead to determine its distribution among tissues, and its effects on biochemical biomarkers, growth, and survival. Five-day-old heron nestlings (one per nest) at Chincoteague Bay, Virginia were given a single intra-peritoneal injection of dosing vehicle (control; N=7) or one of three lead solutions (as lead nitrate) (10, 50, or 250 mg/kg body weight of nestling; N=7 per dose) chosen to represent levels below, at, and above those found in moderately-polluted environments. All nestlings treated with lead exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity compared to controls, and nestlings treated with the highest concentration showed a reduced carcass weight compared to controls. Of several measures of oxidative stress that were analyzed, significant differences were found between low- and high-dosed nestlings in hepatic total thiol and protein-bound sulfhydryl concentrations. No differences in survival were detected between dosed nestlings, controls, or uninjected siblings. Lead concentrations in several matrices, including feathers, are being determined to assess distribution among tissues and will also be examined for relationships with measures of effect.

  4. Perfluorinated Compounds and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Great Blue Heron Eggs from Three Colonies on the Mississippi River, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Kannan, K.; Tao, L.; Yun, S.-H.; Trowbridge, A.

    2010-01-01

    Archived Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias) eggs (N = 16) collected in 1993 from three colonies on the Mississippi River in Minnesota were analyzed in 2007 for perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). One of the three colonies, Pig's Eye, was located near a presumed source of PFCs. Based on a multivariate analysis, the pattern of nine PFC concentrations differed significantly between Pig's Eye and the upriver (P = 0.002) and downriver (P = 0.02) colonies; but not between the upriver and downriver colonies (P = 0.25). Mean concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), a major PFC compound, were significantly higher at the Pig's Eye colony (geometric mean = 940 ng/g wet weight) than at upriver (60 ng/g wet weight) and downriver (131 ng/g wet weight) colonies. Perfluorooctane sulfonate concentrations from the Pig's Eye colony are among the highest reported in bird eggs. Concentrations of PFOS in Great Blue Heron eggs from Pig's Eye were well below the toxicity thresholds estimated for Bobwhite Quail (Colinus virginianus) and Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), but within the toxicity threshold estimated for White Leghorn Chickens (Gallus domesticus). The pattern of six PBDE congener concentrations did not differ among the three colonies (P = 0.08). Total PBDE concentrations, however, were significantly greater (P = 0.03) at Pig's Eye (geometric mean = 142 ng/g wet weight) than the upriver colony (13 ng/g wet weight). Polybrominated diphenyl ether concentrations in two of six Great Blue Heron eggs from the Pig's Eye colony were within levels associated with altered reproductive behavior in American Kestrels (Falco sparverius).

  5. Model scenerios of shoreline change at kaanapali beach, maui, hawaii: Seasonal and extreme events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vitousek, S.; Fletcher, C.H.; Merrifield, M.A.; Pawlak, G.; Storlazzi, C.D.

    2007-01-01

    Kaanapali beach is a well-defined littoral cell of carbonate sand extending 2 km south from Black Rock (a basalt headland) to Hanakao'o Point. The beach experiences dynamic seasonal shoreline change forced by longshore transport from two dominant swell regimes. In summer, south swells (Hs=1-2mT p=14-25s) drive sand to the north, while in winter, north swells (Hs=5-8mTp=14-20s) drive sand to the south where it accumulates on a submerged fossil reef. The Delft3D modeling system accurately predicts directly observed tidal currents and wave heights around West Maui, and is applied to simulate shoreline change. Morphologic simulations qualitatively resolve the observed seasonal behavior.

  6. Model scenarios of shoreline change at Kaanapali Beach, Maui, Hawaii: seasonal and extreme events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vitousek, Sean; Fletcher, Charles H.; Merrifield, Mark A.; Pawlak, Geno; Storlazzi, Curt D.

    2007-01-01

    Kaanapali beach is a well-defined littoral cell of carbonate sand extending 2 km south from Black Rock (a basalt headland) to Hanakao'o Point. The beach experiences dynamic seasonal shoreline change forced by longshore transport from two dominant swell regimes. In summer, south swells (Hs = 1–2 m Tp = 14–25 s) drive sand to the north, while in winter, north swells (Hs = 5–8 m Tp = 14–20 s) drive sand to the south where it accumulates on a submerged fossil reef. The Delft3D modeling system accurately predicts directly observed tidal currents and wave heights around West Maui, and is applied to simulate shoreline change. Morphologic simulations qualitatively resolve the observed seasonal behavior.

  7. Association of land use and beach closure in the United ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Swimming in natural waters (e.g., oceans, lakes, rivers) is one of most popular recreational activities in the United States. However, exposure to pathogens (e.g., Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Cryptosporidium, Giardia, adenovirus, norovirus) in recreational waters can lead to a variety of adverse health outcomes. To protect public health and reduce the number of outbreaks associated with recreational waters, the BEACH Act was passed in 2000, which required beach regulators to develop a formal plan to assess beach water quality and to notify the public if recreational waters are unsafe. High levels of microorganisms in water often follow extreme weather events. Besides extreme weather events, the proximity of certain land uses to beaches may also have great influence on beach water quality. Microbial contaminants that lead to beach closures and human illness come mainly from land, either from discrete point sources or from diffuse non-point sources. It is expected that land use will have considerable influence on beach microbial water quality. However, to date, studies on impacts of land use on beach microbial contamination are rare, and few researchers are aware of the relationship between land use and beach closures.In this study, we analyzed beach closure data obtained from 2004 to 2013 for more than 500 beaches in the United States, and examined their associations with land use around beaches in 2006 and 2011. The results show that the number of beach clos

  8. Threats to sandy beach ecosystems: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defeo, Omar; McLachlan, Anton; Schoeman, David S.; Schlacher, Thomas A.; Dugan, Jenifer; Jones, Alan; Lastra, Mariano; Scapini, Felicita

    2009-01-01

    We provide a brief synopsis of the unique physical and ecological attributes of sandy beach ecosystems and review the main anthropogenic pressures acting on the world's single largest type of open shoreline. Threats to beaches arise from a range of stressors which span a spectrum of impact scales from localised effects (e.g. trampling) to a truly global reach (e.g. sea-level rise). These pressures act at multiple temporal and spatial scales, translating into ecological impacts that are manifested across several dimensions in time and space so that today almost every beach on every coastline is threatened by human activities. Press disturbances (whatever the impact source involved) are becoming increasingly common, operating on time scales of years to decades. However, long-term data sets that describe either the natural dynamics of beach systems or the human impacts on beaches are scarce and fragmentary. A top priority is to implement long-term field experiments and monitoring programmes that quantify the dynamics of key ecological attributes on sandy beaches. Because of the inertia associated with global climate change and human population growth, no realistic management scenario will alleviate these threats in the short term. The immediate priority is to avoid further development of coastal areas likely to be directly impacted by retreating shorelines. There is also scope for improvement in experimental design to better distinguish natural variability from anthropogenic impacts. Sea-level rise and other effects of global warming are expected to intensify other anthropogenic pressures, and could cause unprecedented ecological impacts. The definition of the relevant scales of analysis, which will vary according to the magnitude of the impact and the organisational level under analysis, and the recognition of a physical-biological coupling at different scales, should be included in approaches to quantify impacts. Zoning strategies and marine reserves, which have not

  9. Effects of embryonic and adult exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on hepatic microsomal testosterone hydroxylase activities in great blue herons (Ardea herodias)

    SciTech Connect

    Sanderson, J.T.; Giesy, J.P.; Janz, D.M.; Bellward, G.D.

    1997-06-01

    In a continuing effort to evaluate biomarkers of exposure of great blue herons (Ardea herodias) to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and related halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, the authors examined the effect of TCDD on hepatic microsomal testosterone hydroxylase activities. Heron embryos were exposed in ovo to 2 {micro}g TCDD/kg egg (or corn oil vehicle) and sacrificed at hatch or 7 d posthatch. Adult herons were exposed intraperitoneally to 20 {micro}g TCDD/kg and sacrificed 2 weeks later. The sex of the birds was known for the adults only. Hepatic microsomes of herons of each age group were able to hydroxylate testosterone at the 2{beta}, 6{beta}, 15{alpha}, 16{alpha}, or 16{beta} positions. In 7-d-old chicks, an additional unidentified compound was formed. The age of the untreated herons had a strong influence on the activities of the five hydroxylases, with changes of up to 17-fold. The TCDD significantly induced 2{beta}-, 6{beta}, and 15{alpha}-testosterone hydroxylase activities in the adult females, 15{alpha} in the adult males, and 6{beta}-testosterone hydroxylase activity in the hatchlings. In the 7-d-old chicks, induction was no longer apparent. A significant correlation existed between hepatic microsomal ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and 6{beta}-testosterone hydroxylase activity in hatchlings and adult female herons. The TCDD-induced changes in testosterone hydroxylase activities occurred at doses that resulted in tissue concentrations and levels of EROD induction that were environmentally relevant, but did not result in overt toxicities.

  10. The role of beach morphodynamic state on infragravity swash on beaches: field observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes da Silva, Paula; González, Mauricio; Medina, Raul

    2017-04-01

    The runup generated by waves can be defined as the maximum height above sea water level on the coastline and is an important criterion for costal structures/nourishment design and erosion/flooding risk analysis. Given the complexity of nonlinear processes involved in the runup generation, its prediction is commonly made by means of empirical formulations that relate wave and beach parameters. The most accepted parametrization presented till the moment was proposed by Stockdon et al. (2006), in which the runup exceeded by 2 percent of the waves (R2) is described in terms of setup (η - the steady superelevation of the mean water level caused by breaking waves) and incident and infragravity swash (Sinc and Sig- time-varying fluctuations around the setup caused by non-breaking waves). Such formulation has been widely accepted and its efficiency was appraised in many works. Nevertheless, although empirical parametrization of infragravity swash using incident wave's parameters shows reasonable skill, the correlation can still present considerable scatter. The amount of infragravity energy on swash is directly related to the morphodynamic beach state, in a way that beach profiles classified as reflective (low wave energy, coarse sediment and higher beach slope) tend to show lower Sig values than dissipative ones (high wave energy, fine sediment and lower beach slope). However, since Stockdon's formula for predicting infragravity swash consider only wave parameters, its use implies that beaches receiving the same wave energy but with different grain size and beach slope would present the same Sig values. This work assumed the hypothesis that the scatter verified on the predictions of the infragravity swash is mainly related to the lack of information about the beach state in Stockdon formula. Based on that, a field campaign was designed and carried out in Somo-El Puntal beach, north Spain, with the aim of generating data to be analyzed in terms of infragravity swash. An

  11. Influence of Beach Scraping on Beach Profile Morphology: Fire Island, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kratzmann, M.; Hapke, C.

    2007-12-01

    Fire Island is part of a barrier island system located just south of Long Island, New York. The island is 50 km long, oriented southwest-northeast, and varies in width from 150 meters to 1 kilometer. Established communities on Fire Island are part of Fire Island National Seashore (FIIS) which is managed by the National Park Service. The island is densely populated, and thus mitigating coastal erosion caused by large-scale storm waves has become an important issue. Severe nor'easter storms in 1991, 1992, and 1993 caused substantial erosion and property damage. This prompted communities within FIIS to conduct a pilot study in which the preventative, non-structural practice of beach scraping was employed as a method of erosion control. Beach scraping is the anthropogenic movement of sand from the berm to the back beach creating an artificial foredune. Currently, there is no published research that explores the morphologic influence of beach scraping on Fire Island, although the practice is still in place today for a number of communities. This study assesses changes caused by beach scraping using a temporally robust beach profile dataset of over 150 profiles, spanning thirteen years. Three study areas were chosen based on location (western, central, and eastern parts of Fire Island) and data availability in scraped and adjacent control areas. Analyzed characteristics include beach width, beach volume, slope (dune, beachface, global), berm crest elevation, and dune crest elevation. Initial results indicate a detectable difference in the behavior of the beach between scraped and control areas. Seasonal signals show beach width decreasing substantially westward from the scraped profile location, which is in the direction of net littoral transport. Anthropogenic relocation of berm material to the foredune zone during scraping places sediment in the back beach area that might otherwise be mobilized by storm waves, therefore depriving downcoast beaches of sediment. Longer

  12. Poohbear Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image, taken by Sojourner's front right camera, was taken when the rover was next to Poohbear (rock at left) and Piglet (not seen) as it looked out toward Mermaid Dune. The textures differ from the foreground soil containing a sorted mix of small rocks, fines and clods, from the area a bit ahead of the rover where the surface is covered with a bright drift material. Soil experiments where the rover wheels dug in the soil revealed that the cloudy material exists underneath the drift.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  13. White Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 19 April 2002) The Science 'White Rock' is the unofficial name for this unusual landform which was first observed during the Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970's. As later analysis of additional data sets would show, White Rock is neither white nor dense rock. Its apparent brightness arises from the fact that the material surrounding it is so dark. Images from the Mars Global Surveyor MOC camera revealed dark sand dunes surrounding White Rock and on the floor of the troughs within it. Some of these dunes are just apparent in the THEMIS image. Although there was speculation that the material composing White Rock could be salts from an ancient dry lakebed, spectral data from the MGS TES instrument did not support this claim. Instead, the White Rock deposit may be the erosional remnant of a previously more continuous occurrence of air fall sediments, either volcanic ash or windblown dust. The THEMIS image offers new evidence for the idea that the original deposit covered a larger area. Approximately 10 kilometers to the southeast of the main deposit are some tiny knobs of similarly bright material preserved on the floor of a small crater. Given that the eolian erosion of the main White Rock deposit has produced isolated knobs at its edges, it is reasonable to suspect that the more distant outliers are the remnants of a once continuous deposit that stretched at least to this location. The fact that so little remains of the larger deposit suggests that the material is very easily eroded and simply blows away. The Story Fingers of hard, white rock seem to jut out like icy daggers across a moody Martian surface, but appearances can be deceiving. These bright, jagged features are neither white, nor icy, nor even hard and rocky! So what are they, and why are they so different from the surrounding terrain? Scientists know that you can't always trust what your eyes see alone. You have to use other kinds of science instruments to measure things that our eyes can

  14. Poohbear Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image, taken by Sojourner's front right camera, was taken when the rover was next to Poohbear (rock at left) and Piglet (not seen) as it looked out toward Mermaid Dune. The textures differ from the foreground soil containing a sorted mix of small rocks, fines and clods, from the area a bit ahead of the rover where the surface is covered with a bright drift material. Soil experiments where the rover wheels dug in the soil revealed that the cloudy material exists underneath the drift.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  15. Meridiani Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    16 September 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the complex surfaces of some of the light- and intermediate-toned sedimentary rock exposed by erosion in eastern Sinus Meridiani. Similar rocks occur at the Mars Exploration Rover, Opportunity, site, but they are largely covered by windblown sand and granules. The dark feature with a rayed pattern is the product of a meteor impact.

    Location near: 0.8oN, 355.2oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

  16. Terby's Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    25 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows light-toned, layered, sedimentary rock outcrops in the crater, Terby. The crater is located on the north rim of Hellas Basin. If one could visit the rocks in Terby, one might learn from them whether they formed in a body of water. It is possible, for example, that Terby was a bay in a larger, Hellas-wide sea.

    Location near: 27.9oS, 285.7oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Winter

  17. White Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 19 April 2002) The Science 'White Rock' is the unofficial name for this unusual landform which was first observed during the Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970's. As later analysis of additional data sets would show, White Rock is neither white nor dense rock. Its apparent brightness arises from the fact that the material surrounding it is so dark. Images from the Mars Global Surveyor MOC camera revealed dark sand dunes surrounding White Rock and on the floor of the troughs within it. Some of these dunes are just apparent in the THEMIS image. Although there was speculation that the material composing White Rock could be salts from an ancient dry lakebed, spectral data from the MGS TES instrument did not support this claim. Instead, the White Rock deposit may be the erosional remnant of a previously more continuous occurrence of air fall sediments, either volcanic ash or windblown dust. The THEMIS image offers new evidence for the idea that the original deposit covered a larger area. Approximately 10 kilometers to the southeast of the main deposit are some tiny knobs of similarly bright material preserved on the floor of a small crater. Given that the eolian erosion of the main White Rock deposit has produced isolated knobs at its edges, it is reasonable to suspect that the more distant outliers are the remnants of a once continuous deposit that stretched at least to this location. The fact that so little remains of the larger deposit suggests that the material is very easily eroded and simply blows away. The Story Fingers of hard, white rock seem to jut out like icy daggers across a moody Martian surface, but appearances can be deceiving. These bright, jagged features are neither white, nor icy, nor even hard and rocky! So what are they, and why are they so different from the surrounding terrain? Scientists know that you can't always trust what your eyes see alone. You have to use other kinds of science instruments to measure things that our eyes can

  18. White Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    14 November 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a portion of the famous 'White Rock' feature in Pollack Crater in the Sinus Sabaeus region of Mars. The light-toned rock is not really white, but its light tone caught the eye of Mars geologists as far back as 1972, when it was first spotted in images acquired by Mariner 9. The light-toned materials are probably the remains of a suite of layered sediments that once spread completely across the interior of Pollack Crater. Dark materials in this image include sand dunes and large ripples.

    Location near: 8.1oS, 335.1oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Summer

  19. Beach science in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nevers, Meredith B.; Byappanahalli, Murulee N.; Edge, Thomas A.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring beach waters for human health has led to an increase and evolution of science in the Great Lakes, which includes microbiology, limnology, hydrology, meteorology, epidemiology, and metagenomics, among others. In recent years, concerns over the accuracy of water quality standards at protecting human health have led to a significant interest in understanding the risk associated with water contact in both freshwater and marine environments. Historically, surface waters have been monitored for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci), but shortcomings of the analytical test (lengthy assay) have resulted in a re-focusing of scientific efforts to improve public health protection. Research has led to the discovery of widespread populations of fecal indicator bacteria present in natural habitats such as soils, beach sand, and stranded algae. Microbial source tracking has been used to identify the source of these bacteria and subsequently assess their impact on human health. As a result of many findings, attempts have been made to improve monitoring efficiency and efficacy with the use of empirical predictive models and molecular rapid tests. All along, beach managers have actively incorporated new findings into their monitoring programs. With the abundance of research conducted and information gained over the last 25 years, “Beach Science” has emerged, and the Great Lakes have been a focal point for much of the ground-breaking work. Here, we review the accumulated research on microbiological water quality of Great Lakes beaches and provide a historic context to the collaborative efforts that have advanced this emerging science.

  20. Rafted Rock

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-09

    This area of Amazonis Planitia to the west of the large volcano Olympus Mons was once flooded with lava. A huge eruption flowed out across the relatively flat landscape. Sometimes called "flood basalt," the lava surface quickly cooled and formed a thin crust of solidified rock that was pushed along with the flowing hot liquid rock. Hills and mounds that pre-dated the flooding eruption became surrounded, forming obstructions to the relentless march of lava. In this image, these obstructions appeared to have poked up and sliced through the lava crust as the molten rock and crust moved together from west to east, over and past the stationary mounds. The result is a series of parallel grooves or channels with the obstructing mound remaining at the western end as the flow came to rest. From such images scientists can reconstruct the direction of the lava flow, potentially tracing it back to the source vent. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21204

  1. Jurassic beach: A depositional facies model for Smackover traps in the Ark la Tex

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T.; Bruno, L.; Green, M.

    1994-09-01

    State Line field, Union County, Arkansas, produces oil from a five-well stratigraphic trap at 8900 ft. Conventional cores were cut in all wells. Core studies show the trapping porosity pinch-out is a facies change from lower foreshore to ooid beach. Sedimentation occurred along a high-energy coastline. Thus, the depositional setting at State Line field differs from the commonly accepted {open_quotes}oolite bar{close_quotes} model used for many other fields in the trend. Four main facies were delineated: (1) siliciclastic lagoon (Buckner Formation), (2) ooid beach, (3) oncoid-ooid lower foreshore, and (4) patch reef. Intergranular porosity is facies selective, found mainly in the poorly sorted lower foreshore facies. Cross-stratification and the absence of lime mud indicate high-energy conditions. Porosity and permeability in the lower foreshore facies average 10.9% and 496 md, respectively. The ooid beach facies is characterized by well-sorted, cross-bedded, and massive ooid grainstones that tend to be extensively calcite cemented. Porosity and permeability values are generally below 2% and 1 md, respectively, although they can be higher adjacent to porous lower foreshore strata. The top of the Smackover is a transition from high-energy, sandy ooid beach (grainstone) to low-permeability, lagoonal siliciclastics, which seal the reservoir. Depositional features suggesting tidal channels at the east and west ends of the field support a beach and/or barrier island interpretation. Coral-algal boundstones of the patch reef facies are thin, local, and not of reservoir quality. The value of predicting reservoir trends from cores is shown by a successful 400-ft sidetrack away from a borehole with no reservoir facies or oil shows. A slashed {open_quotes}piece of the rock{close_quotes} can pay off in Smackover development.

  2. Element patterns in feathers of nestling Black-Crowned Night-Herons, Nycticorax nycticorax L., from four colonies in Delaware, Maryland, and Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Thomas W.; Golden, Nancy H.; Rattner, Barnett A.

    2008-01-01

    The pattern of elements in nestling black-crowned night-heron feathers from a rural Minnesota colony differed from colonies in industrialized regions of Maryland and Delaware. Except for chromium, however, the differences did not reflect the elements associated with waters and sediments of the Maryland and Delaware colonies. Therefore, elements in water and sediment do not necessarily bioaccumulate in night-heron feathers in relation to potential exposure. Although trace element patterns in feathers indicated differences among geographical locations, they did not separate all locations well and their usefulness as an indicator of natal colony location may be limited.

  3. Element patterns in feathers of nestling black-crowned night-herons, Nycticorax nycticorax L., from four colonies in Delaware, Maryland, and Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Custer, Thomas W; Golden, Nancy H; Rattner, Barnett A

    2008-08-01

    The pattern of elements in nestling black-crowned night-heron feathers from a rural Minnesota colony differed from colonies in industrialized regions of Maryland and Delaware. Except for chromium, however, the differences did not reflect the elements associated with waters and sediments of the Maryland and Delaware colonies. Therefore, elements in water and sediment do not necessarily bioaccumulate in night-heron feathers in relation to potential exposure. Although trace element patterns in feathers indicated differences among geographical locations, they did not separate all locations well and their usefulness as an indicator of natal colony location may be limited.

  4. USING PUBLIC-DOMAIN MODELS TO ESTIMATE BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stretches of beach along popular Huntington Beach, California are occassionally closed to swimming due to high levels of bacteria. One hypothesized source is the treated wastewater plume from the Orange County Sanitation District's (OCSD) ocean outfall. While three independent sc...

  5. USING PUBLIC-DOMAIN MODELS TO ESTIMATE BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stretches of beach along popular Huntington Beach, California are occassionally closed to swimming due to high levels of bacteria. One hypothesized source is the treated wastewater plume from the Orange County Sanitation District's (OCSD) ocean outfall. While three independent sc...

  6. Great auricular neuropraxia with beach chair position.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Minal; Cheng, Ruth; Kamath, Hattiyangadi; Yarmush, Joel

    2017-01-01

    Shoulder arthroscopy has been shown to be the procedure of choice for many diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. Neuropraxia of the great auricular nerve (GAN) is an uncommon complication of shoulder surgery, with the patient in the beach chair position. We report a case of great auricular neuropraxia associated with direct compression by a horseshoe headrest, used in routine positioning for uncomplicated shoulder surgery. In this case, an arthroscopic approach was taken, under regional anesthesia with sedation in the beach chair position. The GAN, a superficial branch of the cervical plexus, is vulnerable to neuropraxia due to its superficial anatomical location. We recommend that for the procedures of the beach chair position, the auricle be protected and covered with cotton and gauze to avoid direct compression and the position of the head and neck be checked and corrected frequently.

  7. Great auricular neuropraxia with beach chair position

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Minal; Cheng, Ruth; Kamath, Hattiyangadi; Yarmush, Joel

    2017-01-01

    Shoulder arthroscopy has been shown to be the procedure of choice for many diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. Neuropraxia of the great auricular nerve (GAN) is an uncommon complication of shoulder surgery, with the patient in the beach chair position. We report a case of great auricular neuropraxia associated with direct compression by a horseshoe headrest, used in routine positioning for uncomplicated shoulder surgery. In this case, an arthroscopic approach was taken, under regional anesthesia with sedation in the beach chair position. The GAN, a superficial branch of the cervical plexus, is vulnerable to neuropraxia due to its superficial anatomical location. We recommend that for the procedures of the beach chair position, the auricle be protected and covered with cotton and gauze to avoid direct compression and the position of the head and neck be checked and corrected frequently. PMID:28790863

  8. Through the sands of time: Beach litter trends from nine cleaned north cornish beaches.

    PubMed

    Watts, Andrew J R; Porter, Adam; Hembrow, Neil; Sharpe, Jolyon; Galloway, Tamara S; Lewis, Ceri

    2017-09-01

    Marine litter and its accumulation on beaches is an issue of major current concern due to its significant environmental and economic impacts. Yet our understanding of spatio-temporal trends in beach litter and the drivers of these trends are currently limited by the availability of robust long term data sets. Here we present a unique data set collected systematically once a month, every month over a six year period for nine beaches along the North Coast of Cornwall, U.K. to investigate the key drivers of beach litter in the Bude, Padstow and Porthcothan areas. Overall, an average of 0.02 litter items m(-2) per month were collected during the six year study, with Bude beaches (Summerleaze, Crooklets and Widemouth) the most impacted (0.03 ± 0.004 litter items m(-2) per month). The amount of litter collected each month decreased by 18% and 71% respectively for Padstow (Polzeath, Trevone and Harlyn) and Bude areas over the 6 years, possibly related to the regular cleaning, however litter increased by 120% despite this monthly cleaning effort on the Padstow area beaches. Importantly, at all nine beaches the litter was dominated by small, fragmented plastic pieces and rope fibres, which account for 32% and 17% of all litter items collected, respectively. The weathered nature of these plastics indicates they have been in the marine environment for an extended period of time. So, whilst classifying the original source of these plastics is not possible, it can be concluded they are not the result of recent public littering. This data highlights both the extent of the marine litter problem and that current efforts to reduce littering by beach users will only tackle a fraction of this litter. Such information is vital for developing effective management strategies for beach and marine litter at both regional and global levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - A great white heron silently waits in the tall grass within KSC. The heron is one of 310 species of birds that inhabit the National Merritt Island Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with KSC. The marshes and open water of the refuge also provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-24

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - A great white heron silently waits in the tall grass within KSC. The heron is one of 310 species of birds that inhabit the National Merritt Island Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with KSC. The marshes and open water of the refuge also provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds.

  10. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - A great blue heron swoops down for a landing on the water near KSC. The heron is one of 310 species of birds that inhabit the National Merritt Island Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with KSC. The marshes and open water of the refuge also provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-24

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - A great blue heron swoops down for a landing on the water near KSC. The heron is one of 310 species of birds that inhabit the National Merritt Island Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with KSC. The marshes and open water of the refuge also provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds.

  11. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - A great blue heron patiently stalks its prey in the marshes around KSC. The heron is one of 310 species of birds that inhabit the National Merritt Island Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with KSC. The marshes and open water of the refuge also provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-24

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - A great blue heron patiently stalks its prey in the marshes around KSC. The heron is one of 310 species of birds that inhabit the National Merritt Island Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with KSC. The marshes and open water of the refuge also provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds.

  12. Burrowing inhibition by fine textured beach fill: Implications for recovery of beach ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viola, Sloane M.; Hubbard, David M.; Dugan, Jenifer E.; Schooler, Nicholas K.

    2014-10-01

    Beach nourishment is often considered the most environmentally sound method of maintaining eroding shorelines. However, the ecological consequences are poorly understood. Fill activities cause intense disturbance and high mortality and have the potential to alter the diversity, abundance, and distribution of intertidal macroinvertebrates for months to years. Ecological recovery following fill activities depends on successful recolonization and recruitment of the entire sandy intertidal community. The use of incompatible sediments as fill material can strongly affect ecosystem recovery. We hypothesized that burrowing inhibition of intertidal animals by incompatible fine fill sediments contributes to ecological impacts and limits recovery in beach ecosystems. We experimentally investigated the influence of intertidal zone and burrowing mode on responses of beach invertebrates to altered sediment texture (28-38% fines), and ultimately the potential for colonization and recovery of beaches disturbed by beach filling. Using experimental trials in fill material and natural beach sand, we found that the mismatched fine fill sediments significantly inhibited burrowing of characteristic species from all intertidal zones, including sand crabs, clams, polychaetes, isopods, and talitrid amphipods. Burrowing performance of all five species we tested was consistently reduced in the fill material and burrowing was completely inhibited for several species. The threshold for burrowing inhibition by fine sediment content in middle and lower beach macroinvertebrates varied by species, with highest sensitivity for the polychaete (4% fines, below the USA regulatory limit of 10% fines), followed by sand crabs and clams (20% fines). These results suggest broader investigation of thresholds for burrowing inhibition in fine fill material is needed for beach animals. Burrowing inhibition caused by mismatched fill sediments exposes beach macroinvertebrates to stresses, which could depress

  13. Beach slopes of Florida: Miami to Jupiter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doran, Kara S.; Long, Joseph W.; Overbeck, Jacquelyn R.

    2015-01-01

    The National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project derives features of beach morphology from lidar elevation data for the purpose of understanding and predicting storm impacts to our nation's coastlines. This dataset defines mean beach slopes along the United States Southeast Atlantic Ocean from Miami to Jupiter, Florida for data collected at various times between 1999 and 2009. For further information regarding data collection and/or processing methods refer to USGS Open-File Report 2015–1053 (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2015/1053/).

  14. An evaluation of beached bird monitoring approaches.

    PubMed

    Seys, Jan; Offringa, Henk; Van Waeyenberge, Jeroen; Meire, Patrick; Kuijken, Eckhart

    2002-04-01

    Oil-pollution monitoring at sea through beach bird surveying would undoubtedly benefit from a further standardisation of methods, enhancing the efficiency of data collection. In order to come up with useful recommendations, we evaluated various approaches of beached bird collection at the Belgian coast during seven winters (1993-1999). Data received in a passive way by one major rehabilitation centre were compared to the results of targeted beach surveys carried out at different scales by trained ornithologists: 'weekly' surveys - with a mean interval of 9 days - restricted to a fixed 16.7 km beach stretch, 'monthly' surveys over the entire coastline (62.1 km) and an annual 'international' survey in Belgium over the same distance at the end of February. Data collected through Belgian rehabilitation centres concern injured, living birds collected in a non-systematical way. Oil rates derived from these centres appear to be strongly biased to oiled auks and inshore bird species, and are hence of little use in assessing the extent of oil pollution at sea. The major asset of rehabilitation centres in terms of data collection seems to be their continuous warning function for events of mass mortality. Weekly surveys on a representative and large enough section rendered reliable data on oil rates, estimates of total number of bird victims, representation of various taxonomic groups and species-richness and were most sensitive in detecting events quickly (wrecks, oil-slicks, severe winter mortality, etc.). Monthly surveys gave comparable results, although they overlooked some important beaching events and demonstrated slightly higher oil rates, probably due to the higher chance to miss short-lasting wrecks of auks. Since the monthly surveys in Belgium were carried out by a network of volunteers and were spread over a larger beach section, they should be considered as best performing. Single 'international beached bird surveys' in February gave reliable data on total victim

  15. Landscape Visual Quality and Meiofauna Biodiversity on Sandy Beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felix, Gabriela; Marenzi, Rosemeri C.; Polette, Marcos; Netto, Sérgio A.

    2016-10-01

    Sandy beaches are central economic assets, attracting more recreational users than other coastal ecosystems. However, urbanization and landscape modification can compromise both the functional integrity and the attractiveness of beach ecosystems. Our study aimed at investigating the relationship between sandy beach artificialization and the landscape perception by the users, and between sandy beach visual attractiveness and biodiversity. We conducted visual and biodiversity assessments of urbanized and semiurbanized sandy beaches in Brazil and Uruguay. We specifically examined meiofauna as an indicator of biodiversity. We hypothesized that urbanization of sandy beaches results in a higher number of landscape detractors that negatively affect user evaluation, and that lower-rated beach units support lower levels of biodiversity. We found that urbanized beach units were rated lower than semiurbanized units, indicating that visual quality was sensitive to human interventions. Our expectations regarding the relationship between landscape perception and biodiversity were only partially met; only few structural and functional descriptors of meiofauna assemblages differed among classes of visual quality. However, lower-rated beach units exhibited signs of lower environmental quality, indicated by higher oligochaete densities and significant differences in meiofauna structure. We conclude that managing sandy beaches needs to advance beyond assessment of aesthetic parameters to also include the structure and function of beach ecosystems. Use of such supporting tools for managing sandy beaches is particularly important in view of sea level rise and increasing coastal development.

  16. 103. VIEW OF BEACH STRUCTURES ON NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    103. VIEW OF BEACH STRUCTURES ON NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTHEAST; PACIFIC ELECTRIC RAILWAY CAR (UPPER LEFT), CONCESSION STANDS (LOWER LEFT), BANDSHELL (RIGHT), AND PIER IN BACKGROUND Photograph #5352-HB. Photographer unknown, c. 1914 - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  17. 107. VIEW OF BEACH DEVELOPMENT ON NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    107. VIEW OF BEACH DEVELOPMENT ON NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. SECTION OF PIER IS IN BACKGROUND Photograph #1579-HB. Photographer unknown, c. 1930-31 prior to replacement of original light standards in 1930-31 - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  18. Beaches in Motion. Interaction and Environmental Change. Secondary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee County School District, Ft. Myers, FL. Dept. of Environmental Education and Instructional Development Services.

    The terms "high energy" and "low energy" refer to the amount of energy a wave has that reaches the face of a beach. In this student guide, two types of beaches are investigated. The objective is to be able to identify whether a beach is of high or low energy. Background information is provided, as well as instructions and…

  19. Landscape Visual Quality and Meiofauna Biodiversity on Sandy Beaches.

    PubMed

    Felix, Gabriela; Marenzi, Rosemeri C; Polette, Marcos; Netto, Sérgio A

    2016-10-01

    Sandy beaches are central economic assets, attracting more recreational users than other coastal ecosystems. However, urbanization and landscape modification can compromise both the functional integrity and the attractiveness of beach ecosystems. Our study aimed at investigating the relationship between sandy beach artificialization and the landscape perception by the users, and between sandy beach visual attractiveness and biodiversity. We conducted visual and biodiversity assessments of urbanized and semiurbanized sandy beaches in Brazil and Uruguay. We specifically examined meiofauna as an indicator of biodiversity. We hypothesized that urbanization of sandy beaches results in a higher number of landscape detractors that negatively affect user evaluation, and that lower-rated beach units support lower levels of biodiversity. We found that urbanized beach units were rated lower than semiurbanized units, indicating that visual quality was sensitive to human interventions. Our expectations regarding the relationship between landscape perception and biodiversity were only partially met; only few structural and functional descriptors of meiofauna assemblages differed among classes of visual quality. However, lower-rated beach units exhibited signs of lower environmental quality, indicated by higher oligochaete densities and significant differences in meiofauna structure. We conclude that managing sandy beaches needs to advance beyond assessment of aesthetic parameters to also include the structure and function of beach ecosystems. Use of such supporting tools for managing sandy beaches is particularly important in view of sea level rise and increasing coastal development.

  20. Beaches in Motion. Interaction and Environmental Change. Secondary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee County School District, Ft. Myers, FL. Dept. of Environmental Education and Instructional Development Services.

    The terms "high energy" and "low energy" refer to the amount of energy a wave has that reaches the face of a beach. In this student guide, two types of beaches are investigated. The objective is to be able to identify whether a beach is of high or low energy. Background information is provided, as well as instructions and…

  1. Tracer Studies In A Laboratory Beach Subjected To Waves

    EPA Science Inventory

    This work investigated the washout of dissolved nutrients from beaches due to waves by conducting tracer studies in a laboratory beach facility. The effects of waves were studied in the case where the beach was subjected to the tide, and that in which no tidal action was present...

  2. Beach Sand Analysis for Indicators of Microbial Contamination

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditional beach monitoring has focused on water quality, with little attention paid to health risks associated with beach sand. Recent research has reported that fecal indicator bacteria, as well as human pathogens can be found in beach sand and may constitute a risk to human h...

  3. Tracer Studies In A Laboratory Beach Subjected To Waves

    EPA Science Inventory

    This work investigated the washout of dissolved nutrients from beaches due to waves by conducting tracer studies in a laboratory beach facility. The effects of waves were studied in the case where the beach was subjected to the tide, and that in which no tidal action was present...

  4. Beach Sand Analysis for Indicators of Microbial Contamination

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditional beach monitoring has focused on water quality, with little attention paid to health risks associated with beach sand. Recent research has reported that fecal indicator bacteria, as well as human pathogens can be found in beach sand and may constitute a risk to human h...

  5. Monitoring of beach enteromorpha variation with near shore video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yali; Yu, Xinsheng; Yan, Zhijin; Yi, Weidong

    2014-07-01

    Beach is an important coastal protective barrier and tourism resources. Beach environment monitoring can help beach managers to make feasible decisions. Digital image of video monitoring technology can provide high resolution information of temporal and spatial variation of near shore in real time. The application of Video monitoring technology has been implemented in Qingdao's Shilaoren beach. The clustering method based on Gaussian mixture model is applied to extract beach enteromorpha changs for the digital images. Analysis results show that, the period of enteromorpha in Qingdao's Shilaoren beach was mainly from the early July to the mid-August in 2011, and the decline of enteromorpha is mainly associated with the rising temperature in the mid-August. Storm has significant impact on the beach enteromorpha. Tourists' activity space on the beach will decrease due to the enteromorpha covering on the beach, which affects beach tourism activities. Therefore, it's necessary to make preventive measures to avoid enteromorpha piling up on the beach, which is of great importance to the bathing beach environment and tourism development.

  6. Trophic transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls in great blue heron (Ardea herodias) at Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge, Illinois, United States.

    PubMed

    Straub, C L; Maul, J D; Halbrook, R S; Spears, B; Lydy, M J

    2007-05-01

    In this study, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were measured in great blue heron (GBHE) (Ardea herodias) chicks and eggs at Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge (CONWR) in southern Illinois. In addition, biomagnification factors (BMFs) from gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum) and their effects on reproductive effort were examined. Total PCBs (SigmaPCBs) in chicks and shad were greater at the east end of Crab Orchard Lake (i.e., near the site of contamination) than the west end, but chick concentrations (4.1 to 10.1 mg/kg lipid weight) were lower than those typically associated with adverse effects. Chick BMFs based on shad from diet samples were greater than those based on shad collected from the lake. Furthermore, the two shad sources had dissimilar dioxin-like congener patterns and SigmaPCBs, suggesting that there was variation in PCB load and composition and that the more contaminated shad were a small proportion of the actual heron chick diet. The number of eggs laid per nest was similar between colonies, suggesting no observable population level effects. Further study may be necessary to evaluate long-term effects on GBHEs at CONWR.

  7. Environmental contaminants and reproductive success of great blue herons Ardea herodias in British Columbia, 1986-1987.

    PubMed

    Elliott, J E; Butler, R W; Norstrom, R J; Whitehead, P E

    1989-01-01

    In 1986, eggs were collected and productivity estimated at four great blue heron (Ardea herodias) colonies on the coast of British Columbia. Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were present in all eggs in a qualitatively similar pattern among colonies. PCDD levels were significantly elevated at a colony near a kraft pulp mill at Crofton on Vancouver Island, although there was no correlation between the number of young raised in a nest and levels of either PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs, organochlorine pesticides or mercury. In 1987, heron productivity was normal at three colonies, while the colony at Crofton failed to raise any young. A normal complement of eggs were apparently laid in about 57 nests, but during incubation they were destroyed and the broken eggshells were found in and beneath the nests. Analysis of eggs salvaged from nests showed that 2378-TCDD levels were about three times higher in 1987 than in 1986. At a colony in Vancouver, 2378-TCDF levels were significantly higher in 1987 than 1986 eggs. Levels of organochlorine pesticides and total mercury in eggs were generally low; highest residue levels were found in two mainland colonies, particularly at one adjacent to an agricultural area. Total PCB levels were low and did not differ significantly among locations. Analysis of PCB congener ratios indicated different sources of PCBs. Regurgitated prey samples collected in 1986 from four locations had generally low levels of PCDD, PCDF, mercury, lead and cadmium contamination.

  8. Heavy metal, organochlorine pesticide, and PCB residues in eggs and feathers of herons breeding in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Fasola, M; Movalli, P A; Gandini, C

    1998-01-01

    We report on organochlorine pesticide and PCB concentrations in eggs of the little egret, Egretta garzetta, and the black-crowned night-heron, Nycticorax nycticorax, collected in 1993-1994, and on mercury, cadmium, and lead concentrations in feathers of 20-day-old nestlings collected from the same nests in 1994, from heronries near Pavia, northern Italy. Organochlorine pesticide and PCB residues were lower than those commonly associated with mortality and reduced reproductive success. As population levels of the species studied are not declining, these contaminants appear to have no significant adverse effect on reproduction in the heronries studied. DDE levels have decreased markedly in heron eggs since 1978. However, the presence of both DDT and beta-HCH, albeit at low levels, is notable, given that these compounds were banned in Italy in 1978 and 1988, respectively. Relatively high levels of Hg, Cd, and Pb in feathers suggest birds in their colonies are exposed to these contaminants, although both Cd and Pb may relate more to external than to internal contamination.

  9. Monooxygenase activity and contaminant burdens of pipping heron embryos in Virginia, the Great Lakes and San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Melancon, M.J.; Custer, T.W.; Hothem, R.L.; King, K.A.; LeCaptain, L.J.; Spann, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    Black-crowned night-heron (Nvcticorax nvcticorax) pipping embryos were studied from undisturbed (Chincoteague National Wildl ife Refuge, VA) and industrialized (Cat Island, Green Bay WI, and Bair and W. Marin Islands, San Francisco Bay, CA) locations. Hepatic aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) , ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase, (EROD), benzyloxyROD (BROD), pentoxyROD (PROD) and ethoxycoumarinOD (ECOD) activities and burdens of organochlorines (embryo + yolk sac - liver) were quantified. AHH, BROD, ECOD and EROD were induced up to 100-fold (P<.O5) in embryos from Cat Island compared to the other sites. Greatest burdens of total PCBs and p,p?DDE were detected in Cat Island embryos. Monooxygenase activities (AHH, BROD, ECOD and EROD) and PCB concentrations were significantly correlated (r=O.50 to 0.72). These and other data indicate that monooxygenases may be rapid and inexpensive biomarkers of exposure to some PCB congeners. Current efforts include determination of PCB congeners and other contaminants in these embryos, additional characterization of the induced P-450 isozymes, and expanding the study to include heron embryos and nestlings at other estuaries.

  10. Thermal Inertia of Rocks and Rock Populations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, M. P.; Jakosky, B. M.; Mellon, M. T.

    2001-01-01

    The effective thermal inertia of rock populations on Mars and Earth is derived from a model of effective inertia versus rock diameter. Results allow a parameterization of the effective rock inertia versus rock abundance and bulk and fine component inertia. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  11. Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    6 November 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows outcrops of sedimentary rocks in a crater located just north of the Sinus Meridiani region. Perhaps the crater was once the site of a martian lake.

    Location near: 2.9oN, 359.0oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

  12. Rock mechanics. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Jumikis, A.R.

    1983-01-01

    Rock Mechanics, 2nd Edition deals with rock as an engineering construction material-a material with which, upon which, and within which civil engineers build structures. It thus pertains to hydraulic structures engineering; to highway, railway, canal, foundation, and tunnel engineering; and to all kinds of rock earthworks and to substructures in rock. Major changes in this new edition include: rock classification, rock types and description, rock testing equipment, rock properties, stability effects of discontinuity and gouge, grouting, gunite and shotcrete, and Lugeon's water test. This new edition also covers rock bolting and prestressing, pressure-grouted soil anchors, and rock slope stabilization.

  13. Spatiotemporal patterns of coral disease prevalence on Heron Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haapkylä, J.; Melbourne-Thomas, J.; Flavell, M.; Willis, B. L.

    2010-12-01

    Despite increasing research effort on coral diseases, little is known about factors driving disease dynamics on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR). This is the first study to investigate the temporal patterns of coral disease prevalence and potential drivers of disease around Heron Island, in the southern Capricorn Bunker sector of the GBR. Surveys were conducted in two austral summers and three winters between November 2007 and August 2009 on six sites around the island. Six diseases were detected: brown band syndrome (BrB), growth anomalies (GA), ulcerative white spots (UWS), white syndrome (WS), skeletal eroding band disease (SEB) and black band disease (BBD). The lowest overall mean disease prevalence was 1.87 ± 0.75% (mean ± SE) in November 2007 and the highest 4.22 ± 1.72% in August 2008. There was evidence of seasonality for two diseases: BrB and UWS. This is the first study to report a higher prevalence of BrB in the winter. BrB had a prevalence of 3.29 ± 0.58% in August 2008 and 1.53 ± 0.28% in August 2009, while UWS was the most common syndrome in the summer with a prevalence of 1.12 ± 0.31% in November 2007 and 2.67 ± 0.52% prevalence in January 2008. The prevalence of GAs and SEB did not depend on the season, although the prevalence of GAs increased throughout the study period. WS had a slightly higher prevalence in the summer, but its overall prevalence was low (<0.5%). Sites with high abundance of staghorn Acropora and Montipora were characterised by the highest disease prevalence (12% of Acropora and 3.3% of Montipora species were diseased respectively). These results highlight the correlations between coral disease prevalence, seasonally varying environmental parameters and coral community composition. Given that diseases are likely to reduce the resilience of corals, seasonal patterns in disease prevalence deserve further research.

  14. Rock Driller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Thomas M.

    2001-01-01

    The next series of planetary exploration missions require a method of extracting rock and soil core samples. Therefore a prototype ultrasonic core driller (UTCD) was developed to meet the constraints of Small Bodies Exploration and Mars Sample Return Missions. The constraints in the design are size, weight, power, and axial loading. The ultrasonic transducer requires a relatively low axial load, which is one of the reasons this technology was chosen. The ultrasonic generator breadboard section can be contained within the 5x5x3 limits and weighs less than two pounds. Based on results attained the objectives for the first phase were achieved. A number of transducer probes were made and tested. One version only drills, and the other will actually provide a small core from a rock. Because of a more efficient transducer/probe, it will run at very low power (less than 5 Watts) and still drill/core. The prototype generator was built to allow for variation of all the performance-effecting elements of the transducer/probe/end effector, i.e., pulse, duty cycle, frequency, etc. The heart of the circuitry is what will be converted to a surface mounted board for the next phase, after all the parameters have been optimized and the microprocessor feedback can be installed.

  15. Beach Changes at Long Beach Island, New Jersey, 1962-73.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    34’ Figure 1. Profile line locations at Long Beach Island, New Jersey (after DeWa11, Prtchett, and Galvin, 1977; Everts and Czerniak , 1977). 10 thirds on...Wildlife Refuge is heavily structured with 110 groins, 83 of which have been built or rebuilt during the period 1962-73 (Everts and Czerniak , 1977...term changes (Everts and Czerniak , 1977). A major storm event affecting the beaches after the termination of the BEP measure- ment program was

  16. Nowcasting and Forecasting Beach Bacteria Concentration Using EPA's Virtual Beach Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frick, W. E.; Ge, Z.

    2007-05-01

    Beaches in the United States of (North) America are subject to closure when bacterial counts exceed water quality criteria. Many authorities base these decisions on water samples that typically require at least 18 hours to analyze. This persistence approach, or model, often leads to erroneous decisions due to the great variability in bacterial concentrations. Beaches are closed when they could be open and vice versa, their true status unknown until the next day. Studies show that mathematical models based on multi-variable linear regression (MLR) principles can produce better estimates, or nowcasts, using real-time explanatory variables, such as turbidity, cloud cover, and rainfall. To make such models generally available, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing a program called Virtual Beach (VB). VB is public-domain software for developing site-specific predictive models. It features capabilities that make it possible with reasonable effort to develop, and compare the performance of, static and dynamic MLR models. The results of tests on 2006 Huntington Beach, Lake Erie beach data are presented. In addition to nowcasting, the work begins to address the question, can weather and water forecasts be used to forecast beach conditions in advance? A preliminary affirmative answer is provided based on an analysis of the Huntington Beach data, with weather forecasts for nearby Cleveland-Hopkins international airport, and NOAA lake condition forecasts. We encourage those engaged in beach monitoring and management to request VB, applying the nowcast and forecast models developed with it to their locations of interest. Disclaimer: Although this work was reviewed by EPA and approved for presentation, it may not necessarily reflect official Agency policy.

  17. Size specific predation by herons and its effect on the sex-ratio of natural populations of the mosquito fish Gambusia affinis baird and girard.

    PubMed

    Britton, Robert H; Moser, Michael E

    1982-01-01

    Sex-ratios of Gambusia affinis populations in freshwater marshes in the Camargue (Rhône Delta), are highly biased in favour of males, whereas the sex-ratios in ditches are close to unity. Studies of the diet of free living birds and experimental studies on prey size selection in captivity show that the abnormal sex-ratios in marshes can be attributed to differential heron predation. Ditches are relatively free from predation. Mature female Gambusia are larger, and have an energy content 5-25 times greater than that of mature males. Handling times of Grey Heron (Ardea cinerea) and Little Egret (Egretta garzetta) are only slightly longer for female Gambusia than males. Hence, females represent a much more profitable prey.Analysis of nestling regurgitates show that Gambusia makes up a considerable proportion of the diet of four species of Camargue herons, and that the majority of Gambusia taken are females. Under experimental conditions, captive herons consume almost exclusively female fish, even when offered in ratios where they are heavily outnumbered by males.The relevance of these results to optimal diet theory is discussed.

  18. Creating the Higbee Beach Butterfly Garden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiles, Eric, And Others

    1994-01-01

    Recently, the popularity of butterfly watching has skyrocketed, and Higbee Beach Wildlife Management Area has emerged as a mecca. This article describes the site, garden design, vegetation, planting and weeding strategies, and tips for using the garden as a model. Lists bloom periods for plant species used at the garden. (LZ)

  19. Beaches, Dunes, and Barrier Islands. Habitat Pac.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish and Wildlife Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    The materials in this educational packet are designed for use with students in grades 4 through 7. They consist of a leader overview, teaching guides and student data sheets for three activities, and a poster. The leader overview describes the nature of beaches, dunes, and barrier islands, tracing their development, settlement, and management and…

  20. Cosmology at the Beach Lecture: Wayne Hu

    ScienceCinema

    Wayne Hu

    2016-07-12

    Wayne Hu lectures on Secondary Anisotropy in the CMB. The lecture is the first in a series of 3 he delivered as part of the "Cosmology at the Beach" winter school organized by Berkeley Lab's George Smoot in Los Cabos, Mexico from Jan. 12-16, 2009.

  1. An Empirical Approach to Beach Nourishment Formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kana, Timothy W.; Kaczkowski, Haiqing Liu; Traynum, Steven B.

    This chapter presents an empirical approach to beach nourishment formulation that is applicable to a wide range of sites with and without quality historical surveys. It outlines some analytical methods used by the authors in over 35 nourishment projects which help lead to a rational design. The empirical approach depends on site-specific knowledge of regional geomorphology and littoral profile geometry, some measure of decadal-scale shoreline change, and at least one detailed condition survey of the beach zone. The basic quantities of interest are unit volumes (i.e. the volume of sand contained in a unit length of beach between the foredune or backshore point of interest and some reference offshore contour) as a simple objective indicator of beach health which can be directly compared with volumetric erosion rates and nourishment fill densities. The focus of the chapter is on initial project planning--establishing a frame of reference and applicable boundaries, and developing conceptual geomorphic models of the site; and on project formulation--defining a healthy profile volume, calculating sand deficits and volume erosion rates, and formulating nourishment requirements for a defined design life. Example applications are presented for the general case and a site on the USA East Coast.

  2. An Interview with Beatrice Beach Szekely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner-Khamsi, Gita

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Beatrice Beach Szekely, a comparative education scholar that specialized in the Soviet Union. She was editor of the journal "Soviet Education" from 1970 to 1989. During the interview, Szekely talked about how she became personally involved in Russian/Soviet studies of education. She related that…

  3. An Interview with Beatrice Beach Szekely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner-Khamsi, Gita

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Beatrice Beach Szekely, a comparative education scholar that specialized in the Soviet Union. She was editor of the journal "Soviet Education" from 1970 to 1989. During the interview, Szekely talked about how she became personally involved in Russian/Soviet studies of education. She related that…

  4. Cosmology at the Beach Lecture: Wayne Hu

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Hu

    2009-03-02

    Wayne Hu lectures on Secondary Anisotropy in the CMB. The lecture is the first in a series of 3 he delivered as part of the "Cosmology at the Beach" winter school organized by Berkeley Lab's George Smoot in Los Cabos, Mexico from Jan. 12-16, 2009.

  5. Creating the Higbee Beach Butterfly Garden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiles, Eric, And Others

    1994-01-01

    Recently, the popularity of butterfly watching has skyrocketed, and Higbee Beach Wildlife Management Area has emerged as a mecca. This article describes the site, garden design, vegetation, planting and weeding strategies, and tips for using the garden as a model. Lists bloom periods for plant species used at the garden. (LZ)

  6. Trophic niche shifts driven by phytoplankton in sandy beach ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergamino, Leandro; Martínez, Ana; Han, Eunah; Lercari, Diego; Defeo, Omar

    2016-10-01

    Stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) together with chlorophyll a and densities of surf diatoms were used to analyze changes in trophic niches of species in two sandy beaches of Uruguay with contrasting morphodynamics (i.e. dissipative vs. reflective). Consumers and food sources were collected over four seasons, including sediment organic matter (SOM), suspended particulate organic matter (POM) and the surf zone diatom Asterionellopsis guyunusae. Circular statistics and a Bayesian isotope mixing model were used to quantify food web differences between beaches. Consumers changed their trophic niche between beaches in the same direction of the food web space towards higher reliance on surf diatoms in the dissipative beach. Mixing models indicated that A. guyunusae was the primary nutrition source for suspension feeders in the dissipative beach, explaining their change in dietary niche compared to the reflective beach where the proportional contribution of surf diatoms was low. The high C/N ratios in A. guyunusae indicated its high nutritional value and N content, and may help to explain the high assimilation by suspension feeders at the dissipative beach. Furthermore, density of A. guyunusae was higher in the dissipative than in the reflective beach, and cell density was positively correlated with chlorophyll a only in the dissipative beach. Therefore, surf diatoms are important drivers in the dynamics of sandy beach food webs, determining the trophic niche space and productivity. Our study provides valuable insights on shifting foraging behavior by beach fauna in response to changes in resource availability.

  7. John Heron's six-category intervention analysis: towards understanding interpersonal relations and progressing the delivery of clinical supervision for mental health nursing in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Sloan, G; Watson, H

    2001-10-01

    This paper provides a critique of how Heron's six-category intervention analysis framework has been adopted by nursing in the United Kingdom (UK) as a theoretical framework in nursing research and model for clinical supervision. From this, its merits as an analytic framework and model for clinical supervision in nursing are discussed. Heron's six-category intervention analysis has been acknowledged as a means by which nursing could develop its therapeutic integrity. It has also been used as a theoretical framework in nursing research focusing on nurses' perceptions of their interpersonal style. More recently descriptions of this framework have been proposed as a structure for clinical supervision. However, its use as a theoretical framework to underpin research investigating the interpersonal skills of nurses and as a model of clinical supervision must firstly be scrutinized. Returning to Heron's original description and comparing this with its current adoption in the UK, misconceptions of this framework can be identified. Its value as an analytic tool investigating interpersonal relations in nursing has still to be evaluated. Furthermore, nursing's emphasis on certain intervention categories has undermined the potential potency of this framework and its contribution as a model for clinical supervision in nursing. We argue that Heron's six-category intervention analysis as a framework to investigate the interpersonal competence of nurses, particularly mental health nurses, requires investigation. This, in turn, would provide an opportunity to challenge the framework's theoretical standpoint. In addition to its value as an analytic tool, all six categories of Heron's framework have equal relevance to its contribution in nursing as a supervision model.

  8. Ice rafts not sails: Floating the rocks at Racetrack Playa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Ralph D.; Jackson, Brian K.; Barnes, Jason W.; Spitale, Joe; Keller, John M.

    2011-01-01

    We suggest that the existence of many of the rock-carved trails at Racetrack Playa in Death Valley National Park is predominantly due to the effect of arbitrarily weak winds on rocks that are floated off the soft bed by small rafts of ice, as also occurs in arctic tidal beaches to form boulder barricades. These ice cakes need not have a particularly large surface area if the ice is adequately thick—the ice cakes allow the rocks to move by buoyantly reducing the reaction and friction forces at the bed, not by increasing the wind drag. The parameter space of ice thickness and extent versus rock size for flotation is calculated and found to be reasonable. We demonstrate the effect with a simple experiment.

  9. Organochlorine and metal contaminant exposure and effects in hatching black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) in Delaware Bay.

    PubMed

    Rattner, B A; Hoffman, D J; Melancon, M J; Olsen, G H; Schmidt, S R; Parsons, K C

    2000-07-01

    Pea Patch Island in Delaware Bay is the site of the largest heronry north of Florida. From 1989-93, the population of nine species of wading birds numbered approximately 12,000 pairs, but has recently declined to about 7,000 pairs. Because Delaware Bay is a major shipping channel and receives anthropogenic releases of toxic substances from agricultural, industrial, and municipal point and nonpoint sources, contaminant exposure and effects to the heronry have been an ongoing concern. In 1997, pipping (early hatching stage) black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) were collected from separate nests at Pea Patch Island and from a coastal reference site, Middle Island in Rehoboth Bay, Delaware. There was no evidence of malformations or hepatic histopathological lesions in embryos, and their body and liver weights did not differ between sites. Biomarkers of petroleum hydrocarbons, polyhalogenated contaminant, and metal exposure (cytochrome P450 induction and oxidative stress responses) did not differ (p > 0.05) between sites, although activities of benzyloxy-O-dealkylase and ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase were somewhat elevated in 3 of the 15 embryos collected from Pea Patch Island. Concentrations of 21 organochlorine pesticides and metabolites were relatively low at both sites, with p,p'-DDE values well below the threshold associated with eggshell thinning. Although total PCB concentration was modestly elevated (p < 0.05) in Pea Patch Island heron embryos, levels of arylhydrocarbon receptor-active PCB congeners, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans, and toxic equivalents were low and did not differ between sites. Concentrations of Cd and Mn in pipping embryos from Pea Patch Island were slightly greater (p < 0.05) than values observed in Middle Island embryos, but levels of these and the other metals and metalloids (e.g., Hg and Se) were below values associated with toxicity. In conclusion, it seems unlikely that chlorinated hydrocarbon and metal

  10. Organochlorine and metal contaminant exposure and effects in hatching Black-Crowned Night Herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) in Delaware Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Hoffman, D.J.; Melancon, M.J.; Olsen, G.H.; Schmidt, S.R.; Parsons, K.C.

    2000-01-01

    Pea Patch Island in Delaware Bay is the site of the largest heronry north of Florida. From 1989-93, the population of nine species of wading birds numbered approximately 12,000 pairs, but has recently declined to about 7,000 pairs. Because Delaware Bay is a major shipping channel and receives anthropogenic releases of toxic substances from agricultural, industrial, and municipal point and non-point sources, contaminant exposure and effects to the heronry have been an ongoing concern. In 1997, pipping (early hatching stage) black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) were collected from separate nests at Pea Patch Island and from a coastal reference site, Middle Island in Rehoboth Bay, Delaware. There was no evidence of malformations or hepatic histopathological lesions in embryos, and their body and liver weights did not differ between sites. Biomarkers of petroleum hydrocarbons, polyhalogenated contaminant, and metal exposure (cytochrome P450 induction and oxidative stress responses) did not differ (p > 0.05) between sites, although activities of benzyloxy-O-dealkylase and ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase were somewhat elevated in 3 of the 15 embryos collected from Pea Patch Island. Concentrations of 21 organochlorine pesticides and metabolites were relatively low at both sites, with p,p'-DDE values well below the threshold associated with eggshell thinning. Although total PCB concentration was modestly elevated (p < 0.05) in Pea Patch Island heron embryos, levels of arylhydrocarbon receptor-active PCB congeners, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans, and toxic equivalents were low and did not differ between sites. Concentrations of Cd and Mn in pipping embryos from Pea Patch Island were slightly greater (p < 0.05) than values observed in Middle Island embryos, but levels of these and the other metals and metalloids (e.g., Hg and Se) were below values associated with toxicity. In conclusion, it seems unlikely that chlorinated hydrocarbon and metal

  11. A Rock Encyclopedia That Includes Rock Samples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laznicka, Peter

    1981-01-01

    Described is a rock encyclopedia combining rock sample sets and encyclopedic word and picture entries which can be used as a realistic information resource for independent study or as a part of a course. (JT)

  12. Distribution, species abundance, and nesting-site use of Atlantic coast colonies of herons and their allies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Osborn, R.G.; Stout, W.F.

    1980-01-01

    In 1975 and 1976, eight teams of investigators located 262 colonies of nesting herons and their allies along the Atlantic coast from Florida to Maine. Fourteen species were found in Florida, numbers decreasing to seven in Maine. Colonies censused in the extreme south and north of the study area were lower in number of species and number of adults than those in the intermediate area. More than 90% of the colony sites surveyed in 1975 were active in 1976. The total number of nesting adults per colony, number of species per colony, and number of nestinga dults of each speciesp er colonyi n 1976 were significantlyc orrelatedw ith their respective values for 1975. Abandoned and new colonies appeared to be satellites of nearby reused colonies; they had fewer individuals and species than reused colonies and were closer to reused colonies than reused colonies were to each other.

  13. Cytochrome b sequences in black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) from heronries exposed to genotoxic contaminants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dahl, Christopher R.; Bickham, John W.; Wickliffe, Jeffery K.; Custer, Thomas W.

    2001-01-01

    DNA sequence analysis of a 215 base-pair region of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene was used to examine genetic variation and search for evidence of an increased mutation rate in black-crowned night-herons. We examined five populations exposed to environmental contamination (primarily PAHs and PCBs) and one reference population from the eastern U.S. There was no evidence of a high mutation rate even within populations previously shown to exhibit increased variation in DNA content among somatic cells as a result of petroleum exposure. Three haplotypes were observed among 99 individuals. The low level of variability could be evidence for a genetic bottleneck, or that cytochrome b is too conservative for use in population genetic studies of this species. With the exception of one population from Louisiana, pair-wise Phist estimates were very low, indicative of little population structure and potentially high rates of effective migration among populations.

  14. Egg size and laying order of snowy egrets, great egrets, and black-crowned night-herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Frederick, P.C.

    1990-01-01

    The nesting biology of the family Ardeidae (bitterns, herons, and egrets) has been intensively studied (e.g., Owen 1960, Milstein et al. 1970, Werschkul 1979), but egg size in relation to laying order bas not received attention. The last egg laid in gull and tern clutches is generally smaller than preceding eggs (e.g., Parsons 1970, Nisbet 1978). The relative size of the final egg in a clutch decreases with increased body size among bird species and this relationship may be correlated with an increased brood-reduction strategy (Slagsvold et al. 1984). Relative egg size could be an important component to brood reduction, because egg size can affect subsequent survival of young (Parsons 1970, Nisbet 1978, Lundberg and Vaisanen 1979).

  15. Cytochrome b sequences in black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) from heronries exposed to genotoxic contaminants.

    PubMed

    Dahl, C R; Bickham, J W; Wickliffe, J K; Custer, T W

    2001-10-01

    DNA sequence analysis of a 215 base-pair region of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene was used to examine genetic variation and search for evidence of an increased mutation rate in black-crowned night-herons. We examined five populations exposed to environmental contamination (primarily PAHs and PCBs) and one reference population from the eastern U.S. There was no evidence of a high mutation rate even within populations previously shown to exhibit increased variation in DNA content among somatic cells as a result of petroleum exposure. Three haplotypes were observed among 99 individuals. The low level of variability could be evidence for a genetic bottleneck, or that cytochrome b is too conservative for use in population genetic studies of this species. With the exception of one population from Louisiana, pair-wise Phist estimates were very low, indicative of little population structure and potentially high rates of effective migration among populations.

  16. Breeding success of a colony of Boat-billed Herons Cochlearius cochlearius (Ciconiiformes: Ardeidae) in pasturelands of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Jaime; Gil-Delgado, José A; Monrós, Juan S

    2006-12-01

    The breeding success of a double-brooding colony of Boat-billed Herons Cochlearius cochlearius was studied in pasturelands of Costa Rica. Mean clutch size in the first clutches (2.9 eggs/nest) was higher than in second and repeat clutches (2.3 eggs/nest). Breeding success was similar in the first attempt and second attempts (20.7% and 21.7%, respectively). In both attempts earlier nests enjoyed a higher breeding success. Starvation of the youngest chicks within the nest and destruction of nests by bad weather conditions were the main factors related to nestling death. No effects of human activity on the reproduction of the breeding colony were observed.

  17. Surface topography of two trematodes parasites infecting grey heron Ardea cinerea Jouyi (Aves, Ciconiiformes) in Qena, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ammar, Khalaf Nour Abd El-Wahed

    2015-04-01

    Apharyngostrigea ardeolina and Echinoparyphium recurvatum are two important digenean parasites that were recovered from small intestine of grey heron with an infection rate (16.2%) and (8.8%) respectively. The surface topography of two species was redescribed by both light and scanning electron microscopy. Using SEM studies showed that the body surface of two trematodes were covered by contact receptors, several types of sensory tegumental papillae which may have useful function in orientation and feeding through increasing the surface area of absorption, could also play a role in sensation or in selection of the materials for ingestion by the fluke. The head collar of E. recurvatum is reniform in shape, bearing uninterrupted double row of 41 collar finger-like spines, a total including 4 end group ones on both ventral corners., tegumental spines were tongue-shaped without a terminal tip.

  18. Dispersal and habitat use by post-fledging juvenile snowy egrets and black-crowned night-herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R.M.; Haig, J.G.; Stotts, D.B.; Hatfield, J.S.

    1996-01-01

    We studied the postfledging dispersal movements and habitat use of juvenile Snowy Egrets (Egretta thula) (SNEG) and Black-crowned Night-Herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) (BCNH) in coastal Virginia using a dye (picric acid) and radiotelemetry. Results from monitoring radiomarked birds revealed significant differences both years between species, with SNEGs dispersing more widely than BCNHs. BCNH juveniles usually remained south of Delaware, but SNEGs often moved into Delaware and southern New Jersey. The maximum dispersal distance found for a SNEG was ca 340 km north of the natal colony. Temporal patterns of movement followed logistic relationships, with rapid initial movements, but relatively few movements after about 23 weeks for most birds. Cumulative distances moved by juvenile SNEGs during AugustSeptember differed from 1992 to 1993. No such year difference was found for BCNHs. Compared to SNEGs, BCNHs used man-made impoundments relatively more often than natural wetlands; however no quantitative assessment of habitat preferences could be made.

  19. Relationships between sand and water quality at recreational beaches.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Matthew C; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Piggot, Alan M; Klaus, James S; Zhang, Yifan

    2011-12-15

    Enterococci are used to assess the risk of negative human health impacts from recreational waters. Studies have shown sustained populations of enterococci within sediments of beaches but comprehensive surveys of multiple tidal zones on beaches in a regional area and their relationship to beach management decisions are limited. We sampled three tidal zones on eight South Florida beaches in Miami-Dade and Broward counties and found that enterococci were ubiquitous within South Florida beach sands although their levels varied greatly both among the beaches and between the supratidal, intertidal and subtidal zones. The supratidal sands consistently had significantly higher (p < 0.003) levels of enterococci (average 40 CFU/g dry sand) than the other two zones. Levels of enterococci within the subtidal sand correlated with the average level of enterococci in the water (CFU/100mL) for the season during which samples were collected (r(s) = 0.73). The average sand enterococci content over all the zones on each beach correlated with the average water enterococci levels of the year prior to sand samplings (r(s) = 0.64) as well as the average water enterococci levels for the month after sand samplings (r(s) = 0.54). Results indicate a connection between levels of enterococci in beach water and sands throughout South Florida's beaches and suggest that the sands are one of the predominant reservoirs of enterococci impacting beach water quality. As a result, beaches with lower levels of enterococci in the sand had fewer exceedences relative to beaches with higher levels of sand enterococci. More research should focus on evaluating beach sand quality as a means to predict and regulate marine recreational water quality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Relationships Between Sand and Water Quality at Recreational Beaches

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Matthew C.; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.; Piggot, Alan M.; Klaus, James S.; Zhang, Yifan

    2011-01-01

    Enterococci are used to assess the risk of negative human health impacts from recreational waters. Studies have shown sustained populations of enterococci within sediments of beaches but comprehensive surveys of multiple tidal zones on beaches in a regional area and their relationship to beach management decisions are limited. We sampled three tidal zones on eight South Florida beaches in Miami-Dade and Broward counties and found that enterococci were ubiquitous within South Florida beach sands although their levels varied greatly both among the beaches and between the supratidal, intertidal and subtidal zones. The supratidal sands consistently had significantly higher (p<0.003) levels of enterococci (average 40 CFU/g dry sand) than the other two zones. Levels of enterococci within the subtidal sand correlated with the average level of enterococci in the water (CFU/100mL) for the season during which samples were collected (rs= 0.73). The average sand enterococci content over all the zones on each beach correlated with the average water enterococci levels of the year prior to sand samplings (rs=0.64) as well as the average water enterococci levels for the month after sand samplings (rs=0.54). Results indicate a connection between levels of enterococci in beach water and sands throughout South Florida’s beaches and suggest that the sands are one of the predominant reservoirs of enterococci impacting beach water quality. As a result, beaches with lower levels of enterococci in the sand had fewer exceedences relative to beaches with higher levels of sand enterococci. More research should focus on evaluating beach sand quality as a means to predict and regulate marine recreational water quality. PMID:22071324

  1. Lunar Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The second manned lunar landing mission, Apollo 12 launched from launch pad 39-A at Kennedy Space Center in Florida on November 14, 1969 via a Saturn V launch vehicle. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard Apollo 12 was a crew of three astronauts: Alan L. Bean, pilot of the Lunar Module (LM), Intrepid; Richard Gordon, pilot of the Command Module (CM), Yankee Clipper; and Spacecraft Commander Charles Conrad. The LM, Intrepid, landed astronauts Conrad and Bean on the lunar surface in what's known as the Ocean of Storms while astronaut Richard Gordon piloted the CM, Yankee Clipper, in a parking orbit around the Moon. Lunar soil activities included the deployment of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP), finding the unmanned Surveyor 3 that landed on the Moon on April 19, 1967, and collecting 75 pounds (34 kilograms) of rock samples, some of which can be seen in this photograph. Apollo 12 safely returned to Earth on November 24, 1969.

  2. Jurassic Beach: A depositional facies model for smackover stratigraphic traps in the Ark-La-Tex

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T.; Green, M.; Bruno, L.

    1994-12-31

    State Line field, Union County, Arkansas, produces oil from a five-well stratigraphic trap at 8,900 ft. Conventional cores were cut in all wells. Core studies show that the trapping porosity pinch-out is a facies change from lower foreshore to ooid beach. Sedimentation occurred along a high-energy coastline. Thus, the depositional setting at State Line field differs from the commonly accepted {open_quotes}oolite bar{close_quotes} model used for many other fields in the trend. Four facies were delineated: (1) siliciclastic lagoon (Buckner Formation), (2) ooid beach, (3) oncoid-ooid lower foreshore, and (4) patch reef. Intergranular porosity is facies selective, found mainly in the poorly sorted lower foreshore facies. Cross-stratification and the absence of lime mud indicate high-energy conditions. Porosity and permeability in the lower foreshore facies average 10.9 percent and 496 md, respectively. The ooid beach facies is characterized by well-sorted, crossbedded, and massive ooid grainstones that tend to be extensively calcite cemented. Porosity and permeability values are generally below 2 percent and 1 md, respectively, although they can be higher adjacent to porous lower foreshore strata. The top of the Smackover is a transition from high-energy, sandy ooid beach (grainstone) to low-permeability, lagoonal siliciclastics, which seal the reservoir. Depositional features suggesting tidal channels at the east and west ends of the field support a bench and/or barrier island interpretation. Coral-algal boundstones of the patch reef facies are thin, local, and not of reservoir quality. The value of predicting reservoir trends from cores is shown by a successful 400-ft sidetrack away from a borehole with no reservoir facies or oil shows. A slabbed {open_quotes}piece of the rock{close_quotes} can pay off in Smackover development.

  3. Organochlorine compounds in Purple Heron eggs (Ardea purpurea) nesting in sites located around a chlor-alkali plant (Ebro River).

    PubMed

    Huertas, David; Grimalt, Joan O; Jover, Lluís; Sanpera, Carola; Ruiz, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Eggs of Purple Heron (Ardea purpurea) were collected from three sampled sites inside the Ebro River basin in years 2006 and 2007. These sites were located besides (Flix), upstream (Aiguabarreig) and downstream (Delta) a chlor-alkali plant. Organochlorine compounds (OCs) such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), polychlorostyrenes (PCSs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were analysed to assess what are the accumulation patterns of these compounds in aquatic migratory birds breeding in the area of influence of the emissions from this industrial installation. Comparison of the egg concentrations between the three sites show higher concentrations of compounds manufactured in the past in the factory (PCBs, p,p'-DDT) or by-products of OC synthesis (HCB, PeCB and PCSs) in Flix than in Aiguabarreig reflecting a clear influence from the emissions of the chlor-alkali plant. The eggs collected in the Ebro Delta showed higher concentrations of total DDTs (mainly p,p'-DDE) than in the reference site (Aiguabarreig) which could reflect past applications of this insecticide in the area for agriculture. In contrast, HCHs were found in higher concentrations in the Delta and Aiguabarreig than in the Flix Reservoir. These compounds have been used as insecticides in agriculture and were not manufactured in the chlor-alkali plant. The present results show that despite Purple Herons are migratory birds, the food web transfer of OCs during the breeding season is sufficient for the accumulation of these compounds in the eggs, leading to statistically significant concentration differences between sites. These differences are consistent with the emissions of these pollutants from industrial or agricultural sources to the aquatic environments. Some of the p,p'-DDE concentrations observed in the area nearby the chlor-alkali plant are above the threshold effects for reproductive impairment.

  4. Integrated protecting plan for beach erosion. A case study in Plaka beach, E. Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrakis, Stelios; Alexandrakis, George; Kozyrakis, George; Hatziyanni, Eleni; Kampanis, Nikolaos

    2015-04-01

    Coastal zones are among the most active areas on Earth, being subjected to extreme wind / wave conditions, thus vulnerable to erosion. In Greece and Crete in particular, beach zones are extremely important for the welfare of the inhabitants, since, apart for the important biological and archaeological value of the beach zones, the socio-economic value is critical since a great number of human activities are concentrated in such areas (touristic facilities, fishing harbors etc.). The present study investigates the erosional procedures observed in Plaka beach, E. Crete, Greece, a highly touristic developed area with great archaeological interest and proposes a cost-effective solution. The factors taken into consideration for the proposed solution in reducing the erosion of the beach were the study of the climatological, geological and geomorphological regime of the area, the recent (~70 years) shifting of the coastline through the study of topographic maps, aerial photographs and satellite images, the creation of detailed bathymetric and seabed classification maps of the area and finally, a risk analysis in terms of erosional phenomena. On the basis of the above, it is concluded that the area under investigation is subjected to an erosional rate of about 1 m/10 years and the total land-loss for the past 70 years is about 4600 m2. Through the simulation of the wave regime we studied 3 possible scenarios, the "do-nothing" scenario, the construction of a detached submerged breakwater at the depth of 3 meters and, finally, the armoring of the existing beach-wall through the placement of appropriate size and material boulders, forming an artificial slope for the reducing of the wave breaking energy and a small scale nourishment plan. As a result, through the modeling of the above, the most appropriate and cost-effective solution was found to be the third, armoring of the existing coastal wall and nourishment of the beach periodically, thus the further undermining of the

  5. Use of a mobile terrestrial laser system to quantify the impact of rigid coastal protective structures on sandy beaches, Quebec, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van-Wierts, S.; Bernatchez, P.

    2012-04-01

    Coastal erosion is an important issue within the St-Lawrence estuary and gulf, especially in zones of unconsolidated material. Wide beaches are important coastal environments; they act as a buffer against breaking waves by absorbing and dissipating their energy, thus reducing the rate of coastal erosion. They also offer protection to humans and nearby ecosystems, providing habitat for plants, animals and lifeforms such as algae and microfauna. Conventional methods, such as aerial photograph analysis, fail to adequately quantify the morphosedimentary behavior of beaches at the scale of a hydrosedimentary cells. The lack of reliable and quantitative data leads to considerable errors of overestimation and underestimation of sediment budgets. To address these gaps and to minimize acquisition costs posed by airborne LiDAR survey, a mobile terrestrial LiDAR has been set up to acquire topographic data of the coastal zone. The acquisition system includes a LiDAR sensor, a high precision navigation system (GPS-INS) and a video camera. Comparison of LiDAR data with 1050 DGPS control points shows a vertical mean absolute error of 0.1 m in beach areas. The extracted data is used to calculate sediment volumes, widths, slopes, and a sediment budget index. A high accuracy coastal characterization is achieved through the integration of laser data and video. The main objective of this first project using this system is to quantify the impact of rigid coastal protective structures on sediment budget and beach morphology. Results show that the average sediment volume of beaches located before a rock armour barrier (12 m3/m) were three times narrower than for natural beaches (35,5 m3/m). Natural beaches were also found to have twice the width (25.4 m) of the beaches bordering inhabited areas (12.7 m). The development of sediment budget index for beach areas is an excellent proxy to quickly identify deficit areas and therefore the coastal segments most at risk of erosion. The obtained

  6. Measurement of natural radioactivity in beach sands from Rizhao bathing beach, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xinwei; Zhang, Xiaolan

    2008-01-01

    The natural radioactivity of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K was determined for beach sand samples collected from Rizhao bathing beach, China, using gamma ray spectrometry. The measured activity in beach sand ranges from 7.6 to 17.2, 7.8 to 25.1 and 883.4 to 1313.6 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K with mean values of 12.0, 15.2 and 1079.2 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra and (232)Th in beach sands are lower, while (40)K is higher than the world average. The radium equivalent activity in all beach sand samples is lower than the safe limit set in the OECD report (370 Bq kg(-1)). The values of the external hazard index are less than unity. The mean outdoor air absorbed dose rate is 59.8 nGy h(-1) and the corresponding outdoor effective dose rate is 0.073 mSv y(-1).

  7. Rescues conducted by surfers on Australian beaches.

    PubMed

    Attard, Anna; Brander, Robert W; Shaw, Wendy S

    2015-09-01

    This study describes the demographics, occurrence, location, primary hazards and outcomes involved in rescues performed by surfers on Australian beaches. Conservative estimates suggest that the number of rescues conducted by Australian surfers each year is on par with the number conducted by volunteer surf lifesavers. Surfers perform a considerable number of serious rescues in both lifesaver/lifeguard patrolled (45%) and unpatrolled (53%) beach locations. Rip currents represent the major physical hazard leading to rescue (75%) and the dominant emotional response of people rescued is one of panic (85%). Most surfer rescue events occur during conditions of moderate waves and sunny, fine weather with the highest proportion of rescues occurring on quiet beaches with few people around (26%). Swimming is the activity associated with most rescue events (63%), followed by board riding (25%). Males aged 18-29 represent the largest demographic of people rescued. Surfers with prior water-safety training are more likely to perform a higher number of rescues, however ability to perform rescues is not associated with formal training, but rather number of years' experience surfing. Seventy-eight percent of surfers were happy to help, while 28% expressed feelings of annoyance or inconvenience, generally towards unwary swimmers. Results of this research suggest that 63% of surfers feel they have saved a life. This value may be enhanced through improved training of surfers in basic water safety rescue techniques. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Tidal flow separation at protruding beach nourishments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radermacher, Max; de Schipper, Matthieu A.; Swinkels, Cilia; MacMahan, Jamie H.; Reniers, Ad J. H. M.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the application of large-scale beach nourishments has been discussed, with the Sand Motor in the Netherlands as the first real-world example. Such protruding beach nourishments have an impact on tidal currents, potentially leading to tidal flow separation and the generation of tidal eddies of length scales larger than the nourishment itself. The present study examines the characteristics of the tidal flow field around protruding beach nourishments under varying nourishment geometry and tidal conditions, based on extensive field observations and numerical flow simulations. Observations of the flow field around the Sand Motor, obtained with a ship-mounted current profiler and a set of fixed current profilers, show that a tidal eddy develops along the northern edge of the mega-nourishment every flood period. The eddy is generated around peak tidal flow and gradually gains size and strength, growing much larger than the cross-shore dimension of the coastline perturbation. Based on a 3 week measurement period, it is shown that the intensity of the eddy modulates with the spring-neap tidal cycle. Depth-averaged tidal currents around coastline perturbations are simulated and compared to the field observations. The occurrence and behavior of tidal eddies is derived for a large set of simulations with varying nourishment size and shape. Results show that several different types of behavior exist, characterized by different combinations of the nourishment aspect ratio, the size of the nourishment relative to the tidal excursion length, and the influence of bed friction.

  9. Intensified coastal development behind nourished beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Scott; Lazarus, Eli; Limber, Patrick; Goldstein, Evan; Thorpe, Curtis; Ballinger, Rhoda

    2016-04-01

    Population density, housing development, and property values in coastal counties along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts continue to rise despite increasing hazard from storm impacts. Since the 1970s, beach nourishment, which involves importing sand to deliberately widen an eroding beach, has been the main strategy in the U.S. for protecting coastal properties from erosion and flooding hazards. Paradoxically, investment in hazard protection may intensify development. Here, we examine the housing stock of all existing shorefront single-family homes in Florida - a microcosm of U.S. coastal hazards and development - to quantitatively compare development in nourishing and non-nourishing towns. We find that nourishing towns now account for more than half of Florida's coastline, and that houses in nourishing towns are larger and more numerous. Even as the mean size of single-family homes nationwide has grown steadily since 1970, Florida's shorefront stock has exceeded the national average by 34%, and in nourishing towns by 45%. This emergent disparity between nourishing and non-nourishing towns in Florida demonstrates a pattern of intensifying coastal risk, and is likely representative of a dominant trend in coastal development more generally. These data lend empirical support to the hypothesis that US coastal development and hazard mitigation through beach nourishment have become dynamically coupled.

  10. Textural analysis of Point Calimere beach sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeyapal, K. A.

    2013-05-01

    Grain size analysis helps to identify the nature of coastal and sedimentary environments.This parameters provide an insight in to the nature and the energy flux of the transporting agents and their nature of depositional environment. The Beach sediments from the Point Calimere coast are studied for analysis the impact of wave action over the coast. Cauvery and its tributaries are the Chief source for sediments are by the deposits. This dynamic coast of South India is reported to have accretion and erosion at invariably high degrees. Also the impact of land ocean interaction is at high intensity. Further there are chains of Dunes along this coast. The geomorphology of this coast is not a uniform stretch, it has curvature Point Calimere in the south and straight coast towards North. wave properties like reflection, refraction and diffraction are noticed along the study area. Beach Samples were collected along selected zones and their properties were studied in laboratory after sieving half phi interval. Mean mode, sorting, skewness and other statistics are calculated using moment and Folk and Ward graphical methods. This region has three different zones of waves and this wave impact shapes the coast. In few zones erosion were noticed and in few sited deposition Results expressed in metric units, provided of compositionally variable sediments. . The statistical results and field surveys of Point Calimere beach sand samples reveal sediment accretion and wave environments respectivelyGeographic coordinates of sampling stationt; t;

  11. Significance of beach geomorphology on fecal indicator bacteria levels.

    PubMed

    Donahue, Allison; Feng, Zhixuan; Kelly, Elizabeth; Reniers, Ad; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M

    2017-08-15

    Large databases of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) measurements are available for coastal waters. With the assistance of satellite imagery, we illustrated the power of assessing data for many sites by evaluating beach features such as geomorphology, distance from rivers and canals, presence of piers and causeways, and degree of urbanization coupled with the enterococci FIB database for the state of Florida. We found that beach geomorphology was the primary characteristic associated with enterococci levels that exceeded regulatory guidelines. Beaches in close proximity to marshes or within bays had higher enterococci exceedances in comparison to open coast beaches. For open coast beaches, greater enterococci exceedances were associated with nearby rivers and higher levels of urbanization. Piers and causeways had a minimal contribution, as their effect was often overwhelmed by beach geomorphology. Results can be used to understand the potential causes of elevated enterococci levels and to promote public health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Understanding beach health throughout the Great Lakes -- continuing research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2012-01-01

    The overall mission of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Beach Health Initiative is to provide science-based information and methods that will allow beach managers to more accurately make beach closure and advisory decisions, understand the sources and physical processes affecting beach contaminants, and understand how science-based information can be used to mitigate and restore beaches and protect the public. The USGS, in collaboration with many Federal, State, and local agencies and universities, has conducted research on beach-health issues in the Great Lakes Region for more than a decade. The work consists of four science elements that align with the initiative's mission: real-time assessments of water quality; coastal processes; pathogens and source tracking; and data analysis, interpretation, and communication. The ongoing or completed research for each of these elements is described in this fact sheet.

  13. 109. VIEW OF SOUTHEAST SIDE OF PIER TAKEN FROM BEACH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    109. VIEW OF SOUTHEAST SIDE OF PIER TAKEN FROM BEACH, LOOKING WEST. VIEW SHOWS ART DECO BUILDINGS ADDED IN 1931 AND 5TH TEE ADDED IN 1940 Photograph #5369-HB. Photographer unknown, c. 1945, based on clothing of sunbathers; view probably taken in mid-1945 after the U.S. Army vacated the pier and it was reopened to the public. - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  14. Shifts in the microbial community composition of Gulf Coast beaches following beach oiling.

    PubMed

    Newton, Ryan J; Huse, Susan M; Morrison, Hilary G; Peake, Colin S; Sogin, Mitchell L; McLellan, Sandra L

    2013-01-01

    Microorganisms associated with coastal sands serve as a natural biofilter, providing essential nutrient recycling in nearshore environments and acting to maintain coastal ecosystem health. Anthropogenic stressors often impact these ecosystems, but little is known about whether these disturbances can be identified through microbial community change. The blowout of the Macondo Prospect reservoir on April 20, 2010, which released oil hydrocarbons into the Gulf of Mexico, presented an opportunity to examine whether microbial community composition might provide a sensitive measure of ecosystem disturbance. Samples were collected on four occasions, beginning in mid-June, during initial beach oiling, until mid-November from surface sand and surf zone waters at seven beaches stretching from Bay St. Louis, MS to St. George Island, FL USA. Oil hydrocarbon measurements and NOAA shoreline assessments indicated little to no impact on the two most eastern beaches (controls). Sequence comparisons of bacterial ribosomal RNA gene hypervariable regions isolated from beach sands located to the east and west of Mobile Bay in Alabama demonstrated that regional drivers account for markedly different bacterial communities. Individual beaches had unique community signatures that persisted over time and exhibited spatial relationships, where community similarity decreased as horizontal distance between samples increased from one to hundreds of meters. In contrast, sequence analyses detected larger temporal and less spatial variation among the water samples. Superimposed upon these beach community distance and time relationships, was increased variability in bacterial community composition from oil hydrocarbon contaminated sands. The increased variability was observed among the core, resident, and transient community members, indicating the occurrence of community-wide impacts rather than solely an overprinting of oil hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria onto otherwise relatively stable sand

  15. Shifts in the Microbial Community Composition of Gulf Coast Beaches Following Beach Oiling

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Ryan J.; Huse, Susan M.; Morrison, Hilary G.; Peake, Colin S.; Sogin, Mitchell L.; McLellan, Sandra L.

    2013-01-01

    Microorganisms associated with coastal sands serve as a natural biofilter, providing essential nutrient recycling in nearshore environments and acting to maintain coastal ecosystem health. Anthropogenic stressors often impact these ecosystems, but little is known about whether these disturbances can be identified through microbial community change. The blowout of the Macondo Prospect reservoir on April 20, 2010, which released oil hydrocarbons into the Gulf of Mexico, presented an opportunity to examine whether microbial community composition might provide a sensitive measure of ecosystem disturbance. Samples were collected on four occasions, beginning in mid-June, during initial beach oiling, until mid-November from surface sand and surf zone waters at seven beaches stretching from Bay St. Louis, MS to St. George Island, FL USA. Oil hydrocarbon measurements and NOAA shoreline assessments indicated little to no impact on the two most eastern beaches (controls). Sequence comparisons of bacterial ribosomal RNA gene hypervariable regions isolated from beach sands located to the east and west of Mobile Bay in Alabama demonstrated that regional drivers account for markedly different bacterial communities. Individual beaches had unique community signatures that persisted over time and exhibited spatial relationships, where community similarity decreased as horizontal distance between samples increased from one to hundreds of meters. In contrast, sequence analyses detected larger temporal and less spatial variation among the water samples. Superimposed upon these beach community distance and time relationships, was increased variability in bacterial community composition from oil hydrocarbon contaminated sands. The increased variability was observed among the core, resident, and transient community members, indicating the occurrence of community-wide impacts rather than solely an overprinting of oil hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria onto otherwise relatively stable sand

  16. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - A Great Blue Heron takes flight from waters on KSC. It is one of 310 species of birds that inhabit the National Merritt Island Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with KSC. The marshes and open water of the refuge also provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-07-29

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - A Great Blue Heron takes flight from waters on KSC. It is one of 310 species of birds that inhabit the National Merritt Island Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with KSC. The marshes and open water of the refuge also provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds.

  17. Summer E. coli patterns and responses along 23 Chicago beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitman, R.L.; Nevers, M.B.

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of E. coli in recreational beach water are highly variable both locally and temporally, but a broader understanding of these fluctuations may be explained through coastal observations. Currently, beach contamination study approaches tend to be site-specific underthe belief that politically delineated beaches are unique and management of beaches cannot be regionally oriented. E. coli data collected over five years from 23 Chicago beaches clearly identified ambient linked patterns at the regional scale. Temporal fluctuations were similar, with all beaches having simultaneous peaks and troughs of E. coli concentrations. Spatially, E. coli concentrations for beaches more closely situated were more closely correlated, indicating spatial autocorrelation. Julian day, wave height, and barometric pressure explained up to 40% of the variation, a value comparable to individual, less parsimonious site-specific models. Day of sampling could explain the majority of the variation in E. coli concentrations, more so than beach, depth, or time of day. Comparing beaches along a targeted coastline allows a better understanding of inherent background regional fluctuations and, ultimately, better predictions of E. coli concentrations in coastal recreational water.

  18. Summer E. coli patterns and responses along 23 Chicago beaches.

    PubMed

    Whitman, Richard L; Nevers, Meredith B

    2008-12-15

    Concentrations of E. coli in recreational beach water are highly variable both locally and temporally, but a broader understanding of these fluctuations may be explained through coastal observations. Currently, beach contamination study approaches tend to be site-specific under the belief that politically delineated beaches are unique and management of beaches cannot be regionally oriented. E. coli data collected over five years from 23 Chicago beaches clearly identified ambient linked patterns at the regional scale. Temporal fluctuations were similar, with all beaches having simultaneous peaks and troughs of E. coli concentrations. Spatially, E. coli concentrations for beaches more closely situated were more closely correlated, indicating spatial autocorrelation. Julian day, wave height, and barometric pressure explained up to 40% of the variation, a value comparable to individual, less parsimonious site-specific models. Day of sampling could explain the majority of the variation in E. coli concentrations, more so than beach, depth, or time of day. Comparing beaches along a targeted coastline allows a better understanding of inherent background regional fluctuations and, ultimately, better predictions of E. coli concentrations in coastal recreational water.

  19. Shore litter along sandy beaches of the Gulf of Oman.

    PubMed

    Claereboudt, Michel R

    2004-11-01

    Beach debris abundance and weight were estimated from surveys on 11 beaches of the Gulf of Oman along the Omani coast. Debris were collected on two occasions from 100 m transects, sorted and categorized by origin and type. Overall contaminations ranged from 0.43 to 6.01 items m(-1) of beach front on different beaches with a mean value of 1.79+/-1.04 gm(-1) (95% C.I). In terms of weight, contamination levels ranged from 7.8 to 75.44 gm(-1) of beach front with a mean contamination of 27.02+/-14.48 gm(-1) (95% C.I). In terms of numbers of items, plastic debris ranked first on all beaches followed by either wood items or other organic materials such as cigarette butts. Industrial debris remained few on all beaches (<10%). Most debris had a local origin and, in terms of numbers, were associated with beach recreational activities whereas fishing debris represented the largest proportion of the debris in terms of weight. There were notable differences between beaches in the relative abundance of recreation-related and fishing-related debris.

  20. Changes along a seawall and natural beaches: Fourchon, LA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mossa, Joann; Nakashima, Lindsay D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper compares shoreline and beach morphology changes and responses to storms from 1985 to 1988 along sections of a rapidly eroding coast at the Bayou Lafourche headland, Louisiana. A beach consisting of a cement-filled bag seawall and nourishment was compared with natural beaches to the west and east of the project. Local patterns of beach response could be attributed to several recent processes and historical conditions. Hurricane Gilbert, which made landfall in Mexico, caused about 70% of the sediment loss on both the artificially-stablized and the natural shorelines over this three-year period.

  1. Rollerjaw Rock Crusher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Gregory; Brown, Kyle; Fuerstenau, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The rollerjaw rock crusher melds the concepts of jaw crushing and roll crushing long employed in the mining and rock-crushing industries. Rollerjaw rock crushers have been proposed for inclusion in geological exploration missions on Mars, where they would be used to pulverize rock samples into powders in the tens of micrometer particle size range required for analysis by scientific instruments.

  2. 75 FR 23588 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Riviera Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ..., Riviera Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from regulations..., at Riviera Beach, Palm Beach County, Florida. The deviation is necessary to allow timely bridge...

  3. Using a watershed-centric approach to identify potentially impacted beaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beaches can be affected by a variety of contaminants. Of particular concern are beaches impacted by human fecal contamination and urban runoff. This poster demonstrates a methodology to identify potentially impacted beaches using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Since h...

  4. Using a watershed-centric approach to identify potentially impacted beaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beaches can be affected by a variety of contaminants. Of particular concern are beaches impacted by human fecal contamination and urban runoff. This poster demonstrates a methodology to identify potentially impacted beaches using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Since h...

  5. Predicting Fecal Indicator Bacteria Concentrations in the South Fork Broad River Watershed Using Virtual Beach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Virtual Beach (VB) is a decision support tool that constructs site-specific statistical models to predict fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) at recreational beaches. Although primarily designed for making decisions regarding beach closures or issuance of swimming advisories based on...

  6. Predicting Fecal Indicator Bacteria Concentrations in the South Fork Broad River Watershed Using Virtual Beach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Virtual Beach (VB) is a decision support tool that constructs site-specific statistical models to predict fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) at recreational beaches. Although primarily designed for making decisions regarding beach closures or issuance of swimming advisories based on...

  7. Accelerated Weathering of Rocks.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-08-01

    Dry tests en polished specimens with alternating heating and co- oling actions; ii) Wet tests in destilled water, with alternating...Rock-type Dry tests KxlO2 Wet tests KxlO2 Sound rock SR 3.64 8.31 Medium altered rock MAR 4.96 31.58 Very altered rock VAR 8.89 116.20 TABLE X...Sound rock SR Medium altered rock Very altered rock" KAR VAR ’ Reflectivity R (%) dry test wet test dry test wet test dry test wet

  8. An evaluation of the effects of persistent environmental contaminants on the reproductive success of Great Blue Herons (Ardea herodias) in Indiana.

    PubMed

    Baker, S D; Sepúlveda, M S

    2009-04-01

    Contaminants in Great Blue Herons (Ardea herodias) from Indiana were quantified to determine if levels were high enough to impair reproduction. During 2005 and 2006, 35 eggs were collected from 6 colonies and analyzed for contaminants. Between 30 and 101 nests were monitored in 7 colonies weekly over a 3-month period to determine reproductive and fledging success. Average levels (+/-SD) of polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and organochlorine pesticides in egg yolks were 3,101 (+/-4,737), 7.20 (+/-2.96), and 2,869 (+/-2,291) ppb, respectively. Reproductive success (average number of chicks fledged per active nest) and fledging success (number of chicks fledged per successful nest) averaged 1.52 and 1.92 chicks, respectively. Contaminant levels measured in eggs from this region are comparable to those observed not having affects on reproductive success elsewhere; therefore, factors other than environmental contamination may be affecting reproductive success of Great Blue Herons in study colonies.

  9. [The occurrence of Escherichia coli, Aeromonas hydrophila, Plesiomonas shigelloides and Clostridium perfringens in the intestinal flora of gray herons (Ardea cinerea)].

    PubMed

    Glünder, G

    1989-05-01

    The flora of the large intestine of 92 grey herons was examined for the frequency of aerobic and microaerobic growing bacteria. Clostridium perfringens, Aeromonas hydrophila, Plesiomonas shigelloides and E. coli were isolated from 55%, 48%, 14% and 35% of the birds, respectively. It could be demonstrated that the findings of these bacteria in the intestinal flora are depending on the age of the birds. The percentage of carriers of Clostridium perfringens, Aeromonas hydrophila and Plesiomonas shigelloides was highest in nestlings younger than 18 days, less high in older nestlings and lowest in adult grey herons. Contrary to those bacteria, E. coli was found more often in the intestinal flora at increasing age of the birds. Salmonella spp. were isolated from 6 birds. Two birds yielded positive for Yersinia enterocolitica and Campylobacter spp., respectively. Other aerobic and microaerobic bacteria play a less significant role as part of the intestinal flora.

  10. Beyond beach width: Steps toward identifying and integrating ecological envelopes with geomorphic features and datums for sandy beach ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugan, Jenifer E.; Hubbard, David M.; Quigley, Brenna J.

    2013-10-01

    Our understanding of ecological responses to climatic and anthropogenic forcing lags far behind that of physical or geomorphic responses for beach ecosystems. Reconciling geomorphic features of beaches with ecological features, such as intertidal zones and mobile biota that are not described by beach width alone, could help address this issue. First, although intertidal zones characterized by distinct groups of mobile burrowing animals are described for beaches, the locations and elevations of these zones do not coincide with standard shoreline datums. Second, intertidal zonation on beaches is extremely dynamic due to the combination of unstable sandy substrate and a highly mobile biota; shifting strongly with tides, waves, storms, and beach conditions. We propose that beach biota use ecological "envelopes" of cross-shore habitat to cope with constantly changing beach conditions. We estimated the extent of these "envelopes" for a variety of taxa on tidal to daily, semi-lunar and seasonal to annual time scales, using literature values on cross-shore animal movements and a field study of the positions of intertidal beds of two species of typical mid and upper shore beach invertebrates. Daily or tidal cross-shore movement varied most (1 m to 100 m) with daily "envelopes" covering 7% to 85% of the available beach width. Semi-lunar movement (12 m) and envelopes (28%) were relatively small, while estimated annual "envelopes" were large, averaging 61% of beach width. The large scope of annual ecological envelopes relative to beach widths reflects how intertidal animals escape seasonally extreme or episodically harsh conditions. Intertidal bed positions of a talitrid amphipod and an opheliid polychaete correlated well with selected beach features in our field study suggesting that incorporation of ecological envelopes in models of shoreline evolution may be feasible. Describing ecological zones in terms of more dynamic shoreline features, such as total water level (TWL

  11. The influence of anthropic actions on the evolution of an urban beach: Case study of Marineta Cassiana beach, Spain.

    PubMed

    Pagán, J I; Aragonés, L; Tenza-Abril, A J; Pallarés, P

    2016-07-15

    Coastal areas have been historically characterized as being a source of wealth. Nowadays, beaches have become more relevant as a place for rest and leisure. This had led to a very high population pressure due to rapid urbanisation processes. The impacts associated with coastal tourism, demand the development of anthropic actions to protect the shoreline. This paper has studied the impacts of these actions on the Marineta Cassiana beach, in Denia, Spain. This particular Mediterranean beach has traditionally suffered a major shoreline regression, and the beach nourishments carried out in the 1980s would not have achieved the reliability desired. This research has analysed the historic evolution of the beach and its environment for a period of 65years (1950-2015). A Geographic Information System (GIS) has been used to integrate and perform a spatial analysis of urban development, soil erosion, stream flow, swell, longshore transport, submerged vegetation species and shoreline evolution. The results show how the anthropic actions have affected the shoreline. After the excessive urban development of the catchments, there is no natural sediment supply to the beach. The change in the typology of the sediment, from pebbles to sand, during the beach nourishments has led to a crucial imbalance in the studied area. Moreover, the beach area gained has disappeared, affecting the Posidonia oceanica meadow, and incrementing the erosion rates. The findings obtained are relevant, not only in the management and maintenance of the beaches, but also, in the decision-making for future nourishments.

  12. Patterns of association between algae, fishes and grey herons Ardea cinerea in the rocky littoral zone of a Scottish sea loch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carss, D. N.; Elston, D. A.

    2003-10-01

    The distribution of dominant algae, Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum, the associated fish community, and the spatial and temporal distributions of the main piscivorous predator, the grey heron Ardea cinerea, were studied on the rocky intertidal zone of Loch Etive, a sea loch on the Scottish west coast. Fucus- and Ascophyllum-dominated shores were not distributed randomly around the shore: the latter was especially common along the more sheltered shores and bays and on the finer substratum types. Coverage and frond length of Ascophyllum were greater than for Fucus. Fourteen fish species were caught in the intertidal zone. Numerically, the catch was dominated by four species caught in Fucus- and Ascophyllum-dominated habitats in both winter and summer: Spinachia spinachia, Pholis gunnellus, Taurulus bubalis and Zoarces viviparus. A higher species richness and fish abundance were recorded on Ascophyllum shores than on Fucus ones in both seasons. On Loch Etive, grey herons foraged exclusively in the intertidal zone usually as solitary, well-spaced individuals. The models suggest the number of foraging birds tended to increase with increasing total algal area (i.e. the two dominant species plus Fucus serratus) and with area of Ascophyllum and decreased with increasing area of Fucus and distance from the breeding colony. Adult grey herons showed a preference for foraging in Ascophyllum habitat and first-years showed no preference, suggesting that Ascophyllum-dominated areas are optimal foraging habitats for coastal-living grey herons. One section of shore was particularly important in establishing these habitat relationships: an Ascophyllum-dominated section with the largest intertidal area and where the highest number of foraging adults but no first-years were recorded. Future conservation and management considerations for the rocky intertidal zone should include associated fish communities and their predators, for which this habitat, and Ascophyllum

  13. 75 FR 70351 - Termination of Environmental Review Process Cities of Chesapeake and Virginia Beach, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... Virginia Beach, VA AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Termination of environmental... the Cities of Chesapeake and Virginia Beach, Virginia, is terminated. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...

  14. Scattering from Rock and Rock Outcrops

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    slope was determined from high-resolution interferometric bathymetry so that the global grazing angle of the 5 ideal mean seafloor could be mapped to...from exposed rock on the seafloor , (i.e., individual rocks and rock outcrops) presents some of the most difficult challenges for modern MCM and ASW...classification tools. Inverse models based on forward models would be essential for using sonar systems for remote sensing of seafloor properties. An

  15. A novel pollution pattern: Highly chlorinated biphenyls retained in Black-crowned night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) and Whiskered tern (Chlidonias hybrida) from the Yangtze River Delta.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yihui; Yin, Ge; Asplund, Lillemor; Qiu, Yanling; Bignert, Anders; Zhu, Zhiliang; Zhao, Jianfu; Bergman, Åke

    2016-05-01

    Contamination of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated diphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) and their methylated counterparts (MeO-PBDEs) were determined in Black-crowned night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) and Whiskered tern (Chlidonias hybrida) from two drinking water sources, e.g. Tianmu lake and East Tai lake in Yangtze River Delta, China. A novel PCBs contamination pattern was detected, including 11% and 6.9% highly chlorinated biphenyls (PCBs with eight to ten chlorines) in relation to total PCB concentrations in the Black-crowned night heron and Whiskered tern eggs, respectively. The predominating OCPs detected in the present study were 4,4'-DDE, with concentration range 280-650 ng g(-1) lw in Black-crowned night heron and 240-480 ng g(-1) lw in Whiskered tern, followed by β-HCH and Mirex. 6-MeO-BDE-90 and 6-MeO-BDE-99 are the two predominant congeners of MeO-PBDEs whereas 6-OH-BDE-47 contributes mostly to the OH-PBDEs in both species. Contamination level was considered as median or low level compared global data.

  16. Food chain sources of polychlorinated dioxins and furans to great blue herons, ardea herodias, foraging in the fraser river estuary, british columbia. Technical report series no. no. 169

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    This paper presents results of determinations of polychlorinated dibenzodioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) levels in the prey of great blue herons foraging on the Fraser River estuary tidal flats. Observations of herons foraging at Iona and Westham Islands showed that starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus) and Pacific staghorn sculpin (Leptocottus armatus) were the major prey species throughout the year. The paper includes measurements of PCDD/PCDF levels in those two species and others such as redside shiner (Richardsonius balteatus), peamouth chub (Mylocheilus caurinum), and shiner perch (Cymatogaster aggregata). The paper concludes with a discussion of the role of contaminated inshore fish on the entry of PCDD/PCDF into herons.The purpose of the Ecological Monitoring and Assessment Network is to provide information and understanding needed for the sustainable management of Canada`s resources and resource-based industries. This document presents the proceedings of the first meeting of the Network. It includes presentations by federal government representatives on ecological monitoring and research programs in federal departments, reviews of progress in establishing Ecological Science Cooperatives for ecological monitoring and research, presentations on topical workshops, and workshop summaries. The workshops were arranged by ecological issue (biodiversity, climate change, ultraviolet radiation, toxic chemicals, and cumulative effects). They discussed and recommended local and national goals, objectives, and deliverables for ongoing research, monitoring, and synthesis related to the ecological effects of each issue.

  17. Application of a population-based toxicity quotient approach with field validation to assess potential effects of PCBs to great blue herons

    SciTech Connect

    Shear, N.; Henning, M.; Truchon, S.

    1995-12-31

    As part of an ecological risk assessment of a river ecosystem contaminated with PCBs, potential effects of PCBs on a population of great blue herons were evaluated using two independent measurement endpoints. The first measurement endpoint was a population-based toxicity quotient, in which predicted dietary intakes of PCBs for herons at six colonies within foraging distance of the river were compared to a literature-based toxicity reference value. While toxicity quotient approaches generally use default exposure factor values to predict potential risks to hypothetical individual organisms, in this application the use of some site-specific exposure characteristics of an actual population yielded an estimate of potential risks to the population as a whole. The second measurement endpoint considered reproductive success as a function of distance of heron colonies from the contaminated river, based on data collected by the state fish and wildlife service since 1979. The results of the two measurement endpoints both indicate that reproductive success is not likely to be adversely affected by the current level of PCBs in the river system. Given the independence of the measurement endpoints, as well as the robustness of the field data set and the site-specificity of the toxicity quotient calculation, uncertainty in this analysis is substantially reduced relative to more traditional screening level risk assessment methods.

  18. NOWCASTING AND FORECASTING BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATION USING THE EPA VIRTUAL BEACH SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beaches are subject to closure when bacterial counts exceed water quality criteria. Many authorities base these decisions on sample counts, which typically require a day or more to analyze. Sometimes called the persistence model, because conditions are assumed to persist, experie...

  19. MEETING IN MEXICO: NOWCASTING AND FORECASTING BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATION USING EPA'S VIRTUAL BEACH SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beaches in the United States of (North) America are subject to closure when bacterial counts exceed water quality criteria. Many authorities base these decisions on water samples that typically require at least 18 hours to analyze. This persistence approach, or model, often leads...

  20. The health effects of swimming at Sydney beaches. The Sydney Beach Users Study Advisory Group.

    PubMed Central

    Corbett, S J; Rubin, G L; Curry, G K; Kleinbaum, D G

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The purpose of the study was to determine the health risks of swimming at ocean beaches in Sydney, Australia. METHODS. From people attending 12 Sydney beaches in the period from December 5, 1989 to February 26, 1990, we recruited a cohort of 8413 adults who agreed to participate in this study. Of these, 4424 were excluded either because they had been swimming in the previous 5 days or because they reported a current illness. Of the remainder, 2839 successfully completed a follow-up telephone interview conducted within 10 days after recruitment. We recorded reported respiratory, gastrointestinal, eye, and ear symptoms and fever that occurred within the 10 days between initial interview on the beach and the follow-up interview. RESULTS. A total of 683 participants (24.0%) reported experiencing symptoms in the 10 days following initial interview. Of these, 435 (63.7%) reported respiratory symptoms. Swimmers were almost twice as likely as nonswimmers to report symptoms. There was a linear relationship between water pollution and all reported symptoms with the exception of gastrointestinal complaints. CONCLUSIONS. Swimmers at Sydney ocean beaches are more likely to report respiratory, ear, and eye symptoms than beachgoers who do not swim. The incidence of these symptoms increases slightly with increasing levels of pollution. PMID:8259798