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Sample records for beagle channel southern

  1. Seasonal phytoplankton dynamics in extreme southern South America (Beagle Channel, Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almandoz, Gastón O.; Hernando, Marcelo P.; Ferreyra, Gustavo A.; Schloss, Irene R.; Ferrario, Martha E.

    2011-08-01

    The phytoplankton biomass and composition dynamics in relation with environmental factors were explored during an annual cycle (July 2006-2007) for the first time in the Beagle Channel. Samples were examined by light and scanning electron microscopy and carbon biomass was estimated using measured cell biovolumes. The annual cycle was characterized by a sharp contrast between low density and biomass during the autumn-winter period and a significant increase during spring and summer. The maximum biomass peak was observed during early spring (141 μg C l - 1 and 8.7 μg Chl a l - 1 ) and was associated with a bloom of the diatom genus Chaetoceros. In spite of a strong nutrient depletion that lead to the subsequent bloom decline, a second peak of biomass was observed after 2 weeks, mainly represented by the diatoms T. mendiolana and T. anguste-lineata. Towards the end of spring and during summer diatom density decreased and assemblages were enriched by unidentified tiny phytoflagellates and dinoflagellates. A total of 138 taxa were identified during the study period. From these, 10 are known as potentially toxic species: Alexandrium catenella, A. ostenfeldii, A. tamarense, Dinophysis acuminata, D. rotundata, Prorocentrum cordatum, Pseudo-nitzschia australis, P. calliantha, P. fraudulenta and P. cf. seriata. Their presence is noteworthy since the area sustains a growing aquiculture production.

  2. Moult cycle and growth of the crab Halicarcinus planatus (Brachyura, Hymenosomatidae) in the Beagle Channel, southern tip of South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diez, Mariano J.; Lovrich, Gustavo A.

    2013-09-01

    The crab Halicarcinus planatus is the only hymenosomatid crab that inhabits the southern tip of South America and is the only decapod species that reproduces twice a year in the Beagle Channel. In this article, we study the moult cycle in the field (moult frequency, analysis of size frequency distribution) and linked it with growth studied in the laboratory (absolute and per cent growth increment, Hiatt function). Hiatt functions were similar for males and females. Moult frequency was seasonal: in early austral spring and in austral summer. In females, the pubertal moult is the terminal moult, whereas males continue moulting after attaining the size of morphometric maturity. Moult increment was highly variable. The relationship between absolute moult increment and crab size was described by a quadratic function. Per cent growth increment decreased with size, and relationships were different for each sex: linear for females and quadratic for males. Seven and eight modal groups explained the size frequency distributions for females and males from the field, respectively, and revealed the existence of two cohorts of recruits per year. Further modal analysis was mainly hampered by the high variability of size increment that could make any moulting individual fall in its own or one of two following modal groups. The antagonism between growth and reproduction was evident in small males. We hypothesize that the terminal pubertal moult is an advantageous feature that allows females to maximize their investment in reproduction after their terminal moult, which allows this species to have two spawnings per year.

  3. Heavy metal concentrations in litteral sediments from the Beagle Channel, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Amin, O; Ferrer, L; Marcovecchio, J

    1996-07-01

    For the first time the concentration of trace metals (Fe, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd and total Hg) of sediments from the coastal zone of the Beagle Channel (Tierra del Fuego, in Southern Argentina) were measured. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was utilized in order to determine the metal contents. The level of metals as observed in the sediments was recognized as the natural background, even though the use of normalization of lead, copper, and zinc to iron allowed the identification of the main sources of metal pollution for this environment. In order to develop future environmental monitoring programmes for the area of Ushuaia city and the Beagle Channel, the present results need to be considered.

  4. Baseline trace metals in gastropod mollusks from the Beagle Channel, Tierra del Fuego (Patagonia, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Conti, Marcelo Enrique; Stripeikis, Jorge; Finoia, Maria Grazia; Tudino, Mabel Beatriz

    2012-05-01

    With the aim to evaluate the mollusk Nacella (P)magellanica as biomonitor of elemental pollution in seawater of the Beagle Channel, more than one hundred individuals of the gastropod were sampled, separated in viscera and muscle, and then examined with respect to the accumulation of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. Collection was performed in seven strategic locations along 170 km of the coastal area of the Beagle Channel (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina) in two campaigns during 2005 and 2007. Samples of surrounding seawater in the different sites were obtained and tested for the same metals as well. The accumulation capacity of Nacella (P)magellanica and thus its aptitude as biomonitor, was evaluated through the calculus of the preconcentration factors of the metals assayed. A discussion involving the comparison with other mollusks previously tested will be given. Several statistical approaches able to analyze data with environmental purposes were applied. Non parametric univariate tests such as Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney were carried out to assess the changes of the metal concentrations with time (2005 and 2007) in each location. Multivariate methods (linear discriminant analysis on PCA factors) were also applied to obtain a more reliable site classification. Johnson's probabilistic method was carried out for comparison between different geographical areas. The possibility of employing these results as heavy metals' background levels of seawater from the Beagle Channel will be debated.

  5. Seasonal and pollution-induced variations in biomarkers of transplanted mussels within the Beagle Channel.

    PubMed

    Giarratano, Erica; Gil, Mónica N; Malanga, Gabriela

    2011-06-01

    The occurrence of biomarker variations linked to environmental factors makes it difficult to distinguish the effect of pollution. In an attempt to evaluate spatial and seasonal effects of environmental parameters on biomarker responses, mussels Mytilus edulis chilensis coming from an aquaculture farm were transplanted to several points within Ushuaia Bay (Beagle Channel) for 6 weeks in summer and winter. Activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase and levels of lipid peroxidation were measured in gills and digestive gland. Cu, Zn, Fe, Cd and Pb concentrations were also assessed. Results indicated a significant effect of seasons on biological responses as well as in metal bioaccumulation showing the influence of natural factors such as dissolved oxygen, temperature and food availability. The interdependence of those environmental factors is important for the homeostasis of thermoconformers, especially regarding their oxidative metabolism and should also be taken into consideration to distinguish natural from pollution-induced variations.

  6. Geomorphological evolution of a paraglacial coastal system: Moat Sector, Beagle Channel, Tierra de Fuego, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco-Chao, R.; Pérez-Alberti, A.; Martínez-Cortizas, A.; Valcárcel-Díaz, M.; Costa-Casais, M.

    2009-04-01

    The morphodynamics of paraglacial coastal systems is controlled by a number of factors, including rock basement structure, sediment disposal, changes in the relative sea-level and wave regime. Of great importance is the thickness and the particle size composition of the glacial deposits because they are not only the main source of material, but also a major element in the coast plan form and in the processes of sediment redistribution. The Moat sector in the Beagle Channel (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina), is a shallow embayment opened in a previously glaciated landscape, in which the Beagle glacier left several drumlins and moraines. After deglaciation the rising sea-level led to the erosion of the till sediments at least until 2550 yr BP, exposing the rock substrate in which up to three narrow shore platforms were modelled. The erosion of the till produced cliffs up to 18 m high, capped with Holocene sediments. After 2550 yr BP a fall in the relative sea-level enhanced wave dissipation on the rocky areas and forced the diffraction of the incoming waves. The limits of the sedimentary cell were then set and a shadow zone developed in the east section of the beach, where the cliff became stabilized meanwhile erosion persisted on the west section. The coarser till of the west cliff was then the main source of sediments, and the retreat of the cliff left a boulder pavement that created a secondary limit of the cell. The clasts were redistributed by a dominant west to east transport that still dominates today. The 14C dates obtained in the sedimentary deposit developed on top of the cliff suggest that, when the bluff retreat stopped at the east end, a phase of stabilization began and the talus was covered by a layer of organic-rich sediments. Later, an environmental change to drier conditions, occurred after 1310-1180 cal. yr BP, led to the desiccation and degradation of the organic-sediments of the talus, which started to be eroded exposing the till again

  7. Cystacanths of Acanthocephala in notothenioid fish from the Beagle Channel (sub-Antarctica).

    PubMed

    Laskowski, Zdzisław; Jezewski, Witold; Zdzitowiecki, Krzysztof

    2008-06-01

    The morphology of relaxed cystacanths of polymorphid acanthocephalans collected from notothenioid fishes in the Beagle Channel (Magellanic subregion of sub-Antarctica) is described. A parasite of birds, Andracantha baylisi (Zdzitowiecki, 1986), was found in Patagonotothen longipes and Champsocephalus esox. It has: a proboscis 0.82-0.89 mm long; a proboscis hook formula of 16 rows of 9/10-10/11, including 4-5 basal hooks; distal hooks with the longest blades; a fore-trunk not separated from the hind-trunk by a constriction; large somatic spines arranged in two zones separated by a zone of small, loosely dispersed spines; and only the anterior 36-40% of ventral side of the trunk is covered with spines. One male specimen of Corynosoma sp. was found in Patagonotothen tessellata. It differs from A. baylisi in that the distal proboscis hooks are similar in length to the prebasal hooks, it has a smaller proboscis (0.77 mm) and in the distribution of the somatic spines, which are contiguous with the genital spines on the ventral side of the trunk and lack a zone of small spines between zones of larger spines. A parasite of seals and fur seals, Corynosoma evae Zdzitowiecki, 1984, was found in P. longipes and Champsocephalus esox. It has: a proboscis 0.61-0.78 mm long; a proboscis hook formula of 20-22 rows of 12-13, including 3/4-4 basal hooks; prebasal hooks with the longest blades; a trunk divided into fore-trunk and hind-trunk; somatic spines covering the anterior 64-74% of the ventral side of the trunk; genital spines present only in males; and a terminal genital opening in both sexes. Corynosoma beaglense n. sp. was found in Champsocephalus esox. It has: an almost cylindrical proboscis (length 0.52-0.56 mm); a proboscis hook formula of 16 rows of 9/10-10/11, including 4-4/5 basal hooks; distal hooks shorter than the prebasal hooks; a fore-trunk not separated from the hind-trunk by a constriction; somatic spines contiguous with the genital spines on the ventral side of

  8. Channel Responses and Hydromodification in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawley, R. J.; Dust, D. W.; Bledsoe, B. P.

    2007-12-01

    Hydromodification (changes in watershed hydrologic characteristics, and the resulting hydraulics and channel forms due to urbanization) is ubiquitous in Southern California. In this region, the effects of hydromodification are driven and compounded by the arid/semiarid climate, high relief, erodible soils, high urbanization rates, and relatively low frequency of retention/detention. We conducted a preliminary survey of over 50 stream reaches along a gradient from least disturbed to fully urbanized. All stages of the Channel Evolution Model (CEM) of Schumm et al. (1984) were observed, from stable to degrading, widening, aggrading, and quasi-equilibrium channels. Several sites have CEM stages II through V in close proximity due to headcutting, hardpoints, and infrastructure. We also observed channels in undeveloped watersheds impacted by downstream urbanization via headcutting. A range of intervention measures was observed, with the frequent evolutionary endpoint as a concrete engineered flood control channel. We also observed multiple channel evolution sequences that deviate from the CEM for single-thread, incising channels. An alternative channel response, particularly on smaller urbanized streams is a stabilized, vegetation encroached low-flow channel with regular baseflow supplied by residential irrigation runoff. The limited cases of unimpacted streams that remain tend to be high gradient, high energy systems that are naturally proximate to the transition between braided and meandering form for a given sediment size.

  9. Hydroacoustical evidence of the expansion of pelagic swarms of Munida gregaria (Decapoda, Munididae) in the Beagle Channel and the Argentine Patagonian Shelf, and its relationship with habitat features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diez, Mariano J.; Cabreira, Ariel G.; Madirolas, Adrián; Lovrich, Gustavo A.

    2016-08-01

    Squat lobsters are highly diversified and widespread decapods, of which only three species form pelagic swarms. Here we infer the expansion of Munida gregaria populations in the Beagle Channel and the Argentine Patagonian Shelf by means of acoustic surveys of pelagic swarms. We also describe the habitat characteristics in which these swarms occur. Acoustic data was collected during three multidisciplinary scientific cruises on board of the R/V Puerto Deseado during 2009, 2012 and 2014. Despite differences in the environmental conditions between the two surveyed areas, between 2009 and 2014 pelagic swarms increased their occurrence and abundance both in the Beagle Channel and on the Argentine Patagonian Shelf. Towards the end of the studied period, pelagic swarms of M. gregaria occurred in new locations, supporting the notion of a population expansion. Within the Beagle Channel swarm expansions were more marked than on the Patagonian Shelf. We here postulate that M. gregaria expansions occur in association with productive areas of the Argentine continental shelf, such as frontal zones, favoured by the squat lobster phenotypic plasticity that permit to exploit resources in both the neritic and benthic environments. At a regional scale on the Patagonian Shelf, three main groups of pelagic swarms of M. gregaria were clearly associated to respective frontal zones. The information presented here is necessary to understand fluctuations in both distribution and abundance patterns of a key species on the Argentine continental shelf. These fluctuations could be direct or indirect indicators of changes in the ecosystem.

  10. Beagle 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, D. S.; Pillinger, C. T.; Sims, M. R.; Pullan, D.; Whitehead, S.; Thatcher, J.; Clemmet, J.; Linguard, S.; Underwood, J.; Richter, L.

    2000-07-01

    Beagle 2 is the British-led lander of the ESA Mars Express mission. The prime objectives of Beagle 2 are to (1) search for criteria relating to past life on Mars, (2) seek trace atmospheric species indicative of extant life, (3) measure the detailed atmospheric composition to establish the geological history of the planet and to document the processes involved in seasonal climatic changes or diurnal cycling, (4) investigate the oxidative state of the Martian surface, rock interiors and beneath boulders, (5) examine the geological nature of the rocks, their chemistry, mineralogy, petrology and age, (6) characterise the geomorphology of the landing site, and (7) appraise the environmental conditions including temperature, pressure, wind speed, UV flux, etc. The entry system comprises a front shield/aeroshell, a back cover/bioshield and release mechanisms. The descent system depends on a mortar, pilot chute, main parachute and main parachute release mechanism. The Lander itself has a clam-like structure and lands cocooned within gas-filled airbags. The outer shell provides energy absorption and thermal insulation within a casing that must spread the impact loads and resists tearing. Many of the Beagle 2 science instruments are integrated with a robotic arm that transports them to deploy them in positions where they can study or obtain samples of the rocks and soil. Sub-surface samples are obtained using a Pluto (PLanetary Undersurface TOol) which has the ability to crawl across, and burrow below the planetary surface. The constraints placed on Beagle 2 by mass restrictions of the Mars Express mission has meant that many innovations are necessary to ensure delivery of a sufficient science payload mass capable of the full range of measurements necessary to achieve the mission objectives. In particular a highly integrated approach to lander sytems and science instruments has been essential. This approach and the necessary technology developments have important

  11. Uplifted ophiolitic rocks on Isla Gordon, southernmost Chile: implications for the closure history of the Rocas Verdes marginal basin and the tectonic evolution of the Beagle Channel region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, W. D.

    1994-04-01

    A succession of mafic rocks that includes gabbro, sheeted dikes and deformed pillow basalts has been mapped in detail on Isla Gordon, southernmost Chile and is identified as an upper ophiolitic complex representing the uplifted floor of the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Rocas Verdes marginal basin. The complex was uplifted, deformed, and regionally metamorphosed prior to the intrusion of an undeformed 90 Ma granodiorite that cuts the complex. The complex appears para-autochthonous, is gently tilted to the northeast and is internally sheared by near-vertical foliation zones. No evidence for obduction was observed although the base of the complex is not exposed. The ophiolitic rocks have been regionally metamorphosed to mid-upper greenschist levels. Isla Gordon is bounded by the northwest and southwest arms of the Beagle Channel, two important structural boundaries in the southernmost Andes that are interpreted to have accommodated north-side-up and left-lateral displacements. Directly north of Isla Gordon is the Cordillera Darwin metamorphic complex that exposes the highest grade metamorphic rocks in the Andes south of Peru. On the north coast of Isla Gordon a volcaniclastic turbidite sequence that is interpreted to have been deposited above the mafic floor is metamorphosed to lower greenschist levels in strong metamorphic contrast to amphibolite-grade othogneisses exposed in Cordillera Darwin only 2 km away across the northwest arm of the Beagle Channel. The profound metamorphic break across the northwest arm of the Beagle Channel and the regional northeast tilt of the ophiolitic complex are consistent with the previously proposed hypothesis that Isla Gordon represents the upper plate to an extensional fault that accommodated tectonic unroofing of Cordillera Darwin. However, limited structural evidence for extension was identified in this study to support the model and further work is needed to determine the relative importance of contractional, extensional and

  12. Heavy metal concentrations and biomarkers of oxidative stress in native mussels (Mytilus edulis chilensis) from Beagle Channel coast (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Duarte, Claudia A; Giarratano, Erica; Amin, Oscar A; Comoglio, Laura I

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of oxidative stress biomarkers of pollution in native mussels Mytilus edulis chilensis from the Beagle Channel. Spatial and seasonal variations of catalase, glutathione-S-transferase and lipid peroxidation in gills and digestive gland were analyzed in relation to environmental parameters, heavy metals in sediment and in tissue. Four sites with anthropogenic impact and a control site were selected and monitored during the four seasons of 2007. We found significant differences among sites in concentrations of dissolved nutrients and heavy metals in sediments, with the highest values recorded at sites with anthropogenic pressure. Different patterns were observed between concentrations of metals in tissues and in sediments suggesting differences in bioavailability. There were also significant differences in biomarker responses among sites, despite the strong seasonal variability. Our results showed relatively moderate levels of pollution in the study area as a result of urban influences.

  13. Phylogenentic and enzymatic characterization of psychrophilic and psychrotolerant marine bacteria belong to γ-Proteobacteria group isolated from the sub-Antarctic Beagle Channel, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Cristóbal, Héctor A; Benito, Juliana; Lovrich, Gustavo A; Abate, Carlos M

    2015-05-01

    The phylogenetic and physiological characteristics of cultivable-dependent approaches were determined to establish the diversity of marine bacteria associated with the intestines of benthonic organisms and seawater samples from the Argentina's Beagle Channel. A total of 737 isolates were classified as psychrophlic and psychrotolerant culturable marine bacteria. These cold-adapted microorganisms are capable of producing cold-active glycosyl hydrolases, such as β-glucosidases, celulases, β-galactosidases, xylanases, chitinases, and proteases. These enzymes could have potential biotechnological applications for use in low-temperature manufacturing processes. According to polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of part of genes encoding 16S ribosomal DNA (ARDRA) and DNA gyrase subunit B (gyrB-RFLP), 11 operational taxonomic units (OTU) were identified and clustered in known genera using InfoStat software. The 50 isolates selected were sequenced based on near full sequence analysis of 16S rDNA and gyrB sequences and identified by their nearest neighbors ranging between 96 and 99 % of identities. Phylogenetic analyses using both genes allowed relationships between members of the cultured marine bacteria belonging to the γ-Proteobacteria group (Aeromonas, Halteromonas, Pseudomonas, Pseudoalteromonas, Shewanella, Serratia, Colwellia, Glacielocola, and Psychrobacter) to be evaluated. Our research reveals a high diversity of hydrolytic bacteria, and their products actuality has an industrial use in several bioprocesses at low-temperature manufacturing.

  14. River channel adjustments in Southern Italy over the past 150 years and implications for channel recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scorpio, Vittoria; Aucelli, Pietro P. C.; Giano, Salvatore I.; Pisano, Luca; Robustelli, Gaetano; Rosskopf, Carmen M.; Schiattarella, Marcello

    2015-12-01

    Multi-temporal GIS analysis of topographic maps and aerial photographs along with topographic and geomorphological surveys are used to assess evolutionary trends and key control factors of channel adjustments for five major rivers in southern Italy (the Trigno, Biferno, Volturno, Sinni and Crati rivers) to support assessment of channel recovery and river restoration. Three distinct phases of channel adjustment are identified over the past 150 years primarily driven by human disturbances. Firstly, slight channel widening dominated from the last decades of the nineteenth century to the 1950s. Secondly, from the 1950s to the end of the 1990s, altered sediment fluxes induced by in-channel mining and channel works brought about moderate to very intense incision (up to 6-7 m) accompanied by strong channel narrowing (up to 96%) and changes in channel configuration from multi-threaded to single-threaded patterns. Thirdly, the period from around 2000 to 2015 has been characterized by channel stabilization and local widening. Evolutionary trajectories of the rivers studied are quite similar to those reconstructed for other Italian rivers, particularly regarding the second phase of channel adjustments and ongoing transitions towards channel recovery in some reaches. Analyses of river dynamics, recovery potential and connectivity with sediment sources of the study reaches, framed in their catchment context, can be used as part of a wider interdisciplinary approach that views effective river restoration alongside sustainable and risk-reduced river management.

  15. An experimental approach for archeological soil micromorphology: building a model for site taphonomy in coastal shell middens of the Beagle Channel (Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balbo, Andrea; Suarez Villagran, Ximena; Madella, Marco; Vila, Asumpcio; Estevez, Jordi

    2010-05-01

    There are still many archaeological contexts where soil micromorphology has been little applied. Examples of such are anthropic shell deposits, common in coastal settings worldwide. These archaeological sites have complex stratigraphies composed mainly of shell from diverse species of local mollusks and gastropods. They have the peculiarity of being highly porous sediments with a coarse fraction that is dominated by gravel-sized bioclastic remains (shell, fish bones) and a fine fraction composed of organic material (charcoal, organic matter). The use of soil micromorphology in shell deposits was started by the Spanish-Argentinean research team working in Tierra del Fuego (Argentina) since 1986. This project focused on excavation of hunter-gatherer sites from the contact period. One of the main objectives was to develop a detailed excavation method for shell middens that maximized the amount of recorded data during archaeological excavation. In this perspective, microstratigraphy was conceived as a fundamental complement for the study of site formation processes, as it would provide with high definition data for identification of shell accumulation episodes, trampling on site, abandonment periods, taphonomic alterations etc. A reference collection of known environmental and anthropic control features, such as hearths, trampling areas, wood ashes from local species, among others, was built to help in the microscopic characterization of archaeological samples. In this work, we analyze this experimental collection and compare it with samples from the Tunel VII archaeological site, located in the northern coast of the Beagle Channel and dated from the 18th-19th centuries. The set of modern samples included: trampling area from an animal pathway; beach deposit; forest litter; soil under the forest; hearths lit in diverse contexts (on the prairie, the beach and from the archaeologist camp site); and experimental burnt valves of Mytilus edulis, the main malacological

  16. Temporal and spatial variations in bomb-produced radiocarbon along BEAGLE2003 lines—Revisits of WHP P06, A10, and I03/I04 in the Southern Hemisphere Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumamoto, Yuichiro; Murata, Akihiko; Watanabe, Shuichi; Fukasawa, Masao

    2011-04-01

    Radiocarbon ( 14C) in dissolved inorganic carbon was measured during revisit cruises along World Ocean Circulation Experiment-Hydrographic Programme (WHP) lines A10 in the South Atlantic, I03/I04 in the Indian, and P06 in the South Pacific Oceans from August 2003 to January 2004, during the Blue Earth Global Expedition 2003 (BEAGLE2003). Zonal means of the water-column inventory of bomb-produced 14C in 2003/2004 in the South Atlantic, Indian, and South Pacific Oceans were about 180, 128, and 159 × 10 12 atoms m -2, respectively. The smallest zonal inventory along the I03 line among the three lines was primarily due to a sampling bias, because the I03 line in the Indian Ocean was along 20°S, which is more equatorward than the other two lines along approximately 30°S in the South Atlantic and South Pacific Oceans. The I03 line in the Indian Ocean had the smallest zonal inventory of bomb-produced 14C and the largest of bomb-produced 137Cs, suggesting that the distribution of bomb 14C in the Indian Ocean is determined primarily by the thermocline ventilation within the Indian Ocean. The history of bomb 14C over time suggests that the bomb 14C inventory in the southern subtropical regions increased steadily up to the early 1990s. The rate of increase then slowed between the early 1990s and 2003/2004 because of a decrease in the bomb 14C influx from the atmosphere to the surface ocean. The highest bomb 14C inventory among the southern subtropical regions was in the subtropical Indian Ocean. However, the contribution of the Indonesian throughflow from the North Pacific and Indian Oceans to this large inventory in the Indian Ocean is not clear. The 14C data along the BEAGLE2003 lines in 2003/2004 were compared with those obtained during WHP in the 1990s and during the South Atlantic Ventilation Experiment in the late 1980s. The zonal averages of the decadal changes in 14C revealed that bomb 14C continued to increase between the late 1980s/1990s and 2003/2004 in the

  17. Bathymetry and Acoustic Backscatter: Northern Santa Barbara Channel, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dartnell, Pete; Finlayson, David; Conrad, Jamie; Cochrane, Guy; Johnson, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    In the summer of 2008, as part of the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP) the U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology mapped a nearshore region of the northern Santa Barbara Channel in Southern California (fig 1). The CSMP is a cooperative partnership between Federal and State agencies, Universities, and Industry to create a comprehensive coastal/marine geologic and habitat basemap series to support the Marine Life Protection Act (MLPA) inititive. The program is supported by the California Ocean Protection Council and the California Coastal Conservancy. The 2008 mapping collected high resolution bathymetry and acoustic backscatter data using a bathymetric side scan system within State waters from about the 10-m isobath out over 3-nautical miles. This Open-File Report provides these data in a number of different formats, as well as a summary of the mapping mission, maps of bathymetry and backscatter, and FGDC metadata.

  18. Can rice field channels contribute to biodiversity conservation in Southern Brazilian wetlands?

    PubMed

    Maltchik, Leonardo; Rolon, Ana Silvia; Stenert, Cristina; Machado, Iberê Farina; Rocha, Odete

    2011-12-01

    Conservation of species in agroecosystems has attracted attention. Irrigation channels can improve habitats and offer conditions for freshwater species conservation. Two questions from biodiversity conservation point of view are: 1) Can the irrigated channels maintain a rich diversity of macrophytes, macroinvertebrates and amphibians over the cultivation cycle? 2) Do richness, abundance and composition of aquatic species change over the rice cultivation cycle? For this, a set of four rice field channels was randomly selected in Southern Brazilian wetlands. In each channel, six sample collection events were carried out over the rice cultivation cycle (June 2005 to June 2006). A total of 160 taxa were identified in irrigated channels, including 59 macrophyte species, 91 taxa of macroinvertebrate and 10 amphibian species. The richness and abundance of macrophytes, macroinvertebrates and amphibians did not change significantly over the rice cultivation cycle. However, the species composition of these groups in the irrigation channels varied between uncultivated and cultivated periods. Our results showed that the species diversity found in the irrigation channels, together with the permanence of water enables these man-made aquatic networks to function as important systems that can contribute to the conservation of biodiversity in regions where the wetlands were converted into rice fields. The conservation of the species in agriculture, such as rice field channels, may be an important alternative for biodiversity conservation in Southern Brazil, where more than 90% of wetland systems have already been lost and the remaining ones are still at high risk due to the expansion of rice production.

  19. Regional impacts of urbanization on stream channel geometry: A case study in semiarid southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Kristine T.; Biggs, Trent W.

    2015-11-01

    Urbanization often increases storm runoff, peak discharges and rates of stream channel erosion. Coastal California has experienced rapid urbanization over the past several decades and has the potential for stream channel degradation. Several counties in California have implemented Hydromodification Management Plans (HMPs) to protect channels from erosion, but few studies have quantified the impact of urbanization on channel geometry in diverse geological settings at the county scale. A synoptic survey of field sites (N = 56) by the California Environmental Data Exchange Network (CEDEN) and additional field surveys (N = 24) were used to develop regional hydraulic geometry curves relating bankfull cross-sectional area (Axs), width (w), mean depth (d), and discharge (Qbf) to watershed area (Aw) in San Diego County. Regional curves were compared for urban and reference sites and to other regional curves developed for southern California. Multiple regression models were used to identify dominant watershed and channel controls on geometry, including Aw, percent impervious cover (I%), mean annual precipitation, underlying geology, longitudinal slope, hydrologic soil group, and channel particle size. For the reference streams, regional curves were statistically significant for w and Axs (p < 0.05). The regional curves for urban channels (I% > 20%) had significantly larger w, d, Axs, and Qbf for a given watershed size. A majority (68%) of the urban channels and 78% of the small urban channels (Aw < 10 km2) were enlarged. Enlargement of channels in small watersheds disrupted the correlation between Aw and bankfull dimensions, and I% was the only significant predictor of channel geometry in urban watersheds. Channel response differed by channel substrate: sand-bedded channels incised and experienced extreme enlargement of up to 115 × the Axs of reference sites, while gravel-bedded channels widened and showed less enlargement (< 7 × reference Axs). Diverse channel responses

  20. Penis Allotransplantation in Beagle Dog.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yongbin; Hu, Weilie; Zhang, Lichao; Guo, Fei; Wang, Wei; Wang, Bangqi; Zhang, Changzheng

    2016-01-01

    This is an original research of penis allotransplantation. The paper presents an experiment allogenic penis transplantation model in Beagles, with a focus on recovery of blood supply and changes in tissue architecture. Twenty adult Beagles were allocated to 10 pairs for penile transplantation. After operation, the skin and glans were observed. If adverse symptoms occurred, the transplanted penis was resected and pathologically examined. Frequency of urination, urinary stream, and patency level were recorded 7 days after transplantation. Cystourethrography was performed on Day 10. The transplanted penises were resected on Day 14 for pathological examination. The research showed that transplanted penises survived after allotransplantation, and the dogs regained urination ability. Penis autotransplantation in Beagles is feasible. This preliminary study shows a potential for application of this new procedure for penis transplantation in humans.

  1. Penis Allotransplantation in Beagle Dog

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This is an original research of penis allotransplantation. The paper presents an experiment allogenic penis transplantation model in Beagles, with a focus on recovery of blood supply and changes in tissue architecture. Twenty adult Beagles were allocated to 10 pairs for penile transplantation. After operation, the skin and glans were observed. If adverse symptoms occurred, the transplanted penis was resected and pathologically examined. Frequency of urination, urinary stream, and patency level were recorded 7 days after transplantation. Cystourethrography was performed on Day 10. The transplanted penises were resected on Day 14 for pathological examination. The research showed that transplanted penises survived after allotransplantation, and the dogs regained urination ability. Penis autotransplantation in Beagles is feasible. This preliminary study shows a potential for application of this new procedure for penis transplantation in humans. PMID:26977412

  2. Mars Express releases Beagle 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-12-01

    At 9:31 CET, the crucial sequence started to separate the Beagle 2 lander from Mars Express. As data from Mars Express confirm, the pyrotechnic device was fired to slowly release a loaded spring, which gently pushed Beagle 2 away from the mother spacecraft. An image from the onboard visual monitoring camera (VMC) showing the lander drifting away is expected to be available later today. Since the Beagle 2 lander has no propulsion system of its own, it had to be put on the correct course for its descent before it was released. For this reason, on 16 December the trajectory of the whole Mars Express spacecraft had to be adjusted to ensure that Beagle 2 would be on course to enter the atmosphere of Mars. This manoeuvre, called "retargeting'' was critical: if the entry angle is too steep, the lander could overheat and burn up in the atmosphere; if the angle is too shallow, the lander might skim like a pebble on the surface of a lake and miss its target. This fine targeting and today's release were crucial manoeuvres for which ESA's Ground Control Team at ESOC (European Space Operations Centre) had trained over the past several months. The next major milestone for Mars Express will be the manoeuvre to enter into orbit around Mars. This will happen at 3:52 CET on Christmas morning, when Beagle 2 is expected to land on the surface of Mars. "Good teamwork by everybody - ESA, industry and the Beagle 2 team - has got one more critical step accomplished. Mars, here comes Europe!" said David Southwood, ESA Director of Science.

  3. Hybrid veins from the southern margin of the Bristol Channel Basin, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belayneh, Mandefro; Cosgrove, John W.

    2010-02-01

    Sinistral and dextral en echelon hybrid calcite veins are exposed on the southern margin of the Bristol Channel Basin, North Somerset on a Liassic carbonate platform. These hybrid veins are transitional between pure extensional (mode I) and shear fractures (mode II, mode III) and experienced both extensional and shear displacements during their formation. In the study area they occur in conjugate sets with the conjugate angle ranging between 10° and 50°. Based on the kinematic analysis of these veins a new model for the opening of the Bristol Channel is proposed.

  4. The Legacy of Beagle 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillinger, Judith; Bridges, John; Sims, Mark; Clemmet, Jim; Wright, Ian

    2015-04-01

    The Beagle 2 lander spun off from the ESA Mars Express spacecraft on 19 December 2003 and headed off towards Isidis Planitia on Mars. The scheduled landing of the 60 kg lander was 6 days later on Christmas morning, 25 December. It is universally known that no signal was received from the lander and its fate remained unknown. What is not questioned is the impact that the mission, and not least its charismatic leaders headed by the late Professor Colin Pillinger, had on the general public of the UK, Europe and worldwide. More than a decade after Beagle 2 was last seen, we review the legacy of the mission on the public perception of the value of space exploration, economically, commercially and cultural, and look forward to an expanding programme. The spin off from Beagle 2 science and technology into terrestrial applications will be addressed as will the ongoing career destinations of many of the original team; both supporting the significance that the mission had on determining the future pathway of space science and exploration in Europe and beyond. The ongoing search for evidence that Beagle 2 did in fact land as planned on Mars will be addressed and images from Mars orbiting spacecraft assessed.

  5. Secondary chaotic terrain formation in the higher outflow channels of southern circum-Chryse, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, J.A.P.; Kargel, J.S.; Tanaka, K.L.; Crown, D.A.; Berman, D.C.; Fairen, A.G.; Baker, V.R.; Furfaro, R.; Candelaria, P.; Sasaki, S.

    2011-01-01

    Higher outflow channel dissection in the martian region of southern circum-Chryse appears to have extended from the Late Hesperian to the Middle Amazonian Epoch. These outflow channels were excavated within the upper 1. km of the cryolithosphere, where no liquid water is expected to have existed during these geologic epochs. In accordance with previous work, our examination of outflow channel floor morphologies suggests the upper crust excavated by the studied outflow channels consisted of a thin (a few tens of meters) layer of dry geologic materials overlying an indurated zone that extends to the bases of the investigated outflow channels (1. km in depth). We find that the floors of these outflow channels contain widespread secondary chaotic terrains (i.e., chaotic terrains produced by the destruction of channel-floor materials). These chaotic terrains occur within the full range of outflow channel dissection and tend to form clusters. Our examination of the geology of these chaotic terrains suggests that their formation did not result in the generation of floods. Nevertheless, despite their much smaller dimensions, these chaotic terrains are comprised of the same basic morphologic elements (e.g., mesas, knobs, and smooth deposits within scarp-bound depressions) as those located in the initiation zones of the outflow channels, which suggests that their formation must have involved the release of ground volatiles. We propose that these chaotic terrains developed not catastrophically but gradually and during multiple episodes of nested surface collapse. In order to explain the formation of secondary chaotic terrains within zones of outflow channel dissection, we propose that the regional Martian cryolithosphere contained widespread lenses of volatiles in liquid form. In this model, channel floor collapse and secondary chaotic terrain formation would have taken place as a consequence of instabilities arising during their exhumation by outflow channel dissection

  6. Analysing connectivity through landslide-channel geomorphic coupling in a large drainage system of Southern Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurchescu, Marta

    2014-05-01

    Unlike creep, splash erosion and linear erosion which sometimes are called "continuous" slope processes, since they are perceived as causing relatively continuous erosion on slopes and a rather rapid transport towards river channels, mass movement processes, excepting flows, have a discontinuous behavior, manifesting stochastically on time intervals ranging from one year to tens of years, while the displaced material can remain suspended in different parts of the slope forming sediment stores. It is obviously why estimating the sediment delivered to the river network by landslides becomes a difficult task. Landslide control on channel dynamics is just one of the several forms of hillslope-channel coupling. Landslide-channel connectivity is relevant for understanding the way landslides are contributing to the sediment flux within catchments and how their study should be integrated in the estimation of sediment budgets. This paper explores the geomorphic coupling of landslides with river channels based on an extensive landslide inventory. The study area is a large drainage basin (> 2400 km2) in southern Romania encompassing four different geomorphic units (mountains, hills, piedmont and plain). The region is highly affected by a wide range of geomorphic processes which contribute to supplying sediments to the drainage network. The presence of a reservoir at the river outlet emphasizes the importance of estimating sediment budgets, the first stage of which consists in studying sediment sources. High sediment transport is associated to flash floods, a fraction of which is due to the slope failures occurring in response to the undercutting of river channels. Nominal classification systems as well as quantitative measures available in the connectivity literature are adopted here to describe the landslides-channels contact zones. Characteristics of the geomorphic coupling interfaces are further linked to the resulting geomorphic effects of landslides on the drainage

  7. Lunar Beagle and Lunar Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Everett K.; Pillinger, Colin T.; Waugh, Lester J.

    2010-12-01

    The study of the elements and molecules of astrobiological interest on the Moon can be made with the Gas Analysis Package (GAP) and associated instruments developed for the Beagle 2 Mars Express Payload. The permanently shadowed polar regions of the Moon may offer a unique location for the "cold-trapping" of the light elements (i.e. H, C, N, O, etc.) and their simple compounds. Studies of the returned lunar samples have shown that lunar materials have undergone irradiation with the solar wind and adsorb volatiles from possible cometary and micrometeoroid impacts. The Beagle 2's analytical instrument package including the sample processing facility and the GAP mass spectrometer can provide vital isotopic information that can distinguish whether the lunar volatiles are indigenous to the moon, solar wind derived, cometary in origin or from meteoroids impacting on the Moon. As future Lunar Landers are being considered, the suite of instruments developed for the Mars Beagle 2 lander can be consider as the baseline for any lunar volatile or resource instrument package.

  8. Upholding or fatally altering the boundary conditions for channel flow of the Southern Tibet middle crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, M.; Kidd, W.

    2002-12-01

    Project INDEPTH results indicate a partially molten middle crust beneath southern Tibet. Recently, this has been suggested to be associated with ductile extrusion via channel flow bounded by coeval normal- and thrust-sense shear zones (the STDS & MCT respectively). Any orogenic thermal-mechanical channel flow model is highly sensitive to boundary conditions (i.e., to the "real" nature of the STDS and MCT). Characterising the geology of these boundaries is crucial to test whether channel flow may have operated and for how long. We present 3D data for the STDS. The Southern Tibet Detachment System (STDS) is a series of normal sense shear zones in the structurally higher regions of the Himalayan orogenic wedge that have operated at a range of deformation conditions. Little- to un-metamorphosed Tethyan sedimentary rocks are juxtaposed upon sillimanite grade gneisses or mid-crustal leucogranites. In the area between Everest and eastern Bhutan, the predominant Tethyan rocktype juxtaposed by the STDS upon the crystallines is phyllite. This juxtaposition is also exposed 75-125 km to the north in the form of a series granitoid domes. The phyllites dome up where granite bodies approach or intersect the surface, yet the phyllites are intrusively cross-cut by the granites only infrequently and in very small volumes; the phyllites form an apparant barrier to granite ascent! INDEPTH data indicate that the phyllite-granitoid boundary is present throughout the southern Tibet plateau at depths of <15 km. The phyllites have a polyphase deformation history; they acted as the primary thrust detachment during the thin-skinned fold and thrust contraction during early collision before being reactivated as the normal sense shear zone (the STDS) - both senses of shear are preserved. We speculate that during normal sense displacement, the phyllite-bearing shear zone acted as a heat sink to temper upward displacement of granitic material thereby maintaining the upper boundary for effective

  9. A model for tides and currents in the English Channel and southern North Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walters, Roy A.

    1987-01-01

    The amplitude and phase of 11 tidal constituents for the English Channel and southern North Sea are calculated using a frequency domain, finite element model. The governing equations - the shallow water equations - are modifed such that sea level is calculated using an elliptic equation of the Helmholz type followed by a back-calculation of velocity using the primitive momentum equations. Triangular elements with linear basis functions are used. The modified form of the governing equations provides stable solutions with little numerical noise. In this field-scale test problem, the model was able to produce the details of the structure of 11 tidal constituents including O1, K1, M2, S2, N2, K2, M4, MS4, MN4, M6, and 2MS6.

  10. Potential earthquake faults offshore Southern California, from the eastern Santa Barbara Channel south to Dana Point

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, M.A.; Sorlien, C.C.; Sliter, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    Urban areas in Southern California are at risk from major earthquakes, not only quakes generated by long-recognized onshore faults but also ones that occur along poorly understood offshore faults. We summarize recent research findings concerning these lesser known faults. Research by the U.S. Geological Survey during the past five years indicates that these faults from the eastern Santa Barbara Channel south to Dana Point pose a potential earthquake threat. Historical seismicity in this area indicates that, in general, offshore faults can unleash earthquakes having at least moderate (M 5-6) magnitude. Estimating the earthquake hazard in Southern California is complicated by strain partitioning and by inheritance of structures from early tectonic episodes. The three main episodes are Mesozoic through early Miocene subduction, early Miocene crustal extension coeval with rotation of the Western Transverse Ranges, and Pliocene and younger transpression related to plate-boundary motion along the San Andreas Fault. Additional complication in the analysis of earthquake hazards derives from the partitioning of tectonic strain into strike-slip and thrust components along separate but kinematically related faults. The eastern Santa Barbara Basin is deformed by large active reverse and thrust faults, and this area appears to be underlain regionally by the north-dipping Channel Islands thrust fault. These faults could produce moderate to strong earthquakes and destructive tsunamis. On the Malibu coast, earthquakes along offshore faults could have left-lateral-oblique focal mechanisms, and the Santa Monica Mountains thrust fault, which underlies the oblique faults, could give rise to large (M ??7) earthquakes. Offshore faults near Santa Monica Bay and the San Pedro shelf are likely to produce both strike-slip and thrust earthquakes along northwest-striking faults. In all areas, transverse structures, such as lateral ramps and tear faults, which crosscut the main faults, could

  11. Kinematics and vorticity in Kangmar Dome, southern Tibet: Testing midcrustal channel flow models for the Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Tom; Lee, Jeffrey; Hacker, Bradley R.; Seward, Gareth

    2010-12-01

    Kinematic, kinematic vorticity (Wm), and deformation temperature analyses were completed to test the hypothesis that midcrustal rocks exposed in the core of the Kangmar gneiss dome, southern Tibet record ductile deformation patterns of a "frozen" segment of a southward flowing midcrustal channel. Microscopic and mesoscopic kinematic indicators exhibit a downward transition from a subequal mix of top-north and top-south shear in garnet zone rocks to dominantly top-north shear in staurolite/kyanite zone and deeper rocks. Kinematic vorticity values indicate an increase in pure shear component with depth from ˜48% pure shear in chloritoid zone rocks through ˜62% in garnet zone to staurolite/kyanite zone rocks to ˜68% pure shear in an orthogneiss, the deepest exposed rocks. Deformation temperatures inferred from grain-scale microstructures and quartz lattice preferred orientations increase from ˜300°C-400°C in chloritoid zone rocks to ≥600°C in the deepest exposed rocks. These temperatures are equivalent to temperatures derived from garnet-biotite thermobarometry, indicating that Wm was recorded during peak metamorphism. This ductile deformation zone was cut by the brittle southern Tibetan detachment system (STDS) that juxtaposed metasedimentary rocks upon the orthogneiss. On the basis of these relations, midcrustal rocks in the core of Kangmar Dome record: (1) general shear (vertical thinning and N-S horizontal extension) with a component of top-north shear during peak metamorphism within a ductile shear zone corresponding to the northern and deeper portion of the STDS, (2) an increase in pure shear with structural depth, a consequence of an increase in lithostatic load, and (3) displacement of the high-temperature shear zone by the brittle STDS. Our data are compatible with the deformation patterns predicted for the top part of a southward flowing midcrustal channel.

  12. Allegheny woodrat (Neotoma magister) use of rock drainage channels on reclaimed mines in southern West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chamblin, H.D.; Wood, P.B.; Edwards, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Allegheny woodrats (Neotoma magister) currently receive protected status throughout their range due to population declines. Threats associated with habitat fragmentation (e.g., introduced predators, disease, loss of connectivity among subpopulations and habitat loss) may explain why Allegheny woodrats are no longer found in many areas where they existed just 25 y ago. In southern West Virginia, surface coal mining is a major cause of forest fragmentation. Furthermore, mountaintop mining, the prevalent method in the region, results in a loss of rock outcrops and cliffs within forested areas, typical habitat of the Allegheny woodrat To determine the extent that Allegheny woodrats make use of reclaimed mine land, particularly rock drainages built during reclamation, we sampled 24 drainage channels on reclaimed surface mines in southern West Virginia, collected habitat data at each site and used logistic regression to identify habitat variables related to Allegheny woodrat presence. During 187 trap nights, 13 adult, 2 subadult and 8 juvenile Allegheny woodrats were captured at 13 of the 24 sites. Percent of rock as a groundcover and density of stems >15 cm diameter-at-breast-height (DBH) were related to Allegheny woodrat presence and were significantly greater at sites where Allegheny woodrats were present than absent. Sites where Allegheny woodrats were present differed substantially from other described habitats in West Virginia, though they may simulate boulder piles that occur naturally. Our findings suggest the need for additional research to examine the dynamics between Allegheny woodrat populations inhabiting rock outcrops in forests adjacent to mines and populations inhabiting constructed drainage channels on reclaimed mines. However, if Allegheny woodrats can use human-created habitat, our results will be useful to surface mine reclamation and to other mitigation efforts where rocky habitats are lost or disturbed.

  13. Floating marine debris in fjords, gulfs and channels of southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Hinojosa, Iván A; Thiel, Martin

    2009-08-01

    Floating marine debris (FMD) is reported from all oceans. The bulk of FMD are plastics, which due to their longevity cause multiple negative impacts on wildlife and environment. Identifying the origins of FMD (land- or sea-based) is important to take the necessary steps to diminish their abundance. Using ship surveys we examined the abundance, composition and distribution of FMD during the years 2002-2005 in the fjords, gulfs and channels of southern Chile. Abundances of FMD were relatively high compared with other studies, ranging from 1 to 250 items km(-2). The majority (approximately 80%) of FMD was composed of styrofoam (expanded polystyrene), plastic bags and plastic fragments. Styrofoam, which is intensively used as flotation device by mussel farms, was very abundant in the northern region but rarely occurred in the southern region of the study area. Food sacks from salmon farms were also most common in the northern region, where approximately 85% of the total Chilean mussel and salmon harvest is produced. Plastic bags, which could be from land- or sea-based sources, were found throughout the entire study area. Our results indicate that sea-based activities (mussel farming and salmon aquaculture) are responsible for most FMD in the study area. In order to reduce FMDs in the environment, in addition to stronger legislation and identification of potential sources, we suggest environmental education programs and we encourage public participation (e.g. in beach surveys and clean-ups).

  14. Flood-Derived Sand Lobes on the Shelf of the Northern Santa Barbara Channel, Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steel, E.; Simms, A.; Warrick, J. A.; Yokoyama, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Gravity flows in the Santa Barbara Channel (SBC) of Southern California have the potential to damage pipelines leading to offshore petroleum platforms, yet their recurrence intervals and initiation mechanisms remain unknown. The recent discovery of seven fans on the continental shelf of the SBC poses an important question; namely, are the SBC fans deposited by sediment gravity flows capable of damaging shelf infrastructure? The fans lie directly offshore from small mountainous creeks that exceed the suspended sediment threshold of 40 g/L required for plunging at the fluvial-marine interface. Here, we present grain size trends, radiocarbon dates, and overall stratigraphic architecture of two fans in the SBC from eight cores and nine grab samples collected in October, 2013. The snub-nosed geometry of each lobe implies en masse freezing of deposits, but the incorporation of shell material and evidence of erosion in shallow seismic profiles indicate an initially turbulent flow regime. The location and geometry of these features suggests that the fans in the SBC are the result of hybrid hyperpycnal-debris flows, likely during floods associated with El Niño Southern Oscillation. A small shoreface slope break found immediately up-dip from these features suggests that seafloor geometry may play a key role in their deposition. The absence of a similar shoreface slope brake in areas without fans suggests a relationship between fan formation and shelf gradient.

  15. Edwardsiella tarda and Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diseased Southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) are virulent to channel catfish and Nile tilapia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study is to identify bacterial pathogens isolated from diseased Southern flounder and determine their virulence to channel catfish and Nile tilapia. Twenty five Gram-negative bacteria isolates were recovered from five tissues (skin lesions, brain, liver, intestine, and posterior kidn...

  16. Ontogenetic allometry of the Beagle

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mammalian juveniles undergo dramatic changes in body conformation during development. As one of the most common companion animals, the time line and trajectory of a dog’s development and its body’s re-proportioning is of particular scientific interest. Several ontogenetic studies have investigated the skeletal development in dogs, but none has paid heed to the scapula as a critical part of the mammalian forelimb. Its functional integration into the forelimb changed the correspondence between fore- and hindlimb segments and previous ontogenetic studies observed more similar growth patterns for functionally than serially homologous elements. In this study, the ontogenetic development of six Beagle siblings was monitored between 9 and 51 weeks of age to investigate their skeletal allometry and compare this with data from other lines, breeds and species. Results Body mass increased exponentially with time; log linear increase was observed up to the age of 15 weeks. Compared with body mass, withers and pelvic height as well as the lengths of the trunk, scapula, brachium and antebrachium, femur and crus exhibited positive allometry. Trunk circumference and pes showed negative allometry in all, pelvis and manus in most dogs. Thus, the typical mammalian intralimb re-proportioning with the proximal limb elements exhibiting positive allometry and the very distal ones showing negative allometry was observed. Relative lengths of the antebrachium, femur and crus increased, while those of the distal elements decreased. Conclusions Beagles are fully-grown regarding body height but not body mass at about one year of age. Particular attention should be paid to feeding and physical exertion during the first 15 weeks when they grow more intensively. Compared with its siblings, a puppy’s size at 9 weeks is a good indicator for its final size. Among siblings, growth duration may vary substantially and appears not to be related to the adult size. Within breeds, a longer

  17. Invertebrate drift during in-channel gravel mining: the Upper River Cinca (Southern Pyrenees)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béjar, Maria; Gibbins, Chris; Vericat, Damià; Batalla, Ramon J.; Muñoz, Efrén; Ramos, Ester; Lobera, Gemma; Andrés López-Tarazón, Jose; Piqué, Gemma; Tena, Álvaro; Buendía, Cristina; Rennie, Colin D.

    2015-04-01

    Invertebrate drift has been widely studied as an important mechanism to structure the benthic assemblages and as a part of invertebrate behavior in fluvial systems. River channel disturbance is considered the main factor affecting the organization of riverine communities and contributes to key ecological processes. However, little is known about involuntary drift associated to bed disturbance due to the difficulties associated with sampling during floods. In-channel gravel mining offers an opportunity to study involuntary drift associated not only to local bed disturbances but also to sudden changes on suspended sediment concentrations and flow. High suspended sediment concentrations and sudden changes in flow also prompt drift due to the limiting conditions (i.e. lack of oxygen, hydric stress). Within this context, invertebrate drift was monitored in the Upper River Cinca (Southern Pyrenees) during two gravel mining activities performed in summer 2014. The data acquisition design includes: drift, suspended sediment, bedload, bed mobility and flow. Data was acquired before, during and after mining at different sampling locations located upstream and downstream the perturbation. Drift and suspended sediment transport were sampled at 5 sections: 1 control site upstream the mining and 4 downstream. Bedload samples were collected just downstream the channel where gravels were extracted. Bed mobility and changes on topography were assessed by means of GPS-aDcp and repeat topographic surveys. Discharge was continuously recorded 2.5 km downstream the mining location. Additionally, two turbidity meters registered water turbidity at 15 minute intervals in two of the four sampling sections located downstream. This experimental design provides data on the spatial and temporal variability of drift associated to a local bed disturbance that (i) changes the distribution of flow across the section where mining was performed, (ii) increase substantially suspended sediment

  18. Distribution of siphonophores, chaetognaths, euphausiids and oceanographic conditions in the fjords and channels of southern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palma, Sergio; Silva, Nelson

    2004-03-01

    Interior waters of the fjords and channels of southern Chile (41.5°S-56°S) receive inputs of Subantarctic Water, Equatorial Subsuperficial Water and Western Pacific Subsurface Water from the adjacent Pacific Ocean by means of numerous connecting channels that lead inward from the ocean margin. These waters become mixed in the interior zone with freshwater from precipitation, river flow, and meltwater from cordilleran glaciers. A two-layered positive estuarine circulation becomes established, with a superficial layer having a net movement towards the adjacent ocean, and a deep layer with net movement towards the fjords. The biomass of the interior waters is composed principally of planktonic crustaceans (copepods and euphausiids), chaetognaths, and gelatinous carnivores. In a southerly direction, decreases are observed in biomass, in relative abundance, and in species diversity of siphonophores, chaetognaths, and euphausiids. Only a few species have been able to adapt successfully to the extreme oceanographic conditions typical of the region, reflected in dominant monospecific populations such as Muggiaea atlantica, Sagitta tasmanica, and Euphausia vallentini. The zooplankton fauna of interior waters, characterized by its low degree of specific richness, is made up of a mixture of species typical of Subantarctic Water (Sagitta tasmanica, S. decipiens, Euphausia lucens, Nematoscelis megalops, Thysanoessa gregaria), antarctic water (Pyrosthephos vanhoeffeni, Dimophyes arctica, Sagitta marri, S. gazellae, Eukrohnia hamata, E. bathyantarctica, Euphausia vallentini), temperate and warm epipelagic waters (Eudoxoides spiralis, Lensia conoidea, Chelophyes appendiculata, Muggiaea atlantica, Sphaeronectes gracilis, S. fragilis, Abylopsis tetragona, Sagitta enflata), and mesopelagic water (Physophora hydrostatica, Stylocheiron maximum, Vogtia pentacantha, V. serrata).

  19. Basin inversion by distributed deformation: the southern margin of the Bristol Channel Basin, England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glen, R. A.; Hancock, P. L.; Whittaker, A.

    Several models of basin inversion described in the literature are tested in a study of Triassic and Early Jurassic strata exposed along the southern margin of the Bristol Channel Basin in Somerset, England that has been exhumed by <3 km. Two key features of the superbly exposed normal faults are that they formed at several times during basin evolution—not during Triassic to Early Jurassic growth, but during Late Jurassic rifting, and during and after inversion; and that >95% of them are still in net extension, despite widespread kinematic evidence for reverse reactivation. When coupled with the general absence of thin-skinned thrusts and the widespread occurrence of regional contractional folds, it appears that none of three main inversion models—the fault-reactivation model, the thin-skinned model and the buttress model—are by themselves applicable. We erect a new model of basin inversion, the distributed deformation model, which consists of three stages of basin inversion. Stage one involved early partial reactivation of large-displacement steep normal faults. Stage two was dominated by folding, wherein fault blocks underwent oblique (non-coaxial) shortening by map scale folding, accompanied by formation of outer arc normal faults, minor cleavage and neoformed thrusts. Stage three involved reverse reactivation of outer arc normal faults and activation of oblique and strike-slip faults that partitioned deformation into compartments.

  20. Beagle 2: Mission to Mars - Current Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Pillinger, C. T.; Wright, I. P.; Morgan, G. H.; Yau, D.; Stewart, J. L. C.; Leese, M. R.; Praine, I. J.; Sheridan, S.

    2004-01-01

    Beagle 2 is a 72 kg probe (with a 32 kg lander) developed in the United Kingdom for inclusion on the European Space Agency's 2003 Mars Express. Beagle 2 was launched on June 2, 2003 with Mars Express on a Soyuz-Fregat rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Beagle 2 landed on Mars on December 25th, 2003 in Isidis Planitia (approx. 10.7 N and 268.6 W), a large sedimentary basin that overlies the boundary between ancient highlands and northern plains. Isidis Planitia, the third largest impact basin on Mars, which is possibly filled with sediment deposited at the bottom of long-standing lakes or seas, offers an ideal environment for preserving traces of life. The team is awaiting signals from the Beagle 2 lander at the time when this abstract was written. Current status of the mission will be reported. Beagle 2 was developed to search for organic material and other volatiles on and below the surface of Mars in addition to the study of the inorganic chemistry and mineralogy. Several fundamental properties can be used to determine the existence of an active or past biology on any planet, Earth or Mars. Beagle 2's targets for investigation included: (a) The presence of water, or the existence of minerals deposited from water to show that water was present, even if only transiently; (b) The detection of carbonaceous debris, the remains of organisms that might have lived in water or were washed to a final resting place by the action of water; (c) The structure of organic matter, to demonstrate that it might have been synthesized for a biological purpose; (d) The recognition of isotopic fractionation between carbonaceous phases (organic vs inorganic carbon phases), a condition which on Earth suggests that life emerged nearly 4 billion years ago.

  1. Renal dysplasia in Beagle dogs: four cases.

    PubMed

    Bruder, Marc C; Shoieb, Ahmed M; Shirai, Norimitsu; Boucher, Germaine G; Brodie, Thomas A

    2010-12-01

    Anomalies of renal development comprise abnormalities in the amount of renal tissue (agenesis and hypoplasia); anomalies of renal position, form, and orientation; and renal dysplasia. There are previous reports of canine renal dysplasia in different breeds but none in the Beagle breed. This is the first report of renal dysplasia in this breed of dog. Morphologic descriptions of the range of microscopic features observed in four cases of renal dysplasia from preclinical studies in laboratory Beagle dogs are presented (including persistent primitive mesenchyme, persistence of metanephric ducts, asynchronous differentiation of nephrons, and atypical tubular epithelium), along with a basis for the classification of the lesion.

  2. Geomorphic Assessment Approach to Evaluate Stream Channel Stability for Regions of Illinois, Case Study: Southern Illinois Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keefer, L. L.

    2004-12-01

    An array of different geomorphic assessment approaches for evaluating stream-channel stability is being utilized throughout the country to meet the demands of resource managers interested in stream channel restoration and management to reduce erosion and improve stream habitat. Over the last century, most of the Illinois landscape has experienced intensive land use changes which have contributed to stream channel instability. Stream channels in Illinois have adjusted to these changes either by increasing lateral rates of migration, downstream translation of meanders, widening, or development of headward retreat of knickpoints, depending on the region of the state. Illinois can be divided into at least four regions based on prevailing physiographic features and style of channel adjustment. Also, channel response in most of these regions tend to be more subtle than the dramatic response characteristics of streams in the Coastal Plains, mountain environments, and the desert southwest for which other geomorphic approaches have been developed. The observed magnitude and type of channel response are related to topography of the bedrock surface and extent and morphology of several glacial periods, which carry local significance for stream management. Given that geomorphic assessments for stream restoration require non-trivial professional, time, and financial resources, the development of approaches for Illinois regional conditions are more beneficial. A geomorphic assessment approach is being developed by adapting methods from existing process-based approaches utilized around the United States. A case-study was performed in the Big Creek watershed of the Cache River Basin for the southern Illinois region. This region was selected first because it exhibited dramatic channel responses to disturbances and had an extensive hydrologic, sediment, and land management record. This adapted approach includes systematic data collection protocols for characterization leading to an

  3. The role of river trajectories and channel recovery potential within sustainable river management: some case studies from southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosskopf, Carmen Maria; Scorpio, Vittoria; Patrizio Ciro Aucelli, Pietro

    2016-04-01

    Most of Italian and European rivers have undergone notable channel adjustments since the last 150-200 years. Major adjustments fall within the second half of the last century and consisted in overall channel narrowing and degradation, accompanied by important pattern changes. In the cases of the six investigated rivers located in southern Italy (namely Trigno, Biferno, Fortore, Volturno, Sinni and Crati), major adjustments occurred from the 1950s to the end of the 1990s. They consisted in channel narrowing up to 98%, bed level lowering from -2 to -10m and extensive changes from multi-thread to single thread pattern that led to the abandonment of extensive channel areas and consistent increase of floodplain and terraced areas. The integrated analysis of river trajectories and potential control factors, both of natural and anthropic origin, showed that human disturbances, especially gravel mining and river control works, are key driving factors of channel adjustments. Furthermore, the presence of major hydraulic structures along the rivers Biferno, Fortore, Sinni and Trigno significantly influenced the amounts of channel adjustments which are sharply higher within the reaches located downstream of such structures. Considering the last 15-20 years, most of the evolutionary trajectories of the investigated reaches highlight ongoing channel stabilization or even some appreciable channel recovery. Particularly, channel widening had occurred in those reaches that are not under the direct influence of major hydraulic structures (check-dams and dams) and in which in-channel interventions had pratically ceased and woody riparian vegetation developed only in a discontinuous manner. Conversely, the reaches that are located immediately downstream of major hydraulic structures, in which control works are placed very close to the actual riverbanks and/or a continuous riparian forest has developed, appear stable, only locally affected by very slight widening, or even affected by

  4. Microplastic contamination in brown shrimp (Crangon crangon, Linnaeus 1758) from coastal waters of the Southern North Sea and Channel area.

    PubMed

    Devriese, Lisa I; van der Meulen, Myra D; Maes, Thomas; Bekaert, Karen; Paul-Pont, Ika; Frère, Laura; Robbens, Johan; Vethaak, A Dick

    2015-09-15

    This study assessed the capability of Crangon crangon (L.), an ecologically and commercially important crustacean, of consuming plastics as an opportunistic feeder. We therefore determined the microplastic content of shrimp in shallow water habitats of the Channel area and Southern part of the North Sea. Synthetic fibers ranging from 200μm up to 1000μm size were detected in 63% of the assessed shrimp and an average value of 0.68±0.55microplastics/g w. w. (1.23±0.99microplastics/shrimp) was obtained for shrimp in the sampled area. The assessment revealed no spatial patterns in plastic ingestion, but temporal differences were reported. The microplastic uptake was significantly higher in October compared to March. The results suggest that microplastics >20μm are not able to translocate into the tissues.

  5. Beagle 2: Seeking the Signatures of Life on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K., Jr.; Pillinger, Colin T.; Wright, Ian P.; Morse, Andy; Stewart, Jenny; Morgan, G.; Praine, Ian; Leigh, Dennis; Sims, Mark R.; Pullan, Derek

    2003-01-01

    Beagle 2 is a 60 kg probe (with a 30 kg lander) developed in the United Kingdom for inclusion on the European Space Agency s 2003 Mars Express. Beagle 2 will deliver to the Martian surface a payload which consists of a high percentage of science instruments to landed spacecraft mass. Beagle 2 will be launched in June 2003 with Mars Express on a Soyuz-Fregat rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Beagle 2 will land on Mars in December 2003 in Isidis Planitia (approx. 11.5 deg.N and 275 deg.W), a large sedimentary basin that overlies the boundary between ancient highlands and northern plains. Isidis Planitia, the third largest basin on Mars, which is possibly filled with sediment deposited at the bottom of long-standing lakes or seas, offers an ideal environment for preserving traces of life. Beagle 2 is completed and undergoing integration with the Mars Express orbiter prior to launch.

  6. Southern sea otter range expansion and habitat use in the Santa Barbara Channel, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tinker, M. Tim; Tomoleoni, Joseph; LaRoche, Nicole; Bowen, Lizabeth; Miles, A. Keith; Murray, Mike; Staedler, Michelle; Randell, Zachary

    2017-01-17

    The re-colonization of the Santa Barbara channel by sea otters brings these ESA-listed marine mammals closer to active oil and gas production facilities, shipping lanes and naturally occurring oil and gas seeps. However, the degree to which sea otters may actually be affected by human-caused oil spills or exposure to natural oil seeps is currently unknown. Between 2012 and 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey and collaborating agencies conducted a telemetry-based study of sea otters in Santa Barbara channel, in order to provide critical information for resource managers (specifically the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, henceforth BOEM, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, henceforth USFWS) about the spatial ecology, population status, and potential population threats to sea otters in Santa Barbara Channel, with particular reference to exposure to manmade structures and sources of oil and natural gas. Analysis of spatial monitoring data using a Bayesian-based synoptic model allowed for description of sea otter home ranges, identification of hot-spots of use, and insights into habitat selection behavior by male and female sea otters. Important findings included the deeper modal depth preferred by males versus females, strong preferences by both sexes for areas with persistent kelp canopy, and greater use of soft-sediment areas by males. The synoptic model also provided the ability to predict population-level density distribution for each sex in new habitats: by calculating the value of these probability density distributions at the known locations of natural seeps, we were able to identify those seeps with higher potential for sea otter encounters. The relative probability of occurrence at locations near to some seeps was sufficiently high (about 1% likelihood of occurrence for some of our study animals) that one would anticipate occasional encounters. Data on male and female survival, reproductive success, activity budgets, and body condition all indicated that

  7. Interactions of Marine Hydrokinetic Devices in Complex Bathymetries: Numerical Simulations in the Chacao Channel in Southern Chile.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, K. A.; Escauriaza, C. R.; Richter, D. H.

    2015-12-01

    Many coastal areas in the South Pacific Ocean can provide significant marine energy resources in the near future. The installation of marine hydrokinetic (MHK) devices in these regions will require new approaches to understand physical and environmental processes that are relevant for the installation of turbine arrays, which are also specific of each site. The coastal morphology of the Chacao channel in southern Chile, which separates the Chiloé island from the main continent (41º47'S, 73º31'W) stands out as an important energy resource that can potentially contribute a significant power capacity. This coastal area not only sustains delicate ecosystems with limited anthropic intervention, but it is characterized by a complex bathymetry that can have important effects on the performance of MHK devices and their local impacts. To understand the interactions of the local bathymetry and ambient turbulence with turbine arrays, we carry out a series of numerical simulations with a coherent-structure resolving turbulence model using the actuator disk parameterization. The main objective of this study is to further our understanding on the physical processes associated with the installation of the turbine arrays. We perform simulations with different geometries and inlet boundary conditions, from simple cases in a rectangular channel, to more complex cases that include the high-resolution bathymetry of an extensive area of the Chacao channel. The results show how the interactions between the MHK devices, the local flow, and the bed can affect the energy flux and potential generation in specific sites. The results also provide new insights of local impacts of MHK devices and they can also help to optimize turbine arrays in natural environments. This work has been supported by Fondecyt project 1130940, and the Marine Energy Research & Innovation Center (MERIC) financed by Corfo and based in Santiago, Chile.

  8. Sources and interpretation of channel complexity in forested subalpine streams of the Southern Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livers, Bridget; Wohl, Ellen

    2016-05-01

    We evaluate correlations between stream geomorphic complexity and characteristics of the adjacent riparian forest, valley geometry, and land use history in forested subalpine streams of the Colorado Front Range. Measures of geomorphic complexity focus on cross-sectional, planform, and instream wood piece and logjam variables. We categorize adjacent riparian forests as old-growth unmanaged forest (OU), younger unmanaged forest (YU), and younger managed forest (YM), and valley geometry as laterally confined, partly confined, or unconfined. Significant differences in geomorphic stream complexity between OU, YU, and YM result primarily from differences in wood pieces and logjams, and these differences correlate strongly with pool volume and organic matter storage. Significant differences in planform and cross-sectional complexity correlate more strongly with valley geometry, but do not explain as much of the observed variability in complexity between streams as do the wood variables. Unconfined OU streams have the largest wood loads and the greatest complexity, whereas legacy effects of logging, tie-drives, and channel simplification create lower complexity in YM streams, even relative to YU streams flowing through similarly aged forest. We find that management history of riparian forests exerts the strongest control on reduced functional stream channel complexity, regardless of riparian forest stand age.

  9. Evidences of a Lithospheric Fault Zone in the Sicily Channel Continental Rift (Southern Italy) from Instrumental Seismicity Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisi, L.; Calo, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Sicily Channel continental rift is located in the African Plate and is submerged by a shallow sea extending from the northern coast of Africa to the southern coast of Sicily (southern Italy). The area is affected by an extensional regime since early Pliocene, which thins the continental crust and produces NW-SE oriented Pantelleria, Linosa and Malta grabens. The rift-related volcanic activity is represented by Pantelleria and Linosa Islands and a series of magmatic manifestations roughly NNE-SSW aligned, from Linosa Island to the Nameless Bank, in proximity of the Sicilian coast. Recent rapid magmatic ascents occurred along the strip near to the Sicilian coast in a region named Graham Bank. The NNE-SSW strip has already been recognised as a separation belt between the western sector of the rift (Pantelleria graben) and the eastern one (Linosa and Malta grabens). Seismic profiles suggest the presence of near vertical structures associated with strike slip fault zones. Bathymetric data show a 15-20 km wide zone characterised by several shallow basins irregularly alternated by topographic highs. However, evidences of a N-S or NNE-SSW orientated faults have not been found. In this work we re-localised the instrumental seismicity recorded between 1981 and 2012 in the Sicily Channel and western Sicily using the Double Difference method (Waldhauser, 2001, 2012) and 3D Vp and Vs models (Calò et al., 2013). The statistical analysis of the relocated seismicity together with the study of seismic energy release distribution allows us to describe the main patterns associated with the active faults in the western Sicily Straits. Here we find that most of the events in the Sicily Channel are highly clustered between 12.5°- 13.5°E and 35.5°-37°N with hypocentral depth between 5-40 km, reaching in some cases 70 km of depth. Seismic events seem to be aligned along a sub-vertical shear zone that is long at least 250 km and oriented approximately NNE-SSW. The spatial

  10. Opportunity Approaches the Bowl of Beagle Crater (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity acquired this false-color image of the rim of the 35-meter (115-foot) diameter Beagle Crater on Martian day, or sol, 894 (July 30, 2006) using the panoramic camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer, and 432-nanometer filters. At the time the rover was about 25 meters (82 feet) from Beagle Crater, looking east-southeast. The image reveals ejecta blocks near the rover, the largest of which is about 50 centimeters (20 inches) across. The image also shows a portion of the eastern interior rim of Beagle Crater, which appears composed of jumbled, angular blocks of brighter and darker outcrop rocks. The rover will drive to the rim of Beagle and acquire an extensive color panorama of the crater rim and interior in the coming sols.

  11. Metastatic thymoma and acquired generalized myasthenia gravis in a beagle.

    PubMed

    Moffet, Adrienne C

    2007-01-01

    A 16-year-old, spayed female beagle was diagnosed with metastatic thymoma causing a probable paraneoplastic syndrome of generalized acquired myasthenia gravis. Anticholinesterase treatment was initiated; however, 5 days later the dog died.

  12. Neoplasia in fast neutron-irradiated beagles

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, E.W.; Zook; B.C.; Casarett, G.W.

    1981-09-01

    One hundred fifty-one beagle dogs were irradiated with either photons or fast neutrons (15 MeV) to one of three dose-limiting normal tissues - spinal cord, lung, or brain. The radiation was given in four fractions per week for 5 weeks (spinal cord), 6 weeks (lung), 7 weeks (brain) to total doses encompassing those given clinically for cancer management. To date, no nonirradiated dogs or photon-irradiated dogs have developed neoplasms within the irradiated field. Of the neutron-irradiated dogs at risk, the incidence of neoplasia was 15%. The latent period for radiation-induced cancers has varied from 1 to 4 1/2 years at this time in the study.

  13. Neoplasia in fast neutron-irradiated beagles

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, E.W.; Zook, B.C.; Casarett, G.W.; Deye, J.A.; Adoff, L.M.; Rogers, C.C.

    1981-09-01

    One hundred fifty-one beagle dogs were irradiated with either photons or fast neutrons (15 MeV) to one of three dose-limiting normal tissues--spinal cord, lung, or brain. The radiation was given in four fractions per week for 5 weeks (spinal cord), 6 weeks (lung), or 7 weeks (brain) to total doses encompassing those given clinically for cancer management. To date, no nonirradiated dogs or photon-irradiated dogs have developed any neoplasms. Seven dogs receiving fast neutrons have developed 9 neoplasms within the irradiated field. Of the neutron-irradiated dogs at risk, the incidence of neoplasia was 15%. The latent period for radiation-induced cancers has varied from 1 to 4 1/2 years at this time in the study.

  14. Ion temperature intensification in southern convection flow channels during the 1 October 2001 geomagnetic storm recovery phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, Ildiko; Lovell, Brian C.

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we investigate Southern Hemisphere flow channel (FC) events and their underlying thermal and drift variations during the 1 October 2001 storm recovery phase. We adopt FC classification introduced by previous studies for specifying FCs, ranging from FC-0 to FC-4, according to the stages of convection cycle they are related to. Our investigation includes also the subauroral FC known as the subauroral polarization stream (SAPS) and the localized FC underlying plasma density increases crossing the polar cap. For tracking FCs, we utilize multi-instrument data from the Defence Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP). Since our focus is on the region of magnetic South Pole, we utilize DMSP passes that crossed the magnetic pole. We present various scenarios with polar cross sections, constructed with ion density (Ni), electron and ion temperature (Te; Ti), and zonal and vertical drift (VY; VZ) data, where the location of magnetic pole is marked. Our results show (1) the occurrence of FC-2 in the central polar cap, (2) the propagation of localized FC from the dayside to the nightside across the polar cap implying dayside-nightside coupling across the polar cap, and (3) the structuring of SAPS FC. These scenarios reveal the local intensification of Ti and/or VZ in FCs (a) ranging from FC-0 to FC-3 and (b) specified as SAPS FC and localized FC passing over the magnetic pole. We conclude that strong upward drift, reaching sometimes 1000 m/s, could enhance localized thermospheric impact caused by elevated Ti in FCs.

  15. Modelling and interpreting spectral energy distributions of galaxies with BEAGLE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevallard, Jacopo; Charlot, Stéphane

    2016-10-01

    We present a new-generation tool to model and interpret spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of galaxies, which incorporates in a consistent way the production of radiation and its transfer through the interstellar and intergalactic media. This flexible tool, named BEAGLE (for BayEsian Analysis of GaLaxy sEds), allows one to build mock galaxy catalogues as well as to interpret any combination of photometric and spectroscopic galaxy observations in terms of physical parameters. The current version of the tool includes versatile modelling of the emission from stars and photoionized gas, attenuation by dust and accounting for different instrumental effects, such as spectroscopic flux calibration and line spread function. We show a first application of the BEAGLE tool to the interpretation of broad-band SEDs of a published sample of ˜ 10^4 galaxies at redshifts 0.1 ≲ z ≲ 8. We find that the constraints derived on photometric redshifts using this multipurpose tool are comparable to those obtained using public, dedicated photometric-redshift codes and quantify this result in a rigorous statistical way. We also show how the post-processing of BEAGLE output data with the PYTHON extension PYP-BEAGLE allows the characterization of systematic deviations between models and observations, in particular through posterior predictive checks. The modular design of the BEAGLE tool allows easy extensions to incorporate, for example, the absorption by neutral galactic and circumgalactic gas, and the emission from an active galactic nucleus, dust and shock-ionized gas. Information about public releases of the BEAGLE tool will be maintained on http://www.jacopochevallard.org/beagle.

  16. Beagle 2: lessons learned and the way forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-05-01

    The Mars Express spacecraft, carrying the Beagle 2 lander, was launched on 2 June last year, arriving in the vicinity of Mars in December. The separation of Beagle 2 from Mars Express took place flawlessly on 19 December. The satellite continued its mission with its successful insertion into a Mars orbit on 25 December, the day on which Beagle 2 was due to land. The first radio contact with Beagle 2 was expected shortly after the scheduled landing time but no signal was received. Many radio contacts were attempted over the following days and weeks, but without result. By early February it became clear that there was no prospect of communicating with Beagle 2 and a joint ESA/UK inquiry was set up to investigate the circumstances and possible reasons that prevented completion of the Beagle 2 mission. The Commission of Inquiry, including senior managers and experts from Europe and also from NASA and Russia held several meetings in the UK and at ESA, interviewed the key players -directors, managers, scientists, and engineers - involved in the development of Beagle 2, and has submitted its findings, assessments and recommendations. The report was submitted to the UK Minister for Science and Innovation and the Director General of ESA on 21 April and accepted. No single technical failure or shortcoming was unambiguously identified but a few credible causes for Beagle 2 loss were highlighted. More importantly, the Board made it clear that there were programmatic and organisational reasons that significantly increased the risk of Beagle 2 failure. The outcome of the review carried out by the Commission of Inquiry is summarized in 19 recommendations to the British Authorities and ESA. These constitute the basis of lessons learned for the future. Both parties have accepted them fully. ESA will undertake a course of action to ensure their implementation. On Monday 24 May, BNSC invites media representatives to attend a press conference at: The Department of Trade and Industry

  17. Histopathology of Incidental Findings in Beagles Used in Toxicity Studies

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Junko; Doi, Takuya; Wako, Yumi; Hamamura, Masao; Kanno, Takeshi; Tsuchitani, Minoru; Narama, Isao

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of our publication is to widely communicate the pictures of spontaneous findings occurring in beagles. Spontaneous arteritis occurs commonly in beagles. Frequent sites of arteritis are the heart, spleen, pancreas, epididymis and spinal cord. Morphological similarities between spontaneous and drug-induced arterial lesions may cause confusion when evaluating vascular toxicity of chemicals such as vasodilating agents. Focal and minimal inflammatory lesions are occasionally seen in the lung and may be associated with aspiration of food particles or of unknown causes. A cystic change with copious mucin production occurs occasionally in the mucosal epithelium of the gall bladder. Nesidioblastosis is seen rarely in the pancreas of beagles. C-cell complex and lymphocytic thyroiditis are common thyroid lesions. Spontaneous focal hypospermatogenesis and lobular Sertoli-cell-only seminiferous tubules occurring frequently in beagles must be distinguished from drug-induced damage of the seminiferous tubules in toxicity studies. The morphological differences of the female genital system in each cycle need to be understood; therefore, we present the normal features of the cyclic changes of the female genital organs. Further, we provide more information on spontaneous findings in beagles for exact diagnoses in toxicity studies. PMID:22481862

  18. Evaluation of nanoparticle delivered cisplatin in beagles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldhaeusser, Brittany; Platt, Simon R.; Marrache, Sean; Kolishetti, Nagesh; Pathak, Rakesh K.; Montgomery, David J.; Reno, Lisa R.; Howerth, Elizabeth; Dhar, Shanta

    2015-08-01

    Intracranial neoplasia is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in both human and veterinary patients, and is difficult to treat with traditional therapeutic methods. Cisplatin is a platinum (Pt)-containing chemotherapeutic agent approved by the Food and Drug Administration; however, substantial limitations exist for its application in canine brain tumor treatment due to the difficulty in crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB), development of resistance, and toxicity. A modified Pt(iv)-prodrug of cisplatin, Platin-M, was recently shown to be deliverable to the brain via a biocompatible mitochondria-targeted lipophilic polymeric nanoparticle (NP) that carries the drug across the BBB and to the mitochondria. NP mediated controlled release of Platin-M and subsequent reduction of this prodrug to cisplatin allowed cross-links to be formed with the mitochondrial DNA, which have no nucleotide excision repair system, forcing the overactive cancer cells to undergo apoptosis. Here, we report in vitro effects of targeted Platin-M NPs (T-Platin-M-NPs) in canine glioma and glioblastoma cell lines with results indicating that this targeted NP formulation is more effective than cisplatin. In both the cell lines, T-Platin-M-NP was significantly more efficacious compared to carboplatin, another Pt-based chemotherapy, which is used in the settings of recurrent high-grade glioblastoma. Mitochondrial stress analysis indicated that T-Platin-M-NP is more effective in disrupting the mitochondrial bioenergetics in both the cell types. A 14-day distribution study in healthy adult beagles using a single intravenous injection at 0.5 mg kg-1 (with respect to Platin-M) of T-Platin-M-NPs showed high levels of Pt accumulation in the brain, with negligible amounts in the other analyzed organs. Safety studies in the beagles monitoring physical, hematological, and serum chemistry evaluations were within the normal limits on days 1, 7, and 14 after injection of either 0.5 mg kg-1 or 2 mg kg

  19. Microdosimetry of plutonium in beagle dog lung

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R.; Roesch, W.C.

    1980-08-01

    A better understanding of the microdosimetry of internally-deposited radionuclides should provide new clues to the complex relationships between organ dose distribution and early or late biological effects. Our current interest is the microdosimetry of plutonium and other alpha emitters in the lung. Since the lung is an inhomogeneous tissue, it was necessary to characterize the microscopic distributions of alveolar tissue, air space, and epithelial cell nuclei to define source-target parameters. A statistical representation of the microstructure of beagle dog lung was developed from automated image analysis of specimens from three healthy adult male dogs. The statistical distributions obtained constituted a data base from which it was possible to calculate both the energy dissipation of an alpha particle as it traversed a straight line path through pulmonary tissue, and the probability of intersecting a potentially sensitive biological site in the cell. Computer methods were modified to accomodate tissues with air space regions such as one finds in lung tissue. With the lung model description, these methods were used to determine probability density curves in specific energy for inhaled plutonium aerosols. It was assumed that the activity was randomly distributed on alveolar walls. Calculated examples are given for various activities of inhaled plutonium point sources deposited in lung tissue.

  20. Holocene planform change in broad valleys in the Southern Rocky Mountains: the role of vegetation type and beaver in shaping long-term channel complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polvi-Pilgrim, L. E.; Wohl, E.

    2012-04-01

    Over the past decade, researchers have shown the importance of streambank vegetation in forming meandering channels. Recent work has also showed the importance of beaver in creating a more heterogeneous landscape, in terms of channel planform and complexity, sedimentation, and riparian vegetation. Streambank vegetation and beavers interact as ecosystem engineers to determine long-term channel planform, floodplain processes, and complexity. We use studies of Holocene beaver aggradation and effects on channel complexity, in addition to measurements of added bank strength by various riparian vegetation types, to predict Holocene planform change in broad (>200 m, disconnected from hillslopes), high-elevation (>2300 m) valleys of the Colorado Front Range in the Southern Rocky Mountains. Sediment core analyses and shallow subsurface geophysical measurements indicate that post-glacial beaver-related aggradation is significant. Additionally, historical and field evidence from the last century, when the beaver population steadily declined, shows that beaver contribute to the formation of a complex, multi-thread channel network. Streambank vegetation in the Colorado Front Range can be categorized based on its ability to provide added strength to the streambank, where riparian or rhizomatous shrubs and trees provide more strength than xeric trees or non-rhizomatous graminoids and herbs, depending on the bank texture and hydrologic conditions. Assuming a snowmelt-dominated flow regime in a gravel-bed channel system, four planform regimes are identified based on beaver populations and the abundance and presence of xeric or riparian vegetation. Following deglaciation, without beaver or bank-stabilizing vegetation, (1) a braided channel formed. The introduction of riparian vegetation and a more stable flow regime triggered a transition to (2) a meandering channel, which in turn provided habitat for beaver, allowing the formation of (3) a complex multi-thread channel system. The

  1. Fine-scale relief related to late holocene channel shifting within the floor of the upper Redondo Fan, offshore Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Normark, W.R.; Paull, C.K.; Caress, D.W.; Ussler, W.; Sliter, R.

    2009-01-01

    Erosional and depositional bedforms have been imaged at outcrop scale in the upper Redondo Fan, in the San Pedro Basin of offshore Southern California in ???600 m water depths, using an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle developed by the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute. The Autonomous Underwater Vehicle is equipped with multibeam and chirp sub-bottom sonars. Sampling and photographic images using the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute Remotely Operated Vehicle Tiburon provide groundtruth for the Autonomous Underwater Vehicle survey. The 0??3 m vertical and 1??5 m lateral bathymetric resolution and 0??1 m sub-bottom profile resolution provide unprecedented detail of bedform morphology and structure. Multiple channels within the Redondo Fan have been active at different times during the Late Holocene (0 to 3000 yr bp). The currently active channel extending from Redondo Canyon makes an abrupt 90?? turn at the canyon mouth before resuming a south-easterly course along the east side of the Redondo Fan. This channel is floored by sand and characterized by small steps generally <1 m in relief, spaced 10 to 80 m in the down-channel direction. A broader channel complex lies along the western side of the fan valley that was last active more than 850 years ago. Two distinct trains of large scours, with widths ranging from tens to a few hundred metres and depths of 20 m, occur on the floor of the western channel complex, which has a thin mud drape. If observed in cross-section only, these large scours would probably be misidentified as the thalweg of an active channel. ?? 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation ?? 2009 International Association of Sedimentologists.

  2. Opportunity Approaches the Bowl of Beagle Crater (True Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity took this approximate true-color image of Beagle Crater from a distance of about 25 meters (82 feet). The crater is thought to be relatively young based on its prominent, raised rim and surrounding ejecta that have not been eroded away or buried by sand. The image also shows a portion of the eastern interior rim of Beagle Crater, which appears composed of jumbled, angular blocks of brighter and darker outcrop rocks. The rover will drive to the rim of the crater and acquire an extensive color panorama in the coming sols.

  3. Introducing Students to Darwin via the Voyage of HMS "Beagle"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swab, Janice C.

    2010-01-01

    I use the diary that Darwin wrote during the voyage of HMS Beagle and recent images of a few of the places he visited to illustrate some comparisons between Darwin's world and ours. For today's students, increasingly committed to environmental issues, this may be an especially promising way to introduce Darwin.

  4. Adjustments in channel morphology due to land-use changes and check dam installation in mountain torrents of Calabria (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortugno, Diego; Zema, Demetrio Antonio; Bombino, Giuseppe; Tamburino, Vincenzo; Quinonero Rubio, Juan Manuel; Boix-Fayos, Carolina

    2016-04-01

    In Mediterranean semi-arid conditions the geomorphic effects of land-use changes and check dam installation on active channel headwater morphology are not completely understood. In such environments, the availability of specific studies, which monitor channel adjustments as a response to reforestation and check dams over representative observation periods, could help develop new management strategies and erosion control measures. This investigation is an integrated approach assessing the adjustments of channel morphology in a typical torrent (Sant'Agata, Calabria, Southern Italy) after land-use changes (e.g. fire, reforestation, land abandonment) and check dam construction across a period of about 60 years (1955-2012). A statistical analysis of historical rainfall records, an analysis of land-use change in the catchment area and a geomorphological mapping of channel adjustments were carried out and combined with field surveys of bed surface grain-size over a 5-km reach including 14 check dams. The analysis of the historical rainfall records showed a slight decrease in the amount and erosivity of precipitation. Mapping of land-use changes highlighted a general increase of vegetal coverage on the slopes adjacent to the monitored reaches. Together with the check dam network installation, this increase could have induced a reduction in water and sediment supply. The different erosional and depositional forms and adjustments showed a general narrowing between consecutive check dams together with local modifications detected upstream (bed aggradation and cross section expansion together with low-flow realignments) and downstream (local incision) of the installed check dams. Changes in the torrent bends were also detected as a response to erosional and depositional processes with different intensities. The study highlighted: (i) the efficiency of check dams against the disrupting power of the most intense floods by stabilising the active channel; and (ii) the influence of

  5. Erosion and deposition by supercritical density flows during channel avulsion and backfilling: Field examples from coarse-grained deepwater channel-levée complexes (Sandino Forearc Basin, southern Central America)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Jörg; Brandes, Christian; Winsemann, Jutta

    2017-03-01

    Erosion and deposition by supercritical density flows can strongly impact the facies distribution and architecture of submarine fans. Field examples from coarse-grained channel-levée complexes from the Sandino Forearc Basin (southern Central America) show that cyclic-step and antidune deposits represent common sedimentary facies of these depositional systems and relate to the different stages of avulsion, bypass, levée construction and channel backfilling. During channel avulsion, large-scale scour-fill complexes (18 to 29 m deep, 18 to 25 m wide, 60 to > 120 m long) were incised by supercritical density flows. The multi-storey infill of the large-scale scour-fill complexes comprises amalgamated massive, normally coarse-tail graded or widely spaced subhorizontally stratified conglomerates and pebbly sandstones, interpreted as deposits of the hydraulic-jump zone of cyclic steps. The large-scale scour-fill complexes can be distinguished from small-scale channel fills based on the preservation of a steep upper margin and a coarse-grained infill comprising mainly amalgamated hydraulic-jump zone deposits. Channel fills include repeated successions deposited by cyclic steps with superimposed antidunes. The deposits of the hydraulic-jump zone of cyclic steps comprise regularly spaced scours (0.2 to 2.6 m deep, 0.8 to 23 m long) infilled by intraclast-rich conglomerates or pebbly sandstones, displaying normal coarse-tail grading or backsets. These deposits are laterally and vertically associated with subhorizontally stratified, low-angle cross-stratified or sinusoidally stratified sandstones and pebbly sandstones, which were deposited by antidunes on the stoss side of the cyclic steps during flow re-acceleration. The field examples indicate that so-called spaced stratified deposits may commonly represent antidune deposits with varying stratification styles controlled by the aggradation rate, grain-size distribution and amalgamation. The deposits of small-scale cyclic

  6. Characterization of Jupiter's Deep Circulation and Static Stability through Wide Channel Numerical Simulations of the Dynamics and Interactions of Southern Midlatitudes Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales-Juberias, Raul; Dowling, T. E.

    2012-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that the observed features and dynamics of Jovian vortices are sensitive to the underlying environmental structure of Jupiter’s atmosphere, in particular to the vertical wind shear and the static stability, and that forward modeling techniques can be successfully used to eliminate a large range of possibilities in a self-consistent manner and hence constrain the atmospheric structure below the cloud regions (Youseff and Marcus 2003, Morales-Juberias et al. 2005). However, these studies have generally been done on a narrow latitude-band basis (˜15°). Here we present wide channel simulations (˜40°) of two major meteorological events observed in the southern atmosphere of Jupiter involving the interaction of the Great Red Spot (GRS) with other nearby vortices. Namely, the spots associated with the recirculation of the South Tropical Disturbance of 1979 (Smith et al. 1979) and the White Ovals (WOS) in 2000 when ovals BE and FA merged to form BA (Sanchez-Lavega et al. 2001). By studying these two events using wide channel simulations, not unlike the strategy used in terrestrial synoptic meteorology, we show that we can gain new insights into the patterns governing Jupiter's global circulations, drawing a coherent picture of the vertical structure of the atmosphere for the whole southern mid-latitudinal regions of Jupiter over time. In particular, we find that the model output best captures the dynamics of the individual vortices and the morphology of their interactions when the deformation length in this region is like that derived by Read et al. 2006 and the deep winds vary following a dependence like that derived by Dowling 1995 in which the westward jets remain constant with depth but the eastward jets increase with depth. Computational resources were provided by the New Mexico Computing Applications Center and NMT. This work was supported by PATM grants NNX08AE91G and NNX08AE64G.

  7. A pharmacokinetic study of Isatin in Beagles' bodies

    PubMed Central

    REN, AILING; SU, BENHUA; YE, SIYONG; WEI, XIA; FANG, ZHAOGUO; WANG, QIAN; ZHANG, JIAN; XU, WEN; YUE, WANG; YIN, LEI; LIU, ZHANTAO; LI, XIAOLING; DING, BO

    2016-01-01

    Isatin are marine active drugs that exert anti-cancer effects, have a cancer-prevention function, and possess many pharmacological activities. The study aimed to examine the pharmacokinetics of a single intravenous injection and oral medication of Isatin given to Beagles. Nine male and nine female Beagles were injected with 30 mg/kg of 2,3-indole quinones. The animals were divided into 3 groups (n=6 per group) and lavaged with a dose of 15, 30 and 60 mg/kg, respectively. Blood samples were collected prior to the medicine delivery (0 h) and 0.083, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 24 h post-medicine delivery. The blood plasma samples were analyzed using the liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS)/MS method following pretreatment for the protein precipitation. Pharmacokinetics software was applied to calculate relevant pharmacokinetic parameters through the atrioventricular model. The drug concentration in plasma decreased rapidly following the intravenous injection of Isatin. After 8 h, the prototype drugs could not be tested in the plasma and only trace amounts of drugs were tested in one dog, which was considered to be an endogenous drug. Indole quinone was absorbed following lavage into Beagles and peaked in <1 h, and the drug concentration in the plasma decreased rapidly. After 8 h, the prototype drugs could not be tested in the plasma. The elimination of the two drugs in the body had no evident gender differences. In conclusion, Isatin is rapidly absorbed in bodies of Beagles. Within the dose range of 15–60 mg/kg, no linear relationship was observed for the increase in Cmax and AUC0-t values with the increased dose. PMID:27284305

  8. Beagle 2: the exobiological lander of Mars Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pullan, D.; Sims, M. R.; Wright, I. P.; Pillinger, C. T.; Trautner, R.

    2004-08-01

    In late 2003, the Beagle 2 lander component of the Mars Express mission is planned to touch down in the Isidis Planitia region of Mars (265.0°W, 11.6°N). Once safely deployed on the surface, Beagle 2 will conduct an intensive and exhaustive programme of surface operations for about 180 sols (equivalent to about 6 months on Earth). The principal objective is the detection of extinct and/or extant life, or at least to establish if the conditions at the landing site were ever suitable for life to have evolved in the planet's history. To achieve this goal, a systematic set of experiments using a complemetary suite of instruments will perform in situ geochemical, mineralogical and petrological analysis of selected rocks and soils. Studies of the martian environment will also be conducted via chemical analysis of the atmosphere, local geomorphological assessment of the landing site and measurement/monitoring of dynamic environmental processes, including transient events such as "dust devils". Further studies, unique to Beagle 2, include analysis of the subsurface regime using a ground penetration tool and the first attempt at in situ isotopic dating of rocks on another planet. The complete experiment package weights less than 9 kg and requires less than 40 W of power. With a probe mass limit of 69 kg, imposed by mission constraints, and a landed mass of 33 kg, Beagle 2 thus aims to fly the highest mass ratio of payload-to-support systems of any mission to Mars. This is achievable only by adopting an integrated design approach and employing minimal or zero redundancy.

  9. Atlas of experimentally-induced neoplasia in beagle dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Dagle, G.E.; Watson, C.R.

    1996-10-01

    Beagle dogs have been utilized extensively in biomedical research. The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) has sponsored life-span dose-effect radiation studies in beagles at various laboratories. Because results from studies in the various laboratories were to be compared, all the investigators strove to use similar nomenclature and criteria to describe biological effects. For this reason, pathologists from these laboratories met on five occasions between 1976 and 1977 to discuss nomenclature and histologic criteria for diagnoses. At these meeting, criteria were discussed for histopathologic description of lesions in bone, liver, lung, hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues, mammary gland, pituitary, testis, and thyroid. To provide further assurance of cooperation among the DOE laboratories involved, DOE organized several Task Groups in 1985, composed of staff members from the laboratories. The Task Group on Biological Effects was asked to standardize nomenclature and diagnostic criteria for pathology; this beagle pathology atlas is the result of that request. The atlas describes target organs of particular interest: lungs for radionuclides delivered by inhalation; bones for bone-seeking radionuclides; and hematopoietic and other soft tissues for external irradiation.

  10. Morphostructure and controlling factors on the past and present Gioia-Mesima submarine/channel system (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morelli, Eleonora; Martorelli, Eleonora; Latino Chiocci, Francesco

    2013-04-01

    The Gioia-Mesima Canyon-Channel System (GMS) incises the Gioia Basin, a post-Tortonian intra-slope basin extended along the south-eastern Tyrrhenian margin, consisting in a subsiding area controlled by extensional faults. Integration of multibeam, side scan sonar and seismic data with gravity cores has revealed the morpho-stratigraphic and sedimentologic characteristics of the GMS, allowing the identification of the main factors controlling its development and maintenance. The GMS displays a complex morphology consisting in two courses: the Gioia Canyon (GC) and Mesima Canyon-Channel (MC). The courses running parallel, changing from narrow to meandering geometry until they merge in a single lower reach, hanging above the Stromboli Canyon- the main erosive valley of the Gioia Basin. Seismic profiles documented the strong tectonic control on GMS geometry and development. Distensional structures cross-cutting the GMS caused changes in the slope gradient and formed a small intra-slope sub-basin. The progressive infilling of the sub-basin caused changes in GMS base level position, determining a polyphased evolution of the GMS through repeated erosional and depositional events that can be divided in two main stages. The early stage is concurrent with the progressive infilling of the sub-basin. At this time the Gioia and Mesima courses have the same characteristics: narrow erosive canyons along the upper slope and depositional meandering channels in the sub-basin, where the GMS is confined. The GMS erosive-depositional character is revealed by the acoustic facies distribution. The narrow canyons incise a stratified seismic facies (hemipelagic and turbidite deposits) while the meandering channels are confined in a channel-levee seismic facies aggrading over the stratified one. The presence of numerous terraces hanging at several levels above the lower meandering reaches proves the polyphased evolution of the depositional meandering channels. In the later stage, when the

  11. Stratigraphy and paleogeographic significance of a Late Pennsylvanian to Early Permian channeled slope sequence in the Darwin Basin, southern Darwin Hills, east-central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stevens, Calvin H.; Stone, Paul; Magginetti, Robert T.; Ritter, Scott M.

    2015-01-01

    The complex stratigraphy of late Paleozoic rocks in the southern Darwin Hills consists of regionally extensive Mississippian and Early to Middle Pennsylvanian rocks overlain by latest Pennsylvanian to Early Permian rocks, herein called the Darwin Hills sequence. Deposition of this latter sequence marked the beginning of the Darwin Basin. In Mississippian time, a carbonate platform prograded westward over slightly older slope deposits. In the Late Mississippian this platform was exposed to erosion and siliciclastic sediments were deposited. In Early to Middle Pennsylvanian time the area subsided, forming a west-facing ramp that was subjected to deformation and erosion in Middle or early Late Pennsylvanian time. Later this area was tilted westward and deep-water sediments were deposited on this slope. In latest Pennsylvanian to earliest Permian time, a major channel was cut through the older Pennsylvanian rocks and into the Upper Mississippian strata. This channel was gradually filled with increasingly finer grained, deep-water sediment as the area evolved into a basin floor by Early Permian (Sakmarian) time. Expansion of the Darwin Basin in Artinskian time led to a second phase of deposition represented by strata of the regionally extensive Darwin Canyon Formation. The geology in this small area thus documents tectonic events occurring during the early development of the Darwin Basin.

  12. Origin and distribution of hydrocarbons and organic matter in the surficial sediments of the Sfax-Kerkennah channel (Tunisia, Southern Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Zaghden, Hatem; Tedetti, Marc; Sayadi, Sami; Serbaji, Mohamed Moncef; Elleuch, Boubaker; Saliot, Alain

    2017-02-13

    We investigated the origin and distribution of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (AHs and PAHs) and organic matter (OM) in surficial sediments of the Sfax-Kerkennah channel in the Gulf of Gabès (Tunisia, Southern Mediterranean Sea). TOC, AH and PAH concentrations ranged 2.3-11.7%, 8-174μgg(-1)sed.dw and 175-10,769ngg(-1)sed.dw, respectively. The lowest concentrations were recorded in the channel (medium sand sediment) and the highest ones in the Sfax harbor (very fine sand sediment). AHs, PAHs and TOC were not correlated for most of the stations. TOC/N and δ(13)C values revealed a mixed origin of OM with both marine and terrestrial sources. Hydrocarbon molecular composition highlighted the dominance of petrogenic AHs and the presence of both petrogenic and pyrogenic PAHs, associated with petroleum products and combustion processes. This work underscores the complex distribution patterns and the multiple sources of OM and hydrocarbons in this highly anthropogenized coastal environment.

  13. Implication of the southern Tethyan Himalaya (Sutlej section, India) for the extrusion of the Higher Himalaya and the geometry of the mid-crustal channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Soumyajit

    2013-04-01

    In the last three years, various combinations of channel flow and critical taper mechanisms have been suggested as plausible mechanism for the extrusion of the Higher Himalaya (HH, Beaumont and Jamieson 2010; Chambers et al., 2011; Larson et al., 2011; Corrie et al., 2012; Long et al. 2012; Mukherjee, in press). An alternate and rather less popular model of the HH has been southward droop of the northern boundary of the HH viz. the 'South Tibetan Detachment System-Upper (STDSU)' (Exner et al. 2006). Had the later been true, drag folds with southward vergence would be expected immediately north of the STDSU. In a SW to NE traverse from Morang up to Spillo along the Sutlej river valley (Himachal Pradesh, India), such folds do occur within the southern part of the Tethyan Himalaya. On close observation, the primary shear planes of top-to~S shear are overturned by folds with broad rounded hinges and with ~ NE dipping axial planes and limbs. The shear sense indicated by the sigmoid fabrics matches with the asymmetry of the folds. Northward from Spillo, large-scale folds (antiforms) with down-dip extensional shear in both limbs indicate 'irregular' doming of the Tethyan sediments. One of the best exposures of this shear sense that could be deciphered even from a distance is where the National Highway 22 running along the river valley joins the road to Nasang village. Below the Tethyan sediments, a mid-crustal sub-horizontal channel is widely accepted to allow the Higher Himalayan rock materials to flow from beneath south Tibet. Much north of Spillo, the Leo Pargil granite-gneiss dome has been suggested as an exposure of the channel materials. Thus, this work suggests (i) flap of the STDSU might have triggered the extrusion of the HH; and (ii) doming of a part of the Tethyan Himalaya could be due to the rise of low-density hot, partially molten rocks through the sub-horizontal channel. This would imply that the upper boundary of the sub-horizontal channel was flexible

  14. The Channel Islands Thrust Fault, Southern California: Structure at the Juncture Between the Western Transverse Ranges and the Continental Borderland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, M. A.; Langenheim, V. E.

    2004-12-01

    Potential-field data over the northern Channel Islands and Santa Barbara basin and seismic reflection data collected near these islands show the crustal structure near the tip of the Channel Island thrust fault. This fault dips north to underlie the Santa Barbara basin and is part of the regional fault system that separates the western Transverse Ranges from the California Continental Borderland. Our investigation focuses on Santa Cruz Island, where a local exposure of mainly Jurassic ophiolitic basement rocks includes the Willows Plutonic Complex. These mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks produce strong magnetic and gravity anomalies, showing that fragments of the Willows Plutonic Complex have been carried northwestward into or below the basin by sinistral translation of hanging-wall blocks in the thrust system. The potential-field anomalies indicate a cumulative left-lateral offset of about 20 km along what is probably the Santa Cruz Island fault. This fault is known from onshore trenching to be primarily a left-lateral strike-slip fault that was active during late Quaternary time. Seismic-reflection data show that where the Santa Cruz Island fault projects into the offshore a fault-bend fold deforms stratified rock in the Santa Barbara basin. Slip along this fault is partitioned into strike-slip and southwest-vergent reverse components. The Santa Cruz Island fault formed where structures of the California Borderland terminate to the northwest against the rocks that make up the northern Channel Islands. Structures developed at this termination may be similar to ones that formed where the Newport-Inglewood and the San Pedro Basin faults end to the northwest against the Santa Monica Mountains. These terminating faults pose a considerable earthquake hazard, and findings from the area of Santa Cruz Island may help elucidate this hazard.

  15. Nearshore benthic habitat GIS for the Channel Islands National Sanctuary and southern California State Fisheries Reserves. Volume 1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Nasby, Nicole M.; Reid, Jane A.; Waltenberger, Ben; Lee, Kristen M.

    2003-01-01

    The nearshore benthic habitat of the Santa Barbara coast and Channel Islands supports diverse marine life that is commercially, recreationally, and intrinsically valuable. Some of these resources are known to be endangered including a variety of rockfish and the white abalone. Agencies of the state of California and the United States have been mandated to preserve and enhance these resources. Data from sidescan sonar, bathymetry, video and dive observations, and physical samples are consolidated in a geographic information system (GIS). The GIS provides researchers and policymakers a view of the relationship among data sets to assist scienctific research and to help with economic and social policy-making decisions regarding this protected environment.

  16. How do you Answer the Life on Mars Question? Use Multiple Small Landers like Beagle 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, E. K.; Pillinger, C. T.; Wright, I. P.; Hurst, S. J.; Richter, L.; Sims, M. R.

    2012-06-01

    Beagle 2 lander is a flight qualified scientific payload and it offers a unique suite of instruments which can offer answers to the life on Mars question. Using multiple Beagle 2 landers on Mars offers a low-cost and outstanding scientific option.

  17. R/V Mirai, her missions, facilities and special project "BEAGLE 2003"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagahama, N.; Fujioka, K.; Okumura, S.; Sueyoshi, S.; Tokunaga, W.; Imai, Y.; Okumura, S.; Maeno, K.; Kimura, R.; Takao, K.; Takizawa, T.

    2003-12-01

    : Investigation of CO2 flux between the atmosphere and the ocean will help to predict a global warming. (3) El Ni¤o: To investigate the mechanism of El Ni¤o, Japanese buoys are installed along the Equator. Interactions between the atmosphere and the ocean, heat flux in the ocean is observed using the buoys. This year the R/V Mirai is surveying down to the southern hemisphere for the round trip of the world on the 30° S latitude. The cruise nickname was BEAGLE 2003 after Charles Darwin's cruise "BEAGLE" The BEAGLE cruise will focus on the studies of three main themes: the heat and material transports and their variability in the general ocean circulation, the basin-scale biogeochemical changes of the chemical properties and chemical interaction between air and sea water, and the paleo-environmental changes in the ocean. This cruise are also designed to make clear the oceanic circulation at the southern hemisphere special references to the overturn of the Antarctic circulation of cold current, decadal change on the line of WOCE held on 1991 to 1996 again to get more precise data by using the much more sophisticated technique and instrumentations, and the paleoceanographic study on both Arctic and Antarctic area on the climatic and environmental changes.

  18. Occurrence of mitral valve insufficiency in clinically healthy Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Vörös, Károly; Szilvási, Viktória; Manczur, Ferenc; Máthé, Ákos; Reiczigel, Jenő; Nolte, Ingo; Hungerbühler, Stephan

    2015-12-01

    Chronic degenerative valve disease (CDVD) is the most common cardiac disease in dogs, usually resulting in mitral valve insufficiency (MVI). The goal of this study was to investigate the occurrence of MVI in clinically healthy Beagle populations. A total of 79 adult healthy Beagles (41 females and 38 males; age: 5.6 ± 2.7 years, range 1.4 to 11.7 years) were examined. The diagnosis of MVI was based on the detection of a systolic murmur heard above the mitral valve, and was confirmed by colour flow Doppler (CFD) echocardiography. Systolic mitral valve murmurs were detected in 20/79 dogs (25.3%), of them 11 males and 9 females with no statistically significant gender difference (P = 0.6059). The strength of the murmur on the semi-quantitative 0/6 scale yielded intensity grade 1/6 in 10 dogs, grade 2/6 in 4 dogs, and grade 3/6 in 6 dogs. Mild to moderate MVI was detected by CFD in all these 20 dogs with systolic murmurs. Of them, 17 dogs had mild and 3 demonstrated moderate MVI, showing 10-30% and 30-50% regurgitant jets compared to the size of the left atrium, respectively. The age of dogs with MVI was 7.1 ± 2.3 years, which was significantly different from that of dogs without MVI (5.1 ± 2.7 years, P = 0.0029). No significant differences in body weight (P = 0.1724) were found between dogs with MVI (13.8 ± 2.8 kg) and those without MVI (12.8 ± 3.0 kg). Mitral valve disease causing MVI is relatively common in Beagle dogs, just like in other small breed dogs reported in the literature.

  19. Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability study of neoline in Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiao-hong; Zhao, Meng-jie; Yuan, An; Li, Yan; Xiong, Liang; Peng, Cheng; Li, Yun-xia

    2015-07-01

    This paper is aim to investigate the pharmacokinetics and absolute bioavailability of neoline in Beagle dogs, and provide a theoretical basis for further study. Ethyl acetate was used for liquid-liquid extracting after 10% ammonia alkalizing. The method of UPLC-Q-TOF-MS was established for the determination of neoline plasma concentrations. Beagle dogs were orally or intravenously administered with neoline for pharmacokinetic and absolute bioavailability study. Good linear relationship of neoline was found over the range of 0.1-4 mg x L(-1) (R2 = 0.9982) and 2-100 microg x L(-1) (R2 = 0.9945). Intra-and inter-day precision, expressed as the relativestandard (RSD) were less than 5.0%. Accuracy, expressed as the relative error (RE) was within 90.0%-115%. The recovery of neoline in dog plasma was more than 80%. After 6 mg x kg(-1) for ig and 1 mg x kg(-1) for iv administration of neoline, the main pharmacokinetic parameters were analyzed with Winnonlin software. t(1/2) were (313.88 +/- 63.18), (236.33 +/- 229.84) min, and AUC(0-infinity) were (58,027.40 +/- 14,132.69), (473,578.02 +/- 82,333.08) min x microg x L(-1) for ig and iv administration respectively. The absolute bioavail ability was (73.15 +/- 10.29) %. The method of UPLC-Q-TOF-MS described in the report was sensitive, reliable and specific, and suitable for pharmacokinetic study of neoline in Beagle dog. The high absolute bioavailability of neoline in dog suggested good absorption of neline which was worth of further investigation.

  20. Beagle Rupes and Rembrandt scarp: a comparison on Mercury surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, S.; Massironi, M.; Rothery, D. A.; Cremonese, G.

    2011-10-01

    Areas of crustal convergence and shortening on Earth, Mars and Venus are often characterized by structural domains where thrust faults are associated with strike-slip systems [1]. In the case of Mercury most structures maintain a wide elongated frontal scarp and only few of them show kinematic indicators of lateral slip. The comparison between two Mercurian linked fault systems like Beagle Rupes [2] [3] and Rembrandt scarp [4] could aid understanding of whether diverse hermean strike-slip structures are influenced by geological context such as surface heterogeneity and crustal layering or have different deformational history.

  1. Thermophysical properties of the MER and Beagle II landing site regions on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakosky, Bruce M.; Hynek, Brian M.; Pelkey, Shannon M.; Mellon, Michael T.; Martínez-Alonso, Sara; Putzig, Nathaniel E.; Murphy, Nate; Christensen, Philip R.

    2006-08-01

    We analyzed remote-sensing observations of the Isidis Basin, Gusev Crater, and Meridiani Planum landing sites for Beagle II, MER-A Spirit, and MER-B Opportunity spacecraft, respectively. We emphasized the thermophysical properties using daytime and nighttime radiance measurements from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Thermal Emission Spectrometer and Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) and thermal inertias derived from nighttime data sets. THEMIS visible images, MGS Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) narrow-angle images, and MGS Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data are incorporated as well. Additionally, the remote-sensing data were compared with ground-truth at the MER sites. The Isidis Basin surface layer has been shaped by aeolian processes and erosion by slope winds coming off of the southern highlands and funneling through notches between massifs. In the Gusev region, surface materials of contrasting thermophysical properties have been interpreted as rocks or bedrock, duricrust, and dust deposits; these are consistent with a complex geological history dominated by volcanic and aeolian processes. At Meridiani Planum the many layers having different thermophysical and erosional properties suggest periodic deposition of differing sedimentological facies possibly related to clast size, grain orientation and packing, or mineralogy.

  2. Identification and Functional Expression of a Glutamate- and Avermectin-Gated Chloride Channel from Caligus rogercresseyi, a Southern Hemisphere Sea Louse Affecting Farmed Fish

    PubMed Central

    Niemeyer, María Isabel; Marabolí, Vanessa; González-Nilo, F. Danilo; Teulon, Jacques; Sepúlveda, Francisco V.; Cid, L. Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic sea lice represent a major sanitary threat to marine salmonid aquaculture, an industry accounting for 7% of world fish production. Caligus rogercresseyi is the principal sea louse species infesting farmed salmon and trout in the southern hemisphere. Most effective control of Caligus has been obtained with macrocyclic lactones (MLs) ivermectin and emamectin. These drugs target glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCl) and act as irreversible non-competitive agonists causing neuronal inhibition, paralysis and death of the parasite. Here we report the cloning of a full-length CrGluClα receptor from Caligus rogercresseyi. Expression in Xenopus oocytes and electrophysiological assays show that CrGluClα is activated by glutamate and mediates chloride currents blocked by the ligand-gated anion channel inhibitor picrotoxin. Both ivermectin and emamectin activate CrGluClα in the absence of glutamate. The effects are irreversible and occur with an EC50 value of around 200 nM, being cooperative (nH = 2) for ivermectin but not for emamectin. Using the three-dimensional structure of a GluClα from Caenorabditis elegans, the only available for any eukaryotic ligand-gated anion channel, we have constructed a homology model for CrGluClα. Docking and molecular dynamics calculations reveal the way in which ivermectin and emamectin interact with CrGluClα. Both drugs intercalate between transmembrane domains M1 and M3 of neighbouring subunits of a pentameric structure. The structure displays three H-bonds involved in this interaction, but despite similarity in structure only of two these are conserved from the C. elegans crystal binding site. Our data strongly suggest that CrGluClα is an important target for avermectins used in the treatment of sea louse infestation in farmed salmonids and open the way for ascertaining a possible mechanism of increasing resistance to MLs in aquaculture industry. Molecular modeling could help in the design of new, more efficient

  3. /sup 228/Th retention and dosimetry in beagles

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, R.D.; Jones, C.W.; Mays, C.W.; Atherton, D.R.; Bruenger, F.W.; Taylor, G.N.

    1984-06-01

    Total-body and skeletal retention of /sup 228/Th were determined in a group of 104 young adult male and female beagles for about the first 7 years after the injection of 0.00159 to 2.76 ..mu..Ci/kg. Ratios of /sup 224/Ra//sup 228/Th, /sup 212/Pb//sup 228/Th, and /sup 212/Bi//sup 228/Th in the skeleton and in soft tissues of 20 beagles were measured as a function of time after injection. A humerus, femur, and ulna from 20 dogs dying 7 to 554 days after injection were sectioned, and the /sup 228/Th concentration was obtained for each piece. Ratios of daughter-to-parent activity in soft tissue showed no definite trend with dose level or time and averaged Ra/Th = 0.56, Pb/Th = 0.83, and Bi/Th = 0.91, whereas the ratios for the skeleton varied with both dose level and time. Retained /sup 228/Th was deposited most heavily in parts of the skeleton with much trabecular bone, much bone surface area, and high bone remodeling rates. No changes in this deposition pattern could be discerned during the 554 days over which the measurements of sectioned long bones were made.

  4. Sulfadiazines prevent plaque formation and gingivitis in beagles.

    PubMed

    Howell, T H; Reddy, M S; Weber, H P; Li, K L; Alfano, M C; Vogel, R; Tanner, A C; Williams, R C

    1990-07-01

    The effect of zinc sulfadiazine (ZnSD) and silver sulfadiazine (AgSD) on developing plaque formation and gingivitis was studied in 12 beagle dogs over a 14-week period. Plaque and gingival indices were used to measure plaque formation and gingivitis. During a 2-wk baseline period each dog was brought to optimal gingival health with prophylaxis and tooth brushing. Thereafter, 4 dogs were treated twice daily with topical application of 3.0% zinc sulfadiazine; 4 dogs were treated with 2.0% silver sulfadiazine while 4 dogs treated with placebo gel served as controls over a 12-wk treatment period. At wk 2 of treatment, all three groups of dogs showed an increase in plaque build-up on their teeth from baseline. By wk 6, plaque accumulation on the teeth was significantly less in dogs treated with either ZnSD or AgSD compared to control dogs. At wk 2 of treatment, gingival inflammation was increased from baseline in all three groups. Thereafter, over the course of the 12-wk treatment period, gingival inflammation in the ZnSD and the AgSD treated dogs was significantly less than the placebo treated dogs. The data indicate that both ZnSD and AgSD inhibit developing plaque formation in beagles. This significant inhibition of plaque formation was accompanied by a significant reduction in gingival inflammation.

  5. Hematological effects of inhaled plutonium dioxide in beagles

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.; Buschbom, R.L.; Park, J.F.

    1995-07-01

    A life-span study indicated that plutonium activity in the thoracic lymph nodes is a contributor to development of lymphopenia in beagles exposed to {sup 239}PuO{sub 2}. Significant lymphopenia was found in 67 (58%) beagles given a single nose-only exposure to {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} to result in mean initial lung depositions ranging from 0.69 to 213.3 kBq. Lymphoid atrophy and sclerosis of the thoracic lymph nodes and lymphopenia were observed in exposure-level groups with initial lung depositions {ge}2.5 kBq. Those dogs with final plutonium concentrations in the thoracic lymph nodes {ge}0.4 kBq/g and dose rates {ge}0.01 Gy/day developed lymphopenia. Marked differences existed between chronically lymphopenic dogs and intermittently lymphopenic dogs with regard to initial lung deposition, time to lymphopenic events and absolute lymphocyte concentrations. Linear regression analysis revealed moderate correlation between reduction in lymphocyte values and initial lung deposition, in both magnitude and time of appearance after exposure. Cumulative dose and dose rate appeared to act together to produce initial effects on lymphocyte populations, while dose rate alone appeared to be responsible for the maintenance and subsequent cycles of lymphopenia seen over the life span. No primary tumors were associated with the thoracic lymph nodes in this study, although 70% of the lymphopenic dogs developed lung tumors. 28 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. Sulfur dioxide-induced chronic bronchitis in beagle dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, S.A.; Wolff, R.K.; Hahn, F.F.; Henderson, R.F.; Mauderly, J.L.; Lundgren, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    This study was done to produce a model of chronic bronchitis. Twelve beagle dogs were exposed to 500 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) for 2 h/d, 5d/wk for 21 wk and 4 dogs were sham-exposed to filtered ambient air for the same period. Exposure effects were evaluated by periodically examining the dogs using chest radiographs, pulmonary function, tracheal mucous clearance, and the cellular and soluble components of bronchopulmonary lavage fluids. Dogs were serially sacrificed after 13 and 21 wk of exposure and after 6 and 14 wk of recovery. Clinical signs produced in the SO/sub 2/-exposed dogs included mucoid nasal discharge, productive cough, moist rales on auscultation, tonsilitis, and conjunctivitis. Chest radiographs revealed mild peribronchiolar thickening. Histopathology, tracheal mucous clearance measurements, and lavage cytology were consistent with a diagnosis of chronic bronchitis. It is concluded that repeated exposure to 500 ppm SO/sub 2/ for 21 wk produced chronic bronchitis in the beagle dog. Complete recovery occurred within 5 wk following cessation of SO/sub 2/ exposure. 43 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  7. Beagle 2: The Next Exobiology Mission to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K., Jr.; Pillinger, Colin T.; Wright, Ian P.; Morse, Andy; Stewart, Jenny; Morgan, G.; Praine, Ian; Leigh, Dennis; Sims, Mark R.

    2001-01-01

    Beagle 2 is a 60 kg probe (with a 30 kg lander) developed in the United Kingdom for inclusion on the European Space Agency's 2003 Mars Express. Beagle 2 will deliver to the Martian surface a payload which consists of a high percentage of science instruments to landed spacecraft mass. Beagle 2 will be launched in June, 2003 with Mars Express on a Soyuz-Fregat rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Beagle 2 will land on Mars on December 26, 2003 in the Isidis Planitia basin (approximately 10 degrees N and 275 degrees W), a large sedimentary basin that overlies the boundary between ancient highlands and northern plains. Isidis Planitia, the third largest basin on Mars, which is possibly filled with sediment deposited at the bottom of long-standing lakes or seas, offers an ideal environment for preserving traces of life. Beagle 2 was developed to search for organic material and other volatiles on and below the surface of Mars in addition to the study of the inorganic chemistry and mineralogy. Beagle 2 will utilize a mechanical mole and grinder to obtain samples from below the surface, under rocks and inside rocks. A pair of stereo cameras will image the landing site along with a microscope for examination of surface and rock samples. Analyses will include both rock and soil samples at various wavelengths, X-ray spectrometer and Mossbauer spectrometer as well as a search for organics and other light element species (e.g. carbonates and water) and measurement of their isotopic compositions. Beagle 2 has as its focus the goal of establishing whether evidence for life existed in the past on Mars at the Isidis Planitia site or at least establishing if the conditions were ever suitable. Carbonates and organic components were first recognized as existing on Mars when they were found in the Martian meteorite Nakhla. Romanek et al showed the carbonates in ALH84001 were formed at low temperatures. McKay et al noted possible evidence of early life on Mars within the

  8. The Beagle 2 Effect - public response to the UK Mars lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillinger, J. M.; Pillinger, C. T.

    As a prerequisite for understanding science, the target audience must first be aware of an issue and then continue to maintain interest. We discuss the impact of the Beagle 2 mission to Mars on raising awareness amongst the general public as the first step to increasing understanding of the scientific and technological challenges and solutions such a mission addresses. The massive amount of public interest created is now being ttributed to the so-called "Beagle 2 Effect". We consider the reasons why the public, particularly, but not exclusively, in the UK took Beagle 2 to heart. Initially our strategy, as part of the PR plan for Beagle 2, was to collate media coverage for various stages and discrete campaigns in particular to use press cuttings to determine the level of recognition of Beagle 2 as a brand. At the start of the project this information was to support sponsorship bids, latterly the intrinsic value of media, and hence public, awareness was recognised by the major partners in the project. Much of the subsequent public awareness resulted from the comprehensive coverage in all branches of the media. A second opportunity to evaluate the response to the mission was presented to us as it became increasingly clear that Beagle 2 was able to engage an audience much wider than that typically interested in space, or science in general. We highlighted how far mention of Beagle 2 has spread. Additionally numerous unsolicited letters have been received from the public and these have been collated to indicate the factors which appear to have contributed to the widespread interest in Beagle 2. It is not clear whether the "Beagle 2 Effect" can, or will, be transferred to subsequent space missions.

  9. Coupling effect analysis between landslides, river channel changes and sediment budgets - extreme climate events in Laishe River, southern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Kuo-Jen; Huang, Mei-Jen; Tseng, Chih-Ming

    2016-04-01

    amount of migration along Laishe River by analyzing the 3D DEM before and after the typhoon Morakot. The DEMs are built by using the aerial images taken by digital mapping camera (DMC) and by airborne digital scanner 40 (ADS40) before and after typhoon event. Recently, this research integrates Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and oblique photogrammetric technologies for image acquisition by 5-10cm GSD photos. This approach permits to construct true 3D model so as to decipher ground information more realistically. 10-20cm DSM and DEM, and field GPS, were compiled together to decipher the morphologic changes. All the information, especially by means of true 3D model, the datasets provides detail ground information that may use to evaluate the landslide triggering mechanism and river channel evolution. The goals of this study is to integrates the UAS system and to decipher the sliding process and morphologic changes of large landslide areas, sediment transport and budgets, and to investigate the phenomenon of river migration. The results of this study provides not only geomatics and GIS dataset of the hazards, but also for essential geomorphologic information for other study, and for hazard mitigation and planning, as well.

  10. Fast hydrodynamic model for medium- and long-term dispersion in seawater in the English Channel and southern North Sea, qualitative and quantitative validation by radionuclide tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    du Bois, P. Bailly; Dumas, F.

    The database for medium- and long-term model validation using 125Sb released by the La Hague reprocessing plant includes 1400 measurements performed between 1987 and 1994 in the English Channel and the North Sea and data for each release since 1982. Antimony-125 has a conservative behaviour in water masses over a period of several years. These data can be used qualitatively and quantitatively to compare the measured concentrations with the calculated ones and quantities of tracers. Tritium measurements are also available for model calibration. A two-dimensional hydrodynamic model has been developed to allow repetitive long-term simulations. This model uses a database of residual tidal currents calculated using the Lagrangian barycentric method [Salomon, J.C., Guéguéniat, P., Orbi, A., Baron, Y., 1988. A Lagrangian model for long-term tidally induced transport and mixing. Verification by artificial radionuclide concentrations. In: Guary, J.C., Guéguéniat, P., Pentreath, R.J. (Eds.), Radionuclides: A Tool for Oceanography, Cherbourg 1-5 June, 1987. Elsevier Applied Science Publishers, London, New York, pp. 384-394]. The area covered by the model includes the English Channel, the southern North Sea and the Irish Sea with a mesh size of 1 km. The main adjustment parameters of this model are the sources of wind data used and the calculation method for evaluating wind stress at the sea surface. With these parameters, the fluxes of radionuclides and water masses in the English Channel and the North Sea were balanced for the whole period of field measurements (1987-1994). The correlation factor between individual measurements in seawater and calculation results is 0.88 with an average error of ±54%, the error attributable to the measurement process being 15% on average. The mean flux through the Dover Strait is 126,000 m 3 s -1, close from the one obtained from previous studies [Salomon, J.C., Breton, M., Guéguéniat, P. 1993. Computed residual flow through the Dover

  11. [Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of batroxobin in Beagle dog].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zi-Hua; Zhu, Xiao-Xia; Gan, Hui; Gu, Ruo-Lan; Wu, Zhuo-Na; Meng, Zhi-Yun; Dou, Gui-Fang

    2013-08-01

    Healthy Beagle dogs were administrated with batroxobin by intravenous infusion at high, medium and low doses. The study of pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics was intended to clarify the relevance of them and provided strong evidence for clinical use of batroxobin. The blood samples were collected after injection based on the time schedule and samples were tested by ELISA method to get the concentration of batroxobin. At the same time, changes of prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), fibrinogen (Fib) and D-dimmer were tested. The results showed that the concentration of D-D increased significantly after administration compared with that of before administration. The main pharmacokinetic parameters were as follows: t1/2 were (2.27 +/- 0.42) h, (10.65 +/- 2.19) h and (11.01 +/- 3.51) h; C(max) were (11.9 +/- 1.72) ng x mL(-1), (154.53 +/- 12.38) ng x mL(-1) and (172.14 +/- 47.33) ng x mL(-1); AUC(last) were (29.38 +/- 3.69) ng xh x mL(-1), (148.43 +/- 72.85) ng x h x mL(-1) and (599.22 +/- 359.61) ng x h x mL(-1). The elimination of batroxobin was found to be in accord with linear kinetics characteristics. The results of pharmacodynamics showed that D-dimmer level increased significantly after the administration of batroxobin, which was similar with the changes of batroxobin plasma concentration. Simultaneously, Fib concentrations in Beagle dog blood decreased significantly after the iv administration of batroxobin, while recovered to base level after 48 hours. PT, TT and APTT significantly became longer after administration, which returned to normal level after 48 hours. Especially, the D-dimmer levels and the batroxobin concentration in plasma after intravenous infusion of the drug were synchronized in Beagle dogs. Changes between PD/PK results had obvious correlation, and the D-dimmer levels in plasma can be one of the important monitoring indicators of batroxobin in thrombolytic medication.

  12. Lunar Beagle: An Experimental Package for Measuring Polar Ice and Volatiles Beneath the Lunar Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, E. K.; Pillinger, C. T.; McKay, D. S.; Wright, I. P.; Sims, M. R.; Richter, L.; Waugh, L.; Lunar Beagle Consortium

    2008-07-01

    Lunar Beagle payload has the capabilities of determining the presence of polar ice and volatiles in the permanently shadowed regions of the moon. The instrument suite can provide critical information to assist "living off the land".

  13. Response and adaptation of Beagle dogs to hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oyama, J.

    1975-01-01

    Eight male Beagle dogs, five months old, were centrifuged continuously for three months at progressively increasing loads. Heart rate and deep body temperature were monitored continuously by implant biotelemetry. Initially, centrifuged dogs showed transient decreases in heart rate and body temperature along with changes in their diurnal rhythm patterns. Compared with normal gravity controls, exposed dogs showed a slower growth rate and a reduced amount of body fat. Blood protein, total lipids, cholesterol, calcium, packed cell volume, red blood cell count, and hemoglobin were also decreased significantly. Absolute weights of the leg bones of centrifuged dogs were significantly greater than controls. Photon absorptiometry revealed significant density increases in selective regions of the femur and humerus of centrifuged dogs. In spite of the various changes noted, results from this and other studies affirm the view that dogs can tolerate and adapt to sustained loads as high as 2.5 g without serious impairment of their body structure and function.

  14. Photometric Observations of Main-belt Asteroids 656 Beagle and 2649 Oongaq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonka, Adrian Bruno; Popescu, Marcel; Nedelcu, Dan Alin

    2016-01-01

    We present photometric observations for two main-belt asteroids, 656 Beagle and 2649 Oongaq, carried out at Astronomical Institute of Romanian Academy between 2014 September and 2015 March. For 656 Beagle, we found a synodic rotation period of 7.034 ± 0.003 h and for 2649 Oongaq a synodic rotation period of 7.789 ± 0.006 h. Both are in good agreement with recent results.

  15. Americium in the beagle dog: biokinetic and dosimetric model.

    PubMed

    Luciani, A; Polig, E; Lloyd, R D; Miller, S C

    2006-05-01

    A biokinetic model of the systemic distribution of americium in the beagle dog is presented. The model is based on a previous biokinetic model of plutonium. The data sets used for the development of the model were the measurements of excreted activity (urine and feces) and organ burdens (skeleton, liver, and other soft tissues) for different levels of initial injected activity. In developing the model, the compartmental structure of the skeleton of the plutonium model was adopted, and only the numerical values of parameters were adapted. The model well describes the fractions of americium in the skeleton, liver, and soft tissues and the total fraction excreted in urine and feces. The tuning of the liver clearance parameter provides a realistic description of the change in the partitioning between liver and skeleton for different injection levels. The most significant features of the biokinetics and dosimetry of americium and plutonium in beagles are compared. The total fractions of the clearance to the skeleton and the liver are roughly equal to the value for plutonium, but the partitioning of americium between these organs is reversed with respect to the partitioning of plutonium. 241Am doses to liver and skeleton are similar to 239Pu doses, owing to some counteracting factors. For the highest injection level, the liver mass is dependent on the time post injection. For the skeletal tissues, the dose to the cortical endosteum by far exceeds the dose to the trabecular endosteum and the red marrow. The model provides the basis for statistical survival analyses and risk estimates.

  16. Natural Offshore Oil Seepage and Related Tarball Accumulation on the California Coastline - Santa Barbara Channel and the Southern Santa Maria Basin: Source Identification and Inventory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenson, T.D.; Hostettler, Frances D.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Peters, Kenneth E.; Dougherty, Jennifer A.; Kvenvolden, Keith A.; Gutmacher, Christina E.; Wong, Florence L.; Normark, William R.

    2009-01-01

    Oil spillage from natural sources is very common in the waters of southern California. Active oil extraction and shipping is occurring concurrently within the region and it is of great interest to resource managers to be able to distinguish between natural seepage and anthropogenic oil spillage. The major goal of this study was to establish the geologic setting, sources, and ultimate dispersal of natural oil seeps in the offshore southern Santa Maria Basin and Santa Barbara Basins. Our surveys focused on likely areas of hydrocarbon seepage that are known to occur between Point Arguello and Ventura, California. Our approach was to 1) document the locations and geochemically fingerprint natural seep oils or tar; 2) geochemically fingerprint coastal tar residues and potential tar sources in this region, both onshore and offshore; 3) establish chemical correlations between offshore active seeps and coastal residues thus linking seep sources to oil residues; 4) measure the rate of natural seepage of individual seeps and attempt to assess regional natural oil and gas seepage rates; and 5) interpret the petroleum system history for the natural seeps. To document the location of sub-sea oil seeps, we first looked into previous studies within and near our survey area. We measured the concentration of methane gas in the water column in areas of reported seepage and found numerous gas plumes and measured high concentrations of methane in the water column. The result of this work showed that the seeps were widely distributed between Point Conception east to the vicinity of Coal Oil Point, and that they by in large occur within the 3-mile limit of California State waters. Subsequent cruises used sidescan and high resolution seismic to map the seafloor, from just south of Point Arguello, east to near Gaviota, California. The results of the methane survey guided the exploration of the area west of Point Conception east to Gaviota using a combination of seismic instruments. The

  17. The marine geology of the eastern Santa Barbara Channel, with particular emphasis on the ground water basins offshore from the Oxnard Plain, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greene, H. Gary; Wolf, Stephen C.; Blom, Ken G.

    1978-01-01

    Marine geophysical investigations provide new data concerning the stratigraphy, tectonic and sedimentary history, and the ground water geology of the southeastern Santa Barbara Channel region. The offshore stratigraphy identified in seismic reflection profiles includes a succession of Neogene to Quaternary strata. The middle Miocene Conejo volcanics form an acoustical basement and the overlying late Cenozoic sedimentary rocks attain a thickness greater than 2,500 m. These sedimentary deposits fill a structurally controlled, physiographic and depositional depression called the Ventura Basin. Structure consists generally of a gently folded, east-trending Tertiary synclinorium bordered on the north by a regional thrust fault and on the south by a steep asymmetrical anticlinal ridge. Most structures show evidence of north-south compression that occurred during early Pleistocene time. Three well-defined unconformities represent widespread erosion in late Miocene, early to middle Pleistocene, and late Pleistocene time. The boundaries of Miocene, Pliocene, and lower Pleistocene strata continue uninterrupted eastward along the southern part of Santa Barbara basin to Hueneme Canyon, where they turn northeast and can be traced to the coast near Port Hueneme. These limits probably represent the south edge of the Santa Barbara basin during Pliocene and Pleistocene time. Fresh water-bearing materials of the Oxnard plain are unconsolidated Quaternary sediment laid down on more consolidated Tertiary rocks. Offshore, the total fresh water-bearing materials distinguished in the seismic reflection profiles attain a thickness of about 356 m and have an areal extent of over 760 km2. Strata that contain the offshore continuation of the five major on-land aquifers (Grimes Canyon, Fox Canyon, Hueneme, Mugu, and Oxnard aquifers) are identified in the seismic reflection profiles. These strata make up the two offshore ground-water basins, the Mound and Oxnard plain ground-water basins

  18. Portuguese Participation In The Mars Express/beagle2 Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, E. I.; Portuguese Mx Teams

    Three Portuguese groups responded to the European Space Agency (ESA) second an- nouncement of opportunities for the Mars Express Mission. Projects were submitted in the fields Atmosphere and Surface/Atmosphere Interaction, Exobiology and Geologi- cal Evolution. Contacts among the groups revealed large areas of potential interaction and a necessity of active data, methods and analysis interchange. The projects will be executed in the period 2002-2006, and aim to analyse the information that will be conveyed by instruments aboard the Mars Express Orbiter and Beagle 2 Lander. Our combined projects propose to yield seven products: the Mars Orbital Viewer U MOVie U ; an apparent thermal inertia (ATI) map; a high-resolution water stability map; a lithostructural map; a hydrological potential map; a local assessment of poten- tial biomarkers; a geological map of Mars. MOVie will be a virtual-reality addressable map of Mars, based on stereoscopic images from the HSRC camera. The ATI map will draw on data from both the OMEGA (VNIR band) and PFS (NIR/TIR band) instru- ments. This map will enrich the existing atmospheric circulation models and help in the discrimination of lithotypes and hydric potential. One of our main objectives is to address the question whether water release does occur in the present epoch, which will be done by analysing the water vapour content in the low atmosphere. Data ar- riving from Beagle 2 will also be the basis for the assessment of methane contents on low martian atmosphere and soil-adsorbed gases. Atmosphere, soil and rock compo- sition data from the lander will allow for the correction of remotely sensed spectra. Classification will proceed in two phases: first an expert system will evaluate point lithologies from mineral and rock spectra; then those point lithologies will be mapped onto the planetary surface by a self-organising neural network. Mathematical mor- phology operators will also be used to perform the classification of Mars

  19. Hypertonic Saline Dextran Ameliorates Organ Damage in Beagle Hemorrhagic Shock

    PubMed Central

    You, Guo-xing; Wang, Ying; Chen, Gan; Wang, Quan; Zhang, Xi-gang; Zhao, Lian; Zhou, Hong; He, Yue-zhong

    2015-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of hypertonic saline with 6% Dextran-70 (HSD) resuscitation on organ damage and the resuscitation efficiency of the combination of HSD and lactated ringers (LR) in a model of hemorrhage shock in dogs. Methods Beagles were bled to hold their mean arterial pressure (MAP) at 50±5 mmHg for 1 h. After hemorrhage, beagles were divided into three groups (n = 7) to receive pre-hospital resuscitation for 1 h (R1): HSD (4 ml/kg), LR (40 ml/kg), and HSD+LR (a combination of 4 ml/kg HSD and 40 ml/kg LR). Next, LR was transfused into all groups as in-hospital resuscitation (R2). After two hours of observation (R3), autologous blood was transfused. Hemodynamic responses and systemic oxygenation were measured at predetermined phases. Three days after resuscitation, the animals were sacrificed and tissues including kidney, lung, liver and intestinal were obtained for pathological analysis. Results Although the initial resuscitation with HSD was shown to be faster than LR with regard to an ascending MAP, the HSD group showed a similar hemodynamic performance compared to the LR group throughout the experiment. Compared with the LR group, the systemic oxygenation performance in the HSD group was similar but showed a lower venous-to-arterial CO2 gradient (Pv-aCO2) at R3 (p < 0.05). Additionally, the histology score of the kidneys, lungs and liver were significantly lower in the HSD group than in the LR group (p < 0.05). The HSD+LR group showed a superior hemodynamic response but higher extravascular lung water (EVLW) and lower arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) than the other groups (p < 0.05). The HSD+LR group showed a marginally improved systemic oxygenation performance and lower histology score than other groups. Conclusions Resuscitation after hemorrhagic shock with a bolus of HSD showed a similar hemodynamic response compared with LR at ten times the volume of HSD, but HSD showed superior efficacy in organ protection

  20. Occurrence of mammary tumors in beagls given radium-226

    SciTech Connect

    Bruenger, F.W.; Lloyd, R.D.; Miller, S.C.; Taylor, G.N.; Angus, W.; Huth, D.A.

    1994-06-01

    A total of 128 primary mammary tumors (66 of them malignant) occurred in 35 female beagles injected with {sup 226}Ra at eight dose levels ranging from 0.2 to 440 kBq/kg body mass as young adults, while a total of 156 mammary tumors (57 of them malignant) were seen in 46 female control beagles not given any radioactivity. Sixty-three of 65 control dogs and 59 of 61 dogs given {sup 226}Ra survived the minimum age for diagnosis of mammary tumors of 3.75 years. Based on the observed age-dependent tumor incidence rates in the controls and on the corresponding number of dog-years at risk, the total number of observed malignant tumors in the radium group was statistically greater than the number of expected malignant tumors (66 observed vs 34 expected, P < 0.005). There was no such difference for the benign tumors. Cox regression analysis indicated no increased risk for the first tumor occurrence in irradiated dogs. Cox regression analysis of the multivariate risk sets showed no significantly increased risk for the occurrence of benign tumors but a statistically higher risk of 1.66 with a confidence interval of 1.15-2.40 for the occurrence of malignant tumors. The increased risk was dependent on dose, but a dependence on the frequency of previous occurrence of mammary tumors could not be confirmed. Censoring ovariectomized dogs at time of surgery decreased the relative risks slightly but did not alter the significance. Exposure to diagnostic X rays with cumulative exposures below 0.2 Gy had no effect on tumor formation. It is unknown whether the increased risk for malignant mammary tumors was due to some initial deposition of radium in sensitive tissue, a possible irradiation of fatty mammary tissue from transient radon {yields} polonium deposition, or a general effect of the overall radium deposition on the immune system of the dogs that lowered their resistance to formation of mammary tumors. 27 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Extending the BEAGLE library to a multi-FPGA platform

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Maximum Likelihood (ML)-based phylogenetic inference using Felsenstein’s pruning algorithm is a standard method for estimating the evolutionary relationships amongst a set of species based on DNA sequence data, and is used in popular applications such as RAxML, PHYLIP, GARLI, BEAST, and MrBayes. The Phylogenetic Likelihood Function (PLF) and its associated scaling and normalization steps comprise the computational kernel for these tools. These computations are data intensive but contain fine grain parallelism that can be exploited by coprocessor architectures such as FPGAs and GPUs. A general purpose API called BEAGLE has recently been developed that includes optimized implementations of Felsenstein’s pruning algorithm for various data parallel architectures. In this paper, we extend the BEAGLE API to a multiple Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)-based platform called the Convey HC-1. Results The core calculation of our implementation, which includes both the phylogenetic likelihood function (PLF) and the tree likelihood calculation, has an arithmetic intensity of 130 floating-point operations per 64 bytes of I/O, or 2.03 ops/byte. Its performance can thus be calculated as a function of the host platform’s peak memory bandwidth and the implementation’s memory efficiency, as 2.03 × peak bandwidth × memory efficiency. Our FPGA-based platform has a peak bandwidth of 76.8 GB/s and our implementation achieves a memory efficiency of approximately 50%, which gives an average throughput of 78 Gflops. This represents a ~40X speedup when compared with BEAGLE’s CPU implementation on a dual Xeon 5520 and 3X speedup versus BEAGLE’s GPU implementation on a Tesla T10 GPU for very large data sizes. The power consumption is 92 W, yielding a power efficiency of 1.7 Gflops per Watt. Conclusions The use of data parallel architectures to achieve high performance for likelihood-based phylogenetic inference requires high memory bandwidth and a design

  2. Beagle 2 and NASA's Mars 2003 Orbiter: A Unique Exobiology Opportunity with an Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K., Jr.; Pillinger, Colin T.; Thatcher, John; Westall, Frances

    2000-01-01

    With the exploration strategy for Mars undergoing reexamination, the opportunity exists for the incorporation of the 60 kg Beagle 2 lander, developed in the United Kingdom for inclusion on ESA's 2003 Mars Express mission, with NASA's Mars 2003 orbiter derived from the Mars Global Orbiter. The combination of Beagle 2 with a Mars orbiter would result in a unique mission which could obtain information on Mars' life, climate and resources both from orbit as well as on the surface of the planet. Beagle 2 has been developed in the LJK for ESA as a low-cost opportunity to study the exobiology of Mars and the spacecraft is in its final stages of manufacture. Only limited modifications to the Beagle 2 package would be required for inclusion on NASA's Mars 2003 orbiter. With the ESA Mars Express mission launch in 2003 and a potential NASA Mars orbiter in 2003, both Beagle 2 landers on Mars would offer a low-cost, decreased risk and increased science return opportunity for the exploration of Mars at two distinct geologically interesting sites.

  3. [Endoscopic and histopathological studies of experimental esophageal cancer in beagles].

    PubMed

    Takeshita, K; Sunagawa, M; Nakajima, A; Ochi, K; Habu, H; Hoshi, K

    1985-02-01

    In order to obtain a reliable experimental model simulating human esophageal cancer, endoscopic and histopathological studies were undertaken in the esophageal cancer produced in the beagle dog. Thirty-seven dogs had been given a solution of N-Ethyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (ENNG) at a concentration of 150 micrograms/ml for 3-9 months. Follow-up studies included serial endoscopy and biopsy, and almost all animals were eventually sacrificed for histological examination. The results were as follows: Squamous cell carcinoma was observed in 5 out of 22 female dogs, while none in male dogs at all. For the induction of squamous cell carcinoma in the esophagus, administration in the condition of 150 micrograms/ml (75mg/day) for 6-9 months was most suitable. Almost all of esophageal lesions were protruding and well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma with invasion of the submucosa. The stages of hyperplasia, dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma in the esophagus were chronologically followed. Carcinoma had been observed in the stomach about 4 months prior to the appearance of esophageal carcinoma. This experimental model was proved to be useful for studies on histogenesis of human esophageal cancer both light and electron microscopically.

  4. Effect of diet and tylosin on chronic diarrhea in beagles.

    PubMed

    Westermarck, Elias; Frias, Rafael; Skrzypczak, Teresa

    2005-01-01

    Seven beagles in a colony of dogs had chronic diarrhea for at least 30 days. The dogs were subsequently treated with tylosin 20 mg/kg BW q24h PO for 10 days. During the treatment period, the feces became firmer but remained loose. When the treatment was discontinued, the diarrhea reappeared in 3 weeks. The feces remained abnormally loose in all dogs treated with metronidazole, trimethoprim-sulfadiazine, or doxycycline and prednisone. The diet was then changed for 10 days from a highly digestible moist pet food to a dry food developed for normal adult dogs. The feces again became firmer, although still loose in some dogs. The period was then extended to 3 month, but the fecal consistency continued to fluctuate from ideal to diarrhea. The dogs were treated a 2nd time with tylosin 20 mg/kg BW q24h PO for 10 days. The feces then became significantly firmer and remained so throughout a 3-month follow-up. We conclude that the combination of diet and tylosin was more effective than either agent alone in control of chronic diarrhea.

  5. Hepatic effects of inhaled plutonium dioxide in beagles

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.; Buschbom, R.L.; Dagle, G.E.

    1995-10-01

    The effects of inhaled {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} deposited in the liver of dogs were studied in beagles exposed to initial lung depositions ranging from 5.7 to 2979.7 Bq/g lung. Approximately 20% of the initial lung deposition was translocated to the liver by 1500 days after exposure. Life-span observations revealed that the liver contained 40% of the final body burden of plutonium, second only to the skeleton. Elevated serum liver enzyme activities were observed in dogs with final liver depositions of {ge}0.4 Bq/g, cumulative dose to the liver of {ge}0.18 Gy and annual dose rate {ge}0.02 Gy/year. Enzyme elevations were seen at one dose level lower than that in which bone or lung tumors were observed. Linear regression analysis revealed strong to moderate correlation between cumulative dose and dose rate and time to observed increases in liver enzyme activities. Liver tumors were late occurring neoplasms observed at lower exposure levels where life span was not shortened by lung and bone tumors. 22 refs., 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  6. Quantification of brown dog tick repellents, 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde, and release from tick-resistant beagles, Canis lupus familiaris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have recently shown that repellency of the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato by the tick resistant dog breed Beagle is mediated by volatile organic compounds 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde present in Beagle dog odour. Ectoparasite location on animal hosts is affected by variation in odour com...

  7. Late-glacial elevated dust deposition linked to westerly wind shifts in southern South America

    PubMed Central

    Vanneste, Heleen; De Vleeschouwer, François; Martínez-Cortizas, Antonio; von Scheffer, Clemens; Piotrowska, Natalia; Coronato, Andrea; Le Roux, Gaël

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric dust loadings play a crucial role in the global climate system. Southern South America is a key dust source, however, dust deposition rates remain poorly quantified since the last glacial termination (~17 kyr ago), an important timeframe to anticipate future climate changes. Here we use isotope and element geochemistry in a peat archive from Tierra del Fuego, to reconstruct atmospheric dust fluxes and associated environmental and westerly wind changes for the past 16.2 kyr. Dust depositions were elevated during the Antarctic Cold Reversal (ACR) and second half of the Younger Dryas (YD) stadial, originating from the glacial Beagle Channel valley. This increase was most probably associated with a strengthening of the westerlies during both periods as dust source areas were already available before the onset of the dust peaks and remained present throughout. Congruent with glacier advances across Patagonia, this dust record indicates an overall strengthening of the wind belt during the ACR. On the other hand, we argue that the YD dust peak is linked to strong and poleward shifted westerlies. The close interplay between dust fluxes and climatic changes demonstrates that atmospheric circulation was essential in generating and sustaining present-day interglacial conditions. PMID:26126739

  8. Late-glacial elevated dust deposition linked to westerly wind shifts in southern South America.

    PubMed

    Vanneste, Heleen; De Vleeschouwer, François; Martínez-Cortizas, Antonio; von Scheffer, Clemens; Piotrowska, Natalia; Coronato, Andrea; Le Roux, Gaël

    2015-07-01

    Atmospheric dust loadings play a crucial role in the global climate system. Southern South America is a key dust source, however, dust deposition rates remain poorly quantified since the last glacial termination (~17 kyr ago), an important timeframe to anticipate future climate changes. Here we use isotope and element geochemistry in a peat archive from Tierra del Fuego, to reconstruct atmospheric dust fluxes and associated environmental and westerly wind changes for the past 16.2 kyr. Dust depositions were elevated during the Antarctic Cold Reversal (ACR) and second half of the Younger Dryas (YD) stadial, originating from the glacial Beagle Channel valley. This increase was most probably associated with a strengthening of the westerlies during both periods as dust source areas were already available before the onset of the dust peaks and remained present throughout. Congruent with glacier advances across Patagonia, this dust record indicates an overall strengthening of the wind belt during the ACR. On the other hand, we argue that the YD dust peak is linked to strong and poleward shifted westerlies. The close interplay between dust fluxes and climatic changes demonstrates that atmospheric circulation was essential in generating and sustaining present-day interglacial conditions.

  9. Late-glacial elevated dust deposition linked to westerly wind shifts in southern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanneste, Heleen; de Vleeschouwer, François; Martínez-Cortizas, Antonio; von Scheffer, Clemens; Piotrowska, Natalia; Coronato, Andrea; Le Roux, Gaël

    2015-07-01

    Atmospheric dust loadings play a crucial role in the global climate system. Southern South America is a key dust source, however, dust deposition rates remain poorly quantified since the last glacial termination (~17 kyr ago), an important timeframe to anticipate future climate changes. Here we use isotope and element geochemistry in a peat archive from Tierra del Fuego, to reconstruct atmospheric dust fluxes and associated environmental and westerly wind changes for the past 16.2 kyr. Dust depositions were elevated during the Antarctic Cold Reversal (ACR) and second half of the Younger Dryas (YD) stadial, originating from the glacial Beagle Channel valley. This increase was most probably associated with a strengthening of the westerlies during both periods as dust source areas were already available before the onset of the dust peaks and remained present throughout. Congruent with glacier advances across Patagonia, this dust record indicates an overall strengthening of the wind belt during the ACR. On the other hand, we argue that the YD dust peak is linked to strong and poleward shifted westerlies. The close interplay between dust fluxes and climatic changes demonstrates that atmospheric circulation was essential in generating and sustaining present-day interglacial conditions.

  10. Sediment Dynamics Affecting the Threatened Santa Ana Sucker in the Highly-modified Santa Ana River and Inset Channel, Southern California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minear, J. T.; Wright, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we investigate the sediment dynamics of the low-flow channel of the Santa Ana River that is formed by wastewater discharges and contains some of the last remaining habitat of the Santa Ana Sucker (Catostomus santaanae). The Santa Ana River is a highly-modified river draining the San Bernardino Mountains and Inland Empire metropolitan area east of Los Angeles. Home to over 4 million people, the watershed provides habitat for the federally-threatened Santa Ana Sucker, which presently reside within the mainstem Santa Ana River in a reach supported by year-round constant discharges from water treatment plants. The nearly constant low-flow wastewater discharges and infrequent runoff events create a small, approximately 8 m wide, inset channel within the approximately 300 m wide mainstem channel that is typically dry except for large flood flows. The sediment dynamics within the inset channel are characterized by constantly evolving bed substrate and sediment transport rates, and occasional channel avulsions. The sediment dynamics have large influence on the Sucker, which rely on coarse-substrate (gravel and cobble) for their food production. In WY 2013 through the present, we investigated the sediment dynamics of the inset channel using repeat bathymetric and substrate surveys, bedload sampling, and discharge measurements. We found two distinct phases of the inset channel behavior: 1. 'Reset' flows, where sediment-laden mainstem discharges from upstream runoff events result in sand deposition in the inset channel or avulse the inset channel onto previously dry riverbed; and 2. 'Winnowing' flows, whereby the sand within the inset channel is removed by clear-water low flows from the wastewater treatment plant discharges. Thus, in contrast to many regulated rivers where high flows are required to flush fine sediments from the bed (for example, downstream from dams), in the Santa Ana River the low flows from wastewater treatment plants serve as the flushing

  11. Toxicity of inhaled plutonium dioxide in beagle dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Muggenburg, M.A.; Guilmette, R.A.; Mewhinney, J.A.

    1996-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the biological effects of inhaled {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} over the life spans of 144 beagle dogs. The dogs inhaled one of two sizes of monodisperse aerosols of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} to achieve graded levels of initial lung burden (ILB). The aerosols also contained {sup 169}Yb to provide a {gamma}-ray-emitting label for the {sup 238}Pu inhaled by each dog. Excreta were collected periodically over each dog`s life span to estimate plutonium excretion; at death, the tissues were analyzed radiochemically for plutonium activity. The tissue content and the amount of plutonium excreted were used to estimate the ILB. These data for each dog were used in a dosimetry model to estimate the ILB. These data for each dog were used in a dosimetry model to estimate tissue doses. The lung, skeleton and liver received the highest {alpha}-particle doses, ranging from 0.16-68 Gy for the liver. At death, all dogs were necropsied, and all organs and lesions were sampled and examined by histopathology. Findings of non-neoplastic changes included neutropenia and lymphopenia that developed in a dose-related fashion soon after inhalation exposure. These effects persisted for up to 5 years in some animals, but no other health effects could be related to the blood changes observed. Radiation pneumonitis was observed among the dogs with the highest ILBs. Deaths from radiation pneumonitis occurred from 1.5 to 5.4 years after exposure. Tumors of the lung, skeleton and liver occurred beginning at about 3 years after exposure. These findings in dogs suggest that similar dose-related biological effects could be expected in humans accidentally exposed to {sup 238}PuO{sub 2}. 89 refs., 10 figs., 11 tab.

  12. Birth of Beagle dogs by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Hossein, Mohammad Shamim; Jeong, Yeon Woo; Park, Sun Woo; Kim, Joung Joo; Lee, Eugine; Ko, Kyeong Hee; Hyuk, Park; Hoon, Song Seung; Kim, Yeun Wook; Hyun, Sang Hwan; Shin, Taeyoung; Hwang, Woo Suk

    2009-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate two enucleation methods for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), and to standardize the optimum number of embryos for transfer to each recipient for canines. Oocytes retrieved from outbreed dogs were reconstructed with adult somatic cells from a male Beagle dog. A total of 134 or 267 oocytes were enucleated either by aspiration or squeezing method, fused with two DC pulses of 1.75 kV/cm for 15 micros electrical stimulation, chemically activated after 1h of fusion using 10 microM calcium ionophore for 4 min and cultured 4h in 1.9 mM 6-dimethylaminopurine. Finally, 103 or 214 embryos for aspiration or squeezing method were transferred to 6 or 11 naturally synchronized recipients, respectively. A total of 53, 317 and 342 embryos were transferred to 7, 17 and 12 recipients for the group of 4-10, 11-25 and 26-40 embryos, respectively. There was no difference between fusion rate (76.87% vs. 80.15%), full term pregnancy rate (16.66% vs. 27.27%) and percent of live puppies born (0.97% vs. 1.87%) for aspiration and squeezing method (P>0.05). Production efficiency of cloned dogs was significantly affected by the number of embryos transferred to each recipient. No pregnancy was established for the group of 4-10 embryos (n=7) and 26-40 embryos (n=12) while pregnancy was detected in 23.53% recipients received a group of 11-25 embryos (n=17). Among them, five (1.76%) live puppies were born (P<0.05). These data show an increase in the overall efficiency of SCNT in canine species.

  13. Regionalized Equations for Bankfull-Discharge and Channel Characteristics of Streams in New York State: Hydrologic Region 6 in the Southern Tier of New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulvihill, Christiane I.; Ernst, Anne G.; Baldigo, Barry P.

    2005-01-01

    Equations that relate bankfull discharge and channel characteristics (width, depth, and cross-sectional area) to drainage-area size at gaged sites are needed to define bankfull discharge and channel dimensions at ungaged sites and to provide information for watershed assessments, streamchannel classification, and the design of stream-restoration projects. Such equations are most accurate if derived from streams within an area of uniform hydrologic, climatic, and physiographic conditions and applied only within that region. In New York State, eight hydrologic regions were previously defined on the basis of similar high-flow (flood) characteristics. This report presents drainage areas and associated bankfull characteristics (discharge and channel dimensions) for surveyed streams in southwestern New York (Region 6). Stream-survey data and discharge records from 11 active (currently gaged) sites and 3 inactive (discontinued) sites were used in regression analyses to relate bankfull discharge and bankfull channel width, depth, and cross-sectional area to the size of the drainage area (mi2). The resulting equations are: bankfull discharge (ft3/s) = 48.0*(drainage area)0.842; bankfull channel width (ft) = 16.9*(drainage area)0.419; bankfull channel depth (ft) = 1.04*(drainage area)0.244; and bankfull channel cross-sectional area (ft2) = 17.6*(drainage area)0.662. The correlation coefficients (R2) for these four equations were 0.90, 0.79, 0.64, and 0.89, respectively. The high correlation coefficients for bankfull discharge and crosssectional area indicate that much of the variation in these variables is explained by the size of the drainage area. The smaller correlation coefficients for bankfull channel width and depth indicate that other factors also affect these relations. Recurrence intervals for the estimated bankfull discharge of each stream ranged from 1.01 to 2.35 years; the mean recurrence interval was 1.54 years. The 14 surveyed streams were classified by Rosgen

  14. Heavy metal toxicity in Exosphaeroma gigas (Crustacea, Isopoda) from the coastal zone of Beagle Channel.

    PubMed

    Giarratano, Erica; Comoglio, Laura; Amin, Oscar

    2007-11-01

    Acute toxicity of copper, cadmium, and zinc on isopod Exosphaeroma gigas was evaluated at 20 per thousand and 30 per thousand salinity. Six concentrations were assayed to estimate effective concentration of the toxicant that affects 50% of tested animal (EC50), while physiological responses and bioaccumulation were determined at 0.42 and 1.95 mg L(-1) of each metal. The following toxicity orders were obtained: Cd>or=Cu>Zn at 20 per thousand salinity and Cu>Zn>or=Cd at 30 per thousand salinity. Copper treatments showed a reduction in oxygen consumption at 30 per thousand salinity, while an opposite trend was observed at 20 per thousand salinity. Zinc caused dissimilar effects, while in cadmium significant reduction was only registered in 0.42(20 per thousand) mg L(-1). Ammonia excretion was generally higher in treatments than control at 20 per thousand salinity. At 30 per thousand salinity, excretion did not change in relation to control or diminished. In general terms, O:N atomic ratios indicated a preponderant protein metabolism. Bioaccumulation of assayed metals was higher at lowest salinity and increased with increasing toxic concentrations.

  15. The Beagle Channel Dispute between Argentina and Chile: An Historical Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-11-22

    Superba, are crustaceans with a maximum length of 6 cm. They are found in swarms in the upper 200 meters of water and are a high source of protein...Sudan 160 I0 .1,* Rhodc-ia 92 6Nigeria 91 6 North Africa I 158 8 Libya 694 60 Algeria 223 19 Morocco 213 18 Tunisia 29 3 South America I 069 8 Brazil...Italy 16. Algeria 882 2.2 USSR 17. Taiwan 737 1.9 USA 18. Kuwait 664 1.7 USSR 19. Argentina 642 1.6 FR Germany 20. Brazil 641 1.6 United Kingdom 21

  16. Neosporosis in Beagle dogs clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, isolation and genetic characterization of Neospora caninum.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clinical neosporosis was diagnosed in a litter of five pups born to a Beagle bitch from Virginia, USA. Four of the pups developed limb weakness starting at 4 weeks of age. The dogs were suspected to have neosporosis based on clinical signs and empirically treated with Clindamycin (75 mg, oral, twice...

  17. Beagle Rupes -- Evidence for a Basal Decollement of Regional Extent in Mercury's Lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothery, D. A.; Massironi, M.

    2009-03-01

    Beagle Rupes is a thrust bounded by transpressive lateral ramps. To remain in the elastic lithosphere, the dip of the fault must become shallower at depth. This is evidence for thin-skinned tectonics, with out-of-sequence thrusts, on Mercury.

  18. Elimination Half-Lives of Acute Phase Proteins in Rats and Beagle Dogs During Acute Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kuribayashi, Takashi; Seita, Tetsuro; Momotani, Eiichi; Yamazaki, Shunsuke; Hagimori, Kohei; Yamamoto, Shizuo

    2015-08-01

    The half-lives of typical acute phase proteins in rats and beagle dogs during acute inflammation were investigated. Acute inflammation was induced by injection of turpentine oil in rats and administration of indomethacin in beagle dogs. Serum concentrations of α2-macroglobulin (α2M) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and α1-acid glycoprotein (AAG) was measured by single radial immunodiffusion. Half-life was calculated as 0.693/elimination rate constant (K). The mean half-lives in the terminal elimination phase of α2M and AAG were 68.1 and 164.8 h, respectively. The half-life of AAG was significantly longer than that of α2M. Mean half-lives in the terminal elimination phase of CRP and AAG were 161.9 and 304.4 h, respectively. The half-life of AAG was significantly longer than that of CRP in beagle dogs. No significant differences in the half-life of AAG were observed between rats and beagle dogs. Furthermore, serum concentrations in the terminal elimination phase could be simulated with the K data acquired in this study.

  19. Web-Beagle: a web server for the alignment of RNA secondary structures.

    PubMed

    Mattei, Eugenio; Pietrosanto, Marco; Ferrè, Fabrizio; Helmer-Citterich, Manuela

    2015-07-01

    Web-Beagle (http://beagle.bio.uniroma2.it) is a web server for the pairwise global or local alignment of RNA secondary structures. The server exploits a new encoding for RNA secondary structure and a substitution matrix of RNA structural elements to perform RNA structural alignments. The web server allows the user to compute up to 10 000 alignments in a single run, taking as input sets of RNA sequences and structures or primary sequences alone. In the latter case, the server computes the secondary structure prediction for the RNAs on-the-fly using RNAfold (free energy minimization). The user can also compare a set of input RNAs to one of five pre-compiled RNA datasets including lncRNAs and 3' UTRs. All types of comparison produce in output the pairwise alignments along with structural similarity and statistical significance measures for each resulting alignment. A graphical color-coded representation of the alignments allows the user to easily identify structural similarities between RNAs. Web-Beagle can be used for finding structurally related regions in two or more RNAs, for the identification of homologous regions or for functional annotation. Benchmark tests show that Web-Beagle has lower computational complexity, running time and better performances than other available methods.

  20. Assessment of thirteen-week subchronic oral toxicity of cyadox in Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Zhou, Wen; Ihsan, Awais; Chen, Dongmei; Cheng, Guyue; Hao, Haihong; Liu, Zhenli; Wang, Yulian; Yuan, Zonghui

    2015-11-01

    Cyadox (2-formylquinoxaline-N(1),N(4)-dioxide cyanocetylhydrazone) is a new antimicrobial agent and growth-promoter to be used in food-producing animals. Although its toxicity has been clearly documented in rodents, no study is available in non-rodent animals. Therefore, we studied the subchronic effects of cyadox in Beagle dogs to provide additional information with which to establish safety criteria for human exposure. For this purpose, 36 Beagle dogs, 18 males and 18 females, were divided into four groups and fed diets containing 0, 100, 450 and 2500 mg/kg of cyadox, respectively, for 13 weeks. It was found that there were no significant changes among the examined parameters, except for an increase in the level of serum potassium (K(+)) in 2500 mg/kg cyadox group in males at week 13 of the study. However, the K(+) level returned to normal during the recovery period. In conclusion, cyadox showed slight effects in Beagle dogs in the subchronic oral toxicity study. The no-observed-adverse-effect level of cyadox was considered to be 450 mg/kg diet, which equates to approximately 15.3-15.4 mg/kg b.w./day. The study provided subchronic effects of cyadox in Beagle dogs, suggesting that cyadox might present mild toxicity in non-rodents.

  1. Enantioselective HPLC determination of oxiracetam enantiomers and application to a pharmacokinetic study in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiuyang; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Qing; Yang, Yue; Li, Junxiu; Lu, Yang; Zheng, Yi; He, Jiake; Zhao, Di; Chen, Xijing

    2015-07-01

    An enantioselective high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated for the determination of oxiracetam enantiomers, a cognition and memory enhancer, in beagle dog plasma. The plasma samples were prepared by methanol extraction from 200μL plasma, and then the baseline resolution was achieved on a Chiralpak ID column (250mm×4.6mm, 5μm) with mobile phase of hexane-ethanol-trifluoroacetic acid (78:22:0.1, v/v/v) at flow rate of 1.0mL/min. The column elute was monitored using ultraviolet detection at 214nm. The method was linear over concentration range 0.50-100μg/mL for both enantiomers. The relative standard deviation values for intra- and inter-day precision were 0.78-13.61 and 0.74-8.92% for (R)- and (S)-oxiracetam, respectively. The relative error values of accuracy ranged from -4.74 to 10.48% for (R)-oxiracetam and from -0.19 to 11.48% for (S)-oxiracetam. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of individual enantiomer and racemic oxiracetam in beagle dogs after oral administration. The disposition of the two enantiomers was not stereoselective and chiral inversion was not observed in beagle dogs. The pharmacokinetic profiles of (S)-oxiracetam were similar with racemic oxiracetam in beagle dogs.

  2. The Voyage of the Beagle: Field Work Lessons from Charles Darwin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Louis M.

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes Charles Darwin's letters to his family during his voyage on H.M.S. Beagle. Relates the information to the development of Darwin's professional identity and the degree to which the concepts, field methods, and research methods revealed in Darwin's personal correspondence are useful to students of educational administration. (MD)

  3. Future Planetary Surface Imager Development by the Beagle 2 Stereo Camera System Team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, A. D.; Coates, A. J.; Josset, J.-L.; Paar, G.

    2004-03-01

    The Stereo Camera System provided Beagle 2 with wide-angle multi-spectral stereo imaging (IFOV=0.043°). The SCS team plans to build on this design heritage to provide improved stereo capabilities to the Pasteur payload of the Aurora ExoMars rover.

  4. Absorption and pharmacokinetics of green tea catechins in beagles.

    PubMed

    Mata-Bilbao, Maria de Lourdes; Andrés-Lacueva, Cristina; Roura, Elena; Jáuregui, Olga; Escribano, Elvira; Torre, Celina; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M

    2008-09-01

    The present study evaluates for the first time in dogs, the kinetics of green tea catechins and their metabolic forms in plasma and urine. Ten beagles were administered 173 mg (12.35 mg/kg body weight) of catechins as a green tea extract, in capsules. Blood samples were collected during 24 h after intake and urine samples were collected during the following periods of time: 0-2, 2-6, 6-8 and 8-24 h. Two catechins with a galloyl moiety and three conjugated metabolites were detected in plasma. Most of the detected forms in plasma reached their maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) at around 1 h. Median Cmax for ( - )-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), ( - )-epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), ( - )-epigallocatechin glucuronide (EGC-glucuronide), ( - )-epicatechin glucuronide (EC-glucuronide), ( - )-epicatechin sulphate (EC-sulphate) were 0.3 (range 0.1-1.9), 0.1 (range 0-0.4), 0.8 (range 0.2-3.9), 0.2 (range 0.1-1.7) and 1 (range 0.3-3.4) micromol/l, respectively. The areas under the plasma concentration v. time curves (AUC0 --> 24) were 427 (range 102-1185) micromol/l x min for EGC-glucuronide, 112 (range 53-919) micromol/l x min for EC-sulphate, 71 (range 26-306) micromol/l x min for EGCG, 40 (range 12-258) micromol/l x min for EC-glucuronide and 14 (range 0.1-124) micromol/l x min for ECG. The values of mean residence time (MRT0 --> 24) were 5 (range 2-16), 2 (range 1-11), 10 (range 2-13), 3 (range 2-16) and 2.4 (range 1-18) h for EGCG, ECG, EGC-glucuronide, EC-glucuronide and EC-sulphate, respectively. In urine, catechins were present as conjugated forms, suggesting bile excretion of EGCG and ECG. Green tea catechins are absorbed following an oral administration and EGC-glucuronide is the metabolic form that remains in the organism for a longer period of time, suggesting that this compound could suffer an enterohepatic cycle.

  5. Glacial geomorphology of the Pleistocene Lake Fagnano ice lobe, Tierra del Fuego, southern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coronato, A.; Seppälä, M.; Ponce, J. F.; Rabassa, J.

    2009-11-01

    A regional geomorphological study is presented of the southern and eastern coast of Lake Fagnano, one of the most extensive glacial areas of Tierra del Fuego Island, at the southernmost tip of South America. A palaeoglacial reconstruction is made, based on the location of erosional and depositional glacial landforms. The outlet glacier flowing eastwards from the Darwin Cordillera (Fuegian Andes, Chile) had more than 50 tributary glaciers. An alpine-type landscape, including arêtes, cirques, truncated spurs and hanging valleys developed in the western region of the present lake, whereas a piedmont-type landscape including lateral moraines, glaciofluvial and glaciolacustrine terraces and an ice-disintegration landscape developed in the eastern region. The glacier spread over the low ranges and lowlands through three different lobes, and was drained by four main outwash basins, directly into the Atlantic Ocean. The ice-covered area is estimated at 4000 km 2; the maximum length of the main lobe at 132 km, and the general slope at 8°. Four terminal positions of the glacier were recognized and related to the Inútil Bay and Beagle Channel glacial areas, located to the north and south, respectively. 14C dates from basal peats show that most of the area, especially the easternmost part and the southern coast, were free of ice by 12,300 years B.P. Fossil peat contained in the lower basal till deposits yield 14C dates of 31,000-48,200 years B.P., indicating that a glacial advance occurred in the area prior to the Last Glacial Maximum (ca. 25,000-23,000 cal. years B.P.).

  6. Lung, liver and bone cancer mortality after plutonium exposure in beagle dogs and nuclear workers.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Dulaney A; Mohr, Lawrence C; Frey, G Donald; Lackland, Daniel; Hoel, David G

    2010-01-01

    The Mayak Production Association (MPA) worker registry has shown evidence of plutonium-induced health effects. Workers were potentially exposed to plutonium nitrate [(239)Pu(NO(3))(4)] and plutonium dioxide ((239)PuO(2)). Studies of plutonium-induced health effects in animal models can complement human studies by providing more specific data than is possible in human observational studies. Lung, liver, and bone cancer mortality rate ratios in the MPA worker cohort were compared to those seen in beagle dogs, and models of the excess relative risk of lung, liver, and bone cancer mortality from the MPA worker cohort were applied to data from life-span studies of beagle dogs. The lung cancer mortality rate ratios in beagle dogs are similar to those seen in the MPA worker cohort. At cumulative doses less than 3 Gy, the liver cancer mortality rate ratios in the MPA worker cohort are statistically similar to those in beagle dogs. Bone cancer mortality only occurred in MPA workers with doses over 10 Gy. In dogs given (239)Pu, the adjusted excess relative risk of lung cancer mortality per Gy was 1.32 (95% CI 0.56-3.22). The liver cancer mortality adjusted excess relative risk per Gy was 55.3 (95% CI 23.0-133.1). The adjusted excess relative risk of bone cancer mortality per Gy(2) was 1,482 (95% CI 566.0-5686). Models of lung cancer mortality based on MPA worker data with additional covariates adequately described the beagle dog data, while the liver and bone cancer models were less successful.

  7. Recloned dogs derived from adipose stem cells of a transgenic cloned beagle.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hyun Ju; Park, Jung Eun; Kim, Min Jung; Hong, So Gun; Ra, Jeong Chan; Jo, Jung Youn; Kang, Sung Keun; Jang, Goo; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2011-04-15

    A number of studies have postulated that efficiency in mammalian cloning is inversely correlated with donor cell differentiation status and may be increased by using undifferentiated cells as nuclear donors. Here, we attempted the recloning of dogs by nuclear transfer of canine adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (cAd-MSCs) from a transgenic cloned beagle to determine if cAd-MSCs can be a suitable donor cell type. In order to isolate cAd-MSCs, adipose tissues were collected from a transgenic cloned beagle produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) of canine fetal fibroblasts modified genetically with a red fluorescent protein (RFP) gene. The cAd-MSCs expressed the RFP gene and cell-surface marker characteristics of MSCs including CD29, CD44 and thy1.1. Furthermore, cAd-MSCs underwent osteogenic, adipogenic, myogenic, neurogenic and chondrogenic differentiation when exposed to specific differentiation-inducing conditions. In order to investigate the developmental potential of cAd-MSCs, we carried out SCNT. Fused-couplets (82/109, 75.2%) were chemically activated and transferred into the uterine tube of five naturally estrus-synchronized surrogates. One of them (20%) maintained pregnancy and subsequently gave birth to two healthy cloned pups. The present study demonstrated for the first time the successful production of cloned beagles by nuclear transfer of cAd-MSCs. Another important outcome of the present study is the successful recloning of RFP-expressing transgenic cloned beagle pups by nuclear transfer of cells derived from a transgenic cloned beagle. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that adipose stem cells can be a good nuclear donor source for dog cloning.

  8. Spontaneous lesions in endocrine glands of experimental Wistar rats and beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Nataraju, G J; Ranvir, Ramchandra K; Kothule, Viren R; Kadam, Shekhar B; Ravichandra, B V; Bhatnagar, Upendra; Jain, Mukul R

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective analysis was undertaken at Zydus Research Centre to understand the incidences of spontaneous lesions in endocrine glands of Wistar rats and beagle dogs. The data from a total of 841 Wistar rats (418 males and 423 females) and 144 beagle dogs (72 males and 72 females) was used from placebo/vehicle treated control group of different non-clinical toxicity studies. The lesions in various endocrine glands were classified according to the species and age of the animals at termination of study. Among the endocrine glands, the highest numbers (types) of spontaneous lesions were observed in adrenal glands followed in descending order by pituitary, thyroid, endocrine pancreas and parathyroid glands in Wistar rats. In beagle dogs, highest numbers (types) of spontaneous lesions were seen in adrenals followed by thyroid, endocrine pancreas, pituitary and parathyroid gland. In adrenal glands of Wistar rats, the incidences of cortical cell vacuolation, hemorrhages and hemangiectasis/peliosis were increased with age. Incidence of peliosis at ∼110 weeks of age was higher in female rats. Among the proliferative lesions in rats, higher incidences of cortical cell hyperplasia was observed followed by medullary hyperplasia, complex pheochromocytoma, cortical cell adenoma and cortical adenocarcinoma. In beagle dogs, the incidences of hemangiectasis and cortical cell vacuolation in adrenal glands were higher in 18-21 months aged dogs in both the sexes as compared to 10-12 months of age. In pituitary gland, the incidences of cystic changes were higher in older rats and dogs and the incidences were more in beagles as compared to rats. In thyroid glands, C-cell (parafollicular cells) hyperplasia/complex was observed more frequently in both the species. Few incidences of cystic changes were observed in parathyroid of 18-21 months aged beagle dogs. In endocrine pancreas, few incidences of islet-cell vacuolation, atrophy and hyperplasia were observed in both the species. The

  9. Partitioning sand transport between branches of channel bifurcations in deep rivers: Implications for river-diversion structures and land building in southern Louisiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitman, S. K.; Shaw, J. B.; Mohrig, D. C.; Nittrouer, J. A.; Allison, M. A.

    2009-12-01

    Man-made diversion structures cut through the levees of the Mississippi River are intended to act as channel bifurcations, delivering water and sediment to an otherwise disconnected wetland environment. Construction of these artificial bifurcations is necessary to counteract an earlier emplacement of fortified levees on the river that cut off sediment transport to the adjacent overbank regions, thereby halting sedimentation necessary to mitigate loss of land associated with rising relative sea level. We study the role that diversion depth has in controlling the amount of sand that exits the primary channel during river flooding. We follow the sand fraction because new land built by sub-deltas within the lower Mississippi is disproportionately composed of sand rather than mud. Sand transport is not evenly distributed from the bottom to the water surface in the Mississippi River. Suspended sediment and bedform transport measurements collected near Empire, LA during the 2008 flood reveal that in the 40-m deep thalweg, 47% of the sand flux is confined to the lowermost 20% of the water column, while only 11% of the sand flux is in the uppermost 20% of the water column. This suggests that diversions dug to depths tapping the lowermost portion of the water column could export considerably more sand to the neighboring overbank regions for land building purposes. In order to continue exploring the importance of deep diversions for land building we measured properties of the Atchafalaya River - Grand Lake bifurcation near Morgan City, LA during high discharge in May, 2009. Grand Lake is the entrance point to the Wax Lake Outlet channel and the Wax Lake delta. Persistent growth of this delta over the past 30 years highlights the successful land-building properties of this diversion. The diversion at the head of Grand Lake is approximately 850 m wide at its junction with the Atchafalaya River. Average thalweg depth for the river along this connecting length is 19 m. Water

  10. How Do You Answer the Life on Mars Question? Use Multiple Small Landers Like Beagle 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K.; Pillinger, C. T.; Wright, I. P.; Hurst, S. J.; Richter, L.; Sims, M. R.

    2012-01-01

    To address one of the most important questions in planetary science Is there life on Mars? The scientific community must turn to less costly means of exploring the surface of the Red Planet. The United Kingdom's Beagle 2 Mars lander concept was a small meter-size lander with a scientific payload constituting a large proportion of the flown mass designed to supply answers to the question about life on Mars. A possible reason why Beagle 2 did not send any data was that it was a one-off attempt to land. As Steve Squyres said at the time: "It's difficult to land on Mars - if you want to succeed you have to send two of everything".

  11. The Themis-Beagle families: clues into space weathering processes on primitive asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornasier, S.; Perna, D.; Lantz, C.; Barucci, M. A.

    2015-10-01

    The Themis family is a natural laboratory to study the asteroids-comets continuum and space weathering effects. Recently water ice and organics were detected on 24 Themis indicating that the Themis family may be an important reservoir of ice. Moreover, some main belt comets may be related with the Themis family because of orbital proximities and spectral properties analogies. Within the old Themis family members, a young sub-family, Beagle, formed less than 10 Myr ago, has been identified. Thus the Themis family is very important to shed light on the asteroid-comet continuum, to constrain the abundances of water ices in the outer part of the main belt, and to probe space weathering effects on old Themis and young Beagle families' members.

  12. Spectroscopic investigation of asteroids belonging to the Themis and Beagle families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornasier, S.; Perna, D.; Barucci, M. A.; Merlin, F.; Dotto, E.

    2012-09-01

    24 Themis is the largest body of the Themis family. Within this big family a cluster of very young asteroids (age < 10 Myr), the Beagle sub-family, has been identified. Recently water ice and organics were detected on 24 Themis indicating that the Themis family may be an important reservoir of ice. Moreover, the main belt comets 133P, 238P, and 176P may be related with the Themis family because of orbital proximities and spectral properties analogies. The aim of this work is to spectroscopically investigate some asteroids belonging to the Themis family and to the young Beagle sub-family in order to look for absorption bands related to water ice, hydrated silicates and organics.

  13. Influence of parity and litter size on gestation length in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Seki, Makoto; Watanabe, Norio; Ishii, Kenyo; Kinoshita, Yoh-ichi; Aihara, Takehiro; Takeiri, Shuji; Otoi, Takeshige

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of parity and litter size on gestation length in beagle bitches. The mean duration of the initial elevation (>2 ng/mL) in progesterone concentrations after the onset of proestrus was shorter (P < 0.05) in bitches without (nulliparous) whelping experience than in bitches with (multiparous) whelping experience (6.9 d versus 8.0 d). When calculated as the interval between the day of initial elevation in progesterone concentrations and the day of whelping, the gestation length in the nulliparous bitches was noted to be similar to that in the multiparous bitches (64.3 d versus 64.2 d). No significant correlation between gestation length and litter size was observed in any of the bitches. Our results indicate that the gestation length in beagle bitches is not affected by parity or litter size.

  14. Quantitation of uveoscleral outflow in normotensive and glaucomatous Beagles by /sup 3/H-labeled dextran

    SciTech Connect

    Barrie, K.P.; Gum, G.G.; Samuelson, D.A.; Gelatt, K.N.

    1985-01-01

    In uveoscleral outflow, aqueous humor leaves the anterior chamber and passes caudally through the trabecular meshwork and the sclerociliary cleft to enter the supraciliary and suprachoroidal spaces. The fluid is then absorbed by choroidal and scleral circulations. Using /sup 3/H-labeled dextran, uveoscleral outflow was quantitated in normotensive and glaucomatous Beagles under general anesthesia. The intrascleral plexus was isolated and /sup 3/H-labeled dextran was injected into the anterior chamber. Intrascleral plexus contents were sampled every 5 minutes over a 30- to 60-minute period. The eyes were enucleated, sectioned, and prepared for scintillation counting. Uveoscleral outflow accounted for 15% and 3% of the total aqueous humor outflow in the normotensive dogs and in the advanced glaucomatous dogs, respectively. In the advanced glaucomatous Beagle, conventional and uveoscleral outflow pathways were reduced and contributed to the etiopathogenesis of glaucoma.

  15. Bone density in limb-immobilized beagles: An animal model for bone loss in weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolinsky, Ira

    1987-01-01

    Prolonged weightlessness is man in space flight results in a slow progressive demineralization of bone accompanied by an increased calcium output in the urine resulting in negative calcium balances. This possibly irreversible bone loss may constitute a serious limiting factor to long duration manned space flight. In order to seek and test preventative measures an appropriate ground based animal model simulating weightlessness is necessary. Use of the mature Beagle in limb immobilization has been documented as an excellent model for orthopedic research since this animal most closely simulates the phenomenom of bone loss with regards to growth, remodeling, structure, chemistry and mineralization. The purpose of this project is to develop a research protocol for the study of bone loss in Beagles during and after cast immobilization of a hindleg; research will then be initiated.

  16. Serum alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes in laboratory beagle dogs detected by polyacrylamide-gel disk electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Hatayama, Kazuhisa; Nishihara, Yoshito; Kimura, Sayaka; Goto, Ken; Nakamura, Daichi; Wakita, Atsushi; Urasoko, Yoshinaka

    2011-10-01

    Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity is frequently measured in toxicity studies. Itoh et al. (2002) reported that a commercially available polyacrylamide-gel (PAG) disk electrophoresis kit used in humans (AlkPhor System, Jokoh Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) for identifying serum ALP isoenzymes was useful for veterinary clinicopathological diagnosis in mongrel dogs. In the present study, based on the report of Itoh et al. (2002), we tried to expand the application range of this kit to laboratory beagle dogs which are commonly used in toxicity studies. In order to identify the origin of each ALP isoenzyme, tissue ALP extracts from the liver, bone and small intestine and serum samples were treated with neuraminidase, anti-small intestinal ALP antibody, ALP inhibitor levamisole and/or wheat germ agglutinin (WGA). The main serum ALP isoenzymes in 5-month-old intact beagle dogs were bone-derived (bone and atypical ALP: corresponding to human variant bone ALP) and they tended to decrease with age. However, liver-derived ALP isoenzyme greatly increased in the serum of cholestasis model dogs. The cholestasis model dogs also had a large molecular ALP detected in the resolving gel. This ALP could be originated from intestinal ALP or corticosteroid-induced ALP (CALP), because the activity remained even after levamisole inhibition. CALP was observed in intact laboratory beagle dogs with individual differences. These results suggest that the present method is a useful tool for detecting serum ALP isoenzymes in laboratory beagle dogs and concomitant levamisole inhibition with another gel is applicable for the evaluation of organ toxicity.

  17. The Beagle Rupes area - evidence for a basal decollement of regional extent in Mercury's lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothery, David; Massironi, Matteo

    2010-05-01

    The Beagle Rupes lobate scarp was particularly clearly imaged during the outbound leg of MESSENGER's first flyby, thanks to its location at low latitude and proximity to the terminator. Previous interpretations of mercurian lobate scarps regard them as surface expressions of thrusts whose fault planes dip uniformly and die out at depth, and that lack lateral ramps or any extensive detachment horizon. However, we interpret Beagle Rupes as a component of a linked fault system, consisting of a frontal scarp terminated by transpressive lateral ramps. The terrain bounded by these features is the hanging-wall block of a thrust sheet and must be underlain by a basal decollement (a detachment horizon) constituting the fault zone at depth. Displacement at the Beagle Rupes frontal scarp is no more than about 3 km. However, the decollement must extend a minimum of 150 km eastwards from the frontal scarp, and at least 400 km if displacement is transferred to features interpreted as out-of sequence thrusts and offset lateral ramps that appear to continue the linked fault system to the east. The depth of the basal decollement could be controlled by crustal stratigraphy or by rheological change within, or at the base of, the lithosphere. One such candidate horizon could be the brittle-ductile transition in quartz-bearing lower crust as predicted by some models of Mercury's early differentiation history (Brown and Elkins-Tanton, 2009). Further analysis of the terrain north and south of Beagle Rupes reveals ridges (10s of km wide and 100s of km long) that we interpret as pop-up structures probably associated with blind thrusts and very likely providing additional evidence of a decollement of regional extent. Brown, S. M., Elkins-Tanton, L. T., 2009, Compositions of Mercury's earliest crust from magma ocean models. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 286, 446-455.

  18. Pharmacokinetics of Ginkgolide B after Oral Administration of Three Different Ginkgolide B Formulations in Beagle Dogs.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jie; Geng, Ting; Wang, Qi; Si, Haihong; Sun, Xiaoping; Guo, Qingming; Li, Yanjing; Huang, Wenzhe; Ding, Gang; Xiao, Wei

    2015-11-06

    Ginkgolide B (GB), an important active constituent of Ginkgo biloba extract, has been used in clinical applications for the treatment of dementia, cerebral insufficiency or related cognitive decline. To investigate the main pharmacokinetic characteristics of three different GB formulations in beagle dogs, a simple, specific and sensitive LC-MS/MS method was established and validated. The separation of the analytes was achieved on an Agilent Eclipse Plus C18 column (1.8 μm, 2.1×50 mm) with a mobile phase consisting of water and acetonitrile. The flow rate was set at 0.4 mL/min. Quantitation was performed using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in negative ion mode, with the transitions at m/z (Q1/Q3) 423.1/367.1 for GB and m/z 269.3/170.0 for IS. The linear calibration curve of GB was obtained over the concentration range of 2-200 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions were <15% and the accuracies were within ±12.7%. The validated method was applied to compare the pharmacokinetic characteristics of GB in healthy beagle dogs after oral administration of three formulations (HME08, GB capsule prepared by hot-melt extrusion technology; LL06, GB pellet prepared by liquid layer technology; conventional GB tablet). The Cmax values of GB from different formulations in beagle dog plasma were 309.2, 192.4 and 66.6 µg/L, and the AUC values were 606.7, 419.1 and 236.2 µg/L·h, respectively. The data suggested that the exposure level of GB from HME08 and LL06 in beagle dog plasma was greatly improved compared with conventional tablets. This study should be helpful for the design and development of oral GB preparations.

  19. Experimental gingivitis and frequency of tooth brushing in the beagle dog model. Clinical findings.

    PubMed

    Tromp, J A; van Rijn, L J; Jansen, J

    1986-03-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study clinical parameters when 3 different frequencies of tooth brushing were applied to sites of experimental gingivitis in beagle dogs. 12 beagle dogs, at the start of the experiment 2 years of age, were used. After a thorough cleaning, the maxillary left and right first, second and third premolars were brushed daily for a period of 8 weeks. Subsequently, for 4 weeks, all brushing was omitted in order to establish an experimental gingivitis. After this pre-experimental period, the dogs were distributed into 3 groups of 4 dogs each: one group was brushed 7 times a week, a second was brushed 3 times a week and the third group was brushed only once a week. Brushing was carried out for 24 weeks, only on the right sides of the upper jaws, the left upper jaws serving as controls. At regular intervals, plaque index, gingival index and probing depths were assessed. A brushing effect was calculated for each dog, to include information on all within-dog and between-dog variations. The present study demonstrated that only by brushing every day can clinically healthy gingivae be obtained in the beagle dog model with experimental gingivitis at baseline. The state of gingival health at baseline may be used to determined the frequency of brushing necessary to create or maintain healthy gingivae.

  20. Gingival health and frequency of tooth brushing in the beagle dog model. Clinical findings.

    PubMed

    Tromp, J A; Jansen, J; Pilot, T

    1986-02-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study clinical parameters when 3 different frequencies of plaque removal were applied to healthy gingivae in the beagle dog model. The maxillary first, second and third premolars of 12 beagle dogs, at the start of the experiment 2 years of age, were, after a thorough cleaning, submitted to daily plaque removal during a pre-experimental period of 8 weeks. At the start of the experiment, the dogs were distributed into 3 groups of 4 dogs each: one group was brushed 7 times a week, a second group was brushed 3 times a week and another group was brushed only once a week. Brushing was executed over a period of 24 weeks, on the right sides of the upper jaws. The left upper jaws served as controls. At regular intervals, the plaque index, the gingival index and probing depths were assessed. A "brushing effect" was calculated for each dog, to include information on all within-dog and between dog variations. Comparison of brushing effects revealed that in this experimental model, plaque removal with a frequency of 3 times a week was sufficient to preserve gingival health, whereas tooth brushing once a week resulted in gingival inflammation. Therefore it can be concluded that 3 times a week is the critical brushing frequency in the beagle dog model with healthy gingiva at baseline.

  1. SNPs of melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) associated with body weight in Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ruixia; Zhang, Yibo; Du, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R), which is associated with inherited human obesity, is involoved in food intake and body weight of mammals. To study the relationships between MC4R gene polymorphism and body weight in Beagle dogs, we detected and compared the nucleotide sequence of the whole coding region and 3'- and 5'- flanking regions of the dog MC4R gene (1214 bp). In 120 Beagle dogs, two SNPs (A420C, C895T) were identified and their relation with body weight was analyzed with RFLP-PCR method. The results showed that the SNP at A420C was significantly associated with canine body weight trait when it changed amino acid 101 of the MC4R protein from asparagine to threonine, while canine body weight variations were significant in female dogs when MC4R nonsense mutation at C895T. It suggested that the two SNPs might affect the MC4R gene's function which was relative to body weight in Beagle dogs. Therefore, MC4R was a candidate gene for selecting different size dogs with the MC4R SNPs (A420C, C895T) being potentially valuable as a genetic marker.

  2. Development of the Endocrine Pancreas in the Beagle Dog: From Fetal to Adult Life.

    PubMed

    Bricout-Neveu, Emilie; Pechberty, Severine; Reynaud, Karine; Maenhoudt, Cindy; José Lecomte, Marie; Ravassard, Philippe; Czernichow, Paul

    2017-03-14

    Our objectives were to describe, in Beagle dogs, the ontogenesis of beta (insulin-producing) and alpha (glucagon-producing) cells from fetal to early postnatal life and adulthood. In addition, to have some insight into interspecies comparison, Beagle dog pancreases were compared to pancreases from a Labrador and Chow Chow. At midgestation, the epithelium was dense, beta cells scarce, and alpha cells numerous and concentrated in the center of the pancreatic bud. From 36 to 45 days post conception (pc), beta cell numbers increased and the epithelium expanded and branched out. At 55 days pc, large beta cell aggregates were seen. At weaning, the islets were similar to those in adults, with limited alpha cells intermingled with numerous beta cells. Quantification of the Alpha to Beta cells ratio has shown a gradual increase of beta cells proportion throughout development. Similar findings were obtained in the 2 other breeds. In conclusion, in the fetal Beagle dog beta cells emerge from the pancreatic bud at midgestation, but the endocrine structure is mature only in early postnatal life. The ontogenesis of the endocrine pancreas demonstrated in dogs resembles that reported in rats and mice. In contrast, human beta cells appear earlier, at the beginning of the second trimester of gestation. Our study provides a detailed morphological description of pancreatic development in dogs but supplies no information on alpha- or beta-cell function during fetal life. The morphological data reported here provide a foundation for building physiological studies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Electroretinography recordings using a light emitting diode active corneal electrode in healthy beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Yoshiki; Maehara, Seiya; Itoh, Norihiko; Yamashita, Kazuto; Izumisawa, Yasuharu

    2013-01-01

    Electroretinography (ERG) is a well-established diagnostic procedure for objectively evaluating retinal function. In this study, ERG in beagle dogs, which are a popular experimental animal, was performed to determine the normal range of ERG variables and assess differences between the left and right eyes. ERG findings including rod, combined rod-cone, single-flash cone, and 30-Hz flicker responses were recorded with an LED-electrode in 43 sedated beagle dogs. The subjects were divided into young (< 1 year old), adult (1 ˜ 5 years old), and senile animals (≥ 6 years old). Normal ERG ranges were obtained. Significant differences in b-wave amplitude along with b/a ratio of the combined rod-cone response were found between the young and adult animals as well as young and senile dogs. No significant differences were observed between the left and right eyes. ERG variables in beagle dogs differed by age due to age-related retinal changes. Thus, we propose that normal ERG ranges should be determined according to age in each clinic and laboratory using its own equipment because each institution usually has different systems or protocols for ERG testing.

  4. Charles Darwin's beagle voyage, fossil vertebrate succession, and "the gradual birth & death of species".

    PubMed

    Brinkman, Paul D

    2010-01-01

    The prevailing view among historians of science holds that Charles Darwin became a convinced transmutationist only in the early spring of 1837, after his Beagle collections had been examined by expert British naturalists. With respect to the fossil vertebrate evidence, some historians believe that Darwin was incapable of seeing or understanding the transmutationist implications of his specimens without the help of Richard Owen. There is ample evidence, however, that he clearly recognized the similarities between several of the fossil vertebrates he collected and some of the extant fauna of South America before he returned to Britain. These comparisons, recorded in his correspondence, his diary and his notebooks during the voyage, were instances of a phenomenon that he later called the "law of the succession of types." Moreover, on the Beagle, he was following a geological research agenda outlined in the second volume of Charles Lyell's Principles of Geology, which implies that paleontological data alone could provide an insight into the laws which govern the appearance of new species. Since Darwin claims in On the Origin of Species that fossil vertebrate succession was one of the key lines of evidence that led him to question the fixity of species, it seems certain that he was seriously contemplating transmutation during the Beagle voyage. If so, historians of science need to reconsider both the role of Britain's expert naturalists and the importance of the fossil vertebrate evidence in the development of Darwin's ideas on transmutation.

  5. Pharmacokinetic comparisons of S-oxiracetam and R-oxiracetam in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wusan; Ji, Hui; Li, Tingting; Jia, Yuanwei; Xie, Haitang

    2016-06-01

    A pharmacokinetic comparison and conformational stability study of S-oxiracetam (S-ORT) and R-oxiracetam (R-ORT) in beagle dogs was used to investigate the possible mechanism of different effects of two oxiracetam enantiomers through a random crossover design. After drug administration to beagle dogs, blood samples were collected at different time points for pharmacokinetic analysis using the UPLC-ESI-MS/MS method. Parts of plasma samples were used for conformation transformation studies using a normal phase high performance liquid chromatographic (NP HPLC) method. The study showed that oxiracetam enantiomers maintained their original conformation when administered orally to beagle dogs. Concentrations of S-ORT were significantly higher than R-ORT 1.5 and 2 h after administration; the AUC0-∞ of S-ORT after oral administration tended to be higher than that of R-ORT, which showed that the different effects between S-ORT and R-ORT may be partly associated with their distinctive absorption at least.

  6. Effect of Itraconazole on the Pharmacokinetics of Diclofenac in Beagle Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Al-Jenoobi, Fahad I.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential effect of itraconazole on the pharmacokinetics of diclofenac potassium in beagle dogs after oral coadministration. Five male beagle dogs received a single oral 50 mg dose of diclofenac potassium alone in phase I, and along with a single oral 100 mg dose of itraconazole in phase II. Blood samples obtained for 8.0 hours post dose were analysed for diclofenac concentration using a validated high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay method. The area under plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0–∞), maximum plasma concentration (Cmax), time to reach Cmax (Tmax) and elimination half-life (t1/2), were calculated for diclofenac before and after itraconazole administration. The coadministration of itraconazole with diclofenac potassium has resulted in a significant reduction in AUC0–∞ and Cmax of diclofenac, which was about 31 and 42%; respectively. No statistically significant differences were observed for Tmax and t1/2 of diclofenac between the two phases. Therefore, it could be concluded that oral coadministration of itraconazole may have the potential to affect the absorption of diclofenac as indicated by the significant reduction in its AUC and Cmax in beagle dogs. PMID:21179359

  7. Evidence of an imbricate crustal thrust belt in the southern British Variscides: Contributions of southwestern approaches traverse (SWAT) deep seismic reflection profiling recorded through the English Channel and the Celtic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Gall, Bernard

    1990-04-01

    The Southwestern Approaches Traverse (SWAT) seismic reflection profiles recorded through the Celtic Sea and the English Channel provide unexpected data concerning, notably, the deep structure of the Irish and south British Variscan crust. One of the most significant results is the recognition of prominent deep southerly dipping reflectors, regarded as large-scale foreland directed Variscan thrusts which constitute, in the southern innermost zones, a crustal stacking wedge. The resulting overthickened crust may have induced the petrogenesis of the Cornubian granitic batholith by an anatectic melting process. The roots of this crustal duplex are not imaged on the SWAT lines because of their subsequent assimilation by the more recent layering of the present-day lower crust. Upward, the deep crustal ramps are assumed to flatten out and to join a roof thrust which acts as a major midcrustal decoupling zone, not revealed by the SWAT profiles, and which underlies the thick Devonian allochthonous high-strained units of Cornwall. Northward, this shallow northerly verging shear zone is overstepped by the Tintagel antithetic back thrusts which are closely related to deeper northward dipping basement faults considered as Caledonian features. Southward, the imbricate crustal thrust unit is overridden by the Lizard ophiolitic suture, which appears as a 8-km-thick gently southerly dipping sheared zone, crosscuttting the entire crust and rooting deep beneath the present-day Moho. Its hanging wall is constituted by the Channel Cadomian block, characterized by an almost seismically featureless upper crust which is not involved in the main Variscan thrust stacking. Northward, the imbricate thrust unit is delineated by a moderately southerly dipping ramp which penetrates straight down into the upper crust without any evidence of an intervening flat-lying decollement level. This frontal ramp emerges along a broadly 110°N trending discontinuous thrust front, located above the northern

  8. Zircons traced from the 700-500 Ma Transgondwanan Supermountains and the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains to the Ordovician Lachlan Orogen, Cretaceous Ceduna Delta, and modern Channel Country, central-southern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veevers, J. J.; Belousova, E. A.; Saeed, A.

    2016-04-01

    We test the hypothesis that the Transgondwanan Supermountains at the collision of East and West Gondwanaland were the provenance of a vast turbiditic fan that stretched alongside the East Gondwanaland margin to eastern Australia which, in turn, became the provenance of sediment shed into interior Australia to the Cretaceous Ceduna Delta in central-southern Australia and the modern Channel Country of central Australia. We employ an integrated analysis (U-Pb, Lu-Hf isotopes and trace elements) of detrital zircons in the Ceduna Delta and Channel Country. The main properties of the detrital zircons are U-Pb ages of 700-500 Ma (model ages TDMC 2.5-1.0 Ga; εHf +10 to -20) and 1300-1000 Ma ages (TDMC 2.7-1.3 Ga; εHf +4 to -17), in hosts of mafic granitoids with alkaline affinity. Zircons with these properties can be traced back through the drainage/paleo-slope to the intermediate provenances of the Ordovician turbidites and S-type granitoids of the Lachlan Orogen, then up-paleoslope to the primary or secondary provenance of the ancestral Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains, and finally to the primary provenance of the Transgondwanan Supermountains atop the 700-500 Ma East African-Antarctic Orogen. Another primary provenance, the 140-95 Ma Whitsunday Volcanic Province/New Caledonia arc in northeastern Australia, also shed sediment across Australia to the Ceduna Delta. We suggest that the primary sediment from the 700-500 Ma East African-Antarctic Orogen and the ancestral Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains was shed into a deep-sea super-fan to (1) Ordovician turbidites in southeast Australia, recycled by melting of the turbidites to (2) 450 Ma S-type granites in the Lachlan Orogen, and (3) finally deposited, together with volcanogenic sediment from northeast Australia, in the Ceduna Delta. Zircons in the Channel Country and the Ceduna Delta have essentially the same properties, and indicate that the northeastern Australian provenance was largely unchanged over the past 100 Ma.

  9. SU-C-303-03: Dosimetric Model of the Beagle Needed for Pre-Clinical Testing of Radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect

    Shang, M; Sands, M; Bolch, W

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Large animal models, most popularly beagles, have been crucial surrogates to humans in determining radiation safety levels of radiopharmaceuticals. This study aims to develop a detailed beagle phantom to accurately approximate organ absorbed doses for therapy nuclear medicine preclinical studies. Methods: A 3D NURBS model was created subordinate to a whole body CT of an adult beagle. Bones were harvested and CT imaged to offer macroscopic skeletal detail. Samples of trabecular spongiosa were cored and imaged to offer microscopic skeletal detail for bone trabeculae and marrow volume fractions. Results: Organ masses in the model are typical of an adult beagle. Trends in volume fractions for skeletal dosimetry are fundamentally similar to those found in existing models of other canine species. Conclusion: This work warrants its use in further investigations of radiation transport calculation for electron and photon dosimetry. This model accurately represents the anatomy of a beagle, and can be directly translated into a useable geometry for a voxel-based Monte Carlo radiation transport program such as MCNP6. Work supported by a grant from the Hyundai Hope on Wheels Foundation for Pediatric Cancer Research.

  10. Inhibition of experimental gingivitis in beagle dogs with topical salivary histatins.

    PubMed

    Paquette, D W; Waters, G S; Stefanidou, V L; Lawrence, H P; Friden, P M; O'Connor, S M; Sperati, J D; Oppenheim, F G; Hutchens, L H; Williams, R C

    1997-04-01

    Histatins, histidine-rich proteins found within parotid and submandibular secretions, are a novel class of endogenous peptides with antimicrobial properties. This masked, randomized, placebo-controlled preclinical investigation examined the effect of 3 topical histatins on the development of plaque and gingivitis in beagle dogs. 16, female, 1-year-old beagles were brought to optimal gingival health by mechanical scaling and polishing followed by rigorous daily tooth brushing. At the conclusion of this pretreatment period, dogs were randomly divided into 4 groups for the application of test formulations, and were placed on a plaque-promoting diet. Test agents included 3 synthetic salivary histatins (histatin 5, P-113 and P-113D) which were incorporated in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose gel at a concentration of 0.125%, and a placebo, or negative control, which was the gel vehicle alone. Throughout the 10-week treatment period, test formulations (2.0 ml) were applied 2 x daily to all premolar teeth using a Monojet syringe. Plaque formation and gingival inflammation were assessed using the plaque (PI) and gingival (GI) indices on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42, 56 and 70. Furthermore, bleeding to probing was recorded as a percent of sites (%BOP) and according to the modified sulcus bleeding index (mSBI). Comparisons among groups and between group pairs (active versus placebo) were made with Kruskal-Wallis tests with the average of data over the interval, days 14-42, being the primary focus of the analysis. From baseline to day 7, all groups expressed similar indices. Thereafter, overall significant differences among the groups were noted at day 42 for PI, at days 21, 28, 42 and 70 for GI, and at days 14 and 28 for %BOP (p < 0.05). In particular, beagles treated with P-113 demonstrated significantly lower PI scores at day 42 (p < 0.05), significantly lower GI scores from days 21 through 42 (p < 0.05), and significantly lower %BOP scores at days 14 and 28 (p < 0.05) compared

  11. Quantification of brown dog tick repellents, 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde, and release from tick-resistant beagles, Canis lupus familiaris.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Filho, Jaires Gomes; Sarria, André Lucio Franceschini; Ferreira, Lorena Lopes; Caulfield, John C; Powers, Stephen J; Pickett, John A; de León, Adalberto A Pérez; Birkett, Michael A; Borges, Lígia Miranda Ferreira

    2016-06-01

    We have recently shown that repellency of the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato by the tick resistant dog breed, the beagle, is mediated by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde present in beagle odour. Ectoparasite location of animal hosts is affected by variation in these odour components and their ratios. The aim of this study was to quantify the release rate, and the ratio, of 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde from beagles. The odour of three beagles was collected, for four days, over one week (day 0, day 1, day 4 and day 7). The compounds were identified using coupled high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and authentic standards of compounds were used to generate external calibration curves for quantification. Both compounds were found in all dogs on all days. The amount of benzaldehyde was always higher than that of 2-hexanone and so their ratio varied from unity, on average (over time) being 3.128±0.365, 1.902±0.390, 1.670±0.671ngmL(-1) for beagle 1, 2 and 3, respectively. There was no significant (p<0.05, F-test) effect of time. The overall mean was 2.233±0.387ngmL(-1). These results further previous findings by documenting the presence of 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde in beagle odour samples covering a 7-day period. This knowledge enables development of repellents to protect dogs from R. sanguineus s. l. infestation.

  12. Localization of Helicobacter spp. in the fundic mucosa of laboratory Beagle dogs: an ultrastructural study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In dogs Helicobacter spp. are found in all gastric regions usually localized in the surface mucus, gastric glands and parietal cells. The aim of this study was to detail the distribution of Helicobacter spp. in the fundic mucosa of asymptomatic Beagle dogs and their intracellular localization within parietal cells, in order to evaluate species-specific pathogenetic effects on gastric cells. The presence of Helicobacter spp. was investigated by immunohistochemistry, TEM, and PCR in the fundic mucosa of six Beagle dogs. Helicobacter spp. were found in all dogs examined, and H. bizzozeronii and H. felis were identified by PCR and confirmed by TEM. In the lumen of the fundic glands, co-localization was common. H. bizzozeronii was present in larger numbers than H. felis in both intraluminal and intraparietal localization. The amounts of H. bizzozeronii were similar in superficial and basal portions of the glands. H. felis was predominantly localized in the superficial portions of gastric glands but almost absent from the base. Within parietal cells, most Helicobacter organisms were intracanalicular, but intact and degenerate Helicobacter organisms were also visualized free in the cytoplasm or in secondary lysosomes. No specific degenerative lesions were found in infected parietal cells. Helicobacter organisms were also observed within macrophages in the lamina propria. In conclusion, there is a differential distribution of H. bizzozeronii and H. felis in the fundic mucosa of Beagle dogs, and their intracellular localization in parietal cells and macrophages suggests novel pathogenic scenarios for the development of immune response and maintenance of chronic gastritis in dogs. PMID:21366900

  13. Assessment of stress in laboratory beagle dogs constrained by a Pavlov sling.

    PubMed

    Stracke, Jenny; Bert, Bettina; Fink, Heidrun; Böhner, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    The 3Rs - Replacement, Reduction and Refinement - have become increasingly important in designing animal experiments. The Pavlov sling is thought to be a non-invasive method to restrain dogs for examinations. The aim of our study was to investigate whether laboratory Beagle dogs that had been trained to tolerate restraint by a Pavlov sling are stressed by this procedure and, furthermore, to analyze their behavior during this period. Five male and five female Beagle dogs were used, each three years of age. Animals were restrained in the Pavlov sling for 30 min on six days with an interval of at least two days. The following behaviors were recorded every minute for each session: postures of body, head, and ears, as well as state of eyes, tail, legs, and mouth. Additionally, the animals were observed for the occurrence of particular stress signs, including body shaking, sweating of the paws, increased saliva production, piloerection, blinking of eyes, snout licking, yawning, and panting. As an indicator for stress, salivary cortisol levels were measured before, during, and after each session. Our results show that for most behavioral parameters, e.g., body, leg, head, tail, and ear posture, the frequency of changes between different behavior patterns, as well as cortisol concentration, were not influenced by restraint in the Pavlov sling. Therefore, the Pavlov sling does not seem to be perceived as a stressful situation by the Beagle dogs. Our study demonstrates that under certain conditions the use of the Pavlov sling in trained dogs can substitute for more ordinary methods of immobilization, e.g., the use of narcotics.

  14. Cannabinoid receptor antagonist-induced striated muscle toxicity and ethylmalonic-adipic aciduria in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Lindsay; Tirmenstein, Mark A; Janovitz, Evan B; Aranibar, Nelly; Ott, Karl-Heinz; Kozlosky, John C; Patrone, Laura M; Achanzar, William E; Augustine, Karen A; Brannen, Kimberly C; Carlson, Kenneth E; Charlap, Jeffrey H; Dubrow, Katherine M; Kang, Liya; Rosini, Laura T; Panzica-Kelly, Julieta M; Flint, Oliver P; Moulin, Frederic J; Megill, John R; Zhang, Haiying; Bennett, Michael J; Horvath, Joseph J

    2012-10-01

    Ibipinabant (IBI), a potent cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1R) antagonist, previously in development for the treatment of obesity, causes skeletal and cardiac myopathy in beagle dogs. This toxicity was characterized by increases in muscle-derived enzyme activity in serum and microscopic striated muscle degeneration and accumulation of lipid droplets in myofibers. Additional changes in serum chemistry included decreases in glucose and increases in non-esterified fatty acids and cholesterol, and metabolic acidosis, consistent with disturbances in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. No evidence of CB1R expression was detected in dog striated muscle as assessed by polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, Western blot analysis, and competitive radioligand binding. Investigative studies utilized metabonomic technology and demonstrated changes in several intermediates and metabolites of fatty acid metabolism including plasma acylcarnitines and urinary ethylmalonate, methylsuccinate, adipate, suberate, hexanoylglycine, sarcosine, dimethylglycine, isovalerylglycine, and 2-hydroxyglutarate. These results indicated that the toxic effect of IBI on striated muscle in beagle dogs is consistent with an inhibition of the mitochondrial flavin-containing enzymes including dimethyl glycine, sarcosine, isovaleryl-CoA, 2-hydroxyglutarate, and multiple acyl-CoA (short, medium, long, and very long chain) dehydrogenases. All of these enzymes converge at the level of electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) and ETF oxidoreductase. Urinary ethylmalonate was shown to be a biomarker of IBI-induced striated muscle toxicity in dogs and could provide the ability to monitor potential IBI-induced toxic myopathy in humans. We propose that IBI-induced toxic myopathy in beagle dogs is not caused by direct antagonism of CB1R and could represent a model of ethylmalonic-adipic aciduria in humans.

  15. Basic data on the hematology, serum biochemistry, urology, and organ weights of beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Choi, So-Young; Hwang, Jae-Sik; Kim, Ill-Hwa; Hwang, Dae-Yeon; Kang, Hyun-Gu

    2011-12-01

    This study was conducted to provide basic data on physiological and hematological characteristics, and organ weights of beagle dogs. A total of 237 beagle dogs were used to determine differences in physiological and hematological parameters, and organ weights depending on sex and age. The respiratory rate of both sexes tended to increase as they grew older and the female heart rate was slightly higher than that of males. Male and female body weights increased rapidly to 33 weeks old followed by a gradual increase to 41-weeks-old. The relative weight of the brain was negatively correlated with body weight, whereas the weight of reproductive organs was positively correlated with body weight. The platelet count of female dogs was slightly higher than that of males. The red blood cell, hemoglobin, and hematocrit of both sexes increased non-significantly with age. In the leukocyte differential count, the neutrophils, and eosinophils of both sexes tended to increase as they grew older, whereas basophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes decreased. In the serum biochemical profiles, alkaline phosphatase was slightly higher in males than females, while the total cholesterol of female dogs at 9-months-old was higher than that of males at the same age. Other biochemical components, including alanine aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, triglyceride, and total protein increased non-significantly with age in both sexes. To conclude, we observe no significant physiological or hematological differences with sex or age, although decreasing and increasing trends were detected with some parameters. These data provide valuable reference indices of the normal physiological and hematological characteristics of beagle dogs, which should prove useful in toxicological and pharmacological studies.

  16. [Pharmacokinetic interaction of pioglitazone hydrochloride and atorvastatin calcium in Beagle dogs].

    PubMed

    Chen, He-Li; Zhang, Wen-Ping; Yang, Fu-Ying; Wang, Xin-Yu; Yang, Wen-Cheng; Dang, Hong-Wan

    2013-05-01

    The object of this study is to investigate the pharmacokinetic interaction of pioglitazone hydrochloride and atorvastatin calcium in healthy adult Beagle dogs following single and multiple oral dose administration. A randomized, cross-over study was conducted with nine healthy adult Beagle dogs assigned to three groups. Each group was arranged to take atorvastatin calcium (A), pioglitazone hydrochloride (B), atorvastatin calcium and pioglitazone hydrochloride (C) orally in the first period, to take B, C, A in the second period, and to take C, A, B in the third period for 6 days respectively. The blood samples were collected at the first and the sixth day after the administration, plasma drug concentrations were determined by LC-MS/MS, a one-week wash-out period was needed between each period. The pharmacokinetic parameters of drug combination group and the drug alone group were calculated by statistical moment method, calculation of C(max) and AUC(0-t) was done by using 90% confidence interval method of the bioequivalence and bioavailability degree module DAS 3.2.1 software statistics. Compared with the separate administration, the main pharmacokinetic parameters (C(max) and AUC(0-t)) of joint use of pioglitazone hydrochloride and atorvastatin calcium within 90% confidence intervals for bioequivalence statistics were unqualified, the mean t(max) with standard deviation used paired Wilcoxon test resulted P > 0.05. There was no significant difference within t1/2, CL(int), MRT, V/F. Pioglitazone hydrochloride and atorvastatin calcium had pharmacokinetic interaction in healthy adult Beagle dogs.

  17. Minipig and beagle animal model genomes aid species selection in pharmaceutical discovery and development

    SciTech Connect

    Vamathevan, Jessica J.; Hall, Matthew D.; Hasan, Samiul; Woollard, Peter M.; Xu, Meng; Yang, Yulan; Li, Xin; Wang, Xiaoli; Kenny, Steve; Brown, James R.; Huxley-Jones, Julie; Lyon, Jon; Haselden, John; Min, Jiumeng; Sanseau, Philippe

    2013-07-15

    Improving drug attrition remains a challenge in pharmaceutical discovery and development. A major cause of early attrition is the demonstration of safety signals which can negate any therapeutic index previously established. Safety attrition needs to be put in context of clinical translation (i.e. human relevance) and is negatively impacted by differences between animal models and human. In order to minimize such an impact, an earlier assessment of pharmacological target homology across animal model species will enhance understanding of the context of animal safety signals and aid species selection during later regulatory toxicology studies. Here we sequenced the genomes of the Sus scrofa Göttingen minipig and the Canis familiaris beagle, two widely used animal species in regulatory safety studies. Comparative analyses of these new genomes with other key model organisms, namely mouse, rat, cynomolgus macaque, rhesus macaque, two related breeds (S. scrofa Duroc and C. familiaris boxer) and human reveal considerable variation in gene content. Key genes in toxicology and metabolism studies, such as the UGT2 family, CYP2D6, and SLCO1A2, displayed unique duplication patterns. Comparisons of 317 known human drug targets revealed surprising variation such as species-specific positive selection, duplication and higher occurrences of pseudogenized targets in beagle (41 genes) relative to minipig (19 genes). These data will facilitate the more effective use of animals in biomedical research. - Highlights: • Genomes of the minipig and beagle dog, two species used in pharmaceutical studies. • First systematic comparative genome analysis of human and six experimental animals. • Key drug toxicology genes display unique duplication patterns across species. • Comparison of 317 drug targets show species-specific evolutionary patterns.

  18. UK and ESA announce Beagle 2 inquiry - Investigation to learn lessons from Mars Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-02-01

    Today, the UK Science Minister Lord Sainsbury and the European Space Agency (ESA) announced that an ESA/UK inquiry would be held into the failure the Beagle 2 lander. Lord Sainsbury, of the Department of Trade and Industry, said: "I believe such an inquiry will be very useful. The reasons identified by the Inquiry Board will allow the experience gained from Beagle 2 to be used for the benefit of future European planetary exploration missions." The ESA Director General, Jean-Jacques Dordain, said : "ESA is a partnership of its Member States and sharing the lessons learnt from good and bad experiences is fundamental in cooperation." The Inquiry Board is to be chaired by the ESA Inspector General, René Bonnefoy. The UK deputy chairman will be David Link MBE. The inquiry will investigate whether it can be established why Beagle 2 may have failed and set out any lessons which can be learnt for future missions. Such inquiries are routine in the event of unsuccessful space missions and this one will help inform future ESA robotic missions, to Mars and other bodies in the solar system. The Inquiry Board will be set up under normal ESA procedures by the Inspector General. Because the inquiry is into a British-built lander, it will report to Lord Sainsbury as well as to the Director General of ESA. Its terms of reference are as follows: 1. Technical Issues · Assess the available data/documentation pertaining to the in-orbit operations, environment and performance characterisation, and to the on-ground tests and analyses during development; · Identify possible issues and shortcomings in the above and in the approach adopted, which might have contributed to the loss of the mission; 2. Programmatics · Analyse the programmatic environment (i.e. decision-making processes, level of funding and resources, management and responsibilities, interactions between the various entities) throughout the development phase; · Identify possible issues and shortcomings which might have

  19. Hypoadrenocorticism in beagles exposed to aerosols of plutonium-238 dioxide by inhalation

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.; Buschbom, R.L.; Dagle, G.E.

    1996-12-01

    Hypoadrenocorticism, known as Addison`s disease in humans, was diagnosed in six beagles after inhalation of at least 1.7 kBq/g lung of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2}. Histological examination of adrenal gland specimens obtained at necropsy revealed marked adrenal cortical atrophy in all cases. Autoadiographs showed only slight {alpha}-particle activity. Although the pathogenesis of adrenal cortical atrophy in these dogs is unclear, there is evidence to suggest an automimmune disorder linked to damage resulting from {alpha}-particle irradiation to the lymphatic system.

  20. Lymphocytic adrenal medullitis and lymphocytic thyroiditis in a laboratory beagle dog

    PubMed Central

    DOI, Takuya; TOMONARI, Yuki; KAWASAKO, Kazufumi; YAMADA, Naoaki; TSUCHITANI, Minoru

    2016-01-01

    Lymphocytic adrenal medullitis characterized by inflammation and atrophy in the medulla of the bilateral adrenal glands was observed in an 18-month-old male laboratory beagle dog. It might be that the present lymphocytic adrenal medullitis is an autoimmune-mediated disease as the histological characteristics are consistent with an autoimmune pathogenesis. However, the actual cause remains unclear as the existence of serum autoantibodies against the adrenal medulla could not be confirmed. Although this dog also contracted lymphocytic thyroiditis along with serum thyroglobulin autoantibodies, indicating that the thyroiditis occurred with an autoimmune basis; the relation between the adrenal medullitis and thyroiditis is unknown. PMID:27885217

  1. Hypodontia in the beagle after perinatal whole-body /sup 60/Co gamma irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A.C.; Angleton, G.M.; Benjamin, S.A.

    1989-06-01

    As part of a long-term study to evaluate health effects of pre- and postnatal irradiation, dental development was examined. Beagles were irradiated in utero at 8, 28, or 55 days postcoitus or postnatally at 2, 70, or 365 days postpartum. Whole-body /sup 60/Co gamma radiation doses ranged from 0 to 3.8 Gy. There was an age-dependent dose-related increase in premolar hypodontia for animals irradiated at 55 days postcoitus or 2 days postpartum with doses of 0.83 Gy or higher and for those irradiated at 28 days postcoitus with 1.2 Gy or higher.

  2. Lymphocytic adrenal medullitis and lymphocytic thyroiditis in a laboratory beagle dog.

    PubMed

    Doi, Takuya; Tomonari, Yuki; Kawasako, Kazufumi; Yamada, Naoaki; Tsuchitani, Minoru

    2017-02-04

    Lymphocytic adrenal medullitis characterized by inflammation and atrophy in the medulla of the bilateral adrenal glands was observed in an 18-month-old male laboratory beagle dog. It might be that the present lymphocytic adrenal medullitis is an autoimmune-mediated disease as the histological characteristics are consistent with an autoimmune pathogenesis. However, the actual cause remains unclear as the existence of serum autoantibodies against the adrenal medulla could not be confirmed. Although this dog also contracted lymphocytic thyroiditis along with serum thyroglobulin autoantibodies, indicating that the thyroiditis occurred with an autoimmune basis; the relation between the adrenal medullitis and thyroiditis is unknown.

  3. Development of the ``planetary underground tool'' subsurface soil sampler for the Mars express ``Beagle 2'' lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, L.; Coste, P.; Gromov, V.; Kochan, H.; Pinna, S.; Richter, H.-E.

    2001-01-01

    On the "Beagle 2" Mars lander for ESA's mission Mars Express, a self-penetrating mechanical Mole for sampling of subsarface soil from a maximum depth of 1…1.5 m will be utilized to supply samples to a Gas Analysis Experiment which are thought to have been protected from oxidizing conditions at the immediate surface and thus may have preserved organic matter from meteorite influx and possibly from earlier microbial life on the planet. The design, operations scheme and technical heritage of the Mole sampling system are described.

  4. Bilateral Ovotestes in a 78, XX SRY-Negative Beagle Dog.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Gutiérrez, José F; Monteagudo, Luís V; Rodríguez-Bertos, Antonio; García-Pérez, Enrique; Sánchez-Calabuig, María J; García-Botey, Concepción; Whyte, Ana; de la Muela, Mercedes Sánchez

    2015-01-01

    This report describes a disorder of the sexual development in a beagle dog resulting in an intersex condition. A 6 mo old beagle was presented for evaluation of a protruding structure from the vulva consistent with an enlarged clitoris. Ultrasonographic examination revealed the presence of both gonadal and uterine structures. Retrograde cystourethrovaginogram showed the presence of an os clitoris and severe vaginal stenosis. Histological studies revealed the presence of bilateral ovotestes and uterus. The gonad had interstitial cells within seminiferous-like tubules lined only with Sertoli cells and abundant interstitial cells among primordial, primary, and secondary follicles. Hormone assays completed before and after gonadohysterectomy showed an elevation in the levels of progesterone and dihydrotestosterone that returned to baseline 3 mo after surgery. Testosterone levels that were within the male reference ranges before surgery decreased to basal levels postsurgically. 17-β-Estradiol levels showed little variation and values were always within the reference ranges for a male. Cytogenetic analysis showed a normal female karyotype (2n = 78, XX) and polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed the absence of the sex-determining region Y gene. In summary, the dog presented bilateral ovotestes and a 2n = 78, XX chromosomal complement lacking the sex determining region Y gene, consistent with a diagnosis of true hermaphroditism.

  5. Radiation injury of the developing immune system in the beagle dog

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G.K.

    1982-01-01

    Fetal lymphoid organs of the beagle dog were studied to determine if the developing immune system displays an age-dependent sensitivity to ionizing radiation. Pregnant beagle dams received abdominal /sup 60/Co gamma exposures to 200R or were sham irradiated at one of three ages in gestation; 35, 40, or 45 days postcoitus. The mean calculated dose to each fetus was 1.5 Gy. Half the fetuses in each litter were harvested by hysterotomy at five days and half at ten days postirradiation (PI). The volumes of the thymus lobules and lobular cortices were significantly reduced at five and ten days PI as compared to age matched controls. Radiation damage in the developing immune system was expressed in the lymphocyte populations of fetal lymphoid organs and in thymus epithelium. Damage was qualitatively and quantitatively more severe following irradiation earlier in gestation, confirming that the developing immune system displays an age-dependent sensitivity. Prenatal radiation injury to the developing lymphoid system could compromise postnatal immunologic function and could alter immunoregulation.

  6. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions of aspirin with warfarin in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chenlin; Huang, Xiaohui; Li, Jun; Zhang, Ping; Li, Lin; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Tingting; Pappoe, Faustina; Huang, Jihan; Tang, Haiqin

    2016-01-01

    1. Warfarin and aspirin are widely used in a wide spectrum of thromboembolic and atherothrombotic diseases. Despite the potential efficacy of warfarin-aspirin therapy, the safety and side effect of combined therapy remains unclear. 2. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between warfarin and aspirin in beagles after single and multiple doses. 3. Coadministration of aspirin had no significant effects on the area under the plasma concentration time curve (AUC(0-t)) and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of R- and S-warfarin after a single dose of warfarin, but significantly increase the AUC(0-t) and Cmax and dramatically decrease the clearance (CL) of R- and S-warfarin after multiple dose of warfarin. Accordingly, there was a slight increase in the AUEC(0-t) and Emax of activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), prothrombin time (PT) and international normalized ratio (INR) after multiple dose of warfarin. 4. Coadministration of warfarin had no markedly effects on the AUC(0-t) and Cmax of aspirin and its metabolite salicylic acid after single or multiple dose of aspirin. Meanwhile, the AUEC(0-t) and Emax of inhibition of platelet aggregation (IPA) were not significantly affected by warfarin. 5. Our animal study indicated that coadministration of aspirin with warfarin can cause significant pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug-drug interactions in beagles. However, more studies are urgently needed to assess related information of warfarin-aspirin drug interactions in healthy volunteers or patients.

  7. The two faces of Robert Fitzroy, Captain of HMS Beagle and governor of New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Paul, Diane B; Stenhouse, John; Spencer, Hamish G

    2013-09-01

    Robert FitzRoy, Captain of HMS Beagle and second governor of New Zealand, has two contradictory reputations among modern academics. Evolutionary biologists and Darwin scholars generally view FitzRoy as a supporter of slavery, famously quarrelling with the abolitionist Darwin over that topic during a Brazilian stopover early in the voyage of HMS Beagle. He is also regarded as a political and religious reactionary, taking a biblically creationist position at the infamous 1860 Oxford meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. New Zealand historians, however, view his record as governor much more positively. They emphasize that FitzRoy was wildly unpopular with the British settlers because of his enlightened insistence that the native Maori should be treated fairly. We outline the history of these seemingly inconsistent views and examine the evidence for each. We conclude by suggesting that a more nuanced account of FitzRoy's career would surely be more thought-provoking as well as respectful of the facts.

  8. In vivo evaluation of resorbable bone graft substitutes in mandibular sockets of the beagle.

    PubMed

    Shih, Tsai-Chin; Chang, Wei-Jen; Yang, Jen-Chang; Feng, Sheng-Wei; Lin, Che-Tong; Teng, Nai-Chia

    2012-10-01

    Hydroxyapatite (Ca(10)(PO(4))(6)(OH)(2)), with its high biocompatibility and good bioaffinity, stimulates osteoconduction and is slowly replaced by the host bone after implantation. However, clinical use of HA as a bone substitute has proved problematic. It is difficult to prevent dispersion of the HA granules and to mold the granules into the desired shape. Calcium sulfate as a bone graft substitute is rapidly resorbed in vivo releasing calcium ions, but fails to provide a long-term, three-dimensional framework to support osteoconduction. The setting properties of calcium sulfate, however, allow it to be applied in a slurry form, making it easier to handle and apply in different situations. This study examines the in vivo response of a (Hydroxyapatite, apatitic phase)/calcium sulfate dehydrate (CSD) composite using different ratios in the mandibular premolar sockets of the beagle. The HA (AP)/CSD composite materials prepared in ratios of 30/70, 50/50, and 70/30 were implanted into the mandibular premolar sockets for 5 and 10 weeks. The control socket was empty. The authors compared the radiographic properties and the changes in height and width of the mandibular premolar sockets in the beagle. The composite graft in the 30/70 ratio had the best ability to form new bones.

  9. Bone structural parameters, dosimetry, and relative radiation risk in the beagle skeleton

    SciTech Connect

    Polig, E.; Jee, W.S. )

    1989-10-01

    A variety of morphometric and histomorphometric parameters such as the mass of bone and marrow, bone surface areas, percentage of bone volume, percentage of the surface that is trabecular, and percentage of surfaces that are forming and resting are calculated for all major parts of the beagle skeleton. The total bone surface of the beagle is estimated at 2.9 m2 with 53.7% of the surface area being associated with trabecular bone. There are about 4.5 x 10(9) bone-lining cells and about 1 x 10(9) osteoblasts. From the fractional retention in each part of the skeleton, the initial surface concentration of 239Pu after a single injection of 592 Bq/kg body wt (0.016 microCi/kg) on resting surfaces and at sites of bone formation is calculated for various values of the affinity ratios of trabecular/cortical and forming/resting surfaces. These estimated concentrations then yield dose rates as well as cumulative and collective doses to bone-lining cells and osteoblasts in the different parts of the skeleton. On the assumption that the relative risk of tumor induction is proportional to the collective dose to either bone-lining cells or osteoblasts, the frequency of tumor occurrence is calculated and compared to observed frequencies. Both hypotheses yield approximate agreement with experimental data for different ratios of trabecular/cortical radiation sensitivity, although the differences between some bones are statistically significant.

  10. Preparation and pharmacokinetics in beagle dogs of ganershu sustained-release pellets

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Jin-huo; Wang, Jian-chun; Jiang, Zhi-tao; Zhang, Ting; Ge, Shao-bo; Zhang, Ye-xia; Jin, Xin; Yan, Guo-jun

    2014-01-01

    Background: The active ingredients of Ganershu compound recipe, which are effective for hepatitis treatment in liver protection and transaminase reduction. However, the active ingredients of Ganershu compound recipe are poor absorption, which conduct it has a low oral bioavailability. Objective: We prepared Ganershu sustained-release pellets (GSPs) by fluidized-bed on central composite design-response surface methodology and increase its bioavailability in beagle dogs. Materials and Methods: In this study, GSPs were successfully prepared. The Drug-loaded pellets and sustained-release coated were carried out in fluidized-bed machine. GSP was optimized for fitting release, roundness, and the overall desirability by central composite design-response surface methodology. Results: To optimize cumulative release profile, the outermost ethyl cellulose coating layer and the hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) swelling layer were employed, which were respectively given coating levels in terms of weight gain of 22% and 6%, the concentration of HPMC is 4.5% (g/ml). The pharmacokinetics of Ganershu normal pellets (GNPs) and GSP was studied in beagle dogs after oral administration. The naringenin as an index, the area under the curve0-∞ of naringenin in GSP was 1.38 times greater than that of GNP. Meanwhile, Tmax of GSP was prolonged for about 74%. Conclusion: This study can clearly indicate that we enhanced the oral bioavailability of Ganershu by preparing the GSP, which had the sustained dissolution and improved the potential of it for clinical application. PMID:25210307

  11. Mucoactive effects of naringin in lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury mice and beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Wu, Hao; Nie, Yi-chu; Li, Pei-bo; Shen, Jian-gang; Su, Wei-wei

    2014-07-01

    Our previous study has demonstrated that naringin attenuates EGF-induced MUC5AC hypersecretion in A549 cells by suppressing the cooperative activities of MAPKs/AP-1 and IKKs/IκB/NF-κB signaling pathways. However, the volume of airway mucus is determined by two factors including the number of mucous cells and capacity of mucus secretion. The aim of the present study is to explore the mucoactive effects of naringin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) mice and beagle dogs. The results demonstrated that naringin of 12.4 mg/kg treatment significantly decreased LPS-induced enhancement of sputum volume and pulmonary inflammation, remarkably increased the subglottic sputum volume and solids content in sputum of lower trachea, while partially, but not fully, significantly increased the elasticity and viscosity of sputum in lower trachea of beagle dogs. Moreover, the MUC5AC content in BALF and goblet-cells in large airways of LPS-induced ALI mice were significantly attenuated by dexamethasone (5 mg/kg), ambroxol (25 mg/kg), and naringin (15, 60 mg/kg). However, the goblet-cells hyperplasia in small airways induced by LPS was only significantly inhibited by dexamethasone and naringin (60 mg/kg). In conclusion, naringin exhibits mucoactive effects through multiple targets which including reduction of goblet cells hyperplasia and mucus hypersecretion, as well as promotion of sputum excretion.

  12. Evaluation of Immunosuppressive Activity of Demethylzeylasteral in a Beagle Dog Kidney Transplantation Model.

    PubMed

    An, Huimin; Zhu, Yu; Xu, Wenping; Liu, Yujun; Zhang, Jianping; Lin, Zongming

    2015-12-01

    Several monomers isolated from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook f. (Celastraceae) have attracted worldwide interest. In this study, we established a simple and reliable kidney transplantation model in beagle dog to evaluate the immunosuppressive activity of demethylzeylasteral (T-96), an immunosuppressive monomer isolated from the root xylem of T. wilfordii. Recipient and donor male beagle dogs were obtained from two different breeders to ensure MHC mismatching. All dogs were randomly divided into six groups following kidney transplantation, and different doses of T-96 or cyclosporine A (CsA) were administered to each group during 14 days of observation. The results showed that T-96 alone at a dosage of 10 or 20 mg/kg/day prolonged graft survival up to 10.83 ± 1.47 or 11.17 ± 1.47 days. A combination of T-96 and CsA significantly prolonged the survival time to 13.33 ± 1.75 days. The results demonstrated that T-96 can inhibit acute rejection in kidney transplantation, and the inhibitory effect of T-96 was enhanced when combined with CsA, which suggests the possible use in organ transplantation to prevent immune rejection.

  13. Soft-tissue tumors among beagles injected with {sup 226}Ra

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, R.D.; Taylor, G.N.; Angus, W.

    1994-03-01

    A total of 409 primary soft-tissue tumors (189 malignant) occurred among 87 of 120 young adult beagles (72.5%) injected with {sup 226}Ra in eight dose levels ranging from 0.2-440 kBq kg{sup -1} body mass, while a total of 565 primary soft-tissue tumors (208 of them malignant) were seen among 117 of 133 control beagles not given radioactivity (88%). Because the p-value for the difference in these two percentages was >0.05, further comparisons were not made of all tumor locations or types taken together but only of the individual tumor locations or types. There was a clear excess of malignant tumors and all tumors (benign plus malignant) in the eye among dogs injected with radium (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, respectively), but the occurrence of all the other types of soft-tissue tumors was not greater in irradiated vs. control dogs (p > 0.05). This was also true for hematopoietic tumor types (including just one leukemia in a control and none in irradiated dogs) in which there was no difference between controls and dogs given radium. 25 refs., 7 tabs.

  14. Beagle Rupes - Evidence for a basal decollement of regional extent in Mercury’s lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothery, D. A.; Massironi, M.

    2010-09-01

    Thanks to its location at low latitude and close to the terminator in the outbound view of Mercury obtained during MESSENGER's first fly-by, the Beagle Rupes lobate scarp on Mercury has been particularly clearly imaged. This enables us to interpret it as a component of a linked fault system, consisting of a frontal scarp terminated by transpressive lateral ramps. The terrain bounded by these surface manifestations of faulting is the hanging-wall block of a thrust sheet and must be underlain by a basal decollement (a detachment horizon) constituting the fault zone at depth. The decollement must extend a minimum of 150 km eastwards from the frontal scarp, and at least 400 km if displacement is transferred to features interpreted as out-of-sequence thrusts and offset lateral ramps that appear to continue the linked fault system to the east. The depth of the basal decollement could be controlled by crustal stratigraphy or by rheological change within, or at the base of, the lithosphere. Previous interpretations of mercurian lobate scarps regard their thrusts as uniformly dipping and dying out at depth, lacking lateral ramps and any extensive detachment horizon. Anticipated improvements in image resolution and lighting geometry should make it possible to document what percentage of lobate scarps share the Beagle Rupes style of tectonics.

  15. Effects of four-week feed restriction on toxicological parameters in beagle dogs

    PubMed Central

    TAKAMATSU, Kazuhiko; YAMASHITA, Hiroyuki; SATAKE, Shigeru; KAZUSA, Katsuyuki; TABATA, Hajime; NISHIKATA, Takahito

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine any changes caused by feed restriction in dogs to contribute to safety evaluation in toxicity studies. Two male 7-month-old beagle dogs/group were fed 300 (control), 150 (50% of control), or 70 g/animal of diet daily (23% of control) for 4 weeks. Effects of feed restriction, except for clinical signs, were noted depending on the feed dosage in almost all examinations. The principal outcomes were: decreased body weight and water consumption, ECG changes (decreased heart rate and prolonged QTc), and hematopoietic and lymphopoietic suppression (decreased reticulocyte ratio or white blood cell count in hematology, decreased nucleated cell count in bone marrow, decreased erythroid parameters in myelography, and hypocellularity of bone marrow and thymic atrophy in histopathology). In addition, some changes were noted in urinalysis (decreased urine volume and sodium and potassium excretion), blood chemistry (decreased ALP and inorganic phosphorus and increased creatinine), organ weights, and gastric histopathology. These results provide important reference data for distinguishing the primary effects of test compounds from secondary effects of decreased food consumption in toxicity studies in beagle dogs. PMID:25818481

  16. Framing Space: UK Newspaper Reporting of the Beagle 2 and Cassini-Huygens Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jergovic, B.; Miller, S.

    2008-05-01

    Relatively little scholarly work has been done on looking at the portrayal of astronomy and space science in the media. This short article examines the UK press coverage of two space missions: the Beagle 2 mission to Mars and the Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn and its moon Titan. In both cases, the leading scientists exerted a strong influence on what journalists reported, to the extent that some journalists appeared to be almost "embedded" in the mission. For the most part the coverage is positive in tone and the loss of the Beagle 2 spacecraft does not reflect badly on the (later) Cassini-Huygens coverage. Most journalists only covered the actual mission events and, in the case of Huygens, did not follow up to cover the peer-reviewed scientific articles that appeared later. Off-the-cuff comments made by scientists at the time of the missions were widely reported. There appears to be an appreciation by journalists and (by inference) their readership that this was science in the making, and that allowances should be made if these comments later turned out to be inaccurate.

  17. Synthesis of a highly water-soluble acacetin prodrug for treating experimental atrial fibrillation in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Wang, Ya-Jing; Yang, Lei; Zhou, Mei; Jin, Man-Wen; Xiao, Guo-Sheng; Wang, Yan; Sun, Hai-Ying; Li, Gui-Rong

    2016-05-10

    We previously reported that duodenal administration of the natural flavone acacetin can effectively prevent the induction of experimental atrial fibrillation (AF) in canines; however, it may not be used intravenously to terminate AF due to its poor water-solubility. The present study was to design a water-soluble prodrug of acacetin and investigate its anti-AF effect in beagle dogs. Acacetin prodrug was synthesized by a three-step procedure. Aqueous solubility, bioconversion and anti-AF efficacy of acacetin prodrug were determined with different methodologies. Our results demonstrated that the synthesized phosphate sodium salt of acacetin prodrug had a remarkable increase of aqueous solubility in H2O and clinically acceptable solution (5% glucose or 0.9% NaCl). The acacetin prodrug was effectively converted into acacetin in ex vivo rat plasma and liver microsome, and in vivo beagle dogs. Intravenous infusion of acacetin prodrug (3, 6 and 12 mg/kg) terminated experimental AF without increasing ECG QTc interval in beagle dogs. The intravenous LD50 of acacetin prodrug was 721 mg/kg in mice. Our preclinical study indicates that the synthesized acacetin prodrug is highly water-soluble and safe; it effectively terminates experimental AF in beagle dogs and therefore may be a promising drug candidate for clinical trial to treat patients with acute AF.

  18. Pharmacokinetics study of calf thymus DNA in rats and beagle dogs with (3)H-labeling and tracing method.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuoye; Talbi, Amer; Wang, Xin; Song, Hanlin; Chen, Xijing

    2014-01-01

    This study developed a radioisotope detection and tracing method to investigate the pharmacokinetic properties of calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) in rats and beagle dogs. The radioactivity labeling result was detected through gel electrophoresis analysis, and pharmacokinetic analytical methods for (3)H-ctDNA in rat and beagle dog plasma were developed, respectively. Full method validation indicated that the established radioisotope method was sensitive, specific, rapid and reliable, and the results were all in accordance with the analysis requirement in biological samples. After intravenous administration of the planned doses of (3)H-ctDNA to the rats and beagle dogs, plasma concentrations from the various dose groups declined rapidly. In addition, the radioactive concentration of (3)H-ctDNA in the plasma from single and multiple dosings decreased in a similar trend. Through comparative analysis of the pharmacokinetic parameters, we inferred that the elimination of ctDNA accorded with the linear pharmacokinetic characteristic. The results demonstrated that ctDNA was rapidly eliminated in rat and beagle dog plasma and would not accumulate, indicating the safe use of ctDNA as an immunoadsorptive material without bringing out potential risk.

  19. A frameshift mutation in the cubilin gene (CUBN) in Beagles with Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome (selective cobalamin malabsorption).

    PubMed

    Drögemüller, Michaela; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Howard, Judith; Bruggmann, Rémy; Drögemüller, Cord; Ruetten, Maja; Leeb, Tosso; Kook, Peter H

    2014-02-01

    Mammals are unable to synthesize cobalamin or vitamin B12 and rely on the uptake of dietary cobalamin. The cubam receptor expressed on the intestinal endothelium is required for the uptake of cobalamin from the gut. Cubam is composed of two protein subunits, amnionless and cubilin, which are encoded by the AMN and CUBN genes respectively. Loss-of-function mutations in either the AMN or the CUBN gene lead to hereditary selective cobalamin malabsorption or Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome (IGS). We investigated Beagles with IGS and resequenced the whole genome of one affected Beagle at 15× coverage. The analysis of the AMN and CUBN candidate genes revealed a homozygous deletion of a single cytosine in exon 8 of the CUBN gene (c.786delC). This deletion leads to a frameshift and early premature stop codon (p.Asp262Glufs*47) and is, thus, predicted to represent a complete loss-of-function allele. We tested three IGS-affected and 89 control Beagles and found perfect association between the IGS phenotype and the CUBN:c.786delC variant. Given the known role of cubilin in cobalamin transport, which has been firmly established in humans and dogs, our data strongly suggest that the CUBN:c.786delC variant is causing IGS in the investigated Beagles.

  20. Spectral variability on primitive asteroids of the Themis and Beagle families: Space weathering effects or parent body heterogeneity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornasier, S.; Lantz, C.; Perna, D.; Campins, H.; Barucci, M. A.; Nesvorny, D.

    2016-05-01

    Themis is an old and statistically robust asteroid family populating the outer main belt, and resulting from a catastrophic collision that took place 2.5 ± 1.0 Gyr ago. Within the old Themis family a young sub-family, Beagle, formed less than 10 Myr ago, has been identified. We present the results of a spectroscopic survey in the visible and near infrared range of 22 Themis and 8 Beagle families members. The Themis members investigated exhibit a wide range of spectral behaviors, including asteroids with blue/neutral and moderately red spectra, while the younger Beagle family members look spectrally bluer than the Themis ones and they have a much smaller spectral slope variability. Four Themis members, including (24) Themis, have absorption bands centered at 0.68-0.73 μm indicating the presence of aqueously altered minerals. The best meteorite spectral analogues found for both Themis and Beagle families members are carbonaceous chondrites having experienced different degrees of aqueous alteration, prevalently CM2 but also CV3 and CI, and some of them are chondrite samples being unusual or heated. The presence of aqueous altered materials on the asteroids surfaces and the meteorite matches indicate that the parent body of the Themis family experienced mild thermal metamorphism in the past. We extended the spectral analysis including the data available in the literature on Themis and Beagle families members, and we looked for correlations between spectral behavior and physical parameters using the albedo and size values derived from the WISE data. The analysis of this larger sample confirms the spectral diversity within the Themis family and that Beagle members tend to be bluer and to have an higher albedo. The differences between the two families may be partially explained by space weathering processes, which act on these primitive surfaces in a similar way than on S-type asteroids, i.e. producing reddening and darkening. However we see several Themis members

  1. Beagle Dog Tissue Archive (previously part of National Radiobiology Archives): from the Janus Tissue Archive at Northwestern University

    DOE Data Explorer

    Watson, Charles R.

    Following the advent of the atomic age, many nations have investigated the effects of radioactive exposure in animal models. Some of these investigations involved costly and unique experiments that produced tissue and data archives which are unlikely to be reproduced. In an effort to extract the value from these collections, programs have started in Japan, Europe, and America to preserve and make public the data and tissues from these studies for further investigation. The Beagle Dog Experiments, carried out at Argonne National Laboratory from 1952 to 1991 by Thomas Fritz, William Norris, and Tom Seed and supported by grants from the Atomic Energy Commission, investigated the effects of Cobalt-60 radiation on beagle dogs. Documentation from these studies is availible in pdf form. This web portal seeks to make accessible the animal tissues and study data from the Beagle Dog Experiments using data organized by Charles Watson. Use the search form to the left to look for dog data from particular experimental conditions. Click a dog number to return the full dog record. Use the dog record to find tissues of interest and make a sample tissue request. These tissue samples and the data were known until recently as the the U.S. National Radiobiology Archives (NRA) and were maintained as the United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries (USTUR) at Washington State University. Life-span studies using beagle dogs were done at the Argonne National Laboratory, University of California at Davis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, and the University of Utah. The results and many microscope slides from these life-span studies, totaling some 6000 dogs, are now available to researchers. A seminal work included in the Archive is The Atlas of Experimentally-Induced Neoplasia in the Beagle Dog (Watson et al, 1997).

  2. In-situ Subsurface Science Addressed By The "mole" On The Beagle 2 Mars Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, L.; Gromov, V. V.; Möhlmann, D.; Kochan, H.; Tokano, T.

    The payload of the Beagle 2 lander of ESA's Mars Express mission includes a regolith- penetrating, tethered "Mole" intended for acquisition of several subsurface soil sam- ples from depths between about 30 cm and some 1E1.5 m. These samples will then be analysed by the Gas Analysis Package instrument on the lander, primarily with re- gard to isotopic composition and to organic molecules. However, after giving a brief overview of the Mole experiment, this paper focuses on additional in-situ science con- ducted by the Beagle 2 Mole system, also referred to as the PLanetary Underground TOol (PLUTO): while it penetrates into the Martian regolith by way of soil displace- ment through the action of an internal hammering mechanism, the Mole will allow mechanical properties of the regolith to be studied as a function of depth - being a first on a Mars mission - and additionally, a temperature sensor mounted on the outside of the Mole will support investigations of soil thermophysical properties and measure- ments of the subsurface temperature profile, again as a first-time achievement. Using a Mole soil penetration theory calibrated by ground-based experiments, regolith bulk density, cohesion, and internal friction angle can be constrained as a function of depth using the Mole penetration path (and retrieval path) vs. time which is measured by a winch rotation sensor indicating the amount of tether extracted by the Mole. The obtained depth profiles of these quantities should provide insight into the depositional history and stratigraphy of the regolith at the site. Measurements of the regolith tem- perature will be conducted by the Mole both as a function of depth during soil in- trusion, and as a function of time for constant depth, as the Mole can be left in the subsurface for periods of days or weeks before it is retrieved, especially during the later part of the Beagle 2 landed mission. Subsurface temperature measurements will support calibrations of Mars regolith

  3. In-situ subsurface science addressed by the Mole on the Beagle 2 Mars lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, L.; Gromov, V.; Kochan, H.; Möhlmann, D.; Tokano, T.

    The payload of the Beagle 2 lander of ESA's Mars Express mission includes a regolithpenetrating, tethered "Mole" intended for acquisition of several subsurface soil sam ples from depths between about 30 cm and some 1E1.5 m. These samples will then be analysed by the Gas Analysis Package instrument on the lander, primarily with regard to isotopic composition and to organic molecules. However, after giving a brief overview of the Mole experiment, this paper focuses on additional in-situ science conducted by the Beagle 2 Mole system, also referred to as the PLanetary Underground TOol (PLUTO): while it penetrates into the Martian regolith by way of soil displacement through the action of an internal hammering mechanism, the Mole will allow mechanical properties of the regolith to be studied as a function of depth - being a first on a Mars mission - and additionally, a temperature sensor mounted on the outside of the Mole will support investigations of soil thermophysical properties and measurements of the subsurface temperature profile, again as a first-time achievement. Using a Mole soil penetration theory calibrated by ground-based experiments, regolith bulk density, cohesion, and internal friction angle can be constrained as a function of depth using the Mole penetration path (and retrieval path) vs. time which is measured by a winch rotation sensor indicating the amount of tether extracted by the Mole. The obtained depth profiles of these quantities should provide insight into the depositional history and stratigraphy of the regolith at the site. Measurements of the regolith temperature will be conducted by the Mole both as a function of depth during soil intrusion, and as a function of time for constant depth, as the Mole can be left in the subsurface for periods of days or weeks before it is retrieved, especially during the later part of the Beagle 2 landed mission. Subsurface temperature measurements will support calibrations of Mars regolith thermophysical

  4. [Plasma ibuprofen enantiomers and their pharmacokinetics in Beagle dogs determined by HPLC].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-yan; Kong, Ai-ying; Yang, Bo; Yan, Liang-ping; Di, Xin

    2015-12-01

    A chiral high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the simultaneous determination of ibuprofen enantiomers in dog plasma. It was used to study the pharmacokinetics in the Beagle dog after intravenous administration of racemic-ibuprofen, S-ibuprofen and R-ibuprofen. Ketoprofen was chosen as the internal standard. After a simple precipitation using methanol as the precipitating solvent, both analytes and IS were separated on a Kromasil 100-5CHI-TBB chiral column (250 mm x4.6 mm, 5 μm) with isocratic elution using acetonitrile - 20 mmol x L(-1) phosphate buffer (pH 3.0, containing 5% methanol) (6 : 4) as the mobile phase. The detection wavelength was 220 nm. Liner calibration curves for both of the ibuprofen enantiomers were over the concentration range from 0.5 to 50 μg x mL(-1) with a lower limit of quantification of 0.5 μg x mL(-1), the accuracies were all in standard ranges. The intra- and inter- assay precisions were all below 7%. The recovery rate was 93.1% to 100.4%. The experiments proved that the method was simple, rapid and sensitive. It can be used in the quantitative determination of ibuprofen enantiomers in dog plasma. The method was used to determine the concentration of ibuprofen enantiomers in Beagle dog plasma after a single intravenous administration of racemic-ibuprofen, S-ibuprofen and R-ibuprofen (9 mg x kg(-1)) and the pharmacokinetics parameters were calculated based on the concentration-time curves. The C(max) of S-ibuprofen in Beagle dog plasma after a single intravenous administration of racemic-ibuprofen, S-ibuprofen and R-ibuprofen were 30.8 ± 4.7, 46.1 ± 5.9 and 20.0 ± 2.6 μg x mL(-1), respectively. In terms of the exposure of active ingredient, it revealed a significant difference between the administration of S-ibuprofen and the other two groups. The systematical R- to S- chiral inversion was discussed. Comparing the pharmacokinetic parameters at different doses, chiral inversion were 70.1% ± 36.6% and 76

  5. Beagle 2 the Moon: An Experimental Package to Measure Polar Ice and Volatiles in Permanently Shadowed Areas or Beneath the Lunar Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, E. K.; McKay, D. S.; Pillinger, C. T.; Wright, I. P.; Sims, M. R.; Richter, L.

    2008-03-01

    The Gas Analysis Package and associated instruments from Beagle 2 is the ideal payload to measure the abundances and isotopic compositions of ice and volatiles found in the polar regions of the Moon. The hardware has already been flight qualified.

  6. Pharmacokinetics of a florfenicol-tylosin combination after intravenous and intramuscular administration to beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Young; Gebru, Elias; Lee, Joong-Su; Kim, Jong-Choon; Park, Seung-Chun

    2011-04-01

    A pharmacokinetic study of a commercial florfenicol-tylosin (2:1) combination product was conducted in six beagle dogs after intravenous (IV) and intramuscular (IM) administration at doses of 10 mg/kg (florfenicol) and 5 mg/kg (tylosin). Serum drug concentrations were determined by a validated high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using UV detection. A rapid and nearly complete absorption of both drugs with a mean IM bioavailability of 103.9% (florfenicol) and 92.6% (tylosin), prolonged elimination half-life, and high tissue penetration with steady state volume of distribution of 2.63 l/kg (florfenicol) and 1.98 l/kg (tylosin) were observed. Additional studies, including pharmacodynamic and toxicological evaluation are required before recommendations can be made regarding the clinical application of the product in dogs.

  7. Beagle 2: a proposed exobiology lander for ESA's 2003 Mars Express mission.

    PubMed

    Sims, M R; Pillinger, C T; Wright, I P; Dowson, J; Whitehead, S; Wells, A; Spragg, J E; Fraser, G; Richter, L; Hamacher, H; Johnstone, A; Meredith, N P; de la Nougerede, C; Hancock, B; Turner, R; Peskett, S; Brack, A; Hobbs, J; Newns, M; Senior, A; Humphries, M; Keller, H U; Thomas, N; Lingard, J S; Ng, T C

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the proposed Beagle 2 small lander for ESA's 2003 Mars Express mission is to search for organic material on and below the surface of Mars and to study the inorganic chemistry and mineralogy of the landing site. The lander will have a total mass of 60kg including entry, descent, and landing system. Experiments will be deployed on the surface using a robotic arm. It will use a mechanical mole and grinder to obtain samples from below the surface, under rocks, and inside rocks. Sample analysis by a mass spectrometer will include isotopic analysis. An optical microscope, an X-ray spectrometer and a Mossbauer spectrometer will conduct in-situ rock studies.

  8. Further characterization of serum alkaline phosphatase from male and female beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Amacher, D E; Higgins, C V; Schomaker, S J; Clay, R J

    1989-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (AP) from the sera of both male and female beagle dogs was partially purified and then analyzed for the presence of AP isoenzymes having intestinal or osseous characteristics as detected by bromotetramisole inhibition or wheat germ lectin agarose electrophoresis, respectively. The sera from both sexes were similar in regard to the presence of AP isoenzymes with intestinal (16 vs. 20%) or osseous (19 vs. 23%) characteristics, but serum AP from the male had a greater sialic acid content and only the male serum contained a detectable constitutive acidic (pI = 3.4) AP isoenzyme. This was similar to a serum AP isoenzyme previously found elevated in the sera of dogs afflicted with hyperadrenocorticalism or of dogs treated with certain corticosteroids.

  9. Effects of whole-body, ionizing radiation on the semen in beagle dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Day, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    Six beagle dogs were exposed to a total dose of 183 R of gamma radiation at a dose rate of 1 R/day, while three other dogs were exposed to a single dose of 100 R. Weekly semen analysis was performed on all irradiated dogs plus four nonirradiated dogs. Semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm count, sperm motility and sperm head morphometry were examined. Dogs exposed to chronic radiation showed a severe decline in sperm numbers, detected after seven weeks of exposure. Sperm concentration and total sperm count were the first parameters affected and were the only parameters consistently affected. The dogs exposed to 100 R as a single dose, did not show a significant decline in sperm numbers. During a 36 week recovery period, the chronically irradiated dogs did show a slight increase in sperm numbers, but they never approached pre-exposure levels.

  10. A case of spontaneous myocardial necrosis and cerebral ischemic lesions in a laboratory beagle dog.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Kohei; Kohara, Yukari; Ito, Yuko; Yoshikawa, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Makoto; Kitaura, Keisuke; Matsumoto, Satoshi

    2015-10-01

    A beagle dog treated with saline as a control animal in a preclinical study was euthanized due to sudden systemic deterioration. On histopathological examination, contraction band necrosis of myocardial cells was observed widely in the left ventricular wall, including the papillary muscle and apex, and observed slightly in the ventricular septum and left atrium. In the brain, necrosis was observed in neurons and glia of the cerebral cortex, hippocampal pyramidal cells, glial cells of the rostral commissure and Purkinje cells of the cerebellar vermis. It is highly probable that the marked systemic deterioration was caused by cardiac dysfunction due to the spontaneous contraction band necrosis of the myocardial cells, although the pathogenesis of the myocardial lesions remains unclear. Given the distribution of neuronal necrosis in the brain, it is likely that these lesions resulted from the ischemia responsible for acute cardiac failure.

  11. Spontaneous necrotizing sialometaplasia of the submandibular salivary gland in a Beagle dog.

    PubMed

    Mukaratirwa, Sydney; Petterino, Claudio; Bradley, Alys

    2015-07-01

    A single mass was found on the left submandibular salivary gland at necropsy of a 15-month-old male commercially bred laboratory Beagle dog from a control dose group from a repeat toxicity study. Microscopically, the mass was composed of a well-demarcated area of coagulative necrosis surrounded and separated from the normal salivary gland tissue by a thick fibrovascular capsule. Necrosis was admixed with areas of hemorrhage, fibrin, edema, fibrinoid necrosis of the vascular tunica media, and thrombosis of small and large vessels. Within the necrotic tissue, there was marked ductal hyperplasia, and squamous metaplasia of duct and acinar epithelium. The mass was diagnosed as necrotizing sialometaplasia of the submandibular gland. Hyperplastic ductal elements and squamous metaplasia can be mistaken microscopically with squamous cell carcinoma. Therefore, pathologists should be aware of this lesion as to avoid errors in the diagnosis of this benign pathologic condition.

  12. Pharmacokinetic evaluation of Shenfu Injection in beagle dogs after intravenous drip administration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuqiao; Tian, Dali; Huang, Yuyou; Li, Ling; Mao, Juan; Tian, Juan; Ding, Jinsong

    2016-11-01

    Shenfu Injection (SFI) is a well-defined Chinese herbal formulation that is obtained from red ginseng and processed aconite root. The main active constituents in SFI are ginsenosides and aconitum alkaloids. In this work, ginsenosides (ginsenoside Rg1, ginsenoside Rb1 and ginsenoside Rc) and aconitum alkaloids (benzoylmesaconine and fuziline) were used as the index components to explore the pharmacokinetic behavior of SFI. A selective and sensitive HPLC-MS/MS method was developed for the quantification of ginsenosides and aconitum alkaloids in dog plasma and was used to characterize the pharmacokinetics of the five index components after intravenous drip of three different dosages of SFI in beagle dogs. The pharmacokinetic properties of the index components were linear over the dose range of 2-8 mL/kg.

  13. Mechanical characteristics of the pulmonary artery in beagle dogs with hepatopulmonary syndrome and portopulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Yan, Guozhen; He, Junfeng; Yu, Yueli; Liu, Yang; Yuan, Yanfen; Guo, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    The continuous changes in pulmonary hemodynamic properties in hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) and portopulmonary hypertension (PoPH) have not been fully characterized in large animal models of HPS and PoPH. Beagle dog models of HPS and PoPH were induced by chronic common bile duct ligation and Sephadex microspheres, respectively. The model was validated by catheter examination and pathological analyses, and the hemodynamic characteristics of the models were observed. The results revealed that the cross-sectional area of the blood vessel was significantly increased in HPS models, but it was significantly decreased in the PoPH models. Furthermore, the resistance of pulmonary circulation was elevated in models of HPS, but it was decreased in models of PoPH. The present findings renew the traditional view that pulmonary hypertension is due to the enhanced peripheral resistance.

  14. Spontaneous necrotizing sialometaplasia of the submandibular salivary gland in a Beagle dog

    PubMed Central

    Mukaratirwa, Sydney; Petterino, Claudio; Bradley, Alys

    2015-01-01

    A single mass was found on the left submandibular salivary gland at necropsy of a 15-month-old male commercially bred laboratory Beagle dog from a control dose group from a repeat toxicity study. Microscopically, the mass was composed of a well-demarcated area of coagulative necrosis surrounded and separated from the normal salivary gland tissue by a thick fibrovascular capsule. Necrosis was admixed with areas of hemorrhage, fibrin, edema, fibrinoid necrosis of the vascular tunica media, and thrombosis of small and large vessels. Within the necrotic tissue, there was marked ductal hyperplasia, and squamous metaplasia of duct and acinar epithelium. The mass was diagnosed as necrotizing sialometaplasia of the submandibular gland. Hyperplastic ductal elements and squamous metaplasia can be mistaken microscopically with squamous cell carcinoma. Therefore, pathologists should be aware of this lesion as to avoid errors in the diagnosis of this benign pathologic condition. PMID:26441480

  15. Beagle 2: a proposed exobiology lander for ESA's 2003 Mars express mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sims, M. R.; Pillinger, C. T.; Wright, I. P.; Dowson, J.; Whitehead, S.; Wells, A.; Spragg, J. E.; Fraser, G.; Richter, L.; Hamacher, H.; Johnstone, A.; Meredith, N. P.; de La Nougerede, C.; Hancock, B.; Turner, R.; Peskett, S.; Brack, A.; Hobbs, J.; Newns, M.; Senior, A.; Humphries, M.; Keller, H. U.; Thomas, N.; Lingard, J. S.; Underwood, J. C.; Sale, N. M.; Neal, M. F.; Klingelhofer, G.; Ng, T. C.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the proposed Beagle 2 small lander for ESA's 2003 Mars Express mission is to search for organic material on and below the surface of Mars and to study the inorganic chemistry and mineralogy of the landing site. The lander will have a total mass of 60kg including entry, descent, and landing system. Experiments will be deployed on the surface using a robotic arm. It will use a mechanical mole and grinder to obtain samples from below the surface, under rocks, and inside rocks. Sample analysis by a mass spectrometer will include isotopic analysis. An optical microscope, an X- ray spectrometer and a Mossbauer spectrometer will conduct in-situ rock studies.

  16. Clearance patterns for {sup 111}In-oxide particles deposited in specific airways of beagle dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Snipes, M.B.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Griffith, W.C.; Guilmette, R.A.

    1994-11-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has incorporated long-term retention of radioactive particles in conducting airways into its newly approved respiratory tract dosimetry model. This model is purported to provide a better basis for assessing risk associated with human inhalation exposures to radioactive particles. However, applying the new model requires an understanding of particle retention patterns in conducting airways of the lung. Studies are being conducted at ITRI to quantify long-term retention patterns for particles deposited at specific sites in conducting airways of Beagle dogs. The dog was selected as a model because long-term retention and clearance patterns for particles deposited in the lungs of dogs and humans are similar.

  17. Oral administration of adrafinil improves discrimination learning in aged beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Milgram, N W; Siwak, C T; Gruet, P; Atkinson, P; Woehrlé, F; Callahan, H

    2000-06-01

    Aged beagle dogs were trained on either a size or intensity discrimination task 2 h following treatment with either 20 mg/kg of adrafinil or a placebo control. Training continued until the dogs reached a predetermined criterion level of performance, or failed to acquire the task after 40 sessions. The treatments and tasks were then reversed, with both the test order and treatment order counterbalanced. Thus, half of the animals were first tested on the intensity discrimination, and half of these were first tested under adrafinil. Treatment with adrafinil produced significant improvement in learning, as indicated by a decrease in both errors and trials to criterion. An effect of adrafinil on motivation may partially account for these findings; however, adrafinil did not significantly affect response latency. Adrafinil is believed to serve as an alpha-1 adrenoceptor agonist. The improved learning may also result from enhancement of vigilance due to facilitation of noradrenergic transmission in the central nervous system.

  18. Biological effects of cesium-137 injected in beagle dogs of different ages

    SciTech Connect

    Nikula, K.J.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Griffith, W.C.

    1995-12-01

    The toxicity of cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) in the Beagle dog was investigated at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) as part of a program to evaluate the biological effects of internally deposited radionuclides. The toxicity and health effects of {sup 137}Cs are important to understand because {sup 137}Cs is produced in large amounts in light-water nuclear reactors. Large quantities of cesium radioisotopes have entered the human food chain as a result of atmospheric nuclear weapons test, and additional cesium radioisotopes were released during the Chernobyl accident. Although the final analyses are not complete, three findings are significant: older dogs dies significantly earlier than juvenile and young adult dogs; greater occurrence of sarcomas in the cesium-137 injected dogs; the major nonneoplastic effect in dogs surviving beyond 52 d appears to be testicular atrophy.

  19. Lifetime tumor risk coefficients for beagle dogs that inhaled cerium-144 chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Boecker, B.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Griffith, W.C.

    1995-12-01

    Reported here is one of the life-span radionuclide toxicology studies being conducted at ITRI in Beagle dogs. These studies are examining the life-span health risks of inhaled {Beta}-, {gamma}- and {alpha}-emitting radionuclides to expand available knowledge on these risks especially for the many cases for which human data are not available. The outcomes of these studies are providing important information on dosimetry and dose-response relationships for these inhaled radionuclides and the relative importance of a broad range of dose- and effect-modifying factors. A number of these studies are currently coming to completion. Much of the ITRI effort is being directed to final reviews of the dosimetric, clinical, and pathologic results and writing summary manuscripts. Radiation doses and effects in tissues adjacent to bone, specifically those of epithelial or marrow origin, should be considered when determining risks from internally deposited, bone-seeking radionuclides such as {sup 144}Ce.

  20. Studies on the erythron and the ferrokinetic responses in beagles adapted to hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckman, D. A.; Evans, J. W.; Oyama, J.

    1978-01-01

    Red cell survival, ferrokinetics, and hematologic parameters were investigated in beagle dogs exposed to chronic hypergravity (2.6 Gx). Ineffective erythropoiesis, red cell mass, plasma volume, and Cr-51-elution were significantly increased; maximum Fe-59 incorporation was decreased; and there was no change in the mean erythrocyte life span following autologous injection of Cr-51-labeled red cells and Fe-59-labeled transferrin. Red cell count, F(cells), total body hemoglobin (Hb), susceptability to osmotic lysis, and differential reticulocyte count were increased. White blood cell count, venous blood %Hb, mean cell volume, mean cell Hb, mean cell Hb concentration, and serum iron were decreased. No changes were observed for body mass, mg Fe per g Hb, iron binding capacity, percent saturation of iron carrying capacity, or the electrophoretic mobility of purified Hb. This study indicated that chronic exposure to hypergravity induced changes in red cell size, volume, total mass, and membrane permeability.

  1. Southern Exposure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schueler, Donald G.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses results of a Green Index, published by the Institute for Southern Studies, that ranks the 50 states on the basis of 256 environmental indicators. Explores how and why the deep South states are all at the bottom of the list. A vignette provides a comparison between state hazardous waste generation and spending on waste management. (MCO)

  2. An artificial pancreas provided a novel model of blood glucose level variability in beagles.

    PubMed

    Munekage, Masaya; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Takezaki, Yuka; Tamura, Takahiko; Namikawa, Tsutomu; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2015-12-01

    Although the effects on prognosis of blood glucose level variability have gained increasing attention, it is unclear whether blood glucose level variability itself or the manifestation of pathological conditions that worsen prognosis. Then, previous reports have not been published on variability models of perioperative blood glucose levels. The aim of this study is to establish a novel variability model of blood glucose concentration using an artificial pancreas. We maintained six healthy, male beagles. After anesthesia induction, a 20-G venous catheter was inserted in the right femoral vein and an artificial pancreas (STG-22, Nikkiso Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) was connected for continuous blood glucose monitoring and glucose management. After achieving muscle relaxation, total pancreatectomy was performed. After 1 h of stabilization, automatic blood glucose control was initiated using the artificial pancreas. Blood glucose level varied for 8 h, alternating between the target blood glucose values of 170 and 70 mg/dL. Eight hours later, the experiment was concluded. Total pancreatectomy was performed for 62 ± 13 min. Blood glucose swings were achieved 9.8 ± 2.3 times. The average blood glucose level was 128.1 ± 5.1 mg/dL with an SD of 44.6 ± 3.9 mg/dL. The potassium levels after stabilization and at the end of the experiment were 3.5 ± 0.3 and 3.1 ± 0.5 mmol/L, respectively. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that an artificial pancreas contributed to the establishment of a novel variability model of blood glucose levels in beagles.

  3. Effect of tecarfarin, a novel vitamin K epoxide reductase inhibitor, on coagulation in beagle dogs

    PubMed Central

    Choppin, A; Irwin, I; Lach, L; McDonald, MG; Rettie, AE; Shao, L; Becker, C; Palme, MP; Paliard, X; Bowersox, S; Dennis, DM; Druzgala, P

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Tecarfarin (ATI-5923) is a novel vitamin K epoxide reductase inhibitor that is metabolized by esterase (mainly human carboxylesterase 2) to a single major metabolite, ATI-5900, in rats, dogs and humans. Tecarfarin is not significantly metabolized by CYP450 enzymes. The objective of this study was to test and compare the efficacy of tecarfarin with that of warfarin, when administered either intravenously or once a day orally, to produce stable anticoagulation in beagle dogs. Experimental approach: Effects on coagulation were assessed by measuring the activity levels of Factor VII and Factor X and thromboplastin-induced coagulation times, reported as prothrombin time (PT). Key results: Continuous intravenous infusions and oral administration of tecarfarin and warfarin caused a dose-dependent decrease in activity of Factor VII and Factor X, and associated increase in PT. Intravenous fresh frozen canine plasma or subcutaneous vitamin K1 treatment reversed the anticoagulant effects of orally administered tecarfarin. Consistent with the inhibitory effects of amiodarone on CYP2C9, co-administration of amiodarone significantly increased the anticoagulation effect of warfarin and plasma warfarin concentrations. In contrast, amiodarone had no effect on the anticoagulation induced by tecarfarin or tecarfarin plasma concentrations in this model. Conclusions and implications: Overall, the data presented herein indicate that tecarfarin, via a vitamin K-dependent mechanism, causes changes in key parameters of haemostasis in beagle dogs that are consistent with effective anticoagulation. Compared to warfarin it has a decreased potential to interact metabolically with drugs that inhibit CYP450 enzymes and, therefore, may offer an improved safety profile for patients. PMID:19845677

  4. Soft tissue tumors in beagles injected with {sup 241}Am citrate

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, R.D.; Taylor, G.N.; Angus, W.

    1995-02-01

    The occurrence of soft tissue tumors has been studied in 117 beagles assigned to 8 dosage groups of between 2 and 26 animals each and injected with 0.07 to 104 kBq {sup 241}Am kg{sup -1} as the citrate. In addition, 133 control beagles given no radioactivity were used as a comparison group. All 250 dogs were maintained under identical conditions and were observed for their entire lifespans. An important competing risk for the appearance of soft tissue tumors appeared to be the occurrence of skeletal malignancy, and at the highest injected activity (104) kBq kg{sup -1}, kidney and liver failure brought about the death of both of the two dogs in this group. Thyroid and liver were the only soft tissues that exhibited greater concentrations of {sup 241}Am than the skeleton. Liver tumors were associated {sup 241}Am exposure (p < 0.001), but the thyroid tumor rate was not increased significantly in the irradiated animals (p > 0.10) as compared with the occurrence in controls. There was a greater relative occurrence of all vaginal tumors in control animals than in dogs given {sup 241}Am, a situation also found for all tumors of the pancreas, skin, testis, and mammary glands and for malignant ovarian tumors. All of these differences were statistically significant. The survival of animals given 0.07 to 0.59 kBq {sup 241}Am Kg{sup -1} could not be established (p > 0.10) as significantly different from controls, but the survival of all groups given 1.8 to 104 kBq kg{sup -1} was decreased (p < 0.05). There was no indication in our studies of a positive association between relative exposure to {sup 241}Am and the occurrence of mammary tumors, mast cell sarcomas originating outside the liver, lymphosarcoma or tumors of marrow, including leukemia. 20 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  5. The effect of dietary fibre on feed intake and growth in beagle puppies.

    PubMed Central

    Delorme, C B; Barrette, D; Mongeau, R; Larivière, N

    1985-01-01

    We studied the growth, feed intake, feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio of groups of female Beagle puppies fed 16% or 22% crude protein rations to which 6% or 12% wheat bean was added at the expense of the total diet. The final neutral detergent fibre concentrations were 12%, 16%, 22% and 23% (dry matter basis). The addition of wheat bran to puppy rations, bringing the neutral detergent fibre up to 16% in a 21% crude protein diet had no deleterious effects on feed intake, feed and protein efficiency or growth in Beagle puppies. Over a sufficiently long period of time, the growth of this group did not differ from that of the controls (12% neutral detergent fibre, 23% crude protein) although it was higher at intermediate times. The effects of the high fibre (22 or 23% neutral detergent fibre) diets on growth, feed intake feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio are consistent with an energy deficit resulting from the animals' inability to adapt fully to the dilution of their rations leading to lower growth, less efficient use of feed and, in the case of group 3 (22% crude protein, 22% neutral detergent fibre), a lower protein efficiency ratio. The protein efficiency ratio of group 4 (16% crude protein, 23% neutral detergent fibre) was higher than that of group 3, most likely the result of a more limiting amount of dietary protein leading to a more efficient use for growth by the animal. We have concluded that intermediate levels of neutral detergent fibre (up to 16%) were not deleterious even in puppy rations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2994864

  6. Osteoporotic-like effects of cadmium on bone mineral density and content in aged ovariectomized beagles

    SciTech Connect

    Sacco-Gibson, N.; Abrams, J.; Chaudhry, S.; Hurst, D.; Peterson, D.; Bhattacharyya, M.

    1992-12-31

    Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of ovariectomy in conjunction with cadmium (Cd) exposure on bone. Aged female beagles with {sup 45}Ca-labeled skeletons ovariectomized and exposed to Cd. Successive vertebral scans by dual photon absorptiometry monitored changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in each dog with time. Results showed that ovariectomy or Cd exposure alone caused significant decreases in BMD; ovariectomy with Cd exposure caused the greatest decrease. Ovariectomy alone did not decrease BMD in the distal end or mid-shaft of the tibia while BMD of the distal tibia decreased significantly due to Cd exposure alone. Combination treatment resulted in significant decreases in BMD of both tibial regions. At necropsy, tibiae, humeri, lumbar vertebrae and ribs were obtained for biochemical analysis. No group-to-group differences in bone weights (wet, dry, ash), in ash/dry ratios, or in long bone and vertebral Ca/dry or Ca/ash ratios were observed. Significantly higher total {sup 45}Ca content and {sup 45}Ca/dry and {sup 45}Ca/ash ratios were observed in long bones and vertebrae of OV- and OV+ groups. In contrast, intact ribs showed significantly decreased Ca/dry and Ca/ash ratios compared to the SO-group. Quartered ribs demonstrated regional responses to specific treatment; decreases in total Ca content were greatest in the mid-rib region ({minus}36 to {minus}46%). Results suggest that in the aged female beagle, bone mineral loss associated with estrogen depletion is not only related to bone type (trabecular versus cortical) but also to bone Ca pools. Our results also suggest that a regional heterogeneity of bone plays a role in responsiveness to ovariectomy and Cd exposure. These aspects suggest that Cd is an exogenous factor affecting bone mineral loss independently of estrogen depletion. However, estrogen depletion primes bone for responsiveness to Cd-induced bone mineral loss.

  7. Stereospecific pharmacodynamics and chiral inversion of NG-nitro-arginine in the beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Xin, Yan-Fei; Gu, Li-Qiang; Zhang, Sheng; Bai, Yun-Sheng; Zhou, Guo-Liang; You, Zhen-Qiang; Xuan, Yao-Xian

    2010-11-01

    In the present study, we analyzed the stereospecific pharmacodynamics and inversion of N(G)-nitro-arginine by an intravenous blous injection of L-N(G)-nitro-arginine (L-NNA) or D-N(G)-nitro-arginine (D-NNA) (10 mg/kg) in beagle dogs. Significant pressor responses were observed for both substances, though a similar maximum response induced by L-NNA was reached at 120 min slower as compared with D-NNA. The rise in mean arterial pressure (MAP) of D-NNA dogs was also shown to be slower than the L-NNA group. Our data showed that D-NNA had no impact on MAP within 60 min after its injection. Plasma L-NNA started to appear after 45 min posterior to the i.v. bolus injection of D-NNA. This chiral inversion is unidirectional because no D-NNA was not produced from L-NNA. The pressor response in the D-NNA-injected dogs was well parallel to the plasma L-NNA concentration. Similar disposition of N(G)-nitro-arginine enantiomers and 4% of chiral inversion ratio from D-NNA to L-NNA was found in the beagle dogs. Given that D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) is the essential enzyme in chiral inversion of D-NNA, we further compared the enzymatic activity of the renal DAAO between dogs and rats. Our data showed that dogs had a significantly lower enzymatic activity than rats, thus supported a lower inversion ratio of D-NNA in dogs.

  8. Excipient effects on gastrointestinal transit and drug absorption in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Julia D R; Peters, Erin E; Vickers, Ann W; Staton, J Scott; Coffin, Mark D; Parsons, Gary E; Basit, Abdul W

    2005-08-26

    Previous work has shown that polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400) has an accelerating effect on gastrointestinal transit and a modulating influence on drug absorption in humans. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of various excipients, PEG 400, propylene glycol, d-alpha-tocopheryl-polyethylene glycol-1000 succinate (TPGS) and Labrasol on gastrointestinal transit and drug absorption in four beagle dogs using scintigraphy. Each dog received, on five separate occasions, water (control) or a dose of excipient equivalent to 1 g PEG 400, 2 g propylene glycol, 1 g TPGS or 2 g Labrasol dissolved in water and administered in the form of two capsules. The model drugs ampicillin (200mg) and antipyrine (100mg) were co-administered in the capsules. The capsule solutions were radiolabelled with technetium-99m to follow their transit using a dual-headed gamma camera, and blood samples were collected to determine drug pharmacokinetics. On a separate occasion, the drugs were dissolved in saline and given intravenously. The capsules rapidly disintegrated in the stomach liberating their liquid contents. The mean small intestinal transit times for the different treatments (control, PEG 400, propylene glycol, TPGS and Labarasol) were 183, 179, 195, 168 and 154 min, respectively. The corresponding mean absolute oral bioavailability figures were 36, 32, 39, 42 and 32% for ampicillin and 76, 74, 85, 73 and 74% for antipyrine, respectively. The transit and bioavailability data for the excipient treatments were not significantly different from the control. In summary, these excipients, at the doses administered, have limited influence on gastrointestinal transit and drug in beagle dogs.

  9. Histomorphometry and stability analysis of early loaded implants with two different surface conditions in beagle dogs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Seok; Kim, Dae-Gon; Park, Chan-Jin

    2009-01-01

    STATEMENT OF PROBLEM Despite an improved bone reactions of Mg-incorporated implants in the animals, little yet has been carried out by the experimental investigations in functional loading conditions. PURPOSE This study investigated the clinical and histologic parameters of osseointegrated Mg-incorporated implants in early loading conditions. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 36 solid screw implants (diameter 3.75 mm, length 10 mm) were placed in the mandibles of 6 beagle dogs. Test groups included 18 Mg-incorporated implants. Turned titanium implants served as control. Gold crowns were inserted 4 weeks after implant placement and the dogs were immediately put on a food diet. Implants were observed for 10 weeks after loading. Radiographic assessments and stability tests were performed at the time of fixture installation, 2nd stage surgery, 4 weeks after loading, and 10 weeks after loading. Histological observations and morphometrical measurements were also performed. RESULTS Of 36 implants, 33 displayed no discernible mobility, corresponding to successful clinical function. There was no statistically significant difference between test implants and controls in marginal bone levels (P = .46) and RFA values. The mean BIC% in the Mg-implants was 54.5 ± 8.4%. The mean BIC% in the turned implant was 45.3 ± 12.2%. These differences between the Mg-implant and control implant were statistically significant (P = .005). CONCLUSIONS The anodized, Mg-incorporated implant demonstrated significantly more bone-to-implant contact (BIC) in early loading conditions. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS The results of this study in beagle dogs suggest the possibility of achieving predictable stability of early loaded free-standing dental implants with Mg-incorporated surface. PMID:21165249

  10. The Themis-Beagle families: Investigation of space-weathering processes on primitive surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornasier, S.; Perna, D.; Lantz, C.; Barucci, M.

    2014-07-01

    features associated to hydrated silicates, and, recently, water-ice and organics features have been detected on the surface of (24) Themis (Campins et al. 2010, Rivkin & Emery 2010). Hydrated silicates are produced by the aqueous-alteration process, which require low temperature (< 320 K) and the presence of liquid water in the past. The Themis family may be an important reservoir of water ice. Moreover, the main-belt comets 133P, 238P, and 176P seem to be related to the Themis family because of orbital proximities and spectral properties analogies. Within the old Themis family members, a young sub-family, Beagle, formed less than 10 Myr ago, has been identified. This sub-family has 65 members up to 2 km of diameter (Nesvorny et al. 2008). So, the Themis family is very important to shed light on the asteroid-comet continuum, to constrain the abundances of water ices in the outer part of the main belt, and to probe space-weathering effects on old Themis and young Beagle families' members. To investigate all these aspects, we carried out a spectroscopic survey in the visible and near-infrared range at the 3.6-m Italian telescope TNG (La Palma, Spain) during 6 nights in February and December 2012. We got new spectra of 8 Beagle and 22 Themis members using the DOLORES (with the LR-R and LR-B grisms) and the NICS (with the Amici prism) instruments. To look for possible coma around the targets, we also performed deep imaging in the R filter. Data are currently under analysis, and the results will be presented at the ACM meeting. None of the investigated spectra show water-ice absorption features at 1.5 and 2 microns, while few Themis members have visible absorption bands associated with hydrated silicates. The best meteoritic analogues to both Themis and Beagle members are the carbonaceous chondrites, especially CM2. The spectra of Beagle and Themis asteroids show significant differences: 'old' Themis members exhibit a wide range of spectra, including asteroids with blue

  11. Histological response of soda-lime glass-ceramic bactericidal rods implanted in the jaws of beagle dogs

    PubMed Central

    Moya, José S.; Martínez, Arturo; López-Píriz, Roberto; Guitián, Francisco; Díaz, Luis A.; Esteban-Tejeda, Leticia; Cabal, Belén; Sket, Federico; Fernández-García, Elisa; Tomsia, Antoni P.; Torrecillas, Ramón

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial and fungal infections remain a major clinical challenge. Implant infections very often require complicated revision procedures that are troublesome to patients and costly to the healthcare system. Innovative approaches to tackle infections are urgently needed. We investigated the histological response of novel free P2O5 glass-ceramic rods implanted in the jaws of beagle dogs. Due to the particular percolated morphology of this glass-ceramic, the dissolution of the rods in the animal body environment and the immature bone formation during the fourth months of implantation maintained the integrity of the glass-ceramic rod. No clinical signs of inflammation took place in any of the beagle dogs during the four months of implantation. This new glass-ceramic biomaterial with inherent bactericidal and fungicidal properties can be considered as an appealing candidate for bone tissue engineering. PMID:27515388

  12. Histological response of soda-lime glass-ceramic bactericidal rods implanted in the jaws of beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Moya, José S; Martínez, Arturo; López-Píriz, Roberto; Guitián, Francisco; Díaz, Luis A; Esteban-Tejeda, Leticia; Cabal, Belén; Sket, Federico; Fernández-García, Elisa; Tomsia, Antoni P; Torrecillas, Ramón

    2016-08-12

    Bacterial and fungal infections remain a major clinical challenge. Implant infections very often require complicated revision procedures that are troublesome to patients and costly to the healthcare system. Innovative approaches to tackle infections are urgently needed. We investigated the histological response of novel free P2O5 glass-ceramic rods implanted in the jaws of beagle dogs. Due to the particular percolated morphology of this glass-ceramic, the dissolution of the rods in the animal body environment and the immature bone formation during the fourth months of implantation maintained the integrity of the glass-ceramic rod. No clinical signs of inflammation took place in any of the beagle dogs during the four months of implantation. This new glass-ceramic biomaterial with inherent bactericidal and fungicidal properties can be considered as an appealing candidate for bone tissue engineering.

  13. Studies on separation and pharmacokinetics of m-nisoldipine enantiomers in beagle dog plasma by LC/MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Yuan, Lin; Li, Xiuqing; Zhi, Xuran; Sheng, Ning; Zhang, Lantong

    2013-11-01

    A rapid, sensitive and selective liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC/MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the separation and determination of m-nisoldipine enantiomers in beagle dog plasma. Samples were pretreated by a single-step protein precipitation with acetonitrile. After m-nisoldipine racemic administration to beagle dogs, samples of m-nisoldipine enantiomers in beagle dog plasma were separated and determined on a ULTRON ES-OVM column (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) at 20°C with a mobile phase consisted of methanol-acetonitrile-ammonium acetate (pH 7.0; 2mM) (15:15:70, v/v/v) at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. Chromatograms were monitored at 237 nm, and the API 4000 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer was operated in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) scan mode using ElectroSpray ionization (ESI) source. The good linearity (rs=0.9958 and rr=0.9983) were found in the range 0.25-20 ng/mL. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) obtained was 0.25 ng/mL (n=6). All the validation data, such as accuracy, precision, intra-day and inter-day repeatability, were within the required limits. The method was successfully applied to separation and pharmacokinetics of m-nisoldipine enantiomers in beagle dog plasma. The result of statistics analysis shows that there are no significant differences between R-(-)-m-nisoldipine and S-(+)-m-nisoldipine (p>0.05). The study provides necessary evidences for the research and new drug development of m-nisoldipine enantiomers.

  14. Implantation study of a tissue-engineered self-expanding aortic stent graft (bio stent graft) in a beagle model.

    PubMed

    Kawajiri, Hidetake; Mizuno, Takeshi; Moriwaki, Takeshi; Iwai, Ryosuke; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue; Yamanami, Masashi; Kanda, Keiichi; Yaku, Hitoshi; Nakayama, Yasuhide

    2015-03-01

    The use of stent grafts for endovascular aortic repair has become an important treatment option for aortic aneurysms requiring surgery. This treatment has achieved excellent outcomes; however, problems like type 1 endoleaks and stent graft migration remain. Bio stent grafts (BSGs), which are self-expanding stents covered with connective tissue, were previously developed using "in-body tissue architecture" technology. We assessed their early adaptation to the aorta after transcatheter implantation in a beagle model. BSGs were prepared by subcutaneous embedding of acryl rods mounted with self-expanding nitinol stents in three beagles for 4 weeks (n = 3/dog). The BSGs were implanted as allografts into infrarenal abdominal aortas via the femoral artery of three other beagles. After 1 month of implantation, aortography revealed no stenosis or aneurysmal changes. The luminal surface of the BSGs was completely covered with neointimal tissue, including endothelialization, without any thrombus formation. The cover tissue could fuse the luminal surface of the native aorta with tight conjunctions even at both ends of the stents, resulting in complete impregnation of the strut into the reconstructed vascular wall, which is expected to prevent endoleaks and migration in clinical applications.

  15. Gastric submucosa is inferior to the liver as transplant site for autologous islet transplantation in pancreatectomized diabetic Beagles.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhu-Zeng; Wang, Shu-Sen; Li, Qiang; Huang, Ying; Chen, Li; Chen, Gang; Liu, Rong; Wang, Xi-Mo

    2016-08-01

    Intraportal transplantation of islets is no longer considered to be an ideal procedure and finding the extrahepatic alternative site is becoming a subject of high priority. Herein, in this study, we would introduce our initial outcomes of using gastric submucosa (GS) and liver as sites of islet autotransplantation in pancreatectomized diabetic Beagles. Total pancreatectomy was performed in Beagles and then their own islets extracted from the excised pancreas were transplanted into GS (GS group, n=8) or intrahepatic via portal vein (PV group, n=5). Forty-eight hours post transplantation, graft containing tissue harvested from the recipients revealed the presence of insulin-positive cells. All recipients in GS group achieved euglycemia within 1 day, but returned to a diabetic state at 6 to 8 days post-transplantation (mean survival time, 7.16±0.69 days). However, all of the animals kept normoglycemic until 85 to 155 days post-transplantation in PV group (mean survival time, 120±28.58 days; P<0.01 vs. GS group). The results of intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) confirmed that the marked improvement in glycometabolism was obtained in intrahepatic islet autotransplantation. Thus, our findings indicate that the liver is still superior to the GS as the site of islet transplantation, at least in our islet autotransplant model in pancreatectomized diabetic Beagles.

  16. Artificial periodontal defects and frequency of tooth brushing in beagle dogs (I). Clinical findings after creation of the defects.

    PubMed

    Corba, N H; Jansen, J; Fidler, V

    1986-02-01

    This investigation was designed to determine the influence of different frequencies of tooth brushing on artificial periodontal defects in the beagle dog shortly after creation. In 12 beagle dogs, periodontal defects were created using elastic bands placed in the sulci below the gingival margin after having cut the dento-gingival fibres to the level of the alveolar bone. This active phase of creating defects lasted for 6 weeks. 6 premolars in the lower jaw were used (2P2, 3P3, 4P4). After removal of the elastic bands, the 12 dogs were distributed into 3 groups of 4 dogs each. Each group was brushed with a certain frequency, i.e., 7 times, 3 times or once a week. Plaque index, gingival index and probing depth, using a constant force probe, were assessed interproximally. The experiment lasted for 24 weeks. For hypothesis testing, a brushing effect was calculated for each dog. Furthermore, an analysis was performed based on the absolute scores at week 24. From the statistical analysis, it was concluded that in artificially-induced periodontal defects in beagle dogs immediately after creation, brushing 7 times a week is superior to brushing 3 times a week to establish and maintain gingival health.

  17. Artificial periodontal defects and frequency of tooth brushing in beagle dogs (II). Clinical findings after a period of healing.

    PubMed

    Corba, N H; Jansen, J; Pilot, T

    1986-03-01

    This investigation was designed to determine the influence of different frequencies of tooth brushing on artificial periodontal defects in the beagle dog after a period of healing. In 12 beagle dogs, periodontal defects were created using elastic bands placed in the sulci below the gingival margin after having cut the dento-gingival fibres to the level of the alveolar bone crest. This active phase of creating defects lasted for 6 weeks. After removal of the elastic bands, the created defects were left undisturbed during the remainder of the pre-experimental period (12 weeks). 6 premolars in the lower jaw were used (2P2, 3P3, 4P4). After the pre-experimental period, the 12 dogs were distributed into 3 groups of 4 dogs each. Each group was brushed with a certain frequency, i.e., 7 times, 3 times or once a week. Registrations of plaque index, gingival index and probing depth using a constant force probe were carried out on approximal surfaces. The experiment lasted for 24 weeks. A brushing effect was calculated for each dog to include information on all within-dog and between-dog variations. It was shown in relation to artificially-induced periodontal defects in beagle dogs that after a period of healing, brushing 7 times a week is superior to brushing 3 times a week in establishing and maintaining gingival health.

  18. TRP Channels

    PubMed Central

    Venkatachalam, Kartik; Montell, Craig

    2011-01-01

    The TRP (Transient Receptor Potential) superfamily of cation channels is remarkable in that it displays greater diversity in activation mechanisms and selectivities than any other group of ion channels. The domain organizations of some TRP proteins are also unusual, as they consist of linked channel and enzyme domains. A unifying theme in this group is that TRP proteins play critical roles in sensory physiology, which include contributions to vision, taste, olfaction, hearing, touch, and thermo- and osmosensation. In addition, TRP channels enable individual cells to sense changes in their local environment. Many TRP channels are activated by a variety of different stimuli and function as signal integrators. The TRP superfamily is divided into seven subfamilies: the five group 1 TRPs (TRPC, TRPV, TRPM, TRPN, and TRPA) and two group 2 subfamilies (TRPP and TRPML). TRP channels are important for human health as mutations in at least four TRP channels underlie disease. PMID:17579562

  19. Impact of release characteristics of sinomenine hydrochloride dosage forms on its pharmacokinetics in beagle dogs

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jin; Shi, Jie-Ming; Zhang, Tian-Hong; Gao, Kun; Mao, Jing-Jing; Li, Bing; Sun, Ying-Hua; He, Zhong-Gui

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of release behavior of sustained-release dosage forms of sinomenine hydrochloride (SM•HCl) on its pharmacokinetics in beagle dogs. METHODS: The in vitro release behavior of two SM•HCl dosage forms, including commercial 12-h sustained-release tablets and 24-h sustained-release pellets prepared in our laboratory, was examined. The two dosage forms were orally administrated to beagle dogs, and then the in vivo SM•HCl pharmacokinetics was investigated and compared. RESULTS: The optimal SM•HCl sustained-release formulation was achieved by mixing slow- and rapid-release pellets (9:1, w/w). The SM•HCl release profiles of the sustained-release pellets were scarcely influenced by the pH of the dissolution medium. Release from the 12-h sustained-release tablets was markedly quicker than that from the 24-h sustained-release pellets, the cumulative release up to 12-h was 99.9% vs 68.7%. From a pharmacokinetic standpoint, the 24-h SM•HCl sustained-release pellets had longer tmax and lower Cmax compared to the 12-h sustained-release tablets, the tmax being 2.67×0.52 h vs 9.83×0.98 h and the Cmax being 1 334.45±368.76 ng/mL vs 893.12±292.55 ng/mL, respectively. However, the AUC0-tn of two SM•HCl dosage forms was comparable and both preparations were statistically bioequivalent. Furthermore, the two preparations had good correlations between SM•HCl percentage absorption in vivo and the cumulative percentage release in vitro. CONCLUSION: The in vitro release properties of the dosage forms strongly affect their pharmacokinetic behavior in vivo. Therefore, managing the in vitro release behavior of dosage forms is a promising strategy for obtaining the optimal in vivo pharmacokinetic characteristics and safe therapeutic drug concentration-time curves. PMID:16052686

  20. Thermal modeling of the near surface layer at the Beagle 2 landing site in Isidis Planitia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helbert, J.; Benkhoff, J.

    2003-04-01

    Beagle 2, the Lander of the ESA Mars Express mission, is scheduled to land in the Isidis Planitia basin in January 2004. The lander has a strong focus on exobiological studies. Therefore the prime question is, whether the landing site might provide an environment suitable for hosting exobiological activity. In order to address this question we have performed a detailed thermal modeling of the near surface temperature distribution using the Mars Surface Layer Thermal Model (MaSLaTMo) recently developed in our group. The model includes a detailed treatment of the energy transfer into the surface, including energy transported by gas flux and energy used to sublimate and provided by recondensation of volatiles within the surface. It allows to study the thermal and physical propertied of a near surface layer on Mars with a high spatial resolution. For the study presented here we have performed a 1D analysis up to a depth of 50m below the surface. We have assumed a porous base material layer with a constant heat conductivity, covered by a dust layer on the surface. The thermal properties of the dust layer have been derived from the the albedo and thermal inertia measurements as provided by the TES instrument on Mars Global Surveyor (Mellon 2000, Christensen 2001). A number of scenarios have been studied for the thermal and physical properties of the base material. As expected this has a significant effects on the temperature distribution in the first 1-2m below the surface. The modeling has shown that the first few centimeters below the surface are highly thermal stressed and therefore are most probably a hostile environment for biological activity. However the temperature gradient with depth is very steep and in only 10cm depth the temperatures do not vary more than approximately 10K over an annual cycle with a medium value of 200-230K depending on the thermal and physical parameters of the base material and dust cover. Farmer et al. (1979) noted, that subsurface pore

  1. Soft tissue tumors among beagles injected with 90Sr, 228Ra, OR 228Th.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, R D; Angus, W; Taylor, G N; Miller, S C

    1995-08-01

    The occurrence of soft-tissue tumors in beagles given 90Sr (88 dogs), 228Ra (76 dogs), or 228Th (81 dogs) as young adults and followed throughout their lifespans was compared with that of 133 control beagles given no radioactivity. For animals injected with 228Ra, tumors of the eye were more prominent (p < 0.05) than in the controls, and soft-tissue tumors of cavities in the head (excluding the brain, mouth, and eye) were more prominent in dogs given 90Sr than in the controls (p < 0.05). There was some indication that eye tumors in animals given about 0.56 kBq 228Th kg-1 were associated with their radionuclide exposure. For tumors at a few other locations, the relative occurrence was greater (p < 0.05) in the controls. These included malignant tumors of the testis and malignant plus benign tumors of the mammae and vagina in 228Th dogs; both malignant and malignant plus benign tumors of the mouth and testis, and malignant plus benign tumors of the mammae and vagina in 228Ra dogs; and malignant plus benign tumors of the mammae in 90Sr dogs (p > 0.05 by Odds Ratio Chi Square analysis but p < 0.05 by Fisher's Exact Test). Differences in relative occurrence between radioactive dogs and controls of all other tumor types that appeared in any of the animals (notably lymphosarcoma, lymph node tumors, leukemia, mast cell tumors, liver tumors, etc.) were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Intercurrent mortality, mainly from bone cancer, was higher in the radioactive dogs than in the controls. Mean survival was reduced in the dogs given 90Sr, 228Ra, or 228Th (13.17 +/- 2.64 y in controls, 10.95 +/- 4.06 y in 90Sr dogs, 9.07 +/- 3.61 y in 228Ra dogs, and 9.20 +/- 4.15 y in 228Th dogs). Attenuated lifespans could account, at least in part, for the relative paucity of soft-tissue tumors not induced by radiation among the groups of dogs given radioactivity and occurring near the end of life for control animals.

  2. Transcriptome comparison in the pituitary-adrenal axis between Beagle and Chinese Field dogs after chronic stress exposure.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wei; Fang, Meixia; Xu, Haiping; Xing, Huijie; Nie, Qinghua

    2015-10-01

    Chronic stress can induce a series of maladjustments, and the response to stress is partly regulated by the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic mechanisms of this axis regulating stress responsiveness. The pituitary and adrenal cortex of Beagle and Chinese Field Dog (CFD) from a stress exposure group [including Beagle pituitary 1 (BP1), CFD pituitary 1 (CFDP1), Beagle adrenal cortex 1 (BAC1), CFD adrenal cortex 1 (CFDAC1)] and a control group [including Beagle pituitary 2 (BP2), CFD pituitary 2 (CFDP2), Beagle adrenal cortex 2 (BAC2), CFD adrenal cortex 2 (CFDAC2)], selected to perform RNA-seq transcriptome comparisons, showed that 40, 346, 376, 69, 70, 38, 57 and 71 differentially expressed genes were detected in BP1 vs. BP2, CFDP1 vs. CFDP2, BP1 vs. CFDP1, BP2 vs. CFDP2, BAC1 vs. BAC2, CFDAC1 vs. CFDAC2, BAC1 vs. CFDAC1 and BAC2 vs. CFDAC2 respectively. NPB was a gene common to BAC1 vs. BAC2 and CFDAC1 vs. CFDAC2, indicating it was a potential gene affecting response to chronic stress, regardless of the extent of chronic stress induced. PLP1 was a gene common to BP1 vs. CFDP1 and BP2 vs. CFDP2, suggesting its important roles in affecting the stress-tolerance difference between the two breeds, regardless of whether there was stress exposure or not. Pathway analysis found 12, 4, 11 and 1 enriched pathway in the comparisons of BP1 vs. CFDP1, BP2 vs. CFDP2, CFDP1 vs. CFDP2 and BAC1 vs. BAC2 respectively. Glutamatergic synapse, neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, retrograde endocannabinoid signaling, GABAergic synapse, calcium signaling pathway and dopaminergic synapse were the most significantly enriched pathways in both CFDP1 vs. CFDP2 and BP1 vs. CFDP1. GO, KEGG pathway and gene network analysis demonstrated that GRIA3, GRIN2A, GRIN2B and NPY were important in regulating the stress response in CFD. Nevertheless, ADORA1, CAMK2A, GRM1, GRM7 and NR4A1 might be critical genes contributing to the stress

  3. Enhanced oral bioavailability of the hydrophobic chemopreventive agent (SR13668) in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Aryamitra A; Shen, Hao; Hautman, Mathew; Anwer, Jaseem; Hong, Seungpyo; Kapetanovic, Izet M; Liu, Ying; Lyubimov, Alexander V

    2013-01-01

    Potency and activity of SR13668 in cancer prevention have been proven in several in vitro and in vivo cancer models. However, the compound is highly hydrophobic and its limited oral bioavailability has hindered its clinical translation. In this study, we encapsulated SR13668 into polymeric nanoparticles to increase compound aqueous solubility and therefore bioavailability. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (100-200 nm) encapsulating SR13668 with narrow size distribution and high drug loading were generated by a continuous and scalable process of flash nanoprecipitation integrated with spray dry. A single gavage dose of SR13668-PLGA nanoparticles at 2.8 mg/kg was administered in eight beagle dogs. Drug levels in animal whole blood and plasma were measured over 24 hours. Enhanced bioavailability of SR13668 using nanoparticles compared with formulations of Labrasol® and neat drug in 0.5% methylcellulose is reported. This is the first attempt to study pharmacokinetics of SR13668 in large animals with orally administrated nanoparticle suspension.

  4. Primary liver tumors in beagle dogs exposed by inhalation to aerosols of plutonium-238 dioxide.

    PubMed Central

    Gillett, N. A.; Muggenburg, B. A.; Mewhinney, J. A.; Hahn, F. F.; Seiler, F. A.; Boecker, B. B.; McClellan, R. O.

    1988-01-01

    Primary liver tumors developed in Beagle dogs exposed by inhalation to aerosols of 238PuO2. Initial deposition of 238PuO2 in the respiratory tract was followed by translocation of a portion of the 238Pu to the liver and skeleton, which resulted in a large dose commitment and tumor risk to all three tissues. In a population of 144 dogs exposed to 238PuO2, 112 dogs died or were killed 4000 days after 238Pu exposure, 100 dogs had osteosarcoma, and 28 dogs had lung cancers. At increasing times after exposure, however, liver lesions have become more pronounced. Ten primary liver tumors in nine animals were diagnosed in the dogs dying before 4000 days after exposure. An additional five primary liver tumors in three dogs occurred in 9 animals killed after 4000 days after exposure. The majority of these tumors have been fibrosarcomas. The liver tumors were usually not the cause of death, and rarely metastasized. The occurrence of liver tumors in this study indicates that 238Pu is an effective hepatic carcinogen. Liver carcinogenesis is assuming an increasing importance in this study at late times after inhalation exposure. These results suggest that the liver may be an important organ at risk for the development of neoplasia in humans at time periods long after inhalation of 238Pu. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:3142267

  5. Regional effects of ovariectomy and cadmium on bone mineral in ribs from aged female beagles

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, D.R. . Dept. of Zoology)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate effects of estrogen depletion and cadmium (Cd) on bone calcium and to determine if these effects were localized in specific regions of ribs. Fourteen female beagles with {sup 45}Ca labeled skeletons were divided into four groups: sham controls (SO{minus}); ovariectomized (OV{minus}); shams exposed to Cd (SO+); ovariecomized exposed to Cd (OV+). Total Cd exposure period was 7 months, including 1 month by capsules and 6 months by drinking H{sub 2}O. Ribs were taken at necropsy from 12 of the 14 dogs, and each rib was quartered. Wet, dry, and ash weights, as well as total Ca and {sup 45}Ca content, were determined for each quarter. Analysis of ribs from control animals demonstrated that a given rib is heterogeneous in composition. One end appears to be less mineralized and more metabolically active than other regions. The OV{minus} and OV+ mid-rib regions had significantly lower dry and ash weights than SO{minus}. Total Ca contents of these same regions were also decreased in the OV{minus} and OV+. The only significant change in Ca/dry and Ca/ash was observed when comparing OV+ to SO{minus}. Analysis of treatment suggests that there are regional effects following ovariectomy increased the loss of bone mineral occurring as a result of ovariectomy. 30 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Intra- and interobserver variability of ultrasonographic measurements of the adrenal glands in healthy Beagles.

    PubMed

    Barberet, Virginie; Pey, Pascaline; Duchateau, Luc; Combes, Anais; Daminet, Sylvie; Saunders, Jimmy H

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to establish which adrenal gland measurement was characterized by the least variations. To do this, we quantified the variability of seven different size measurements of the canine adrenal gland (maximal length, maximal height at the cranial and caudal poles on longitudinal and transverse images, and maximal width of the cranial and caudal poles) within observer, between observer, and between dogs based on three different measurements made by each of the three observers in six healthy Beagle dogs. The height of the caudal pole of both adrenal glands measured on longitudinal images had the lowest intra- and interobserver variability, while measurements of the length had the highest intra- and interobserver variability. Other measurements that were characterized by low intra- and interobserver variability were: height and width of the caudal pole on transverse images and height of the cranial pole on longitudinal images only. These results provide a basis for further study of the changes in adrenal gland size in dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism.

  7. Enhancement of the oral bioavailability of cinnarizine in oleic acid in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Tokumura, T; Tsushima, Y; Tatsuishi, K; Kayano, M; Machida, Y; Nagai, T

    1987-04-01

    The present study was an attempt to develop a new dosage form of cinnarizine, which is slightly soluble in water, using lipid as a vehicle. The solubility of cinnarizine in several organic solvents was determined. It was found that cinnarizine dissolved well in oleic and linoleic acids. The bioavailability of cinnarizine from the oral administration of an oleic acid solution in a hard capsule was investigated and compared with that of a cinnarizine tablet, using beagle dogs. When cinnarizine was administered in a capsule, the bioavailability was greatly enhanced [i.e., the maximum concentration (Cmax) and AUC values were 2.9 and 4.0 times larger than those of a cinnarizine tablet, respectively]. Meanwhile, the tmax value (the time to reach Cmax) was unchanged. The absorption of cinnarizine from an oleic acid solution was considered to depend on the action of bile salts. This was supported by the results of a dissolution test using a bile salts solution as the dissolution test medium.

  8. Ovariectomy-induced changes in aged beagles: Histomorphometry and mineral content of the rib

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, A.K.; Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Hurst, D.; Miller, S.; Sacco-Gibson, N.

    1997-08-01

    The effects of ovariectomy on the aged beagle skeleton were studied by histomorphometric analysis of the cortical bone in sequential rib biopsies. Biopsies were taken from each ovariectomized (OV) or sham-operated (SO) dog at the time of surgery and at 1, 4, and 8.5 months after surgery. Tetracycline, calcein, and xylenol orange, respectively, were administered by a fluorochrome labeling procedure (2d-10d-2d) just prior to each postoperative biopsy to provide markers of bone formation. Analysis of sequential biopsies provided a means to follow the response to ovariectomy over time and compare each animal against its own baseline. Examination of sequential biopsies indicated that cortical porosity increased by the fourth month after ovariectomy and remained high at 8.5 months. Ovariectomy did not influence histomorphometric indices at one month after surgery, but substantial differences were observed at later times. Ovariectomy stimulated a transient increase in bone formation and was increased six-fold over that of SO dogs at four months. Ribs were also analyzed for mineral content at necropsy. The rib was heterogeneous along its length for calcium content and concentration. In the midrib where biopsies for histomorphometric analysis were taken, ovariectomy induced a decrease in mass and mineral content; total calcium was decreased by approximately 31%. These data demonstrate that the rib cortical bone is a responsive site for the effects of ovariectomy in female dogs.

  9. Effects of palmitoylethanolamide on the cutaneous allergic inflammatory response in Ascaris hypersensitive Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Cerrato, Santiago; Brazis, Pilar; Della Valle, Maria Federica; Miolo, Alda; Petrosino, Stefania; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Puigdemont, Anna

    2012-03-01

    Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is an endogenous lipid mediator with anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesic properties. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of PEA on the cutaneous allergic inflammatory reaction induced by different immunological and non-immunological stimuli in hypersensitive dogs. Six spontaneously Ascaris hypersensitive Beagle dogs were challenged with intradermal injections of Ascaris suum extract, substance P and anti-canine IgE, before and after a single oral administration of PEA at doses of 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg. A significant reduction in wheal area induced by both antigen and anti-canine IgE challenge was observed after PEA administration. No significant differences were observed between the two higher doses studied, suggesting that the 10 mg/kg dose had exerted the maximum inhibitory effect. When blood levels of PEA were compared with the effects at different times, an evident correlation was obtained. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of PEA were more long-lasting than their plasma concentrations. The intradermal injection of substance P did not reveal any skin reaction (wheal or erythema formation) at any of the concentrations tested. In conclusion, PEA might constitute a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of allergic inflammatory skin diseases in companion animals.

  10. Pharmacokinetics of propafenone hydrochloride sustained-release capsules in male beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Pan, Liping; Qian, Yafang; Cheng, Minlu; Gu, Pan; He, Yanna; Xu, Xiaowen; Ding, Li

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric assay for propafenone and its application to a pharmacokinetic study of propafenone administered as a new propafenone hydrochloride sustained-release capsule (SR-test), as an instant-release tablet (IR-reference) and as the market leader sustained-release capsule (Rythmol, SR-reference) in male beagle dogs (n=8). In Study A comparing SR-test with IR-reference in a crossover design T max and t 1/2 of propafenone for SR-test were significantly higher than those for IR-reference while C max and AUC were lower demonstrating the sustained release properties of the new formulation. In Study B comparing SR-test with SR-reference the observed C max and AUC of propafenone for SR-test (124.5±140.0 ng/mL and 612.0±699.2 ng·h/mL, respectively) were higher than for SR-reference (78.52±72.92 ng/mL and 423.6±431.6 ng·h/mL, respectively) although the differences were not significant. Overall, the new formulation has as good if not better sustained release characteristics to the market leader formulation.

  11. Invivo absorption behaviour of theophylline from starch-methyl methacrylate matrix tablets in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Campos, F; Ferrero, C; Colom, H; Jiménez-Castellanos, M R

    2015-01-30

    This study evaluates in vivo the drug absorption profiles from potato starch-methyl methacrylate matrices(*) using theophylline as a model drug. Healthy beagle dogs under fasting conditions were used for in vivo studies and plasma samples were analyzed by a fluorescence polarization immunoassay analysis (FPIA method). Non-compartmental and compartmental (population approach) analysis was performed to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters. The principle of superposition was applied to predict multiple dose plasma concentrations from experimental single dose data. An in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) was also assessed. The sustained absorption kinetics of theophylline from these formulations was demonstrated by comparison with two commercially available oral sustained-release theophylline products (Theo-Dur(®) and Theolair(®)). A one-compartment model with first order kinetics without lag-time best describes the absorption/disposition of theophylline from the formulations. Results revealed a theophylline absorption rate in the order FD-HSMMA≥Theo-Dur(®)≥OD-CSMMA>Theolair(®)≥FD-CSMMA. On the basis of simulated plasma theophylline levels, a twice daily dosage (every 12h) with the FD-CSMMA tablets should be recommended. A Level C IVIVC was found between the in vitrot50% and the in vivo AUC/D, although further optimization of the in vitro dissolution test would be needed to adequately correlate with in vivo data.

  12. Sub-chronic safety evaluation of the ethanol extract of Aralia elata leaves in Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Li, Fengjin; He, Xiaoli; Niu, Wenying; Feng, Yuenan; Bian, Jingqi; Kuang, Haixue; Xiao, Hongbin

    2016-08-01

    Aralia elata Seem. (A. elata) is a traditional Chinese medicine to treat some diseases. This investigation aims to evaluate the pharmaceutical safety of the ethanol extract of A. elata leaves, namely ethanol leaves extract (ELE), in Beagle dogs. In sub-chronic oral toxicity study, dogs were treated with the ELE at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg for 12 weeks and followed by 4 weeks recovery period. During experimental period, clinical signs, mortality, body temperature, food consumption and body weight were recorded. Analysis of electrocardiogram, urinalysis, ophthalmoscopy, hematology, serum biochemistry, organ weights and histopathology were performed. The results showed that both food consumption and body weight significantly decreased in high-dose group. Treatment-related side effects and mortality were observed in high-dose female dogs. Some parameters showed significant alterations in electrocardiogram, urinalysis, serum biochemistry and relative organ weights. These alterations were not related to dose or consistent across gender, which were ascribed to incidental and biological variability. The findings in this study indicated that the no-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of the ELE was 100 mg/kg in dogs and provided a vital reference for selecting a safe application dosage for human consumption.

  13. Pharmacokinetics of propafenone hydrochloride sustained-release capsules in male beagle dogs

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Liping; Qian, Yafang; Cheng, Minlu; Gu, Pan; He, Yanna; Xu, Xiaowen; Ding, Li

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of a liquid chromatography–mass spectrometric assay for propafenone and its application to a pharmacokinetic study of propafenone administered as a new propafenone hydrochloride sustained-release capsule (SR-test), as an instant-release tablet (IR-reference) and as the market leader sustained-release capsule (Rythmol, SR-reference) in male beagle dogs (n=8). In Study A comparing SR-test with IR-reference in a crossover design Tmax and t1/2 of propafenone for SR-test were significantly higher than those for IR-reference while Cmax and AUC were lower demonstrating the sustained release properties of the new formulation. In Study B comparing SR-test with SR-reference the observed Cmax and AUC of propafenone for SR-test (124.5±140.0 ng/mL and 612.0±699.2 ng·h/mL, respectively) were higher than for SR-reference (78.52±72.92 ng/mL and 423.6±431.6 ng·h/mL, respectively) although the differences were not significant. Overall, the new formulation has as good if not better sustained release characteristics to the market leader formulation. PMID:26579428

  14. Histological Evaluation of Nano-Micro Titanium Implant Surface Treatment in Beagle Humerus.

    PubMed

    Yun, Kwidug; Kang, Seongsoo; Oh, Gyejeong; Lim, Hyunpil; Lee, Kwangmin; Yang, Hongso; Vang, Mongsook; Park, Sangwon

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of nano-micro titanium implant surface using histology in beagle dogs. A total of 48 screw-shaped implants (Megagen, Daegu, Korea) which dimensions were 4 mm in diameter and 8.5 mm in length, were used. The implants were classified into 4 groups (n = 12): machined surface (M group), RBM (Resorbable Blasting Media) surface (R group), nano surface which is nanotube formation on the machined surface (MA group) and nano-micro surface which is nanotube formation on the RBM surface (RA group). Anodic oxidation was performed at a constant voltage of 20 V for 10 min using a DC power supply (Fine Power F-3005; SG EMD, Anyang, Korea). The bone blocks were investigated using histology. There was no inflammation around implants, and new bone formation was shown along with the nano-micro titanium implant surfaces. The amount of bone formation was increased depending on time comparing 4 weeks and 12 weeks. At 12 weeks, lamellar bone was more formed along with the nano-micro titanium implant surfaces than 4 weeks. It indicated that nano-micro surface showed good result in terms of osseointegration.

  15. Contrast enhanced ultrasonography of kidney in conscious and anesthetized beagle dogs

    PubMed Central

    CHOI, Soo-Young; JEONG, Woo-Chang; LEE, Young-Won; CHOI, Ho-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is useful to evaluate tissue perfusion in the kidney. In veterinary medicine, sedation or anesthesia may be required in uncooperative or panting patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the normal kidney perfusion patterns in conscious and anesthetized dogs using CEUS. Eight healthy beagles were used in this study. Scanning was performed in conscious dogs using manual restraint (conscious group), or under general anesthesia using tiletamine-zolazepam and medetomidine (TZM group) or medetomidine (M group). The contrast agent (Sonovue®) was administered as an IV bolus. The peak intensity (PI), time to peak enhancement from injection (TTP0) and the time to peak enhancement from the initial rise (TTPup), upslope, downslope and area under the curve (AUC) were analyzed. Compared to the cortical values in the conscious group, TTP0 was significantly delayed in the TZM group, and upslope, TTP0 and TTPup were significantly different in the M group. The AUCs in the TZM and M groups were not different from those in the conscious group. The upslope of renal medullary perfusion was significantly decreased in the TZM and M groups. TTP0 and TTPup were also significantly delayed in these groups. The AUC of the medulla was significantly decreased in the M group. Therefore, TZM is useful as an anesthetic protocol when performing CEUS, and the obtained data may serve as reference values in the evaluation of renal perfusion using CEUS in dogs under anesthesia. PMID:26412201

  16. Carcinogenicity and chronic toxicity of copovidone (Kollidon VA 64) in Wistar rats and Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Mellert, W; Deckardt, K; Gembardt, C; Hildebrand, B; Schulte, S

    2004-10-01

    Kollidon VA 64 (copovidone, CAS-No. 25086-89-9) was administered in the diet to male and female Wistar rats (0, 700, 1400, and 2800 mg/kg body weight) for 24 months, and to male and female beagle dogs (0, 500, 1500, and 2500 mg/kg body weight/day) for 52 weeks. Clinical signs, body weight, food consumption, hematology, and gross and histopathological evaluations were conducted on both rats and dogs, and dogs also underwent hearing tests, ophthalmoscopic examinations, electrocardiograms, blood pressure measurement, and clinical chemistry and urinalysis evaluations. No adverse in-life observations related to treatment were observed in either species. The rats exhibited dark discoloration of the feces that was attributed to the intake and excretion of large amounts of test substance and was not considered to be an adverse effect. No treatment-related hematological changes, or gross or histopathological lesions were observed in either species that could be considered clinically relevant. Vacuolated histiocytosis in the mesenteric lymph nodes of four dogs that was not accompanied by inflammation or degenerative changes reflected histiocytic removal and degradation of the test article rather than a toxic effect. The results of these studies demonstrate the absence of any significant toxicological findings of high dietary levels copovidone in rats and dogs, resulting in no-observed-adverse-effect levels of 2800 mg/kg body weight/day in rats and 2500 mg/kg body weight/day in dogs, the highest doses tested.

  17. Occurrence of metastases in beagles with skeletal malignancies induced by internal irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, R.D.; Angus, W.; Taylor, G.N.

    1994-03-01

    Metastases from malignant bone tumors often are responsible for the fatal effects of these cancers. Characteristics of primary skeletal malignancies in beagles injected with bone-seeking radionuclides were studied by Thurman (1971) and summarized by Thurman et al. (1971). There were 212 tumors in 186 of these dogs for which we subsequently received information on bone tumor metastases. Evaluation of bone and soft tissue slides from these animals allowed us to compare parameters reported previously with the occurrence of grossly apparent bone tumor metastases. Data included growth-rate of the primary tumor, volume of the primary tumor at death, sex of the animal, growth period of the primary tumor, degree of calcification of the primary tumor, skeletal location of the primary tumor, cumulative radiation dose to the skeleton, dose equivalent to the skeleton, and year of death. For most of the comparisons, no significant differences could be established between dogs with and without metastases. However, tumor volume at death appeared to be correlated with probability of metastasis (p < 0.05), with the larger tumors being associated with higher rates of metastasis. Comparisons of dogs with and without metastases as a function of tumor growth-rate did not, for the most part, yield significantly different results between groups. 10 refs., 11 tabs.

  18. Prussian Blue decorporation of {sup 137}Cs in beagles of different ages

    SciTech Connect

    Melo, D.R.; Lundgren, D.L.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Guilmette, R.A.

    1996-08-01

    A 6-wk study was conducted using immature (4.7 mo), young adult (2.4 y), and aged (13.5 y) male beagles to determine the modifying effect of age on the effectiveness of Prussian Blue decorporation therapy for the removal of injected {sup 137}Cs. Whole-body clearance rates for injected {sup 137}Cs decreased with increasing age in the dogs. Treatment with Prussian Blue changed the ratio of fecal to urinary {sup 137}Cs excretion from 0.8 in untreated dogs to 2.2 in treated animals. The {sup 137}Cs concentrations in tissues of untreated and Prussian Blue-treated dogs at the end of the 6-wk study were similar, with the greatest concentrations in the skeletal muscle tissue, spleen, and kidneys. There was a lower concentration of {sup 137}Cs in the livers of the treated dogs. The reductions in the average total whole-body doses resulting from Prussian Blue treatment during the course of this study were 51% in the immature, 31% in the young adult, and 38% in the aged dogs. Because of the differences in the intake of Prussian Blue by the dogs in the different groups relative to their body weight, it is unclear as to the relative effectiveness of Prussian Blue in dogs of different ages. 33 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  19. Ovariectomy-induced changes in aged beagles : histomorphometry of rib cortical bone.

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, A. K.; Bhattacharyya, M. H.; Miller, S.; Sacco-Gibson, N.; Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology; Univ. of Utah; Procter & Gamble Pharmaceuticals

    1998-03-01

    Bone loss associated with estrogen depletion is well documented in cancellous bone but less well characterized in cortical bone. The effects of ovariectomy on the aged beagle skeleton were studied by histomorphometric analysis of the cortical bone in sequential rib biopsies. Biopsies were taken from each ovariectomized or sham-operated dog at the time of surgery and at 1, 4, and 8.5 months after surgery. Just prior to each postoperative biopsy, tetracycline, calcein, and xylenol orange, respectively, were administered by a fluorochrome labeling procedure (2d-10d-2d) to provide markers of bone formation. Analysis of sequential rib biopsies provided a means to follow the ovariectomy response over time and to compare each animal against its own baseline. Though ovariectomy did not influence histomorphometric indices at 1 month after surgery, a transient increase in cortical bone formation occurred thereafter, with a sixfold increase over that of sham-operated dogs at 4 months (P < 0.001) and a return to near control levels at 8.5 months. Cortical porosity increased by the fourth month after ovariectomy and remained high at 8.5 months. These data demonstrate for the first time that rib cortical bone is a responsive site for the effects of ovariectomy in aged female dogs.

  20. Cardiopulmonary function and morphologic changes in beagle dogs after multiple lung lavages

    SciTech Connect

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Mauderly, J.L.; Halliwell, W.H.; Slauson, D.O.

    1980-03-01

    This study evaluated the long-term biomedical risks of multiple, massive saline lung lavage using dogs. Risks were assessed using clinical examinations of cardiopulmonary function, thoracic radiographs, auscultation of the chest, body temperature, and hematologic values. Thirty-six dogs given 10 lavages over a 49-day period had no gross lesions at time of necropsy 7 days after the last lavage. Six dogs, followed with clinical examinations after each of 10 lung lavages, had no detectable effects from the lavage except for elevated body temperature and bronchial breathing at 24 hr after some procedures. No gross lesions were found at sacrifice 28 days after the last lavage. The only histologic lesions found were those also found in unlavaged control dogs. Six dogs that were lavaged 10 or more times had normal pulmonary function values for 4 yr after the last lung lavage. No chronic sequelae were found in healthy beagle dogs given 10 or more lung lavages suggesting a minimal long-term risk associated with these procedures.

  1. Adrafinil disrupts performance on a delayed nonmatching-to-position task in aged beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Siwak, Christina T; Tapp, P Dwight; Milgram, Norton W

    2003-08-01

    Previous studies in humans and dogs have reported beneficial effects of adrafinil on specific cognitive functions. The effects in dogs are limited to a single study examining discrimination learning. We wanted to further explore the cognitive effects of adrafinil in dogs. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of oral administration of adrafinil on visuospatial function in dogs. Eighteen aged beagle dogs were tested on a delayed nonmatching-to-position (DNMP) task 2 h following one of three possible treatments; 20 mg/kg of adrafinil, 10 mg/kg of adrafinil or a placebo control. All dogs were tested under each treatment for eight test sessions. A 2-day washout period was given between treatments and the order of treatments was varied. Treatment with 20 mg/kg of adrafinil produced a significant impairment in working memory as indicated by an increase in the number of errors over the 8-day test period. The disturbance of memory functions from adrafinil could be a result of increased noradrenergic transmission in the prefrontal cortex.

  2. Root resorption of primary molars without successor teeth. An experimental study in the beagle dog.

    PubMed

    Lin, Bi-Chen; Zhao, Yu-Ming; Yang, Jie; Ge, Li-Hong

    2012-04-01

    Tooth agenesis is a common craniofacial congenital malformation in humans, but little is known about the mechanisms of root resorption in this condition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of root resorption in primary molars without successors. An animal model without permanent tooth germs was established by surgery in beagles. The times of onset of primary molar root resorption, with and without successors, were compared. The distribution of immune cells, odontoclasts, and their activating factors were determined by histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. Root resorption of primary mandibular molars without successors began later than physiological resorption. In primary molars without permanent germs, odontoclasts and immune cells were present mainly in the apical pulp at the start of root resorption, whereas in control teeth receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-positive cells were found mainly in the region of the periodontal ligament. CD14(+) and CD3(+) cells were found in both the pulp and the periodontal ligament region. These results suggest that the dental pulp of primary molars, as well as immune cells, may play an important role in root resorption in primary molars without permanent tooth germs.

  3. Biodegradable effect of PLGA membrane in alveolar bone regeneration on beagle dog.

    PubMed

    Hua, Nan; Ti, Vivian Lao; Xu, Yuanzhi

    2014-11-01

    Guided bone regeneration (GBR) is a principle adopted from guided tissue regeneration (GTR). Wherein, GBR is used for the healing of peri-implant bony dehiscences, for the immediate placement of implants into extraction sockets and for the augmentation of atrophic alveolar ridges. This procedure is done by the placement of a resorbable or non-resorbable membrane that will exclude undesirable types of tissue growth between the extraction socket and the soft tissue to allow only bone cells to regenerate in the surgically treated lesion. Here, we investigated the biodegradable effect of polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) membrane in the alveolar bone on Beagle dogs. Results show that both collagen and PLGA membrane had been fully resorbed, biodegraded, at four weeks post-operative reentry into the alveolar bone. Histological results under light microscopy revealed formation of new bone trabeculae in the extraction sites on both collagen and PLGA membrane. In conclusion, PLGA membrane could be a potential biomaterials for use on GBR and GTR. Nevertheless, further studies will be necessary to elucidate the efficiency and cost effectiveness of PLGA as GBR membrane in clinical.

  4. Myenteric plexus is differentially affected by infection with distinct Trypanosoma cruzi strains in Beagle dogs

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira-Paiva, Nívia Carolina; Fonseca, Kátia da Silva; Vieira, Paula Melo de Abreu; Diniz, Lívia Figueiredo; Caldas, Ivo Santana; de Moura, Sandra Aparecida Lima; Veloso, Vanja Maria; Guedes, Paulo Marcos da Matta; Tafuri, Washington Luiz; Bahia, Maria Terezinha; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins

    2013-01-01

    Chagasic megaoesophagus and megacolon are characterised by motor abnormalities related to enteric nervous system lesions and their development seems to be related to geographic distribution of distinct Trypanosoma cruzi subpopulations. Beagle dogs were infected with Y or Berenice-78 (Be-78) T. cruzi strains and necropsied during the acute or chronic phase of experimental disease for post mortem histopathological evaluation of the oesophagus and colon. Both strains infected the oesophagus and colon and caused an inflammatory response during the acute phase. In the chronic phase, inflammatory process was observed exclusively in the Be-78 infected animals, possibly due to a parasitism persistent only in this group. Myenteric denervation occurred during the acute phase of infection for both strains, but persisted chronically only in Be-78 infected animals. Glial cell involvement occurred earlier in animals infected with the Y strain, while animals infected with the Be-78 strain showed reduced glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactive area of enteric glial cells in the chronic phase. These results suggest that although both strains cause lesions in the digestive tract, the Y strain is associated with early control of the lesion, while the Be-78 strain results in progressive gut lesions in this model. PMID:24271001

  5. Evolution of blood parameters during weight loss in experimental obese Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Diez, M; Michaux, C; Jeusette, I; Baldwin, P; Istasse, L; Biourge, V

    2004-04-01

    The effects of weight loss on hormonal and biochemical blood parameters were measured monthly [carnitine, creatinine, urea, free T4 (fT4), total T4 (TT4), plasma alkaline phosphatases (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), potassium and total proteins] or bimonthly [cholesterol, triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), glucose, insulin] in eight obese Beagles dogs fed either a high protein dry diet, DP (crude protein 47.5%, on dry matter basis) or a commercial high fibre diet, HF (crude protein 23.8%, crude fibre 23.3%). The dogs were allotted to two groups according to sex and body weight (BW) and they were respectively fed with the DP or the control HF diet during 12-26 weeks, until they reach their optimal BW. The plasma basal triglycerides and cholesterol concentrations were decreased by the two diets but the difference was only significant for the DP diet. The plasma mean NEFA concentration increased regularly over the period with the HF diet, without significant difference between the two diets. No effect of diet or weight loss was observed on plasma carnitine, urea, creatinine, ALP, AST, ALT, potassium, TT4, FT4, IGF-I, glucose and insulin. Weight loss induced a decrease in fT4 plasma concentration (p < 0.001). The high protein diet allowed a safe weight loss.

  6. The effect of perinatal sup 60 Co gamma radiation on brain weight in beagles

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, B.F.; Benjamin, S.A.; Angleton, G.M.; Lee, A.C. )

    1989-08-01

    Beagle dogs were given single, whole-body {sup 60}Co gamma-radiation exposures at one of three prenatal (8, 28, or 55 days postcoitus) or three postnatal (2, 70, or 365 days postpartum) ages to evaluate the relative radiosensitivity of various stages of brain development. A total of 387 dogs received mean doses ranging from 0.16 to 3.83 Gy, and 120 dogs were sham-irradiated. Groups of dogs were sacrificed at preselected times from 70 days to 11 years of age. Brain weight decreased significantly with increasing dose in dogs irradiated at 28 or 55 days postcoitus or at 2 days postpartum. Irradiations at 28 days postcoitus were dramatically more effective in causing a reduction in brain weight than those at 55 days postcoitus or 2 days postpartum. Among dogs given 1.0 Gy or more and followed for up to 4 years, there was a radiation effect evident at all three sensitive exposure ages. Among dogs given lower doses and followed for up to 11 years, there was a significant decrease in brain weight in dogs given 0.80-0.88 Gy at 28 days postcoitus. All decreases in brain weight were present after normalization for radiation-induced reductions in skeletal (body) size. No specific morphologic changes were noted in the brains which showed the radiation-related reductions in size.

  7. Distribution of fibre types and fibre sizes in the tibialis cranialis muscle of beagle dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Newsholme, S J; Lexell, J; Downham, D Y

    1988-01-01

    The percentages of Type I muscle fibres were measured systematically in ATPase-stained, transverse cryostat sections of whole tibialis cranialis muscles from 8 young, adult beagles. The distance of the section from the origin of the muscle does not significantly affect the mean percentage. There are no identifiable differences in mean percentages between right and left muscles. Differences in mean percentages between individuals are significant when sexes are combined (P less than 0.01) and within sexes (males: P less than 0.01; females: P less than 0.05). Within sections, the percentage tends to be lowest at the superficial (craniolateral) border and to vary less from site to site deeper within the muscle. Fibre cross sectional areas were measured systematically in the same sections of the right muscle from 3 males and 3 females. Mean areas for each section were greater for Type II than for Type I fibres. Mean areas for each fibre-type varied moderately and non-systematically between the sample sites within sections. A needle biopsy taken from deep within this muscle should provide a more consistent and reliable estimate of fibre-type proportion in the whole muscle than a superficial specimen. Proportions are not affected by the distance of the sample site from the muscle origin, and left or right muscles are suitable for sequential samples. PMID:3253248

  8. Effect of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound on orthodontically induced root resorption in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Al-Daghreer, Saleh; Doschak, Michael; Sloan, Alastair J; Major, Paul W; Heo, Giseon; Scurtescu, Cristian; Tsui, Ying Y; El-Bialy, Tarek

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the effect of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption in vivo. Ten beagle dogs were treated with an orthodontic appliance to move the mandibular fourth premolars bodily. The orthodontic movement was carried out for 4 wk with a continuous force of 1 N/side; using a split-mouth model, LIPUS was applied daily for 20 min. Fourth premolar and surrounding periodontal tissue were evaluated with micro-computed tomography and hematoxylin and eosin and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining. We calculated the number, volume and distribution of root resorption lacunae and their percentage relative to total root volume, orthodontic tooth movement and periodontal ligament space. There was no significant difference in orthodontic tooth movement between the two sides. LIPUS significantly reduced the number of orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption initiation areas by 71%, reduced their total volume by 68% and reduced their volume relative to the affected root total volume by 70%. LIPUS induced the formation of a precementum layer, thicker cementum and reparative cellular cementum.

  9. Deposition of Crocidolite asbestos and glass microfibers inhaled by the beagle dog

    SciTech Connect

    Griffis, L.C.; Pickrell, J.A.; Carpenter, R.L.; Wolff, R.K.; McAllen, S.J.; Yerkes, K.L.

    1983-01-01

    The respiratory tract deposition of neutron activated Crocidolite asbestos and glass microfibers was determined in two groups of four Beagle dogs. The dogs were given 60-minute, nose-only inhalation exposures to an aerosol of either asbestos or glass fibers. The radioactivity in tissues and excreta four days after exposure was used to determine the fraction of inhaled fibers deposited in the upper respiratory tract and the deep lung. The activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD), count median diameter (CMD) and count median length (CML) were determined from fibers sampled during exposure. Crocidolite asbestos fibers had an AMAD of 1.8 ..mu..m, a CMD of 0.25 ..mu..m and a CML < 5 ..mu..m. The fraction of inhaled mass deposited in deep lung was 13-19%, while total deposition in the respiratory tract was 54-72%. Glass microfibers had an AMAD of 2.5 ..mu..m, a CMD of 0.15 ..mu..m and a CML of 5.4 ..mu... Five to 17% of the mass of glass fiber was deposited in the deep lung; total respiratory tract deposition was 45-64%. The deposition patterns were similar for these small asbestos and glass fibers inhaled by dogs and in good agreement with previous predictions made for man. 24 references, 4 figures, 5 tables.

  10. Development and testing of subsurface sampling devices for the Beagle 2 lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, L.; Coste, P.; Gromov, V. V.; Kochan, H.; Nadalini, R.; Ng, T. C.; Pinna, S.; Richter, H.-E.; Yung, K. L.

    2002-08-01

    For planetary landing missions, the capability to acquire samples of soil and rock is of high importance whenever complex analyses (e.g. isotopic studies) on these materials are to be carried out, or when samples are to be returned to Earth. Not only surface samples are of relevance, but in recent concepts at least for Mars landing missions also subsurface samples are required. Subsurface material on Mars is believed to have been protected from the inferred oxidants at the immediate surface while also being protected from the UV influx. Therefore, there is considerable hope that in subsurface soil samples on Mars, at least organic matter delivered by meteorites may be detected, and possibly also relics of earlier simple microbial life on the planet. Likewise, samples from the inside of Martian surface rocks promise to have been protected from weathering and for the same reason they are important for organic chemistry studies. In this paper, an overview is given of the development and science of two different subsurface sampling devices for the Beagle 2 lander of ESA's Mars Express mission, being a "Mole" subsurface soil sampler and a small rock coring and sampling mechanism. Besides their sampling function, both the Mole and the Corer/Grinder will provide data on physical properties of Martian soils and rock, respectively, through the way they interact with the sampled materials. Details of the Mole and Corer/Grinder design are presented, along with results of recent tests with prototypes in the laboratory on physically analogous sample materials.

  11. Chryse Outflow Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A color image of the south Chryse basin Valles Marineris outflow channels on Mars; north toward top. The scene shows on the southwest corner the chaotic terrain of the east part of Valles Marineris and two of its related canyons: Eos and Capri Chasmata (south to north). Ganges Chasma lies directly north. The chaos in the southern part of the image gives rise to several outflow channels, Shalbatana, Simud, Tiu, and Ares Valles (left to right), that drained north into the Chryse basin. The mouth of Ares Valles is the site of the Mars Pathfinder lander.

    This image is a composite of Viking medium-resolution images in black and white and low-resolution images in color. The image extends from latitude 20 degrees S. to 20 degrees N. and from longitude 15 degrees to 53 degrees; Mercator projection.

    The south Chryse outflow channels are cut an average of 1 km into the cratered highland terrain. This terrain is about 9 km above datum near Valles Marineris and steadily decreases in elevation to 1 km below datum in the Chryse basin. Shalbatana is relatively narrow (10 km wide) but can reach 3 km in depth. The channel begins at a 2- to 3-km-deep circular depression within a large impact crater, whose floor is partly covered by a chaotic material, and ends in Simud Valles. Tiu and Simud Valles consist of a complex of connected channel floors and chaotic terrain and extend as far south as and connect to eastern Valles Marineris. Ares Vallis originates from discontinuous patches of chaotic terrain within large craters. In the Chryse basin the Ares channel forks; one branch continues northwest into central Chryse Planitia (Latin for plain) and the other extends north into eastern Chryse Planitia.

  12. TRP Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voets, Thomas; Owsianik, Grzegorz; Nilius, Bernd

    The TRP superfamily represents a highly diverse group of cation-permeable ion channels related to the product of the Drosophila trp (transient receptor potential) gene. The cloning and characterization of members of this cation channel family has experienced a remarkable growth during the last decade, uncovering a wealth of information concerning the role of TRP channels in a variety of cell types, tissues, and species. Initially, TRP channels were mainly considered as phospholipase C (PLC)-dependent and/or store-operated Ca2+-permeable cation channels. More recent research has highlighted the sensitivity of TRP channels to a broad array of chemical and physical stimuli, allowing them to function as dedicated biological sensors involved in processes ranging from vision to taste, tactile sensation, and hearing. Moreover, the tailored selectivity of certain TRP channels enables them to play key roles in the cellular uptake and/or transepithelial transport of Ca2+, Mg2+, and trace metal ions. In this chapter we give a brief overview of the TRP channel superfamily followed by a survey of current knowledge concerning their structure and activation mechanisms.

  13. The Pacific-Atlantic connection: Biogeochemical signals in the southern end of the Argentine shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzón, J. E. Cardona; Martínez, A. M.; Barrera, F.; Pfaff, F.; Koch, B. P.; Freije, R. H.; Gómez, E. A.; Lara, R. J.

    2016-11-01

    The Cape Horn Current transports low-salinity waters from the SE Pacific Ocean into the Atlantic, which are transported further north by the Malvinas current. Biogeochemical signals of this connection were studied by characterization of dissolved organic matter (DOM) by determination of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOMc), and DOM humification index (HIX). Further, inorganic nutrients, salinity, temperature, stable isotopic composition of particulate organic nitrogen (δ15N) and chlorophyll a (Chla) were measured in the southern end of the Argentine shelf in March 2012. Three water types were characterized: waters of the Beagle Channel (BCW), coastal waters (CW) and oceanic waters (OW). Highest values of ammonium, DOC, FDOMc and HIX were found in BCW, the lowest in OW, suggesting that terrigenous input is a main source of ammonium and refractory carbon, which is supported by a highly significant inverse correlation of these parameters with salinity. In turn, lowest concentrations of nitrate, silicate and phosphate were found in BCW and CW, and highest in OW, with highly significant correlations of these nutrients with salinity, indicating the contribution of the saltier, nutrient-rich Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) to the Pacific-Atlantic connection system. In general there was an inverse distribution pattern between Chla and those nutrients contributed by the ACC, which is consistent with the transition from coastal waters to the low-silicate, high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll, iron-limited setting of the Subantarctic oceanic waters north of the Polar Front. In contrast, in the low-salinity, internal BCW, high values of ammonium, DOC, HIX and FDOM indicate continental inputs, likely including iron complexes, which could have led to the observed high Chla values. δ15N values were positive in the study region, and same as ammonium, reached a maximum in the inner part of the BCW, declining towards OW. This does not support a

  14. Periodontal pocket treatment in beagle dogs using subgingival doxycycline from a biodegradable system. I. Initial clinical responses.

    PubMed

    Polson, A M; Southard, G L; Dunn, R L; Yewey, G L; Godowski, K C; Polson, A P; Fulfs, J C; Laster, L

    1996-11-01

    The present study evaluated the clinical response of periodontal pockets in beagle dogs after treatment with a biodegradable delivery system containing 10% doxycycline hyclate (ABDS-D). Eight adult, female beagle dogs had generalized, severe periodontitis with plaque and calculus-laden pockets. In each animal, 3 teeth with multiple pocket sites > or = 4 mm (mean depth = 6.0 mm) associated with attachment loss (mean = 5.4 mm) and which bled on probing (mean score = 2.5) were treated with a single application of either ABDS-D (experimental group) or the delivery system alone without the doxycycline (control group). Residual polymer was removed at day 7. Bioassay of doxycycline in gingival crevicular fluid associated with presence of ABDS-D gave mean levels of bioactivity of approximately 250 micrograms/ml. Levels of bioactive doxycycline were detected for approximately 7 days after ABDS-D removal. Periodontal maintenance consisted of thrice-weekly toothbrushing the treated sites. Clinical responses were evaluated at 2 weeks, and at bi-weekly intervals thereafter for 4 months. Analyses of the data from the control group showed that there was only slight clinical improvement. In contrast, in the experimental group, bleeding on probing and probing depths were significantly reduced from baseline at all post-treatment time points. At 1 month, mean probing depth reduction was 2.4 mm and this was maintained at 4 months (mean reduction = 2.5 mm). These probing depth reductions occurred primarily through gain of clinical attachment which was 2.0 mm at 4 months. Bleeding had been virtually eliminated (mean = 0.2). It was concluded that, for the beagle dogs with severely infected periodontal pockets in this study, treatment with subgingival doxycycline using the delivery system resulted in substantial improvement in periodontal health.

  15. Carcinogenesis and Inflammatory Effects of Plutonium-Nitrate Retention in an Exposed Nuclear Worker and Beagle Dogs.

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, Christopher E.; Wang, Xihai; Robinson, Robert J.; Brooks, Antone L.; Lovaglio, Jamie A.; Patton, Kristin M.; McComish, Stacey; Tolmachev, Sergei Y.; Morgan, William F.

    2014-01-01

    The genetic and inflammatory response pathways elicited following plutonium exposure in archival lung tissue of an occupationally exposed human and experimentally exposed beagle dogs were investigated. These pathways include: tissue injury, apoptosis and gene expression modifications related to carcinogenesis and inflammation. In order to determine which pathways are involved, multiple lung samples from a plutonium exposed worker (Case 0269), a human control (Case 0385), and plutonium exposed beagle dogs were examined using histological staining and immunohistochemistry. Examinations were performed to identify target tissues at risk of radiation-induced fibrosis, inflammation, and carcinogenesis. Case 0269 showed interstitial fibrosis in peripheral and subpleural regions of the lung, but no pulmonary tumors. In contrast, the dogs with similar and higher doses showed pulmonary tumors primarily in brochiolo-alveolar, peripheral and subpleural alveolar regions. The TUNEL assay showed slight elevation of apoptosis in tracheal mucosa, tumor cells, and nuclear debris was present in the inflammatory regions of alveoli and lymph nodes of both the human and the dogs. The expression of apoptosis and a number of chemokine/cytokine genes was slightly but not significantly elevated in protein or gene levels compared to that of the control samples. In the beagles, mucous production was increased in the airway epithelial goblet cells and glands of trachea, and a number of chemokine/cytokine genes showed positive immunoreactivity. This analysis of archival tissue from an accidentally exposed worker and in a large animal model provides valuable information on the effects of long-term retention of plutonium in the respiratory tract and the histological evaluation study may impact mechanistic studies of radiation carcinogenesis.

  16. Southern Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03026 Southern Clouds

    This image shows a system of clouds just off the margin of the South Polar cap. Taken during the summer season, these clouds contain both water-ice and dust.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 80.2S, Longitude 57.6E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  17. Southern Spots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03092 Southern Spots

    This VIS image of the south polar region was collected during the summer season. The markings of the pole are very diverse and easy to see after the winter frost has been removed.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 79.7S, Longitude 56.6E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  18. [Brazil in the travel journal by Captain Robert FitzRoy of the HMS Beagle, 1828-1839].

    PubMed

    Passetti, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    In the 1830s, the Royal Navy's ships were charged with precisely mapping out coastlines and ports, contacting local governments, and establishing trade and diplomatic relations. On returning to Britain, men like Robert FitzRoy, captain of the His Majesty's Ship (HMS) Beagle, would publish reports on their expeditions. They described and analyzed the societies they visited and compared them with Britain's actions around the globe. Brazil's tropical landscapes inspired their admiration, but its inhabitants were criticized for the inefficiency of their economic explorations and social backwardness. In this period, science accompanied the expansion of the British Empire, and accounts written by ships' captains legitimized the discourse about its practices of domination.

  19. Dynamics of Alloplastic Bone Grafts on an Early Stage of Corticotomy-Facilitated Orthodontic Tooth Movement in Beagle Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyung-Joo; Kim, Tae-Woo

    2014-01-01

    Alveolar augmented corticotomy is effective in accelerating orthodontic tooth movement, but the effect only lasts for a relatively short time. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the underlying biology of the immediate periodontal response to orthodontic tooth movement after a corticotomy with alloplastic bone grafts. The results demonstrated that measurable tooth movement began as early as 3 days after the intervention in beagle dogs. Based on the results and histological findings, augmented corticotomy-facilitated orthodontic tooth movement might enhance the condition of the periodontal tissue and the stability of the outcomes of orthodontic treatment. PMID:25276787

  20. "My appointment received the sanction of the Admiralty": why Charles Darwin really was the naturalist on HMS Beagle.

    PubMed

    van Wyhe, John

    2013-09-01

    For decades historians of science and science writers in general have maintained that Charles Darwin was not the 'naturalist' or 'official naturalist' during the 1831-1836 surveying voyage of HMS Beagle but instead Captain Robert FitzRoy's 'companion', 'gentleman companion' or 'dining companion'. That is, Darwin was primarily the captain's social companion and only secondarily and unofficially naturalist. Instead, it is usually maintained, the ship's surgeon Robert McCormick was the official naturalist because this was the default or official practice at the time. Although these views have been repeated in countless accounts of Darwin's life, this essay aims to show that they are incorrect.

  1. The Beagle 2 Stereo Camera System: Scientific Objectives and Design Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, A.; Coates, A.; Josset, J.; Paar, G.; Sims, M.

    2003-04-01

    The Stereo Camera System (SCS) will provide wide-angle (48 degree) multi-spectral stereo imaging of the Beagle 2 landing site in Isidis Planitia with an angular resolution of 0.75 milliradians. Based on the SpaceX Modular Micro-Imager, the SCS is composed of twin cameras (with 1024 by 1024 pixel frame transfer CCD) and twin filter wheel units (with a combined total of 24 filters). The primary mission objective is to construct a digital elevation model of the area in reach of the lander’s robot arm. The SCS specifications and following baseline studies are described: Panoramic RGB colour imaging of the landing site and panoramic multi-spectral imaging at 12 distinct wavelengths to study the mineralogy of landing site. Solar observations to measure water vapour absorption and the atmospheric dust optical density. Also envisaged are multi-spectral observations of Phobos &Deimos (observations of the moons relative to background stars will be used to determine the lander’s location and orientation relative to the Martian surface), monitoring of the landing site to detect temporal changes, observation of the actions and effects of the other PAW experiments (including rock texture studies with a close-up-lens) and collaborative observations with the Mars Express orbiter instrument teams. Due to be launched in May of this year, the total system mass is 360 g, the required volume envelope is 747 cm^3 and the average power consumption is 1.8 W. A 10Mbit/s RS422 bus connects each camera to the lander common electronics.

  2. Plutonium- or americium-induced liver tumors and lesions in beagles

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, G.N.; Lloyd, R.D.; Mays, C.W.; Angus, W.; Miller, S.C.; Shabestari, L.; Hahn, F.F. )

    1991-09-01

    Plutonium-239 or 241Am administered intravenously in the monomeric citrate form was initially deposited in beagle livers principally in the hepatocytes and to a much lesser extent in the sinusoidal macrophages and connective tissues. The initial distribution was quite uniform throughout the hepatic parenchyma; however, at later postinjection intervals, depending on the amount of injected activity, the liver burden became increasingly more focal due to: (1) a progressive shift of the radionuclide from the hepatic epithelium to the macrophages; (2) the movement of such macrophages toward the portal or central regions of the lobule; and (3) the displacement of the older more radioactive tissue by regenerating hepatocytes, which generally have a much lower radionuclide content. The hepatic lesions produced by Pu or Am included: (1) necrosis and degenerative changes that were clinically serious or fatal in some of the animals injected with approximately 107 kBq kg-1; (2) marked structural and circulatory changes resulting from necrosis and focal hepatocyte hyperplasia; (3) a significant incidence of both benign and malignant primary liver tumors. In both Pu- and Am-treated dogs, the most frequently appearing neoplasm was the bile duct adenoma, followed by the cholangiocarcinoma. The most obvious difference between Pu- and Am-induced liver neoplasia was the greater frequency of fibrosarcomas and mast cell sarcomas in the Am-treated groups. Hepatomas were of relatively low frequency in animals with Pu or Am burdens. Although the incidence of bone neoplasia was high among the dogs in these studies, the risk of liver tumors, especially in the Am-treated animals, exceeded that of the skeleton in some of the lower dosage levels where the survival times were long.

  3. Microdistribution and local dosimetry of /sup 226/Ra in trabecular bone of the beagle

    SciTech Connect

    Polig, E.; Jee, W.S.; Dell, R.B.; Johnson, F.

    1988-11-01

    Sections of lumbar vertebral bodies of young adult beagle dogs have been analyzed autoradiographically to characterize and quantify the local distribution of 226Ra by means of a scanning microscope photometer. The animals received a single injection of 355 kBq/kg body weight and were serially sacrificed at 5 to 1381 days postinjection. Hotspot concentrations decreased from about 51 kBq/g bone at 5 days to 20 kBq/g at 1381 days postinjection. The diffuse concentration changed from 8.3 to 1.9 kBq/g. The mean 226Ra concentration in the trabecular areas scanned was initially higher and at the end of the observation period lower than the average calculated for the whole lumbar vertebral column. Density and area of, and fraction of bone activity in, hotspots virtually remained constant. With time hotspots tended to become translocated into bone volume. Mean dose rates to lining cells from both hotspots and diffuse labels decreased from about 210 mGy/d at early postinjection times to 105 mGy/d. This corresponds to 2.5 to 1.1 times the average skeletal dose rate. A discussion of the level of irradiation in terms of hit frequencies shows that osteoblasts in the initial phase of hotspot formation receive about 60 hits to their nucleus for the duration of bone formation. After about 6 months, however, the 226Ra concentration in new bone and the corresponding hit frequency appears to be low enough that interference with bone formation is unlikely. Morphometric measurements showed that abnormal bone accretion and thickening of trabeculae occurred. This was interpreted as an imbalance between bone formation and resorption. Both formation and resorption seem to be substantially lowered compared to control animals.

  4. Distribution of skeletal malignancies in beagles injected with {sup 239}Pu citrate

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, R.D.; Taylor, G.N.; Angus, W.

    1994-04-01

    The distribution of skeletal malignancies among our beagles injected with {sup 239}Pu as young adults roughly seems to follow the distribution of skeletal mass and skeletal {sup 239}Pu. These findings are similar to those we reported previously for a group of dogs given {sup 226}Ra. Although there were differences in tumor distribution between the animals given {sup 239}Ra and those given {sup 239}Pu, most of them were not statistically significant; however, the radium dogs seemed to show a greater sensitivity to bone tumor origin in the tibia, while there may have been a tendency among the plutonium dogs toward increased relative sensitivity in the scapula, lumbar vertebrae, sacrum, and ribs. In contrast, the most common site for the formation of naturally-occurring bone malignancy in the dog is the distal radius. Perhaps there were too few tumors and too few dogs to establish statistical significance. A correlation between tumor location and at least two anatomical-physiological factors in the skeleton indicated that these two factors (site-specific bone turnover rate and percent of red marrow at the site, which is correlated with vascularity) may influence the appearance of malignancies both individually and in combination. Except for the femur, there appeared to be no difference between the relative distribution of skeletal malignancies of low-level (30 Bq-2 Bq kg{sup -1} injected) and high-level (3-122 kBq kg{sup -1}) dogs. Distribution of bone tumors between the axial and appendicular skeleton was 50% vs. 50% for {sup 239}Pu (42 and 42), but it was 39% axial vs. 61% appendicular (22 and 35, respectively) for dogs given {sup 226}Ra. This difference was not significant (p > 0.2). 15 refs., 4 tabs.

  5. Characterization and Bioavailability of Wogonin by Different Administration Routes in Beagles.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Na; Li, Jian-Chun; Zhu, Jin-Xiu; Wang, Xiu; Zhang, Jin

    2016-10-16

    BACKGROUND With the gradually accumulating research on pharmacological activity of wogonin, the in vitro analysis research on wogonin has become more and more popular, but there are very few reports about in vivo detection, and there are no solid dispersions (SDs) of Wogonin. The aim of this study was to explore the formation of solid dispersions (SDs) of wogonin. The reasons for the low bioavailability were studied through different routes of administration. MATERIAL AND METHODS SDs was formulated using the solvent evaporation method via polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (PVP). The characterization of the drug and its carrier was detected by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The serum concentrations of Wogonin were detected using the LC-MS/MS method. Six beagles were fed 3 different formulations of wogonin in 3 cycles. RESULTS The SDs of wogonin had a higher solubility than the physical mixtures. Based on XRD and DSC, wogonin was transformed from a crystalline morphology to an amorphous structure. The main pharmacokinetic parameters of i.g. administration (crude material and SD) and i.v. route were as follows: Cmax (2.5±1.1), (7.9±3.3), and (6838.7±1322.1) μg/L, tmax (0.7±0.3) and (0.3±0.2) h for the former, AUC0-t (7.1±2.0), (21.0±3.2) and (629.7±111.8) μg·h/L. The absolute bioavailability of native wogonin and wogonin arginine solution were (0.59±0.35)% and (3.65± 2.60)%. Further research showed that the low bioavailability of wogonin might be associated with low solubility and rapid combination with glucuronic acid in vivo. CONCLUSIONS The significantly increased solubility of SDs and the further preparation of arginine solution could significantly increase the bioavailability of wogonin.

  6. Use of the carbon dioxide laser in guided tissue regeneration wound healing in the beagle dog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossmann, Jeffrey A.; Parlar, Ates; Abdel-Ghaffar, Khaled A.; El-Khouli, Amr M.; Israel, Michael

    1996-04-01

    The concept of guided tissue regeneration (GTR) allowing cells from the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone to repopulate the treated root surface has shown the ability to obtain periodontal new attachment. Healing studies have also shown that conventional GTR therapy still does not exclude all the epithelium. This epithelial proliferation apically interferes with the establishment of the new connective tissue attachment to the root surface. The objective of this research study was to examine whether controlled de-epithelialization with the carbon dioxide laser during the healing phase after periodontal surgery, would retard the apical migration of the epithelium and thereby enhance the results obtained through guided tissue regeneration. Eight beagle dogs were used, the experimental side received de-epithelialization with the CO2 laser in conjunction with flap reflection and surgically created buccal osseous defects. Selected defects on each side were treated with ePTFE periodontal membranes. The laser de-epithelialization was repeated every 10 days until removal of the membranes. The control side received the same surgical treatment without laser application. This experimental design allowed histologic study of the new attachment obtained in defects treated with flap debridement with or without laser de-epithelialization and with or without ePTFE membranes. A statistical analysis was performed on the histometric data from 48 teeth in the 8 dogs after 4 months of healing. The results showed significant amounts of new attachment obtained from all four treatment modalities with no statistically significant differences for any one treatment. However, the trend towards enhanced regeneration with the combined treatment of laser and membrane vs. membrane alone or debridement alone was evident. The histologic analysis revealed a significant amount of newly formed `fat cementum' seen only on the laser treated teeth. This feature was the most remarkable finding of the

  7. Bone sarcoma characteristics and distribution in beagles injected with radium-226

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.G.; Raabe, O.G.; Culbertson, M.R.; Parks, N.J.; Samuels, S.J.; Rosenblatt, L.S. )

    1994-03-01

    A total of 155 primary bone sarcomas were found in 131 of the 246 beagles injected with [sup 226]Ra and 5 primary bone sarcomas were found in 4 of the 158 unexposed controls. Of these 155 bone sarcomas, 146 (94%) were osteosarcomas and 9 were nonosteosarcomas. An additional 31 primary bone sarcomas (28 osteosarcomas) developed in 44 dogs terminated from the main study because of limb amputation for bone sarcoma. Nonosteosarcomas predominated in both the controls and the second lowest of six logarithmically increasing dose levels (there were no bone sarcomas in the lowest dose group). Osteosarcomas predominated at the higher dose levels, and incidence tended to increase as dose increased. The 146 osteosarcomas were distributed quite evenly between males and females (72:74). Of the 9 nonosteosarcomas, 6 occurred in males and 3 in females. The ratio of bone sarcomas of the appendicular skeleton to those in the axial skeleton was 110:45, with osteosarcomas occurring more often in the appendicular skeleton (108:38). Cases of multiple primary bone sarcomas in dogs injected with [sup 226]Ra were found only in the four highest dose groups. Amputations were performed on 44 of the 96 dogs (94 injected and 2 unexposed) that developed appendicular bone sarcomas. A statistical study of the distribution of bone sarcomas among 16 separate bone groups showed a statistically significant correlation to cancellous skeletal surface, but the variability among bone groups was too large for this relationship to be of real predictive value. it is postulated that the distribution of bone sarcomas reflects primarily the relative cell division rates in the bone groups and secondarily the radiation dose distribution, with the highest occurrence of bone sarcoma in the humeri, pelvis, femora and tibiae/fibular tarsal, and no occurrence in the coccygeal vertebrae, sternum, forepaws or hindpaws. 16 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Single inhalation exposure to 90SrCl2 in the beagle dog: hematological effects

    SciTech Connect

    Gillett, N.A.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Boecker, B.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Seiler, F.A.; Rebar, A.H.; Jones, R.K.; McClellan, R.O.

    1987-05-01

    The toxicity of /sup 90/Sr administered by the inhalation route was studied in young adult Beagle dogs exposed once to aerosols containing /sup 90/SrCl/sub 2/. Due to its relatively soluble chemical form, /sup 90/Sr was rapidly translocated from lung to bone where a substantial portion was retained for a long period of time. This resulted in only a brief radiation exposure of the respiratory tract and a protracted exposure of the skeleton. The long-term retained burdens ranged from 0.037 to 4.4 MBq /sup 90/Sr/kg body wt. Dogs were subsequently observed throughout their life span. Six dogs with long-term retained burdens of 1.7 to 4.1 MBq /sup 90/Sr/kg died at less than 32 days after exposure from radiation-induced bone marrow hypoplasia. Review of hematological parameters of all dogs showed a similar, consistent, and dose-related pancytopenia in those animals having a long-term retained burden of greater than 0.37 MBq /sup 90/Sr/kg. Thrombocytopenia and neutropenia persisted in all exposed dogs through 1000 days after exposure. For reference purposes, a burden of 0.37 MBq /sup 90/Sr/kg is calculated to deliver an average radiation dose to the skeleton over 30, 100, and 1000 days after intake of 1.0, 2.8, and 17 Gy, respectively. The hematologic changes were similar to those seen in people exposed to high doses of whole-body external radiation.

  9. Stability and bioequivalence studies of two marketed formulations of coenzyme Q10 in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Kommuru, T R; Ashraf, M; Khan, M A; Reddy, I K

    1999-07-01

    Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), a highly lipophilic compound present in the inner mitochondrial membrane, is essential for production of cellular energy in the form of ATP. CoQ10 is used as an antioxidant and also in the treatment of various cardiovascular disorders. The relative bioavailabilities of powder filled capsule (I) and oil-based formulation (II) of CoQ10 were compared in beagle dogs in an open, randomized, multiple dose, cross-over design. Poor and slow absorption characteristics were observed for both the formulations. The AUC, Cmax, and Tmax for formulation I and II are comparable (p < 0.05) where the values for formulation I are 22.84 +/- 6.3 micrograms ml-1 h, 0.51 +/- 0.11 microgram/ml, and 6.1 +/- 2.0 h whereas the values for formulation II are 24.32 +/- 5.6 micrograms ml-1 h, 0.55 +/- 0.16 microgram/ml, and 6.6 +/- 2.3 h, respectively. Stability of CoQ10 at various temperature and humidity conditions and its photostability were studied. Various antioxidants were evaluated to determine the type and amount of antioxidant(s) required to improve the stability of CoQ10. Large extent of degradation was observed at 45 degrees C and 55 degrees C. The effect of humidity conditions on degradation was insignificant. Among the various antioxidants studied, mixture of ascorbic acid (5%) and EDTA (0.1%) offered better protection than phenolic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxy anisole (BHA), butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT), or propyl gallate (PG). Further, increasing concentrations of phenolic antioxidants (from 0.1 to 0.3%) accelerated the degradation.

  10. Channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter provides a comprehensive overview of channel catfish aquaculture. Sections include fish biology; commercial culture; culture facilities; production practices; water quality management; nutrition, feeding and feed formulation; infectious diseases; harvesting and processing; and the...

  11. Mechanosensitive Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinac, Boris

    Living cells are exposed to a variety of mechanical stimuli acting throughout the biosphere. The range of the stimuli extends from thermal molecular agitation to potentially destructive cell swelling caused by osmotic pressure gradients. Cellular membranes present a major target for these stimuli. To detect mechanical forces acting upon them cell membranes are equipped with mechanosensitive (MS) ion channels. Functioning as molecular mechanoelectrical transducers of mechanical forces into electrical and/or chemical intracellular signals these channels play a critical role in the physiology of mechanotransduction. Studies of prokaryotic MS channels and recent work on MS channels of eukaryotes have significantly increased our understanding of their gating mechanism, physiological functions, and evolutionary origins as well as their role in the pathology of disease.

  12. [Effect of rhG-CSF on blood coagulation in beagles irradiated by 2.3 Gy neutron].

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Han, Qin-Fang; Liu, Xiao-Lan; Xing, Shuang; Xiong, Guo-Lin; Xie, Ling; Zhao, Yan-Fang; Yu, Zu-Yin; Ding, Yi-Bo; Zhao, Zhen-Hu; Cong, Yu-Wen; Luo, Qing-Liang

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of recombinant human granulocyte stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) on blood coagulation of beagles irradiated by 2.3 Gy neutron so as to provide new therapy for blood coagulation disorder after neutron irradiation. 10 beagles were exposed to 2.3 Gy neutron, and then randomly assigned into supportive care group and rhG-CSF-treated group. The rhG-CSF-treated cohorts were injected subcutaneously with rhG-CSF (10 µg/kg·d) beginning at the day of exposure for 21 consecutive days. Peripheral blood platelet counts were examined once every two days. In vitro platelet aggregation test, thromboelastography and blood clotting tetrachoric tests were also performed. The results indicated that the blood clotting system of irradiated dogs was in hypercoagulable state in the early days after 2.3 Gy neutron irradiation, and became hypocoagulable at crisis later and were mainly on intrinsic coagulation pathway. Blood fibrinogen increased markedly during the course of disease, while platelet counts and aggregation function were decreased remarkably. rhG-CSF administered daily could correct hypercoagulable state induced by 2.3 Gy neutron irradiation at the early time post exposure, shortened the thromboplastin generation time and clotting formation, down-regulated the abnormal high fibrinogen in blood, and improved platelet aggregation function. It is concluded that rhG-CSF can improve coagulation disorders of irradiated dogs.

  13. Increased bioavailability of primaquine using poly(ethylene oxide) matrix extended-release tablets administered to beagle dogs

    PubMed Central

    Bertol, C D; Oliveira, P R; Kuminek, G; Rauber, G S; Stulzer, H K; Silva, M A S

    2011-01-01

    Primaquine (PQ) is used for the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax malaria and can cause serious side effects in some individuals. The development of an extended-release dosage with poly(ethylene oxide) as a hydrophilic polymer has been investigated to improve drug efficacy and tolerability. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vivo a new extended-release formulation of PQ (60 mg). The formulation was administered to beagle dogs and plasma PQ concentrations were compared to a conventional immediate-release formulation of PQ (60 mg). The evaluation was carried out using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method using solid-phase extraction. Total PQ exposure in beagle dogs was 2.2 times higher (area under curve of 12 193 versus 5678 ng h/ml) and the elimination half-life of PQ was a 19-fold greater (12.95 hours versus 0.68 hours) with the extended-release tablets compared with the immediate-release tablets. These findings suggest that the extended-release formulation of PQ merits further evaluation for the treatment of P. vivax malaria and/or chemoprophylaxis. PMID:22185941

  14. S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine and it (R/S)-S-oxides in beagle dog plasma and hepatic cytosol.

    PubMed

    Panagopoulos, Panayotis; Mitchell, Stephen C; Steventon, Glyn B

    2015-01-01

    1. Incubation of beagle hepatic cytosol, under conditions promoting phenylalanine hydroxylase activity, led to the formation of the sulfoxide derivatives of S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine, N-acetyl-S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine, S-methyl-L-cysteine and N-acetyl-S-methyl-L-cysteine. Thiodiglycolic acid was not a substrate. Enzyme kinetic parameters (Km, Vmax) were derived indicating S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine had the greatest clearance; no enantioselective preference was observed for this S-oxygenation reaction. 2. Following oral administration of S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine to beagle dogs, the parent substance and its sulfoxide were the only compounds identified in the plasma. Pharmacokinetic data have been obtained indicating that the small amount of sulfoxide formed persisted within the body for longer than the parent material, but that the majority of the ingested dose remained in the administered sulfide form. 3. The sulfide moiety within the muco-regulatory drug, S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine, is thought to be vital as it acts as a free radical scavenger, resulting in the inactive sulfoxide. Additional extensive enyzme-mediated sulfoxidation would decrease the amount of active sulfide available. In the dog this appears to not be an issue, signalling possible exploitation for therapeutic benefit in treating airway disease.

  15. Effect of a botanical composition, UP446, on respiratory, cardiovascular and central nervous systems in beagle dogs and rats.

    PubMed

    Yimam, Mesfin; Lee, Young Chul; Jia, Qi

    2016-06-01

    Extensive safety evaluation of UP446, a botanical composition comprised of standardized extracts from roots of Scutellaria baicalensis and heartwoods of Acacia catechu, has been reported previously. Here we carried out additional studies to assess the effect of UP446 on respiratory, cardiovascular and central nervous (CNS) systems. A Functional observational battery (FOB) and whole body plethysmography system in rats and implanted telemetry in dogs were utilized to evaluate the potential CNS, respiratory and cardiovascular toxicity, respectively. UP446 was administered orally at dose levels of 800, 2000 and 5000 mg/kg to SpragueDawley rats and at 4 ascending dose levels (0, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg) to beagle dogs. No abnormal effects were observed on the cage side, open field, hand held, and sensori-motor observations suggestive of toxicity in respiratory, cardiovascular and central nervous (CNS) systems. Rectal temperatures were comparable for each treatment groups. Similarly, respiratory rate, tidal volume and minute volume were unaffected by any of the treatment groups. No UP446 related changes were observed on blood pressure, heart rate and electrocardiogram in beagle dogs at dose levels of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg. Some minor incidental, non-dose correlated changes were observed in the FOB assessment. These data suggest that UP446 has minimal or no pharmaco-toxicological effect on the respiratory, cardiovascular and central nervous systems.

  16. Spontaneous Pathology and Routine Clinical Pathology Parameters in Aging Beagle Dogs: A Comparison With Adolescent and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Barnes, J; Cotton, P; Robinson, S; Jacobsen, M

    2016-03-01

    AstraZeneca ran a bespoke study to generate age-matched clinical pathology and histopathology data from a cohort of Beagle dogs aged between 25 and 37 months to support the use of these older animals in routine preclinical toxicology studies. As the upper age range of Beagle dogs routinely used in toxicology studies does not normally exceed 24 months, there is an absence of appropriate age-matched historical control data. The generation of such data was crucial to understand whether age-related differences in spontaneous findings might confound the interpretation of toxicology study data. While the majority of the histopathology findings in all the older dogs occurred at a similar prevalence as those expected in young adult dogs (<24 months), a number of differences were observed in the thymus (involution), bone marrow (increased adiposity), testes (degenerative changes), and lung (fibrosis, pigment and alveolar hyperplasia) that could be misinterpreted as a test article effect. Minor differences in some clinical pathology values (hemoglobin, alkaline phosphatase, absolute reticulocytes) were of a small magnitude and considered unlikely to affect the interpretation of study data.

  17. Darwin's legacy to rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae): A new genus and a new species, including materials collected on the Beagle's voyage.

    PubMed

    Chatzimanolis, Stylianos

    2014-01-01

    A species of xanthopygine rove beetles is described and figured here as Darwinilus sedarisi gen. n. and sp. n. The holotype was collected by Charles Darwin in Bahía Blanca, Argentina on the Beagle's voyage. The contributions of Charles Darwin to rove beetle systematics are summarized briefly.

  18. Development of Software for Analysing Entry Accelerometer Data in Preparation for the Beagle 2 Mission to Mars: Towards a Publicly Available Toolkit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withers, P.; Hathi, B.; Towner, M.; Zarnecki, J.

    2002-03-01

    We have tested techniques for turning Beagle 2's entry accelerometer data into a T(z) profile. We reproduced the PDS results for Pathfinder. The PDS trajectory for Pathfinder appears inconsistent with its entry state. Our code is available online.

  19. English Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The cloud covered earthscape of Northern Europe demonstrates the difficulty of photographing this elusive subject from space. The English Channel (51.0N, 1.5E) separating the British Islands from Europe is in the center of the scene. The white cliffs of Dover on the SE coast of the UK, the Thames River estuary and a partial view of the city of London can be seen on the north side of the Channel while the Normandy coast of France is to the south.

  20. Induction of de novo bone formation in the beagle. A novel effect of aluminum.

    PubMed Central

    Quarles, L D; Gitelman, H J; Drezner, M K

    1988-01-01

    To define the primary effects of aluminum on bone in the mammalian species, we examined the dose/time-dependent actions of aluminum in normal beagles. Administration of low dose aluminum (0.75 mg/kg) significantly elevated the serum aluminum (151.7 +/- 19.9 micrograms/liter) compared with that in controls (4.2 +/- 1.35 micrograms/liter) but did not alter the calcium, creatinine, or parathyroid hormone. After 8 wk of therapy, bone biopsies displayed reduced bone resorption (2.6 +/- 0.63 vs. 4.5 +/- 0.39%) and osteoblast covered bone surfaces (2.02 +/- 0.51 vs. 7.64 +/- 1.86%), which was indicative of low turnover. In contrast, prolonged treatment resulted in increased bone volume and trabecular number (38.9 +/- 1.35 vs. 25.2 +/- 2.56% and 3.56 +/- 0.23 vs. 2.88 +/- 0.11/mm) which was consistent with uncoupled bone formation. Administration of higher doses of aluminum (1.20 mg/kg) increased the serum aluminum further (1242.3 +/- 259.8 micrograms/liter) but did not affect calcium, creatinine, or parathyroid hormone. However, after 8 wk of treatment, bone biopsies displayed changes similar to those after long-term, low-dose therapy. In this regard, an increased trabecular number (3.41 +/- 0.18/mm) and bone volume (36.5 +/- 2.38%) again provided evidence of uncoupled bone formation. In contrast, in this instance poorly mineralized woven bone contributed to the enhanced bone volume. High-dose treatment for 16 wk further enhanced bone volume (50.4 +/- 4.61%) and trabecular number (3.90 +/- 0.5/mm). These observations illustrate that aluminum may stimulate uncoupled bone formation and induce a positive bone balance. This enhancement of bone histogenesis contrasts with the effects of pharmacologic agents that alter the function of existing bone remodeling units. Images PMID:3350964

  1. Long-Term Study of Vascularized Free-Draining Intraperitoneal Pancreatic Segmental Allografts in Beagle Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Kyriakides, George K.; Rabinovitch, Alexander; Mintz, Daniel; Olson, Les; Rapaport, Felix T.; Miller, Joshua

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the significance of immunogenetic factors on the survival of pancreatic allografts in beagle dogs. Donors and recipients were leukocyte antigen (DLA)-typed and mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC)-tested. Recipients were made diabetic by total pancreatectomy and immediately implanted intraperitoneally with a vascularized, free-draining (duct unligated) pancreatic segmental (FDPS) allograft. Two groups of dogs were studied. In group I consisting of donor-recipient littermates, recipients were immunosuppressed with prednisone and azathioprine (n = 16 dogs), or not immunosuppressed (n = 4). In group II, recipients were made specifically unresponsive by total body radiation, autologous marrow implantation, and kidney transplantation from DLA-MLC identical donors, 1 yr before FDPS transplantation from the corresponding original kidney donors. Survival of the FDPS grafts in group I was inversely related to pretransplant MLC reactivity, irrespective of DLA genotyped match between donor and recipient. Thus, immunosuppressed high MLC reactors (n = 8) rejected FDPS grafts between 7 and 14 d, whereas immunosuppressed low MLC reactors (n = 8) accepted grafts for 25 to 260+ days, and nonimmunosuppressed low MLC reactors (n = 4) accepted grafts for 9-55 d. Rejection (hyperglycemia) of FDPS grafts was sudden, permanent, and unpredictable despite weekly intravenous glucose tolerance tests with measurements of glucose disappearance rates and serum insulin responses. Nevertheless, serial in vitro cell-mediated lymphocytotoxicity (CML) assays revealed increases in CML before graft rejection in low MLC reactors, and decreases in both CML and MLC responses before graft rejection in high MLC reactors. FDPS graft survival was indefinite (>6 mo) in group II dogs, despite low-grade MLC reactivity (2:4 dogs) and CML responses (4:4 dogs). Biopsies of FDPS grafts at 6 mo in normoglycemic dogs showed disappearance of exocrine tissue and coalescence of

  2. Pulmonary and percutaneous absorption of 2-propoxyethyl acetate and 2-ethoxyethyl acetate in beagle dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Guest, D.; Hamilton, M.L.; Deisinger, P.J.; DiVincenzo, G.D.

    1984-08-01

    A comparison was made of the absorption and elimination rates of 2-propoxyethyl acetate (PEA) and 2-ethoxyethyl acetate (EEA) following inhalation, dermal application of IV administration. Male beagle dogs were exposed to 50 ppm PEA or EEA for 5 hr, and breath samples were collected during the exposure and a 3-hr recovery period. Both compounds were rapidly absorbed through the lungs. After 10 min of exposure, the concentrations of the parent compounds in the expired breath were 5 to 10 ppm (80-90% absorption) and reached plateau values at about 3 hr of 13 ppm for PEA (74% absorption) and 16 ppm for EEA (68% absorption). Post-exposure breath samples declined exponentially to 0.5 ppm and 2 ppm after 3 hr for PEA and EEA, respectively. Expired concentrations of PEA were slightly, but significantly (p < 0.025), lower than those of EEA at corresponding times during the exposure. After IV dosing with 1 mg/kg (ethyl-1,2-/sup 14/C)PEA, the urine contained 61% and 88% of the dose in 4 and 24 hr, respectively. (/sup 14/C)EEA was eliminated more slowly, with 20% and 61% of the dose appearing in the urine in 4 and 24 hr, respectively. Blood elimination half-lives were 1.6 hr for (/sup 14/C)PEA and 7.9 hr for (/sup 14/C)EEA. Only trace amounts of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ (<1%) or volatile materials (<0.1%) were detected in the expired air with either compound. For studies of percutaneous absorption, (/sup 14/C)PEA or (/sup 14/C)EEA was added to undiluted compounds and applied in a glass cell to a shaved area on a dog's thorax for 30 or 60 min. Blood and expired air were collected for 8 hr and urine for 24 hr. The pattern of urinary elimination for each compound was similar to that seen after IV dosing with (/sup 14/C)PEA being excreted more rapidly than (/sup 14/C)EEA. 15 references, 4 figures, 4 tables.

  3. A safety study of a novel photosensitizer, sinoporphyrin sodium, for photodynamic therapy in Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ni; Li, Chao; Wang, Zhonghua; Zhang, Jingxuan; Ye, Xiangfeng; Gao, Wenjing; Wang, Aiping; Jin, Hongtao; Wei, Jinfeng

    2015-04-01

    Sinoporphyrin sodium (DVDMS) is a novel hematoporphyrin-like photosensitizer developed for photodynamic therapy (PDT), an effective therapeutic modality for tumor treatment; however, the safety of photosensitizer-based PDT is always of great concern. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the potential repeated-dose toxicity and describe the toxicokinetic process of DVDMS-based PDT in Beagle dogs. The dogs were randomly allocated to six groups, and then were administrated a DVDMS preparation intravenously at dose levels of 0, 1, 3, 9, 1 and 9 mg per kg body weight, respectively; then, the latter two groups were illuminated 24 h later with a 630 nm laser for 10 min, once every seven days for 5 weeks. During the study period, clinical signs, mortality, body weight, food consumption, body temperature, ophthalmoscopy, hematology, serum biochemistry, urinalysis, electrocardiograms, toxicokinetics, organ weights, gross anatomy and histopathology were examined. After the administration, no deaths were observed; however, the dogs that received PDT showed skin swelling and ulceration, indicating that DVDMS-PDT induced a phototoxic effect. DVDMS led to an increase in blood coagulation in dogs in the 9 mg kg(-1) group and in the two PDT groups on Day 35, whereas it induced a decrease in dogs in the 3 mg kg(-1) group and in the two PDT groups on Day 49. The toxicokinetic study showed that the systematic exposure of DVDMS in dogs occurred in a dose-dependent manner, and DVDMS did not accumulate in blood plasma. The DVDMS-based PDT group showed no obvious treatment-related pathological changes; however, slight or mild brown-and-yellow pigmentation of DVDMS (or its metabolite) was observed to deposit in the liver, spleen, local lymph nodes and marrow of dogs in the mid- and high-dose groups, as well as the high-dose PDT group. In females, the absolute and relative spleen weights increased in dogs in the 9 mg kg(-1) DVDMS groups with and without PDT during the

  4. Pharmacokinetic Studies of Sustained-Release Depot of Dexamethasone in Beagle Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Ankita; Driscoll, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: To examine the pharmacokinetic characteristics of sustained-release dexamethasone depots in two separate canine studies. Methods: Dexamethasone depots loaded with a clinically representative (0.4 mg) dose (DEXTENZA™; Ocular Therapeutix) or an elevated (0.7 mg) dose were inserted into the canaliculi of beagle eyes (n = 37 and n = 34, respectively). Tear fluid was collected for pharmacokinetic analysis of dexamethasone in both studies at predetermined time points. Explanted 0.4 mg depots were collected weekly to measure remaining drug level. Clinical observations and ophthalmic examinations were performed in both studies at each visit. Results: The 0.4 mg depots released a median 308 μg by day 15 and tapered to complete drug release by day 28. Median dexamethasone tear fluid concentrations in the 0.4 mg study group decreased from 2,805 ng/mL at day 7 to 0 ng/mL on day 28. Median dexamethasone tear fluid concentrations in the 0.7 mg study group decreased from 4,370 ng/mL at 6 h post insertion to 830 ng/mL on day 35. Mean ± standard deviation intraocular pressures in the 0.4 and 0.7 mg study groups were 20.7 ± 2.8 and 19.0 ± 4.1 mmHg at baseline, respectively, and demonstrated no meaningful change (20.5 ± 3.0 and 20.6 ± 2.9 mmHg, respectively) over the studies' durations. No ocular toxicities were attributed to the dexamethasone depot. Conclusion: Sustained-release dexamethasone produced no identifiable ocular toxicity in this animal model, and pharmacokinetics demonstrated a sustained and tapered drug release over 28 days at a 0.4 mg dose and exceeded 35 days at a 0.7 mg dose. PMID:27483129

  5. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic integration of marbofloxacin after intravenous and intramuscular administration in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Yohannes, Sileshi; Awji, Elias Gebru; Lee, Seung-Jin; Park, Seung-Chun

    2015-03-01

    1.The aim of the present study was to determine the PKs of marbofloxacin in beagle dogs after intravenous (i.v.) and intramuscular (i.m.) administration, the ex vivo and in vitro PK/PD indices of marbofloxacin against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, and the ex vivo AUC/MIC ratios associated with different levels of antibacterial activity. 2.After i.v. of marbofloxacin (2 mg/kg), the mean ± SEM values of AUC, t1/2β, Vss, and CL were 8.47 ± 3.51 h µg/mL, 8.08 ± 6.25 h, 2.32 ± 1.00 L/kg and 0.23 ± 0.06 L/kg/h and corresponding values after intramuscular injection were 11.37 ± 3.07 h µg/mL, 7.51 ± 3.70, 1.80 ± 0.90 L/kg and 0.17 ± 0.04 L/kg/h. After i.m. administration, a Cmax of 1.76 ± 0.09 µg/mL was achieved at Tmax of 0.47 ± 0.08 h. The ex-vivo AUC/MIC ratios required to produce bacteriostasis, bactericidal action and elimination of S. pseudintermedius were 65.03, 97.02 and 136.84 h. 3.The in vivo AUC/MIC ratios obtained after i.v. and i.m. administration of 2 mg/kg marbofloxacin (67.76 ± 1.23 and 91.18 ± 2.61) were below the ex vivo AUC/MIC ratios required for bactericidal activity and bacterial elimination (97.02 ± 9.24 2 mg/kg and 136.21 ± 7.58), suggesting that the recommended daily dosage (2 mg/kg) may not suffice to kill and eradicate S. pseudintermedius strains encountered in clinical area.

  6. Biological effects of {sup 137}CsCl injected in beagle dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Nikula, K.J.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Griffith, W.C.

    1995-06-01

    The toxicity of intravenously administered {sup 137}CsCl in the beagle dog was investigated as part of a program to evaluate the biological effects of internally deposited fission-product radionuclides. The intravenous route of exposure was chosen for simplicity and accuracy because it was known that after intravenous injection, inhalation or ingestion, internally deposited {sup 137}CsCl is rapidly absorbed and distributed throughout the body, exposing the whole body to {beta}-particle and {gamma} radiations. Fifty-four dogs were injected intravenously with {sup 137}Cs to provide one group of six dogs with mean initial body burdens of 141 MBq {sup 137}Cs/kg body mass and four groups of 12 dogs each with mean initial body burdens of 104, 72, 52 and 36 MBq {sup 137}Cs/kg. Twelve dogs were injected with isotonic saline as study controls. Because the number of study controls dogs was small, data from an additional 49 control dogs from other studies at the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute that were performed over a similar span of years were also used. There was a significant, dose-dependent decrease in survival of the {sup 137}Cs-injected dogs. Eleven {sup 137}Cs-injected dogs, including all six in the highest initial body burden group, died within 81 days after injection, primarily due to hematopoietic cell damage resulting in severe pancytopenia. An additional 25 dogs had transient hematological dyscrasia but survived for long times. All {sup 137}Cs-injected male dogs had marked damage to the germinal epithelium of the testicular seminiferous tubules with azoospermia in the long-term survivors. benign and malignant neoplasms occurred in a variety of organs in {sup 137}Cs-injected dogs, rather than in a single target organ. When individual organs were considered, the incidence of malignant neoplasms was increased in the liver and in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses of the {sup 137}Cs-injected dogs. 34 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Biological effects of {sup 137}CsCl injected in beagle dogs of different dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Nikula, K.J.; Boecker, B.B.; Griffith, W.C.

    1996-11-01

    The toxicity of {sup 137}Cs in the beagle dog was investigated at the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute (ITRI) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) as part of programs to evaluate the biological effects of both radionuclides in atomic bomb fallout and internally deposited fission-product radionuclides. In the ITRI study, young adult dogs were exposed once by intravenous injection to a range of {sup 137}Cs concentrations; the results have recently been published. The purpose of the present report is to summarize the ANL study and to compare the results of the two studies. At ANL, 63 dogs in three age groups (15 juveniles, 142-151 days old; 38 young adults, 388-427 days old; and 10 middle-aged dogs, 1387-2060 days old) were given {sup 137}Cs intravenously at levels (61-162f MBq/kg) near those expected to be lethal within 30 days after injection. There were 17 control dogs from the same colony. Twenty-three of the dogs injected with {sup 137}Cs, including all middle-aged dogs, died within 52 days after injection due to hematopoietic cell damage resulting in severe pancytopenia that led to fatal hemorrhage and/or septicemia. The other significant early effect was damage to the germinal epithelium of the seminiferous tubules. The design of the ANL study revealed an age- and gender-related differential radiosensitivity for early effects. The middle-aged dogs died significantly earlier due to complications of hematological dyscrasia compared to the juvenile and young adult dogs, and the middle-aged females died significantly earlier than the middle-aged males. The most significant non-neoplastic late effects in the {sup 137}Cs-injected dogs from ANL and ITRI were atrophy of the germinal epithelium of seminiferous tubules with azoospermia, and a significant dose-dependent decrease in survival. The survival of the ANL dogs was decreased more than that of the ITRI dogs at similar radiation doses from {sup 137}Cs. 19 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. The impact of weight loss on circulating cytokines in Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Bastien, Berenice C; Patil, Avinash; Satyaraj, Ebenezer

    2015-02-15

    Chronic low-grade inflammation in obesity is characterized by an increased production of pro-inflammatory and chemotactic cytokines that are contributing to insulin resistance and related co-morbidities. Cytokines act in networks and exhibit pleiotropic effects so we investigated the circulating levels of a wide array of cytokines (pro and anti-inflammatory, chemotactic and growth factors) in a canine model of weight loss. The dogs served as their own control in order to study the impact of weight loss independent of potential confounding factors, such as history of excess weight or gender. While low-grade inflammation had been previously investigated in obese dogs by measuring changes in adipokines, acute phase proteins and key pro-inflammatory cytokines, to the best of our knowledge this is the first study to evaluate how weight loss impacts a wide array of circulating cytokines. Eighteen overweight Beagle dogs were recruited (six spayed females and 12 neutered males), and none of them were grossly obese according to the body condition score (BCS). All the dogs reached an ideal weight by the end of the program. Parameters were assessed before (baseline), at mid-point (month 3) and at end-point (month 6). Plasma GM-CSF, IL-2, Il-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-15, IL-18, IFNγ, IP-10, TNFα, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), keratinocyte chemokine (KC) were measured with canine multiplex immunoassays. Fat mass was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorption (DEXA). Several cytokines decreased throughout the weight loss program (p<0.01) and were correlated with the percentage of fat measured by DEXA (p<0.05): chemotactic (MCP-1), growth factors (GM-CSF, IL-7 and IL-2), and pro-inflammatory (KC and IL-18). We could not show trends for several cytokines, possibly because their level may be lower than the assay sensitivity: anti-inflammatory (IL-4 and IL-10), and pro-inflammatory (IL-6 and TNFα). In conclusion, while our findings for several pro-inflammatory and

  9. Comparison of Different Periodontal Healing of Critical Size Noncontained and Contained Intrabony Defects in Beagles

    PubMed Central

    Zang, Sheng-Qi; Kang, Shuai; Hu, Xin; Wang, Meng; Wang, Xin-Wen; Zhou, Tao; Wang, Qin-Tao

    2017-01-01

    Background: Regenerative techniques help promote the formation of new attachment and bone filling in periodontal defects. However, the dimensions of intraosseous defects are a key determinant of periodontal regeneration outcomes. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of use of anorganic bovine bone (ABB) graft in combination with collagen membrane (CM), to facilitate healing of noncontained (1-wall) and contained (3-wall) critical size periodontal defects. Methods: The study began on March 2013, and was completed on May 2014. One-wall (7 mm × 4 mm) and 3-wall (5 mm × 4 mm) intrabony periodontal defects were surgically created bilaterally in the mandibular third premolars and first molars in eight beagles. The defects were treated with ABB in combination with CM (ABB + CM group) or open flap debridement (OFD group). The animals were euthanized at 8-week postsurgery for histological analysis. Two independent Student's t-tests (1-wall [ABB + CM] vs. 1-wall [OFD] and 3-wall [ABB + CM] vs. 3-wall [OFD]) were used to assess between-group differences. Results: The mean new bone height in both 1- and 3-wall intrabony defects in the ABB + CM group was significantly greater than that in the OFD group (1-wall: 4.99 ± 0.70 mm vs. 3.01 ± 0.37 mm, P < 0.05; 3-wall: 3.11 ± 0.59 mm vs. 2.08 ± 0.24 mm, P < 0.05). The mean new cementum in 1-wall intrabony defects in the ABB + CM group was significantly greater than that in their counterparts in the OFD group (5.08 ± 0.68 mm vs. 1.16 ± 0.38 mm; P < 0.05). Likewise, only the 1-wall intrabony defect model showed a significant difference with respect to junctional epithelium between ABB + CM and OFD groups (0.67 ± 0.23 mm vs. 1.12 ± 0.28 mm, P < 0.05). Conclusions: One-wall intrabony defects treated with ABB and CM did not show less periodontal regeneration than that in 3-wall intrabony defect. The noncontained 1-wall intrabony defect might be a more discriminative defect model for further research into periodontal

  10. Characterization and Bioavailability of Wogonin by Different Administration Routes in Beagles

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Na; Li, Jian-chun; Zhu, Jin-xiu; Wang, Xiu; Zhang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background With the gradually accumulating research on pharmacological activity of wogonin, the in vitro analysis research on wogonin has become more and more popular, but there are very few reports about in vivo detection, and there are no solid dispersions (SDs) of Wogonin. The aim of this study was to explore the formation of solid dispersions (SDs) of wogonin. The reasons for the low bioavailability were studied through different routes of administration. Material/Methods SDs was formulated using the solvent evaporation method via polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (PVP). The characterization of the drug and its carrier was detected by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The serum concentrations of Wogonin were detected using the LC-MS/MS method. Six beagles were fed 3 different formulations of wogonin in 3 cycles. Results The SDs of wogonin had a higher solubility than the physical mixtures. Based on XRD and DSC, wogonin was transformed from a crystalline morphology to an amorphous structure. The main pharmacokinetic parameters of i.g. administration (crude material and SD) and i.v. route were as follows: Cmax (2.5±1.1), (7.9±3.3), and (6838.7±1322.1) μg/L, tmax (0.7±0.3) and (0.3±0.2) h for the former, AUC0-t (7.1±2.0), (21.0±3.2) and (629.7±111.8) μg·h/L. The absolute bioavailability of native wogonin and wogonin arginine solution were (0.59±0.35)% and (3.65±2.60)%. Further research showed that the low bioavailability of wogonin might be associated with low solubility and rapid combination with glucuronic acid in vivo. Conclusions The significantly increased solubility of SDs and the further preparation of arginine solution could significantly increase the bioavailability of wogonin. PMID:27744456

  11. South Central California Coastline and Channel Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This distant and very oblique image of the south Central California Coastline and Channel Islands (35.0N, 119.0W) offers a spectacular and scenic view of the southern west coast, the central San Joaquin Valley, the entire Sierra Nevada Range and across the southwest to the Rocky Mountains on the horizon.

  12. The channels of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Victor R.

    1988-01-01

    The geomorphology of Mars is discussed, focusing on the Martian channels. The great flood channels of Mars, the processes of channel erosion, and dendritic channel networks, are examined. The topography of the Channeled Scabland region of the northwestern U.S. is described and compared to the Martian channels. The importance of water in the evolution of the channel systems is considered.

  13. Minio Vallis Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This VIS image is of the southern reach of Minio Vallis, a small fluvial channel located near the larger Mangala Vallis. Both channels are in the Tharsis region, in the area west of Arsia Mons and southeast of Medusae Fossae.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -8.2, Longitude 208.1 East (151.9 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  14. Starburst Channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    Translucent carbon dioxide ice covers the polar regions of Mars seasonally. It is warmed and sublimates (evaporates) from below, and escaping gas carves a numerous channel morphologies.

    In this example (figure 1) the channels form a 'starburst' pattern, radiating out into feathery extensions. The center of the pattern is being buried with dust and new darker dust fans ring the outer edges. This may be an example of an expanding morphology, where new channels are formed as the older ones fill and are no longer efficiently channeling the subliming gas out.

    Observation Geometry Image PSP_003443_0980 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on 21-Apr-2007. The complete image is centered at -81.8 degrees latitude, 76.2 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 247.1 km (154.4 miles). At this distance the image scale is 24.7 cm/pixel (with 1 x 1 binning) so objects 74 cm across are resolved. The image shown here has been map-projected to 25 cm/pixel. The image was taken at a local Mars time of 04:52 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 71 degrees, thus the sun was about 19 degrees above the horizon. At a solar longitude of 223.4 degrees, the season on Mars is Northern Autumn.

  15. Nonlinear channelizer.

    PubMed

    In, Visarath; Longhini, Patrick; Kho, Andy; Neff, Joseph D; Leung, Daniel; Liu, Norman; Meadows, Brian K; Gordon, Frank; Bulsara, Adi R; Palacios, Antonio

    2012-12-01

    The nonlinear channelizer is an integrated circuit made up of large parallel arrays of analog nonlinear oscillators, which, collectively, serve as a broad-spectrum analyzer with the ability to receive complex signals containing multiple frequencies and instantaneously lock-on or respond to a received signal in a few oscillation cycles. The concept is based on the generation of internal oscillations in coupled nonlinear systems that do not normally oscillate in the absence of coupling. In particular, the system consists of unidirectionally coupled bistable nonlinear elements, where the frequency and other dynamical characteristics of the emergent oscillations depend on the system's internal parameters and the received signal. These properties and characteristics are being employed to develop a system capable of locking onto any arbitrary input radio frequency signal. The system is efficient by eliminating the need for high-speed, high-accuracy analog-to-digital converters, and compact by making use of nonlinear coupled systems to act as a channelizer (frequency binning and channeling), a low noise amplifier, and a frequency down-converter in a single step which, in turn, will reduce the size, weight, power, and cost of the entire communication system. This paper covers the theory, numerical simulations, and some engineering details that validate the concept at the frequency band of 1-4 GHz.

  16. Astrovirus-like, coronavirus-like, and parvovirus-like particles detected in the diarrheal stools of beagle pups.

    PubMed

    Williams, F P

    1980-01-01

    Astrovirus-like, coronavirus-like, and parvovirus-like particles were detected through electron microscopic (EM) examination of loose and diarrheal stools from a litter of beagle pups. Banding patterns obtained from equilibrium centrifugations in CsCl supported the EM identification. Densities associated with the identified particles were: 1.34 g/ml for astrovirus, 1.39 g/ml for "full" parvovirus and 1.24-1.26 g/ml for "typical" coronavirus. Convalescent sera from the pups aggregated these three particle types as observed by immunoelectron microscopy (IEM). Only coronavirus-like particles were later detected in formed stools from these same pups. Coronavirus and parvo-like viruses are recognized agents of canine viral enteritis, however, astrovirus has not been previously reported in dogs.

  17. Effect of biphasic calcium phosphate nanocomposite on healing of surgically created alveolar bone defects in beagle dogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lanlei; Guan, Aizhong; Shi, Han; Chen, Yangxi; Liao, Yunmao

    2009-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of porous biphasic calcium phosphate nanocomposite (nanoBCP) scaffolds bioceramic. Alveolar bone defects were surgically created bilaterally at the buccal aspects of the upper second premolar in fourteen beagle dogs. After root conditioning with ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), nanoBCP was randomly filled in the defects and nothing was put into the contralaterals as controls. Dogs were killed at the 12th weeks. Histological observations were processed through a light microscopy. The results revealed that a great amount of functional periodontal fissures formed in the defects in the nanoBCP groups while minimal bone took shape in the controls. In this study, nanoBCP has proved to work well as a biocompatible and osteoconductive scaffold material to promote periodontal regeneration effectively.

  18. Hematological responses after inhaling {sup 238}PuO{sub 2}: An extrapolation from beagle dogs to humans

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, B.R.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Welsh, C.A.; Angerstein, D.A.

    1994-11-01

    The alpha emitter plutonium-238 ({sup 238}Pu), which is produced in uranium-fueled, light-water reactors, is used as a thermoelectric power source for space applications. Inhalation of a mixed oxide form of Pu is the most likely mode of exposure of workers and the general public. Occupational exposures to {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} have occurred in association with the fabrication of radioisotope thermoelectric generators. Organs and tissue at risk for deterministic and stochastic effects of {sup 238}Pu-alpha irradiation include the lung, liver, skeleton, and lymphatic tissue. Little has been reported about the effects of inhaled {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} on peripheral blood cell counts in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate hematological responses after a single inhalation exposure of Beagle dogs to alpha-emitting {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} particles and to extrapolate results to humans.

  19. Cardiorespiratory and anesthetic effects produced by the combination of butorphanol, medetomidine and alfaxalone administered intramuscularly in Beagle dogs

    PubMed Central

    LEE, Jongsung; SUH, Sangil; CHOI, Ran; HYUN, Changbaig

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated anesthesia quality, degree of analgesia and cardiorespiratory parameters after intramuscular (IM) injection of a combination of butorphanol (0.1 mg/kg), medetomidine (10 µg/kg) and alfaxalone (1.5 mg/kg) in ten healthy adult Beagle dogs. Rectal temperature (T), heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (fR), arterial pressure, arterial blood gases and M-mode echocardiographic left ventricular (LV) indices were measured before drug administration and every 10 min thereafter until extubation. Mean duration of anesthesia, recovery and analgesia were 89 ± 17, 6 ± 1 and 80 ± 12 min. HR, fR, partial pressure of arterial CO2 and O2, arterial pressure, and LV contractility were significantly altered during anesthesia. IM administration of the drug combination provided acceptable anesthesia, but produced substantial cardiorespiratory suppression. PMID:26256405

  20. Development of self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system for oral bioavailability enhancement of valsartan in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenbao; Zhang, Wenjuan; Gao, Yan; Xiang, Rongwu; Liu, Yan; Hu, Mingming; Zhou, Mei; Liu, Xiaohong; Wang, Yongjun; He, Zhonggui; Sun, Yinghua; Sun, Jin

    2017-02-01

    Valsartan, an angiotensin II receptor antagonist, is widely used to treat high blood pressure in the clinical setting. However, its poor water solubility results in the low oral bioavailability. The aim of this study was to improve dissolution rate and oral bioavailability by developing a self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system. Saturation solubility of valsartan in various oils, surfactants, and cosurfactants was investigated, and the optimized formulation was determined by central composite design-response surface methodology. The shape of resultant VAL-SNEDDS was spherical with an average diameter of about 27 nm. And the drug loading efficiency is approximately 14 wt%. Differential scanning calorimetry and XRD studies disclosed the molecular or amorphous state of valsartan in VAL-SNEDDS. The dissolution study indicated that the self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) exhibited significantly enhanced dissolution compared with market capsules (Diovan®) in various media. Furthermore, the stability of formulation revealed that valsartan SNEDDS was stable under low temperature and accelerated test condition. Furthermore, the pharmacokinetics demonstrated that C max and AUC(0-∞) of SNEDDS capsules were about three- and twofold higher than Diovan® in beagle dogs, respectively. Meanwhile, the safety evaluation implied that VAL-SNEDDS was innocuous to beagle dogs during 15 days of continuous administration. Our results suggested that VAL-SNEDDS was a potential and safe delivery system with enhanced dissolution rate and oral bioavailability, as well as offered a strategy for the engineering of poorly water-soluble drugs in the clinical setting.

  1. Novel phenotype in beagle dogs characterized by skin response to compound 48/80 focusing on skin mast cell degranulation.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Mitsuhiro; Ito, Fumi; Tsuchiya, Toshiyuki; Shoji, Yoko; Kurosawa, Toru

    2015-01-01

    Beagle dogs have long been employed in toxicology studies and as skin disease models. Compared with other experimental animal species, they are known to be susceptible to skin responses, such as rashes, from exposure to various chemical compounds. Here, a unique dog phenotype was identified that showed no skin response to compound 48/80, a mast cell degranulating agent. Although the skin responses to intradermal injection of polyoxyethylene castor oil derivative (HCO-60, a nonionic detergent), histamine dihydrochloride, concanavalin A (IgE receptor-mediated stimuli), or calcium ionophore A23187 were comparable in wild-type (WT) dogs and these nonresponder (NR) dogs, only the response to compound 48/80 was entirely absent from NR dogs. The skin mast cell density and histamine content per mast cell were histologically comparable between WT and NR dogs. By checking for skin responses to compound 48/80, NR dogs were found to exist at the proportion of 17-20% among four animal breeders. From retrospective analysis of in-house breeding histories, the NR phenotype appears to conform to the Mendelian pattern of recessive inheritance. The standard skin response in WT dogs developed at 2-4 months of age. In conclusion, this unique phenotype, typified by insensitivity in the compound 48/80-induced degranulation pathway in mast cells, has been widely retained by recessive inheritance in beagle dogs among general experimental animal breeders. The knowledge concerning this phenotype could lead to better utilization of dogs in studies and aid in model development.

  2. Dynamic Channel Allocation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    7 1 . Fixed Channel Allocation (FCA) ........................................................7 2. Dynamic Channel ...19 7. CSMA/CD-Based Multiple Network Lines .....................................20 8. Hybrid Channel Allocation in Wireless Networks...28 1 . Channel Allocation

  3. Late Quaternary history of southern Chesapeake Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Colman, S.M.; Hobbs, C.H. III; Halka, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    More than 700 km of high-resolution, seismic-reflection profiles and sidescan-sonar images provide new information about the late Quaternary history of southern Chesapeake Bay. Sidescan-sonar images show that, excluding the nearshore zone, most of the bay bottom has a monotonously smooth surface, except that sand waves, ripples, and other bedforms occur in local areas affected by tidal currents. Seismic-reflection data show that the Quaternary stratigraphy of the southern part of the Bay is related primarily to the last cycle of sea-level change. The Quaternary section overlies an erosion surface cut deeply into gently seaward-dipping marine beds of Neogene age. Fluvial paleochannels, related to the last major low sea-level stand, are characterized by as much as 55 m of incision and by thin, irregular, terrace and channel-bottom deposits. Marine and estuarine deposits related to the Holocene transgression partially or fully bury the fluvial valleys and overlie the interfluves. A prominent feature of the Bay-mouth area is a wedge of sediment that has prograded into the Bay from the inner shelf. The common assumption--that the Chesapeake Bay is the drowned valley of the Pleistocene Susquehanna River--is only partially valid for the southern part of the Bay. The Bay mouth area, in general, is relatively young. The axial channel of the Bay is a modern tidal channel that is actively eroding Tertiary deposits and migrating toward the south and west; it is unrelated to older fluvial channels. Also, the positions of the modern axial channel and the last two fluvial paleochannels indicate long-term southward migration of the Bay mouth.

  4. Regenerative effect of hOPG gene-modified autologous PDLs in combination with cell transplantation on periodontal defection in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Su; Tang, Kunqi; Chen, Bin; Yan, Fuhua

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the ability of human osteoprotegerin gene-modified autologous periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) in combination with cell transplantation to promote periodontal regeneration in beagle dogs. Adenovirus Ad5-hOPG-EGFP-transfected PDLCs and BME-10X collagen membranes were fabricated and used for periodontal repair. Buccal periodontal defects (mesiodistal width × depth: 5 × 5 mm) were created on the second, third, and fourth mandibular premolars in six normal beagle dogs, and the defects were histologically and histomorphometrically assessed for periodontal regeneration in the following four groups: (1) hOPG-PDLCs + BME-10X, (2) mock-PDLCs + BME-10X, (3) PDLCs + BME-10X, and (4) BME-10X. The radiographic and histological results suggested that hOPG-PDLCs significantly promoted periodontal defect repair. This study demonstrates the potential of hOPG-modified PDLCs for periodontal tissue regeneration.

  5. Improvement of short-term memory performance in aged beagles by a nutraceutical supplement containing phosphatidylserine, Ginkgo biloba, vitamin E, and pyridoxine

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, Joseph A.; Landsberg, Gary M.; Milgram, Norton W.; Miolo, Alda

    2008-01-01

    Aged dogs demonstrate cognitive decline that is linked to brain aging. The purpose of the present study was to examine if a commercially available nutraceutical supplement that may be neuroprotective and contains phosphatidylserine, Ginkgo biloba, vitamin E, and pyridoxine could improve cognitive function in aged beagles. Nine aged beagles were tested on performance on a delayed-non-matching-to-position task, which is a neuropsychological test of short-term visuospatial memory. All subjects were tested on 5 baseline sessions; then, to assess the supplement, a crossover design was used in which 1 group received the supplement and the other a control substance in the 1st phase, with treatment conditions being reversed in the 2nd phase. Performance accuracy was significantly improved in supplemented dogs compared with control dogs and the effect was long lasting. These findings suggest that the nutraceutical supplement can improve memory in aged dogs. PMID:18481547

  6. Health effects of low-level irradiation during development: experimental design and prenatal and early neonatal mortality in beagles exposed to /sup 60/Co gamma rays

    SciTech Connect

    Angleton, G.M.; Benjamin, S.A.; Lee, A.C.

    1988-07-01

    As part of a long-term study of the effects of irradiation during development, prenatal and early neonatal mortality were evaluated for beagles exposed in utero at 8 days postcoitus (dpc), 28 dpc, 55 dpc, or 2 days postpartum. Mean doses used were 0,0.16, or 0.83 Gy. A decrease in whelping rates was observed for female breeders irradiated at 8 dpc. There was a significant decrease in litter sizes from female breeders irradiated at 8 and 28 dpc. Both of these findings are indicative of increased embryonic mortality. There was a significant decrease in the percentage of females born after exposures given at 28 dpc, indicating a differential radiosensitivity by sex. A significant increase in early neonatal mortality up to 14 days of age was observed for beagles exposed 8 or 28 dpc, again with an excess mortality in females.

  7. A longitudinal study assessing lens thickness changes in the eye of the growing beagle using ultrasound scanning: relevance to age of dogs in regulatory toxicology studies.

    PubMed

    Maynard, Juliana; Sykes, Angela; Powell, Helen; Healing, Guy; Scott, Marietta; Holmes, Andrew; Ricketts, Sally-Ann; Stewart, Jane; Davis, Stewart

    2014-12-01

    The lens is formed in utero with new secondary lens fibres added as outer layers throughout life in a growth pattern characteristic of the species. This study examined the time course of beagle lens growth to better understand the optimal starting age of dogs for safety studies to support adult versus paediatric indications, and to assess the feasibility of non-invasively monitoring lens growth with high frequency ultrasound. Ultrasound scanning was performed in six female beagle dogs using the Vevo770. All dogs were imaged in B-mode using local anaesthetic but without sedation. Imaging was carried out every 2 weeks from 8 to 22 weeks of age and then monthly until 62 weeks of age. The dogs tolerated the procedure well. The lens was visible in all dogs and measuring the lens thickness with high frequency ultrasound demonstrated good analytical reproducibility [Root Mean Square (RMS) = 3.13%]. No differences between the left and right eye existed and lens thickness correlated with body weight. The highest weekly growth rate was before 12 weeks of age. A statistically significant difference between monthly thickness was detected until 42 weeks of age at which point growth reached a plateau. During the experiment, lenses grew by 29.7% reaching an average thickness of 6.4 mm ± 0.03. By 10 months of age (the typical age used for routine toxicological evaluation), beagles have reached a plateau in lens growth that is analogous to human adults. Where lens is a target organ of concern it is suggested that beagles under 6 months old may be a better model for determining paediatric safety.

  8. Microdistribution and long-term retention of 239Pu (NO3)4 in the respiratory tracts of an acutely exposed plutonium worker and experimental beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Christopher E; Wilson, Dulaney A; Brooks, Antone L; McCord, Stacey L; Dagle, Gerald E; James, Anthony C; Tolmachev, Sergei Y; Thrall, Brian D; Morgan, William F

    2012-11-01

    The long-term retention of inhaled soluble forms of plutonium raises concerns as to the potential health effects in persons working in nuclear energy or the nuclear weapons program. The distributions of long-term retained inhaled plutonium-nitrate [(239)Pu (NO(3))(4)] deposited in the lungs of an accidentally exposed nuclear worker (Human Case 0269) and in the lungs of experimentally exposed beagle dogs with varying initial lung depositions were determined via autoradiographs of selected histologic lung, lymph node, trachea, and nasal turbinate tissue sections. These studies showed that both the human and dogs had a nonuniform distribution of plutonium throughout the lung tissue. Fibrotic scar tissue effectively encapsulated a portion of the plutonium and prevented its clearance from the body or translocation to other tissues and diminished dose to organ parenchyma. Alpha radiation activity from deposited plutonium in Human Case 0269 was observed primarily along the subpleural regions while no alpha activity was seen in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes of this individual. However, relatively high activity levels in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes of the beagles indicated the lymphatic system was effective in clearing deposited plutonium from the lung tissues. In both the human case and beagle dogs, the appearance of retained plutonium within the respiratory tract was inconsistent with current biokinetic models of clearance for soluble forms of plutonium. Bound plutonium can have a marked effect on the dose to the lungs and subsequent radiation exposure has the potential to increase cancer risk.

  9. Development of tissue-engineered self-expandable aortic stent grafts (Bio stent grafts) using in-body tissue architecture technology in beagles.

    PubMed

    Kawajiri, Hidetake; Mizuno, Takeshi; Moriwaki, Takeshi; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue; Yamanami, Masashi; Kanda, Keiichi; Yaku, Hitoshi; Nakayama, Yasuhide

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we aimed to describe the development of tissue-engineered self-expandable aortic stent grafts (Bio stent graft) using in-body tissue architecture technology in beagles and to determine its mechanical and histological properties. The preparation mold was assembled by insertion of an acryl rod (outer diameter, 8.6 mm; length, 40 mm) into a self-expanding nitinol stent (internal diameter, 9.0 mm; length, 35 mm). The molds (n = 6) were embedded into the subcutaneous pouches of three beagles for 4 weeks. After harvesting and removing each rod, the excessive fragile tissue connected around the molds was trimmed, and thus tubular autologous connective tissues with the stent were obtained for use as Bio stent grafts (outer diameter, approximately 9.3 mm in all molds). The stent strut was completely surrounded by the dense collagenous membrane (thickness, ∼150 µm). The Bio stent graft luminal surface was extremely flat and smooth. The graft wall of the Bio stent graft possessed an elastic modulus that was almost two times higher than that of the native beagle abdominal aorta. This Bio stent graft is expected to exhibit excellent biocompatibility after being implanted in the aorta, which may reduce the risk of type 1 endoleaks or migration.

  10. Calcium-excess causes subclinical changes of bone growth in Beagles but not in Foxhound-crossbred dogs, as measured in X-rays.

    PubMed

    Dobenecker, B; Kasbeitzer, N; Flinspach, S; Köstlin, R; Matis, U; Kienzle, E

    2006-10-01

    Numerous investigations and reports have covered the potential negative effects of an excess of calcium (Ca) in the skeletal development of young dogs. However, it still remains unclear why not all puppies, particularly of larger breeds, develop clinical signs of skeletal disorders after an overexposure to Ca. This trial with the small Beagle breed and a larger Foxhound-crossbred dog (with an adult weight of around 35 kg) investigated the effects of Ca-excess on parameters of bone growth. The employed small breed is known for its chondrodystrophic predispositions, no such data are reported for the slender hound-type Foxhound-crossbred dogs. The Ca-supply had no influence on weight development and general health of the dogs. The measurements of bone lengths and widths in X-rays of the forearm of Beagles and Foxhound-crossbred dogs at 6 weeks of age, and again after a period of overexposure to Ca at about 27 weeks of age, revealed a growth-reducing influence only in Beagles, without influence on clinical parameters of skeletal health.

  11. 26-week repeated oral dose toxicity study of UP446, a combination of defined extracts of Scutellaria baicalensis and Acacia catechu, in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Yimam, Mesfin; Lee, Young Chul; Jia, Qi

    2016-07-01

    The needs for relatively safe botanical alternatives to relieve symptoms associated to arthritis have continued to grow in parallel with the ageing population. UP446, a standardized bioflavonoid composition from the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis and the heartwoods of Acacia catechu, has been used as over the counter joint care dietary supplements and a prescription medical food. Significant safety data have been documented in rodents and human for this composition. Here we evaluated the potential adverse effects of orally administered UP446 in beagle dogs following a 26-week repeated oral dose toxicity study. UP446 at doses of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day were administered orally to beagle dogs for 26 weeks. A 4-week recovery group from the high dose (1000 mg/kg) and vehicle treated groups were included. No morbidity or mortality was observed for the duration of the study. No significant differences between groups in body weights, food consumption, ophthalmological examinations, electrocardiograms, urinalysis, hematology, clinical chemistry, organ weights, gross pathology and histopathology were documented. Emesis, loose feces and diarrhea were noted in both genders at the 1000 mg/kg treatment groups. These clinical signs were considered to be reversible as they were not evident in the recovery period. In conclusion, the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) of UP446 was considered to be 500 mg/kg/day both in male and female beagle dogs.

  12. The chiral bioconversion and preclinical pharmacokinetic analysis of (R)-(+)-rabeprazole in beagle dogs by HPLC and HPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yan-hui; Xu, Jia-xing; Su, Zhong-xue; Song, Li; Lou, Hong-xiang

    2013-11-01

    In order to accurately investigate the preclinical pharmacokinetics of (R)-(+)-rabeprazole sodium injection, a reliable high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed using a Chiral-AGP column to prove that there is no chiral bioconversion of (R)-(+)-rabeprazole to (S)-(-)-rabeprazole in beagle dogs after single intravenous administration of (R)-(+)-rabeprazole sodium injection. An HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method for analysis of (R)-(+)-rabeprazole was developed and validated, and used to acquire the pharmacokinetic parameters in beagle dogs. (R)-(+)-Rabeprazole and internal standard omeprazole were extracted from plasma samples by protein precipitation and separated on a C18 column using methanol-5 mm ammonium acetate as mobile phase. Detection was performed using a turbo-spray ionization source and mass spectrometric positive multi-reaction monitoring mode. The linear relationship was achieved in the range from 2.5 to 5000 ng/mL. The method also afforded satisfactory results in terms of sensitivity, specificity, precision, accuracy and recovery as well as the stability of the analyte under various conditions, and was successfully applied to a preclinical pharmacokinetic study in beagle dogs after single intravenous administrations of (R)-(+)-rabeprazole sodium injection at 0.33, 2 and 6 mg/kg.

  13. Development and validation of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for topotecan determination in beagle dog plasma and its application in a bioequivalence study.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ling; Shi, Jian; Wan, Shanhe; Yang, Xiaoshan; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Jiajie; Zheng, Dayong; Liu, Zhongqiu

    2013-11-01

    Topotecan (TPT) is an important anti-cancer drug that inhibits topoisomerase I. A sensitive and robust liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method that potentially determines TPT in beagle dog plasma is needed for a bioequivalence study of TPT formulations. We developed and validated LC-MS/MS to evaluate TPT in beagle dog plasma in terms of specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, stability, extraction recovery and matrix effect. Plasma samples were treated with an Ostro(TM) sorbent plate (a robust and effective tool) to eliminate phospholipids and proteins before analysis. TPT and camptothecin (internal standard) were separated on an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column (1.7 µm, 2.1 × 50 mm) with 0.1% formic acid and methanol as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min. TPT was analyzed using positive ion electrospray ionization in multiple-reaction monitoring mode. The obtained lower limit of quantitation was 1 ng/mL (signal-to-noise ratio > 10). The standard calibration curve for TPT was linear (correlation coefficient > 0.99) at the concentration range of 1-400 ng/mL. The intra-day and inter-day precision, accuracy, stability, extraction recovery and matrix effect of TPT were within the acceptable limits. The validated method was successfully applied in a bioequivalence study of TPT in healthy beagle dogs.

  14. Comparative pharmacokinetics and bile transformation of R-enantiomer and racemic bambuterol after single-dose intravenous, oral administration in rats and beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Guan, Su; Hu, Chun-Yun; He, Meng-Ying; Yang, Ying-Ying; Tang, Yu-Xin; Chen, Jie-di; Huang, Li-Jie; Tan, Wen

    2015-12-01

    This study was to compare pharmacokinetics and bile transformation of R-enantiomer bambuterol with its racemate. Pharmacokinetics of R-enantiomer was investigated after single-dose intravenous and three doses of oral administration to rats and beagle dogs. To compare the pharmacokinetics with racemic bambuterol, the same oral doses of racemic bambuterol were also administrated; the blood and bile samples were collected by cannulation. A validated LC-MS/MS method was used to assess the level of bambuterol in plasma and bile. After single intravenous administration, no significant differences were observed between the two drugs in pharmacokinetic data. After oral dosing of R-bambuterol, the AUCs of R-enantiomer presented linear correlation. After same oral dosing of R-enantiomer and its racemate, all the pharmacokinetic parameters were equivalent. However, the clearance and apparent distribution had different results due to species and administration route difference. The bile transformation of these two compounds was similar and implicated that liver transformation accounted for the major metabolism of them. The bioavailability of R-enantiomer and racemate were comparative and relatively high in beagle dogs. Thus, R-enantiomer had a comparative pharmacokinetic profile and bile transformation with racemic bambuterol in rats and beagle dogs. These findings provided references for further clinical study.

  15. Development and Validation of an UPLC-Q-TOF-MS Method for Quantification of Fuziline in Beagle Dog After Intragastric and Intravenous Administration.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiao-hong; Li, Yan; Li, Yun-xia; Yuan, An; Zhao, Meng-jie; Zhang, Ruo-qi; Zeng, Dai-wen; Peng, Cheng

    2016-03-01

    A specific and sensitive UPLC-Q-TOF-MS method operated in the positive ion mode was developed and validated for the quantification of Fuziline in Beagle dog plasma. Fuziline and Neoline internal standard were separated on an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column with the total running time of 4 min using gradient elution at the flow rate of 0.25 mL/min. The calibration curves for Fuziline showed good linearity in the concentrations ranging from 2 to 400 ng/mL with correlation coefficients (r) greater than 0.9971. The lower limit of quantification was 0.8 ng/mL. Intra- and interbatch relative standard deviations ranged from 2.11 to 3.11% and 3.12 to 3.81%, respectively. Fuziline was stable under different sample storage and processing conditions. The developed method was successfully applied to the comparative pharmacokinetic study of Fuziline in Beagle dog after intravenous and oral administration. Low absolute bioavailability of Fuziline (1.45 ± 0.76%) suggested a significant metabolism transformation extent in Beagle dog.

  16. Microdistribution and Long-Term Retention of 239Pu (NO3)4 in the Respiratory Tracts of an Acutely Exposed Plutonium Worker and Experimental Beagle Dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, Christopher E.; Wilson, Dulaney A.; Brooks, Antone L.; McCord, Stacey; Dagle, Gerald E.; James, Anthony C.; Tolmachev, Sergei Y.; Thrall, Brian D.; Morgan, William F.

    2012-11-01

    The long-term retention of inhaled soluble forms of plutonium raises concerns as to the potential health effects in persons working in nuclear energy or the nuclear weapons program. The distributions of long-term retained inhaled plutonium-nitrate [239Pu (NO3)4] deposited in the lungs of an accidentally exposed nuclear worker (Human Case 0269) and in the lungs of experimentally exposed beagle dogs with varying initial lung depositions were determined via autoradiographs of selected histological lung, lymph node, trachea, and nasal turbinate tissue sections. These studies showed that both the human and dogs had a non-uniform distribution of plutonium throughout the lung tissue. Fibrotic scar tissue effectively encapsulated a portion of the plutonium and prevented its clearance from the body or translocation to other tissues and diminished dose to organ parenchyma. Alpha radiation activity from deposited plutonium in Human Case 0269 was observed primarily along the sub-pleural regions while no alpha activity was seen in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes of this individual. However, relatively high activity levels in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes of the beagles indicated the lymphatic system was effective in clearing deposited plutonium from the lung tissues. In both the human case and beagle dogs, the appearance of retained plutonium within the respiratory tract was inconsistent with current biokinetic models of clearance for soluble forms of plutonium. Bound plutonium can have a marked effect on the dose to the lungs and subsequent radiation exposure has the potential increase in cancer risk.

  17. Bovine colostral antibody against verotoxin 2 derived from Escherichia coli O157:H7: resistance to proteases and effects in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Kuribayashi, Takashi; Seita, Tetsuro; Matsumoto, Mariko; Furuhata, Katsunori; Tagata, Kazutoshi; Yamamoto, Shizuo

    2009-04-01

    A bovine colostral antibody against verotoxin (VT) 2 of Escherichia coli O157:H7 was administered orally to beagle dogs. The antibody remained in the dogs' small intestine for at least 2 h, whereas little serum antibody remained 1.5 h after administration. Furthermore, the antibody activity of secretory IgA did not change until 2 h after administration; however, the activity of IgG and IgM antibodies decreased by approximately 60% and 40% at 2 h after administration, respectively. Seven beagle dogs inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 producing VT2 were administered bovine colostral antibody or bovine colostral whey without antibody. With administration of bovine colostral whey without antibody, the amount of VT2 in feces decreased gradually after administration and increased again at 5 d after inoculation, whereas bovine colostral antibody significantly reduced the amount of VT2 in feces on the day after administration. In addition, 9 beagle dogs were given bovine colostral antibody, bovine plasma antibody, or saline. The amount of VT2 in feces again decreased significantly more rapidly after administration of bovine colostral antibody than after administration of bovine plasma antibody or saline.

  18. Scientific Objectives and operational Scheme of the Planetary Underground Tool (Pluto) Experiment on the Beagle 2 Mars Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, L.; Gromov, V.; Kochan, H.; Kosacki, K.; Tokano, T.

    2003-04-01

    The payload of the Beagle 2 lander of ESA's Mars Express mission includes a regolith-penetrating, tethered "Mole" intended for acquisition of several subsurface soil samples from depths between about 10 cm and approximately 1.5 m. These samples will then be analysed by the Gas Analysis Package (GAP) instrument on the lander, primarily with regard to isotopic composition and organic molecules. In addition, a share of each sample can be deposited onto the lander structure to be investigated with instruments mounted on the lander's PAW instrument carrier, such as the Mössbauer and X-ray fluorescence spectrometers and the optical microscope. After giving a brief overview of the experiment design, this paper focuses on the various science objectives addressed by the Beagle 2 Mole system, also referred to as the PLanetary Underground TOol (PLUTO). Apart from its capability to make subsurface regolith samples available to lander-based experiments for the first time on a Mars landing mission, PLUTO will be capable of performing scientific measurements of its own which utilize the Mole's soil penetration process and its temporary residence within the regolith: while it penetrates into the Martian soil by way of soil displacement through the action of an internal hammering mechanism, the Mole will allow mechanical properties of the regolith to be inferred and additionally, a temperature sensor mounted on the Mole will support investigations of soil thermophysical properties and measurements of the subsurface temperature profile. Using a Mole soil penetration theory calibrated by ground-based experiments, regolith bulk density, cohesion, and internal friction angle can be constrained as a function of depth using the Mole penetration path (and retrieval path) vs. time which is measured by a sensor indicating the amount of tether extracted by the PLUTO Mole. The obtained depth profiles of these quantities should provide insight into the depositional history and stratigraphy of

  19. Comparison of miRNA expression profiles in pituitary-adrenal axis between Beagle and Chinese Field dogs after chronic stress exposure.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wei; Fang, Meixia; Xu, Haiping; Xing, Huijie; Fu, Jiangnan; Nie, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    MicoRNAs (miRNAs), usually as gene regulators, participate in various biological processes, including stress responses. The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) is an important pathway in regulating stress response. Although the mechanism that HPA axis regulates stress response has been basically revealed, the knowledge that miRNAs regulate stress response within HPA axis, still remains poor. The object of this study was to investigate the miRNAs in the pituitary and adrenal cortex that regulate chronic stress response with high-throughput sequencing. The pituitary and adrenal cortex of beagles and Chinese Field dogs (CFD) from a stress exposure group (including beagle pituitary 1 (BP1), CFD pituitary 1 (CFDP1), beagle adrenal cortex 1 (BAC1), CFD adrenal cortex 1 (CFDAC1)) and a control group (including beagle pituitary 2 (BP2), CFD pituitary 2 (CFDP2), beagle adrenal cortex 2 (BAC2), CFD adrenal cortex 2 (CFDAC2)), were selected for miRNA-seq comparisons. Comparisons, that were made in pituitary (including BP1 vs. BP2, CFDP1 vs. CFDP2, BP1 vs. CFDP1 and BP2 vs. CFDP2) and adrenal cortex (including BAC1 vs. BAC2, CFDAC1 vs. CFDAC2, BAC1 vs. CFDAC1 and BAC2 vs. CFDAC2), showed that a total of 39 and 18 common differentially expressed miRNAs (DE-miRNAs) (Total read counts > 1,000, Fold change > 2 & p-value < 0.001), that shared in at least two pituitary comparisons and at least two adrenal cortex comparisons, were detected separately. These identified DE-miRNAs were predicted for target genes, thus resulting in 3,959 and 4,010 target genes in pituitary and adrenal cortex, respectively. Further, 105 and 10 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (Fold change > 2 & p-value < 0.05) from those target genes in pituitary and adrenal cortex were obtained separately, in combination with our previous corresponding transcriptome study. Meanwhile, in line with that miRNAs usually negatively regulated their target genes and the dual luciferase reporter assay, we finally

  20. Soft tissue tumors among beagles injected with {sup 90}Sr, {sup 228}Ra, or {sup 228}Th

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, R.D.; Angus, W.; Taylor, G.N.

    1995-08-01

    The occurrence of soft-tissue tumors in beagles given {sup 90}Sr (88 dogs), {sup 228}Ra (76 dogs), or {sup 228}Th (81 dogs) as young adults and followed throughout their lifespans was compared with that of 133 control beagles given no radioactivity. For animals injected with {sup 228}Ra, tumors of the eye were more prominent (p<0.05) than in the controls, and soft-tissue tumors of cavities in the head (excluding the brain, mouth, and eye) were more prominent in dogs given {sup 90}Sr than in the controls (p<0.05). There was some indication that eye tumors in animals given about 0.56 kBq {sup 228}Th kg{sup {minus}1} were associated with their radionuclide exposure. For tumors at a few other locations, the relative occurrence was greater (p<0.05) in the controls. These included malignant tumors of the testis, and malignant plus benign tumors of the mammae and vagina in {sup 228}Ra dogs; and malignant plus benign tumors of the mammae in {sup 90}Sr dogs (p>0.05 by Odds Ratio Chi Square analysis but p<0.05 by Fiosher`s Exact Test). Differences in relative occurrence between radioactive dogs and controls of all other tumor types that appeared in any of the animals (notably lymphosarcoma, lymph node tumors, leukemia, mast cell tumors, liver tumors, etc.) were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Intercurrent mortality, mainly from bone cancer, was higher in the radioactive dogs than in the controls. Mean survival was reduced in the dogs given {sup 90}Sr, {sup 228}Ra, or {sup 228}Th(13.17 {plus_minus} 2.64 y in controls, 10.95 {plus_minus} 4.06 y in {sup 90}Sr dogs, 9.07 {plus_minus} 3.61 y in {sup 228}Ra dogs, and 9.20 {plus_minus}4.15 y in {sup 228}Th dogs). Attenuated lifespans could account, at least in part, for the relative paucity of soft-tissue tumors not induced by radiation among the groups of dogs given radioactivity and occurring near the end of life for control animals. 24 refs., 3 tabs.

  1. The electrocardiogram of the Beagle dog: reference values and effect of sex, genetic strain, body position and heart rate.

    PubMed

    Hanton, G; Rabemampianina, Y

    2006-04-01

    The aim of the study was to establish a database for electrocardiographic parameters of Beagle dogs used for toxicological studies and to evaluate the influence of supplier, sex, heart rate (HR) and body position for electrocardiogram (ECG) recording on ECG parameters. Peripheral ECG leads were recorded from 934 female and 946 male dogs from Marshall Farms and 27 females and 30 males from Harlan, either standing on a table or restrained in a hammock. HR, RR, PQ and QT intervals, P and QRS duration and P-wave amplitude were measured. There were no major differences between sexes for ECG parameters. The axis of the heart was shifted to the left when the animals were restrained in a hammock compared to when they were standing on a table. The PQ interval was higher (about 9%) in Harlan than in Marshall dogs. HR was negatively correlated with QT (coefficient of linear correlation: r=-0.61 to -0.74), which emphasizes the need for a formula correcting QT interval for HR when interpreting changes in QT interval. HR was also negatively correlated with PQ intervals (r=-0.26 to -0.11), whereas a positive correlation was found between HR and the amplitude of the P wave (r=0.21-0.34). The level of the respiratory sinus arrhythmia (SA) was quantified by calculating the ratio of maximum to minimum RR interval measured over a 10 s period. This ratio was negatively correlated with HR (r =-0.49 to -0.33). Therefore, at high HRs, SA was less marked than at low HRs, but it did not completely disappear. Analysis of beat-to-beat variation indicated that QT and PQ intervals and the amplitude of P wave fluctuated over time and the degree of this variability was positively correlated with the level of SA. In conclusion, we have established reference values for the duration and/or amplitude of some ECG parameters both in terms of means and variability over the recording period, and we have evaluated the influence of body position, genetic strain and HR on the ECG parameters. These data can

  2. [Pharmacokinetics of scopolamine hydrobromide oral disintegrative microencapsule tablets in Beagle dogs determined with LC-MS/MS].

    PubMed

    Xia, Tian; Liu, De-Ding; Shi, Li-Fu; Hu, Jin-Hong

    2011-08-01

    The study aims to elucidate the characteristics of pharmacokinetics of scopolamine hydrobromide oral disintegrative microencapsule tablets in healthy Beagle dogs. Chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 column (100 mm x 3.0 mm, 3.5 microm) with methanol - 2 mmol x L(-1) ammonium formate (25 : 75) as the mobile phase. A trip-quadrupole tandem mass spectrum with the electrospray ionization (ESI) source was applied and positive ion multiple reaction monitoring mode was operated. Six Beagle dogs were randomly devided into two groups. They received oral single dose of scopolamine hydrobromide oral disintegrative microencapsule tablets 0.6 mg (test tablet) or scopolamine hydrobromide normal tablets (reference tablet). Plasma samples were collected at designed time. Plasma concentration of scopolamine hydrobromide was determined by LC-MS/MS and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. The pharmacokinetic parameters of test tablet vs reference tablet were as follows: C(max): (8.16 +/- 0.67) ng x mL(-1) vs (3.54 +/- 0.64) ng x mL(-1); t1/2: (2.83 +/- 0.45) h vs (3.85 +/- 0.82) h; t(max): (1.25 +/- 0.27) h vs (0.42 +/- 0.09) h; AUC(0-12h): (25.06 +/- 3.75) h x ng x mL(-1) vs (9.59 +/- 1.02) h x ng x mL(-1); AUC(0-infinity): (26.30 +/- 3.92) h x ng x mL(-1) vs (10.80 +/- 1.45) h x ng x mL(-1); MRT(0-12h): (3.38 +/- 0.34) h vs (3.86 +/- 0.26) h; MRT(0-infinity): (3.98 +/- 0.63) h vs (5.37 +/- 1.00) h. The absorption rate and AUC of test tablet is different from that of reference tablet. The bioavailability of test tablet is better than those of reference tablet.

  3. Development and uniform evaluation of ropinirole osmotic pump tablets with REQUIP XL both in vitro and in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiping; Yu, Fanglin; Di, Zhong; Zhao, Xiqing; Zhao, Shiqing; Liu, Yan; Li, Ying; Wang, Zhiyuan; Gong, Wei; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Yang; Xie, Xiangyang; Mei, Xingguo

    2016-01-01

    REQUIP XL, prolonged release formulation of ropinirole hydrochloride (RH) in market, could release ropinirole constantly and showed satisfactory therapeutic effect and good compliance. REQUIP XL was composed of more than 10 kinds of excipients and prepared by Geomatrix technology, which was complex and laborious. The purpose of this study was to obtain a dosage form of RH with similar in vitro release profile and bioequivalence in vivo compared to REQUIP XL. Osmotic pump tablet combined with fast release phase was selected as the delivery system of RH and similar release curves were obtained in different media. The tablets were also administered to beagle dogs and the pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using a non-compartmental model. Cmax, tmax, mean residence time (MRT), and area under the curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC0-24) were 3.97 ± 0.53 ng/mL, 3.58 ± 0.49 h, 8.29 ± 0.93 h, and 35.20 ± 8.11 ng/mL ċ h for ropinirole osmotic pump tablets (ROPT) and 4.15 ± 1.07 ng/mL, 2.92 ± 0.49 h, 7.84 ± 1.09 h, and 34.34 ± 10.06 ng/mL ċ h for REQUIP XL. The log-transformed mean Cmax and AUC0-24 of ROPT were about 92.15% and 102.49% relative to that of REQUIP XL, respectively. The 90% confidence intervals of Cmax and AUC0-24 for ROPT were 75.69-115.31% and 88.89-122.30%, respectively. So it could be concluded that ROPT was uniform with REQUIP XL both in vitro and in beagles and the release profiles of Geomatrix technology may be obtained by osmotic pump combined with fast release technology.

  4. Eukaryotic mechanosensitive channels.

    PubMed

    Arnadóttir, Jóhanna; Chalfie, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Mechanosensitive ion channels are gated directly by physical stimuli and transduce these stimuli into electrical signals. Several criteria must apply for a channel to be considered mechanically gated. Mechanosensitive channels from bacterial systems have met these criteria, but few eukaryotic channels have been confirmed by the same standards. Recent work has suggested or confirmed that diverse types of channels, including TRP channels, K(2P) channels, MscS-like proteins, and DEG/ENaC channels, are mechanically gated. Several studies point to the importance of the plasma membrane for channel gating, but intracellular and/or extracellular structures may also be required.

  5. Southern Ocean cephalopods.

    PubMed

    Collins, Martin A; Rodhouse, Paul G K

    2006-01-01

    The Southern Ocean cephalopod fauna is distinctive, with high levels of endemism in the squid and particularly in the octopodids. Loliginid squid, sepiids and sepiolids are absent from the Southern Ocean, and all the squid are oceanic pelagic species. The octopodids dominate the neritic cephalopod fauna, with high levels of diversity, probably associated with niche separation. In common with temperate cephalopods, Southern Ocean species appear to be semelparous, but growth rates are probably lower and longevity greater than temperate counterparts. Compared with equivalent temperate species, eggs are generally large and fecundity low, with putative long development times. Reproduction may be seasonal in the squid but is extended in the octopodids. Cephalopods play an important role in the ecology of the Southern Ocean, linking the abundant mesopelagic fish and crustaceans with higher predators such as albatross, seals and whales. To date Southern Ocean cephalopods have not been commercially exploited, but there is potential for exploitation of muscular species of the Family Ommastrephidae.

  6. Habitat suitability index models: Channel catfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, Thomas E.; Terrell, James W.

    1982-01-01

    The native range of channel catfish (Ictalurus Runctatus) extends from the southern portions of the Canadian prairie provinces south to the Gulf states, west to the Rocky Mountains, and east to the Appalachian Mountains (Trautman 1957; Miller 1966; Scott and Crossman 1973). They have been widely introduced outside this range and occur in essentially all of the Pacific and Atlantic drainages in the 48 contiguous states (Moore 1968; Scott and Crossman 1973). The greatest abundance of channel catfish generally occurs in the open (unleveed) floodplains of the Mississippi and Missouri River drainages (Walden 1964).

  7. Recovering endemic plants of the Channel Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McEachern, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    At the California Channel Islands, off the state’s southern coast, cold waters from the north mix with warmer waters from the south. Each of the eight Channel Islands, which were never connected to the mainland, developed unique floras as colonizing plants adapted to their new island homes. This part of California is one of only five Mediterranean climate regions in the world, characterized by hot, dry summers and cool, wet winters. Thus, the islands support a truly unusual assemblage of plants and animals found nowhere else.

  8. Southern Identity in "Southern Living" Magazine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauder, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    A fantasy-theme analysis of the editors' letters in "Southern Living" magazine shows an editorial vision of valuing the past and showcasing unique regional qualities. In addition, a content analysis of the visual representation of race in the magazine's formative years and recent past validates that inhabitants of the region were portrayed…

  9. 21. VIEW OF INTERFACE BETWEEN THE SOUTHERN TRUSS SECTION'S PINCONNECTED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. VIEW OF INTERFACE BETWEEN THE SOUTHERN TRUSS SECTION'S PIN-CONNECTED EYEBAR LOWER CHORD, AND THE BEGINNING OF THE RIVETED CHANNEL LOWER BRIDGE CHORD USED IN THE CENTRAL AND NORTHERN SECTIONS OF THE BRIDGE. FACING SOUTHEAST. - Coverts Crossing Bridge, Spanning Mahoning River along Township Route 372 (Covert Road), New Castle, Lawrence County, PA

  10. Lifelong Information Literacy in Southern California. The College Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Amy

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author highlights collaborative information literacy initiatives of four higher education institutions in Southern California--California State University-Channel Islands, California State University-Los Angeles, University of California-Irvine, and University of California-Los Angeles. Librarians from these institutions serve…

  11. Dog-appeasing pheromone collars reduce sound-induced fear and anxiety in beagle dogs: a placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Landsberg, G M; Beck, A; Lopez, A; Deniaud, M; Araujo, J A; Milgram, N W

    2015-09-12

    The objective of the study was to assess the effects of a dog-appeasing pheromone (DAP) collar in reducing sound-induced fear and anxiety in a laboratory model of thunderstorm simulation. Twenty-four beagle dogs naïve to the current test were divided into two treatment groups (DAP and placebo) balanced on their fear score in response to a thunderstorm recording. Each group was then exposed to two additional thunderstorm simulation tests on consecutive days. Dogs were video-assessed by a trained observer on a 6-point scale for active, passive and global fear and anxiety (combined). Both global and active fear and anxiety scores were significantly improved during and following thunder compared with placebo on both test days. DAP significantly decreased global fear and anxiety across 'during' and 'post' thunder times when compared with baseline. There was no significant improvement in the placebo group from baseline on the test days. In addition, the DAP group showed significantly greater use of the hide box at any time with increased exposure compared with the placebo group. The DAP collar reduced the scores of fear and anxiety, and increased hide use in response to a thunder recording, possibly by counteracting noise-related increased reactivity.

  12. Dog-appeasing pheromone collars reduce sound-induced fear and anxiety in beagle dogs: a placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Landsberg, G. M.; Beck, A.; Lopez, A.; Deniaud, M.; Araujo, J. A.; Milgram, N. W.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the effects of a dog-appeasing pheromone (DAP) collar in reducing sound-induced fear and anxiety in a laboratory model of thunderstorm simulation. Twenty-four beagle dogs naïve to the current test were divided into two treatment groups (DAP and placebo) balanced on their fear score in response to a thunderstorm recording. Each group was then exposed to two additional thunderstorm simulation tests on consecutive days. Dogs were video-assessed by a trained observer on a 6-point scale for active, passive and global fear and anxiety (combined). Both global and active fear and anxiety scores were significantly improved during and following thunder compared with placebo on both test days. DAP significantly decreased global fear and anxiety across ‘during’ and ‘post’ thunder times when compared with baseline. There was no significant improvement in the placebo group from baseline on the test days. In addition, the DAP group showed significantly greater use of the hide box at any time with increased exposure compared with the placebo group. The DAP collar reduced the scores of fear and anxiety, and increased hide use in response to a thunder recording, possibly by counteracting noise-related increased reactivity. PMID:26311736

  13. Mini-tablet combination for sustained release of clonidine hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide: Preparation and pharmacokinetics in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bohui; Wang, Yubin; Zhu, Hongyan

    2016-02-01

    Mini-tablets are increasingly gaining attention in solid dosage form design as multiple-unit systems combining different active compounds and providing a single or combined pattern of modified release for polypharmacy or combined treatments. A combination therapy of clonidine hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide achieves effective blood pressure control and reduction in adverse effects. However, the combination formulation of immediate release must be taken several times a day, which causes noticeable fluctuation of blood pressure and inconveniences to the patients. The present study was performed to develop a mini-tablet combination for sustained release of clonidine hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide independently, in which the two drugs and fraction doses were formulated into separate mini-tablets with different release patterns. The mini-tablets were prepared by a direct compression method followed by filling into capsules and the factors that affected drug release were addressed. Further, studies of the pharmacokinetics were performed in beagle dogs. Finally, in vivo-in vitro correlations of the sustained release systems and bioequivalence with conventional preparations were evaluated. The mini-tablet combination released the two drugs over 24h in vivo with a steady plasma concentration, a markedly lower Cmax, extended Tmax and better bioavailability. In conclusion, sustained releases of the two drugs were obtained with this mini-tablet combination, which offers a feasible formulation and promising development value for hypertensive patients who need long-term therapy.

  14. Integration of Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Indices of Orbifloxacin in Beagle Dogs after a Single Intravenous and Intramuscular Administration▿

    PubMed Central

    Gebru, Elias; Lee, Joong-Su; Chang, Zhi-Qiang; Hwang, Mi-Hyun; Cheng, Henrique; Park, Seung-Chun

    2009-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of orbifloxacin were studied in beagle dogs after intravenous (i.v.) and intramuscular (i.m.) administration at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg body weight. An absolute bioavailability of 100.1% ± 4.76%, a terminal half-life of 4.23 ± 0.2 h and 3.95 ± 0.15 h after i.v. and i.m. administration, a steady-state volume of distribution of 1.61 ± 0.13 liters/kg, and clearance of 0.31 ± 0.03 liters/h/kg were observed. Orbifloxacin showed rapid, concentration-dependent killing against the Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus intermedius, and Proteus mirabilis clinical isolates. Computations based on PK-PD analysis indicated that the recommended dose is unlikely to be clinically effective against some strains like S. intermedius. Therefore, a higher dose of orbifloxacin would be worthy of consideration for treatment of certain bacterial infections in dogs. PMID:19398644

  15. Dietary Mannoheptulose Increases Fasting Serum Glucagon Like Peptide-1 and Post-Prandial Serum Ghrelin Concentrations in Adult Beagle Dogs.

    PubMed

    McKnight, Leslie L; Eyre, Ryan; Gooding, Margaret A; Davenport, Gary M; Shoveller, Anna Kate

    2015-06-16

    There is a growing interest in the use of nutraceuticals for weight management in companion animals. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of mannoheptulose (MH), a sugar in avocados that inhibits glycolysis, on energy metabolism in adult Beagle dogs. The study was a double-blind, randomized controlled trial where dogs were allocated to a control (CON, n = 10, 10.1 ± 0.4 kg) or MH containing diet (168 mg/kg, n = 10, 10.3 ± 0.4 kg). Blood was collected after an overnight fast and 1 h post-feeding (week 12) to determine serum satiety related hormones and biochemistry. Resting and post-prandial energy expenditure and respiratory quotient were determined by indirect calorimetry (weeks 4 and 8). Physical activity was measured using an accelerometer (weeks 3, 7, 11). Body composition was assessed using dual X-ray absorptiometry (week 12). MH significantly (p < 0.05) increased fasting serum glucagon-like peptide-1 and post-prandial serum ghrelin. MH tended (p < 0.1) to increase fasting serum gastric inhibitory peptide and decrease physical activity. Together, these findings suggest that dietary MH has the ability to promote satiation and lowers daily energy expenditure.

  16. Pharmacokinetics of honokiol after intravenous guttae in beagle dogs assessed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yi; Cui, Gang; Wang, Xiaoxue; Zhang, Wei; An, Quan; Lin, Zongtao; Wang, Hong; Chen, Shizhong

    2014-10-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the determination of honokiol in beagle dog plasma after intravenous guttae. With addition of the internal standard magnolol, plasma samples were precipitated with methanol and separated on a Shim-pack XR-ODS II (2.0 × 100 mm, 2.2 µm) with isocratic elution of methanol and water (80:20) solution at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. A good separation of honokiol was achieved within 3.5 min. Quantification was performed on a Waters Quattro Premier XE triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with electrospray ionization inlet in the negative multiple reaction monitoring mode. Good linearity was obtained over the concentration range of 5.12-15580 ng/mL (r(2) > 0.998). Intra- and inter-day precisions were <13.10%, and accuracy ranged from 89.21 to 99.92%. The lower limit of quantification for honokiol was 5.12 ng/mL, and honokiol was stable under various conditions (three freeze-thaw cycles, short-term temperature, post-preparative and long-term temperature conditions.). This validated method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of honokiol in dogs by intravenous guttae.

  17. Evaluation of the usefulness of novel biomarkers for drug-induced acute kidney injury in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaobing; Ma, Ben; Lin, Zhi; Qu, Zhe; Huo, Yan; Wang, Jufeng; Li, Bo

    2014-10-01

    As kidney is a major target organ affected by drug toxicity, early detection of renal injury is critical in preclinical drug development. In past decades, a series of novel biomarkers of drug-induced nephrotoxicity were discovered and verified in rats. However, limited data regarding the performance of novel biomarkers in non-rodent species are publicly available. To increase the applicability of these biomarkers, we evaluated the performance of 4 urinary biomarkers including neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), clusterin, total protein, and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), relative to histopathology and traditional clinical chemistry in beagle dogs with acute kidney injury (AKI) induced by gentamicin. The results showed that urinary NGAL and clusterin levels were significantly elevated in dogs on days 1 and 3 after administration of gentamicin, respectively. Gene expression analysis further provided mechanistic evidence to support that NGAL and clusterin are potential biomarkers for the early assessment of drug-induced renal damage. Furthermore, the high area (both AUCs=1.000) under receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curve also indicated that NGAL and clusterin were the most sensitive biomarkers for detection of gentamicin-induced renal proximal tubular toxicity. Our results also suggested that NAG may be used in routine toxicity testing due to its sensitivity and robustness for detection of tissue injury. The present data will provide insights into the preclinical use of these biomarkers for detection of drug-induced AKI in non-rodent species.

  18. RBC-/Cr-51/ half-life and albumin turnover in growing Beagle dogs during chronic radial acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckman, D. A.; Evans, J. W.; Oyama, J.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of chronic centrifugation on growing Beagle dogs exposed to -2 or -2.6 Gx on albumin and RBC turnover rates, albumin concentration and space, and total blood volume were determined and compared with caged and run control of animals. Albumin-(I-125) and autologous RBC-(Cr-51) preparations were injected into all dogs at day 82 of the centrifugation periods, and the disappearance curves were determined by successive bleedings of the animals over the next 35 d, during which the centrifugation was continued. There were no differences in albumin turnover rates or space. Two populations of RBCs were found in both centrifugated groups, one with a normal half-life of 27 + or - 1 S.E.M. d, and one with a significantly (p less than 0.01) shorter half-life of 15 + or - 2 S.E.M. d. An absolute polycythemia was also observed in both centrifuged groups. The results suggest that chronic centrifugation acts through some as-yet unknown mechanism to affect RBC population kinetics.

  19. Preclinical Safety of the Root Extract of Polygala tenuifolia Willdenow in Sprague-Dawley Rats and Beagle Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ki Young; Won, Beom Young; Ha, Hyun Jee; Yun, Yeo Sang; Lee, Hyung Gun

    2014-01-01

    The root of Polygala tenuifolia Willdenow has been used for the treatment of insomnia, depression, and amnesia. However, the toxicological properties of the herb have been overlooked, because it has been used for a long time for various purposes. In this study, we evaluated the preclinical safety of the root extract in rats and beagle dogs. First, the acute oral toxicity was tested in both rats and dogs. In the rats, only one female of 2 g/kg died, but no treatment-related death or clinical and gross findings were observed after the administration. No toxicological changes or mortalities related to the test substance were also observed after the administration in the dogs. Although vomiting, discoloration, or hemorrhage was found in some dogs, there were no serious abnormalities. Second, the subchronic toxicity was investigated in the rats. Two animals were found dead in the female group of 1,000 mg/kg/day, but there were no abnormal findings associated with the test substance. There also were no adverse effects on the clinical signs, body weight, and hematological and biochemical findings. Therefore, our results showed that the acute or subchronic toxicity of the root extract of Polygala tenuifolia might not be toxic to rats and dogs. PMID:25431613

  20. UV Photofunctionalization Effect on Bone Graft in Critical One-Wall Defect around Implant: A Pilot Study in Beagle Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Young; Lee, Jae-Hoon; Kim, Jee-Hwan; Jung, Han-Sung; Park, Young-Bum

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare and evaluate, through histomorphometric and radiological analysis, the effects of UV photofunctionalization on an implant placed over a critical defect area with and without a bone graft. Four female beagle dogs were first divided into control and bone graft groups. Each group was then subdivided into UV-treated and UV-untreated groups. The mandibular premolars in each dog were extracted. 12 weeks after extraction, implants were placed according to the condition of each group. Four and 12 weeks after implantation on left and right mandible, the dogs were sacrificed. The specimens were prepared for histomorphometric and micro-computed tomographic analysis. In both 4-week and 12-week groups, UV-treated implant surfaces showed better osseointegration than SA implant surfaces. Also, with implant surfaces placed over the critical defect with bone graft, UV photofunctionalization increased bone-to-implant contact (BIC) and new bone formation at the initial stage (4 weeks). Based on the results of this study, it can be suggested that UV photofunctionalization on the surface of implants placed over large critical defects with bone graft aids initial osseointegration and osteogenesis. PMID:28116296

  1. Comparison of expression of inflammatory cytokines in the spinal cord between young adult and aged beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae Hwan; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Park, Joon Ha; Yan, Bing Chun; Cho, Jeong-Hwi; Kim, In Hye; Lee, Jae-Chul; Jang, Sang-Hun; Lee, Myoung Hyo; Hwang, In Koo; Moon, Seung Myung; Lee, Bonghee; Cho, Jun Hwi; Shin, Hyung-Cheul; Kim, Jin Sang; Won, Moo-Ho

    2013-07-01

    Aging is an inevitable process that occurs in the whole body system accompanying with many functional and morphological changes. Inflammation is known as one of age-related factors, and inflammatory changes could enhance mortality risk. In this study, we compared immunoreactivities of inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-2 (a pro-inflammatory cytokine), its receptor (IL-2R), IL-4 (an anti-inflammatory cytokine), and its receptor (IL-4R) in the cervical and lumbar spinal cord of young adult (2-3 years old) and aged (10-12 years old) beagle dogs using immunohistochemistry and western blotting. IL-2 and IL-2R-immunoreactive nerve cells were found throughout the gray matter of the cervical and lumbar spinal cord of young adult and aged dogs. In the spinal cord neurons of the aged dog, immunoreactivity and protein levels were apparently increased compared with those in the young adult dog. Change patterns of IL-4- and IL-4R-immunoreactive cells and their protein levels were also similar to those in IL-2 and IL-2R; however, IL-4 and IL-4R immunoreactivity in the periphery of the neuronal cytoplasm in the aged dog was much stronger than that in the young adult dog. These results indicate that the increase of inflammatory cytokines and their receptors in the aged spinal cord might be related to maintaining a balance of inflammatory reaction in the spinal cord during normal aging.

  2. Normal canine prostate gland: repeatability, reproducibility, observer-dependent variability of ultrasonographic measurements of the prostate in healthy intact beagles.

    PubMed

    Leroy, C; Conchou, F; Layssol-Lamour, C; Deviers, A; Sautet, J; Concordet, D; Mogicato, G

    2013-10-01

    Most prostatic diseases in dogs are associated with prostatomegaly, and transabdominal ultrasonography has become the imaging modality of choice for evaluation of the prostate gland in the dog. The aim of the present study was to assess the reproducibility, the repeatability and interobserver variations of sonographic measurements of prostate and to determine which measurement had the lowest variability. Length and height of prostate gland were measured on longitudinal views, width of the prostate gland and height of left and right lobes of the gland on transversal views. The within-day and between-day variabilities of the prostatic parameters were determined by performing 1350 (270 length, 270 height, 270 width, 270 height of right lobe and 270 height of left lobe) examinations on ten healthy intact beagle dogs on six different days, in a two-week period (three days for the five dogs, three different days for the five others). Three observers with different levels of experience in ultrasonography performed the examinations. The lowest within-day and between-day standard deviation and coefficient of variation values were observed for the width of the prostate. The width of the gland measured on transverse frozen images seems to be the most reliable measurement for evaluating size of prostate glands in healthy dogs, although the shape, position, outline, and echogenicity of the prostate should also be assessed.

  3. Biokinetics aand dosimetry of inhaled {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} in the beagle dog: An update

    SciTech Connect

    Guilmette, R.A.; Griffith, W.C.; Diel, J.H.

    1994-11-01

    The temporal and spatial distributions of {sup 238}Pu have been measured during the course of a dose-response study of the biological effects of inhaled {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} in Beagle dogs. These measurements were done on the dose-response study animals, as well as a separate group of dogs exposed to similar aerosols and killed serially out to 4 y after exposure. The data from this latter group provided the basis for the development of a biokinetic/dosimetric model for {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} in dogs. Since the publication of this model, several important findings have been made that affected the dosimetric evaluations. The first involved the discovery of significant quantities of natural uranium (U) in the feces samples. The U was measured with the plutonium (Pu), which inflated the values for purported Pu in feces. The second finding involved the addition of Pu biokinetics data from the dose-response dogs, which increased the period of observation from 4 y to 15 y; these later data were not consistent with the earlier model predictions. The purpose of this investigation was (1) to remove the analytical bias in the {sup 238}Pu radiochemical data due to the U and (2) to modify the original model of Mewhinney and Diel, taking into account all data from both studies.

  4. Effects of Nigella sativa, Lepidium sativum and Trigonella foenum-graecum on sildenafil disposition in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Al-Mohizea, Abdullah M; Ahad, Abdul; El-Maghraby, Gamal M; Al-Jenoobi, Fahad I; AlKharfy, Khalid M; Al-Suwayeh, Saleh A

    2015-06-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of some commonly used herbs namely Nigella sativa, Lepidium sativum and Trigonella foenum-graecum on the pharmacokinetics of sildenafil in beagle dogs. The study design involved four treatments in a non-balanced crossover design. Sildenafil was given one tablet 100 mg orally to each dog and blood samples were obtained. After a suitable washout period, animals were commenced on a specific herb treatment for 1 week. Blood samples were withdrawn at different time intervals and sildenafil was analyzed by HPLC method. Oral administration of Nigella sativa resulted in reduction of AUC0-∞, C max and t 1/2 as compared to the control. Treatment of Lepidium sativum resulted in a significant reduction in the C max and AUC. There were no significant differences between the rests of the pharmacokinetic parameters relative to those of the control. For Trigonella foenum-graecum, the effects were similar to those obtained in case of Lepidium sativum. It was concluded that concurrent use of investigated herbs alters the pharmacokinetics of sildenafil. Co-administration of investigated herbs should be cautious since their concomitant use might result in decrease in sildenafil bioavailability.

  5. Determination of andrograpolide sodium bisulphite in Beagle dog plasma by LC-MS/MS and its application to pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuang-Qing; Fan, Yu-Ming

    2012-10-15

    A sensitive and reliable liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been developed and validated for the determination of andrographolide sodium bisulphite (ASB) in dog plasma using dehydroandrographolide (DAG) as an internal standard. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Hypersil Gold C(18) column (50 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.9 μm) with gradient elution that consisted of methanol and water at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. Quantification was done using selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode to monitor precursor-product ion transitions of m/z 413.2→287.2 for ASB and 331.2→303.3 for DAG at negative ionization mode. Good linearity was obtained over the range of 10-1000 ng/mL and the correlation coefficient was better than 0.99. The intra- and inter-day accuracies ranged from 97.2% to 107.8% and precisions (RSD) were within 13.9%. ASB was found stable under three freeze-thaw cycles, short-term temperature, post-preparative and long-term temperature conditions. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of ASB intravenously administered to Beagle dogs.

  6. Safety and biodistribution of a double-deleted oncolytic vaccinia virus encoding CD40 ligand in laboratory Beagles

    PubMed Central

    Autio, Karoliina; Knuuttila, Anna; Kipar, Anja; Pesonen, Sari; Guse, Kilian; Parviainen, Suvi; Rajamäki, Minna; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, Outi; Vähä-Koskela, Markus; Kanerva, Anna; Hemminki, Akseli

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated adverse events, biodistribution and shedding of oncolytic vaccinia virus encoding CD40 ligand in two Beagles, in preparation for a phase 1 trial in canine cancer patients. Dog 1 received one dose of vaccinia virus and was euthanized 24 hours afterwards, while dog 2 received virus four times once weekly and was euthanized 7 days after that. Dogs were monitored for adverse events and underwent a detailed postmortem examination. Blood, saliva, urine, feces, and organs were collected for virus detection. Dog 1 had mild fever and lethargy while dog 2 experienced a possible seizure 5.5 hours after first virus administration. Viral DNA declined quickly in the blood after virus administration in both dogs but was still detectable 1 week later by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Only samples taken directly after virus infusion contained infectious virus. Small amounts of viral DNA, but no infectious virus, were detected in a few saliva and urine samples. Necropsies did not reveal any relevant pathological changes and virus DNA was detected mainly in the spleen. The dogs in the study did not have cancer, and thus adverse events could be more common and viral load higher in dogs with tumors which allow viral amplification. PMID:27119092

  7. Southern California Edison PDF

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Southern California Edison report describes an evaluation of SCE’s Retail Appliance Recycling Program (Retail ARP) trial that was initiated in late October 2010 and completed in September of 2011.

  8. Southern hemisphere observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, Wayne

    Because of insurmountable problems associated with absolute dating, the non-literate cultures of the Southern Hemisphere can contribute little to Applied Historical Astronomy, although Maori traditions document a possible supernova dating to the period 1000-1770 AD. In contrast, the abundant nineteenth century solar, planetary, cometary and stellar observational data provided by Southern Hemisphere professional and amateur observatories can serve as an invaluable mine of information for present-day astronomers seeking to incorporate historical data in their investigations.

  9. The Psychology of Channeling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corey, Michael A.

    1988-01-01

    Theoretically analyzes phenomenon of channeling from perspective of C. G. Jung's analytic psychology. Hypothesizes that contact with otherworldly spiritual beings claimed by channelers is actually projected contact with contents of channeler's own unconscious mind. Suggests that channelers seek more constructive ways of contacting their…

  10. Development of novel prasugrel base microsphere-loaded tablet with enhanced stability: Physicochemical characterization and in vivo evaluation in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyeong Soo; Kim, Jin Cheul; Jin, Sung Giu; Kim, Dong Wuk; Kim, Dong Shik; Yong, Chul Soon; Kim, Jong Oh; Youn, Yu Seok; Oh, Kyung Taek; Woo, Jong Soo; Choi, Han-Gon

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a novel prasugrel base microsphere-loaded tablet (PBMST) with enhanced stability as a bioequivalent to the commercial prasugrel hydrochloride-loaded tablet. Numerous prasugrel base-loaded microspheres were prepared with hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC), colloidal silica and various acidifying agents using a spray-drying process, and the physicochemical properties, solubility and stability were investigated. The PBMSTs were prepared and their dissolution, pharmacokinetics in beagle dogs and stability were evaluated compared to commercial prasugrel hydrochloride-loaded tablets. Among the acidifying agents tested, phosphoric acid provided the greatest increase in drug solubility, by as much as 110-fold. The prasugrel base-loaded microspheres composed of prasugrel base, HPMC, colloidal silica and phosphoric acid at a weight ratio of 10/10/5/2.5 provided an amorphous drug and reduced particle size of about 11.3μm. Moreover, it exhibited excellent solubility and improved stability compared to prasugrel base and hydrochloride. Moreover, PBMST drug dissolution was improved in comparison to the prasugrel base-loaded tablet (PBT), with similar dissolution to the commercial prasugrel hydrochloride-loaded tablet at pH 1.2 and 4.0. PBMST provided significantly higher plasma concentrations of AUC and Cmax in beagle dogs compared to PBT. In particular, the AUC of PBMST was approximately four times greater than PBT, leading to improved oral bioavailability. There were no significant differences observed for all pharmacokinetic parameters between PBMST and the commercial prasugrel hydrochloride-loaded tablet, suggesting their bioequivalence in beagle dogs. Furthermore, the prepared PBMSTs were stable for at least six months. Therefore, this novel prasugrel base microsphere-loaded tablet could be a potential alternative for enhancing the stability and bioavailability of prasugrel.

  11. In vivo evaluation of the cornea and conjunctiva of the normal laboratory beagle using Time- and Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography and ultrasound pachymetry

    PubMed Central

    Strom, Ann R.; Cortés, Dennis E.; Rasmussen, Carol A.; Thomasy, Sara M.; McIntyre, Kim; Lee, Shwu-Fei; Kass, Philip H.; Mannis, Mark J.; Murphy, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To obtain normative data for the canine cornea and conjunctiva using high-resolution Time- and Fourier-Domain optical coherence tomography (TD-OCT and FD-OCT) and ultrasound pachymetry (USP). Animals One hundred sixty-eight eyes of 133 healthy, young, intact laboratory beagles. Procedures The cornea and conjunctiva of 16 eyes of 8 healthy young intact female intact beagles were imaged using FD-OCT. Corneal thickness was measured with FD-OCT and USP, while corneal and conjunctival epithelial thickness was measured with FD-OCT. The central corneal thickness (CCT) was determined in 152 eyes of 125 healthy young adult intact female (35) and male (90) beagles using TD-OCT. Mixed effects linear regression was used for statistical analysis. Results The CCT was (mean ± standard deviation) 497.54 ± 29.76, 555.49 ± 17.19 and 594.81 ± 33.02 μm as measured by FD-OCT, USP and TD-OCT, respectively. The central, superior paraxial, superior perilimbal corneal epithelial thickness and superior bulbar conjunctival epithelial thickness was 52.38 ± 7.27, 56.96 ± 6.47, 69.06 ± 8.84 and 42.98 ± 6.17 μm, respectively. When comparing techniques used for measuring CCT (USP versus FD-OCT and FD-OCT versus TD-OCT), USP and TD-OCT generated significantly greater values in comparison to FD-OCT (both P < 0.001). For all dogs CCT increased with increasing age and body weight (both P < 0.001) and was higher in intact males versus females using TD-OCT (P = 0.034). Conclusion High-resolution FD-OCT and TD-OCT provide detailed non-invasive evaluation of in vivo canine anterior segment structures. Normative values of the canine cornea and conjunctiva are reported. PMID:25676065

  12. Channel nut tool

    DOEpatents

    Olson, Marvin

    2016-01-12

    A method, system, and apparatus for installing channel nuts includes a shank, a handle formed on a first end of a shank, and an end piece with a threaded shaft configured to receive a channel nut formed on the second end of the shaft. The tool can be used to insert or remove a channel nut in a channel framing system and then removed from the channel nut.

  13. CSU-FDA collaborative radiological health laboratory annual report, 1980: health effects of prenatal and postnatal whole-body exposure to ionizing radiation in the beagle dog

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    A long-term study of the mortality, morbidity, and physiopathology of beagles exposed to a single dose of ionizing radiation during one of six stages of either prenatal or postnatal development. The results of this study will provide insight into the lifetime risks associated with prenatal and postnatal exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation. This annual report describes the long-term study and the short-term experiments being performed to evaluate spontaneous and radiation-induced problems, as well as the computer storage and retrieval system and its uses in the study.

  14. The Beagle 2 entry descent and landing system (EDLS) software - development and re-use of software for the Red Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symonds, Martin

    2002-07-01

    This paper provides a brief introduction to the Beagle 2 Mars probe and the associated mission, followed by a description of Logica's software responsibility on this programme. The approach taken during software development and implementation of the missioncritical entry, descent and landing system software is then described. This has focussed on maximising re-use of expertise from similar programmes such as Huygens and Rosetta. At the same time effort was devoted to ensure that re-use was enabled within the programme as well as opening up the possibility for re-use on subsequent missions. Finally, the lessons learned are highlighted and a number of conclusions are drawn.

  15. A short-term study of the effects of SBHAN, a novel compound, on gingival inflammation in the beagle dog.

    PubMed

    Cutler, C W; Ghaffar, K A

    1997-05-01

    Unique hydroxyl ion-modulating compounds based on the amino acid glycine have been developed that possess both antimicrobial and pro-healing properties. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of one of these compounds, 8.5% (w/v) sodium N, N-bis-2 (hydroxylethyl) aminoacetate (SBHA) with 0.3% (w/v) NaOH (SBHAN) on ligature-induced gingival inflammation in the beagle dog. Fifteen purebred beagle dogs were subjected to a 14-day oral hygiene regimen, consisting of manual scaling and daily toothbrushing with plain pumice. Gingival inflammation was then initiated by tying ligatures around 12 study teeth per dog and by placing the dogs on water-softened dog chow. After 30 days, ligatures were removed, dogs were placed on a hard diet and randomly assigned to five treatment groups by the flip of two coins. The five treatments included: 1) distilled, pyrogen-free water; 2) 8.5% (w/v) SBHAN; 3) 4.3% (w/v) SBHAN; 4) 0.12% chlorhexidine; and 5) 8.5% SBHA (w/v) (SBHAN without added NaOH). Solutions were placed in opaque spray bottles to shield their identity from the examiner. Treatment consisted of a daily aerosol application of 2 ml of each solution in a calibrated spray bottle to the affected teeth. The following measures were taken from the dogs at baseline (after hygienic phase), 30 days after initiation of gingival inflammation (before ligature removal), and 2 weeks and 4 weeks after ligature removal: 1) plaque index (PI); 2) gingival index (GI); 3) probing depths (PD); 4) relative attachment levels (RAL); and 5) gingival crevicular fluid volume (GCF). Analysis of subgingival plaque for anaerobic and aerobic colony forming units/ml was also performed at each time point. Gingival biopsies were performed, sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin to quantify the inflammatory cell infiltrate (ICI). After ligature placement, increases were observed in PI, GI, PD, RAL, GCF, aerobic and anaerobic subgingival microbial counts, and ICI. After

  16. Carcinogenesis From Inhaled (PuO2)-Pu-239 in Beagles: Evidence for Radiation Homeostasis at Low Doses?

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Darrell R.; Weller, Richard E.

    2010-09-01

    From the early 1970s to the late 1980s, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted life-span studies in beagle dogs on the biological effects of inhaled plutonium (239PuO2, 238PuO2, and 239Pu[NO3]4) to help predict risks associated with accidental intakes in workers. Years later, the purpose of the present follow-up study is to reassess the dose-response relationship for lung cancer induction in the 239PuO2 dogs compared to controls, with particular focus on the dose-response at low lung doses. A 239PuO2 aerosol (2.3 μm AMAD, 1.9 μm GSD) was administered to six groups of 20 young (18-month old) beagle dogs (10 males and 10 females) by inhalation at six different activity levels, as previously described in Laboratory reports. Control dogs were sham-exposed. In dose level 1, initial pulmonary lung depositions were 130 ± 48 Bq (3.5 ± 1.3 nCi), corresponding to 1 Bq g-1 lung tissue (0.029 ± 0.001 nCi g-1. Groups 2 through 6 received initial lung depositions (mean values) of 760, 2724, 10345, 37900, and 200000 Bq (22, 79, 300, 1100, and 5800 nCi) 239PuO2, respectively. For each dog, the absorbed dose to lungs was calculated from the initial lung burden and the final lung burden at time of death and lung mass, assuming a single, long-term retention function. Insoluble plutonium oxide exhibited long retention times in the lungs. Increased dose-dependent mortality due to lung cancer (bronchiolar-alveolar carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, epidermoid carcinoma) and radiation pneumonitis (highest exposures group) was observed in dogs exposed to 239PuO2. Calculated lung doses ranged from a few cGy in early-sacrificed dogs to 7764 cGy in dogs that experienced early deaths from radiation pneumonitis. Data were regrouped by lifetime lung dose and plotted as a function of lung tumor incidence. Lung tumor incidence in controls and zero-dose exposed dogs was 18% (5/28). However, no lung tumors were observed in 16 dogs with the lowest lung doses (8 to 22 cGy, mean 14.4 ± 7.6 c

  17. Non-clinical safety and pharmacokinetic evaluations of propylene glycol aerosol in Sprague-Dawley rats and Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Werley, Michael S; McDonald, Paddy; Lilly, Patrick; Kirkpatrick, Daniel; Wallery, Jeffrey; Byron, Peter; Venitz, Jürgen

    2011-09-05

    Aerosolized propylene glycol (PG) was generated as log-normally distributed particulate clouds in different concentrations using a novel capillary aerosol generator (CAG) and evaluated in a battery of non-clinical studies intended to assess its potential inhalation and systemic toxicity in 2 species before ICH-compliant "first-time-in-man" studies. Exposures were nose-only in rats, and via face mask with oropharyngeal tube in dogs. The CAG-generated PG aerosol had a mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of 2.29μm, with a 1.56 geometric standard deviation (GSD) in the rat studies, and a MMAD of 1.34μm (1.45 GSD) in the dog studies, consistent with expected particle size exposures in man. International Congress on Harmonization (ICH) Guidelines were followed, which recommend preliminary non-clinical safety studies using the vehicle and device (CAG-PG) prior to the first human exposure including safety pharmacology, pharmacokinetic (PK) studies, single dose toxicity studies, and repeated dose toxicity studies in two species. In the rat, the only biologically relevant findings included clinical signs of ocular and nasal irritation indicated by minor bleeding around the eyes and nose, and minimal laryngeal squamous metaplasia. This finding is commonly observed in inhalation studies in the rat, and likely related to the unique sensitivity of the tissue, as well as the circuitous airflow pathway through the larynx which increases particle deposition. In the female Beagle dog, treatment-related decreases in hemoglobin, red blood cells and hematocrit were observed in the two highest exposure groups, equivalent to approximately 18 and 60mg/kg/day. In male dogs from the high dose group, similar small decreases, albeit, non-statistically significant decreases were observed in these hematological markers as well. PK studies in rats and dogs showed that the absorption of PG following pulmonary inhalation exposure occurs rapidly, and equilibrium between lung tissue and plasma

  18. Bone remodeling at microscrew interface near extraction site in the beagle dog mandible-histologic and immunohistochemical analyses

    PubMed Central

    WEI, Guangxi; HU, Yun; ZHENG, Leilei; HUO, Jinfeng; TANG, Tian; DENG, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Extraction is often used as part of orthodontic therapy, and good control of anchorage is a key step after extraction. Although microscrews can be implanted close to the extraction site in order to achieve orthodontic support, the efficiency of bone remodeling at the implant-bone interface near the extraction region is dubious. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate bone remodeling of the bone-microscrew interface near the tooth extraction site, in the absence of loading. Material and Methods Third and fourth premolars were extracted from the mandibles of beagle dogs, followed by placement of test microscrews near the extraction sites. Control microscrews were placed further away from the extraction site. All samples were collected after 1, 3, 8, or 12 weeks of healing following extraction. The bone remodeling process at the interface was evaluated using histologic and immunohistochemical analyses. Results Initially, a large number of inflammatory cells were aggregated at the interface. The expression levels of core binding factor (Cbfa1), osteocalcin (OC) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) were inconspicuous in both groups, whereas tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was strongly expressed, especially in the test groups (P<0.05). Subsequently, the expression levels of Cbfa1, OC and TGF-β were found to increase significantly, and active osteogenesis was observed. Conclusions During week 1, inflammatory reaction is a major concern at the bone-microscrew interface near the extraction site. However, with healing, the influence of extraction on the remodeling of bone surrounding the microscrews decreases, thus facilitating successful treatment. PMID:24212991

  19. [Comparison of the action of Cordemcura on selected cardiovascular parameters following intraduodenal and intravenous application in beagles].

    PubMed

    Hübler, D; Mudhaffar, A A; Schilling, G; Elze, M; Chemnitius, K H

    1986-03-01

    The novel cardiotonic Cordemcura was tested for its cardiovascular effects after intraduodenal application to anaesthetized dogs. For this purpose, beagles received Cordemcura intraduodenally as a Tylose suspension, with 4 bolus injections (10(-5), 3 X 10(-5), 6 X 10(-5), and 10(-4) mol/kg) given at 30-min intervals. The test parameters used to analyze the onset of action and its course include: heart frequency (HFR), maximum rate of pressure rise (dp/dtmax) and decline (dp/dtmin) in the left ventricle, cardiac output (CO), stroke volume (SV), total peripheral resistance (TPR) and peripheral arterial blood pressure, systolic (Ps) and diastolic (Pd), and dose-effect curves determined for the individual test parameters. There was a dose-dependent increase of dp/dtmax up to a maximum of 130%, which 3 h afterwards was still about 60% above the initial value. The heart frequency, too, rose dose-dependently by a maximum of 80%, though not being significantly different from the initial value any longer 3 h after the last bolus injection. The Ps was slightly, but significantly decreased with the higher dose levels used. The influence on dp/dtmin and Pd was insignificant. A significant rise was found in the cardiac output, whereas the peripheral resistance showed a slight decline. After 3 h, a significant rise was still seen in the contractility (dp/dtmax), whereas the other parameters were no longer significantly different from the initial values. Moreover, selected dose levels of Cordemcura were tested after i. v. application, and a comparison was made of their effect on heart frequency, peripheral blood pressure, and inotropism. The importance of the findings was discussed.

  20. Secreted phospholipase A2 inhibitor modulates fatty acid composition and reduces obesity-induced inflammation in Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Xu, J; Bourgeois, H; Vandermeulen, E; Vlaeminck, B; Meyer, E; Demeyere, K; Hesta, M

    2015-05-01

    Secreted phospholipase A2 inhibitor (sPLA2i) has been reported to have an anti-inflammatory function by blocking the production of inflammatory mediators. Obesity is characterized by low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of sPLA2i on inflammation, oxidative stress and serum fatty acid profile in dogs. Seven obese and seven lean Beagle dogs were used in a 28-day double blind cross-over design. Dogs were fed a control diet without supplemental sPLA2i or an sPLA2i supplemented diet. The sPLA2i diet decreased plasma fibrinogen levels and increased the protein:fibrinogen ratio in obese dogs to levels similar to those of lean dogs fed the same diet. Obese dogs had a higher plasma concentration of the lipophilic vitamin A with potential antioxidative capacity and a lower ratio of retinol binding protein 4:vitamin A compared to lean dogs, independent of the diets. A higher proportion of myristic acid (C14:0) and a lower proportion of linoleic acid (C18:2n-6) were observed in the dogs fed with the sPLA2i diet compared to dogs fed with the control diet. Furthermore, a higher ratio of n-6 to n-3, a lower proportion of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and lower omega-3 index were observed in obese compared to lean dogs. The results indicate that obese dogs are characterized by a more 'proinflammatory' serum fatty acid profile and that diet inclusion of sPLA2i may reduce inflammation and alter fatty acid profile.

  1. Guided bone regeneration utilizing expanded polytetrafluoroethylene membranes in combination with submerged and nonsubmerged dental implants in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Fiorellini, J P; Engebretson, S P; Donath, K; Weber, H P

    1998-05-01

    Treatment of partial and total edentulism with submerged and nonsubmerged dental implants which follows the concept of osseointegration has become an accepted treatment modality. With compromised implant sites, practitioners have begun to combine one-stage implants with established techniques including guided bone regeneration. However, the clinical evaluation of this technique is limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate osseointegration and bone regeneration around nonsubmerged or submerged implants placed directly into surgically created osseous defects with or without expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes. A total of 24 implants were placed in the mandibles of 4 beagle dogs and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups. In group A, nonsubmerged implants were placed into osseous defects and treated with a poncho style ePTFE membrane. These membranes had a hole punched into the center and were slipped over the nonsubmerged implants. In group B, nonsubmerged implants were placed into osseous defects without an ePTFE membrane. In group C, submerged implants were placed into osseous defects and covered with an ePTFE membrane. Histometric measurements of each treatment group were made to determine percent bone gain or loss along the implant surface. Although a number of membrane removals occurred during the healing period, histological analysis indicated osseous ingrowth and osseointegration around nonsubmerged and submerged implants. An overall comparison of the treatment groups with ANOVA revealed that there were no significant differences between treatment groups, P > or = 0.05. However, when the data were stratified into sites which retained or lost the ePTFE membrane, the percent of bone regeneration was reduced in group A. Therefore, it may be recommended that nonsubmerged implants be placed with a submerged or "semi-submerged" protocol when utilized in conjunction with ePTFE membranes.

  2. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a new reformulated microemulsion and the long-chain triglyceride emulsion of propofol in beagle dogs

    PubMed Central

    Lee, S-H; Ghim, J-L; Song, M-H; Choi, H-G; Choi, B-M; Lee, H-M; Lee, E-K; Roh, Y-J; Noh, G-J

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Microemulsion propofol was developed to eliminate lipid solvent-related adverse events of long-chain triglyceride emulsion (LCT) propofol. We compared dose proportionality, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of both formulations. Experimental approach: The study was a randomized, two-period and crossover design with 7-day wash-out period. Microemulsion and LCT propofol were administered by zero-order infusion (0.75, 1.00 and 1.25 mg·kg−1·min−1) for 20 min in 30 beagle dogs (male/female = 5/5 for each rate). Arterial samples were collected at preset intervals. The electroencephalographic approximate entropy (ApEn) was used as a measure of propofol effect. Dose proportionality, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic bioequivalence were evaluated by non-compartmental analyses. Population analysis was performed using nonlinear mixed effects modelling. Key results: Both formulations showed dose proportionality at the applied dose range. The ratios of geometric means of AUClast and AUCinf between both formulations were acceptable for bioequivalence, whereas that of Cmax was not. The pharmacodynamic bioequivalence was indicated by the arithmetic means of AAC (areas above the ApEn time curves) and E0 (baseline ApEn)–Emax (maximally decreased ApEn) between both formulations. The pharmacokinetics of both formulations were best described by three compartment models. Body weight was a significant covariate for V1 of both formulations and sex for k21 of microemulsion propofol. The blood-brain equilibration rate constants (ke0, min−1) were 0.476 and 0.696 for microemulsion and LCT propofol respectively. Conclusions and implications: Microemulsion propofol was pharmacodynamically bioequivalent to LCT propofol although pharmacokinetic bioequivalence was incomplete, and demonstrated linear pharmacokinetics at the applied dose ranges. PMID:19925493

  3. The Osteogenesis Effect and Underlying Mechanisms of Local Delivery of gAPN in Extraction Sockets of Beagle Dogs.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hongcheng; Pu, Yinfei; Lu, Songhe; Zhang, Kuo; Guo, Yuan; Lu, Hui; Li, Deli; Li, Xuefen; Li, Zichen; Wu, Yuwei; Tang, Zhihui

    2015-10-20

    A plastic and biodegradable bone substitute consists of poly (L-lactic-co-glycolic) acid and 30 wt % β-tricalcium phosphate has been previously fabricated, but its osteogenic capability required further improvement. We investigated the use of globular adiponectin (gAPN) as an anabolic agent for tissue-engineered bone using this scaffold. A qualitative analysis of the bone regeneration process was carried out using μCT and histological analysis 12 weeks after implantation. CBCT (Cone Beam Computed Tomography) superimposition was used to characterise the effect of the different treatments on bone formation. In this study, we also explored adiponectin's (APN) influence on primary cultured human jaw bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells gene expressions involved in the osteogenesis. We found OPEN ACCESS Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16 24947 that composite scaffolds loaded with gAPN or bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) exhibited significantly increased bone formation and mineralisation following 12 weeks in the extraction sockets of beagle dogs, as well as enhanced expression of osteogenic markers. In vitro investigation revealed that APN also promoted osteoblast differentiation of primary cultured human jaw bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (h-JBMMSCs), accompanied by increased activity of alkaline phosphatase, greater mineralisation, and production of the osteoblast-differentiated genes osteocalcin, bone sialoprotein and collagen type I, which was reversed by APPL1 siRNA. Therefore, the composite scaffold loaded with APN exhibited superior activity for guided bone regeneration compared with blank control or Bio-Oss® (a commercially available product). The composite scaffold with APN has significant potential for clinical applications in bone tissue engineering.

  4. Cross equator transport of 137Cs from North Pacific Ocean to South Pacific Ocean ( BEAGLE2003 cruises)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, M.; Fukasawa, M.; Hirose, K.; Hamajima, Y.; Kawano, T.; Povinec, P. P.; Sanchez-Cabeza, J. A.

    2011-04-01

    The anthropogenic radionuclides such as 137Cs, 90Sr, 99Tc, 129I and some transuranics are important tracers of transport and biogeochemical processes in the ocean. 137Cs, with a half-life of 30 years, a major fission product present in a dissolved form in seawater, is a good tracer of oceanic circulation at a time scale of several decades. At WOCE P6 line along 30°S during the BEAGLE cruise in 2003, surface seawater (around 80 L) was collected a few meters below the ocean surface by a pumping system. Water column samples (from 5 to 20 L) were collected using a Rosette multisampling system and Niskin bottles. 137Cs was separated from seawater samples using ammonium phosphomolybdate (AMP) and analysed for 137Cs in low-level HPGe gamma-ray spectrometers. Results allowed to draw a detailed picture of the distribution of 137Cs in the South Pacific Ocean along P6 line. A 137Cs depth section was depicted from about 160 samples. 137Cs concentrations in the subsurface layers ranged from 0.07 ± 0.04 Bq m -3 to 1.85 ± 0.145 Bq m -3, high in the Tasman Sea and very low in the eastern region where upwelling occurs. Water column inventories of 137Cs from surface to 1000 dbar depth ranged from 270 ± 104 to 1048 ± 127 Bq m -2. It was concluded that the source of higher 137Cs concentration and inventories in the Tasman Sea was 137Cs deposited in the mid latitude of the North Pacific Ocean and transported across the equator during four decades.

  5. Subchronic Toxicities of HZ1006, a Hydroxamate-Based Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, in Beagle Dogs and Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaofang; Zhang, Xiaodong; Yuan, Bojun; Ren, Lijun; Zhang, Tianbao; Lu, Guocai

    2016-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs), such as vorinostat and panobinostat, have been shown to have active effects on many hematologic malignancies, including multiple myeloma and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Hydroxamate-based (Hb) HDACIs have very good toxicity profiles and are currently being tested in phases I and II clinical trials with promising results in selected neoplasms, such as bladder carcinoma. One of the Hb-HDACIs, HZ1006, has been demonstrated to be a promising drug for clinical use. The aim of our study was to determine the possible target of toxicity and to identify a non-toxic dose of HZ1006 for clinical use. In our studies, the repeated dosage toxicity of HZ1006 in Beagle dogs and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats was identified. Dogs and rats received HZ1006 orally (0–80 and 0–120 mg/kg/day, respectively) on a continuous daily dosing agenda for 28 days following a 14-day dosage-free period. HZ1006’s NOAEL (No Observed Adverse Effect Level) by daily oral administration for dogs and rats was 5 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg, respectively, and the minimum toxic dose was 20 and 120 mg/kg, respectively. All the side effects indicated that the digestive tract, the male reproductive tract, the respiratory tract and the hematological systems might be HZ1006 toxic targets in humans. HZ1006 could be a good candidate or a safe succedaneum to other existing HDACIs for the treatment of some solid tumor and hematologic malignancies. PMID:27916918

  6. Evaluation of the usefulness of novel biomarkers for drug-induced acute kidney injury in beagle dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Xiaobing; Ma, Ben; Lin, Zhi; Qu, Zhe; Huo, Yan; Wang, Jufeng; Li, Bo

    2014-10-01

    As kidney is a major target organ affected by drug toxicity, early detection of renal injury is critical in preclinical drug development. In past decades, a series of novel biomarkers of drug-induced nephrotoxicity were discovered and verified in rats. However, limited data regarding the performance of novel biomarkers in non-rodent species are publicly available. To increase the applicability of these biomarkers, we evaluated the performance of 4 urinary biomarkers including neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), clusterin, total protein, and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), relative to histopathology and traditional clinical chemistry in beagle dogs with acute kidney injury (AKI) induced by gentamicin. The results showed that urinary NGAL and clusterin levels were significantly elevated in dogs on days 1 and 3 after administration of gentamicin, respectively. Gene expression analysis further provided mechanistic evidence to support that NGAL and clusterin are potential biomarkers for the early assessment of drug-induced renal damage. Furthermore, the high area (both AUCs = 1.000) under receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curve also indicated that NGAL and clusterin were the most sensitive biomarkers for detection of gentamicin-induced renal proximal tubular toxicity. Our results also suggested that NAG may be used in routine toxicity testing due to its sensitivity and robustness for detection of tissue injury. The present data will provide insights into the preclinical use of these biomarkers for detection of drug-induced AKI in non-rodent species. - Highlights: • Urinary NGAL, clusterin and NAG levels were significantly elevated in canine AKI. • NGAL and clusterin gene expression were increased following treatment with gentamicin. • NGAL and clusterin have high specificity and sensitivity for detection of AKI.

  7. Estimation of pharmacokinetic parameters of sodium tungstate after multiple-dose during preclinical studies in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Le Lamer, S; Cros, G; Serrano, J J; Piñol, C; Fernändez-Alvarez, J; Bressolle, F

    2001-12-01

    In this paper, an empirical Bayes methodology was used to determine the pharmacokinetic profile of sodium tungstate in beagle dogs after multiple oral dosing using the P-PHARM computer program. The population estimation algorithm used in P-PHARM is an EM-type procedure. Sodium tungstate was administered orally, three times a day, (i) for 11 days (21 and 42 mg/kg per day) to 18 dogs (nine males and nine females) and (ii) for 13 weeks (15, 30 and 60 mg/kg per day) to 28 dogs (14 males, 14 females). Six other dogs received the compound intravenously (25 and 50 mg/kg). Plasma concentration profiles versus time were compatible with a two-compartment model and first-order kinetics. After oral administration, F (0.61+/-0.086 vs. 0.48+/-0.093), and normalized (to a 7-mg/kg dose of sodium tungstate) AUC (54+/-8.4 vs. 41.2+/-8.5 mg/l x h), C(max) (10.6+/-0.49 vs. 8.5+/-0.57 microg/ml) and C(min) (3.04+/-0.23 vs. 2.04+/-0.22 microg/ml), were higher in male than in female dogs. However, the introduction of the gender in the final model did not contribute statistically to an improvement of the fit of the population pharmacokinetic model. In males, t(1/2) elimination averaged 3.1+/-0.56 vs. 2.6+/-0.18 h in females. The duration of treatment did not modify statistically the pharmacokinetic parameters. After repeated multiple oral administration of 15-60 mg/kg per day of sodium tungstate, tungsten plasma concentrations increased in proportion to dose. No dose-dependent changes in pharmacokinetic parameters occurred.

  8. Action Mechanism of Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 (FGF-2) in the Promotion of Periodontal Regeneration in Beagle Dogs.

    PubMed

    Nagayasu-Tanaka, Toshie; Anzai, Jun; Takaki, Shu; Shiraishi, Noriko; Terashima, Akio; Asano, Taiji; Nozaki, Takenori; Kitamura, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) enhances the formation of new alveolar bone, cementum, and periodontal ligament (PDL) in periodontal defect models. However, the mechanism through which FGF-2 acts in periodontal regeneration in vivo has not been fully clarified yet. To reveal the action mechanism, the formation of regenerated tissue and gene expression at the early phase were analyzed in a beagle dog 3-wall periodontal defect model. FGF-2 (0.3%) or the vehicle (hydroxypropyl cellulose) only were topically applied to the defect in FGF-2 and control groups, respectively. Then, the amount of regenerated tissues and the number of proliferating cells at 3, 7, 14, and 28 days and the number of blood vessels at 7 days were quantitated histologically. Additionally, the expression of osteogenic genes in the regenerated tissue was evaluated by real-time PCR at 7 and 14 days. Compared with the control, cell proliferation around the existing bone and PDL, connective tissue formation on the root surface, and new bone formation in the defect at 7 days were significantly promoted by FGF-2. Additionally, the number of blood vessels at 7 days was increased by FGF-2 treatment. At 28 days, new cementum and PDL were extended by FGF-2. Moreover, FGF-2 increased the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and osteoblast differentiation markers (osterix, alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin) in the regenerated tissue. We revealed the facilitatory mechanisms of FGF-2 in periodontal regeneration in vivo. First, the proliferation of fibroblastic cells derived from bone marrow and PDL was accelerated and enhanced by FGF-2. Second, angiogenesis was enhanced by FGF-2 treatment. Finally, osteoblastic differentiation and bone formation, at least in part due to BMP-2 production, were rapidly induced by FGF-2. Therefore, these multifaceted effects of FGF-2 promote new tissue formation at the early regeneration phase, leading to enhanced formation of new bone, cementum, and PDL.

  9. Long-term Observation of Regenerated Periodontium Induced by FGF-2 in the Beagle Dog 2-Wall Periodontal Defect Model.

    PubMed

    Anzai, Jun; Nagayasu-Tanaka, Toshie; Terashima, Akio; Asano, Taiji; Yamada, Satoru; Nozaki, Takenori; Kitamura, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    The long-term stability and qualitative characteristics of periodontium regenerated by FGF-2 treatment were compared with normal physiological healing tissue controls in a Beagle dog 2-wall periodontal defect model 13 months after treatment by assessing tissue histology and three-dimensional microstructure using micro-computed tomography (μCT). After FGF-2 (0.3%) or vehicle treatment at the defect sites, serial changes in the bone mineral content (BMC) were observed using periodic X-ray imaging. Tissues were harvested at 13 months, evaluated histomorphometrically, and the cortical bone volume and trabecular bone structure of the newly formed bone were analyzed using μCT. FGF-2 significantly increased the BMC of the defect area at 2 months compared with that of the control group, and this difference was unchanged through 13 months. The cortical bone volume was significantly increased by FGF-2, but there was no difference between the groups in trabecular bone structure. Bone maturation was occurring in both groups because of the lower cortical volume and denser trabecular bone than what is found in intact bone. FGF-2 also increased the area of newly formed bone as assessed histomorphometrically, but the ratios of trabecular bone in the defect area were similar between the control and FGF-2 groups. These results suggest that FGF-2 stimulates neogenesis of alveolar bone that is of similar quality to that of the control group. The lengths of the regenerated periodontal ligament and cementum, measured as the distance from the defect bottom to the apical end of the gingival epithelium, and height and area of the newly formed bone in the FGF-2 group were larger than those in the control group. The present study demonstrated that, within the limitation of artificial periodontal defect model, the periodontal tissue regenerated by FGF-2 was maintained for 13 months after treatment and was qualitatively equivalent to that generated through the physiological healing process.

  10. Long-term Observation of Regenerated Periodontium Induced by FGF-2 in the Beagle Dog 2-Wall Periodontal Defect Model

    PubMed Central

    Anzai, Jun; Nagayasu-Tanaka, Toshie; Terashima, Akio; Asano, Taiji; Yamada, Satoru; Nozaki, Takenori; Kitamura, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    The long-term stability and qualitative characteristics of periodontium regenerated by FGF-2 treatment were compared with normal physiological healing tissue controls in a Beagle dog 2-wall periodontal defect model 13 months after treatment by assessing tissue histology and three-dimensional microstructure using micro-computed tomography (μCT). After FGF-2 (0.3%) or vehicle treatment at the defect sites, serial changes in the bone mineral content (BMC) were observed using periodic X-ray imaging. Tissues were harvested at 13 months, evaluated histomorphometrically, and the cortical bone volume and trabecular bone structure of the newly formed bone were analyzed using μCT. FGF-2 significantly increased the BMC of the defect area at 2 months compared with that of the control group, and this difference was unchanged through 13 months. The cortical bone volume was significantly increased by FGF-2, but there was no difference between the groups in trabecular bone structure. Bone maturation was occurring in both groups because of the lower cortical volume and denser trabecular bone than what is found in intact bone. FGF-2 also increased the area of newly formed bone as assessed histomorphometrically, but the ratios of trabecular bone in the defect area were similar between the control and FGF-2 groups. These results suggest that FGF-2 stimulates neogenesis of alveolar bone that is of similar quality to that of the control group. The lengths of the regenerated periodontal ligament and cementum, measured as the distance from the defect bottom to the apical end of the gingival epithelium, and height and area of the newly formed bone in the FGF-2 group were larger than those in the control group. The present study demonstrated that, within the limitation of artificial periodontal defect model, the periodontal tissue regenerated by FGF-2 was maintained for 13 months after treatment and was qualitatively equivalent to that generated through the physiological healing process

  11. Decorporation of systemically distributed americium by a novel orally administered diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) formulation in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Wilson, James P; Cobb, Ronald R; Dungan, Nathanael W; Matthews, Laura L; Eppler, Bärbel; Aiello, Kenneth V; Curtis, Shiro; Boger, Teannetta; Guilmette, Raymond A; Weber, Waylon; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Talton, James D

    2015-03-01

    Novel decorporation agents are being developed to protect against radiological accidents and terrorists attacks. Radioactive americium is a significant component of nuclear fallout. Removal of large radioactive materials, such as 241Am, from exposed persons is a subject of significant interest due to the hazards they pose. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dose-related efficacy of daily doses of NanoDTPA™ Capsules for decorporating Am administered intravenously as a soluble citrate complex to male and female beagle dogs. In addition, the efficacy of the NanoDTPA™ Capsules for decorporating 241Am was directly compared to intravenously administered saline and DTPA. Animals received a single IV administration of 241Am(III)-citrate on Day 0. One day after radionuclide administration, one of four different doses of NanoDTPA™ Capsules [1, 2, or 6 capsules d(-1) (30 mg, 60 mg, or 180 mg DTPA) or 2 capsules BID], IV Zn-DTPA (5 mg kg(-1) pentetate zinc trisodium) as a positive control, or IV saline as a placebo were administered. NanoDTPA™ Capsules, IV Zn-DTPA, or IV saline was administered on study days 1-14. Animals were euthanized on day 21. A full necropsy was conducted, and liver, spleen, kidneys, lungs and trachea, tracheobronchial lymph nodes (TBLN), muscle samples (right and left quadriceps), gastrointestinal (GI) tract (stomach plus esophagus, upper and lower intestine), gonads, two femurs, lumbar vertebrae (L1-L4), and all other soft tissue remains were collected. Urinary and fecal excretion profiles were increased approximately 10-fold compared to those for untreated animals. Tissue contents were decreased compared to untreated controls. In particular, liver content was decreased by approximately eightfold compared to untreated animals. The results from this study further demonstrate that oral NanoDTPA™ Capsules are equally efficient compared to IV Zn-DTPA in decorporation of actinides.

  12. Microfluidic channel fabrication method

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Don W.; Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Cardinale, Gregory F.

    2001-01-01

    A new channel structure for microfluidic systems and process for fabricating this structure. In contrast to the conventional practice of fabricating fluid channels as trenches or grooves in a substrate, fluid channels are fabricated as thin walled raised structures on a substrate. Microfluidic devices produced in accordance with the invention are a hybrid assembly generally consisting of three layers: 1) a substrate that can or cannot be an electrical insulator; 2) a middle layer, that is an electrically conducting material and preferably silicon, forms the channel walls whose height defines the channel height, joined to and extending from the substrate; and 3) a top layer, joined to the top of the channels, that forms a cover for the channels. The channels can be defined by photolithographic techniques and are produced by etching away the material around the channel walls.

  13. 47 CFR 22.1007 - Channels for offshore radiotelephone systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... located in the specified geographical zones that provide offshore radiotelephone service. All channels have a bandwidth of 20 kHz and are designated by their center frequencies in MegaHertz. (a) Zone A—Southern Louisiana. The geographical area in Zone A is bounded as follows: From longitude W.87°45′ on...

  14. 47 CFR 22.1007 - Channels for offshore radiotelephone systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... located in the specified geographical zones that provide offshore radiotelephone service. All channels have a bandwidth of 20 kHz and are designated by their center frequencies in MegaHertz. (a) Zone A—Southern Louisiana. The geographical area in Zone A is bounded as follows: From longitude W.87°45′ on...

  15. 47 CFR 22.1007 - Channels for offshore radiotelephone systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... located in the specified geographical zones that provide offshore radiotelephone service. All channels have a bandwidth of 20 kHz and are designated by their center frequencies in MegaHertz. (a) Zone A—Southern Louisiana. The geographical area in Zone A is bounded as follows: From longitude W.87°45′ on...

  16. Triton's Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This polar projection of Triton's southern hemisphere provides a view of the southern polar cap and bright equatorial fringe. The margin of the cap is scalloped and ranges in latitude from +10 degrees to -30 degrees. The bright fringe is closely associated with the cap's margin; from it, diffuse bright rays extend north-northeast for hundreds of kilometers. The bright fringe probably consists of very fresh nitrogen frost or snow, and the rays consist of bright-fringe materials that were redistributed by north-moving Coriolis-deflected winds.

  17. Beagle 2 the Moon: An Experimental Package to Measure Polar Ice and Volatiles in Permanently Shadowed Areas or Beneath the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, E. K.; McKay, D. S.; Pillinger, C. T.; Wright, I. P.; Sims, M. R.; Richter, L.

    2008-01-01

    NASA has announced the selection of several Lunar Science Sortie Concept Studies for potential scientific payloads with future Lunar Missions. The Beagle 2 scientific package was one of those chosen for study. Near the beginning of the next decade will see the launch of scientific payloads to the lunar surface to begin laying the foundations for the return to the moon in the Vision for Space Exploration. Shortly thereafter, astronauts will return to the lunar surface with the ability to place scientific packages on the surface that will provide information about lunar resources and compositions of materials in permanently shadowed regions of the moon (1). One of the important questions which must be answered early in the program is whether there are lunar resources which would facilitate "living off the land" and not require the transport of resources and consumables from Earth (2). The Beagle science package developed to seek the signatures of life on Mars is the ideal payload (3) to use on the lunar surface for determining the nature of hydrogen, water and lunar volatiles found in the polar regions which could support the Vision for Space Exploration.

  18. A comparison of the pharmacokinetics of three different preparations of total flavones of Hippophae rhamnoides in beagle dogs after oral administration.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jingze; Dang, Yang; Meng, Houjun; Wang, Huizhen; Ma, Ping; Li, Guowen; Wu, Tao; Xie, Yan

    2016-06-01

    Pharmacokinetic properties of isorhamnetin, quercetin, and kaempferol in three different total flavones of Hippophae rhamnoides (TFH) preparations were compared after oral administration to beagle dogs by a UPLC-MS method. The pharmacokinetic results showed that C max of isorhamnetin and quercetin in TFH solid dispersion (TFH-SD) and TFH self-emulsifying (TFH-SE) preparations was significantly enhanced than that in TFH preparations (p < 0.05). The AUCs of isorhamnetin and quercetin in TFH-SD were 5.9- and 3.1-fold higher than that of TFH, while the AUCs of isorhamnetin and quercetin in TFH-SE were 3.4- and 2.4-fold higher than that of TFH. These findings suggested that the oral bioavailability of isorhamnetin and quercetin in beagle dogs can be significantly increased in TFH-SD and TFH-SE preparations compared to TFH preparations, which was helpful to explore the new forms for oral administration TFH and explain their in vivo processes.

  19. On-Line Organic Solvent Field Enhanced Sample Injection in Capillary Zone Electrophoresis for Analysis of Quetiapine in Beagle Dog Plasma.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yuqing; Wen, Jun; Zhou, Tingting; Fan, Guorong

    2016-01-21

    A rapid and sensitive capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method with field enhanced sample injection (FESI) was developed and validated for the determination of quetiapine fumarate in beagle dog plasma, with a sample pretreatment by LLE in 96-well deep format plate. The optimum separation was carried out in an uncoated 31.2 cm × 75 μm fused-silica capillary with an applied voltage of 13 kV. The electrophoretic analysis was performed by 50 mM phosphate at pH 2.5. The detection wavelength was 210 nm. Under these optimized conditions, FESI with acetonitrile enhanced the sensitivity of quetiapine about 40-50 folds in total. The method was suitably validated with respect to stability, specificity, linearity, lower limit of quantitation, accuracy, precision and extraction recovery. Using mirtazapine as an internal standard (100 ng/mL), the response of quetiapine was linear over the range of 1-1000 ng/mL. The lower limit of quantification was 1 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions for the assay were within 4.8% and 12.7%, respectively. The method represents the first application of FESI-CZE to the analysis of quetiapine fumarate in beagle dog plasma after oral administration.

  20. Development and validation of an enantioselective SFC-MS/MS method for simultaneous separation and quantification of oxcarbazepine and its chiral metabolites in beagle dog plasma.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhichao; Xu, Xueyu; Sun, Lingxia; Zhao, Xue; Wang, Hao; Fawcett, John Paul; Yang, Yan; Gu, Jingkai

    2016-05-01

    A rapid and sensitive assay based on supercritical fluid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SFC-MS/MS) has been developed and validated for the determination of oxcarbazepine (OXC) and its chiral metabolite licarbazine (Lic) in beagle dog plasma using carbamazepine as internal standard. Chiral analysis in a run time of only 3 min was performed on an ACQUITY UPC(2) ™ Trefoil™ CEL2 column (3.0 × 150 mm, 2.5 μm) at 50 °C by isocratic elution with a mobile phase of supercritical carbon dioxide (purity ≥ 99.99%) and methanol (60:40, v/v) at a flow rate of 2.3 mL/min. The assay was linear over the concentration ranges 5-1000 ng/mL for OXC and 0.5-100 ng/mL for the enantiomers of Lic with corresponding lower limits of quantitation of 5 ng/mL and 0.5 ng/mL. Intra- and inter-day precisions were in the range 0.78-14.14% with accuracies in the range -10.80% to 0.42%. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study involving a single oral administration of 16 mg/kg OXC as Trileptal(@) tablets to beagle dogs.

  1. Development and validation of an UPLC-Q/TOF-MS assay for the quantitation of neopanaxadiol in beagle dog plasma: Application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Geng, Cong; Wang, Chun-Hong; Hu, Hong; Gao, Xiao-Ping; Gong, Ai-Hua; Lin, Ying-Wei; Fan, Xiu-Shuang; Li, Heng; Yin, Jian-Yuan

    2016-10-27

    Neopanaxadiol (NPD), the main panaxadiol constituent of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer (Araliaceae), has been regarded as the active component for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. However, few references are available about pharmacokinetic evaluation for NPD. Accordingly, a rapid and sensitive method for quantitative analysis of NPD in beagle dog plasma based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was developed and validated. Analytes were extracted from plasma by liquid-liquid extraction and chromatographic separation was achieved on an Agilent Zorbax Stable Bond C18 column. Detection was performed in the positive ion mode using multiple reaction monitoring of the transitions both at m/z 461.4 → 425.4 for NPD and internal standard of panaxadiol. All validation parameters, such as lower limit of quantitation, linearity, specificity, precision, accuracy, extraction recovery, matrix effect and stability, were within acceptable ranges and the method was appropriate for multitude sample determination. After oral intake, NPD was slowly absorbed and eliminated from circulatory blood system and corresponding plasma exposure was low. Application of this quantitative method will yield the first pharmacokinetic profile after oral administration of NPD to beagle dog. The information obtained here will be useful to understand the pharmacological effects of NPD.

  2. Analysis and pharmacokinetic study of polyphyllin H in beagle dog plasma after oral administration of Rhizoma Paridis extracts by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xingbin; Lin, Longfei; Shen, Mingrui; Zhai, Yujing; Cao, Sali; Fu, Jing; Li, Xuechun; Yang, Chunjing; Xia, Zhenwen; Zhao, Yang; Li, Shangxin; Bai, Ying; Xue, Dan; Ni, Jian

    2014-12-01

    A highly sensitive, rapid assay method has been developed and validated for the analysis of polyphyllin H in beagle dog plasma with liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization in the positive-ion mode. The assay procedure involves extraction of polyphyllin H and ginsenoside Re (IS) from beagle dog plasma. Chromatographic separation was carried out on an Agilent Zorbax XDB-C18 (100 × 2.1 mm, 1.8μm) column by isocratic elution with acetonitrile and water (50:50, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min with a total run time of 2.5 min. The MS/MS ion transitions monitored were m/z 869.60 → 869.60 for polyphyllin H and m/z 969.60 → 969.60 for IS. [corrected] Linear responses were obtained for polyphyllin H ranging from 1 to 50 ng/mL. The intra-and inter-day precisions (RSDs) <1.77 and 3.39% and the extraction recovery ranged from 91.89 to 93.33% with RSD <2.68%. Stability studies showed that polyphyllin H was stable in the preparation and analytical process. The results indicated that the validated method was successfully used to determine the concentration-time profiles of polyphyllin H.

  3. Development and validation of an LC-MS/MS method for the determination of mesalazine in beagle dog plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Qin, Juan; Di, Xin; Wang, Xin; Liu, Youping

    2015-02-01

    A simple, specific and sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the determination of mesalazine in beagle dog plasma. The plasma samples were prepared by protein precipitation, then the separation of the analyte was achieved on a Waters Spherisorb C6 column (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) with a mobile phase consisting of 0.2% formic acid in water-methanol (20:80, v/v). The flow rate was set at 1.0 mL/min with a split ratio of 3:2. Mass spectrometric detection was achieved by a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray source interface in positive ionization mode. Quantitation was performed using selected reaction monitoring of precursor-product ion transitions at m/z 154 → m/z 108 for mesalazine and m/z 285 → m/z 193 for diazepam (internal standard). The linear calibration curve of mesalazine was obtained over the concentration range 50-30,000 ng/mL. The matrix effect of mesalazine was within ±9.8%. The intra- and inter-day precisions were <7.9% and the accuracy (relative error) was within ±3.5%. The validated method was successfully applied to investigate the pharmacokinetics of mesalazine in healthy beagle dogs after rectal administration of mesalazine suppository.

  4. Simultaneous determination of codeine, ephedrine, guaiphenesin and chlorpheniramine in beagle dog plasma using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometric detection: application to a bioequivalence study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ziyan; Zou, Qiaogen; Tian, Jixin; Sun, Lili; Zhang, Zunjian

    2011-12-15

    A rapid and sensitive method based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the simultaneous determination of codeine, ephedrine, guaiphenesin and chlorpheniramine in beagle dog plasma has been developed and validated. Following liquid-liquid extraction, the analytes were separated on a reversed-phase C(18) column (150 mm × 2.0 mm, 3 μm) using formic acid:10 mM ammonium acetate:methanol (0.2:62:38, v/v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min and analyzed by a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. The method was linear for all analytes over the following concentration (ng/mL) ranges: codeine 0.08-16; ephedrine 0.8-160; guaiphenesin 80-16,000; chlorpheniramine 0.2-40. Acceptable precision and accuracy were obtained for concentrations over the standard curve range. It is the first time that the validated HPLC-MS/MS method was successfully applied to a bioequivalence study in 6 healthy beagle dogs.

  5. The Association of Inbreeding With Lung Fibrosis Incidence in Beagle Dogs That Inhaled 238PuO2 or 239PuO2.

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Dulaney A.; Brigantic, Andrea M.; Morgan, William F.

    2011-09-12

    Studies of health effects in animals after exposure to internally deposited radionuclides were intended to supplement observational studies in humans. Both nuclear workers and Beagle dogs have exhibited plutonium associated lung fibrosis; however, the dogs smaller gene pool may limit the applicability of findings to humans. Data on Beagles that inhaled either plutonium-238 dioxide (238PuO2) or plutonium-239 dioxide (239PuO2) were analyzed. Wright's Coefficient of Inbreeding was used to measure genetic or familial susceptibility and was assessed as an explanatory variable when modeling the association between lung fibrosis incidence and plutonium exposure. Lung fibrosis was diagnosed in approximately 80% of the exposed dogs compared with 23.7% of the control dogs. The maximum degree of inbreeding was 9.4%. Regardless of isotope, the addition of inbreeding significantly improved the model in female dogs but not in males. In female dogs an increased inbreeding coefficient predicted decreased hazard of a lung fibrosis diagnosis. Lung fibrosis was common in these dogs with inbreeding affecting models of lung fibrosis incidence in females but not in males. The apparent protective effect in females predicted by these models of lung fibrosis incidence is likely to be minimal given the small degree of inbreeding in these groups.

  6. Determination of thymopentin in beagle dog blood by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry and its application to a preclinical pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Shi, Meiyun; Yang, Yan; Zhou, Xiaotong; Cai, Lanlan; Fang, Chunxue; Wang, Can; Sun, Heping; Sun, Yantong; Gao, Yin; Gu, Jingkai; Fawcett, J Paul

    2015-05-01

    The pentapeptide thymopentin (Arg-Lys-Asp-Val-Tyr, RKDVY) corresponds to amino acids 32-36 of the 49 amino acid immunomodulatory polypeptide, thymopoietin, whose biological activity is partially reproduced. Thymopentin is widely used in the clinic and represents a promising target for drug design but bioanalytical and pharmacokinetic data are limited due to its enzymatic instability. This paper reports a rapid and sensitive method based on liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of thymopentin in beagle dog blood. To inactivate peptidases and stabilize thymopentin, acetonitrile was added to blood samples immediately after collection followed by addition of stable isotope-labeled thymopentin as internal standard and washing with dichloromethane. Chromatography was carried out on an Ascentis Express Peptide ES-C18 column using gradient elution with methanol and aqueous 0.1% formic acid at a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min. Positive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry with selected reaction monitoring achieved linearity in the range of 1.5-800 ng/mL with good accuracy/precision and minimal matrix effects. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study in beagle dogs after intravenous administration of 0.2 mg/kg thymopentin.

  7. New clopidogrel napadisilate salt and its solid dispersion with improved stability and bioequivalence to the commercial clopidogrel bisulphate salt in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Il; Kim, Kyung Soo; Suh, Kwee-Hyun; Shanmugam, Srinivasan; Woo, Jong Soo; Yong, Chul Soon; Choi, Han-Gon

    2011-08-30

    The purpose of this study was to develop a novel clopidogrel napadisilate-loaded solid dispersion with improved stability and bioequivalence to the clopidogrel bisulphate-loaded commercial product. Clopidogrel napadisilate prepared in this study appeared as a white crystalline powder unlike clopidogrel base. However, this salt did not improve the solubility of clopidogrel, even with improved stability compared to clopidogrel bisulphate. To improve the solubility of clopidogrel napadisilate, a novel clopidogrel napadisilate-loaded solid dispersion was prepared by the spray-drying technique using HPMC and colloidal silica, and the physicochemical properties, dissolution and bioavailability in beagle dogs were evaluated compared to the clopidogrel bisulphate-loaded commercial product. The solid dispersion composed of clopidogrel napadisilate, HPMC and colloidal silica at a weight ratio of 11.069/3/3.5 improved solubility by 6.5-fold compared to clopidogrel napadisilate, even if it did not improve drug solubility compared to clopidogrel bisulphate. However, unlike clopidogrel bisulphate, this formulation improved the stability of clopidogrel. Furthermore, the clopidogrel napadisilate solid dispersion-loaded tablet showed similar dissolution to the clopidogrel bisulphate-loaded commercial product and was bioequivalent to the commercial product in beagle dogs. Thus, this clopidogrel napadisilate-loaded solid dispersion could be a promising candidate for improving the stability and bioavailability of clopidogrel.

  8. Relative radiosensitivity of bone tumor induction among beagles as a function of age at injection of {sup 239}Pu or {sup 226}Ra

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, R.D.; Taylor, G.N.; Jee, W.S.S.; Miller, S.C.

    1999-01-01

    A comparison was made of the response to induction of skeletal malignancy from exposure of beagles to monomeric {sup 239}Pu or to {sup 226}Ra as juveniles (3 mo of age), young adults (1.5 y of age), or mature adults (5 y of age). This indicated that of these age groups, animals injected as young adults are most sensitive per Gy of average skeletal dose evaluated at 1 y before death. Dogs exposed either as juveniles or as mature adults appeared to be less sensitive. Relative radiosensitivities (RRS) of juvenile and mature beagles ranged between about 0.3 and 0.7 that of dogs injected as young adults. Mean values of RRS for both radionuclides were about 0.5, but RRS values derived from dogs given monomeric {sup 239}Pu appeared to be most reliable and were 0.27 {+-} 0.09 for dogs injected as juveniles and 0.41 {+-} 0.13 for animals exposed as mature adults.

  9. Evaluation of the effects of hypergravity exposure and caging restraint on bone mineralization in the Beagle by in vivo photon absorptiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, G. L.; Berding, K. L.; Goldman, M.

    1975-01-01

    Photon absorptiometry was used to evaluate bone mineral kinetics associated with normal development and the possible perturbations to bone development resulting from hypergravity exposure over a period of six months in developing Beagles. A series of seven measurements were performed at specific times with the first measurement prior to treatment and subsequent measurements at 2, 5, 9, 14, 20 and 26 weeks from the onset of the experiment. Four groups of six male Beagle pups, ranging in age from 85 to 92 days were studied. Two groups were chronically exposed to hypergravity treatments by centrifugation of 2.0 G (18.0 RPM, 11.7 ft radius) and 2.6 G (18.0 RPM, 19.8 ft radius) for the 26 week period. A third group of six dogs served as a caged control to evaluate possible changes due to confinement in small plexiglass cages similar to those of the centrifuge. Thus this control group was subjected to limited exercise due to caging restraint. The fourth group of animals was housed in open runs to allow exercise without the spatial confinement of the smaller plexiglass cages. Results show highly significant differences in body weight, bone length, increase in bone density of control group relative to other groups, and a decrease in bone mineral content in the two gravity treated groups.

  10. Cholesterol and Ion Channels

    PubMed Central

    Levitan, Irena; Fang, Yun; Rosenhouse-Dantsker, Avia; Romanenko, Victor

    2010-01-01

    A variety of ion channels, including members of all major ion channel families, have been shown to be regulated by changes in the level of membrane cholesterol and partition into cholesterol-rich membrane domains. In general, several types of cholesterol effects have been described. The most common effect is suppression of channel activity by an increase in membrane cholesterol, an effect that was described for several types of inwardly-rectifying K+ channels, voltage-gated K+ channels, Ca+2 sensitive K+ channels, voltage-gated Na+ channels, N-type voltage-gated Ca+2 channels and volume-regulated anion channels. In contrast, several types of ion channels, such as epithelial amiloride-sensitive Na+ channels and Transient Receptor Potential channels, as well as some of the types of inwardly-rectifying and voltage-gated K+ channels were shown to be inhibited by cholesterol depletion. Cholesterol was also shown to alter the kinetic properties and current-voltage dependence of several voltage-gated channels. Finally, maintaining membrane cholesterol level is required for coupling ion channels to signalling cascades. In terms of the mechanisms, three general mechanisms have been proposed: (i) specific interactions between cholesterol and the channel protein, (ii) changes in the physical properties of the membrane bilayer and (iii) maintaining the scaffolds for protein-protein interactions. The goal of this review is to describe systematically the role of cholesterol in regulation of the major types of ion channels and to discuss these effects in the context of the models proposed. PMID:20213557

  11. Fading channel simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Argo, P.E.; Fitzgerald, T.J.

    1991-12-31

    This invention relates to high frequency (HF) radio signal propagation through fading channels and, more particularly, to simulation of fading channels in order to characterize HF radio system performance in transmitting and receiving signals through such fading channels. Fading channel effects on a transmitted communication signal are simulated with both frequency and time variations using a channel scattering function to affect the transmitted signal. A conventional channel scattering function is converted to a series of channel realizations by multiplying the square root of the channel scattering function by a complex number of which the real and imaginary parts are each independent variables. The two-dimensional inverse-FFT of this complex-valued channel realization yields a matrix of channel coefficients that provide a complete frequency-time description of the channel. The transmitted radio signal is segmented to provide a series of transmitted signal and each segment is subject to FFT to generate a series of signal coefficient matrices. The channel coefficient matrices and signal coefficient matrices are then multiplied and subjected to inverse-FFT to output a signal representing the received affected radio signal. A variety of channel scattering functions can be used to characterize the response of a transmitter-receiver system to such atmospheric effects.

  12. UPLC-MS/MS determination of ephedrine, methylephedrine, amygdalin and glycyrrhizic acid in Beagle plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of Ma Huang Tang.

    PubMed

    Yan, Tianhua; Fu, Qiang; Wang, Jing; Ma, Shiping

    2015-02-01

    An ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric (UPLC-MS) method was developed to investigate the pharmacokinetic properties of ephedrine, methylephedrine, amygdalin, and glycyrrhizic acid after oral gavage of Ma Huang Tang (MHT) in Beagles. Beagle plasma samples were pretreated using liquid-liquid extraction, and chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 column using a linear gradient of water-formic acid mixture (0.1%). The pharmacokinetic parameters of ephedrine, methylephedrine, amygdalin, and glycyrrhizic acid from MHT in Beagles were quantitatively determined by UPLC with tandem mass detector. The qualitative detection of the four compounds was accomplished by selected ion monitoring in negative/positive ion modes electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Detection was based on multiple reaction monitoring with the precursor-to-product ion transitions m/z 166.096-116.983 (ephedrine), m/z 179.034-146.087 (methylephedrine), m/z 456.351-323.074 (amygdalin), and m/z 821.606-351.062 (glycyrrhizic acid). The selectivity, sensitivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, extraction recovery, ion suppression, and stability were within the acceptable ranges. The method described was successfully applied to reveal the pharmacokinetic properties of ephedrine, methylephedrine, amygdalin, and glycyrrhizic acid after oral gavage of MHT in Beagles.

  13. "Pearl" southern highbush blueberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Pearl’ is a new southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium spp. hybrid) developed and released by the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service. The new cultivar has several advantages for growers in the Southeastern U.S. over rabbiteye blueberry cultivars, the most widely ...

  14. Quasi-Anonymous Channels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    QUASI- ANONYMOUS CHANNELS Ira S. Moskowitz Center for High Assurance Computer Systems - Code 5540 Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC...Assurance Computer Systems - Code 5540 Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375, USA Abstract Although both anonymity and covert...channels are part of the larger topic of information hiding, there also exists an intrinsic linkage between anonymity and covert channels. This linkage

  15. Development of novel sibutramine base-loaded solid dispersion with gelatin and HPMC: physicochemical characterization and pharmacokinetics in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyun-Tae; Balakrishnan, Prabagar; Oh, Dong Hoon; Joe, Kwan Hyung; Kim, Young Ran; Hwang, Doo Hyung; Lee, Yong-Bok; Yong, Chul Soon; Choi, Han-Gon

    2010-09-15

    To develop a novel sibutramine base-loaded solid dispersion with enhanced solubility and bioavailability, various solid dispersions were prepared using a spray drying technique with hydrophilic polymers such as gelatin, HPMC and citric acid. Their solubility, thermal characteristics and crystallinity were investigated. The dissolution and pharmacokinetics of the sibutramine base-loaded solid dispersion were then compared with a sibutramine hydrochloride monohydrate-loaded commercial product (Reductil). The solid dispersions prepared with gelatin gave higher drug solubility than those prepared without gelatin, irrespective of the amount of polymer. The sibutramine base-loaded solid dispersions containing hydrophilic polymer and citric acid showed higher drug solubility compared to sibutramine base and sibutramine hydrochloride monohydrate. Among the formulations tested, the solid dispersion composed of sibutramine base/gelatin/HPMC/citric acid at the weight ratio of 1/0.8/0.2/0.5 gave the highest solubility of 5.03+/-0.24 mg/ml. Our DSC and powder X-ray diffraction results showed that the drug was present in an altered amorphous form in this solid dispersion. The difference factor (f(1)) values between solid dispersion and commercial product were 2.82, 6.65 and 6.31 at pH 1.2, 4.0 and 6.8, respectively. Furthermore, they had the similarity factor (f(2)) value of 65.68, 53.43 and 58.97 at pH 1.2, 4.0 and 6.8, respectively. Our results suggested that the solid dispersion and commercial product produced a similar correlation of dissolution profiles at all pH ranges. The AUC, C(max) and T(max) of the parent drug and metabolite I and II from the solid dispersion were not significantly different from those of the commercial product, suggesting that the solid dispersion might be bioequivalent to the commercial product in beagle dogs. Thus, the sibutramine base-loaded solid dispersion prepared with gelatin, HPMC and citric acid is a promising candidate for improving the

  16. The safety evaluation of fluvastatin, an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, in beagle dogs and rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Hartman, H A; Myers, L A; Evans, M; Robison, R L; Engstrom, R G; Tse, F L

    1996-01-01

    Fluvastatin is a potent synthetic competitive inhibitor of beta-hydroxy-beta-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway for hepatic cholesterol synthesis. The therapeutic indication is reduction of elevated total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Results from four toxicity studies in beagle dogs and one study in rhesus monkeys following oral administration of fluvastatin are reported. In two 26-week dog studies, doses were 0, 1, 8, or 48 mg/kg/day (reduced to 36 mg/kg/day in Week 7) and 0, 6, 24, or 36 mg/kg/day (reduced to 30 mg/kg/day in Week 2). In a 2-year dog study, doses were 0, 1, 8, or 16 mg/kg/day. Dose levels in the 26-week monkey study were 0, 0.6, 12, and 48 mg/kg/day (raised to 84 mg/kg/day in Week 17 and to 108 mg/kg/day in Week 22). In these studies, evaluations included clinical and physical examinations, body weight and food consumption, electrocardiography, ophthalmoscopy, hematology and clinical chemistries, urinalysis, blood drug concentration, and macroscopic and microscopic examinations of observed lesions and representative tissues. In the 26- and 52-week dog studies and the monkey study, lenticular biochemistry, the HMG-CoA reductase activity of liver microsomes, and serum lipid concentrations were investigated. The fourth dog study was a single-dose toxicokinetic study in which 48 mg/kg [3H]-fluvastatin was monitored for up to 2 weeks. Sampling was limited to ocular tissues for enzyme analysis. Doses of > or = 24 mg/kg/day were lethal in dogs. At lethal doses, ataxia, convulsions, fecal blood, multifocal congestion and hemorrhage, isolated foci of malacia in the medulla oblongata, and liver necrosis were observed. Reduced weight gain, emesis, cataracts, elevated liver enzymes, reduced cholesterol, and gallbladder inflammation with mucosal hyperplasia occurred at > or = 8 mg/kg/day. In contrast to other HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, fluvastatin did not cause significant

  17. Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism of Cyadox and Its Main Metabolites in Beagle Dogs Following Oral, Intramuscular, and Intravenous Administration.

    PubMed

    Sattar, Adeel; Xie, Shuyu; Huang, Lingli; Iqbal, Zahid; Qu, Wei; Shabbir, Muhammad A; Pan, Yuanhu; Hussain, Hafiz I; Chen, Dongmei; Tao, Yanfei; Liu, Zhenli; Iqbal, Mujahid; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-01-01

    Cyadox (Cyx) is an antibacterial drug of the quinoxaline group that exerts markedly lower toxicity in animals, compared to its congeners. Here, the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of Cyx after oral (PO), intramuscular (IM), and intravenous (IV) routes of administration were studied to establish safety criteria for the clinical use of Cyx in animals. Six beagle dogs (3 males, 3 females) were administered Cyx through PO (40 mg kg(-1) b.w.), IM (10 mg kg(-1) b.w.), and IV (10 mg kg(-1) b.w.) routes with a washout period of 2 weeks in a crossover design. Highly sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) was employed for determination of Cyx and its main metabolites, 1, 4-bisdesoxycyadox (Cy1), cyadox-1-monoxide (Cy2), N-(quinoxaline-2-methyl)-cyanide acetyl hydrazine (Cy4), and quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (Cy6) in plasma, urine and feces of dogs. The oral bioavailability of Cyx was 4.75%, suggesting first-pass effect in dogs. The concentration vs. time profile in plasma after PO administration indicates that Cyx is rapidly dissociated into its metabolites and eliminated from plasma earlier, compared to its metabolites. The areas under the curve (AUC) of Cyx after PO, IM and IV administration were 1.22 h × μg mL(-1), 6.3 h × μg mL(-1), and 6.66 h × μg mL(-1), while mean resident times (MRT) were 7.32, 3.58 and 0.556 h, respectively. Total recovery of Cyx and its metabolites was >60% with each administration route. In feces, 48.83% drug was recovered after PO administration, while 18.15% and 17.11% after IM and IV injections, respectively, suggesting renal clearance as the major route of excretion with IM and IV administration and feces as the major route with PO delivery. Our comprehensive evaluation of Cyx has uncovered detailed information that should facilitate its judicious use in animals by improving understanding of its pharmacology.

  18. Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism of Cyadox and Its Main Metabolites in Beagle Dogs Following Oral, Intramuscular, and Intravenous Administration

    PubMed Central

    Sattar, Adeel; Xie, Shuyu; Huang, Lingli; Iqbal, Zahid; Qu, Wei; Shabbir, Muhammad A.; Pan, Yuanhu; Hussain, Hafiz I.; Chen, Dongmei; Tao, Yanfei; Liu, Zhenli; Iqbal, Mujahid; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-01-01

    Cyadox (Cyx) is an antibacterial drug of the quinoxaline group that exerts markedly lower toxicity in animals, compared to its congeners. Here, the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of Cyx after oral (PO), intramuscular (IM), and intravenous (IV) routes of administration were studied to establish safety criteria for the clinical use of Cyx in animals. Six beagle dogs (3 males, 3 females) were administered Cyx through PO (40 mg kg−1 b.w.), IM (10 mg kg−1 b.w.), and IV (10 mg kg−1 b.w.) routes with a washout period of 2 weeks in a crossover design. Highly sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) was employed for determination of Cyx and its main metabolites, 1, 4-bisdesoxycyadox (Cy1), cyadox-1-monoxide (Cy2), N-(quinoxaline-2-methyl)-cyanide acetyl hydrazine (Cy4), and quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (Cy6) in plasma, urine and feces of dogs. The oral bioavailability of Cyx was 4.75%, suggesting first-pass effect in dogs. The concentration vs. time profile in plasma after PO administration indicates that Cyx is rapidly dissociated into its metabolites and eliminated from plasma earlier, compared to its metabolites. The areas under the curve (AUC) of Cyx after PO, IM and IV administration were 1.22 h × μg mL−1, 6.3 h × μg mL−1, and 6.66 h × μg mL−1, while mean resident times (MRT) were 7.32, 3.58 and 0.556 h, respectively. Total recovery of Cyx and its metabolites was >60% with each administration route. In feces, 48.83% drug was recovered after PO administration, while 18.15% and 17.11% after IM and IV injections, respectively, suggesting renal clearance as the major route of excretion with IM and IV administration and feces as the major route with PO delivery. Our comprehensive evaluation of Cyx has uncovered detailed information that should facilitate its judicious use in animals by improving understanding of its pharmacology. PMID:27536243

  19. (13)N-Ammonia PET/CT Detection of Myocardial Perfusion Abnormalities in Beagle Dogs After Local Heart Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Song, Jianbo; Yan, Rui; Wu, Zhifang; Li, Jianguo; Yan, Min; Hao, Xinzhong; Liu, Jianzhong; Li, Sijin

    2017-04-01

    Our objective was to determine the potential value of (13)N-ammonia PET/CT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) for early detection of myocardial perfusion changes induced by radiation damage. Methods: Thirty-six Beagle dogs were randomly divided into a control group (n = 18) or an irradiation group (n = 18). The latter underwent local irradiation to the left ventricular anterior cardiac wall with a single dose of 20 Gy, whereas the former received sham irradiation. All dogs underwent (13)N-ammonia PET/CT MPI 1 wk before irradiation and at 3, 6, and 12 mo after sham or local irradiation. One week after undergoing (13)N-ammonia PET/CT MPI, the irradiation group underwent coronary angiography. Six randomly selected dogs from each group were sacrificed and used to detect pathologic cardiac injury at 3, 6, and 12 mo after irradiation. Results: Compared with the control group and baseline, the irradiation group showed significantly increased perfusion in the irradiated area of the heart at 3 mo after irradiation, perfusion reduction at 6 mo after irradiation, and a perfusion defect at 12 mo after irradiation. There was no significant difference in the left ventricular ejection fraction between the control and irradiation groups at baseline or at 3 mo after irradiation. The irradiation group showed a reduction of left ventricular ejection fraction compared with the control group at 6 mo (50.0% ± 8.1% vs. 59.3% ± 4.1%, P = 0.016) and 12 mo (47.2% ± 6.7% vs. 57.4% ± 3.3%, P = 0.002) after irradiation. No coronary stenosis was observed in the irradiation group. Regional wall motion abnormalities appeared in the irradiated area at 6 mo after irradiation, and its extent was enlarged at 12 mo after irradiation. Pathologic changes were observed; radiation-induced myocardial tissue damage and microvascular fibrosis in the irradiated area progressively increased over time. Conclusion:(13)N-ammonia PET/CT MPI can dynamically detect myocardial perfusion changes together with

  20. Erosional channels on the shoreface of Nauset Beach, Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Needell, S. W.; Dillon, William P.; Knebel, H. J.

    1982-01-01

    Many channels (1 to 3 m relief)_are located offshore of Nauset Beach, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, in water 4 to 18 m deep. The channels are oblique to the shoreline, are spaced approximately 260 m apart, and deepen seaward. The southern flank of each channel is rippled whereas the northern flank and interchannel areas are smooth. The origin of the channels is unknown. They probably formed by erosion of the shoreface, perhaps by rip-current circulation during storm conditions or by rip-current circulation under quiet conditions. The channels may control current flow and thereby maintain themselves even though formative conditions may no longer exist.

  1. Ion channels in plants

    PubMed Central

    Baluška, František; Mancuso, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    In his recent opus magnum review paper published in the October issue of Physiology Reviews, Rainer Hedrich summarized the field of plant ion channels.1 He started from the earliest electric recordings initiated by Charles Darwin of carnivorous Dionaea muscipula,1,2 known as Venus flytrap, and covered the topic extensively up to the most recent discoveries on Shaker-type potassium channels, anion channels of SLAC/SLAH families, and ligand-activated channels of glutamate receptor-like type (GLR) and cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (CNGC).1 PMID:23221742

  2. Cardiac ion channels

    PubMed Central

    Priest, Birgit T; McDermott, Jeff S

    2015-01-01

    Ion channels are critical for all aspects of cardiac function, including rhythmicity and contractility. Consequently, ion channels are key targets for therapeutics aimed at cardiac pathophysiologies such as atrial fibrillation or angina. At the same time, off-target interactions of drugs with cardiac ion channels can be the cause of unwanted side effects. This manuscript aims to review the physiology and pharmacology of key cardiac ion channels. The intent is to highlight recent developments for therapeutic development, as well as elucidate potential mechanisms for drug-induced cardiac side effects, rather than present an in-depth review of each channel subtype. PMID:26556552

  3. Incompatibility of quantum channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinosaari, Teiko; Miyadera, Takayuki

    2017-03-01

    Two quantum channels are called compatible if they can be obtained as marginals from a single broadcasting channel; otherwise they are incompatible. We derive a characterization of the compatibility relation in terms of concatenation and conjugation, and we show that all pairs of sufficiently noisy quantum channels are compatible. The complement relation of incompatibility can be seen as a unifying aspect for several important quantum features, such as impossibility of universal broadcasting and unavoidable measurement disturbance. We show that the concepts of entanglement breaking channel and antidegradable channel can be completely characterized in terms compatibility.

  4. On 1-qubit channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlmann, Armin

    2001-09-01

    The entropy HT (ρ) of a state with respect to a channel T and the Holevo capacity of the channel require the solution of difficult variational problems. For a class of 1-qubit channels, which contains all the extremal ones, the problem can be significantly simplified by attaching a unique Hermitian antilinear operator ϑ to every channel of the considered class. The channel's concurrence CT can be expressed by ϑ and turns out to be a flat roof. This allows to write down an explicit expression for HT. Its maximum would give the Holevo (one-shot) capacity.

  5. Mechanically Activated Ion Channels

    PubMed Central

    Ranade, Sanjeev S.; Syeda, Ruhma; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2015-01-01

    Mechanotransduction, the conversion of physical forces into biochemical signals, is an essential component of numerous physiological processes including not only conscious senses of touch and hearing, but also unconscious senses such as blood pressure regulation. Mechanically activated (MA) ion channels have been proposed as sensors of physical force, but the identity of these channels and an understanding of how mechanical force is transduced has remained elusive. A number of recent studies on previously known ion channels along with the identification of novel MA ion channels have greatly transformed our understanding of touch and hearing in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Here, we present an updated review of eukaryotic ion channel families that have been implicated in mechanotransduction processes and evaluate the qualifications of the candidate genes according to specified criteria. We then discuss the proposed gating models for MA ion channels and highlight recent structural studies of mechanosensitive potassium channels. PMID:26402601

  6. Mechanically Activated Ion Channels.

    PubMed

    Ranade, Sanjeev S; Syeda, Ruhma; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2015-09-23

    Mechanotransduction, the conversion of physical forces into biochemical signals, is essential for various physiological processes such as the conscious sensations of touch and hearing, and the unconscious sensation of blood flow. Mechanically activated (MA) ion channels have been proposed as sensors of physical force, but the identity of these channels and an understanding of how mechanical force is transduced has remained elusive. A number of recent studies on previously known ion channels along with the identification of novel MA ion channels have greatly transformed our understanding of touch and hearing in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Here, we present an updated review of eukaryotic ion channel families that have been implicated in mechanotransduction processes and evaluate the qualifications of the candidate genes according to specified criteria. We then discuss the proposed gating models for MA ion channels and highlight recent structural studies of mechanosensitive potassium channels.

  7. Simultaneous determination of harmine, harmaline and their metabolites harmol and harmalol in beagle dog plasma by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Teng, Liang; Gong, Can; Liu, Wei; Cheng, Xuemei; Gu, Shenghua; Deng, Zhongping; Wang, Zhengtao; Wang, Changhong

    2013-11-01

    Harmine (HAR) and harmaline (HAL) were metabolized by demethylation to form harmol (HOL) and harmalol (HAM) both in vivo and in vitro. It has been demonstrated tremendous value of HAR, HAL and their metabolites in the therapy of Alzheimer's disease. A rapid, selective and sensitive UPLC-ESI-MS/MS method was firstly developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of HAR, HAL, HOL, and HAM in beagle dog plasma with 9-aminoacridine as the internal standard (IS). After protein precipitation with acetonitrile, the analytes were separated within 4.5 min on an ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 column with a gradient elution system composed of 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 0.4 ml/min. Detection was performed using multiple reactions monitoring mode under a positive ionization condition. The calibration curves of four analytes showed good linearity (r(2)>0.9959) within the tested concentration ranges. The low limit of quantification for HAR, HAL, HOL, and HAM were all 1.00 ng/ml. The mean accuracy of the analytes was within the range of 94.56-112.23%, the R.S.D. values of intra-day and the inter-day precision were less than 6.26% and 7.51%, respectively. Matrix effects and extraction recoveries of the analytes from the beagle dog plasma were within the range of 94.48-105.77% and 89.07-101.44%, respectively. The validated method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of HAR, HAL, HOL, and HAM in beagle dogs after intravenous administration of HAR and HAL both of 1.0mg/kg. The main pharmacokinetic parameters of Cmax, Vd, CL, AUC and MRT, except Ke and t1/2 values, showed significant difference between the two parent drug HAR and HAL, respectively (p<0.05-0.001). Because of the different metabolic rate of HAR and HAL in vivo, the two metabolites, HOL and HAM, exhibited unique pharmacokinetic properties.

  8. Urinary recovery of orally administered chromium 51-labeled EDTA, lactulose, rhamnose, d-xylose, 3-O-methyl-d-glucose, and sucrose in healthy adult male Beagles.

    PubMed

    Frias, Rafael; Steiner, Jörg M; Williams, David A; Sankari, Satu; Westermarck, Elias

    2012-05-01

    Objective-To provide values for gastrointestinal permeability and absorptive function tests (GIPFTs) with chromium 51 ((51)Cr)-labeled EDTA, lactulose, rhamnose, d-xylose, 3-O-methyl-d-glucose, and sucrose in Beagles and to evaluate potential correlations between markers. Animals-19 healthy adult male Beagles. Procedures-A test solution containing 3.7 MBq of (51)Cr-labeled EDTA, 2 g of lactulose, 2 g of rhamnose, 2 g of d-xylose, 1 g of 3-O-methyl-d-glucose, and 8 g of sucrose was administered intragastrically to each dog. Urinary recovery of each probe was determined 6 hours after administration. Results-Mean ± SD (range) percentage urinary recovery was 6.3 ± 1.6% (4.3% to 9.7%) for (51)Cr-labeled EDTA, 3.3 ± 1.1% (1.7% to 5.3%) for lactulose, 25.5 ± 5.0% (16.7% to 36.9%) for rhamnose, and 58.8% ± 11.0% (40.1% to 87.8%) for 3-O-methyl-d-glucose. Mean (range) recovery ratio was 0.25 ± 0.06 (0.17 to 0.37) for (51)Cr-labeled EDTA to rhamnose, 0.13 ± 0.04 (0.08 to 0.23) for lactulose to rhamnose, and 0.73 ± 0.09 (0.60 to 0.90) for d-xylose to 3-O-methyl-d-glucose. Median (range) percentage urinary recovery was 40.3% (31.6% to 62.7%) for d-xylose and 0% (0% to 0.8%) for sucrose. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Reference values in healthy adult male Beagles for 6 of the most commonly used GIPFT markers were determined. The correlation between results for (51)Cr-labeled EDTA and lactulose was not as prominent as that reported for humans and cats; thus, investigators should be cautious in the use and interpretation of GIPFTs performed with sugar probes in dogs with suspected intestinal dysbiosis.

  9. The loess and coversands of northern France and southern England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoine, Pierre; Catt, John; Lautridou, Jean-Pierre; Sommé, Jean

    2003-02-01

    Loess and coversands are widespread on either side of the English Channel. In southern England, loess is generally thin and discontinuous, but locally reaches thickness of about 4 m in east Kent. Coversands occur mainly in areas well north of the Channel, such as parts of East Anglia and the southern side of the Bristol Channel. Most of the loess and coversand deposits in southern England date from the Late Devensian cold stage (marine oxygen isotope stage (MOIS) 2), but there are also a few localised patches of older (mainly MOIS 6 and 12) loess, which are the dissected remnants of originally more extensive covers. In France loess is widespread and locally very thick (up to 12 m), especially in northern and northeastern France. In Normandy and in the Somme basin some long records indicate that accumulation began at the end of the Lower Pleistocene, at about 900 ka. Nevertheless the main accumulations of typical calcareous loess are related to the Upper Weichselian and Upper Saalian stages (MOIS 2 and end of MOIS 3 and MOIS 6). Indeed, before about 160-170 ka, loess deposition was generally restricted to special sediment traps such as fluvial and marine terraces exposed to the east or northeast. These older deposits are characterised by more sandy facies derived from local fluvial sources (mainly by northwest to north-northwest winds). Coversands occur locally along the coast of the Mont Saint-Michel bay, and over the northern part of the Seine estuary near Le Havre. The main differences in thickness and extent of the loess deposits between southern England and northern France are linked to their location in relation to the source areas (Channel and North Sea), to ice sheets, and to the main wind directions (northwest to north-northwest in France and western England but northeast in eastern England).

  10. Accretion of southern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hillhouse, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Paleomagnetic data from southern Alaska indicate that the Wrangellia and Peninsular terranes collided with central Alaska probably by 65 Ma ago and certainly no later than 55 Ma ago. The accretion of these terranes to the mainland was followed by the arrival of the Ghost Rocks volcanic assemblage at the southern margin of Kodiak Island. Poleward movement of these terranes can be explained by rapid motion of the Kula oceanic plate, mainly from 85 to 43 Ma ago, according to recent reconstructions derived from the hot-spot reference frame. After accretion, much of southwestern Alaska underwent a counterclockwise rotation of about 50 ?? as indicated by paleomagnetic poles from volcanic rocks of Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary age. Compression between North America and Asia during opening of the North Atlantic (68-44 Ma ago) may account for the rotation. ?? 1987.

  11. Thermal studies of Martian channels and valleys using Termoskan data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betts, Bruce H.; Murray, Bruce C.

    1994-01-01

    The Termoskan instrument on board the Phobos '88 spacecraft acquired the highest spatial resolution thermal infrared emission data ever obtained for Mars. Included in the thermal images 2 km/pixel, midday observations of several major channel and valley systems including significant portions of Shalbatana, Ravi, Al-Qahira, and Ma'adim Valles, the channel connecting Valles Marineris with Hydraotes Chaos, and channel material in Eos Chasma. Termoskan also observed small portions of the southern beginnings of Simud, Tiu, and Ares Valles and some channel material in Gangis Chasma. Simultaneous broadband visible reflectance data were obtained for all but Ma'adim Vallis. We find that most of the channels and valleys have higher thermal inertias than their surroundings, consistent with previous thermal studies. We show for the first time that the thermal inertia boundaries closely match flat channel floor boundaries. Also, buttes within channels have inertias similiar to the plains surrounding the channels, suggesting the buttes are remnants of a contiguous plains surface. Lower bounds on typical channel thermal inertias range from 8.4 to 12.5 (10(exp -3) cal cm(exp -2) s(exp -1/2)/K) (352 to 523 in SI units of J m(exp -2) s(exp -1/2)/K). Lower bounds on inertia differences with the surrounding heavily cratered plains range from 1.1 to 3.5 (46 to 147 SI). Atmospheric and geometric effects are not sufficient to cause the observed channel inertia enhancements. We favor nonaeolian explanations of the overall channel inertia enhancements based primarily upon the channel floors' thermal homogeneity and the strong correlation of thermal boundaries with floor boundaries. However, localized, dark regions within some channels are likely aeolian in nature as reported previously. Most channels with increased inertias have fretted morphologies such as flat floors with steep walls. Eastern Ravi and southern Ares Valles, the only major channel sections observed that have obvious

  12. Cholesterol and Kir channels

    PubMed Central

    Levitan, Irena

    2009-01-01

    To date, most of the major types of Kir channels, Kir2s, Kir3s, Kir4s and Kir6s, have been found to partition into cholesterol-rich membrane domains and/or to be regulated by changes in the level of membrane cholesterol. Surprisingly, however, in spite of the structural similarities between different Kirs, effects of cholesterol on different types of Kir channels vary from cholesterol-induced decrease in the current density (Kir2 channels) to the loss of channel activity by cholesterol depletion (Kir4 channels) and loss of channel coupling by different mediators (Kir3 and Kir6 channels). Recently, we have gained initial insights into the mechanisms responsible for cholesterol-induced suppression Kir2 channels, but mechanisms underlying cholesterol sensitivity of other Kir channels are mostly unknown. The goal of this review is to present a summary of the current knowledge of the distinct effects of cholesterol on different types of Kir channels in vitro and in vivo. PMID:19548316

  13. Fading channel simulator

    DOEpatents

    Argo, Paul E.; Fitzgerald, T. Joseph

    1993-01-01

    Fading channel effects on a transmitted communication signal are simulated with both frequency and time variations using a channel scattering function to affect the transmitted signal. A conventional channel scattering function is converted to a series of channel realizations by multiplying the square root of the channel scattering function by a complex number of which the real and imaginary parts are each independent variables. The two-dimensional inverse-FFT of this complex-valued channel realization yields a matrix of channel coefficients that provide a complete frequency-time description of the channel. The transmitted radio signal is segmented to provide a series of transmitted signal and each segment is subject to FFT to generate a series of signal coefficient matrices. The channel coefficient matrices and signal coefficient matrices are then multiplied and subjected to inverse-FFT to output a signal representing the received affected radio signal. A variety of channel scattering functions can be used to characterize the response of a transmitter-receiver system to such atmospheric effects.

  14. 47 CFR 90.315 - Special provisions governing use of frequencies in the 476-494 MHz band (TV Channels 15, 16, 17...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... in the 476-494 MHz band (TV Channels 15, 16, 17) in the Southern Louisiana-Texas Offshore Zone. 90...) § 90.315 Special provisions governing use of frequencies in the 476-494 MHz band (TV Channels 15, 16... cochannel protection to TV stations on Channels 15, 16 and 17. Station operating parameters shall be...

  15. 47 CFR 90.315 - Special provisions governing use of frequencies in the 476-494 MHz band (TV Channels 15, 16, 17...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... in the 476-494 MHz band (TV Channels 15, 16, 17) in the Southern Louisiana-Texas Offshore Zone. 90...) § 90.315 Special provisions governing use of frequencies in the 476-494 MHz band (TV Channels 15, 16... cochannel protection to TV stations on Channels 15, 16 and 17. Station operating parameters shall be...

  16. R type anion channel

    PubMed Central

    Diatloff, Eugene; Peyronnet, Rémi; Colcombet, Jean; Thomine, Sébastien; Barbier-Brygoo, Hélène

    2010-01-01

    Plant genomes code for channels involved in the transport of cations, anions and uncharged molecules through membranes. Although the molecular identity of channels for cations and uncharged molecules has progressed rapidly in the recent years, the molecular identity of anion channels has lagged behind. Electrophysiological studies have identified S-type (slow) and R-type (rapid) anion channels. In this brief review, we summarize the proposed functions of the R-type anion channels which, like the S-type, were first characterized by electrophysiology over 20 years ago, but unlike the S-type, have still yet to be cloned. We show that the R-type channel can play multiple roles. PMID:21051946

  17. Resolution of Rac-Bambuterol via Diastereoisomeric Salt Formation with o-Chloromandelic Acid and Differences in the Enantiomers' Pharmacodynamical Effects in Guinea Pigs and Beagles.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jie; Liu, Fei; Wang, Shanping; Wang, Hongjun; Liu, Qing; Song, Xinghan; Li, Junxiao; Xu, Ling; Tan, Wen

    2016-04-01

    In this study an enantioseparation method for rac-bambuterol (5-(2-(tert-butylamino)-1-hydroxyethyl)-1,3-phenylene bis(dimethylcarbamate)) via diastereoisomeric salt formation with o-chloromandelic acid was developed. The enantiomeric excess (ee) values and chemical purities of the desired products were confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using chiral stationary phase and reverse-phase HPLC analyses, respectively. The ee values and the chemical purities both exceeded 99%. Animal experiments showed that (R)-bambuterol was a potent inhibitor for histamine-induced asthma reactions. (S)-bambuterol was ineffective in relaxing the airways. Both enantiomers increased heart rates in beagles. Therefore, replacing rac-bambuterol with (R)-bambuterol could be beneficial for asthma patients.

  18. Beagle to the Moon: An Experiment Package to Measure Polar Ice and Volatiles in Permanently Shadowed Areas or Beneath the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, E. K.; McKay, D. S.; Pillinger, C. T.; Wright, I. P.; Sims, M. R.; Richter, L.

    2007-01-01

    Near the beginning of the next decade we will see the launch of scientific payloads to the lunar surface to begin laying the foundations for the return to the moon in the Vision for Space Exploration. Shortly thereafter, astronauts will return to the lunar surface and have the ability to place scientific packages on the surface that will provide information about lunar resources and compositions of materials in permanently shadowed regions of the moon (1). One of the important questions which must be answered early in the program is whether there are lunar resources which would facilitate "living off the land" and not require the transport of resources and consumables from Earth (2). The Beagle science package is the ideal payload (3) to use on the lunar surface for determining the nature of hydrogen, water and lunar volatiles found in the polar regions which could support the Vision for Space Exploration

  19. Immunohistochemical analysis of collagen types I, III, IV and alpha-actin in the urethra of sexually intact and ovariectomized beagles.

    PubMed

    Augsburger, Heinz R; Oswald, Marianne

    2007-09-01

    Urinary incontinence is a widespread problem in both postmenopausal women and ovariectomized dogs. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of ovariectomy on the immunoreactivity and the distribution pattern of collagens I, III, IV and alpha-actin in the canine urethra. The immunohistochemical results were evaluated in five sexually intact and five ovariectomized beagles. The immunostaining of both collagens I and III delineated urethral connective tissue fibres and co-localized within in the fibres of both groups. The basement membranes of smooth muscle cells and sinusoids showed marked type IV collagen expression, whereas only faint immunoreactivity was present at the urothelial-stromal interface. No differences could be detected in the expression or distribution of the assessed collagen types and actin between ovariectomized and control animals. In conclusion, ovariectomy does not appear to have an effect on urethral collagens I, III, IV and smooth muscle actin in the dog, as ascertained by immunohistochemistry.

  20. Effects of a canine Elizabethan collar on ambulatory electrocardiogram recorded by a Holter recording system and spontaneous activities measured continuously by an accelerometer in Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Yamada, M; Tokuriki, M

    2000-05-01

    Ambulatory electrocardiogram (ECG) has been recorded in dogs wearing a jacket to protect a Holter recording system, but the jacket was often damaged by dogs. We compared ECG recorded by a Holter recording system and spontaneous activity measured by an accelerometer in Beagle dogs with or without an Elizabethan collar. There were few significant differences in mean values (per hr) of the heart rate and the amount of spontaneous activity between dogs with or without the Elizabethan collar. Mean values (per 23 hr) of them had no significant difference between them. We concluded that the Elizabethan collar did not have any effect on ambulatory ECG and canine movements and was effective to protect the recording apparatus.

  1. Comparison of 51chromium-labeled ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid and iohexol as blood markers for intestinal permeability testing in Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Frias, Rafael; Strube, Katrin; Ternes, Waldemar; Collado, M Carmen; Spillmann, Thomas; Sankari, Satu; Westermarck, Elias

    2012-04-01

    (51)Chromium-labeled ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid ((51)Cr-EDTA) is the gold standard probe for assessing intestinal permeability (IP) in dogs, but exposure to radioactivity is a disadvantage. Iohexol is a safe contrast medium commonly used for medical imaging purposes and has been successfully applied more recently for the assessment of IP in animal models and humans. This study aimed at comparing (51)Cr-EDTA and iohexol as IP blood markers in dogs. A test solution containing (51)Cr-EDTA and iohexol was administered intragastrically to seven healthy laboratory Beagle dogs, and percentage recoveries in serum were calculated. The strong linear association (correlation, r=0.76 and linear regression, y=0.03+5.04x) between (51)Cr-EDTA and iohexol supports the potential usefulness of iohexol as an IP blood marker in dogs.

  2. Preparation of codeine-resinate and chlorpheniramine-resinate sustained-release suspension and its pharmacokinetic evaluation in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Huan-Xiang; Cheng, Gang; Pan, Wei-San; Zhong, Guo-Ping; Huang, Min

    2007-06-01

    the release rate of both drugs. But the release of codeine from its resinate beads was much more rapid than chlorpheniramine released from its resinate beads in the same ionic strength release medium. The drug release specification of the CCSS, where release mediums were 0.05 M KCl solution for codeine and 0.5 M KCl solution for chlorpheniramine, was established to be in conformance with in vivo performance. Relative bioavailability and pharmacokinetics evaluation of the CCSS, using commercial immediate-release tablets as the reference preparation, were performed following a randomized two-way crossover design in beagle dogs. The drug concentrations in plasma were measured by a validated LC-MS/MS method to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of CCSS. This LC-MS/MS method demonstrated high accuracy and precision for bioanalysis, and was proved quick and reliable for the pharmacokinetic studies. The results showed that the CCSS had the longer value of Tmax and the lower value of Cmax, which meant an obviously sustained release effect, and its relative bioavailability of codeine and chlorpheniramine were (103.6 +/- 14.6)% and (98.1 +/- 10.3)%, respectively, compared with the reference preparation. These findings indicated that a novel liquid sustained release suspension made by using IERs as carriers and subsequent fluidized bed coating might provide a constant plasma level of the active pharmaceutical ingredient being highly beneficial for various therapeutic reasons.

  3. Evaluation of 3D printed PCL/PLGA/β-TCP versus collagen membranes for guided bone regeneration in a beagle implant model.

    PubMed

    Won, J-Y; Park, C-Y; Bae, J-H; Ahn, G; Kim, C; Lim, D-H; Cho, D-W; Yun, W-S; Shim, J-H; Huh, J-B

    2016-10-07

    Here, we compared 3D-printed polycaprolactone/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/β-tricalcium phosphate (PCL/PLGA/β-TCP) membranes with the widely used collagen membranes for guided bone regeneration (GBR) in beagle implant models. For mechanical property comparison in dry and wet conditions and cytocompatibility determination, we analyzed the rate and pattern of cell proliferation of seeded fibroblasts and preosteoblasts using the cell counting kit-8 assay and scanning electron microscopy. Osteogenic differentiation was verified using alizarin red S staining. At 8 weeks following implantation in vivo using beagle dogs, computed tomography and histological analyses were performed after sacrifice. Cell proliferation rates in vitro indicated that early cell attachment was higher in collagen than in PCL/PLGA/β-TCP membranes; however, the difference subsided by day 7. Similar outcomes were found for osteogenic differentiation, with approximately 2.5 times greater staining in collagen than PCL/PLGA/β-TCP, but without significant difference by day 14. In vivo, bone regeneration in the defect area, represented by new bone formation and bone-to-implant contact, paralleled those associated with collagen membranes. However, tensile testing revealed that whereas the PCL/PLGA/β-TCP membrane mechanical properties were conserved in both wet and dry states, the tensile property of collagen was reduced by 99% under wet conditions. Our results demonstrate in vitro and in vivo that PCL/PLGA/β-TCP membranes have similar levels of biocompatibility and bone regeneration as collagen membranes. In particular, considering that GBR is always applied to a wet environment (e.g. blood, saliva), we demonstrated that PCL/PLGA/β-TCP membranes maintained their form more reliably than collagen membranes in a wet setting, confirming their appropriateness as a GBR membrane.

  4. Effects of Age on Measures of Complex Working Memory Span in the Beagle Dog (Canis familiaris) Using Two Versions of a Spatial List Learning Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Tapp, P. Dwight; Siwak, Christina T.; Estrada, Jimena; Holowachuk, Daniel; Milgram, Norton W.

    2003-01-01

    The present study used two versions of a spatial list learning (SLL) paradigm to examine the effects of increased cognitive load on visuospatial working memory processes in young and old beagle dogs. In the first experiment, young, and a select group of old dogs were first presented with one item, then two, and then three, and were rewarded for responding to the novel position. The dogs were able to learn the task at short delays, but compared with young dogs, old dogs performed worse at delays of 10 sec, and could not reach longer delays. Analysis of errors indicated that memory was best for end items in the spatial list and that within sessions, the number of errors in later trials was greater than the number of errors in earlier trials. A second version of the task, a modified SLL (mSLL) was developed to control for the use of non-mnemonic strategies on the SLL task. In this version, the first two items were presented individually. Acquisition and maximal memory performance were better in the young relative to the old dogs. Similar to the original SLL design, memory for early list items was worse than memory for later list items in both young and old dogs. The within-session pattern of errors however, did not change from trial to trial on the mSLL. The present results suggest that multiple working memory processes are engaged during complex tests of visuospatial function and the neuroanatomical substrates controlling these processes are affected differentially by age in the beagle dog. PMID:12663753

  5. Development of a rapid and sensitive UPLC-MS/MS assay for the determination of TM-2 in beagle dog plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hongli; Zhao, Yunli; Men, Lei; Yang, Mingjing; Liu, Hui; Shao, Yanjie; Wang, Pei; Tang, Xing; Yu, Zhiguo

    2015-01-01

    A simple and sensitive method based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) has been developed for the determination of TM-2, which was a novel semi-synthetic taxane derivative in beagle dog plasma. Cabazitaxel was chosen as internal standard. Following extraction by methyl tert-butyl ether, the chromatographic separation was achieved on a Thermo Syncronis C18 column (50 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 µm) by gradient elution within a runtime of 3.5 min. The mobile phase consisted of (A) acetonitrile and (B) 2 mmol/L ammonium acetate in water. The detection was accomplished using positive ion electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The MS/MS ion transitions were monitored at m/z 812.39 → 551.35 for TM-2 and 836.36 → 555.26 for IS, respectively. The method was linear for TM-2 (r = 0.9924) ranging from 2.5 to 1000 ng/mL. The intra-day and inter-day precisions (relative standard deviation) were within 8.0 and 17.6%, respectively, and the accuracy (relative error) was less than 2.3%. The extraction recovery ranged from 83.1 to 97.1%. The reliable method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of TM-2 in beagle dogs after intravenous drip with different doses of 0.6, 1.2, and 2.4 mg/kg, respectively.

  6. Comparative toxicity of strontium-90 and radium-226 in beagle dogs. Report of first year, December 16, 1989--December 15, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Raabe, O.G.; Culbertson, M.R.; White, R.G.; Spangler, W.L.; Cain, G.R.; Parks, N.J.; Samuels, S.J.

    1990-12-31

    The authors are completing a 30-year study of the biologic effects of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 226}Ra in the beagle in order to predict the possible long-term hazards to people from chronic exposure to low levels of irradiation. Animals received either radionuclide by several means of administration: (a) continual ingestion of {sup 90}Sr, (b) a single intravenous injection of {sup 90}Sr, or (c) a series of eight intravenous injections of {sup 226}Ra. Although administration of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 226}Ra ended at 540 days of age, the animals continued to receive chronic, low-level radiation doses from these bone-seeking radionuclides throughout life. This project is the largest single cohort study in beagles of internally deposited radionuclides. It is unique in use of the ingestion route for {sup 90}Sr and in exposures that began before birth and continued throughout development to adulthood with uniform labeling of the skeletons with {sup 90}Sr. The last of the dogs died in 1986 at age 18.5, but the authors are continuing to investigate the significance of these long-term exposures given at low dose rates with regard to cancer production, physiologic well-being, and shortening of life through the detailed records that were kept and by study of preserved materials. All the data have been successfully accumulated and entered into a main-frame computer data base management system. Current work is exclusively directed at preparing research papers summarizing the results and the associated biostatistical and survival analyses.

  7. Comparative toxicity of strontium-90 and radium-226 in beagle dogs. Report of second year, December 16, 1990--December 15, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Raabe, O.G.; Culbertson, M.R.; White, R.G.; Spangler, W.L.; Cain, G.R.; Parks, N.J.; Samuels, S.J.

    1991-12-31

    The authors are completing a 30-year study of the biological effects of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 226}Ra in the beagle in order to predict the possible long-term hazards to people from chronic exposure to low levels of irradiation. Animals received either radionuclide by several means of administration: (a) continual ingestion of {sup 90}Sr, (b) a single intravenous injection of {sup 90}Sr, or (c) a series of eight intravenous injections of {sup 226}Ra. Although administration of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 226}Ra ended at 540 days of age, the animals continued to receive chronic, low-level radiation doses from these bone-seeking radionuclides throughout life. This project is the largest single cohort study in beagles of internally deposited radionuclides. It is unique in use of the ingestion route for {sup 90}Sr and in exposures that began before birth and continued throughout development to adulthood with uniform labeling of the skeletons with {sup 90}Sr. The last of the dogs died in 1986 at age 18.5 years, but the authors are continuing to investigate the significance of these long-term exposures given at low dose rates with regard to cancer production, physiologic well-being, and shortening of life through the detailed records that were kept and by study of preserved materials. All the data have been successfully accumulated and entered into a main-frame computer data base management system. Current work is exclusively directed at preparing research papers summarizing the results and the associated biostatistical and survival analyses.

  8. Comparative toxicity of strontium-90 and radium-226 in beagle dogs. Progress report of second year, December 16, 1990--December 15, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Raabe, O.G.; Culbertson, M.R.; White, R.G.; Spangler, W.L.; Cain, G.R.; Parks, N.J.; Samuels, S.J.

    1991-12-01

    We are completing a 30-year study of the biological effects of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 226}Ra in the beagle in order to predict the possible long-term hazards to people from chronic exposure to low levels of irradiation. Animals received either radionuclide by several means of administration: (a) continual ingestion of {sup 90}Sr, (b) a single intravenous injection of {sup 90}Sr, or (c) a series of eight intravenous injections of {sup 226}Ra. Although administration of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 226}Ra ended at 540 days of age, the animals continued to receive chronic, low-level radiation doses from these bone-seeking radionuclides throughout life. This project is the largest single cohort study in beagles of internally deposited radionuclides. It is unique in use of the ingestion route for {sup 90}Sr and in exposure that began before birth and continued throughout development to adulthood with uniform labeling of the skeletons with {sup 90}Sr. The last of the dogs died in 1986 at age 18.5 years, but we are continuing to investigate the significance of these long-term exposures given at low dose rates with regard to cancer production, physiologic well-being, and shortening of life through the detailed records that were kept and by study of preserved materials. All the data have been successfully accumulated and entered into a main-frame computer data base management system. Current work is exclusively directed at preparing research papers summarizing the results and the associated biostatistical and survival analyses. 15 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  9. Effects of concomitant use of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 with beta-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP) on the beagle dog 1-wall periodontal defect model

    SciTech Connect

    Anzai, Jun; Kitamura, Masahiro; Nozaki, Takenori; Nagayasu, Toshie; Terashima, Akio; Asano, Taiji; Murakami, Shinya

    2010-12-17

    Research highlights: {yields} Concomitant use of FGF-2 and {beta}-TCP (an osteo-conductive scaffold) significantly promotes periodontal regeneration in the severe periodontitis model (1-wall defect model) of beagle dog. {yields} FGF-2 enhanced new bone formation via {beta}-TCP at the defects. {yields} In particular, FGF-2 dramatically regenerated new periodontal ligament and cementum formations at the defects, that is one of the most important healing outcomes during the process of periodontal regeneration. {yields} Epithelial downgrowth (undesirable wound healing) was decreased by administration of FGF-2. {yields} This manuscript indicates for the first time that concomitant use of FGF-2 and {beta}-TCP is efficacious in regenerating periodontal tissue following severe destruction of the tissue by progression of periodontitis. -- Abstract: The effects of concomitant use of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and beta-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP) on periodontal regeneration were investigated in the beagle dog 1-wall periodontal defect model. One-wall periodontal defects were created in the mesial portion of both sides of the mandibular first molars, and 0.3% FGF-2 plus {beta}-TCP or {beta}-TCP alone was administered. Radiographic evaluation was performed at 0, 3, and 6 weeks. At 6 weeks, the periodontium with the defect site was removed and histologically analyzed. Radiographic findings showed that co-administration of FGF-2 significantly increased bone mineral contents of the defect sites compared with {beta}-TCP alone. Histologic analysis revealed that the length of the regenerated periodontal ligament, the cementum, distance to the junctional epithelium, new bone height, and area of newly formed bone were significantly increased in the FGF-2 group. No abnormal inflammatory response or ankylosis was observed in either group. These findings indicate the efficacy of concomitant use of FGF-2 and {beta}-TCP as an osteoconductive material for periodontal

  10. In vivo gastric residence and gastroprotective effect of floating gastroretentive tablet of DA-9601, an extract of Artemisia asiatica, in beagle dogs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong Soo; Cha, Kwang Ho; Kang, Seung Yeob; Won, Donghan; Jang, Sun Woo; Son, Miwon; Son, Moon Ho; Choi, Ho Jung; Lee, Young Won; Kang, Myung Joo

    2016-01-01

    Objective DA-9601, an extract of Artemisia asiatica containing eupatilin and jaceosidin as active compounds, has been prescribed to treat gastritis in Asia. In recent times, sustained-release, floating gastroretentive (GR) tablets of DA-9601 are available on the market. In the present study, the physical properties and in vitro drug release profile, in vivo gastric residence time, and gastroprotective effect of GR tablet were compared to those of immediate release (IR) tablets of DA-9601. Method In vitro buoyancy behavior (floating lag time and duration) and release profile of eupatilin were assessed in acidic medium. The in vivo intragastric behaviors of the barium sulfate-loaded IR and GR tablets were evaluated in beagle dogs by radiographic studies. Local gastroprotective effect was compared in an experimentally induced gastric lesion in beagle dogs after oral administration of IR (three times per day) or GR (twice daily) tablets for 15 days. Results Upon contact with gastric juice, a low-density floating tablet (apparent density of 0.93 g/cm3) was buoyant on the medium and was upheld for 14 hours, providing sustained drug release profile, whereas the IR tablet disintegrated within 10 minutes, showing complete drug release within 2 hours. In vivo radiographic studies showed that the GR tablet was retained for >4 hours in the stomach. Both DA-9601 formulations remarkably alleviated gastric mucosal injury compared to placebo group, when observed by gastric endoscopy. Conclusion Twice-daily GR tablets exhibited a prolonged gastric residence time and a remarkable mucosal restoration effect in animal models. Therefore, the GR system of DA-9601 could be a substitute dosage form for the treatment of gastritis, while reducing the dosing frequency and thus improving patient compliance. PMID:27354765

  11. Switchable topological phonon channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Süsstrunk, Roman; Zimmermann, Philipp; Huber, Sebastian D.

    2017-01-01

    Guiding energy deliberately is one of the central elements in engineering and information processing. It is often achieved by designing specific transport channels in a suitable material. Topological metamaterials offer a way to construct stable and efficient channels of unprecedented versatility. However, due to their stability it can be tricky to terminate them or to temporarily shut them off without changing the material properties massively. While a lot of effort was put into realizing mechanical topological metamaterials, almost no works deal with manipulating their edge channels in sight of applications. Here, we take a step in this direction, by taking advantage of local symmetry breaking potentials to build a switchable topological phonon channel.

  12. Selfcomplementary Quantum Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smaczyński, Marek; Roga, Wojciech; Życzkowski, Karol

    2016-10-01

    Selfcomplementary quantum channels are characterized by such an interaction between the principal quantum system and the environment that leads to the same output states of both interacting systems. These maps can describe approximate quantum copy machines, as perfect copying of an unknown quantum state is not possible due to the celebrated no-cloning theorem. We provide here a parametrization of a large class of selfcomplementary channels and analyze their properties. Selfcomplementary channels preserve some residual coherences and residual entanglement. Investigating some measures of non-Markovianity, we show that time evolution under selfcomplementary channels is highly non-Markovian.

  13. Ion channels in asthma.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Miguel A; Cantero-Recasens, Gerard; Garcia-Elias, Anna; Jung, Carole; Carreras-Sureda, Amado; Vicente, Rubén

    2011-09-23

    Ion channels are specialized transmembrane proteins that permit the passive flow of ions following their electrochemical gradients. In the airways, ion channels participate in the production of epithelium-based hydroelectrolytic secretions and in the control of intracellular Ca(2+) levels that will ultimately activate almost all lung cells, either resident or circulating. Thus, ion channels have been the center of many studies aiming to understand asthma pathophysiological mechanisms or to identify therapeutic targets for better control of the disease. In this minireview, we focus on molecular, genetic, and animal model studies associating ion channels with asthma.

  14. A linearization of quantum channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowder, Tanner

    2015-06-01

    Because the quantum channels form a compact, convex set, we can express any quantum channel as a convex combination of extremal channels. We give a Euclidean representation for the channels whose inverses are also valid channels; these are a subset of the extreme points. They form a compact, connected Lie group, and we calculate its Lie algebra. Lastly, we calculate a maximal torus for the group and provide a constructive approach to decomposing any invertible channel into a product of elementary channels.

  15. Fires in Southern Georgia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Several large fires were burning in southern Georgia on April 29, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite passed overhead and captured this image. Places where MODIS detected actively burning fires are outlined in red. The Roundabout Fire sprang up on April 27, according to the U.S. Southern Area Coordination Center, and was about 3,500 acres as of April 30. That fire was threatening homes in the community of Kirkland. Meanwhile, south of Waycross, two large blazes were burning next to each other in the northern part of Okefenokee Swamp. The Sweat Farm Road Fire threatened the town of Waycross in previous weeks, but at the end of April, activity had moved to the southeastern perimeter. The fire had affected more than 50,000 acres of timber (including pine tree plantations) and swamps. Scores of residences scattered throughout the rural area are threatened. The Big Turnaround Complex is burning to the east. The 26,000-acre fire was extremely active over the weekend, with flame lengths more than 60 feet (just over 18 meters) in places. The two blazes appeared to overlap in fire perimeter maps available from the U.S. Geospatial Multi-Agency Coordination Team. According to the Southern Area Coordination Center morning report on April 30, the Sweat Farm Road Fire 'will be a long term fire. Containment and control will depend on significant rainfall, due to the inaccessible swamp terrain.' No expected containment date was available for the Big Turnaround Complex Fire, either. Describing that fire, the report stated, 'Heavy fuel loading, high fire danger, and difficulty of access continue to hamper suppression efforts.' The large image provided above has a spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response Team provides twice-daily images of the region in additional resolutions. They also provide a version of the image that shows smoke plumes stretching out across the Atlantic Ocean.

  16. Ion channels in toxicology.

    PubMed

    Restrepo-Angulo, Iván; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, Andrea; Camacho, Javier

    2010-08-01

    Ion channels play essential roles in human physiology and toxicology. Cardiac contraction, neural transmission, temperature sensing, insulin release, regulation of apoptosis, cellular pH and oxidative stress, as well as detection of active compounds from chilli, are some of the processes in which ion channels have an important role. Regulation of ion channels by several chemicals including those found in air, water and soil represents an interesting potential link between environmental pollution and human diseases; for instance, de novo expression of ion channels in response to exposure to carcinogens is being considered as a potential tool for cancer diagnosis and therapy. Non-specific binding of several drugs to ion channels is responsible for a huge number of undesirable side-effects, and testing guidelines for several drugs now require ion channel screening for pharmaceutical safety. Animal toxins targeting human ion channels have serious effects on the population and have also provided a remarkable tool to study the molecular structure and function of ion channels. In this review, we will summarize the participation of ion channels in biological processes extensively used in toxicological studies, including cardiac function, apoptosis and cell proliferation. Major findings on the adverse effects of drugs on ion channels as well as the regulation of these proteins by different chemicals, including some pesticides, are also reviewed. Association of ion channels and toxicology in several biological processes strongly suggests these proteins to be excellent candidates to follow the toxic effects of xenobiotics, and as potential early indicators of life-threatening situations including chronic degenerative diseases.

  17. Southern Sky Redshift Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Da Costa, L.N.; Pellegrini, P.S.; Sargent, W.L.W.; Tonry, J.; Davis, M.

    1988-04-01

    The general characteristics of the space distribution of galaxies in the SSRS sample, covering the southern Galactic cap, are examined, and maps of the space distribution are presented. The sample consists of 2028 galaxies in an area of 1.75 sr with declination south of -17.5 deg and galactic latitude below -30 deg. The survey provides useful information on large-scale structure to a depth of 120/h Mpc. The galaxy distribution exhibits prominent filaments, sheets, and voids. Some large-scale structures are highly subclustered; others are much more diffuse. 21 references.

  18. AIRS Retrieved Temperature Isotherms over Southern Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    AIRS Retrieved Temperature Isotherms over Southern Europe viewed from the west, September 8, 2002. The isotherms in this map made from AIRS data show regions of the same temperature in the atmosphere.

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Experiment, with its visible, infrared, and microwave detectors, provides a three-dimensional look at Earth's weather. Working in tandem, the three instruments can make simultaneous observations all the way down to the Earth's surface, even in the presence of heavy clouds. With more than 2,000 channels sensing different regions of the atmosphere, the system creates a global, 3-D map of atmospheric temperature and humidity and provides information on clouds, greenhouse gases, and many other atmospheric phenomena. The AIRS Infrared Sounder Experiment flies onboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., under contract to NASA. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  19. Basaltic Lava Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cashman, K. V.; Griffiths, R. W.; Kerr, R. C.

    2004-12-01

    In Hawaii, the mode of lava transport - through open channels or through insulating lava tubes - determines the thermal, rheological, and emplacement history of a lava flow. Most Hawaiian lavas are erupted at near-liquidus temperatures and are therefore crystal-poor; lava transport through open channels allows rapid cooling and consequent rapid increases in lava crystallinity. Solidified aa flows resulting from channelized flow are typically fine-grained throughout their thickness, indicating cooling of the entire flow thickness during transport. In contrast, transport of lava through insulating tubes permits flow over long distances with little cooling. Flows emerging from such tubes typically have pahoehoe flow surfaces with glassy crusts. Groundmass textures that coarsen from the flow rind to the interior reflect rates of post-emplacement, rather than syn-emplacement, cooling. To distinguish eruption conditions that result in lava channels from those that allow formation of lava tubes, we have performed a series of laboratory experiments involving injection of PEG 600 (a wax with a Newtonian rheology and freezing temperature of 19ºC) into cold water through both uniform and non-uniform sloping channels. In uniform channels, tube formation can be distinguished from open channel flow using a dimensionless parameter based on a solidification time scale, an advection time scale, and a Rayleigh number that describes convection by heat loss from crust-free shear zones. Theoretical analysis predicts that in the open channel regime, the width of the crust (dc) will vary with the channel width (W) as dc = W5/3. Crustal coverage of non-uniform channels in both laboratory experiments and field examples from Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, is consistent with this prediction. However, experiments in non-uniform channels illustrate additional controls on the surface coverage of lava channels. Most important is crustal extension resulting from flow acceleration through constrictions

  20. Cranial injuries as evidence of violence in prehistoric southern California.

    PubMed

    Walker, P L

    1989-11-01

    Crania from the Channel Island area of southern California were examined for evidence of traumatic injuries. Well-healed depressed fractures in the outer table of the cranial vault are common in skeletal remains from the northern Channel Islands (18.56% n = 598) but rare in those from the mainland coast (7.5% n = 146). This prevalence of traumatic injuries among the islanders may be a result of intense competition over resources in a geographically circumscribed environment. The frequency of cranial injuries increases significantly between the early and late prehistoric periods on the Channel Islands. This temporal variation appears to reflect changes in patterns of violence associated with population growth and environmental instability.

  1. Ion channels in microbes

    PubMed Central

    Martinac, Boris; Saimi, Yoshiro; Kung, Ching

    2008-01-01

    Summary Studies of ion channels have for long been dominated by the animalcentric, if not anthropocentric view of physiology. The structures and activities of ion channels had, however, evolved long before the appearance of complex multicellular organisms on Earth. The diversity of ion channels existing in cellular membranes of prokaryotes is a good example. Though at first it may appear as a paradox that most of what we know about the structure of eukaryotic ion channels is based on the structure of bacterial channels, this should not be surprising given the evolutionary relatedness of all living organisms and suitability of microbial cells for structural studies of biological macromolecules in a laboratory environment. Genome sequences of the human as well as various microbial, plant and animal organisms unambiguously established the evolutionary links, whereas crystallographic studies of the structures of major types of ion channels published over the last decade clearly demonstrated the advantage of using microbes as experimental organisms. The purpose of this review is not only to provide an account of acquired knowledge on microbial ion channels but also to show that the study of microbes and their ion channels may also hold a key to solving unresolved molecular mysteries in the future. PMID:18923187

  2. 33 CFR 334.290 - Elizabeth River, Southern Branch, Va., naval restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Southern Branch of Elizabeth River, at latitude 36°49′43″, longitude 76°17′26.5″; thence in a southwesterly direction to a point on the eastern boundary of Norfolk Harbor 40-foot channel at latitude 36°49′42... channel to latitude 36°49′28″, longitude 76°17′27″; thence easterly to the shore at latitude...

  3. Athermalized channeled spectropolarimeter enhancement.

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Julia Craven; Way, Brandyn Michael; Mercier, Jeffrey Alan; Hunt, Jeffery P.

    2013-09-01

    Channeled spectropolarimetry can measure the complete polarization state of light as a function of wavelength. Typically, a channeled spectropolarimeter uses high order retarders made of uniaxial crystal to amplitude modulate the measured spectrum with the spectrally-dependent Stokes polarization information. A primary limitation of conventional channeled spectropolarimeters is related to the thermal variability of the retarders. Thermal variation often forces frequent system recalibration, particularly for field deployed systems. However, implementing thermally stable retarders, made of biaxial crystal, results in an athermal channeled spectropolarimeter that relieves the need for frequent recalibration. This report presents experimental results for an anthermalized channeled spectropolarimeter prototype produced using potassium titanyl phosphate. The results of this prototype are compared to the current thermal stabilization state of the art. Finally, the application of the technique to the thermal infrared is studied, and the athermalization concept is applied to an infrared imaging spectropolarimeter design.

  4. The channels of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, V. R.

    1982-01-01

    Early observations of Mars conducted by means of telescopes are considered. Secchi introduced the Italian word 'canale' ('channel') in 1869 to describe apparent lines on the planet's surface. Between 1877 and 1888 Schiaparelli mapped a profusion of 'canali'. Schiaparelli's work led to famous controversies about Mars. This book attempts to investigate the puzzle posed by the Martian channels, taking into account also the results of the studies conducted with the aid of the two orbiting Viking spacecraft which have produced a total number of nearly 60,000 pictures. The channel types are discussed along with questions regarding the distribution, the ages, and the proposed origins of the channels. Attention is given to the geomorphology of Mars, the patterns and networks of Martian valleys, ice and the Martian surface, the outflow channels, catastrophic flood processes, questions of analogy between terrestrial and Martian geographic features, and Martian phenomena associated with water liquid or water ice.

  5. Southern Ocean eddy phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenger, I.; Münnich, M.; Gruber, N.; Knutti, R.

    2015-11-01

    Mesoscale eddies are ubiquitous features in the Southern Ocean, yet their phenomenology is not well quantified. To tackle this task, we use satellite observations of sea level anomalies and sea surface temperature (SST) as well as in situ temperature and salinity measurements from profiling floats. Over the period 1997-2010, we identified over a million mesoscale eddy instances and were able to track about 105 of them over 1 month or more. The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), the boundary current systems, and the regions where they interact are hot spots of eddy presence, representing also the birth places and graveyards of most eddies. These hot spots contrast strongly to areas shallower than about 2000 m, where mesoscale eddies are essentially absent, likely due to topographical steering. Anticyclones tend to dominate the southern subtropical gyres, and cyclones the northern flank of the ACC. Major causes of regional polarity dominance are larger formation numbers and lifespans, with a contribution of differential propagation pathways of long-lived eddies. Areas of dominance of one polarity are generally congruent with the same polarity being longer-lived, bigger, of larger amplitude, and more intense. Eddies extend down to at least 2000 m. In the ACC, eddies show near surface temperature and salinity maxima, whereas eddies in the subtropical areas generally have deeper anomaly maxima, presumably inherited from their origin in the boundary currents. The temperature and salinity signatures of the average eddy suggest that their tracer anomalies are a result of both trapping in the eddy core and stirring.

  6. Astrophysics in Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitelock, Patricia

    2008-03-01

    The government of South Africa has identified astronomy as a field in which their country has a strategic advantage and is consequently investing very significantly in astronomical infrastructure. South Africa now operates a 10-m class optical telescope, the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), and is one of two countries short listed to host the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), an ambitious international project to construct a radio telescope with a sensitivity one hundred times that of any existing telescope. The challenge now is to produce an indigenous community of users for these facilities, particularly from among the black population which was severely disadvantaged under the apartheid regime. In this paper I briefly describe the observing facilities in Southern Africa before going on to discuss the various collaborations that are allowing us to use astronomy as a tool for development, and at the same time to train a new generation of astronomers who will be well grounded in the science and linked to their colleagues internationally.

  7. Anthropocene Survival of Southern New England's Salt ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In southern New England, salt marshes are exceptionally vulnerable to the impacts of accelerated sea level rise. Regional rates of sea level rise have been as much as 50 % greater than the global average over past decades, a more than fourfold increase over late Holocene background values. In addition, coastal development blocks many potential marsh migration routes, and compensatory mechanisms relying on positive feedbacks between inundation and sediment deposition are insufficient to counter inundation increases in extreme low-turbidity tidal waters. Accordingly, multiple lines of evidence suggest that marsh submergence is occurring in southern New England. A combination of monitoring data, field re-surveys, radiometric dating, and analysis of peat composition have established that, beginning in the early and mid-twentieth century, the dominant low-marsh plant, Spartina alterniflora, has encroached upward in tidal marshes, and typical high-marsh plants, including Juncus gerardii and Spartina patens, have declined, providing strong evidence that vegetation changes are being driven, at least in part, by higher water levels. Additionally, aerial and satellite imagery show shoreline retreat, widening and headward extension of channels, and new and expanded interior depressions. Papers in this special section highlight changes in marsh-building processes, patterns of vegetation loss, and shifts in species composition. The final papers turn to strategies for minimiz

  8. Assay for calcium channels

    SciTech Connect

    Glossmann, H.; Ferry, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter focuses on biochemical assays for Ca/sup 2 +/-selective channels in electrically excitable membranes which are blocked in electrophysiological and pharmacological experiments by verapamil, 1,4-dihydropyridines, diltiazen (and various other drugs), as well as inorganic di- or trivalent cations. The strategy employed is to use radiolabeled 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives which block calcium channels with ED/sub 50/ values in the nanomolar range. Although tritiated d-cis-diltiazem and verapamil can be used to label calcium channels, the 1,4-dihydropyridines offer numerous advantages. The various sections cover tissue specificity of channel labeling, the complex interactions of divalent cations with the (/sup 3/H)nimodipine-labeled calcium channels, and the allosteric regulation of (/sup 3/H)nimodipine binding by the optically pure enantiomers of phenylalkylamine and benzothiazepine calcium channel blockers. A comparison of the properties of different tritiated 1,4-dihydropyridine radioligands and the iodinated channel probe (/sup 125/I)iodipine is given.

  9. Fine Channel Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A color image of fine channel networks on Mars; north toward top. The scene shows heavily cratered highlands dissected by dendritic open channel networks that dissect steep slopes of impact crater walls. This image is a composite of Viking high-resolution images in black and white and low-resolution images in color. The image extends from latitude 9 degrees S. to 5 degrees S. and from longitude 312 degrees to 320 degrees; Mercator projection. The dendritic pattern of the fine channels and their location on steep slopes leads to the interpretation that these are runoff channels. The restriction of these types of channels to ancient highland rocks suggests that these channels are old and date from a time on Mars when conditions existed for precipitation to actively erode rocks. After the channels reach a low plain, they appear to end. Termination may have resulted from burial by younger deposits or perhaps the flows percolated into the surface materials and continued underground.

  10. Southern California Daily Energy Report

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    EIA has updated its Southern California Daily Energy Report to provide additional information on key energy market indicators for the winter season. The dashboard includes information that EIA regularly compiles about energy operations and the management of natural gas and electricity systems in Southern California in the aftermath of a leak at the Aliso Canyon natural gas storage facility outside of Los Angeles

  11. Submarine landslides of the Southern California Borderland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, H.J.; Greene, H. Gary; Edwards, B.D.; Fisher, M.A.; Normark, W.R.

    2009-01-01

    Conventional bathymetry, sidescan-sonar and seismic-reflection data, and recent, multibeam surveys of large parts of the Southern California Borderland disclose the presence of numerous submarine landslides. Most of these features are fairly small, with lateral dimensions less than ??2 km. In areas where multibeam surveys are available, only two large landslide complexes were identified on the mainland slope- Goleta slide in Santa Barbara Channel and Palos Verdes debris avalanche on the San Pedro Escarpment south of Palos Verdes Peninsula. Both of these complexes indicate repeated recurrences of catastrophic slope failure. Recurrence intervals are not well constrained but appear to be in the range of 7500 years for the Goleta slide. The most recent major activity of the Palos Verdes debris avalanche occurred roughly 7500 years ago. A small failure deposit in Santa Barbara Channel, the Gaviota mudflow, was perhaps caused by an 1812 earthquake. Most landslides in this region are probably triggered by earthquakes, although the larger failures were likely conditioned by other factors, such as oversteepening, development of shelf-edge deltas, and high fluid pressures. If a subsequent future landslide were to occur in the area of these large landslide complexes, a tsunami would probably result. Runup distances of 10 m over a 30-km-long stretch of the Santa Barbara coastline are predicted for a recurrence of the Goleta slide, and a runup of 3 m over a comparable stretch of the Los Angeles coastline is modeled for the Palos Verdes debris avalanche. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  12. Channel Access in Erlang

    SciTech Connect

    Nicklaus, Dennis J.

    2013-10-13

    We have developed an Erlang language implementation of the Channel Access protocol. Included are low-level functions for encoding and decoding Channel Access protocol network packets as well as higher level functions for monitoring or setting EPICS process variables. This provides access to EPICS process variables for the Fermilab Acnet control system via our Erlang-based front-end architecture without having to interface to C/C++ programs and libraries. Erlang is a functional programming language originally developed for real-time telecommunications applications. Its network programming features and list management functions make it particularly well-suited for the task of managing multiple Channel Access circuits and PV monitors.

  13. Fractional channel multichannel analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Brackenbush, Larry W.; Anderson, Gordon A.

    1994-01-01

    A multichannel analyzer incorporating the features of the present invention obtains the effect of fractional channels thus greatly reducing the number of actual channels necessary to record complex line spectra. This is accomplished by using an analog-to-digital converter in the asynscronous mode, i.e., the gate pulse from the pulse height-to-pulse width converter is not synchronized with the signal from a clock oscillator. This saves power and reduces the number of components required on the board to achieve the effect of radically expanding the number of channels without changing the circuit board.

  14. Fractional channel multichannel analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Anderson, G.A.

    1994-08-23

    A multichannel analyzer incorporating the features of the present invention obtains the effect of fractional channels thus greatly reducing the number of actual channels necessary to record complex line spectra. This is accomplished by using an analog-to-digital converter in the asynchronous mode, i.e., the gate pulse from the pulse height-to-pulse width converter is not synchronized with the signal from a clock oscillator. This saves power and reduces the number of components required on the board to achieve the effect of radically expanding the number of channels without changing the circuit board. 9 figs.

  15. Neptune's Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This photograph of Neptune's southern hemisphere was taken by the narrow-angle camera on NASA's Voyager 2 when the spacecraft was 4.2 million km (2.6 million miles) from the planet. The smallest features that can be seen are 38 km (24 miles) across. The almond-shaped structure at the left is a large cloud system that has been seen for several weeks. Internal details in the feature have become increasingly apparent as Voyager 2 has approached. Systems with similar shapes in Jupiter's atmosphere rotate about their centers, rolling in the local winds that increase toward the south. However, the wispy nature of the white central clouds in this Neptunian feature make confirmation of the system's rotation difficult. The Voyager Mission is conducted by JPL for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications.

  16. Southern California Disasters II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, Heather; Todoroff, Amber L.; LeBoeuf, Madeline A.

    2015-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service (USFS) has multiple programs in place which primarily utilize Landsat imagery to produce burn severity indices for aiding wildfire damage assessment and mitigation. These indices provide widely-used wildfire damage assessment tools to decision makers. When the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) is launched in 2022, the sensor's hyperspectral resolution will support new methods for assessing natural disaster impacts on ecosystems, including wildfire damage to forests. This project used simulated HyspIRI data to study three southern California fires: Aspen, French, and King. Burn severity indices were calculated from the data and the results were quantitatively compared to the comparable USFS products currently in use. The final results from this project illustrate how HyspIRI data may be used in the future to enhance assessment of fire-damaged areas and provide additional monitoring tools for decision support to the USFS and other land management agencies.

  17. New Zealand's Southern Alps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The rugged Southern Alps extend some 650 kilometers along the western side of New Zealand's South Island. The mountains are often obscured by clouds, which is probably why the Maoris called New Zealand 'Aotearoa', the long white cloud. The higher peaks are snow-covered all year round. Westerly winds bring clouds that drop over 500 centimeters of rain annually on luxuriant rain forest along the west coast. The drier eastern seaboard is home to the majority of the island's population.

    This pair of MISR images is from April 13, 2000 (Terra orbit 1712). The upper image is a natural color view from the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. It is presented at a resolution of 550 meters per pixel. The lower image is a stereo anaglyph generated from the instrument's 46-degree and 26-degree forward-viewing cameras, and is presented at 275-meter per pixel resolution to show the portion of the image containing the Southern Alps in greater detail. Viewing the anaglyph in 3-D requires the use of red/blue glasses with the red filter over your left eye. To facilitate stereoscopic viewing, both images have been oriented with north at the left.

    The tallest mountain in the Southern Alps is Mt. Cook, at an elevation of 3754 meters. Its snow-covered peak is visible to the left of center in each of these MISR images. From the high peaks, glaciers have gouged long, slender mountain lakes and coastal fiords. Immediately to the southeast of Mt. Cook (to the right in these images), the glacial pale-blue water of Lake Pukaki stands out. Further to the south in adjacent valleys you can easily see Lakes Hawea and Wanaka, between which (though not visible here) is the Haast Pass Road, the most southerly of the few links between the east and west coast road systems. Further to the south is the prominent 'S' shape of Lake Wakatipu, 83 kilometers long, on the northern shore of which is Queenstown, the principal resort town of the island. The remote and spectacular Fiordland National

  18. Tornado Strikes Southern Maryland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Evening light catches the tops of towering thunderheads over the Mid-Atlantic states on April 28, 2002. The powerful storms spawned several tornados, one of which was classified as an F4 tornado. The powerful tornado touched down in the southern Maryland town of La Plata, destroying most of the historic downtown. The twister-one of the strongest ever to hit the state-beat a 24-mile swath running west to east through the state and claimed at least three lives. The image above was taken by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) at 7:15 PM Eastern Daylight Savings Time. A large version of the animation shows more detail. (5.9 MB Quicktime) Image courtesy National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the GOES Project Science Office. Animation by Robert Simmon, NASA GSFC.

  19. Martian outflow channels: How did their source aquifers form, and why did they drain so rapidly?

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, J. Alexis P.; Kargel, Jeffrey S.; Baker, Victor R.; Gulick, Virginia C.; Berman, Daniel C.; Fairén, Alberto G.; Linares, Rogelio; Zarroca, Mario; Yan, Jianguo; Miyamoto, Hideaki; Glines, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Catastrophic floods generated ~3.2 Ga by rapid groundwater evacuation scoured the Solar System’s most voluminous channels, the southern circum-Chryse outflow channels. Based on Viking Orbiter data analysis, it was hypothesized that these outflows emanated from a global Hesperian cryosphere-confined aquifer that was infused by south polar meltwater infiltration into the planet’s upper crust. In this model, the outflow channels formed along zones of superlithostatic pressure generated by pronounced elevation differences around the Highland-Lowland Dichotomy Boundary. However, the restricted geographic location of the channels indicates that these conditions were not uniform Boundary. Furthermore, some outflow channel sources are too high to have been fed by south polar basal melting. Using more recent mission data, we argue that during the Late Noachian fluvial and glacial sediments were deposited into a clastic wedge within a paleo-basin located in the southern circum-Chryse region, which was then completely submerged under a primordial northern plains ocean. Subsequent Late Hesperian outflow channels were sourced from within these geologic materials and formed by gigantic groundwater outbursts driven by an elevated hydraulic head from the Valles Marineris region. Thus, our findings link the formation of the southern circum-Chryse outflow channels to ancient marine, glacial, and fluvial erosion and sedimentation. PMID:26346067

  20. Martian outflow channels: How did their source aquifers form, and why did they drain so rapidly?

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, J Alexis P; Kargel, Jeffrey S; Baker, Victor R; Gulick, Virginia C; Berman, Daniel C; Fairén, Alberto G; Linares, Rogelio; Zarroca, Mario; Yan, Jianguo; Miyamoto, Hideaki; Glines, Natalie

    2015-09-08

    Catastrophic floods generated ~3.2 Ga by rapid groundwater evacuation scoured the Solar System's most voluminous channels, the southern circum-Chryse outflow channels. Based on Viking Orbiter data analysis, it was hypothesized that these outflows emanated from a global Hesperian cryosphere-confined aquifer that was infused by south polar meltwater infiltration into the planet's upper crust. In this model, the outflow channels formed along zones of superlithostatic pressure generated by pronounced elevation differences around the Highland-Lowland Dichotomy Boundary. However, the restricted geographic location of the channels indicates that these conditions were not uniform. Furthermore, some outflow channel sources are too high to have been fed by south polar basal melting. Using more recent mission data, we argue that during the Late Noachian fluvial and glacial sediments were deposited into a clastic wedge within a paleo-basin located in the southern circum-Chryse region, which at the time was completely submerged under a primordial northern plains ocean [corrected]. Subsequent Late Hesperian outflow channels were sourced from within these geologic materials and formed by gigantic groundwater outbursts driven by an elevated hydraulic head from the Valles Marineris region. Thus, our findings link the formation of the southern circum-Chryse outflow channels to ancient marine, glacial, and fluvial erosion and sedimentation.

  1. Southern Spring in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The Odyssey spacecraft has completed a full Mars year of observations of the red planet. For the next several weeks the Image of the Day will look back over this first mars year. It will focus on four themes: 1) the poles - with the seasonal changes seen in the retreat and expansion of the caps; 2) craters - with a variety of morphologies relating to impact materials and later alteration, both infilling and exhumation; 3) channels - the clues to liquid surface flow; and 4) volcanic flow features. While some images have helped answer questions about the history of Mars, many have raised new questions that are still being investigated as Odyssey continues collecting data as it orbits Mars.

    This image was collected June 25, 2003 during the southern spring season. This false color image shows both the layered ice cap and darker 'spots' that are seen only when the sun first lights the polar surface.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -82.3, Longitude 306 East (54 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the

  2. Cooperative gating between ion channels.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kee-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative gating between ion channels, i.e. the gating of one channel directly coupled to the gating of neighboring channels, has been observed in diverse channel types at the single-channel level. Positively coupled gating could enhance channel-mediated signaling while negative coupling may effectively reduce channel gating noise. Indeed, the physiological significance of cooperative channel gating in signal transduction has been recognized in several in vivo studies. Moreover, coupled gating of ion channels was reported to be associated with some human disease states. In this review, physiological roles for channel cooperativity and channel clustering observed in vitro and in vivo are introduced, and stimulation-induced channel clustering and direct channel cross linking are suggested as the physical mechanisms of channel assembly. Along with physical clustering, several molecular mechanisms proposed as the molecular basis for functional coupling of neighboring channels are covered: permeant ions as a channel coupling mediator, concerted channel activation through the membrane, and allosteric mechanisms. Also, single-channel analysis methods for cooperative gating such as the binomial analysis, the variance analysis, the conditional dwell time density analysis, and the maximum likelihood fitting analysis are reviewed and discussed.

  3. Ion Channels in Epithelial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Lawrence G.

    Ion channels in epithelial cells serve to move ions, and in some cases fluid, between compartments of the body. This function of the transfer of material is fundamentally different from that of the transfer of information, which is the main job of most channels in excitable cells. Nevertheless the basic construction of the channels is similar in many respects in the two tissue types. This chapter reviews the nature of channels in epithelia and discusses how their functions have evolved to accomplish the basic tasks for which they are responsible. I will focus on three channel types: epithelial Na+ channels, inward-rectifier K+ channels, and CFTR Cl- channels.

  4. 28-Channel rotary transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, W. T.

    1981-01-01

    Transformer transmits power and digital data across rotating interface. Array has many parallel data channels, each with potential l megabaud data rate. Ferrite-cored transformers are spaced along rotor; airgap between them reduces crosstalk.

  5. A Simple Water Channel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, A. S.

    1976-01-01

    Describes a simple water channel, for use with an overhead projector. It is run from a water tap and may be used for flow visualization experiments, including the effect of streamlining and elementary building aerodynamics. (MLH)

  6. Chondrocyte channel transcriptomics

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Rebecca; May, Hannah; Mobasheri, Ali; Barrett-Jolley, Richard

    2013-01-01

    To date, a range of ion channels have been identified in chondrocytes using a number of different techniques, predominantly electrophysiological and/or biomolecular; each of these has its advantages and disadvantages. Here we aim to compare and contrast the data available from biophysical and microarray experiments. This letter analyses recent transcriptomics datasets from chondrocytes, accessible from the European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI). We discuss whether such bioinformatic analysis of microarray datasets can potentially accelerate identification and discovery of ion channels in chondrocytes. The ion channels which appear most frequently across these microarray datasets are discussed, along with their possible functions. We discuss whether functional or protein data exist which support the microarray data. A microarray experiment comparing gene expression in osteoarthritis and healthy cartilage is also discussed and we verify the differential expression of 2 of these genes, namely the genes encoding large calcium-activated potassium (BK) and aquaporin channels. PMID:23995703

  7. Calcium Channel Blockers

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as high blood pressure, chest pain and Raynaud's disease. Find out more about this class of medication. ... Irregular heartbeats (arrhythmia) Some circulatory conditions, such as Raynaud's disease For black people and older people, calcium channel ...

  8. Proton channel models

    PubMed Central

    Pupo, Amaury; Baez-Nieto, David; Martínez, Agustín; Latorre, Ramón; González, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Voltage-gated proton channels are integral membrane proteins with the capacity to permeate elementary particles in a voltage and pH dependent manner. These proteins have been found in several species and are involved in various physiological processes. Although their primary topology is known, lack of details regarding their structures in the open conformation has limited analyses toward a deeper understanding of the molecular determinants of their function and regulation. Consequently, the function-structure relationships have been inferred based on homology models. In the present work, we review the existing proton channel models, their assumptions, predictions and the experimental facts that support them. Modeling proton channels is not a trivial task due to the lack of a close homolog template. Hence, there are important differences between published models. This work attempts to critically review existing proton channel models toward the aim of contributing to a better understanding of the structural features of these proteins. PMID:24755912

  9. Fracture channel waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nihei, Kurt T.; Yi, Weidong; Myer, Larry R.; Cook, Neville G. W.; Schoenberg, Michael

    1999-03-01

    The properties of guided waves which propagate between two parallel fractures are examined. Plane wave analysis is used to obtain a dispersion equation for the velocities of fracture channel waves. Analysis of this equation demonstrates that parallel fractures form an elastic waveguide that supports two symmetric and two antisymmetric dispersive Rayleigh channel waves, each with particle motions and velocities that are sensitive to the normal and tangential stiffnesses of the fractures. These fracture channel waves degenerate to shear waves when the fracture stiffnesses are large, to Rayleigh waves and Rayleigh-Lamb plate waves when the fracture stiffnesses are low, and to fracture interface waves when the fractures are either very closely spaced or widely separated. For intermediate fracture stiffnesses typical of fractured rock masses, fracture channel waves are dispersive and exhibit moderate to strong localization of guided wave energy between the fractures. The existence of these waves is examined using laboratory acoustic measurements on a fractured marble plate. This experiment confirms the distinct particle motion of the fundamental antisymmetric fracture channel wave (A0 mode) and demonstrates the ease with which a fracture channel wave can be generated and detected.

  10. Cl(-) channels in apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wanitchakool, Podchanart; Ousingsawat, Jiraporn; Sirianant, Lalida; MacAulay, Nanna; Schreiber, Rainer; Kunzelmann, Karl

    2016-10-01

    A remarkable feature of apoptosis is the initial massive cell shrinkage, which requires opening of ion channels to allow release of K(+), Cl(-), and organic osmolytes to drive osmotic water movement and cell shrinkage. This article focuses on the role of the Cl(-) channels LRRC8, TMEM16/anoctamin, and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in cellular apoptosis. LRRC8A-E has been identified as a volume-regulated anion channel expressed in many cell types. It was shown to be required for regulatory and apoptotic volume decrease (RVD, AVD) in cultured cell lines. Its presence also determines sensitivity towards cytostatic drugs such as cisplatin. Recent data point to a molecular and functional relationship of LRRC8A and anoctamins (ANOs). ANO6, 9, and 10 (TMEM16F, J, and K) augment apoptotic Cl(-) currents and AVD, but it remains unclear whether these anoctamins operate as Cl(-) channels or as regulators of other apoptotic Cl(-) channels, such as LRRC8. CFTR has been known for its proapoptotic effects for some time, and this effect may be based on glutathione release from the cell and increase in cytosolic reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although we find that CFTR is activated by cell swelling, it is possible that CFTR serves RVD/AVD through accumulation of ROS and activation of independent membrane channels such as ANO6. Thus activation of ANO6 will support cell shrinkage and induce additional apoptotic events, such as membrane phospholipid scrambling.

  11. Effect of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell in peri-implant bone defect after immediate implant: an experiment study in beagle dogs

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Peng-Jie; Wang, Zhi-Guo; Xu, Quan-Chen; Xu, Sheng; Li, Zhuo-Ri; Yang, Pi-Shan; Liu, Zhong-Hao

    2014-01-01

    Background: For the sake of reducing post extraction resorption, getting optimal positioning of the implant and shortening treatment time, immediate implant placement following tooth extraction has been proposed as a treatment option. However, the large bone defect peri-implant has a negative influence on the process of bone healing. In this study, umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs) were transplanted into the bone defect peri-implant in beagle dogs and the effect of UCMSCs on bone regeneration in peri-implant were assessed. Methods: The mandibular second, third and fourth premolars of 8 beagle dogs were extracted bilaterally. The defects in one side were filled with platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) and then UCMSCs were injected into the defect area, while the defects in the other side were filled with PRF only as control group. The titanium implant was placed into the distal root socket of each extracted tooth. The animals were sacrificed at week 2, 4 and 8 post operation. The bone defects adjacent to the implant which are 4 mm in height, 4 mm in the mesio-distal direction and 3.5 mm in the bucco-lingual direction were made after immediate implant. Histomorphometric analysis was performed using methylene blue-fuchsin acid staining and hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining to evaluate bone regeneration. Results: The direct bone-to-implant contact (BIC) in the experiment after 4 and 8 weeks was 56.47 ± 1.18% and 76.23 ± 2.08%; and in the control group was40.79 ± 0.65% and 61.17 ± 2.79%, respectively. The percentage of newly formed bone after 2, 4 and 8 weeks was 17.60 ± 1.5%, 49.82 ± 4.02% and 67.16 ± 2.1% in experiment group; and in control group 14.30 ± 1.25%, 37.04 ± 2.29% and 58.83 ± 3.36%, respectively. These results represented significant differences statistically. Conclusion: Intra-bone marrow injection of UCMSCs can promote new bone formation. UCMSCs can be used to as excellent seed cells to repair the large defect peri-implant after immediate

  12. Pharmacokinetic study of calenduloside E and its active metabolite oleanolic acid in beagle dog using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shi, Meiyun; Yang, Yan; Sun, Yantong; Cheng, Longmei; Zhao, Sen; Xu, Huibo; Fawcett, J Paul; Sun, Xiaobo; Gu, Jingkai

    2014-03-01

    Aralia mandshrica is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine from Northeast China commonly used to treat digestive, circulatory and immune system disorders. Calenduloside E is one of its bioactive components currently under evaluation as a pure drug. In this study, a highly sensitive and rapid method based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the simultaneous quantitation of calenduloside E and its active metabolite oleanolic acid in beagle dog plasma has been developed and validated. Samples containing the ammonium salt of simvastatin acid as internal standard (IS) were purified by solid phase extraction and separated on a SUPELCO Ascentis-C18 column (50mm×4.6mm i.d., 5μm) using gradient elution with 0.35% formic acid and acetonitrile. Analytes and IS were detected in a cycle time of 5min after ionization in the negative ion mode by multiple reaction monitoring of the precursor-to-product ion transitions at m/z 631.4→455.4 and m/z 435.4→319.0 for calenduloside E and IS respectively and by single ion monitoring of the ion at m/z 455.4 for oleanolic acid. The method was linear over the concentration range 0.4-100ng/mL for both analytes using 0.5mL plasma. Inter- and intra-day precisions were both <6.96% with accuracies <6.40%. In the pharmacokinetic (PK) study, beagle dogs were given oral doses of calenduloside E (1.05, 2.10 and 4.20mg/kg) and an intravenous injection of 2.10mg/kg. The absolute bioavailability of calenduloside E was only 0.58%. Area under the plasma concentration time curve (AUC(0-t)) for the oral doses of calenduloside E was approximately dose proportional while other PK parameters (t1/2, Tmax and MRT) showed no significant differences among the three doses (P>0.05). The PK data provide a useful platform on which to base future clinical studies of calenduloside E.

  13. Evidence for mechanical coupling and strong Indian lower crust beneath southern Tibet.

    PubMed

    Copley, Alex; Avouac, Jean-Philippe; Wernicke, Brian P

    2011-04-07

    How surface deformation within mountain ranges relates to tectonic processes at depth is not well understood. The upper crust of the Tibetan Plateau is generally thought to be poorly coupled to the underthrusting Indian crust because of an intervening low-viscosity channel. Here, however, we show that the contrast in tectonic regime between primarily strike-slip faulting in northern Tibet and dominantly normal faulting in southern Tibet requires mechanical coupling between the upper crust of southern Tibet and the underthrusting Indian crust. Such coupling is inconsistent with the presence of active 'channel flow' beneath southern Tibet, and suggests that the Indian crust retains its strength as it underthrusts the plateau. These results shed new light on the debates regarding the mechanical properties of the continental lithosphere, and the deformation of Tibet.

  14. Impacts of maintenance channel dredging in a northern Adriatic coastal lagoon. II: Effects on macrobenthic assemblages in channels and ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponti, Massimo; Pasteris, Andrea; Guerra, Roberta; Abbiati, Marco

    2009-10-01

    Coastal lagoons are ephemeral habitats whose conservation requires human intervention, such as maintenance dredging of inner channels. Dredging can reduce the abundance of benthic species due to the removal of individuals with the sediment, modify sediment properties, and resuspend fine sediment, nutrients and pollutants, which can lead to eutrophication, hypoxic events and increasing toxicity. Both direct effects in the dredged channel and possible indirect effects in surrounding shallow areas could be expected. This study assesses the effects of the channel maintenance dredging, performed between October 2004 and August 2005, on the invertebrate assemblages both in channels and adjacent ponds in the northern Adriatic coastal lagoon of Pialassa Baiona. The lagoon is affected by eutrophication, chemical and thermal pollution from wastewater treatment and power plants. Three impacted sites were located in the dredged channel and three in the adjacent interconnected shallow water ponds, while three non-impacted sites were located in a channel and in a pond far from the dredged area. Replicate samples were collected from each site one time before and one time after the dredging operations. Despite the extent of the intervention, effects of the dredging on macrobenthic assemblages were detected only within the dredged channel, while in the surrounding ponds no clear and unequivocal effects were found. In particular the dredging could have promoted the increase of the abundance of the polychaete Streblospio shrubsolii in the southern and central parts of the dredged channel and the increase in abundance of the amphipod Corophium insidiosum in the northern side, compared to the controls. Instead, species diversity was reduced in the central and northern parts of the dredged channel. These effects on the macrobenthic invertebrate assemblages could be related to the observed changes of sediment characteristics, contamination and toxicity. Overall, direct effects on benthic

  15. The Southern Hemisphere VLBI experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, R.A.; Meier, D.L.; Louie, A.P.; Morabito, D.D.; Skjerve, L.; Slade, M.A.; Niell, A.E.; Wehrle, A.E.; Jauncey, D.L.; Tzioumis, A.K.; Haystack Observatory, Westford, MA; California Univ., Los Angeles; CSIRO, Div. of Radiophysics, Epping; Sydney Univ.; Manchester Victoria Univ., Jodrell Bank )

    1989-07-01

    Six radio telescopes were operated as the first Southern Hemisphere VLBI array in April and May 1982. Observations were made at 2.3 and 8.4 GHz. This array provided VLBI modeling and hybrid imaging of celestial radio sources in the Southern Hemisphere, high-accuracy VLBI geodesy between Southern Hemisphere sites, and subarcsecond radio astrometry of celestial sources south of declination -45 deg. The goals and implementation of the array are discussed, the methods of modeling and hybrid image production are explained, and the VLBI structure of the sources that were observed is summarized. 36 refs.

  16. Optical Communications Channel Combiner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quirk, Kevin J.; Quirk, Kevin J.; Nguyen, Danh H.; Nguyen, Huy

    2012-01-01

    NASA has identified deep-space optical communications links as an integral part of a unified space communication network in order to provide data rates in excess of 100 Mb/s. The distances and limited power inherent in a deep-space optical downlink necessitate the use of photon-counting detectors and a power-efficient modulation such as pulse position modulation (PPM). For the output of each photodetector, whether from a separate telescope or a portion of the detection area, a communication receiver estimates a log-likelihood ratio for each PPM slot. To realize the full effective aperture of these receivers, their outputs must be combined prior to information decoding. A channel combiner was developed to synchronize the log-likelihood ratio (LLR) sequences of multiple receivers, and then combines these into a single LLR sequence for information decoding. The channel combiner synchronizes the LLR sequences of up to three receivers and then combines these into a single LLR sequence for output. The channel combiner has three channel inputs, each of which takes as input a sequence of four-bit LLRs for each PPM slot in a codeword via a XAUI 10 Gb/s quad optical fiber interface. The cross-correlation between the channels LLR time series are calculated and used to synchronize the sequences prior to combining. The output of the channel combiner is a sequence of four-bit LLRs for each PPM slot in a codeword via a XAUI 10 Gb/s quad optical fiber interface. The unit is controlled through a 1 Gb/s Ethernet UDP/IP interface. A deep-space optical communication link has not yet been demonstrated. This ground-station channel combiner was developed to demonstrate this capability and is unique in its ability to process such a signal.

  17. Sea otters are recolonizing southern California in fits and starts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Tinker, M. Tim

    2014-01-01

    After near extinction as a result of the fur trade in the 1700s and 1800s, the southern sea otter slowly reoccupied the core of its range in central California. Range expansion beyond central California is seen as key to full recovery of otters, but the rate of expansion has been sporadic, raising concerns about habitat quality in southern California. To describe the range expansion of sea otters from central into southern California, we used skiff surveys, aerial surveys, and archival time-depth recorders from 2004 to 2013. These observations show that range expansion began when male otters swam southeast of Point Conception (Cojo Anchorage), perhaps to seek refuge from bad weather and to feed on unexploited resources. After several years of seasonal use by male groups, females began to use the area, leading to reproduction and a secondary increase in abundance. In contrast, a second male group that moved farther down the coast to Coal Oil Point stalled and retreated. Such range expansion and contraction can be explained by the social nature of sea otters, which acts to slow dispersal away from groups. Otter densities at Cojo Anchorage are now approaching equilibrium levels reported for central California. As in central California, otters rested in and near kelp forest habitat, but used deeper water for foraging. Together, these observations suggest habitat in the Santa Barbara Channel can still support sea otters, but range expansion of otters into southern California will be episodic due to social dynamics.

  18. Ecology of southern ocean pack ice.

    PubMed

    Brierley, Andrew S; Thomas, David N

    2002-01-01

    Around Antarctica the annual five-fold growth and decay of sea ice is the most prominent physical process and has a profound impact on marine life there. In winter the pack ice canopy extends to cover almost 20 million square kilometres--some 8% of the southern hemisphere and an area larger than the Antarctic continent itself (13.2 million square kilometres)--and is one of the largest, most dynamic ecosystems on earth. Biological activity is associated with all physical components of the sea-ice system: the sea-ice surface; the internal sea-ice matrix and brine channel system; the underside of sea ice and the waters in the vicinity of sea ice that are modified by the presence of sea ice. Microbial and microalgal communities proliferate on and within sea ice and are grazed by a wide range of proto- and macrozooplankton that inhabit the sea ice in large concentrations. Grazing organisms also exploit biogenic material released from the sea ice at ice break-up or melt. Although rates of primary production in the underlying water column are often low because of shading by sea-ice cover, sea ice itself forms a substratum that provides standing stocks of bacteria, algae and grazers significantly higher than those in ice-free areas. Decay of sea ice in summer releases particulate and dissolved organic matter to the water column, playing a major role in biogeochemical cycling as well as seeding water column phytoplankton blooms. Numerous zooplankton species graze sea-ice algae, benefiting additionally because the overlying sea-ice ceiling provides a refuge from surface predators. Sea ice is an important nursery habitat for Antarctic krill, the pivotal species in the Southern Ocean marine ecosystem. Some deep-water fish migrate to shallow depths beneath sea ice to exploit the elevated concentrations of some zooplankton there. The increased secondary production associated with pack ice and the sea-ice edge is exploited by many higher predators, with seals, seabirds and whales

  19. Flooding in Southern Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Over the past two weeks, heavy rains have inundated southern Russia, giving rise to floods that killed up to 83 people and drove thousands from their homes. This false-color image acquired on June 23, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra satellite shows some of the worst flooding. The Black Sea is the dark patch in the lower left-hand corner. The city of Krasnodor, Russia, which was one of the cities hardest hit, sits on the western edge of the larger lake on the left side of the image, and Stavropol, which lost more lives than any other city, sits just east of the small cluster of lakes on the right-hand side of the image. Normally, the rivers and smaller lakes in this image cannot even be seen clearly on MODIS imagery. In this false-color image, the ground is green and blue and water is black or dark brown. Clouds come across as pink and white. Credit: Image courtesy Jesse Allen, NASA GSFC, based on data provided by the MODIS Rapid Response System.

  20. Southern Bald Eagles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This is one in a series of remarkable photos documenting the daily lives of two of KSC's most famous residents: The Southern Bald Eagles which inhabit an enormous nest on the Kennedy Parkway North. Each fall, the eagles take up winter residence in the nest to breed and raise a new generation. Thanks to a remote-controlled Nikon camera installed yearly in the same pine tree as the nest, the activities of these magnificent birds are recorded on film. This year, a rare and unique event was captured by the camera when a second clutch of eggs was laid, even though a healthy eaglet was born a month earlier. Although it is impossible to determine if it is the same eagles returning each year, the continued tolerance shown by this pair to the human presence seems to indicate that they are the same couple. According to wildlife experts, eight to nine pairs of bald eagles inhabit nests at KSC. The nest on Kennedy Parkway North is particularly well-known because of its huge size and close proximity to a busy road.

  1. Fires in Southern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    In what seemed like the blink of an eye, wildfires ignited in the paper-dry, drought-stricken vegetation of Southern California over the weekend of October 20, 2007, and exploded into massive infernos that forced hundreds of thousands of people to evacuate their communities. Driven by Santa Ana winds, fires grew thousands of acres in just one to two days. The fires sped down from the mountains into the outskirts of coastal cities, including San Diego. Dozens of homes have burned to the ground, and at least one person has died, according to local news reports. Several of the fires were burning completely out of control as of October 22. This image of the fires in California was captured at 1:55 p.m. U.S. Pacific Daylight Time on October 22, 2007. Places where MODIS detected actively burning fires are outlined in red. Thick streamers of smoke unfurl over the Pacific Ocean. The brownish plumes are clouds of dust. Fires northwest of Los Angeles seemed calmer at the time of this image than they were the previous day.

  2. Comparison of GPS surveys with historical triangulation surveys in the southern California borderland