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Sample records for beam ct kv

  1. Evaluation of on-board kV cone beam CT (CBCT)-based dose calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yong; Schreibmann, Eduard; Li, Tianfang; Wang, Chuang; Xing, Lei

    2007-02-01

    On-board CBCT images are used to generate patient geometric models to assist patient setup. The image data can also, potentially, be used for dose reconstruction in combination with the fluence maps from treatment plan. Here we evaluate the achievable accuracy in using a kV CBCT for dose calculation. Relative electron density as a function of HU was obtained for both planning CT (pCT) and CBCT using a Catphan-600 calibration phantom. The CBCT calibration stability was monitored weekly for 8 consecutive weeks. A clinical treatment planning system was employed for pCT- and CBCT-based dose calculations and subsequent comparisons. Phantom and patient studies were carried out. In the former study, both Catphan-600 and pelvic phantoms were employed to evaluate the dosimetric performance of the full-fan and half-fan scanning modes. To evaluate the dosimetric influence of motion artefacts commonly seen in CBCT images, the Catphan-600 phantom was scanned with and without cyclic motion using the pCT and CBCT scanners. The doses computed based on the four sets of CT images (pCT and CBCT with/without motion) were compared quantitatively. The patient studies included a lung case and three prostate cases. The lung case was employed to further assess the adverse effect of intra-scan organ motion. Unlike the phantom study, the pCT of a patient is generally acquired at the time of simulation and the anatomy may be different from that of CBCT acquired at the time of treatment delivery because of organ deformation. To tackle the problem, we introduced a set of modified CBCT images (mCBCT) for each patient, which possesses the geometric information of the CBCT but the electronic density distribution mapped from the pCT with the help of a BSpline deformable image registration software. In the patient study, the dose computed with the mCBCT was used as a surrogate of the 'ground truth'. We found that the CBCT electron density calibration curve differs moderately from that of pCT. No

  2. Evaluation of on-board kV cone beam CT (CBCT)-based dose calculation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong; Schreibmann, Eduard; Li, Tianfang; Wang, Chuang; Xing, Lei

    2007-02-07

    On-board CBCT images are used to generate patient geometric models to assist patient setup. The image data can also, potentially, be used for dose reconstruction in combination with the fluence maps from treatment plan. Here we evaluate the achievable accuracy in using a kV CBCT for dose calculation. Relative electron density as a function of HU was obtained for both planning CT (pCT) and CBCT using a Catphan-600 calibration phantom. The CBCT calibration stability was monitored weekly for 8 consecutive weeks. A clinical treatment planning system was employed for pCT- and CBCT-based dose calculations and subsequent comparisons. Phantom and patient studies were carried out. In the former study, both Catphan-600 and pelvic phantoms were employed to evaluate the dosimetric performance of the full-fan and half-fan scanning modes. To evaluate the dosimetric influence of motion artefacts commonly seen in CBCT images, the Catphan-600 phantom was scanned with and without cyclic motion using the pCT and CBCT scanners. The doses computed based on the four sets of CT images (pCT and CBCT with/without motion) were compared quantitatively. The patient studies included a lung case and three prostate cases. The lung case was employed to further assess the adverse effect of intra-scan organ motion. Unlike the phantom study, the pCT of a patient is generally acquired at the time of simulation and the anatomy may be different from that of CBCT acquired at the time of treatment delivery because of organ deformation. To tackle the problem, we introduced a set of modified CBCT images (mCBCT) for each patient, which possesses the geometric information of the CBCT but the electronic density distribution mapped from the pCT with the help of a BSpline deformable image registration software. In the patient study, the dose computed with the mCBCT was used as a surrogate of the 'ground truth'. We found that the CBCT electron density calibration curve differs moderately from that of pCT. No

  3. SU-E-J-214: Comparative Assessment On IGRT On Partial Bladder Cancer Treatment Between CT-On-Rails (CTOR) and KV Cone Beam CT (CBCT)

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, T; Ma, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Image-Guided radiation therapy(IGRT) depends on reliable online patient-specific anatomy information to address random and progressive anatomy changes. Large margins have been suggested to bladder cancer treatment due to large daily bladder anatomy variation. KV Cone beam CT(CBCT) has been used in IGRT localization prevalently; however, its lack of soft tissue contrast makes clinicians hesitate to perform daily soft tissue alignment with CBCT for partial bladder cancer treatment. This study compares the localization uncertainties of bladder cancer IGRT using CTon- Rails(CTOR) and CBCT. Methods: Three T2N0M0 bladder cancer patients (total of 66 Gy to partial bladder alone) were localized daily with either CTOR or CBCT for their entire treatment course. A total of 71 sets of CTOR and 22 sets of CBCT images were acquired and registered with original planning CT scans by radiation therapists and approved by radiation oncologists for the daily treatment. CTOR scanning entailed 2mm slice thickness, 0.98mm axial voxel size, 120kVp and 240mAs. CBCT used a half fan pelvis protocol from Varian OBI system with 2mm slice thickness, 0.98axial voxel size, 125kVp, and 680mAs. Daily localization distribution was compared. Accuracy of CTOR and CBCT on partial bladder alignment was also evaluated by comparing bladder PTV coverage. Results: 1cm all around PTV margins were used in every patient except target superior limit margin to 0mm due to bowel constraint. Daily shifts on CTOR averaged to 0.48, 0.24, 0.19 mms(SI,Lat,AP directions); CBCT averaged to 0.43, 0.09, 0.19 mms(SI,Lat,AP directions). The CTOR daily localization showed superior results of V100% of PTV(102% CTOR vs. 89% CBCT) and bowel(Dmax 69.5Gy vs. 78Gy CBCT). CTOR images showed much higher contrast on bladder PTV alignment. Conclusion: CTOR daily localization for IGRT is more dosimetrically beneficial for partial bladder cancer treatment than kV CBCT localization and provided better soft tissue PTV

  4. Evaluation of the effects of sagging shifts on isocenter accuracy and image quality of cone-beam CT from kV on-board imagers.

    PubMed

    Ali, Imad; Ahmad, Salahuddin

    2009-07-17

    To investigate the effects of sagging shifts of three on-board kV imaging systems (OBI) on the isocenter positioning accuracy and image quality of cone-beam CT (CBCT). A cubical phantom having a metal marker in the center that can be aligned with the radiation isocenter was used to measure sagging shifts and their variation with gantry angle on three Varian linacs with kV on-board imaging systems. A marker-tracking algorithm was applied to detect the shadow of the metal marker and localize its center in the two-dimensional cone-beam radiographic projections. This tracking algorithm is based on finding the position of maximum cross-correlation between a region-of-interest from a template image (including the metal marker) and the projections containing the shadow of the metal marker. Sagging shifts were corrected by mapping the center of the metal marker to a reference position for all projections acquired over a full gantry rotation (0-360 degrees). The sag-corrected radiographic projections were then used to reconstruct CBCT using Feldkamp back-projection. A standard quality assurance phantom was used to evaluate the image quality of CBCT before and after sagging correction. Sagging affects both the positioning accuracy of the OBI isocenter and the CBCT image quality. For example, on one linac, the position of the marker on the cone-beam radiographic projections depends on the angular view and has maximal shifts of about 2 mm along the imager x-direction (patient's cross-plane). Sagging produces systematic shifts of the OBI isocenter as large as 1 mm posterior and 1 mm left in patient coordinates relative to the radiation isocenter. Further, it causes spatial distortion and blurring in CBCT image reconstructed from radiographic projections that are not corrected for OBI sagging. CBCT numbers vary by about 1% in full-fan scans and up to 3.5% in half-fan scans because of sagging. In order to achieve better localization accuracy in image-guided radiation therapy

  5. [Image guided radiotherapy with the Cone Beam CT kV (Elekta): experience of the Léon Bérard centre].

    PubMed

    Pommier, P; Gassa, F; Lafay, F; Claude, L

    2009-09-01

    Image guide radiotherapy with the Cone Beam CT kV (CBCT-kV) developed by Elekta has been implemented at the centre Léon Bérard in November 2006. The treatment procedure is presented and detailed for prostate cancer IGRT and non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT). CBCT-kV is routinely used for SRT, selected paediatric cancers, all prostate carcinomas, primitive brain tumours and head and neck cancers that do not require nodes irradiation. Thirty-five to 40 patients are treated within a daily 11-hours period. The general procedure for 3D images acquisition and their analysis is described. The CBCT-kV permitted to identify about 10% of prostate cancer patients for whom a positioning with bone-based 2D images only would have led to an unacceptable dose distribution for at least one session. SRT is now used routinely for inoperable NSCLC. The easiness of implementing CBCT-kV imaging and its expected medical benefit should lead to a rapid diffusion of this technology that is also submitted to prospective and multicentric medico-economical evaluations.

  6. Dose Calculation on KV Cone Beam CT Images: An Investigation of the Hu-Density Conversion Stability and Dose Accuracy Using the Site-Specific Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Rong Yi

    2010-10-01

    Precise calibration of Hounsfield units (HU) to electron density (HU-density) is essential to dose calculation. On-board kV cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging is used predominantly for patients' positioning, but will potentially be used for dose calculation. The impacts of varying 3 imaging parameters (mAs, source-imager distance [SID], and cone angle) and phantom size on the HU number accuracy and HU-density calibrations for CBCT imaging were studied. We proposed a site-specific calibration method to achieve higher accuracy in CBCT image-based dose calculation. Three configurations of the Computerized Imaging Reference Systems (CIRS) water equivalent electron density phantom were used to simulate sites including head, lungs, and lower body (abdomen/pelvis). The planning computed tomography (CT) scan was used as the baseline for comparisons. CBCT scans of these phantom configurations were performed using Varian Trilogy{sup TM} system in a precalibrated mode with fixed tube voltage (125 kVp), but varied mAs, SID, and cone angle. An HU-density curve was generated and evaluated for each set of scan parameters. Three HU-density tables generated using different phantom configurations with the same imaging parameter settings were selected for dose calculation on CBCT images for an accuracy comparison. Changing mAs or SID had small impact on HU numbers. For adipose tissue, the HU discrepancy from the baseline was 20 HU in a small phantom, but 5 times lager in a large phantom. Yet, reducing the cone angle significantly decreases the HU discrepancy. The HU-density table was also affected accordingly. By performing dose comparison between CT and CBCT image-based plans, results showed that using the site-specific HU-density tables to calibrate CBCT images of different sites improves the dose accuracy to {approx}2%. Our phantom study showed that CBCT imaging can be a feasible option for dose computation in adaptive radiotherapy approach if the site

  7. Experimental validation of a Monte Carlo-based kV x-ray projection model for the Varian linac-mounted cone-beam CT imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazos, Dimitrios; Pokhrel, Damodar; Su, Zhong; Lu, Jun; Williamson, Jeffrey F.

    2008-03-01

    Fast and accurate modeling of cone-beam CT (CBCT) x-ray projection data can improve CBCT image quality either by linearizing projection data for each patient prior to image reconstruction (thereby mitigating detector blur/lag, spectral hardening, and scatter artifacts) or indirectly by supporting rigorous comparative simulation studies of competing image reconstruction and processing algorithms. In this study, we compare Monte Carlo-computed x-ray projections with projections experimentally acquired from our Varian Trilogy CBCT imaging system for phantoms of known design. Our recently developed Monte Carlo photon-transport code, PTRAN, was used to compute primary and scatter projections for cylindrical phantom of known diameter (NA model 76-410) with and without bow-tie filter and antiscatter grid for both full- and half-fan geometries. These simulations were based upon measured 120 kVp spectra, beam profiles, and flat-panel detector (4030CB) point-spread function. Compound Poisson- process noise was simulated based upon measured beam output. Computed projections were compared to flat- and dark-field corrected 4030CB images where scatter profiles were estimated by subtracting narrow axial-from full axial width 4030CB profiles. In agreement with the literature, the difference between simulated and measured projection data is of the order of 6-8%. The measurement of the scatter profiles is affected by the long tails of the detector PSF. Higher accuracy can be achieved mainly by improving the beam modeling and correcting the non linearities induced by the detector PSF.

  8. Monitoring Dosimetric Impact of Weight Loss With Kilovoltage (KV) Cone Beam CT (CBCT) During Parotid-Sparing IMRT and Concurrent Chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Kean Fatt; Marchant, Tom; Moore, Chris; Webster, Gareth; Rowbottom, Carl; Penington, Hazel; Lee, Lip; Yap, Beng; Sykes, Andrew; Slevin, Nick

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: Parotid-sparing head-and-neck intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) can reduce long-term xerostomia. However, patients frequently experience weight loss and tumor shrinkage during treatment. We evaluate the use of kilovoltage (kV) cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for dose monitoring and examine if the dosimetric impact of such changes on the parotid and critical neural structures warrants replanning during treatment. Methods and materials: Ten patients with locally advanced oropharyngeal cancer were treated with contralateral parotid-sparing IMRT concurrently with platinum-based chemotherapy. Mean doses of 65 Gy and 54 Gy were delivered to clinical target volume (CTV)1 and CTV2, respectively, in 30 daily fractions. CBCT was prospectively acquired weekly. Each CBCT was coregistered with the planned isocenter. The spinal cord, brainstem, parotids, larynx, and oral cavity were outlined on each CBCT. Dose distributions were recalculated on the CBCT after correcting the gray scale to provide accurate Hounsfield calibration, using the original IMRT plan configuration. Results: Planned contralateral parotid mean doses were not significantly different to those delivered during treatment (p > 0.1). Ipsilateral and contralateral parotids showed a mean reduction in volume of 29.7% and 28.4%, respectively. There was no significant difference between planned and delivered maximum dose to the brainstem (p = 0.6) or spinal cord (p = 0.2), mean dose to larynx (p = 0.5) and oral cavity (p = 0.8). End-of-treatment mean weight loss was 7.5 kg (8.8% of baseline weight). Despite a {>=}10% weight loss in 5 patients, there was no significant dosimetric change affecting the contralateral parotid and neural structures. Conclusions: Although patient weight loss and parotid volume shrinkage was observed, overall, there was no significant excess dose to the organs at risk. No replanning was felt necessary for this patient cohort, but a larger patient sample will be investigated

  9. SU-E-I-07: Response Characteristics and Signal Conversion Modeling of KV Flat-Panel Detector in Cone Beam CT System

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yu; Cao, Ruifen; Pei, Xi; Wang, Hui; Hu, Liqin

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The flat-panel detector response characteristics are investigated to optimize the scanning parameter considering the image quality and less radiation dose. The signal conversion model is also established to predict the tumor shape and physical thickness changes. Methods: With the ELEKTA XVI system, the planar images of 10cm water phantom were obtained under different image acquisition conditions, including tube voltage, electric current, exposure time and frames. The averaged responses of square area in center were analyzed using Origin8.0. The response characteristics for each scanning parameter were depicted by different fitting types. The transmission measured for 10cm water was compared to Monte Carlo simulation. Using the quadratic calibration method, a series of variable-thickness water phantoms images were acquired to derive the signal conversion model. A 20cm wedge water phantom with 2cm step thickness was used to verify the model. At last, the stability and reproducibility of the model were explored during a four week period. Results: The gray values of image center all decreased with the increase of different image acquisition parameter presets. The fitting types adopted were linear fitting, quadratic polynomial fitting, Gauss fitting and logarithmic fitting with the fitting R-Square 0.992, 0.995, 0.997 and 0.996 respectively. For 10cm water phantom, the transmission measured showed better uniformity than Monte Carlo simulation. The wedge phantom experiment show that the radiological thickness changes prediction error was in the range of (-4mm, 5mm). The signal conversion model remained consistent over a period of four weeks. Conclusion: The flat-panel response decrease with the increase of different scanning parameters. The preferred scanning parameter combination was 100kV, 10mA, 10ms, 15frames. It is suggested that the signal conversion model could effectively be used for tumor shape change and radiological thickness prediction. Supported by

  10. [New methods in the treatment of localized prostate cancer: use of dynamic arc therapy and kV cone-beam CT positioning].

    PubMed

    Szappanos, Szabolcs; Farkas, Róbert; Lőcsei, Zoltán; László, Zoltán; Kalincsák, Judit; Bellyei, Szabolcs; Sebestyén, Zsolt; Csapó, László; Sebestyén, Klára; Halász, Judit; Musch, Zoltán; Beöthe, Tamás; Farkas, László; Mangel, László

    2014-08-10

    Bevezetés: A prosztatarák az idősebb életkor és a fejlett világ daganatos megbetegedése. Lokalizált prosztatarák esetében a műtéti ellátás mellett komoly szerepe van a definitív sugárkezelésnek. Célkitűzés: A szerzők intézetében telepített Novalis TX gyorsító segítségével úgynevezett intenzitásmodulált sugárterápia, annak dinamikus ívbesugárzással elvégzett formája, illetve verifikáció során háromdimenziós lágy szöveti képellenőrzést biztosító, integrált kilovoltos cone-beam komputertomográfiával végzett képvezérelt sugárterápia került bevezetésre, amely módszerekkel szerzett első tapasztalataikat ismertetik a szerzők. Módszer: 2011 decembere és 2013 februárja között, dóziseszkalációt követően, 102 dinamikus ívbesugárzással elvégzett kezelést végeztek, majd 10-10 szelektált, alacsony és magas kockázatú betegnél (átlagéletkor 72,5 év) elkészítették a háromdimenziós konformális besugárzási terveket is. Azonos célterület-lefedettség mellett összevetették a rizikószervek dózisterhelését. Eredmények: A dinamikus ívbesugárzással elvégzett kezelések mellett a rizikószervek szignifikánsan alacsonyabb dózisterhelését érték el, amelyet a kedvező korai mellékhatásprofil is alátámaszt. Következtetések: Az intenzitásmodulált sugárterápia dinamikus ívbesugárzással elvégzett formája biztonsággal alkalmazott standard kezelési módozattá vált a szerzők intézetében. Késői mellékhatások és lokális kontroll további vizsgálata szükséges. Orv. Hetil., 2014, 155(32), 1265–1272.

  11. An algorithm to extract three-dimensional motion by marker tracking in the kV projections from an on-board imager: four-dimensional cone-beam CT and tumor tracking implications.

    PubMed

    Ali, Imad; Alsbou, Nesreen; Herman, Terence; Ahmad, Salahuddin

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this work is to extract three-dimensional (3D) motion trajectories of internal implanted and external skin-attached markers from kV cone-beam projections and reduce image artifact from patient motion in cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) from on-board imager. Cone beam radiographic projections were acquired for a mobile phantom and liver patients with internal implanted and external skin-attached markers. An algorithm was developed to automatically find the positions of the markers in the projections. It uses normalized cross-correlation between a template image of a metal seed marker and the projections to find the marker position. From these positions and time-tagged angular views, the marker 3D motion trajectory was obtained over a time interval of nearly one minute, which is the time required for scanning. This marker trajectory was used to remap the pixels of the projections to eliminate motion. Then, the motion-corrected projections were used to reconstruct CBCT. An algorithm was developed to extract 3D motion trajectories of internal and external markers from cone-beam projections using a kV monoscopic on-board imager. This algorithm was tested and validated using a mobile phantom and patients with liver masses that had radio-markers implanted in the tumor and attached to the skin. The extracted motion trajectories were used to investigate motion correlation between internal and external markers in liver patients. Image artifacts from respiratory motion were reduced in CBCT reconstructed from cone-beam projections that were preprocessed to remove motion shifts obtained from marker tracking. With this method, motion-related image artifacts such as blurring and spatial distortion were reduced, and contrast and position resolutions were improved significantly in CBCT reconstructed from motion-corrected projections. Furthermore, correlated internal and external marker 3D-motion tracks obtained from the kV projections might be useful for 4DCBCT

  12. Cardiac cone-beam CT

    SciTech Connect

    Manzke, Robert . E-mail: robert.manzke@philips.com

    2005-10-15

    This doctoral thesis addresses imaging of the heart with retrospectively gated helical cone-beam computed tomography (CT). A thorough review of the CT reconstruction literature is presented in combination with a historic overview of cardiac CT imaging and a brief introduction to other cardiac imaging modalities. The thesis includes a comprehensive chapter about the theory of CT reconstruction, familiarizing the reader with the problem of cone-beam reconstruction. The anatomic and dynamic properties of the heart are outlined and techniques to derive the gating information are reviewed. With the extended cardiac reconstruction (ECR) framework, a new approach is presented for the heart-rate-adaptive gated helical cardiac cone-beam CT reconstruction. Reconstruction assessment criteria such as the temporal resolution, the homogeneity in terms of the cardiac phase, and the smoothness at cycle-to-cycle transitions are developed. Several reconstruction optimization approaches are described: An approach for the heart-rate-adaptive optimization of the temporal resolution is presented. Streak artifacts at cycle-to-cycle transitions can be minimized by using an improved cardiac weighting scheme. The optimal quiescent cardiac phase for the reconstruction can be determined automatically with the motion map technique. Results for all optimization procedures applied to ECR are presented and discussed based on patient and phantom data. The ECR algorithm is analyzed for larger detector arrays of future cone-beam systems throughout an extensive simulation study based on a four-dimensional cardiac CT phantom. The results of the scientific work are summarized and an outlook proposing future directions is given. The presented thesis is available for public download at www.cardiac-ct.net.

  13. SU-E-I-23: A General KV Constrained Optimization of CNR for CT Abdominal Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Weir, V; Zhang, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: While Tube current modulation has been well accepted for CT dose reduction, kV adjusting in clinical settings is still at its early stage. This is mainly due to the limited kV options of most current CT scanners. kV adjusting can potentially reduce radiation dose and optimize image quality. This study is to optimize CT abdomen imaging acquisition based on the assumption of a continuous kV, with the goal to provide the best contrast to noise ratio (CNR). Methods: For a given dose (CTDIvol) level, the CNRs at different kV and pitches were measured with an ACR GAMMEX phantom. The phantom was scanned in a Siemens Sensation 64 scanner and a GE VCT 64 scanner. A constrained mathematical optimization was used to find the kV which led to the highest CNR for the anatomy and pitch setting. Parametric equations were obtained from polynomial fitting of plots of kVs vs CNRs. A suitable constraint region for optimization was chosen. Subsequent optimization yielded a peak CNR at a particular kV for different collimations and pitch setting. Results: The constrained mathematical optimization approach yields kV of 114.83 and 113.46, with CNRs of 1.27 and 1.11 at the pitch of 1.2 and 1.4, respectively, for the Siemens Sensation 64 scanner with the collimation of 32 x 0.625mm. An optimized kV of 134.25 and 1.51 CNR is obtained for a GE VCT 64 slice scanner with a collimation of 32 x 0.625mm and a pitch of 0.969. At 0.516 pitch and 32 x 0.625 mm an optimized kV of 133.75 and a CNR of 1.14 was found for the GE VCT 64 slice scanner. Conclusion: CNR in CT image acquisition can be further optimized with a continuous kV option instead of current discrete or fixed kV settings. A continuous kV option is a key for individualized CT protocols.

  14. The adaptation of megavoltage cone beam CT for use in standard radiotherapy treatment planning.

    PubMed

    Thomas, T Hannah Mary; Devakumar, D; Purnima, S; Ravindran, B Paul

    2009-04-07

    Potential areas where megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) could be used are second- and third-phase treatment planning in 3D conformal radiotherapy and IMRT, adaptive radiation therapy, single fraction palliative treatment and for the treatment of patients with metal prostheses. A feasibility study was done on using MV cone beam CT (CBCT) images generated by proprietary 3D reconstruction software based on the FDK algorithm for megavoltage treatment planning. The reconstructed images were converted to a DICOM file set. The pixel values of megavoltage cone beam computed tomography (MV CBCT) were rescaled to those of kV CT for use with a treatment planning system. A calibration phantom was designed and developed for verification of geometric accuracy and CT number calibration. The distance measured between two marker points on the CBCT image and the physical dimension on the phantom were in good agreement. Point dose verification for a 10 cm x 10 cm beam at a gantry angle of 0 degrees and SAD of 100 cm were performed for a 6 MV beam for both kV and MV CBCT images. The point doses were found to vary between +/-6.1% of the dose calculated from the kV CT image. The isodose curves for 6 MV for both kV CT and MV CBCT images were within 2% and 3 mm distance-to-agreement. A plan with three beams was performed on MV CBCT, simulating a treatment plan for cancer of the pituitary. The distribution obtained was compared with those corresponding to that obtained using the kV CT. This study has shown that treatment planning with MV cone beam CT images is feasible.

  15. The adaptation of megavoltage cone beam CT for use in standard radiotherapy treatment planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, T. Hannah Mary; Devakumar, D.; Purnima, S.; Ravindran, B. Paul

    2009-04-01

    Potential areas where megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) could be used are second- and third-phase treatment planning in 3D conformal radiotherapy and IMRT, adaptive radiation therapy, single fraction palliative treatment and for the treatment of patients with metal prostheses. A feasibility study was done on using MV cone beam CT (CBCT) images generated by proprietary 3D reconstruction software based on the FDK algorithm for megavoltage treatment planning. The reconstructed images were converted to a DICOM file set. The pixel values of megavoltage cone beam computed tomography (MV CBCT) were rescaled to those of kV CT for use with a treatment planning system. A calibration phantom was designed and developed for verification of geometric accuracy and CT number calibration. The distance measured between two marker points on the CBCT image and the physical dimension on the phantom were in good agreement. Point dose verification for a 10 cm × 10 cm beam at a gantry angle of 0° and SAD of 100 cm were performed for a 6 MV beam for both kV and MV CBCT images. The point doses were found to vary between ±6.1% of the dose calculated from the kV CT image. The isodose curves for 6 MV for both kV CT and MV CBCT images were within 2% and 3 mm distance-to-agreement. A plan with three beams was performed on MV CBCT, simulating a treatment plan for cancer of the pituitary. The distribution obtained was compared with those corresponding to that obtained using the kV CT. This study has shown that treatment planning with MV cone beam CT images is feasible.

  16. Commissioning kilovoltage cone-beam CT beams in a radiation therapy treatment planning system.

    PubMed

    Alaei, Parham; Spezi, Emiliano

    2012-11-08

    The feasibility of accounting of the dose from kilovoltage cone-beam CT in treatment planning has been discussed previously for a single cone-beam CT (CBCT) beam from one manufacturer. Modeling the beams and computing the dose from the full set of beams produced by a kilovoltage cone-beam CT system requires extensive beam data collection and verification, and is the purpose of this work. The beams generated by Elekta X-ray volume imaging (XVI) kilovoltage CBCT (kV CBCT) system for various cassettes and filters have been modeled in the Philips Pinnacle treatment planning system (TPS) and used to compute dose to stack and anthropomorphic phantoms. The results were then compared to measurements made using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. The agreement between modeled and measured depth-dose and cross profiles is within 2% at depths beyond 1 cm for depth-dose curves, and for regions within the beam (excluding penumbra) for cross profiles. The agreements between TPS-calculated doses, TLD measurements, and Monte Carlo simulations are generally within 5% in the stack phantom and 10% in the anthropomorphic phantom, with larger variations observed for some of the measurement/calculation points. Dose computation using modeled beams is reasonably accurate, except for regions that include bony anatomy. Inclusion of this dose in treatment plans can lead to more accurate dose prediction, especially when the doses to organs at risk are of importance.

  17. Minimizing image noise in on-board CT reconstruction using both kilovoltage and megavoltage beam projections.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junan; Yin, Fang-Fang

    2007-09-01

    We studied a recently proposed aggregated CT reconstruction technique which combines the complementary advantages of kilovoltage (kV) and megavoltage (MV) x-ray imaging. Various phantoms were imaged to study the effects of beam orientations and geometry of the imaging object on image quality of reconstructed CT. It was shown that the quality of aggregated CT was correlated with both kV and MV beam orientations and the degree of this correlation depended upon the geometry of the imaging object. The results indicated that the optimal orientations were those when kV beams pass through the thinner portion and MV beams pass through the thicker portion of the imaging object. A special preprocessing procedure was also developed to perform contrast conversions between kV and MV information prior to image reconstruction. The performance of two reconstruction methods, one filtered backprojection method and one iterative method, were compared. The effects of projection number, beam truncation, and contrast conversion on the CT image quality were investigated.

  18. Engineering of beam direct conversion for a 120-kV, 1-MW ion beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, W. L.; Doggett, J. N.; Hamilton, G. W.; Kinney, J. D.; Moir, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    Practical systems for beam direct conversion are required to recover the energy from ion beams at high efficiency and at very high beam power densities in the environment of a high-power neutral-injection system. Such an experiment is now in progress using a 120-kV beam with a maximum total current of 20 A. After neutralization, the H(+) component to be recovered will have a power of approximately 1 MW. A system testing these concepts has been designed and tested at 15 kV, 2 kW in preparation for the full-power tests. The engineering problems involved in the full-power tests affect electron suppression, gas pumping, voltage holding, diagnostics, and measurement conditions. Planning for future experiments at higher power includes the use of cryopumping and electron suppression by a magnetic field rather than by an electrostatic field. Beam direct conversion for large fusion experiments and reactors will save millions of dollars in the cost of power supplies and electricity and will dispose of the charged beam under conditions that may not be possible by other techniques.

  19. Imaging doses from the Elekta Synergy X-ray cone beam CT system.

    PubMed

    Amer, A; Marchant, T; Sykes, J; Czajka, J; Moore, C

    2007-06-01

    The Elekta Synergy is a radiotherapy treatment machine with integrated kilovoltage (kV) X-ray imaging system capable of producing cone beam CT (CBCT) images of the patient in the treatment position. The aim of this study is to assess the additional imaging dose. Cone beam CT dose index (CBDI) is introduced and measured inside standard CTDI phantoms for several sites (head: 100 kV, 38 mAs, lung: 120 kV, 152 mAs and pelvis: 130 kV, 456 mAs). The measured weighted doses were compared with thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) measurements at various locations in a Rando phantom and at patients' surfaces. The measured CBDIs in-air at the isocentre were 9.2 mGy 100 mAs(-1), 7.3 mGy 100 mAs(-1) and 5.3 mGy 100 mAs(-1) for 130 kV, 120 kV and 100 kV, respectively. The body phantom weighted CBDI were 5.5 mGy 100 mAs(-1) and 3.8 mGy 100 mAs(-1 )for 130 kV and 120 kV. The head phantom weighted CBDI was 4.3 mGy 100 mAs(-1) for 100 kV. The weighted doses for the Christie Hospital CBCT imaging techniques were 1.6 mGy, 6 mGy and 22 mGy for the head, lung and pelvis. The measured CBDIs were used to estimate the total effective dose for the Synergy system using the ImPACT CT Patient Dosimetry Calculator. Measured CBCT doses using the Christie Hospital protocols are low for head and lung scans whether compared with electronic portal imaging (EPI), commonly used for treatment verification, or single and multiple slice CT. For the pelvis, doses are similar to EPI but higher than CT. Repeated use of CBCT for treatment verification is likely and hence the total patient dose needs to be carefully considered. It is important to consider further development of low dose CBCT techniques to keep additional doses as low as reasonably practicable.

  20. Enhancement of image quality with a fast iterative scatter and beam hardening correction method for kV CBCT.

    PubMed

    Reitz, Irmtraud; Hesse, Bernd-Michael; Nill, Simeon; Tücking, Thomas; Oelfke, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    The problem of the enormous amount of scattered radiation in kV CBCT (kilo voltage cone beam computer tomography) is addressed. Scatter causes undesirable streak- and cup-artifacts and results in a quantitative inaccuracy of reconstructed CT numbers, so that an accurate dose calculation might be impossible. Image contrast is also significantly reduced. Therefore we checked whether an appropriate implementation of the fast iterative scatter correction algorithm we have developed for MV (mega voltage) CBCT reduces the scatter contribution in a kV CBCT as well. This scatter correction method is based on a superposition of pre-calculated Monte Carlo generated pencil beam scatter kernels. The algorithm requires only a system calibration by measuring homogeneous slab phantoms with known water-equivalent thicknesses. In this study we compare scatter corrected CBCT images of several phantoms to the fan beam CT images acquired with a reduced cone angle (a slice-thickness of 14 mm in the isocenter) at the same system. Additional measurements at a different CBCT system were made (different energy spectrum and phantom-to-detector distance) and a first order approach of a fast beam hardening correction will be introduced. The observed image quality of the scatter corrected CBCT images is comparable concerning resolution, noise and contrast-to-noise ratio to the images acquired in fan beam geometry. Compared to the CBCT without any corrections the contrast of the contrast-and-resolution phantom with scatter correction and additional beam hardening correction is improved by a factor of about 1.5. The reconstructed attenuation coefficients and the CT numbers of the scatter corrected CBCT images are close to the values of the images acquired in fan beam geometry for the most pronounced tissue types. Only for extreme dense tissue types like cortical bone we see a difference in CT numbers of 5.2%, which can be improved to 4.4% with the additional beam hardening correction. Cupping is

  1. How do kV and mAs affect CT lesion detection performance?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huda, W.; Ogden, K. M.; Shah, K.; Jadoo, C.; Scalzetti, E. M.; Lavallee, R. L.; Roskopf, M. L.

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how output (mAs) and x-ray tube voltage (kV) affect lesion detection in CT imaging. An adult Rando phantom was scanned on a GE LightSpeed CT scanner at x-ray tube voltages from 80 to 140 kV, and outputs from 90 to 360 mAs. Axial images of the abdomen were reconstructed and viewed on a high quality monitor at a soft tissue display setting. We measured detection of 2.5 to 12.5 mm sized lesions using a 2 Alternate Forced Choice (2-AFC) experimental paradigm that determined lesion contrast (I) corresponding to a 92% accuracy (I 92%) of lesion detection. Plots of log(I 92%) versus log(lesion size) were all approximately linear. The slope of the contrast detail curve was ~ -1.0 at 90 mAs, close to the value predicted by the Rose model, but monotonically decreased with increasing mAs to a value of ~ -0.7 at 360 mAs. Increasing the x-ray tube output by a factor of four improved lesion detection by a factor of 1.9 for the smallest lesion (2.5 mm), close to the value predicted by the Rose model, but only by a factor of 1.2 for largest lesion (12.5 mm). Increasing the kV monotonically decreased the contrast detail slopes from -1.02 at 80 kV to -0.71 at 140 kV. Increasing the x-ray tube voltage from 80 to 140 kV improved lesion detection by a factor of 2.8 for the smallest lesion (2.5 mm), but only by a factor of 1.7 for largest lesion (12.5 mm). We conclude that: (i) quantum mottle is an important factor for low contrast lesion detection in images of anthropomorphic phantoms; (ii) x-ray tube voltage has a much greater influence on lesion detection performance than x-ray tube output; (iii) the Rose model only predicts CT lesion detection performance at low x-ray tube outputs (90 mAs) and for small lesions (2.5 mm).

  2. Algorithm for X-ray scatter, beam-hardening, and beam profile correction in diagnostic (kilovoltage) and treatment (megavoltage) cone beam CT.

    PubMed

    Maltz, Jonathan S; Gangadharan, Bijumon; Bose, Supratik; Hristov, Dimitre H; Faddegon, Bruce A; Paidi, Ajay; Bani-Hashemi, Ali R

    2008-12-01

    Quantitative reconstruction of cone beam X-ray computed tomography (CT) datasets requires accurate modeling of scatter, beam-hardening, beam profile, and detector response. Typically, commercial imaging systems use fast empirical corrections that are designed to reduce visible artifacts due to incomplete modeling of the image formation process. In contrast, Monte Carlo (MC) methods are much more accurate but are relatively slow. Scatter kernel superposition (SKS) methods offer a balance between accuracy and computational practicality. We show how a single SKS algorithm can be employed to correct both kilovoltage (kV) energy (diagnostic) and megavoltage (MV) energy (treatment) X-ray images. Using MC models of kV and MV imaging systems, we map intensities recorded on an amorphous silicon flat panel detector to water-equivalent thicknesses (WETs). Scattergrams are derived from acquired projection images using scatter kernels indexed by the local WET values and are then iteratively refined using a scatter magnitude bounding scheme that allows the algorithm to accommodate the very high scatter-to-primary ratios encountered in kV imaging. The algorithm recovers radiological thicknesses to within 9% of the true value at both kV and megavolt energies. Nonuniformity in CT reconstructions of homogeneous phantoms is reduced by an average of 76% over a wide range of beam energies and phantom geometries.

  3. Empirical beam hardening correction (EBHC) for CT

    SciTech Connect

    Kyriakou, Yiannis; Meyer, Esther; Prell, Daniel; Kachelriess, Marc

    2010-10-15

    Purpose: Due to x-ray beam polychromaticity and scattered radiation, attenuation measurements tend to be underestimated. Cupping and beam hardening artifacts become apparent in the reconstructed CT images. If only one material such as water, for example, is present, these artifacts can be reduced by precorrecting the rawdata. Higher order beam hardening artifacts, as they result when a mixture of materials such as water and bone, or water and bone and iodine is present, require an iterative beam hardening correction where the image is segmented into different materials and those are forward projected to obtain new rawdata. Typically, the forward projection must correctly model the beam polychromaticity and account for all physical effects, including the energy dependence of the assumed materials in the patient, the detector response, and others. We propose a new algorithm that does not require any knowledge about spectra or attenuation coefficients and that does not need to be calibrated. The proposed method corrects beam hardening in single energy CT data. Methods: The only a priori knowledge entering EBHC is the segmentation of the object into different materials. Materials other than water are segmented from the original image, e.g., by using simple thresholding. Then, a (monochromatic) forward projection of these other materials is performed. The measured rawdata and the forward projected material-specific rawdata are monomially combined (e.g., multiplied or squared) and reconstructed to yield a set of correction volumes. These are then linearly combined and added to the original volume. The combination weights are determined to maximize the flatness of the new and corrected volume. EBHC is evaluated using data acquired with a modern cone-beam dual-source spiral CT scanner (Somatom Definition Flash, Siemens Healthcare, Forchheim, Germany), with a modern dual-source micro-CT scanner (TomoScope Synergy Twin, CT Imaging GmbH, Erlangen, Germany), and with a modern

  4. SU-E-I-06: A Dose Calculation Algorithm for KV Diagnostic Imaging Beams by Empirical Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Chacko, M; Aldoohan, S; Sonnad, J; Ahmad, S; Ali, I

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop accurate three-dimensional (3D) empirical dose calculation model for kV diagnostic beams for different radiographic and CT imaging techniques. Methods: Dose was modeled using photon attenuation measured using depth dose (DD), scatter radiation of the source and medium, and off-axis ratio (OAR) profiles. Measurements were performed using single-diode in water and a diode-array detector (MapCHECK2) with kV on-board imagers (OBI) integrated with Varian TrueBeam and Trilogy linacs. The dose parameters were measured for three energies: 80, 100, and 125 kVp with and without bowtie filters using field sizes 1×1–40×40 cm2 and depths 0–20 cm in water tank. Results: The measured DD decreased with depth in water because of photon attenuation, while it increased with field size due to increased scatter radiation from medium. DD curves varied with energy and filters where they increased with higher energies and beam hardening from half-fan and full-fan bowtie filters. Scatter radiation factors increased with field sizes and higher energies. The OAR was with 3% for beam profiles within the flat dose regions. The heal effect of this kV OBI system was within 6% from the central axis value at different depths. The presence of bowtie filters attenuated measured dose off-axis by as much as 80% at the edges of large beams. The model dose predictions were verified with measured doses using single point diode and ionization chamber or two-dimensional diode-array detectors inserted in solid water phantoms. Conclusion: This empirical model enables fast and accurate 3D dose calculation in water within 5% in regions with near charge-particle equilibrium conditions outside buildup region and penumbra. It considers accurately scatter radiation contribution in water which is superior to air-kerma or CTDI dose measurements used usually in dose calculation for diagnostic imaging beams. Considering heterogeneity corrections in this model will enable patient specific dose

  5. Spectroscopic determination of the composition of a 50 kV hydrogen diagnostic neutral beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, X.; Nornberg, M. D.; Craig, D.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Oliva, S. P.

    2016-11-01

    A grating spectrometer with an electron multiplying charge-coupled device camera is used to diagnose a 50 kV, 5 A, 20 ms hydrogen diagnostic neutral beam. The ion source density is determined from Stark broadened Hβ emission and the spectrum of Doppler-shifted Hα emission is used to quantify the fraction of ions at full, half, and one-third beam energy under a variety of operating conditions including fueling gas pressure and arc discharge current. Beam current is optimized at low-density conditions in the ion source while the energy fractions are found to be steady over most operating conditions.

  6. Collimated electron beam accelerated at 12 kV from a Penning discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Toader, D.; Oane, M.; Ticoş, C. M.

    2015-01-15

    A pulsed electron beam accelerated at 12 kV with a duration of 40 μs per pulse is obtained from a Penning discharge with a hollow anode and two cathodes. The electrons are extracted through a hole in one of the cathodes and focused by a pair of coils. The electron beam has a diameter of a few mm in the cross section, while the beam current reaches peak values of 400 mA, depending on the magnetic field inside the focussing coils. This relatively inexpensive and compact device is suitable for the irradiation of small material samples placed in high vacuum.

  7. 130 kV High-Resolution Electron Beam Lithography System for Sub-10-nm Nanofabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okino, Teruaki; Kuba, Yukio; Shibata, Masahiro; Ohyi, Hideyuki

    2013-06-01

    An electron beam lithography (EBL) system, CABL-UH, with a 130 kV high acceleration voltage has been developed that succeeded in minimizing beam size by minimizing Coulomb blur. This system has a short single-stage electron beam (EB) gun with an alignment function of two extractor centers to minimize Coulomb blur. This gun has also succeeded in thoroughly avoiding microdischarges. By adopting this EB gun and many other techniques, high resolution and long-term high stability have been achieved and an extremely fine pattern (4 nm line) has been delineated.

  8. A technique for on-board CT reconstruction using both kilovoltage and megavoltage beam projections for 3D treatment verification.

    PubMed

    Yin, Fang-Fang; Guan, Huaiqun; Lu, Wenkai

    2005-09-01

    The technologies with kilovoltage (kV) and megavoltage (MV) imaging in the treatment room are now available for image-guided radiation therapy to improve patient setup and target localization accuracy. However, development of strategies to efficiently and effectively implement these technologies for patient treatment remains challenging. This study proposed an aggregated technique for on-board CT reconstruction using combination of kV and MV beam projections to improve the data acquisition efficiency and image quality. These projections were acquired in the treatment room at the patient treatment position with a new kV imaging device installed on the accelerator gantry, orthogonal to the existing MV portal imaging device. The projection images for a head phantom and a contrast phantom were acquired using both the On-Board Imager kV imaging device and the MV portal imager mounted orthogonally on the gantry of a Varian Clinac 21EX linear accelerator. MV projections were converted into kV information prior to the aggregated CT reconstruction. The multilevel scheme algebraic-reconstruction technique was used to reconstruct CT images involving either full, truncated, or a combination of both full and truncated projections. An adaptive reconstruction method was also applied, based on the limited numbers of kV projections and truncated MV projections, to enhance the anatomical information around the treatment volume and to minimize the radiation dose. The effects of the total number of projections, the combination of kV and MV projections, and the beam truncation of MV projections on the details of reconstructed kV/MV CT images were also investigated.

  9. SU-E-I-29: Care KV: Dose It Influence Radiation Dose in Non-Contrast Examination of CT Abdomen/pelvis?

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J; Ganesh, H; Weir, V

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: CARE kV is a tool that automatically recommends optimal kV setting for individual patient for specific CT examination. The use of CARE kV depends on topogram and the user-selected contrast behavior. CARE kV is expected to reduce radiation dose while improving image quality. However, this may work only for certain groups of patients and/or certain CT examinations. This study is to investigate the effects of CARE kV on radiation dose of non-contrast examination of CT abdomen/pelvis. Methods: Radiation dose (CTDIvol and DLP) from patients who underwent abdomen/pelvis non-contrast examination with and without CARE kV were retrospectively reviewed. All patients were scanned in the same scanner (Siemens Somatom AS64). To mitigate any possible influences due to technologists’ unfamiliarity with the CARE kV, the data with CARE kV were retrieved 1.5 years after the start of CARE kV usage. T-test was used for significant difference in radiation dose. Results: Volume CTDIs and DLPs from 18 patients before and 24 patients after the use of CARE kV were obtained in a duration of one month. There is a slight increase in both average CTDIvol and average DLP with CARE kV compared to those without CARE kV (25.52 mGy vs. 22.65 mGy for CTDIvol; 1265.81 mGy-cm vs. 1199.19 mGy-cm). Statistically there was no significant difference. Without CARE kV, 140 kV was used in 9 of 18 patients, while with CARE KV, 140 kV was used in 15 of 24 patients. 80kV was not used in either group. Conclusion: The use of CARE kV may save time for protocol optimization and minimize variability among technologists. Radiation dose reduction was not observed in non-contrast examinations of CT abdomen/pelvis. This was partially because our CT protocols were tailored according to patient size before CARE kV and partially because of large size patients.

  10. Dynamic bowtie for fan-beam CT.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fenglin; Wang, Ge; Cong, Wenxiang; Hsieh, Scott S; Pelc, Norbert J

    2013-01-01

    A bowtie is a filter used to shape an x-ray beam and equalize its flux reaching different detector channels. For development of spectral CT with energy discriminating photon-counting (EDPC) detectors, here we propose and evaluate a dynamic bowtie for performance optimization based on a patient model or a scout scan. With a mechanical rotation of a dynamic bowtie and an adaptive adjustment of an x-ray source flux, an x-ray beam intensity profile can be modulated. First, a mathematical model for dynamic bowtie filtering is established for an elliptical section in fan-beam geometry, and the contour of the optimal bowtie is derived. Then, numerical simulation is performed to compare the performance of the dynamic bowtie in the cases of an ideal phantom and a realistic cross-section relative to the counterparts without any bowtie and with a fixed bowtie respectively. Our dynamic bowtie can equalize the expected numbers of photons in the case of an ideal phantom. In practical cases, our dynamic bowtie can effectively reduce the dynamic range of detected signals inside the field of view. Although our design is optimized for an elliptical phantom, the resultant dynamic bowtie can be applied to a real fan-beam scan if the underlying cross-section can be approximated as an ellipse. Furthermore, our design methodology can be applied to specify an optimized dynamic bowtie for any cross-section of a patient, preferably using rapid prototyping technology.

  11. Patient radiation doses for electron beam CT

    SciTech Connect

    Castellano, Isabel A.; Dance, David R.; Skinner, Claire L.; Evans, Phil M.

    2005-08-15

    A Monte Carlo based computer model has been developed for electron beam computed tomography (EBCT) to calculate organ and effective doses in a humanoid hermaphrodite phantom. The program has been validated by comparison with experimental measurements of the CT dose index in standard head and body CT dose phantoms; agreement to better than 8% has been found. The robustness of the model has been established by varying the input parameters. The amount of energy deposited at the 12:00 position of the standard body CT dose phantom is most susceptible to rotation angle, whereas that in the central region is strongly influenced by the beam quality. The program has been used to investigate the changes in organ absorbed doses arising from partial and full rotation about supine and prone subjects. Superficial organs experience the largest changes in absorbed dose with a change in subject orientation and for partial rotation. Effective doses for typical clinical scan protocols have been calculated and compared with values obtained using existing dosimetry techniques based on full rotation. Calculations which make use of Monte Carlo conversion factors for the scanner that best matches the EBCT dosimetric characteristics consistently overestimate the effective dose in supine subjects by typically 20%, and underestimate the effective dose in prone subjects by typically 13%. These factors can therefore be used to correct values obtained in this way. Empirical dosimetric techniques based on the dose-length product yield errors as great as 77%. This is due to the sensitivity of the dose length product to individual scan lengths. The magnitude of these errors is reduced if empirical dosimetric techniques based on the average absorbed dose in the irradiated volume (CTDI{sub vol}) are used. Therefore conversion factors specific to EBCT have been calculated to convert the CTDI{sub vol} to an effective dose.

  12. HECTOR: A 240kV micro-CT setup optimized for research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masschaele, Bert; Dierick, Manuel; Van Loo, Denis; Boone, Matthieu N.; Brabant, Loes; Pauwels, Elin; Cnudde, Veerle; Van Hoorebeke, Luc

    2013-10-01

    X-ray micro-CT has become a very powerful and common tool for non-destructive three-dimensional (3D) visualization and analysis of objects. Many systems are commercially available, but they are typically limited in terms of operational freedom both from a mechanical point of view as well as for acquisition routines. HECTOR is the latest system developed by the Ghent University Centre for X-ray Tomography (http://www.ugct.ugent.be) in collaboration with X-Ray Engineering (XRE bvba, Ghent, Belgium). It consists of a mechanical setup with nine motorized axes and a modular acquisition software package and combines a microfocus directional target X-ray source up to 240 kV with a large flat-panel detector. Provisions are made to install a line-detector for a maximal operational range. The system can accommodate samples up to 80 kg, 1 m long and 80 cm in diameter while it is also suited for high resolution (down to 4 μm) tomography. The bi-directional detector tiling is suited for large samples while the variable source-detector distance optimizes the signal to noise ratio (SNR) for every type of sample, even with peripheral equipment such as compression stages or climate chambers. The large vertical travel of 1 m can be used for helical scanning and a vertical detector rotation axis allows laminography experiments. The setup is installed in a large concrete bunker to allow accommodation of peripheral equipment such as pumps, chillers, etc., which can be integrated in the modular acquisition software to obtain a maximal correlation between the environmental control and the CT data taken. The acquisition software does not only allow good coupling with the peripheral equipment but its scripting feature is also particularly interesting for testing new and exotic acquisition routines.

  13. Assessment of image quality and dose calculation accuracy on kV CBCT, MV CBCT, and MV CT images for urgent palliative radiotherapy treatments.

    PubMed

    Held, Mareike; Cremers, Florian; Sneed, Penny K; Braunstein, Steve; Fogh, Shannon E; Nakamura, Jean; Barani, Igor; Perez-Andujar, Angelica; Pouliot, Jean; Morin, Olivier

    2016-03-08

    A clinical workflow was developed for urgent palliative radiotherapy treatments that integrates patient simulation, planning, quality assurance, and treatment in one 30-minute session. This has been successfully tested and implemented clinically on a linac with MV CBCT capabilities. To make this approach available to all clin-ics equipped with common imaging systems, dose calculation accuracy based on treatment sites was assessed for other imaging units. We evaluated the feasibility of palliative treatment planning using on-board imaging with respect to image quality and technical challenges. The purpose was to test multiple systems using their commercial setup, disregarding any additional in-house development. kV CT, kV CBCT, MV CBCT, and MV CT images of water and anthropomorphic phantoms were acquired on five different imaging units (Philips MX8000 CT Scanner, and Varian TrueBeam, Elekta VersaHD, Siemens Artiste, and Accuray Tomotherapy linacs). Image quality (noise, contrast, uniformity, spatial resolution) was evaluated and compared across all machines. Using individual image value to density calibrations, dose calculation accuracies for simple treatment plans were assessed for the same phantom images. Finally, image artifacts on clinical patient images were evaluated and compared among the machines. Image contrast to visualize bony anatomy was sufficient on all machines. Despite a high noise level and low contrast, MV CT images provided the most accurate treatment plans relative to kV CT-based planning. Spatial resolution was poorest for MV CBCT, but did not limit the visualization of small anatomical structures. A comparison of treatment plans showed that monitor units calculated based on a prescription point were within 5% difference relative to kV CT-based plans for all machines and all studied treatment sites (brain, neck, and pelvis). Local dose differences > 5% were found near the phantom edges. The gamma index for 3%/3 mm criteria was ≥ 95% in most

  14. Assessment of image quality and dose calculation accuracy on kV CBCT, MV CBCT, and MV CT images for urgent palliative radiotherapy treatments.

    PubMed

    Held, Mareike; Cremers, Florian; Sneed, Penny K; Braunstein, Steve; Fogh, Shannon E; Nakamura, Jean; Barani, Igor; Perez-Andujar, Angelica; Pouliot, Jean; Morin, Olivier

    2016-03-01

    A clinical workflow was developed for urgent palliative radiotherapy treatments that integrates patient simulation, planning, quality assurance, and treatment in one 30-minute session. This has been successfully tested and implemented clinically on a linac with MV CBCT capabilities. To make this approach available to all clinics equipped with common imaging systems, dose calculation accuracy based on treatment sites was assessed for other imaging units. We evaluated the feasibility of palliative treatment planning using on-board imaging with respect to image quality and technical challenges. The purpose was to test multiple systems using their commercial setup, disregarding any additional in-house development. kV CT, kV CBCT, MV CBCT, and MV CT images of water and anthropomorphic phantoms were acquired on five different imaging units (Philips MX8000 CT Scanner, and Varian TrueBeam, Elekta VersaHD, Siemens Artiste, and Accuray Tomotherapy linacs). Image quality (noise, contrast, uniformity, spatial resolution) was evaluated and compared across all machines. Using individual image value to density calibrations, dose calculation accuracies for simple treatment plans were assessed for the same phantom images. Finally, image artifacts on clinical patient images were evaluated and compared among the machines. Image contrast to visualize bony anatomy was sufficient on all machines. Despite a high noise level and low contrast, MV CT images provided the most accurate treatment plans relative to kV CT-based planning. Spatial resolution was poorest for MV CBCT, but did not limit the visualization of small anatomical structures. A comparison of treatment plans showed that monitor units calculated based on a prescription point were within 5% difference relative to kV CT-based plans for all machines and all studied treatment sites (brain, neck, and pelvis). Local dose differences >5% were found near the phantom edges. The gamma index for 3%/3 mm criteria was ≥95% in most cases

  15. Development of resist process for 5-KV multi-beam technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Icard, B.; Rio, D.; Veltman, P.; Kampherbeek, B.; Constancias, C.; Pain, L.

    2009-03-01

    E-beam Maskless activities raised a lot of interest in the past years from semiconductor companies strongly concerned by the constant cost increase of masked-based lithography (1). Beginning of 2008, the European Commission started an integrated program called "MAGIC", Maskless lithography for IC manufacturing, which pushes the development and the insertion of the European multi-beam technology (2) in the semiconductor industry. This project supports also to develop the infrastructure for the use of this technology, including resist processes, data processing and proximity corrections. Within MAGIC, MAPPER develops its low energy (5keV) massively parallel concept (3). Compared to a standard single E-Beam machine working classically at 50kV, this low accelerating voltage requires the use of thin resist film to deal with the lower penetration depth of the electrons. This paper presents the resist development status, including Chemically Amplified Resist and non-CAR platforms. Comparisons of the performances of these resist platforms in terms of resolution, sensitivity, roughness and stability are detailed, including their potential integration into CMOS technological flow. Finally, a first review of the state of the art of resist performance for patterning at 5kV will be performed. Based on the level of achievements presented in this paper, a discussion is also engaged about the needs of resist developments to fulfill industry targets in 2011.

  16. CT thermometry for cone-beam CT guided ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeStefano, Zachary; Abi-Jaoudeh, Nadine; Li, Ming; Wood, Bradford J.; Summers, Ronald M.; Yao, Jianhua

    2016-03-01

    Monitoring temperature during a cone-beam CT (CBCT) guided ablation procedure is important for prevention of over-treatment and under-treatment. In order to accomplish ideal temperature monitoring, a thermometry map must be generated. Previously, this was attempted using CBCT scans of a pig shoulder undergoing ablation.1 We are extending this work by using CBCT scans of real patients and incorporating more processing steps. We register the scans before comparing them due to the movement and deformation of organs. We then automatically locate the needle tip and the ablation zone. We employ a robust change metric due to image noise and artifacts. This change metric takes windows around each pixel and uses an equation inspired by Time Delay Analysis to calculate the error between windows with the assumption that there is an ideal spatial offset. Once the change map is generated, we correlate change data with measured temperature data at the key points in the region. This allows us to transform our change map into a thermal map. This thermal map is then able to provide an estimate as to the size and temperature of the ablation zone. We evaluated our procedure on a data set of 12 patients who had a total of 24 ablation procedures performed. We were able to generate reasonable thermal maps with varying degrees of accuracy. The average error ranged from 2.7 to 16.2 degrees Celsius. In addition to providing estimates of the size of the ablation zone for surgical guidance, 3D visualizations of the ablation zone and needle are also produced.

  17. Beam property measurement of a 300-kV ion source test stand for a 1-MV electrostatic accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sae-Hoon; Kim, Dae-Il; Kim, Yu-Seok

    2016-09-01

    The KOMAC (Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex) has been developing a 300-kV ion source test stand for a 1-MV electrostatic accelerator for industrial purposes. A RF ion source was operated at 200 MHz with its matching circuit. The beam profile and emittance were measured behind an accelerating column to confirm the beam property from the RF ion source. The beam profile was measured at the end of the accelerating tube and at the beam dump by using a beam profile monitor (BPM) and wire scanner. An Allison-type emittance scanner was installed behind the beam profile monitor (BPM) to measure the beam density in phase space. The measurement results for the beam profile and emittance are presented in this paper.

  18. Scattering intensities for a white beam (120 kV) presenting a semi-empirical model to preview scattered beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, O. D.; Boldt, S.; Kasch, K. U.

    2016-09-01

    This work aims at measuring the scattering cross sections for white beams and the verification of a semi-empirical model predicting scattered energy spectra of an X-ray beam produced by an industrial X-ray tube (Pantack Sievert, 120 kV, tungsten target) incident on a water sample. Both, theoretical and semi-empirical results presented are based on the form factor approach with results well corresponding to performed measurements. The elastic (Rayleigh) scattering cross sections are based on Thomson scattering with a form factor correction as published by Morin (1982). The inelastic (Compton) contribution is based on the Klein Nishina equation (Klein and Nishina, 1929) multiplied by the incoherent scattering factors calculated by Hubbel et al. (1975). Two major results are presented: first, the experimental integrated in energy cross sections corresponds with theoretical cross sections obtained at the mean energy of the measured scattered spectra at a given angle. Secondly, the measured scattered spectra at a given angle correspond to those obtained utilizing the semi-empirical model as proposed here. A good correspondence of experimental results and model predictions can be shown. The latter, therefore, proves to be a useful method to calculate the scattering contributions in a number of applications as for example cone beam tomography.

  19. Evaluating the image quality of cone beam CT acquired during rotational delivery

    PubMed Central

    Maria Das, K J; Maria Midunvaleja, K; Gowtham Raj, D; Agarwal, Arpita; Velmurugan, J; Kumar, Shaleen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this work was to evaluate the quality of kilovoltage (kV) cone beam CT (CBCT) images acquired during arc delivery. Methods: Arc plans were delivered on a Catphan® 600 phantom (The Phantom Laboratory Inc., Salem, NY), and kV CBCT images were acquired during the treatment. The megavoltage (MV) scatter effect on kV CBCT image quality was evaluated using parameters such as Hounsfield unit (HU) accuracy, spatial resolution, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and spatial non-uniformity (SNU). These CBCT images were compared with reference scans acquired with the same acquisition parameters without MV “beam on”. This evaluation was carried out for different photon beams (6 and 15 MV), arc types (half vs full arc), static field sizes (10 × 10 and 25 × 25 cm2) and source-to-imager distances (SID) (150 and 170 cm). Results and Conclusion: HU accuracy, CNR and SNU were considerably affected by MV scatter, and this effect was increased with increasing field size and decreasing photon energy, whereas the spatial resolution was almost unchanged. The MV scatter effect was observed to be more for full-rotation arc delivery than for half-arc delivery. In addition, increasing the SID resulted in decreased MV scatter effect and improved the image quality. Advances in knowledge: Nowadays, volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is increasingly used in clinics, and this arc therapy enables us to acquire CBCT imaging simultaneously. But, the main issue of concurrent imaging is the “MV scatter” effect on CBCT imaging. This study aims to experimentally quantify the effect of MV scatter on CBCT image quality. PMID:26226396

  20. Personalized Assessment of kV Cone Beam Computed Tomography Doses in Image-guided Radiotherapy of Pediatric Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yibao; Yan Yulong; Nath, Ravinder; Bao Shanglian; Deng Jun

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To develop a quantitative method for the estimation of kV cone beam computed tomography (kVCBCT) doses in pediatric patients undergoing image-guided radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Forty-two children were retrospectively analyzed in subgroups of different scanned regions: one group in the head-and-neck and the other group in the pelvis. Critical structures in planning CT images were delineated on an Eclipse treatment planning system before being converted into CT phantoms for Monte Carlo simulations. A benchmarked EGS4 Monte Carlo code was used to calculate three-dimensional dose distributions of kVCBCT scans with full-fan high-quality head or half-fan pelvis protocols predefined by the manufacturer. Based on planning CT images and structures exported in DICOM RT format, occipital-frontal circumferences (OFC) were calculated for head-and-neck patients using DICOMan software. Similarly, hip circumferences (HIP) were acquired for the pelvic group. Correlations between mean organ doses and age, weight, OFC, and HIP values were analyzed with SigmaPlot software suite, where regression performances were analyzed with relative dose differences (RDD) and coefficients of determination (R{sup 2}). Results: kVCBCT-contributed mean doses to all critical structures decreased monotonically with studied parameters, with a steeper decrease in the pelvis than in the head. Empirical functions have been developed for a dose estimation of the major organs at risk in the head and pelvis, respectively. If evaluated with physical parameters other than age, a mean RDD of up to 7.9% was observed for all the structures in our population of 42 patients. Conclusions: kVCBCT doses are highly correlated with patient size. According to this study, weight can be used as a primary index for dose assessment in both head and pelvis scans, while OFC and HIP may serve as secondary indices for dose estimation in corresponding regions. With the proposed empirical functions, it is possible

  1. Cone Beam CT vs. Fan Beam CT: A Comparison of Image Quality and Dose Delivered Between Two Differing CT Imaging Modalities.

    PubMed

    Lechuga, Lawrence; Weidlich, Georg A

    2016-09-12

    A comparison of image quality and dose delivered between two differing computed tomography (CT) imaging modalities-fan beam and cone beam-was performed. A literature review of quantitative analyses for various image quality aspects such as uniformity, signal-to-noise ratio, artifact presence, spatial resolution, modulation transfer function (MTF), and low contrast resolution was generated. With these aspects quantified, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) shows a superior spatial resolution to that of fan beam, while fan beam shows a greater ability to produce clear and anatomically correct images with better soft tissue differentiation. The results indicate that fan beam CT produces superior images to that of on-board imaging (OBI) cone beam CT systems, while providing a considerably less dose to the patient.

  2. [Accurate 3D free-form registration between fan-beam CT and cone-beam CT].

    PubMed

    Liang, Yueqiang; Xu, Hongbing; Li, Baosheng; Li, Hongsheng; Yang, Fujun

    2012-06-01

    Because the X-ray scatters, the CT numbers in cone-beam CT cannot exactly correspond to the electron densities. This, therefore, results in registration error when the intensity-based registration algorithm is used to register planning fan-beam CT and cone-beam CT. In order to reduce the registration error, we have developed an accurate gradient-based registration algorithm. The gradient-based deformable registration problem is described as a minimization of energy functional. Through the calculus of variations and Gauss-Seidel finite difference method, we derived the iterative formula of the deformable registration. The algorithm was implemented by GPU through OpenCL framework, with which the registration time was greatly reduced. Our experimental results showed that the proposed gradient-based registration algorithm could register more accurately the clinical cone-beam CT and fan-beam CT images compared with the intensity-based algorithm. The GPU-accelerated algorithm meets the real-time requirement in the online adaptive radiotherapy.

  3. Cone Beam CT vs. Fan Beam CT: A Comparison of Image Quality and Dose Delivered Between Two Differing CT Imaging Modalities

    PubMed Central

    Weidlich, Georg A.

    2016-01-01

    A comparison of image quality and dose delivered between two differing computed tomography (CT) imaging modalities—fan beam and cone beam—was performed. A literature review of quantitative analyses for various image quality aspects such as uniformity, signal-to-noise ratio, artifact presence, spatial resolution, modulation transfer function (MTF), and low contrast resolution was generated. With these aspects quantified, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) shows a superior spatial resolution to that of fan beam, while fan beam shows a greater ability to produce clear and anatomically correct images with better soft tissue differentiation. The results indicate that fan beam CT produces superior images to that of on-board imaging (OBI) cone beam CT systems, while providing a considerably less dose to the patient. PMID:27752404

  4. Current role of hybrid CT/angiography system compared with C-arm cone beam CT for interventional oncology

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Y; Inaba, Y; Inoue, M; Nishiofuku, H; Anai, H; Hori, S; Sakaguchi, H; Kichikawa, K

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid CT/angiography (angiography) system and C-arm cone beam CT provide cross-sectional imaging as an adjunct to angiography. Current interventional oncological procedures can be conducted precisely using these two technologies. In this article, several cases using a hybrid CT/angiography system are shown first, and then the advantages and disadvantages of the hybrid CT/angiography and C-arm cone beam CT are discussed with literature reviews. PMID:24968749

  5. Current role of hybrid CT/angiography system compared with C-arm cone beam CT for interventional oncology.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, T; Arai, Y; Inaba, Y; Inoue, M; Nishiofuku, H; Anai, H; Hori, S; Sakaguchi, H; Kichikawa, K

    2014-09-01

    Hybrid CT/angiography (angiography) system and C-arm cone beam CT provide cross-sectional imaging as an adjunct to angiography. Current interventional oncological procedures can be conducted precisely using these two technologies. In this article, several cases using a hybrid CT/angiography system are shown first, and then the advantages and disadvantages of the hybrid CT/angiography and C-arm cone beam CT are discussed with literature reviews.

  6. 6 GHz Microwave Power-Beaming Demonstration with 6-kV Rectenna and Ion-Breeze Thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummings, T.; Janssen, J.; Karnesky, J.; Laks, D.; Santillo, M.; Strause, B.; Myrabo, L. N.; Alden, A.; Bouliane, P.; Zhang, M.

    2004-03-01

    On 14 April 2003 at the Communications Research Center (CRC) in Ottawa, Ontario, a 5.85-GHz transmitter beamed 3-kW of microwave power to a remote rectifying antenna (i.e., rectenna) that delivered 6-kV to a special `Ion-Breeze' Engine (IBE). Three of CRC's 26.5-cm by 31-cm rectennas were connected in series to provide the ~6-kV output. RPI's low-voltage IBE thrusters performed well in a ``world's first'' power-beaming demonstration with rectennas and endoatmospheric ion-propulsion engines. The successful tests were a low-tech, proof-of-concept demonstration for the future full-sized MicroWave Lightcraft (MWLC) and its air breathing `loiter' propulsion mode. Additional IBE experiments investigated the feasibility of producing flight control forces on the MWLC. The objective was to torque the charged hull for `pitch' or `roll' maneuvers. The torquing demonstration was entirely successful.

  7. Beam hardening correction for sparse-view CT reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenlei; Rong, Junyan; Gao, Peng; Liao, Qimei; Lu, HongBing

    2015-03-01

    Beam hardening, which is caused by spectrum polychromatism of the X-ray beam, may result in various artifacts in the reconstructed image and degrade image quality. The artifacts would be further aggravated for the sparse-view reconstruction due to insufficient sampling data. Considering the advantages of the total-variation (TV) minimization in CT reconstruction with sparse-view data, in this paper, we propose a beam hardening correction method for sparse-view CT reconstruction based on Brabant's modeling. In this correction model for beam hardening, the attenuation coefficient of each voxel at the effective energy is modeled and estimated linearly, and can be applied in an iterative framework, such as simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART). By integrating the correction model into the forward projector of the algebraic reconstruction technique (ART), the TV minimization can recover images when only a limited number of projections are available. The proposed method does not need prior information about the beam spectrum. Preliminary validation using Monte Carlo simulations indicates that the proposed method can provide better reconstructed images from sparse-view projection data, with effective suppression of artifacts caused by beam hardening. With appropriate modeling of other degrading effects such as photon scattering, the proposed framework may provide a new way for low-dose CT imaging.

  8. Calibration free beam hardening correction for cardiac CT perfusion imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levi, Jacob; Fahmi, Rachid; Eck, Brendan L.; Fares, Anas; Wu, Hao; Vembar, Mani; Dhanantwari, Amar; Bezerra, Hiram G.; Wilson, David L.

    2016-03-01

    Myocardial perfusion imaging using CT (MPI-CT) and coronary CTA have the potential to make CT an ideal noninvasive gate-keeper for invasive coronary angiography. However, beam hardening artifacts (BHA) prevent accurate blood flow calculation in MPI-CT. BH Correction (BHC) methods require either energy-sensitive CT, not widely available, or typically a calibration-based method. We developed a calibration-free, automatic BHC (ABHC) method suitable for MPI-CT. The algorithm works with any BHC method and iteratively determines model parameters using proposed BHA-specific cost function. In this work, we use the polynomial BHC extended to three materials. The image is segmented into soft tissue, bone, and iodine images, based on mean HU and temporal enhancement. Forward projections of bone and iodine images are obtained, and in each iteration polynomial correction is applied. Corrections are then back projected and combined to obtain the current iteration's BHC image. This process is iterated until cost is minimized. We evaluate the algorithm on simulated and physical phantom images and on preclinical MPI-CT data. The scans were obtained on a prototype spectral detector CT (SDCT) scanner (Philips Healthcare). Mono-energetic reconstructed images were used as the reference. In the simulated phantom, BH streak artifacts were reduced from 12+/-2HU to 1+/-1HU and cupping was reduced by 81%. Similarly, in physical phantom, BH streak artifacts were reduced from 48+/-6HU to 1+/-5HU and cupping was reduced by 86%. In preclinical MPI-CT images, BHA was reduced from 28+/-6 HU to less than 4+/-4HU at peak enhancement. Results suggest that the algorithm can be used to reduce BHA in conventional CT and improve MPI-CT accuracy.

  9. Dedicated Cone-Beam CT System for Extremity Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Al Muhit, Abdullah; Zbijewski, Wojciech; Thawait, Gaurav K.; Stayman, J. Webster; Packard, Nathan; Senn, Robert; Yang, Dong; Foos, David H.; Yorkston, John; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To provide initial assessment of image quality and dose for a cone-beam computed tomographic (CT) scanner dedicated to extremity imaging. Materials and Methods A prototype cone-beam CT scanner has been developed for imaging the extremities, including the weight-bearing lower extremities. Initial technical assessment included evaluation of radiation dose measured as a function of kilovolt peak and tube output (in milliampere seconds), contrast resolution assessed in terms of the signal difference–to-noise ratio (SDNR), spatial resolution semiquantitatively assessed by using a line-pair module from a phantom, and qualitative evaluation of cadaver images for potential diagnostic value and image artifacts by an expert CT observer (musculoskeletal radiologist). Results The dose for a nominal scan protocol (80 kVp, 108 mAs) was 9 mGy (absolute dose measured at the center of a CT dose index phantom). SDNR was maximized with the 80-kVp scan technique, and contrast resolution was sufficient for visualization of muscle, fat, ligaments and/or tendons, cartilage joint space, and bone. Spatial resolution in the axial plane exceeded 15 line pairs per centimeter. Streaks associated with x-ray scatter (in thicker regions of the patient—eg, the knee), beam hardening (about cortical bone—eg, the femoral shaft), and cone-beam artifacts (at joint space surfaces oriented along the scanning plane—eg, the interphalangeal joints) presented a slight impediment to visualization. Cadaver images (elbow, hand, knee, and foot) demonstrated excellent visibility of bone detail and good soft-tissue visibility suitable to a broad spectrum of musculoskeletal indications. Conclusion A dedicated extremity cone-beam CT scanner capable of imaging upper and lower extremities (including weight-bearing examinations) provides sufficient image quality and favorable dose characteristics to warrant further evaluation for clinical use. © RSNA, 2013 Online supplemental material is available for

  10. Development and validation of a measurement-based source model for kilovoltage cone-beam CT Monte Carlo dosimetry simulations

    PubMed Central

    McMillan, Kyle; McNitt-Gray, Michael; Ruan, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to adapt an equivalent source model originally developed for conventional CT Monte Carlo dose quantification to the radiation oncology context and validate its application for evaluating concomitant dose incurred by a kilovoltage (kV) cone-beam CT (CBCT) system integrated into a linear accelerator. Methods: In order to properly characterize beams from the integrated kV CBCT system, the authors have adapted a previously developed equivalent source model consisting of an equivalent spectrum module that takes into account intrinsic filtration and an equivalent filter module characterizing the added bowtie filtration. An equivalent spectrum was generated for an 80, 100, and 125 kVp beam with beam energy characterized by half-value layer measurements. An equivalent filter description was generated from bowtie profile measurements for both the full- and half-bowtie. Equivalent source models for each combination of equivalent spectrum and filter were incorporated into the Monte Carlo software package MCNPX. Monte Carlo simulations were then validated against in-phantom measurements for both the radiographic and CBCT mode of operation of the kV CBCT system. Radiographic and CBCT imaging dose was measured for a variety of protocols at various locations within a body (32 cm in diameter) and head (16 cm in diameter) CTDI phantom. The in-phantom radiographic and CBCT dose was simulated at all measurement locations and converted to absolute dose using normalization factors calculated from air scan measurements and corresponding simulations. The simulated results were compared with the physical measurements and their discrepancies were assessed quantitatively. Results: Strong agreement was observed between in-phantom simulations and measurements. For the radiographic protocols, simulations uniformly underestimated measurements by 0.54%–5.14% (mean difference = −3.07%, SD = 1.60%). For the CBCT protocols, simulations uniformly

  11. Reduction of beam hardening artifacts in cone-beam CT imaging via SMART-RECON algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yinsheng; Garrett, John; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2016-03-01

    When an automatic exposure control is introduced in C-arm cone beam CT data acquisition, the spectral inconsistencies between acquired projection data are exacerbated. As a result, conventional water/bone correction schemes are not as effective as in conventional diagnostic x-ray CT acquisitions with a fixed tube potential. In this paper, a new method was proposed to reconstruct several images with different degrees of spectral consistency and thus different levels of beam hardening artifacts. The new method relies neither on prior knowledge of the x-ray beam spectrum nor on prior compositional information of the imaging object. Numerical simulations were used to validate the algorithm.

  12. Quality control and patient dosimetry in dental cone beam CT.

    PubMed

    Vassileva, J; Stoyanov, D

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the initial experience in performing quality control and patient dose measurements in a cone beam computed tomography (CT) scanner (ILUMA Ultra, IMTEC Imaging, USA) for oral and maxillofacial radiology. The X-ray tube and the generator were tested first, including the kVp accuracy and precision, and the half-value layer (HVL). The following tests specific for panoramic dental systems were also performed: tube output, beam size and beam alignment to the detector. The tests specific for CT included measurements of noise and CT numbers in water and in air, as well as the homogeneity of CT numbers. The most appropriate dose quantity was found to be the air kerma-area product (KAP) measured with a KAP-metre installed at the tube exit. KAP values were found to vary from 110 to 185 microGy m(2) for available adult protocols and to be 54 microGy m(2) for the paediatric protocol. The effective dose calculated with the software PCXMC (STUK, Finland) was 0.05 mSv for children and 0.09-0.16 mSv for adults.

  13. TU-EF-204-08: Dose Efficiency of Added Beam-Shaping Filter with Varied Attenuation Levels in Lung-Cancer Screening CT

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, C; Yu, L; Vrieze, T; Leng, S; Fletcher, J; McCollough, C

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Added filtration such as tin filter has the potential to improve dose efficiency of x-ray beam in lung-cancer screening CT. However, dose efficiency with added beam filtration is highly dependent on patient attenuation level. In this phantom study, we evaluated the image quality at different tube voltages with and without added tin filter when attenuation level varies. Methods: A 30 x 20 cm anthropomorphic thorax phantom with three added extension rings were used to simulate small (S), medium (M), large (L), and extra-large (XL) adult patients. These phantoms were scanned on a 192-slice CT scanner (Force, Siemens) at 100 and 120kV without tin filtration, and 100 and 150 kV with tin filtration (100Sn and 150Sn), at multiple dose levels at each kV. Images were reconstructed using iterative reconstruction (ADMIRE, Siemens). Radiation dose was measured with a 0.6 cc ion chamber in the middle and peripheral areas of the phantom. Image quality was assessed using mean image noise at uniform areas in the central region and lung. Radiation dose that is required for each kV to match the noise in a routine lung-cancer CT screening technique (120kV, 25 quality reference mAs) was calculated. Results: At each of the four phantom sizes, 100Sn had the lowest noise in both soft tissue and lung. Compared with 120 kV, 100Sn saved 39%–60% dose for the same noise, depending on phantom size. For the XL phantom (50 by 40 cm), 150Sn provided images with the least beam-hardening artifact in peripheral region. Conclusion: For thoracic CT, added tin filtration can provide considerable dose reduction compared with 120 kV. 100Sn provides better dose efficiencies for all phantom sizes, while 150Sn provides better image quality in peripheral region for extra-large patients. Drs.Joel G. Fletcher and Cynthia H. McCollough receive research support from Siemens Healthcare.

  14. SU-E-J-14: A Comparison of a 2.5MV Imaging Beam to KV and 6MV Imaging Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Nitsch, P; Robertson, D; Balter, P

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To compare image quality metrics and dose of TrueBeam V2.0’s 2.5MV imaging beam and kV and 6MV images. Methods: To evaluate the MV image quality, the Standard Imaging QC-3 and Varian Las Vegas (LV) phantoms were imaged using the ‘quality’ and ‘low dose’ modes and then processed using RIT113 V6.3. The LEEDS phantom was used to evaluate the kV image quality. The signal to noise ratio (SNR) was also evaluated in patient images using Matlab. In addition, dose per image was evaluated at a depth of 5cm using solid water for a 28.6 cm × 28.6 cm field size, which is representative of the largest jaw settings at an SID of 150cm. Results: The 2.5MV images had lower dose than the 6 MV images and a contrast to noise ratio (CNR) about 1.4 times higher, when evaluated using the QC-3. When energy was held constant but dose varied, the different modes, ‘low dose’ and ‘quality’, showed less than an 8% difference in CNR. The ‘quality’ modes demonstrated better spatial resolution than the ‘low dose’; however, even with the ‘low dose’ all line pairs were distinct except for the 0.75lp/mm on the 2.5MV. The LV phantom was used to measure low contrast detectability and showed similar results to the QC-3. Several patient images all confirmed that SNR were highest in kV images followed by 2.5MV and then 6MV. Qualitatively, for anatomical areas with large variability in thickness, like lateral head and necks, 2.5MV images show more anatomy, such as shoulder position, than kV images. Conclusions: The kV images clearly provide the best image metrics per unit dose. The 2.5MV beam showed excellent contrast at a lower dose than 6MV and may be superior to kV for difficult to image areas that include large changes in anatomical thickness. P Balter: Varian, Sun Nuclear, Philips, CPRIT.

  15. Automated planning of breast radiotherapy using cone beam CT imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Amit, Guy; Purdie, Thomas G.

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Develop and clinically validate a methodology for using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging in an automated treatment planning framework for breast IMRT. Methods: A technique for intensity correction of CBCT images was developed and evaluated. The technique is based on histogram matching of CBCT image sets, using information from “similar” planning CT image sets from a database of paired CBCT and CT image sets (n = 38). Automated treatment plans were generated for a testing subset (n = 15) on the planning CT and the corrected CBCT. The plans generated on the corrected CBCT were compared to the CT-based plans in terms of beam parameters, dosimetric indices, and dose distributions. Results: The corrected CBCT images showed considerable similarity to their corresponding planning CTs (average mutual information 1.0±0.1, average sum of absolute differences 185 ± 38). The automated CBCT-based plans were clinically acceptable, as well as equivalent to the CT-based plans with average gantry angle difference of 0.99°±1.1°, target volume overlap index (Dice) of 0.89±0.04 although with slightly higher maximum target doses (4482±90 vs 4560±84, P < 0.05). Gamma index analysis (3%, 3 mm) showed that the CBCT-based plans had the same dose distribution as plans calculated with the same beams on the registered planning CTs (average gamma index 0.12±0.04, gamma <1 in 99.4%±0.3%). Conclusions: The proposed method demonstrates the potential for a clinically feasible and efficient online adaptive breast IMRT planning method based on CBCT imaging, integrating automation.

  16. Practical patient dosimetry for partial rotation cone beam CT

    PubMed Central

    Podnieks, E C; Negus, I S

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This work investigates the validity of estimating effective dose for cone beam CT (CBCT) exposures from the weighted CT dose index (CTDIW) and irradiated length. Methods Measurements were made within cylindrical poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) phantoms measuring 14 cm and 28 cm in length and 32 cm in diameter for the 200° DynaCT acquisition on the Siemens Artis zee fluoroscopy unit (Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen, Germany). An interpolated average dose was calculated to account for the partial rotation. Organ and effective doses were estimated by modelling projections in the Monte Carlo software programme PCXMC (STUK, Helsinki, Finland). Results The CTDIW was found to closely approximate the interpolated average dose if the positions of the measured doses reflected the X-ray beam rotation. The average dose was found to increase by 8% when the phantom length was increased from 14 to 28 cm. Using the interpolated average dose and the irradiated length for effective dose calculations gave similar values to PCXMC when a double-length (28-cm) CT dose index phantom was irradiated. Simplifying the estimation of effective dose with PCXMC by modelling just 4 projections around the abdomen gave effective doses that were only 7% different to those given when 41 projections were modelled. Calculated doses to key organs within the beam varied by as much as 27%. Conclusion Estimating effective dose from the CTDIW and the irradiated length is sufficiently accurate for CBCT if the chamber positions are considered carefully. A conversion factor can be used only if a single CT dose index phantom is available. The estimation of organ doses requires a large number of modelled projections in PCXMC. PMID:21304011

  17. Dose calculation using megavoltage cone-beam CT

    SciTech Connect

    Morin, Olivier . E-mail: Morin@radonc17.ucsf.edu; Chen, Josephine; Aubin, Michele; Gillis, Amy; Aubry, Jean-Francois; Bose, Supratik; Chen Hong; Descovich, Martina; Xia Ping; Pouliot, Jean

    2007-03-15

    Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of performing dose calculation on megavoltage cone-beam CT (MVCBCT) of head-and-neck patients in order to track the dosimetric errors produced by anatomic changes. Methods and Materials: A simple geometric model was developed using a head-size water cylinder to correct an observed cupping artifact occurring with MVCBCT. The uniformity-corrected MVCBCT was calibrated for physical density. Beam arrangements and weights from the initial treatment plans defined using the conventional CT were applied to the MVCBCT image, and the dose distribution was recalculated. The dosimetric inaccuracies caused by the cupping artifact were evaluated on the water phantom images. An ideal test patient with no observable anatomic changes and a patient imaged with both CT and MVCBCT before and after considerable weight loss were used to clinically validate MVCBCT for dose calculation and to determine the dosimetric impact of large anatomic changes. Results: The nonuniformity of a head-size water phantom ({approx}30%) causes a dosimetric error of less than 5%. The uniformity correction method developed greatly reduces the cupping artifact, resulting in dosimetric inaccuracies of less than 1%. For the clinical cases, the agreement between the dose distributions calculated using MVCBCT and CT was better than 3% and 3 mm where all tissue was encompassed within the MVCBCT. Dose-volume histograms from the dose calculations on CT and MVCBCT were in excellent agreement. Conclusion: MVCBCT can be used to estimate the dosimetric impact of changing anatomy on several structures in the head-and-neck region.

  18. Fast 3D multiple fan-beam CT systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohlbrenner, Adrian; Haemmerle, Stefan; Laib, Andres; Koller, Bruno; Ruegsegger, Peter

    1999-09-01

    Two fast, CCD-based three-dimensional CT scanners for in vivo applications have been developed. One is designed for small laboratory animals and has a voxel size of 20 micrometer, while the other, having a voxel size of 80 micrometer, is used for human examinations. Both instruments make use of a novel multiple fan-beam technique: radiation from a line-focus X-ray tube is divided into a stack of fan-beams by a 28 micrometer pitch foil collimator. The resulting wedge-shaped X-ray field is the key to the instrument's high scanning speed and allows to position the sample close to the X-ray source, which makes it possible to build compact CT systems. In contrast to cone- beam scanners, the multiple fan-beam scanner relies on standard fan-beam algorithms, thereby eliminating inaccuracies in the reconstruction process. The projections from one single rotation are acquired within 2 min and are subsequently reconstructed into a 1024 X 1024 X 255 voxel array. Hence a single rotation about the sample delivers a 3D image containing a quarter of a billion voxels. Such volumetric images are 6.6 mm in height and can be stacked on top of each other. An area CCD sensor bonded to a fiber-optic light guide acts as a detector. Since no image intensifier, conventional optics or tapers are used throughout the system, the image is virtually distortion free. The scanner's high scanning speed and high resolution at moderately low radiation dose are the basis for reliable time serial measurements and analyses.

  19. Beam hardening and partial beam hardening of the bowtie filter: Effects on dosimetric applications in CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Rendon, X.; Zhang, G.; Bosmans, H.; Oyen, R.; Zanca, F.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To estimate the consequences on dosimetric applications when a CT bowtie filter is modeled by means of full beam hardening versus partial beam hardening. Method: A model of source and filtration for a CT scanner as developed by Turner et. al. [1] was implemented. Specific exposures were measured with the stationary CT X-ray tube in order to assess the equivalent thickness of Al of the bowtie filter as a function of the fan angle. Using these thicknesses, the primary beam attenuation factors were calculated from the energy dependent photon mass attenuation coefficients and used to include beam hardening in the spectrum. This was compared to a potentially less computationally intensive approach, which accounts only partially for beam hardening, by giving the photon spectrum a global (energy independent) fan angle specific weighting factor. Percentage differences between the two methods were quantified by calculating the dose in air after passing several water equivalent thicknesses representative for patients having different BMI. Specifically, the maximum water equivalent thickness of the lateral and anterior-posterior dimension and of the corresponding (half) effective diameter were assessed. Results: The largest percentage differences were found for the thickest part of the bowtie filter and they increased with patient size. For a normal size patient they ranged from 5.5% at half effective diameter to 16.1% for the lateral dimension; for the most obese patient they ranged from 7.7% to 19.3%, respectively. For a complete simulation of one rotation of the x-ray tube, the proposed method was 12% faster than the complete simulation of the bowtie filter. Conclusion: The need for simulating the beam hardening of the bow tie filter in Monte Carlo platforms for CT dosimetry will depend on the required accuracy.

  20. Segmentation-free empirical beam hardening correction for CT

    SciTech Connect

    Schüller, Sören; Sawall, Stefan; Stannigel, Kai; Hülsbusch, Markus; Ulrici, Johannes; Hell, Erich; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: The polychromatic nature of the x-ray beams and their effects on the reconstructed image are often disregarded during standard image reconstruction. This leads to cupping and beam hardening artifacts inside the reconstructed volume. To correct for a general cupping, methods like water precorrection exist. They correct the hardening of the spectrum during the penetration of the measured object only for the major tissue class. In contrast, more complex artifacts like streaks between dense objects need other techniques of correction. If using only the information of one single energy scan, there are two types of corrections. The first one is a physical approach. Thereby, artifacts can be reproduced and corrected within the original reconstruction by using assumptions in a polychromatic forward projector. These assumptions could be the used spectrum, the detector response, the physical attenuation and scatter properties of the intersected materials. A second method is an empirical approach, which does not rely on much prior knowledge. This so-called empirical beam hardening correction (EBHC) and the previously mentioned physical-based technique are both relying on a segmentation of the present tissues inside the patient. The difficulty thereby is that beam hardening by itself, scatter, and other effects, which diminish the image quality also disturb the correct tissue classification and thereby reduce the accuracy of the two known classes of correction techniques. The herein proposed method works similar to the empirical beam hardening correction but does not require a tissue segmentation and therefore shows improvements on image data, which are highly degraded by noise and artifacts. Furthermore, the new algorithm is designed in a way that no additional calibration or parameter fitting is needed. Methods: To overcome the segmentation of tissues, the authors propose a histogram deformation of their primary reconstructed CT image. This step is essential for the

  1. Deformable image registration of CT and truncated cone-beam CT for adaptive radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhen, Xin; Yan, Hao; Zhou, Linghong; Jia, Xun; Jiang, Steve B.

    2013-11-01

    Truncation of a cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) image, mainly caused by the limited field of view (FOV) of CBCT imaging, poses challenges to the problem of deformable image registration (DIR) between computed tomography (CT) and CBCT images in adaptive radiation therapy (ART). The missing information outside the CBCT FOV usually causes incorrect deformations when a conventional DIR algorithm is utilized, which may introduce significant errors in subsequent operations such as dose calculation. In this paper, based on the observation that the missing information in the CBCT image domain does exist in the projection image domain, we propose to solve this problem by developing a hybrid deformation/reconstruction algorithm. As opposed to deforming the CT image to match the truncated CBCT image, the CT image is deformed such that its projections match all the corresponding projection images for the CBCT image. An iterative forward-backward projection algorithm is developed. Six head-and-neck cancer patient cases are used to evaluate our algorithm, five with simulated truncation and one with real truncation. It is found that our method can accurately register the CT image to the truncated CBCT image and is robust against image truncation when the portion of the truncated image is less than 40% of the total image. Part of this work was presented at the 54th AAPM Annual Meeting (Charlotte, NC, USA, 29 July-2 August 2012).

  2. Deformable Image Registration of CT and Truncated Cone-beam CT for Adaptive Radiation Therapy*

    PubMed Central

    Zhen, Xin; Yan, Hao; Zhou, Linghong; Jia, Xun; Jiang, Steve B.

    2013-01-01

    Truncation of a cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) image, mainly caused by the limited field of view (FOV) of CBCT imaging, poses challenges to the problem of deformable image registration (DIR) between CT and CBCT images in adaptive radiation therapy (ART). The missing information outside the CBCT FOV usually causes incorrect deformations when a conventional DIR algorithm is utilized, which may introduce significant errors in subsequent operations such as dose calculation. In this paper, based on the observation that the missing information in the CBCT image domain does exist in the projection image domain, we propose to solve this problem by developing a hybrid deformation/reconstruction algorithm. As opposed to deforming the CT image to match the truncated CBCT image, the CT image is deformed such that its projections match all the corresponding projection images for the CBCT image. An iterative forward-backward projection algorithm is developed. Six head-and-neck cancer patient cases are used to evaluate our algorithm, five with simulated truncation and one with real truncation. It is found that our method can accurately register the CT image to the truncated CBCT image and is robust against image truncation when the portion of the truncated image is less than 40% of the total image. PMID:24169817

  3. Image quality of flat-panel cone beam CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, Georg; Wiegert, Jens; Schaefer, Dirk; Fiedler, Klaus; Conrads, Norbert; Timmer, Jan; Rasche, Volker; Noordhoek, Niels; Klotz, Erhard; Koppe, Reiner

    2003-06-01

    We present results on 3D image quality in terms of spatial resolution (MTF) and low contrast detectability, obtained on a flat dynamic X-ray detector (FD) based cone-beam CT (CB-CT) setup. Experiments have been performed on a high precision bench-top system with rotating object table, fixed X-ray tube and 176 x 176 mm2 active detector area (Trixell Pixium 4800). Several objects, including CT performance-, MTF- and pelvis phantoms, have been scanned under various conditions, including a high dose setup in order to explore the 3D performance limits. Under these optimal conditions, the system is capable of resolving less than 1% (~10 HU) contrast in a water background. Within a pelvis phantom, even inserts of muscle and fat equivalent are clearly distinguishable. This also holds for fast acquisitions of up to 40 fps. Focusing on the spatial resolution, we obtain an almost isotropic three-dimensional resolution of up to 30 lp/cm at 10% modulation.

  4. Demons deformable registration of CT and cone-beam CT using an iterative intensity matching approach

    SciTech Connect

    Nithiananthan, Sajendra; Schafer, Sebastian; Uneri, Ali; and others

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: A method of intensity-based deformable registration of CT and cone-beam CT (CBCT) images is described, in which intensity correction occurs simultaneously within the iterative registration process. The method preserves the speed and simplicity of the popular Demons algorithm while providing robustness and accuracy in the presence of large mismatch between CT and CBCT voxel values (''intensity''). Methods: A variant of the Demons algorithm was developed in which an estimate of the relationship between CT and CBCT intensity values for specific materials in the image is computed at each iteration based on the set of currently overlapping voxels. This tissue-specific intensity correction is then used to estimate the registration output for that iteration and the process is repeated. The robustness of the method was tested in CBCT images of a cadaveric head exhibiting a broad range of simulated intensity variations associated with x-ray scatter, object truncation, and/or errors in the reconstruction algorithm. The accuracy of CT-CBCT registration was also measured in six real cases, exhibiting deformations ranging from simple to complex during surgery or radiotherapy guided by a CBCT-capable C-arm or linear accelerator, respectively. Results: The iterative intensity matching approach was robust against all levels of intensity variation examined, including spatially varying errors in voxel value of a factor of 2 or more, as can be encountered in cases of high x-ray scatter. Registration accuracy without intensity matching degraded severely with increasing magnitude of intensity error and introduced image distortion. A single histogram match performed prior to registration alleviated some of these effects but was also prone to image distortion and was quantifiably less robust and accurate than the iterative approach. Within the six case registration accuracy study, iterative intensity matching Demons reduced mean TRE to (2.5{+-}2.8) mm compared to (3.5{+-}3.0) mm

  5. Deformable registration of CT and cone-beam CT with local intensity matching.

    PubMed

    Park, Seyoun; Plishker, William; Quon, Harry; Wong, John; Shekhar, Raj; Lee, Junghoon

    2017-02-07

    Cone-beam CT (CBCT) is a widely used intra-operative imaging modality in image-guided radiotherapy and surgery. A short scan followed by a filtered-backprojection is typically used for CBCT reconstruction. While data on the mid-plane (plane of source-detector rotation) is complete, off-mid-planes undergo different information deficiency and the computed reconstructions are approximate. This causes different reconstruction artifacts at off-mid-planes depending on slice locations, and therefore impedes accurate registration between CT and CBCT. In this paper, we propose a method to accurately register CT and CBCT by iteratively matching local CT and CBCT intensities. We correct CBCT intensities by matching local intensity histograms slice by slice in conjunction with intensity-based deformable registration. The correction-registration steps are repeated in an alternating way until the result image converges. We integrate the intensity matching into three different deformable registration methods, B-spline, demons, and optical flow that are widely used for CT-CBCT registration. All three registration methods were implemented on a graphics processing unit for efficient parallel computation. We tested the proposed methods on twenty five head and neck cancer cases and compared the performance with state-of-the-art registration methods. Normalized cross correlation (NCC), structural similarity index (SSIM), and target registration error (TRE) were computed to evaluate the registration performance. Our method produced overall NCC of 0.96, SSIM of 0.94, and TRE of 2.26 → 2.27 mm, outperforming existing methods by 9%, 12%, and 27%, respectively. Experimental results also show that our method performs consistently and is more accurate than existing algorithms, and also computationally efficient.

  6. Deformable registration of CT and cone-beam CT with local intensity matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Seyoun; Plishker, William; Quon, Harry; Wong, John; Shekhar, Raj; Lee, Junghoon

    2017-02-01

    Cone-beam CT (CBCT) is a widely used intra-operative imaging modality in image-guided radiotherapy and surgery. A short scan followed by a filtered-backprojection is typically used for CBCT reconstruction. While data on the mid-plane (plane of source-detector rotation) is complete, off-mid-planes undergo different information deficiency and the computed reconstructions are approximate. This causes different reconstruction artifacts at off-mid-planes depending on slice locations, and therefore impedes accurate registration between CT and CBCT. In this paper, we propose a method to accurately register CT and CBCT by iteratively matching local CT and CBCT intensities. We correct CBCT intensities by matching local intensity histograms slice by slice in conjunction with intensity-based deformable registration. The correction-registration steps are repeated in an alternating way until the result image converges. We integrate the intensity matching into three different deformable registration methods, B-spline, demons, and optical flow that are widely used for CT-CBCT registration. All three registration methods were implemented on a graphics processing unit for efficient parallel computation. We tested the proposed methods on twenty five head and neck cancer cases and compared the performance with state-of-the-art registration methods. Normalized cross correlation (NCC), structural similarity index (SSIM), and target registration error (TRE) were computed to evaluate the registration performance. Our method produced overall NCC of 0.96, SSIM of 0.94, and TRE of 2.26 → 2.27 mm, outperforming existing methods by 9%, 12%, and 27%, respectively. Experimental results also show that our method performs consistently and is more accurate than existing algorithms, and also computationally efficient.

  7. Orthogonal-rotating tetrahedral scanning for cone-beam CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Ivan B.; Wang, Ge

    2012-10-01

    In this article, a cone-beam CT scanning mode is designed assuming four x-ray sources and a spherical sample. The x-ray sources are mounted at the vertices of a regular tetrahedron. On the circumsphere of the tetrahedron, four detection panels are mounted opposite to each vertex. To avoid x-ray interference, the largest half angle of each x-ray cone beam is 27°22', while the radius of the largest ball fully covered by all the cone beams is 0.460, when the radius of the circumsphere is 1. Several scanning schemes are proposed which consist of two rotations about orthogonal axes, such that each quarter turn provides sufficient data for theoretically exact and stable reconstruction. This design can be used in biomedical or industrial settings, such as when a sequence of reconstructions of an object is desired. Similar scanning schemes based on other regular or irregular polyhedra and various rotation speeds are also discussed.

  8. Multiscale registration of planning CT and daily cone beam CT images for adaptive radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Paquin, Dana; Levy, Doron; Xing Lei

    2009-01-15

    Adaptive radiation therapy (ART) is the incorporation of daily images in the radiotherapy treatment process so that the treatment plan can be evaluated and modified to maximize the amount of radiation dose to the tumor while minimizing the amount of radiation delivered to healthy tissue. Registration of planning images with daily images is thus an important component of ART. In this article, the authors report their research on multiscale registration of planning computed tomography (CT) images with daily cone beam CT (CBCT) images. The multiscale algorithm is based on the hierarchical multiscale image decomposition of E. Tadmor, S. Nezzar, and L. Vese [Multiscale Model. Simul. 2(4), pp. 554-579 (2004)]. Registration is achieved by decomposing the images to be registered into a series of scales using the (BV, L{sup 2}) decomposition and initially registering the coarsest scales of the image using a landmark-based registration algorithm. The resulting transformation is then used as a starting point to deformably register the next coarse scales with one another. This procedure is iterated at each stage using the transformation computed by the previous scale registration as the starting point for the current registration. The authors present the results of studies of rectum, head-neck, and prostate CT-CBCT registration, and validate their registration method quantitatively using synthetic results in which the exact transformations our known, and qualitatively using clinical deformations in which the exact results are not known.

  9. Cone beam CT: a current overview of devices.

    PubMed

    Nemtoi, A; Czink, C; Haba, D; Gahleitner, A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to review and compare the properties of all the available cone beam CT (CBCT) devices offered on the market, while focusing especially on Europe. In this study, we included all the different commonly used CBCT devices currently available on the European market. Information about the properties of each device was obtained from the manufacturers' official available data, which was later confirmed by their representatives in cases where it was necessary. The main features of a total of 47 CBCT devices that are currently marketed by 20 companies were presented, compared and discussed in this study. All these CBCT devices differ in specific properties according to the companies that produce them. The summarized technical data from a large number of CBCT devices currently on the market offer a wide range of imaging possibilities in the oral and maxillofacial region.

  10. Cone beam CT: a current overview of devices

    PubMed Central

    Nemtoi, A; Czink, C; Haba, D; Gahleitner, A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to review and compare the properties of all the available cone beam CT (CBCT) devices offered on the market, while focusing especially on Europe. In this study, we included all the different commonly used CBCT devices currently available on the European market. Information about the properties of each device was obtained from the manufacturers’ official available data, which was later confirmed by their representatives in cases where it was necessary. The main features of a total of 47 CBCT devices that are currently marketed by 20 companies were presented, compared and discussed in this study. All these CBCT devices differ in specific properties according to the companies that produce them. The summarized technical data from a large number of CBCT devices currently on the market offer a wide range of imaging possibilities in the oral and maxillofacial region. PMID:23818529

  11. Iodine contrast cone beam CT imaging of breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partain, Larry; Prionas, Stavros; Seppi, Edward; Virshup, Gary; Roos, Gerhard; Sutherland, Robert; Boone, John

    2007-03-01

    An iodine contrast agent, in conjunction with an X-ray cone beam CT imaging system, was used to clearly image three, biopsy verified, cancer lesions in two patients. The lesions were approximately in the 10 mm to 6 mm diameter range. Additional regions were also enhanced with approximate dimensions down to 1 mm or less in diameter. A flat panel detector, with 194 μm pixels in 2 x 2 binning mode, was used to obtain 500 projection images at 30 fps with an 80 kVp X-ray system operating at 112 mAs, for an 8-9 mGy dose - equivalent to two view mammography for these women. The patients were positioned prone, while the gantry rotated in the horizontal plane around the uncompressed, pendant breasts. This gantry rotated 360 degrees during the patient's 16.6 sec breath hold. A volume of 100 cc of 320 mg/ml iodine-contrast was power injected at 4 cc/sec, via catheter into the arm vein of the patient. The resulting 512 x 512 x 300 cone beam CT data set of Feldkamp reconstructed ~(0.3 mm) 3 voxels were analyzed. An interval of voxel contrast values, characteristic of the regions with iodine contrast enhancement, were used with surface rendering to clearly identify up to a total of 13 highlighted volumes. This included the three largest lesions, that were previously biopsied and confirmed to be malignant. The other ten highlighted regions, of smaller diameters, are likely areas of increased contrast trapping unrelated to cancer angiogenesis. However the technique itself is capable of resolving lesions that small.

  12. Deformable registration of CT and cone-beam CT by local CBCT intensity correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Seyoun; Plishker, William; Shekhar, Raj; Quon, Harry; Wong, John; Lee, Junghoon

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a method to accurately register CT to cone-beam CT (CBCT) by iteratively correcting local CBCT intensity. CBCT is a widely used intra-operative imaging modality in image-guided radiotherapy and surgery. A short scan followed by a filtered-backprojection is typically used for CBCT reconstruction. While data on the mid-plane (plane of source-detector rotation) is complete, off-mid-planes undergo different information deficiency and the computed reconstructions are approximate. This causes different reconstruction artifacts at off-mid-planes depending on slice locations, and therefore impedes accurate registration between CT and CBCT. To address this issue, we correct CBCT intensities by matching local intensity histograms slice by slice in conjunction with intensity-based deformable registration. This correction-registration step is repeated until the result image converges. We tested the proposed method on eight head-and-neck cancer cases and compared its performance with state-of-the-art registration methods, Bspline, demons, and optical flow, which are widely used for CT-CBCT registration. Normalized mutual-information (NMI), normalized cross-correlation (NCC), and structural similarity (SSIM) were computed as similarity measures for the performance evaluation. Our method produced overall NMI of 0.59, NCC of 0.96, and SSIM of 0.93, outperforming existing methods by 3.6%, 2.4%, and 2.8% in terms of NMI, NCC, and SSIM scores, respectively. Experimental results show that our method is more consistent and roust than existing algorithms, and also computationally efficient with faster convergence.

  13. Cone beam CT tumor vasculature dynamic study (Murine model)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dong; Ning, Ruola; Conover, David; Ricardo, Betancourt; Liu, Shaohua

    2008-03-01

    Tumor angiogenesis is the process by which new blood vessels are formed from the existing vessels in a tumor to promote tumor growth. Tumor angiogenesis has important implications in the diagnosis and treatment of various solid tumors. Flat panel detector based cone beam CT opens up a new way for detection of tumors, and tumor angiogenesis associated with functional CBCT has the potential to provide more information than traditional functional CT due to more overall coverage during the same scanning period and the reconstruction being isotropic resulting in a more accurate 3D volume intensity measurement. A functional study was conducted by using CBCT to determine the degree of the enhancement within the tumor after injecting the contrast agent intravenously. For typical doses of contrast material, the amount of enhancement is proportional to the concentration of this material within the region of interest. A series of images obtained at one location over time allows generation of time-attenuation data from which a number of semi-quantitative parameters, such as enhancement rate, can be determined. An in vivo mice study with and without mammo tumor was conducted on our prototype CBCT system, and half scan scheme is used to determine the time-intensity curve within the VOI of the mouse. The CBCT has an x-ray tube, a gantry with slip ring technology, and a 40×30 cm Varian Paxscan 4030CB real time FPD.

  14. Cone beam CT for dental and maxillofacial imaging: dose matters.

    PubMed

    Pauwels, Ruben

    2015-07-01

    The widespread use of cone-beam CT (CBCT) in dentistry has led to increasing concern regarding justification and optimisation of CBCT exposures. When used as a substitute to multidetector CT (MDCT), CBCT can lead to significant dose reduction; however, low-dose protocols of current-generation MDCTs show that there is an overlap between CBCT and MDCT doses. More importantly, although the 3D information provided by CBCT can often lead to improved diagnosis and treatment compared with 2D radiographs, a routine or excessive use of CBCT would lead to a substantial increase of the collective patient dose. The potential use of CBCT for paediatric patients (e.g. developmental disorders, trauma and orthodontic treatment planning) further increases concern regarding its proper application. This paper provides an overview of justification and optimisation issues in dental and maxillofacial CBCT. The radiation dose in CBCT will be briefly reviewed. The European Commission's Evidence Based Guidelines prepared by the SEDENTEXCT Project Consortium will be summarised, and (in)appropriate use of CBCT will be illustrated for various dental applications.

  15. A ray-tracing backprojection algorithm for cone beam CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jun; Pan, Tinsu

    2007-03-01

    We have developed a ray-tracing backprojection (RTB) to back-project all the detector pixels into the image domain of cone beam CT (CBCT). The underlying mathematic framework is the FDK reconstruction. In this method, every ray recorded by the flat panel detector is traced back into the image space. In each voxel of the imaging domain, all the rays contributing to the formation of the CT image are summed together weighted by each rays' intersection length with the voxel. The RTB is similar to a reverse process of x-ray transmission imaging, as opposed to the conventional voxel-driven backprojection (VDB). In the RTB, we avoided interpolation and pixel binning approximations, achieved better spatial resolution and eliminated some image artifacts. We have successfully applied the RTB in phantom studies on the Varian On Board Imager CBCT. The images of the Catphan CTP404 module show more accurate representation of the oblique ramps in the measurement of slice thickness, and more accurate determination of slice thickness with the RTB than with VDB. The RTB also shows higher spatial resolution than the VDB in the studies of a high contrast resolution phantom.

  16. Evaluation of dose from kV cone-beam computed tomography during radiotherapy: a comparison of methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, J.; Wilkinson, D.; Malaroda, A.; Metcalfe, P.

    2017-01-01

    Three alternative methodologies to the Computed-Tomography Dose Index for the evaluation of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography dose are compared, the Cone-Beam Dose Index, IAEA Human Health Report No. 5 recommended methodology and the AAPM Task Group 111 recommended methodology. The protocols were evaluated for Pelvis and Thorax scan modes on Varian® On-Board Imager and Truebeam kV XI imaging systems. The weighted planar average dose was highest for the AAPM methodology across all scans, with the CBDI being the second highest overall. A 17.96% and 1.14% decrease from the TG-111 protocol to the IAEA and CBDI protocols for the Pelvis mode and 18.15% and 13.10% decrease for the Thorax mode were observed for the XI system. For the OBI system, the variation was 16.46% and 7.14% for Pelvis mode and 15.93% to the CBDI protocol in Thorax mode respectively.

  17. Use of MV and kV imager correlation for maintaining continuous real-time 3D internal marker tracking during beam interruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiersma, R. D.; Riaz, N.; Dieterich, Sonja; Suh, Yelin; Xing, L.

    2009-01-01

    The integration of onboard kV imaging together with a MV electronic portal imaging device (EPID) on linear accelerators (LINAC) can provide an easy to implement real-time 3D organ position monitoring solution for treatment delivery. Currently, real-time MV-kV tracking has only been demonstrated by simultaneous imagining by both MV and kV imaging devices. However, modalities such as step-and-shoot IMRT (SS-IMRT), which inherently contain MV beam interruptions, can lead to loss of target information necessary for 3D localization. Additionally, continuous kV imaging throughout the treatment delivery can lead to high levels of imaging dose to the patient. This work demonstrates for the first time how full 3D target tracking can be maintained even in the presence of such beam interruption, or MV/kV beam interleave, by use of a relatively simple correlation model together with MV-kV tracking. A moving correlation model was constructed using both present and prior positions of the marker in the available MV or kV image to compute the position of the marker on the interrupted imager. A commercially available radiotherapy system, equipped with both MV and kV imaging devices, was used to deliver typical SS-IMRT lung treatment plans to a 4D phantom containing internally embedded metallic markers. To simulate actual lung tumor motion, previous recorded 4D lung patient motion data were used. Lung tumor motion data of five separate patients were inputted into the 4D phantom, and typical SS-IMRT lung plans were delivered to simulate actual clinical deliveries. Application of the correlation model to SS-IMRT lung treatment deliveries was found to be an effective solution for maintaining continuous 3D tracking during 'step' beam interruptions. For deliveries involving five or more gantry angles with 50 or more fields per plan, the positional errors were found to have <=1 mm root mean squared error (RMSE) in all three spatial directions. In addition to increasing the robustness of

  18. Computed tomography dose assessment for a 160 mm wide, 320 detector row, cone beam CT scanner.

    PubMed

    Geleijns, J; Salvadó Artells, M; de Bruin, P W; Matter, R; Muramatsu, Y; McNitt-Gray, M F

    2009-05-21

    Computed tomography (CT) dosimetry should be adapted to the rapid developments in CT technology. Recently a 160 mm wide, 320 detector row, cone beam CT scanner that challenges the existing Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI) dosimetry paradigm was introduced. The purpose of this study was to assess dosimetric characteristics of this cone beam scanner, to study the appropriateness of existing CT dose metrics and to suggest a pragmatic approach for CT dosimetry for cone beam scanners. Dose measurements with a small Farmer-type ionization chamber and with 100 mm and 300 mm long pencil ionization chambers were performed free in air to characterize the cone beam. According to the most common dose metric in CT, namely CTDI, measurements were also performed in 150 mm and 350 mm long CT head and CT body dose phantoms with 100 mm and 300 mm long pencil ionization chambers, respectively. To explore effects that cannot be measured with ionization chambers, Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of the dose distribution in 150 mm, 350 mm and 700 mm long CT head and CT body phantoms were performed. To overcome inconsistencies in the definition of CTDI100 for the 160 mm wide cone beam CT scanner, doses were also expressed as the average absorbed dose within the pencil chamber (D100). Measurements free in air revealed excellent correspondence between CTDI300air and D100air, while CTDI100air substantially underestimates CTDI300air. Results of measurements in CT dose phantoms and corresponding MC simulations at centre and peripheral positions were weighted and revealed good agreement between CTDI300w, D100w and CTDI600w, while CTDI100w substantially underestimates CTDI300w. D100w provides a pragmatic metric for characterizing the dose of the 160 mm wide cone beam CT scanner. This quantity can be measured with the widely available 100 mm pencil ionization chamber within 150 mm long CT dose phantoms. CTDI300w measured in 350 mm long CT dose phantoms serves as an appropriate standard of

  19. Auto calibration of a cone-beam-CT

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, Daniel; Heil, Ulrich; Schulze, Ralf; Schoemer, Elmar; Schwanecke, Ulrich

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: This paper introduces a novel autocalibration method for cone-beam-CTs (CBCT) or flat-panel CTs, assuming a perfect rotation. The method is based on ellipse-fitting. Autocalibration refers to accurate recovery of the geometric alignment of a CBCT device from projection images alone, without any manual measurements. Methods: The authors use test objects containing small arbitrarily positioned radio-opaque markers. No information regarding the relative positions of the markers is used. In practice, the authors use three to eight metal ball bearings (diameter of 1 mm), e.g., positioned roughly in a vertical line such that their projection image curves on the detector preferably form large ellipses over the circular orbit. From this ellipse-to-curve mapping and also from its inversion the authors derive an explicit formula. Nonlinear optimization based on this mapping enables them to determine the six relevant parameters of the system up to the device rotation angle, which is sufficient to define the geometry of a CBCT-machine assuming a perfect rotational movement. These parameters also include out-of-plane rotations. The authors evaluate their method by simulation based on data used in two similar approaches [L. Smekal, M. Kachelriess, S. E, and K. Wa, 'Geometric misalignment and calibration in cone-beam tomography,' Med. Phys. 31(12), 3242-3266 (2004); K. Yang, A. L. C. Kwan, D. F. Miller, and J. M. Boone, 'A geometric calibration method for cone beam CT systems,' Med. Phys. 33(6), 1695-1706 (2006)]. This allows a direct comparison of accuracy. Furthermore, the authors present real-world 3D reconstructions of a dry human spine segment and an electronic device. The reconstructions were computed from projections taken with a commercial dental CBCT device having two different focus-to-detector distances that were both calibrated with their method. The authors compare their reconstruction with a reconstruction computed by the manufacturer of the CBCT device to

  20. Algorithm for x-ray beam hardening and scatter correction in low-dose cone-beam CT: phantom studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenlei; Rong, Junyan; Gao, Peng; Liao, Qimei; Lu, HongBing

    2016-03-01

    X-ray scatter poses a significant limitation to image quality in cone-beam CT (CBCT), as well as beam hardening, resulting in image artifacts, contrast reduction, and lack of CT number accuracy. Meanwhile the x-ray radiation dose is also non-ignorable. Considerable scatter or beam hardening correction methods have been developed, independently, and rarely combined with low-dose CT reconstruction. In this paper, we combine scatter suppression with beam hardening correction for sparse-view CT reconstruction to improve CT image quality and reduce CT radiation. Firstly, scatter was measured, estimated, and removed using measurement-based methods, assuming that signal in the lead blocker shadow is only attributable to x-ray scatter. Secondly, beam hardening was modeled by estimating an equivalent attenuation coefficient at the effective energy, which was integrated into the forward projector of the algebraic reconstruction technique (ART). Finally, the compressed sensing (CS) iterative reconstruction is carried out for sparse-view CT reconstruction to reduce the CT radiation. Preliminary Monte Carlo simulated experiments indicate that with only about 25% of conventional dose, our method reduces the magnitude of cupping artifact by a factor of 6.1, increases the contrast by a factor of 1.4 and the CNR by a factor of 15. The proposed method could provide good reconstructed image from a few view projections, with effective suppression of artifacts caused by scatter and beam hardening, as well as reducing the radiation dose. With this proposed framework and modeling, it may provide a new way for low-dose CT imaging.

  1. TH-C-18A-10: The Influence of Tube Current On X-Ray Focal Spot Size for 70 KV CT Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, X; Grimes, J; Yu, L; Leng, S; McCollough, C

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Focal spot blooming is an increase in the focal spot size at increased tube current and/or decreased tube potential. In this work, we evaluated the influence of tube current on the focal spot size at low kV for two CT systems, one of which used a tube designed to reduce blooming effects. Methods: A slit camera (10 micron slit) was used to measure focal spot size on two CT scanners from the same manufacturer (Siemens Somatom Force and Definition Flash) at 70 kV and low, medium and maximum tube currents, according to the capabilities of each system (Force: 100, 800 and 1300 mA; Flash: 100, 200 and 500 mA). Exposures were made with a stationary tube in service mode using a raised stand without table movement or flying focal spot technique. Focal spot size, nominally 0.8 and 1.2 mm, respectively, was measured parallel and perpendicular to the cathode-anode axis by calculating the full-width-at-half-maximum of the slit profile recording using computed radiographic plates. Results: Focal spot sizes perpendicular to the anode-cathode axis increased at the maximum mA by 5.7% on the Force and 39.1% on the Flash relative to that at the minimal mA, even though the mA was increased 13-fold on the Force and only 5- fold on the Flash. Focal spot size increased parallel to the anode-cathode axis by 70.4% on Force and 40.9% on Flash. Conclusion: For CT protocols using low kV, high mA is typically required. These protocols are relevant in children and smaller adults, and for dual-energy scanning. Technical measures to limit focal spot blooming are important in these settings to avoid reduced spatial resolution. The x-ray tube on a recently-introduced scanner appears to greatly reduce blooming effects, even at very high mA values. CHM has research support from Siemens Healthcare.

  2. Dependence Of The Computerized Tomography (CT) Number - Electron Density Relationship On Patient Size And X-Ray Beam Filtration For Fan Beam CT Scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masterson, M. E.; Thomason, C. L.; McGary, R.; Hunt, M. A.; Simpson, L. D.; Miller, D. W.; Laughlin, J. S.

    1981-07-01

    The applicability of quantitative information contained in CT scans to diagnostic radiology and to radiation therapy treatment planning and the heterogeneity problem has been recognized by members of the radiological community and by manufacturers. Determination of the relationship between electron density and CT number is important for these applications. As CT technology has evolved, CT number generation has changed. CT number variation was limited in the early water bag systems. However, later generation "air" scanners may exhibit variation in CT numbers across a reconstructed image which are re-lated to positioning within the scan circle and scan field size. Results of experimental investigations using tissue-equivalent phantoms of different cross-sectional shapes and areas on the Technicare Delta 2020 are presented. Investigations also cover the effect of "shaped" and "flat" x-ray beam filters. A variation in CT number is demonstrated on this fan beam geometry scanner for phantoms of different sizes and for different scan circle diameters. An explanation of these effects is given. Differences of as much as 20% in determination of tissue electron density relative to water under different experimental conditions are obtained and reported. A family of curves (electron density vs. CT number) is presented for different patient cross-sectional areas and different scanner settings.

  3. Effective doses from cone beam CT investigation of the jaws

    PubMed Central

    Davies, J; Johnson, B; Drage, NA

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of the study was to calculate the effective dose delivered to the patient undergoing cone beam (CB) CT of the jaws and maxillofacial complex using the i-CAT Next Generation CBCT scanner (Imaging Sciences International, Hatfield, PA). Methods A RANDO® phantom (The Phantom Laboratory, Salem, NY) containing thermoluminence dosemeters were scanned 10 times for each of the 6 imaging protocols. Effective doses for each protocol were calculated using the 1990 and approved 2007 International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommended tissue weighting factors (E1990, E2007). Results The effective dose for E1990 and E2007, respectively, were: full field of view (FOV) of the head, 47 μSv and 78 μSv; 13 cm scan of the jaws, 44 μSv and 77 μSv; 6 cm standard mandible, 35 μSv and 58 μSv; 6 cm high resolution mandible, 69 μSv and 113 μSv; 6 cm standard maxilla, 18 μSv and 32 μSv; and 6 cm high resolution maxilla, 35 μSv and 60 μSv. Conclusions Using the new generation of CBCT scanner, the effective dose is lower than the original generation machine for a similar FOV using the ICRP 2007 tissue weighting factors. PMID:22184626

  4. Streak artifact reduction in cardiac cone beam CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shechter, Gilad; Naveh, Galit; Lessick, Jonathan; Altman, Ami

    2005-04-01

    Cone beam reconstructed cardiac CT images suffer from characteristic streak artifacts that affect the quality of coronary artery imaging. These artifacts arise from inhomogeneous distribution of noise. While in non-tagged reconstruction inhomogeneity of noise distribution is mainly due to anisotropy of the attenuation of the scanned object (e.g. shoulders), in cardiac imaging it is largely influenced by the non-uniform distribution of the acquired data used for reconstructing the heart at a given phase. We use a cardiac adaptive filter to reduce these streaks. In difference to previous methods of adaptive filtering that locally smooth data points on the basis of their attenuation values, our filter is applied as a function of the noise distribution of the data as it is used in the phase selective reconstruction. We have reconstructed trans-axial images without adaptive filtering, with a regular adaptive filter and with the cardiac adaptive filter. With the cardiac adaptive filter significant reduction of streaks is achieved, and thus image quality is improved. The coronary vessel is much more pronounced in the cardiac adaptive filtered images, in slab MIP the main coronary artery branches are more visible, and non-calcified plaque is better differentiated from vessel wall. This improvement is accomplished without altering significantly the border definition of calcified plaques.

  5. Intracranial physiological calcifications evaluated with cone beam CT

    PubMed Central

    Sedghizadeh, P P; Nguyen, M; Enciso, R

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate cone beam CT (CBCT) scans for the presence of physiological and pathological intracranial calcifications. Methods CBCT scans from male and female patients that met our ascertainment criteria were evaluated retrospectively (n = 500) for the presence of either physiological or pathological intracranial calcifications. Results Out of the 500 patients evaluated, 176 had evidence of intracranial physiological calcification (35.2% prevalence), and none had evidence of pathological calcification. There was a 3:2 male-to-female ratio and no ethnic predilection; the ages of affected patients ranged from 13 years to 82 years with a mean age of 52 years. The majority of calcifications appeared in the pineal/habenular region (80%), with some also appearing in the choroid plexus region bilaterally (12%), and a smaller subset appearing in the petroclinoid ligament region bilaterally (8%). Conclusions Intracranial physiological calcifications can be a common finding on CBCT scans, whereas pathological intracranial calcifications are rare. PMID:22842632

  6. Evaluation of patient dose using a virtual CT scanner: Applications to 4DCT simulation and Kilovoltage cone-beam imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeMarco, J. J.; McNitt-Gray, M. F.; Cagnon, C. H.; Angel, E.; Agazaryan, N.; Zankl, M.

    2008-02-01

    This work evaluates the effects of patient size on radiation dose from simulation imaging studies such as four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) and kilovoltage cone-beam computed tomography (kV-CBCT). 4DCT studies are scans that include temporal information, frequently incorporating highly over-sampled imaging series necessary for retrospective sorting as a function of respiratory phase. This type of imaging study can result in a significant dose increase to the patient due to the slower table speed as compared with a conventional axial or helical scan protocol. Kilovoltage cone-beam imaging is a relatively new imaging technique that requires an on-board kilovoltage x-ray tube and a flat-panel detector. Instead of porting individual reference fields, the kV tube and flat-panel detector are rotated about the patient producing a cone-beam CT data set (kV-CBCT). To perform these investigations, we used Monte Carlo simulation methods with detailed models of adult patients and virtual source models of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scanners. The GSF family of three-dimensional, voxelized patient models, were implemented as input files using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX. The adult patient models represent a range of patient sizes and have all radiosensitive organs previously identified and segmented. Simulated 4DCT scans of each voxelized patient model were performed using a multi-detector CT source model that includes scanner specific spectra, bow-tie filtration, and helical source path. Standard MCNPX tally functions were applied to each model to estimate absolute organ dose based upon an air-kerma normalization measurement for nominal scanner operating parameters.

  7. Scatter correction for cone-beam CT in radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lei; Xie, Yaoqin; Wang, Jing; Xing, Lei

    2009-01-01

    Cone-beam CT (CBCT) is being increasingly used in modern radiation therapy for patient setup and adaptive replanning. However, due to the large volume of x-ray illumination, scatter becomes a rather serious problem and is considered as one of the fundamental limitations of CBCT image quality. Many scatter correction algorithms have been proposed in literature, while a standard practical solution still remains elusive. In radiation therapy, the same patient is scanned repetitively during a course of treatment, a natural question to ask is whether one can obtain the scatter distribution on the first day of treatment and then use the data for scatter correction in the subsequent scans on different days. To realize this scatter removal scheme, two technical pieces must be in place: (i) A strategy to obtain the scatter distribution in on-board CBCT imaging and (ii) a method to spatially match a prior scatter distribution with the on-treatment CBCT projection data for scatter subtraction. In this work, simple solutions to the two problems are provided. A partially blocked CBCT is used to extract the scatter distribution. The x-ray beam blocker has a strip pattern, such that partial volume can still be accurately reconstructed and the whole-field scatter distribution can be estimated from the detected signals in the shadow regions using interpolation∕extrapolation. In the subsequent scans, the patient transformation is determined using a rigid registration of the conventional CBCT and the prior partial CBCT. From the derived patient transformation, the measured scatter is then modified to adapt the new on-treatment patient geometry for scatter correction. The proposed method is evaluated using physical experiments on a clinical CBCT system. On the Catphan©600 phantom, the errors in Hounsfield unit (HU) in the selected regions of interest are reduced from about 350 to below 50 HU; on an anthropomorphic phantom, the error is reduced from 15.7% to 5.4%. The proposed

  8. Scatter correction for cone-beam CT in radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Lei; Xie Yaoqin; Wang Jing; Xing Lei

    2009-06-15

    Cone-beam CT (CBCT) is being increasingly used in modern radiation therapy for patient setup and adaptive replanning. However, due to the large volume of x-ray illumination, scatter becomes a rather serious problem and is considered as one of the fundamental limitations of CBCT image quality. Many scatter correction algorithms have been proposed in literature, while a standard practical solution still remains elusive. In radiation therapy, the same patient is scanned repetitively during a course of treatment, a natural question to ask is whether one can obtain the scatter distribution on the first day of treatment and then use the data for scatter correction in the subsequent scans on different days. To realize this scatter removal scheme, two technical pieces must be in place: (i) A strategy to obtain the scatter distribution in on-board CBCT imaging and (ii) a method to spatially match a prior scatter distribution with the on-treatment CBCT projection data for scatter subtraction. In this work, simple solutions to the two problems are provided. A partially blocked CBCT is used to extract the scatter distribution. The x-ray beam blocker has a strip pattern, such that partial volume can still be accurately reconstructed and the whole-field scatter distribution can be estimated from the detected signals in the shadow regions using interpolation/extrapolation. In the subsequent scans, the patient transformation is determined using a rigid registration of the conventional CBCT and the prior partial CBCT. From the derived patient transformation, the measured scatter is then modified to adapt the new on-treatment patient geometry for scatter correction. The proposed method is evaluated using physical experiments on a clinical CBCT system. On the Catphan(c)600 phantom, the errors in Hounsfield unit (HU) in the selected regions of interest are reduced from about 350 to below 50 HU; on an anthropomorphic phantom, the error is reduced from 15.7% to 5.4%. The proposed method

  9. Measurement of cone beam CT coincidence with megavoltage isocentre and image sharpness using the QUASAR Penta-Guide phantom.

    PubMed

    Sykes, J R; Lindsay, R; Dean, C J; Brettle, D S; Magee, D R; Thwaites, D I

    2008-10-07

    For image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) systems based on cone beam CT (CBCT) integrated into a linear accelerator, the reproducible alignment of imager to x-ray source is critical to the registration of both the x-ray-volumetric image with the megavoltage (MV) beam isocentre and image sharpness. An enhanced method of determining the CBCT to MV isocentre alignment using the QUASAR Penta-Guide phantom was developed which improved both precision and accuracy. This was benchmarked against our existing method which used software and a ball-bearing (BB) phantom provided by Elekta. Additionally, a method of measuring an image sharpness metric (MTF(50)) from the edge response function of a spherical air cavity within the Penta-Guide phantom was developed and its sensitivity was tested by simulating misalignments of the kV imager. Reproducibility testing of the enhanced Penta-Guide method demonstrated a systematic error of <0.2 mm when compared to the BB method with near equivalent random error (s=0.15 mm). The mean MTF(50) for five measurements was 0.278+/-0.004 lp mm(-1) with no applied misalignment. Simulated misalignments exhibited a clear peak in the MTF(50) enabling misalignments greater than 0.4 mm to be detected. The Penta-Guide phantom can be used to precisely measure CBCT-MV coincidence and image sharpness on CBCT-IGRT systems.

  10. Measurement of cone beam CT coincidence with megavoltage isocentre and image sharpness using the QUASAR™ Penta-Guide phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sykes, J. R.; Lindsay, R.; Dean, C. J.; Brettle, D. S.; Magee, D. R.; Thwaites, D. I.

    2008-10-01

    For image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) systems based on cone beam CT (CBCT) integrated into a linear accelerator, the reproducible alignment of imager to x-ray source is critical to the registration of both the x-ray-volumetric image with the megavoltage (MV) beam isocentre and image sharpness. An enhanced method of determining the CBCT to MV isocentre alignment using the QUASAR™ Penta-Guide phantom was developed which improved both precision and accuracy. This was benchmarked against our existing method which used software and a ball-bearing (BB) phantom provided by Elekta. Additionally, a method of measuring an image sharpness metric (MTF50) from the edge response function of a spherical air cavity within the Penta-Guide phantom was developed and its sensitivity was tested by simulating misalignments of the kV imager. Reproducibility testing of the enhanced Penta-Guide method demonstrated a systematic error of <0.2 mm when compared to the BB method with near equivalent random error (s = 0.15 mm). The mean MTF50 for five measurements was 0.278 ± 0.004 lp mm-1 with no applied misalignment. Simulated misalignments exhibited a clear peak in the MTF50 enabling misalignments greater than 0.4 mm to be detected. The Penta-Guide phantom can be used to precisely measure CBCT MV coincidence and image sharpness on CBCT-IGRT systems.

  11. Accurate patient dosimetry of kilovoltage cone-beam CT in radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, George X.; Duggan, Dennis M.; Coffey, Charles W.

    2008-03-15

    The increased utilization of x-ray imaging in image-guided radiotherapy has dramatically improved the radiation treatment and the lives of cancer patients. Daily imaging procedures, such as cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), for patient setup may significantly increase the dose to the patient's normal tissues. This study investigates the dosimetry from a kilovoltage (kV) CBCT for real patient geometries. Monte Carlo simulations were used to study the kV beams from a Varian on-board imager integrated into the Trilogy accelerator. The Monte Carlo calculated results were benchmarked against measurements and good agreement was obtained. The authors developed a novel method to calibrate Monte Carlo simulated beams with measurements using an ionization chamber in which the air-kerma calibration factors are obtained from an Accredited Dosimetry Calibration Laboratory. The authors have introduced a new Monte Carlo calibration factor, f{sub MCcal}, which is determined from the calibration procedure. The accuracy of the new method was validated by experiment. When a Monte Carlo simulated beam has been calibrated, the simulated beam can be used to accurately predict absolute dose distributions in the irradiated media. Using this method the authors calculated dose distributions to patient anatomies from a typical CBCT acquisition for different treatment sites, such as head and neck, lung, and pelvis. Their results have shown that, from a typical head and neck CBCT, doses to soft tissues, such as eye, spinal cord, and brain can be up to 8, 6, and 5 cGy, respectively. The dose to the bone, due to the photoelectric effect, can be as much as 25 cGy, about three times the dose to the soft tissue. The study provides detailed information on the additional doses to the normal tissues of a patient from a typical kV CBCT acquisition. The methodology of the Monte Carlo beam calibration developed and introduced in this study allows the user to calculate both relative and absolute

  12. Single-slice reconstruction method for helical cone-beam differential phase-contrast CT.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jian; Chen, Liyuan

    2014-01-01

    X-ray phase-contrast computed tomography (PC-CT) can provide the internal structure information of biomedical specimens with high-quality cross-section images and has become an invaluable analysis tool. Here a simple and fast reconstruction algorithm is reported for helical cone-beam differential PC-CT (DPC-CT), which is called the DPC-CB-SSRB algorithm. It combines the existing CB-SSRB method of helical cone-beam absorption-contrast CT with the differential nature of DPC imaging. The reconstruction can be performed using 2D fan-beam filtered back projection algorithm with the Hilbert imaginary filter. The quality of the results for large helical pitches is surprisingly good. In particular, with this algorithm comparable quality is obtained using helical cone-beam DPC-CT data with a normalized pitch of 10 to that obtained using the traditional inter-row interpolation reconstruction with a normalized pitch of 2. This method will push the future medical helical cone-beam DPC-CT imaging applications.

  13. Fast kilovoltage/megavoltage (kVMV) breathhold cone-beam CT for image-guided radiotherapy of lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wertz, Hansjoerg; Stsepankou, Dzmitry; Blessing, Manuel; Rossi, Michael; Knox, Chris; Brown, Kevin; Gros, Uwe; Boda-Heggemann, Judit; Walter, Cornelia; Hesser, Juergen; Lohr, Frank; Wenz, Frederik

    2010-08-01

    Long image acquisition times of 60-120 s for cone-beam CT (CBCT) limit the number of patients with lung cancer who can undergo volume image guidance under breathhold. We developed a low-dose dual-energy kilovoltage-megavoltage-cone-beam CT (kVMV-CBCT) based on a clinical treatment unit reducing imaging time to <=15 s. Simultaneous kVMV-imaging was achieved by dedicated synchronization hardware controlling the output of the linear accelerator (linac) based on detector panel readout signals, preventing imaging artifacts from interference of the linac's MV-irradiation and panel readouts. Optimization was performed to minimize the imaging dose. Single MV-projections, reconstructed MV-CBCT images and images of simultaneous 90° kV- and 90° MV-CBCT (180° kVMV-CBCT) were acquired with different parameters. Image quality and imaging dose were evaluated and compared to kV-imaging. Hardware-based kVMV synchronization resulted in artifact-free projections. A combined 180° kVMV-CBCT scan with a total MV-dose of 5 monitor units was acquired in 15 s and with sufficient image quality. The resolution was 5-6 line pairs cm-1 (Catphan phantom). The combined kVMV-scan dose was equivalent to a kV-radiation scan dose of ~33 mGy. kVMV-CBCT based on a standard linac is promising and can provide ultra-fast online volume image guidance with low imaging dose and sufficient image quality for fast and accurate patient positioning for patients with lung cancer under breathhold.

  14. Beam hardening and smoothing correction effects on performance of micro-ct SkyScan 1173 for imaging low contrast density materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sriwayu, Wa Ode; Haryanto, Freddy; Khotimah, Siti Nurul; Latief, Fourier Dzar Eljabbar

    2015-04-01

    We have designed and fabricated phantom mimicking breast cancer composition known as a region that has low contrast density. The used compositions are a microcalcifications, fatty tissues and tumor mass by using Al2O3, C27H46O, and hard nylon materials. Besides, phantom also has a part to calculate low cost criteria /CNR (Contrast to Noise Ratio). Uniformity will be measured at water distillation medium located in a part of phantom scale contrast. Phantom will be imaged by using micro ct-sky scan 1173 high energy type, and then also can be quantified CT number to examine SkyScan 1173 performance in imaging low contrast density materials. Evaluation of CT number is done at technique configuration parameter using voltage of 30 kV, exposure 0.160 mAs, and camera resolution 560x560 pixel, the effect of image quality to reconstruction process is evaluated by varying image processing parameters in the form of beam hardening corrections with amount of 25%, 66% and100% with each smoothing level S10,S2 and S7. To obtain the better high quality image, the adjustment of beam hardening correction should be 66% and smoothing level reach maximal value at level 10.

  15. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Cone-Beam CT in Conjunction with DSA for Identifying Prostatic Arterial Anatomy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mao Qiang; Duan, Feng; Yuan, Kai; Zhang, Guo Dong; Yan, Jieyu; Wang, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To describe findings in prostatic arteries (PAs) at digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and cone-beam computed tomography (CT) that allow identification of benign prostatic hyperplasia and to determine the value added with the use of cone-beam CT. Materials and Methods This retrospective single-institution study was approved by the institutional review board, and the requirement for written informed consent was waived. From February 2009 to December 2014, a total of 148 patients (mean age ± standard deviation, 70.5 years ± 14.5) underwent DSA of the internal iliac arteries and cone-beam CT with a flat-detector angiographic system before they underwent prostate artery embolization. Both the DSA and cone-beam CT images were evaluated by two interventional radiologists to determine the number of independent PAs and their origins and anastomoses with adjacent arteries. The exact McNemar test was used to compare the detection rate of the PAs and the anastomoses with DSA and with cone-beam CT. Results The PA anatomy was evaluated successfully by means of cone-beam CT in conjunction with DSA in all patients. Of the 296 pelvic sides, 274 (92.6%) had only one PA. The most frequent PA origin was the common gluteal-pudendal trunk with the superior vesicular artery in 118 (37.1%), followed by the anterior division of the internal iliac artery in 99 (31.1%), and the internal pudendal artery in 77 (24.2%) pelvic sides. In 67 (22.6%) pelvic sides, anastomoses to adjacent arteries were documented. The numbers of PA origins and anastomoses, respectively, that could be identified were significantly higher with cone-beam CT (301 of 318 [94.7%] and 65 of 67 [97.0%]) than with DSA (237 [74.5%] and 39 [58.2%], P < .05). Cone-beam CT provided essential information that was not available with DSA in 90 of 148 (60.8%) patients. Conclusion Cone-beam CT is a useful adjunctive technique to DSA for identification of the PA anatomy and provides information to help treatment planning

  16. Imaging task-based optimal kV and mA selection for CT radiation dose reduction: from filtered backprojection (FBP) to statistical model based iterative reconstruction (MBIR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ke; Gomez-Cardona, Daniel; Lubner, Meghan G.; Pickhardt, Perry J.; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2015-03-01

    Optimal selections of tube potential (kV) and tube current (mA) are essential in maximizing the diagnostic potential of a given CT technology while minimizing radiation dose. The use of a lower tube potential may improve image contrast, but may also require a significantly higher tube current to compensate for the rapid decrease of tube output at lower tube potentials. Therefore, the selection of kV and mA should take those kinds of constraints as well as the specific diagnostic imaging task in to consideration. For conventional quasi-linear CT systems employing linear filtered back-projection (FBP) image reconstruction algorithm, the optimization of kV-mA combinations are relatively straightforward, as neither spatial resolution nor noise texture has significant dependence on kV and mA settings. In these cases, zero-frequency analysis such as contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) or normalized CNR by dose (CNRD) can be used for optimal kV-mA selection. The recently introduced statistical model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) method, however, has introduced new challenges to optimal kV and mA selection, as both spatial resolution and noise texture become closely correlated with kV and mA. In this work, a task-based approach based on modern signal detection theory and the corresponding frequency-dependent analysis has been proposed to perform the kV and mA optimization for both FBP and MBIR. By performing exhaustive measurements of task-based detectability index through the technically accessible kV-mA parameter space, iso-detectability contours were generated and overlaid on top of iso-dose contours, from which the kV-mA pair that minimize dose yet still achieving the desired detectability level can be identified.

  17. Evaluation of the OSC-TV iterative reconstruction algorithm for cone-beam optical CT

    SciTech Connect

    Matenine, Dmitri Mascolo-Fortin, Julia; Goussard, Yves

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: The present work evaluates an iterative reconstruction approach, namely, the ordered subsets convex (OSC) algorithm with regularization via total variation (TV) minimization in the field of cone-beam optical computed tomography (optical CT). One of the uses of optical CT is gel-based 3D dosimetry for radiation therapy, where it is employed to map dose distributions in radiosensitive gels. Model-based iterative reconstruction may improve optical CT image quality and contribute to a wider use of optical CT in clinical gel dosimetry. Methods: This algorithm was evaluated using experimental data acquired by a cone-beam optical CT system, as well as complementary numerical simulations. A fast GPU implementation of OSC-TV was used to achieve reconstruction times comparable to those of conventional filtered backprojection. Images obtained via OSC-TV were compared with the corresponding filtered backprojections. Spatial resolution and uniformity phantoms were scanned and respective reconstructions were subject to evaluation of the modulation transfer function, image uniformity, and accuracy. The artifacts due to refraction and total signal loss from opaque objects were also studied. Results: The cone-beam optical CT data reconstructions showed that OSC-TV outperforms filtered backprojection in terms of image quality, thanks to a model-based simulation of the photon attenuation process. It was shown to significantly improve the image spatial resolution and reduce image noise. The accuracy of the estimation of linear attenuation coefficients remained similar to that obtained via filtered backprojection. Certain image artifacts due to opaque objects were reduced. Nevertheless, the common artifact due to the gel container walls could not be eliminated. Conclusions: The use of iterative reconstruction improves cone-beam optical CT image quality in many ways. The comparisons between OSC-TV and filtered backprojection presented in this paper demonstrate that OSC-TV can

  18. WE-D-9A-02: Automated Landmark-Guided CT to Cone-Beam CT Deformable Image Registration

    SciTech Connect

    Kearney, V; Gu, X; Chen, S; Jiang, L; Liu, H; Chiu, T; Yordy, J; Nedzi, L; Mao, W

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The anatomical changes that occur between the simulation CT and daily cone-beam CT (CBCT) are investigated using an automated landmark-guided deformable image registration (LDIR) algorithm with simultaneous intensity correction. LDIR was designed to be accurate in the presence of tissue intensity mismatch and heavy noise contamination. Method: An auto-landmark generation algorithm was used in conjunction with a local small volume (LSV) gradient matching search engine to map corresponding landmarks between the CBCT and planning CT. The LSVs offsets were used to perform an initial deformation, generate landmarks, and correct local intensity mismatch. The landmarks act as stabilizing controlpoints in the Demons objective function. The accuracy of the LDIR algorithm was evaluated on one synthetic case with ground truth and data of ten head and neck cancer patients. The deformation vector field (DVF) accuracy was accessed using a synthetic case. The Root mean square error of the 3D canny edge (RMSECE), mutual information (MI), and feature similarity index metric (FSIM) were used to access the accuracy of LDIR on the patient data. The quality of the corresponding deformed contours was verified by an attending physician. Results: The resulting 90 percentile DVF error for the synthetic case was within 5.63mm for the original demons algorithm, 2.84mm for intensity correction alone, 2.45mm using controlpoints without intensity correction, and 1.48 mm for the LDIR algorithm. For the five patients the mean RMSECE of the original CT, Demons deformed CT, intensity corrected Demons CT, control-point stabilized deformed CT, and LDIR CT was 0.24, 0.26, 0.20, 0.20, and 0.16 respectively. Conclusion: LDIR is accurate in the presence of multimodal intensity mismatch and CBCT noise contamination. Since LDIR is GPU based it can be implemented with minimal additional strain on clinical resources. This project has been supported by a CPRIT individual investigator award RP11032.

  19. Image-Guided Radiotherapy (IGRT) for Prostate Cancer Comparing kV Imaging of Fiducial Markers With Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT)

    SciTech Connect

    Barney, Brandon M.; Lee, R. Jeffrey; Handrahan, Diana; Welsh, Keith T.; Cook, J. Taylor; Sause, William T.

    2011-05-01

    Purpose: To present our single-institution experience with image-guided radiotherapy comparing fiducial markers and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) for daily localization of prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: From April 2007 to October 2008, 36 patients with prostate cancer received intensity-modulated radiotherapy with daily localization by use of implanted fiducials. Orthogonal kilovoltage (kV) portal imaging preceded all 1244 treatments. Cone-beam computed tomography images were also obtained before 286 treatments (23%). Shifts in the anterior-posterior (AP), superior-inferior (SI), and left-right (LR) dimensions were made from kV fiducial imaging. Cone-beam computed tomography shifts based on soft tissues were recorded. Shifts were compared by use of Bland-Altman limits of agreement. Mean and standard deviation of absolute differences were also compared. A difference of 5 mm or less was acceptable. Subsets including start date, body mass index, and prostate size were analyzed. Results: Of 286 treatments, 81 (28%) resulted in a greater than 5.0-mm difference in one or more dimensions. Mean differences in the AP, SI, and LR dimensions were 3.4 {+-} 2.6 mm, 3.1 {+-} 2.7 mm, and 1.3 {+-} 1.6 mm, respectively. Most deviations occurred in the posterior (fiducials, 78%; CBCT, 59%), superior (79%, 61%), and left (57%, 63%) directions. Bland-Altman 95% confidence intervals were -4.0 to 9.3 mm for AP, -9.0 to 5.3 mm for SI, and -4.1 to 3.9 mm for LR. The percentages of shift agreements within {+-}5 mm were 72.4% for AP, 72.7% for SI, and 97.2% for LR. Correlation between imaging techniques was not altered by time, body mass index, or prostate size. Conclusions: Cone-beam computed tomography and kV fiducial imaging are similar; however, more than one-fourth of CBCT and kV shifts differed enough to affect target coverage. This was even more pronounced with smaller margins (3 mm). Fiducial imaging requires less daily physician input, is less time-consuming, and is

  20. Dual-Source Multi-Energy CT with Triple or Quadruple X-ray Beams.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lifeng; Leng, Shuai; McCollough, Cynthia H

    2016-02-01

    Energy-resolved photon-counting CT (PCCT) is promising for material decomposition with multi-contrast agents. However, corrections for non-idealities of PCCT detectors are required, which are still active research areas. In addition, PCCT is associated with very high cost due to lack of mass production. In this work, we proposed an alternative approach to performing multi-energy CT, which was achieved by acquiring triple or quadruple x-ray beam measurements on a dual-source CT scanner. This strategy was based on a "Twin Beam" design on a single-source scanner for dual-energy CT. Examples of beam filters and spectra for triple and quadruple x-ray beam were provided. Computer simulation studies were performed to evaluate the accuracy of material decomposition for multi-contrast mixtures using a tri-beam configuration. The proposed strategy can be readily implemented on a dual-source scanner, which may allow material decomposition of multi-contrast agents to be performed on clinical CT scanners with energy-integrating detector.

  1. Metal Artifact Reduction for Polychromatic X-ray CT Based on a Beam-Hardening Corrector.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyoung Suk; Hwang, Dosik; Seo, Jin Keun

    2016-02-01

    This paper proposes a new method to correct beam hardening artifacts caused by the presence of metal in polychromatic X-ray computed tomography (CT) without degrading the intact anatomical images. Metal artifacts due to beam-hardening, which are a consequence of X-ray beam polychromaticity, are becoming an increasingly important issue affecting CT scanning as medical implants become more common in a generally aging population. The associated higher-order beam-hardening factors can be corrected via analysis of the mismatch between measured sinogram data and the ideal forward projectors in CT reconstruction by considering the known geometry of high-attenuation objects. Without prior knowledge of the spectrum parameters or energy-dependent attenuation coefficients, the proposed correction allows the background CT image (i.e., the image before its corruption by metal artifacts) to be extracted from the uncorrected CT image. Computer simulations and phantom experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method to alleviate beam hardening artifacts.

  2. Cone beam CT findings of retromolar canals: Report of cases and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sang-Sun

    2013-01-01

    A retromolar canal is an anatomical variation in the mandible. As it includes the neurovascular bundle, local anesthetic insufficiency can occur, and an injury of the retromolar canal during dental surgery in the mandible may result in excessive bleeding, paresthesia, and traumatic neuroma. Using imaging analysis software, we evaluated the cone-beam computed tomography (CT) images of two Korean patients who presented with retromolar canals. Retromolar canals were detectable on the sagittal and cross-sectional images of cone-beam CT, but not on the panoramic radiographs of the patients. Therefore, the clinician should pay particular attention to the identification of retromolar canals by preoperative radiographic examination, and additional cone beam CT scanning would be recommended. PMID:24380072

  3. Dosimetric feasibility of cone-beam CT-based treatment planning compared to CT-based treatment planning

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Sua . E-mail: sua.yoo@duke.edu; Yin, F.-F.

    2006-12-01

    Purpose: Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images are currently used for positioning verification. However, it is yet unknown whether CBCT could be used in dose calculation for replanning in adaptive radiation therapy. This study investigates the dosimetric feasibility of CBCT-based treatment planning. Methods and Materials: Hounsfield unit (HU) values and profiles of Catphan, homogeneous/inhomogeneous phantoms, and various tissue regions of patients in CBCT images were compared to those in CT. The dosimetric consequence of the HU variation was investigated by comparing CBCT-based treatment plans to conventional CT-based plans for both phantoms and patients. Results: The maximum HU difference between CBCT and CT of Catphan was 34 HU in the Teflon. The differences in other materials were less than 10 HU. The profiles for the homogeneous phantoms in CBCT displayed reduced HU values up to 150 HU in the peripheral regions compared to those in CT. The scatter and artifacts in CBCT became severe surrounding inhomogeneous tissues with reduced HU values up to 200 HU. The MU/cGy differences were less than 1% for most phantom cases. The isodose distributions between CBCT-based and CT-based plans agreed very well. However, the discrepancy was larger when CBCT was scanned without a bowtie filter than with bowtie filter. Also, up to 3% dosimetric error was observed in the plans for the inhomogeneous phantom. In the patient studies, the discrepancies of isodose lines between CT-based and CBCT-based plans, both 3D and IMRT, were less than 2 mm. Again, larger discrepancy occurred for the lung cancer patients. Conclusion: This study demonstrated the feasibility of CBCT-based treatment planning. CBCT-based treatment plans were dosimetrically comparable to CT-based treatment plans. Dosimetric data in the inhomogeneous tissue regions should be carefully validated.

  4. Reducing radiation dose to the female breast during CT coronary angiography: A simulation study comparing breast shielding, angular tube current modulation, reduced kV, and partial angle protocols using an unknown-location signal-detectability metric

    SciTech Connect

    Rupcich, Franco; Gilat Schmidt, Taly; Badal, Andreu; Popescu, Lucretiu M.; Kyprianou, Iacovos

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: The authors compared the performance of five protocols intended to reduce dose to the breast during computed tomography (CT) coronary angiography scans using a model observer unknown-location signal-detectability metric.Methods: The authors simulated CT images of an anthropomorphic female thorax phantom for a 120 kV reference protocol and five “dose reduction” protocols intended to reduce dose to the breast: 120 kV partial angle (posteriorly centered), 120 kV tube-current modulated (TCM), 120 kV with shielded breasts, 80 kV, and 80 kV partial angle (posteriorly centered). Two image quality tasks were investigated: the detection and localization of 4-mm, 3.25 mg/ml and 1-mm, 6.0 mg/ml iodine contrast signals randomly located in the heart region. For each protocol, the authors plotted the signal detectability, as quantified by the area under the exponentially transformed free response characteristic curve estimator (A-caret{sub FE}), as well as noise and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) versus breast and lung dose. In addition, the authors quantified each protocol's dose performance as the percent difference in dose relative to the reference protocol achieved while maintaining equivalent A-caret{sub FE}.Results: For the 4-mm signal-size task, the 80 kV full scan and 80 kV partial angle protocols decreased dose to the breast (80.5% and 85.3%, respectively) and lung (80.5% and 76.7%, respectively) with A-caret{sub FE} = 0.96, but also resulted in an approximate three-fold increase in image noise. The 120 kV partial protocol reduced dose to the breast (17.6%) at the expense of increased lung dose (25.3%). The TCM algorithm decreased dose to the breast (6.0%) and lung (10.4%). Breast shielding increased breast dose (67.8%) and lung dose (103.4%). The 80 kV and 80 kV partial protocols demonstrated greater dose reductions for the 4-mm task than for the 1-mm task, and the shielded protocol showed a larger increase in dose for the 4-mm task than for the 1-mm task

  5. Dynamic cone beam CT angiography of carotid and cerebral arteries using canine model

    SciTech Connect

    Cai Weixing; Zhao Binghui; Conover, David; Liu Jiangkun; Ning Ruola

    2012-01-15

    Purpose: This research is designed to develop and evaluate a flat-panel detector-based dynamic cone beam CT system for dynamic angiography imaging, which is able to provide both dynamic functional information and dynamic anatomic information from one multirevolution cone beam CT scan. Methods: A dynamic cone beam CT scan acquired projections over four revolutions within a time window of 40 s after contrast agent injection through a femoral vein to cover the entire wash-in and wash-out phases. A dynamic cone beam CT reconstruction algorithm was utilized and a novel recovery method was developed to correct the time-enhancement curve of contrast flow. From the same data set, both projection-based subtraction and reconstruction-based subtraction approaches were utilized and compared to remove the background tissues and visualize the 3D vascular structure to provide the dynamic anatomic information. Results: Through computer simulations, the new recovery algorithm for dynamic time-enhancement curves was optimized and showed excellent accuracy to recover the actual contrast flow. Canine model experiments also indicated that the recovered time-enhancement curves from dynamic cone beam CT imaging agreed well with that of an IV-digital subtraction angiography (DSA) study. The dynamic vascular structures reconstructed using both projection-based subtraction and reconstruction-based subtraction were almost identical as the differences between them were comparable to the background noise level. At the enhancement peak, all the major carotid and cerebral arteries and the Circle of Willis could be clearly observed. Conclusions: The proposed dynamic cone beam CT approach can accurately recover the actual contrast flow, and dynamic anatomic imaging can be obtained with high isotropic 3D resolution. This approach is promising for diagnosis and treatment planning of vascular diseases and strokes.

  6. Region-of-interest reconstruction for a cone-beam dental CT with a circular trajectory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhanli; Zou, Jing; Gui, Jianbao; Zheng, Hairong; Xia, Dan

    2013-04-01

    Dental CT is the most appropriate and accurate device for preoperative evaluation of dental implantation. It can demonstrate the quantity of bone in three dimensions (3D), the location of important adjacent anatomic structures and the quality of available bone with minimal geometric distortion. Nevertheless, with the rapid increase of dental CT examinations, we are facing the problem of dose reduction without loss of image quality. In this work, backprojection-filtration (BPF) and Feldkamp-Davis-Kress (FDK) algorithm was applied to reconstruct the 3D full image and region-of-interest (ROI) image from complete and truncated circular cone-beam data respectively by computer-simulation. In addition, the BPF algorithm was evaluated based on the 3D ROI-image reconstruction from real data, which was acquired from our developed circular cone-beam prototype dental CT system. The results demonstrated that the ROI-image quality reconstructed from truncated data using the BPF algorithm was comparable to that reconstructed from complete data. The FDK algorithm, however, created artifacts while reconstructing ROI-image. Thus it can be seen, for circular cone-beam dental CT, reducing scanning angular range of the BPF algorithm used for ROI-image reconstruction are helpful for reducing the radiation dose and scanning time. Finally, an analytical method was developed for estimation of the ROI projection area on the detector before CT scanning, which would help doctors to roughly estimate the total radiation dose before the CT examination.

  7. Simulation of mammograms and tomosynthesis imaging with cone beam breast CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Tao; Shaw, Chris C.; Chen, Lingyun; Lai, Chao-jen; Liu, Xinming; Wang, Tianpeng

    2008-03-01

    The use of mammography techniques for the screening and diagnosis of breast cancers has been limited by the overlapping of cancer symptoms with normal tissue structures. To overcome this problem, two methods have been developed and actively investigated recently: digital tomosynthesis mammography and cone beam breast CT. Comparison study with these three techniques will be helpful to understand their difference and further might be supervise the direction of breast imaging. This paper describes and discusses about a technique using a general-purpose PC cluster to develop a parallel computer simulation model to simulate mammograms and tomosynthesis imaging with cone beam CT images of a mastectomy breast specimen. The breast model used in simulating mammography and tomosynthesis was developed by re-scaling the CT numbers of cone beam CT images from 80kVp to 20 kev. The compression of breast was simulated by deformation of the breast model. Re-projection software with parallel computation was developed and used to compute projection images of this simulated compressed breast for a stationary detector and a linearly shifted x-ray source. The resulting images were then used to reconstruct tomosynthesis mammograms using shift-and-add algorithms. It was found that MCs in cone beam CT images were not visible in regular mammograms but faintly visible in tomosynthesis images. The scatter signal and noise property needs to be simulated and incorporated in the future.

  8. Point spread function modeling and image restoration for cone-beam CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hua; Huang, Kui-Dong; Shi, Yi-Kai; Xu, Zhe

    2015-03-01

    X-ray cone-beam computed tomography (CT) has such notable features as high efficiency and precision, and is widely used in the fields of medical imaging and industrial non-destructive testing, but the inherent imaging degradation reduces the quality of CT images. Aimed at the problems of projection image degradation and restoration in cone-beam CT, a point spread function (PSF) modeling method is proposed first. The general PSF model of cone-beam CT is established, and based on it, the PSF under arbitrary scanning conditions can be calculated directly for projection image restoration without the additional measurement, which greatly improved the application convenience of cone-beam CT. Secondly, a projection image restoration algorithm based on pre-filtering and pre-segmentation is proposed, which can make the edge contours in projection images and slice images clearer after restoration, and control the noise in the equivalent level to the original images. Finally, the experiments verified the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed methods. Supported by National Science and Technology Major Project of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of China (2012ZX04007021), Young Scientists Fund of National Natural Science Foundation of China (51105315), Natural Science Basic Research Program of Shaanxi Province of China (2013JM7003) and Northwestern Polytechnical University Foundation for Fundamental Research (JC20120226, 3102014KYJD022)

  9. Dual-Source Multi-Energy CT with Triple or Quadruple X-ray Beams

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lifeng; Leng, Shuai; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2016-01-01

    Energy-resolved photon-counting CT (PCCT) is promising for material decomposition with multi-contrast agents. However, corrections for non-idealities of PCCT detectors are required, which are still active research areas. In addition, PCCT is associated with very high cost due to lack of mass production. In this work, we proposed an alternative approach to performing multi-energy CT, which was achieved by acquiring triple or quadruple x-ray beam measurements on a dual-source CT scanner. This strategy was based on a “Twin Beam” design on a single-source scanner for dual-energy CT. Examples of beam filters and spectra for triple and quadruple x-ray beam were provided. Computer simulation studies were performed to evaluate the accuracy of material decomposition for multi-contrast mixtures using a tri-beam configuration. The proposed strategy can be readily implemented on a dual-source scanner, which may allow material decomposition of multi-contrast agents to be performed on clinical CT scanners with energy-integrating detector. PMID:27330237

  10. TU-EF-204-03: Task-Based KV and MAs Optimization for Radiation Dose Reduction in CT: From FBP to Statistical Model-Based Iterative Reconstruction (MBIR)

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Cardona, D; Li, K; Lubner, M G; Pickhardt, P J; Chen, G-H

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The introduction of the highly nonlinear MBIR algorithm to clinical CT systems has made CNR an invalid metric for kV optimization. The purpose of this work was to develop a task-based framework to unify kV and mAs optimization for both FBP- and MBIR-based CT systems. Methods: The kV-mAs optimization was formulated as a constrained minimization problem: to select kV and mAs to minimize dose under the constraint of maintaining the detection performance as clinically prescribed. To experimentally solve this optimization problem, exhaustive measurements of detectability index (d’) for a hepatic lesion detection task were performed at 15 different mA levels and 4 kV levels using an anthropomorphic phantom. The measured d’ values were used to generate an iso-detectability map; similarly, dose levels recorded at different kV-mAs combinations were used to generate an iso-dose map. The iso-detectability map was overlaid on top of the iso-dose map so that for a prescribed detectability level d’, the optimal kV-mA can be determined from the crossing between the d’ contour and the dose contour that corresponds to the minimum dose. Results: Taking d’=16 as an example: the kV-mAs combinations on the measured iso-d’ line of MBIR are 80–150 (3.8), 100–140 (6.6), 120–150 (11.3), and 140–160 (17.2), where values in the parentheses are measured dose values. As a Result, the optimal kV was 80 and optimal mA was 150. In comparison, the optimal kV and mA for FBP were 100 and 500, which corresponded to a dose level of 24 mGy. Results of in vivo animal experiments were consistent with the phantom results. Conclusion: A new method to optimize kV and mAs selection has been developed. This method is applicable to both linear and nonlinear CT systems such as those using MBIR. Additional dose savings can be achieved by combining MBIR with this method. This work was partially supported by an NIH grant R01CA169331 and GE Healthcare. K. Li, D. Gomez-Cardona, M. G

  11. Cone beam CT assisted re-treatment of class 3 invasive cervical resorption

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Unni; Moule, Alex J; Alawadhi, Abdulwahab

    2015-01-01

    Invasive cervical root resorption is an uncommon external root resorption which initiates at the cervical aspect of the tooth. This case report involves a case of cervical root resorption which was initially misdiagnosed and managed as cervical root caries. It was later diagnosed with cone beam CT and the lesion microsurgically removed and restored with resin modified glass ionomer cement. The importance of increasing awareness of this uncommon pathology and the role of cone beam CT in mapping the extent of the lesion is emphasised. PMID:25795743

  12. Single-scan scatter correction for cone-beam CT using a stationary beam blocker: a preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Tianye; Zhu, Lei

    2011-03-01

    The performance of cone-beam CT (CBCT) is greatly limited by scatter artifacts. The existing measurement-based methods have promising advantages as a standard scatter correction solution, except that they currently require multiple scans or moving the beam blocker during data acquisition to compensate for the missing primary data. These approaches are therefore unpractical in clinical applications. In this work, we propose a new measurement-based scatter correction method to achieve accurate reconstruction with one single scan and a stationary beam blocker, two seemingly incompatible features which enable simple and effective scatter correction without increase of scan time or patient dose. Based on CT reconstruction theory, we distribute the blocked areas over one projection where primary signals are considered to be redundant in a full scan. The CT image quality is not degraded even with primary loss. Scatter is accurately estimated by interpolation and scatter-corrected CT images are obtained using an FDK-based reconstruction. In a Monte Carlo simulation study, we first optimize the beam blocker geometry using projections on the Shepp-Logan phantom and then carry out a complete simulation of a CBCT scan on a water phantom. With the scatter-to-primary ratio around 1.0, our method reduces the CT number error from 293 to 2.9 Hounsfield unit (HU) around the phantom center. The proposed approach is further evaluated on a CBCT tabletop system. On the Catphan©600 phantom, the reconstruction error is reduced from 202 to 10 HU in the selected region of interest after the proposed correction.

  13. A curve-filtered FDK (C-FDK) reconstruction algorithm for circular cone-beam CT.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Xing, Yuxiang; Chen, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Li; Kang, Kejun

    2011-01-01

    Circular cone-beam CT is one of the most popular configurations in both medical and industrial applications. The FDK algorithm is the most popular method for circular cone-beam CT. However, with increasing cone-angle the cone-beam artifacts associated with the FDK algorithm deteriorate because the circular trajectory does not satisfy the data sufficiency condition. Along with an experimental evaluation and verification, this paper proposed a curve-filtered FDK (C-FDK) algorithm. First, cone-parallel projections are rebinned from the native cone-beam geometry in two separate directions. C-FDK rebins and filters projections along different curves from T-FDK in the centrally virtual detector plane. Then, numerical experiments are done to validate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm by comparing with both FDK and T-FDK reconstruction. Without any other extra trajectories supplemental to the circular orbit, C-FDK has a visible image quality improvement.

  14. Region-of-interest image reconstruction in circular cone-beam microCT

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Seungryong; Bian, Junguo; Pelizzari, Charles A.; Chen, C.-T.; He, T.-C.; Pan Xiaochuan

    2007-12-15

    Cone-beam microcomputed tomography (microCT) is one of the most popular choices for small animal imaging which is becoming an important tool for studying animal models with transplanted diseases. Region-of-interest (ROI) imaging techniques in CT, which can reconstruct an ROI image from the projection data set of the ROI, can be used not only for reducing imaging-radiation exposure to the subject and scatters to the detector but also for potentially increasing spatial resolution of the reconstructed images. Increasing spatial resolution in microCT images can facilitate improved accuracy in many assessment tasks. A method proposed previously for increasing CT image spatial resolution entails the exploitation of the geometric magnification in cone-beam CT. Due to finite detector size, however, this method can lead to data truncation for a large geometric magnification. The Feldkamp-Davis-Kress (FDK) algorithm yields images with artifacts when truncated data are used, whereas the recently developed backprojection filtration (BPF) algorithm is capable of reconstructing ROI images without truncation artifacts from truncated cone-beam data. We apply the BPF algorithm to reconstructing ROI images from truncated data of three different objects acquired by our circular cone-beam microCT system. Reconstructed images by use of the FDK and BPF algorithms from both truncated and nontruncated cone-beam data are compared. The results of the experimental studies demonstrate that, from certain truncated data, the BPF algorithm can reconstruct ROI images with quality comparable to that reconstructed from nontruncated data. In contrast, the FDK algorithm yields ROI images with truncation artifacts. Therefore, an implication of the studies is that, when truncated data are acquired with a configuration of a large geometric magnification, the BPF algorithm can be used for effective enhancement of the spatial resolution of a ROI image.

  15. Percutaneous Bone Biopsies: Comparison between Flat-Panel Cone-Beam CT and CT-Scan Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Tselikas, Lambros Joskin, Julien; Roquet, Florian; Farouil, Geoffroy; Dreuil, Serge; Hakimé, Antoine Teriitehau, Christophe; Auperin, Anne; Baere, Thierry de Deschamps, Frederic

    2015-02-15

    PurposeThis study was designed to compare the accuracy of targeting and the radiation dose of bone biopsies performed either under fluoroscopic guidance using a cone-beam CT with real-time 3D image fusion software (FP-CBCT-guidance) or under conventional computed tomography guidance (CT-guidance).MethodsSixty-eight consecutive patients with a bone lesion were prospectively included. The bone biopsies were scheduled under FP-CBCT-guidance or under CT-guidance according to operating room availability. Thirty-four patients underwent a bone biopsy under FP-CBCT and 34 under CT-guidance. We prospectively compared the two guidance modalities for their technical success, accuracy, puncture time, and pathological success rate. Patient and physician radiation doses also were compared.ResultsAll biopsies were technically successful, with both guidance modalities. Accuracy was significantly better using FP-CBCT-guidance (3 and 5 mm respectively: p = 0.003). There was no significant difference in puncture time (32 and 31 min respectively, p = 0.51) nor in pathological results (88 and 88 % of pathological success respectively, p = 1). Patient radiation doses were significantly lower with FP-CBCT (45 vs. 136 mSv, p < 0.0001). The percentage of operators who received a dose higher than 0.001 mSv (dosimeter detection dose threshold) was lower with FP-CBCT than CT-guidance (27 vs. 59 %, p = 0.01).ConclusionsFP-CBCT-guidance for bone biopsy is accurate and reduces patient and operator radiation doses compared with CT-guidance.

  16. Comparison of full-scan and half-scan for cone beam breast CT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lingyun; Shaw, Chris C.; Lai, Chao-jen; Altunbas, Mustafa C.; Wang, Tianpeng; Tu, Shu-ju; Liu, Xinming

    2006-03-01

    The half-scan cone beam technique, requiring a scan for 180° plus detector width only, can help achieve both shorter scan time as well as higher exposure in each individual projection image. This purpose of this paper is to investigate whether half-scan cone beam CT technique can provide acceptable images for clinical application. The half-scan cone beam reconstruction algorithm uses modified Parker's weighting function and reconstructs from slightly more than half of the projection views for full-scan, giving out promising results. A rotation phantom, stationary gantry bench top system was built to conduct experiments to evaluate half-scan cone beam breast CT technique. A post-mastectomy breast specimen, a stack of lunch meat slices embedded with various sizes of calcifications and a polycarbonate phantom inserted with glandular and adipose tissue equivalents are imaged and reconstructed for comparison study. A subset of full-scan projection images of a mastectomy specimen were extracted and used as the half-scan projection data for reconstruction. The results show half-scan reconstruction algorithm for cone beam breast CT images does not significantly degrade image quality when compared with the images of same or even half the radiation dose level. Our results are encouraging, emphasizing the potential advantages in the use of half-scan technique for cone beam breast imaging.

  17. SU-E-I-15: Quantitative Evaluation of Dose Distributions From Axial, Helical and Cone-Beam CT Imaging by Measurement Using a Two-Dimensional Diode-Array Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Chacko, M; Aldoohan, S; Sonnad, J; Ahmad, S; Ali, I

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate quantitatively dose distributions from helical, axial and cone-beam CT clinical imaging techniques by measurement using a two-dimensional (2D) diode-array detector. Methods: 2D-dose distributions from selected clinical protocols used for axial, helical and cone-beam CT imaging were measured using a diode-array detector (MapCheck2). The MapCheck2 is composed from solid state diode detectors that are arranged in horizontal and vertical lines with a spacing of 10 mm. A GE-Light-Speed CT-simulator was used to acquire axial and helical CT images and a kV on-board-imager integrated with a Varian TrueBeam-STx machine was used to acquire cone-beam CT (CBCT) images. Results: The dose distributions from axial, helical and cone-beam CT were non-uniform over the region-of-interest with strong spatial and angular dependence. In axial CT, a large dose gradient was measured that decreased from lateral sides to the middle of the phantom due to large superficial dose at the side of the phantom in comparison with larger beam attenuation at the center. The dose decreased at the superior and inferior regions in comparison to the center of the phantom in axial CT. An asymmetry was found between the right-left or superior-inferior sides of the phantom which possibly to angular dependence in the dose distributions. The dose level and distribution varied from one imaging technique into another. For the pelvis technique, axial CT deposited a mean dose of 3.67 cGy, helical CT deposited a mean dose of 1.59 cGy, and CBCT deposited a mean dose of 1.62 cGy. Conclusions: MapCheck2 provides a robust tool to measure directly 2D-dose distributions for CT imaging with high spatial resolution detectors in comparison with ionization chamber that provides a single point measurement or an average dose to the phantom. The dose distributions measured with MapCheck2 consider medium heterogeneity and can represent specific patient dose.

  18. ASSESSMENT OF EFFECTIVE DOSE FROM CONE BEAM CT IMAGING IN SPECT/CT EXAMINATION IN COMPARISON WITH OTHER MODALITIES.

    PubMed

    Tonkopi, Elena; Ross, Andrew A

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess radiation dose from the cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) component of single photon emission tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) examinations and to compare it with the radiopharmaceutical related dose as well as dose from multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). Effective dose (ED) from computed tomography (CT) was estimated using dose-length product values and anatomy-specific conversion factors. The contribution from the SPECT component was evaluated using ED per unit administered activity for the radiopharmaceuticals listed in the International Commission on Radiological Protection Publications 80 and 106. With the exception of cardiac studies (0.11 mSv), the CBCT dose (3.96-6.04 mSv) was similar to that from the radiopharmaceutical accounting for 29-56 % of the total ED from the examination. In comparison with MDCT examinations, the CBCT dose was 48 and 42 % lower for abdomen/pelvis and chest/abdomen/pelvis scans, respectively, while in the chest the CBCT scan resulted in higher dose (23 %). Radiation dose from the CT component should be taken into consideration when evaluating total SPECT/CT patient dose.

  19. Cone-Beam CT Localization of Internal Target Volumes for Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy of Lung Lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Zhiheng Wu, Q. Jackie; Marks, Lawrence B.; Larrier, Nicole; Yin Fangfang

    2007-12-01

    Purpose: In this study, we investigate a technique of matching internal target volumes (ITVs) in four-dimensional (4D) simulation computed tomography (CT) to the composite target volume in free-breathing on-board cone-beam (CB) CT. The technique is illustrated by using both phantom and patient cases. Methods and Materials: A dynamic phantom with a target ball simulating respiratory motion with various amplitude and cycle times was used to verify localization accuracy. The dynamic phantom was scanned using simulation CT with a phase-based retrospective sorting technique. The ITV was then determined based on 10 sets of sorted images. The size and epicenter of the ITV identified from 4D simulation CT images and the composite target volume identified from on-board CBCT images were compared to assess localization accuracy. Similarly, for two clinical cases of patients with lung cancer, ITVs defined from 4D simulation CT images and CBCT images were compared. Results: For the phantom, localization accuracy between the ITV in 4D simulation CT and the composite target volume in CBCT was within 1 mm, and ITV was within 8.7%. For patient cases, ITVs on simulation CT and CBCT were within 8.0%. Conclusion: This study shows that CBCT is a useful tool to localize ITV for targets affected by respiratory motion. Verification of the ITV from 4D simulation CT using on-board free-breathing CBCT is feasible for the target localization of lung tumors.

  20. SU-E-J-99: Reconstruction of Cone Beam CT Image Using Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy Exit Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, K; Goddard, L; Savacool, M; Mynampati, D; Godoy Scripes, P; Tome', W; Kuo, H; Basavatia, A; Hong, L; Yaparpalvi, R; Kalnicki, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To test the possibility of obtaining an image of the treated volume during volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) with exit beams. Method: Using a Varian Clinac 21EX and MVCT detector the following three sets of detector projection data were obtained for cone beam CT reconstruction with and without a Catphan 504 phantom. 1) 72 projection images from 20 × 16 cm{sup 2} open beam with 3 MUs, 2) 72 projection images from 20 × 16 cm{sup 2} MLC closed beam with 14 MUs. 3) 137 projection images from a test RapicArc QA plan. All projection images were obtained in ‘integrated image’ mode. We used OSCaR code to reconstruct the cone beam CT images. No attempts were made to reduce scatter or artifacts. Results: With projection set 1) we obtained a good quality MV CBCT image by optimizing the reconstruction parameters. Using projection set 2) we were not able to obtain a CBCT image of the phantom, which was determined to be due to the variation of interleaf leakage with gantry angle. From projection set 3), we were able to obtain a weak but meaningful signal in the image, especially in the target area where open beam signals were dominant. This finding suggests that one might be able to acquire CBCT images with rough body shape and some details inside the irradiated target area. Conclusion: Obtaining patient images using the VMAT exit beam is challenging but possible. We were able to determine sources of image degradation such as gantry angle dependent interleaf leakage and beams with a large scatter component. We are actively working on improving image quality.

  1. The application of cone-beam CT in the aging of bone calluses: a new perspective?

    PubMed

    Cappella, A; Amadasi, A; Gaudio, D; Gibelli, D; Borgonovo, S; Di Giancamillo, M; Cattaneo, C

    2013-11-01

    In the forensic and anthropological fields, the assessment of the age of a bone callus can be crucial for a correct analysis of injuries in the skeleton. To our knowledge, the studies which have focused on this topic are mainly clinical and still leave much to be desired for forensic purposes, particularly in looking for better methods for aging calluses in view of criminalistic applications. This study aims at evaluating the aid cone-beam CT can give in the investigation of the inner structure of fractures and calluses, thus acquiring a better knowledge of the process of bone remodeling. A total of 13 fractures (three without callus formation and ten with visible callus) of known age from cadavers were subjected to radiological investigations with digital radiography (DR) (conventional radiography) and cone-beam CT with the major aim of investigating the differences between DR and tomographic images when studying the inner and outer structures of bone healing. Results showed how with cone-beam CT the structure of the callus is clearly visible with higher specificity and definition and much more information on mineralization in different sections and planes. These results could lay the foundation for new perspectives on bone callus evaluation and aging with cone-beam CT, a user-friendly and skillful technique which in some instances can also be used extensively on the living (e.g., in cases of child abuse) with reduced exposition to radiation.

  2. Physical dose distribution due to multi-sliced kV X-ray beam in labeled tissue-like media: an experimental approach.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, M; Kakuee, O R; Fathollahi, V; Shahvar, A; Mohati, M; Ghafoori, M

    2011-02-01

    Radiotherapy remains a major modality of cancer therapy. Thanks to high flux and high brilliance of synchrotron-generated X-ray, laboratory research with planar microscopically thin X-ray beam promise exciting new opportunities for treatment of cancer. High tolerance of normal tissues at doses up to several hundred Gy in a single dose fraction and preferential damage of tumors at very high doses have been uniquely observed in animal models exposed to microbeams. The fact that beams as thick as 0.68 mm could retain a part of these effects, opens the possibility that the required beam can be produced by high power X-ray tubes besides a dedicated synchrotron. Fortunately, dose distribution due to kilovolt X-rays could be enhanced by the introduction of high-Z contrast agents to tissue-like media. In this work, dose deposition in a phantom--partially loaded with Au and I as contrast agents--irradiated by multi-sliced kV X-ray beam was experimentally investigated in the peak and valley regions both on the surface and in the depth of phantom. The results of experimental dosimetry using Gaf-chromic films were compared with corresponding Monte-Carlo simulation. Relative reduction in the deposited dose in the peak regions downstream the area containing contrast agents in comparison with the adjacent areas was experimentally observed.

  3. Tetrahedron beam computed tomography (TBCT): a new design of volumetric CT system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tiezhi; Schulze, Derek; Xu, Xiaochao; Kim, Joshua

    2009-06-07

    Volumetric CT imaging systems usually comprise a point x-ray source and a 2D detector. Flat panel imager (FPI)-based cone beam CT (CBCT) has become an important online imaging modality for image-guided radiotherapy and intervention. However, due to excessive scatter photons and inferior detector performance, the image quality of current CBCT is significantly inferior to diagnostic fan-beam CT. We propose a novel tetrahedron beam computed tomography (TBCT) imaging system which consists of a linear scan x-ray source and a linear x-ray detector array. The linear x-ray tube and detector array are aligned perpendicular and parallel to the rotation plane, respectively. The x-ray beams are narrowly collimated into fan beams and focused on the linear detector array. The linear detector and linear x-ray source form a 'tetrahedron' volume instead of a 'cone' volume. TBCT is similar to CBCT in image reconstruction geometry; however, its image quality will be significantly superior to that of CBCT due to its scatter rejection mechanism and the use of high-performance discrete x-ray detectors. In this paper, we describe the design of the TBCT system for image-guided radiotherapy and some results of preliminary studies.

  4. Cone beam CT in orthodontics: the current picture.

    PubMed

    Makdissi, Jimmy

    2013-03-01

    The introduction of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) technology to dentistry and orthodontics revolutionized the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of orthodontic patients. This review article discusses the use of CBCT in diagnosis and treatment planning in orthodontics. The steps required to install and operate a CBCT facility within the orthodontic practice as well as the challenges are highlighted. The available guidelines in relation to the clinical applications of CBCT in orthodontics are explored.

  5. Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) Versus CT in Lung Ablation Procedure: Which is Faster?

    SciTech Connect

    Cazzato, Roberto Luigi Battistuzzi, Jean-Benoit Catena, Vittorio; Grasso, Rosario Francesco Zobel, Bruno Beomonte; Schena, Emiliano; Buy, Xavier Palussiere, Jean

    2015-10-15

    AimTo compare cone-beam CT (CBCT) versus computed tomography (CT) guidance in terms of time needed to target and place the radiofrequency ablation (RFA) electrode on lung tumours.Materials and MethodsPatients at our institution who received CBCT- or CT-guided RFA for primary or metastatic lung tumours were retrospectively included. Time required to target and place the RFA electrode within the lesion was registered and compared across the two groups. Lesions were stratified into three groups according to their size (<10, 10–20, >20 mm). Occurrences of electrode repositioning, repositioning time, RFA complications, and local recurrence after RFA were also reported.ResultsForty tumours (22 under CT, 18 under CBCT guidance) were treated in 27 patients (19 male, 8 female, median age 67.25 ± 9.13 years). Thirty RFA sessions (16 under CBCT and 14 under CT guidance) were performed. Multivariable linear regression analysis showed that CBCT was faster than CT to target and place the electrode within the tumour independently from its size (β = −9.45, t = −3.09, p = 0.004). Electrode repositioning was required in 10/22 (45.4 %) tumours under CT guidance and 5/18 (27.8 %) tumours under CBCT guidance. Pneumothoraces occurred in 6/14 (42.8 %) sessions under CT guidance and in 6/16 (37.5 %) sessions under CBCT guidance. Two recurrences were noted for tumours receiving CBCT-guided RFA (2/17, 11.7 %) and three after CT-guided RFA (3/19, 15.8 %).ConclusionCBCT with live 3D needle guidance is a useful technique for percutaneous lung ablation. Despite lesion size, CBCT allows faster lung RFA than CT.

  6. SU-E-J-32: Dosimetric Evaluation Based On Pre-Treatment Cone Beam CT for Spine Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy: Does Region of Interest Focus Matter?

    SciTech Connect

    Magnelli, A; Xia, P

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Spine stereotactic body radiotherapy requires very conformal dose distributions and precise delivery. Prior to treatment, a KV cone-beam CT (KV-CBCT) is registered to the planning CT to provide image-guided positional corrections, which depend on selection of the region of interest (ROI) because of imperfect patient positioning and anatomical deformation. Our objective is to determine the dosimetric impact of ROI selections. Methods: Twelve patients were selected for this study with the treatment regions varied from C-spine to T-spine. For each patient, the KV-CBCT was registered to the planning CT three times using distinct ROIs: one encompassing the entire patient, a large ROI containing large bony anatomy, and a small target-focused ROI. Each registered CBCT volume, saved as an aligned dataset, was then sent to the planning system. The treated plan was applied to each dataset and dose was recalculated. The tumor dose coverage (percentage of target volume receiving prescription dose), maximum point dose to 0.03 cc of the spinal cord, and dose to 10% of the spinal cord volume (V10) for each alignment were compared to the original plan. Results: The average magnitude of tumor coverage deviation was 3.9%±5.8% with external contour, 1.5%±1.1% with large ROI, 1.3%±1.1% with small ROI. Spinal cord V10 deviation from plan was 6.6%±6.6% with external contour, 3.5%±3.1% with large ROI, and 1.2%±1.0% with small ROI. Spinal cord max point dose deviation from plan was: 12.2%±13.3% with external contour, 8.5%±8.4% with large ROI, and 3.7%±2.8% with small ROI. Conclusion: A small ROI focused on the target results in the smallest deviation from planned dose to target and cord although rotations at large distances from the targets were observed. It is recommended that image fusion during CBCT focus narrowly on the target volume to minimize dosimetric error. Improvement in patient setups may further reduce residual errors.

  7. Evaluation of accuracy of 3D reconstruction images using multi-detector CT and cone-beam CT

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mija; YI, Won-Jin; Heo, Min-Suk; Lee, Sam-Sun; Choi, Soon-Chul

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study was performed to determine the accuracy of linear measurements on three-dimensional (3D) images using multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods MDCT and CBCT were performed using 24 dry skulls. Twenty-one measurements were taken on the dry skulls using digital caliper. Both types of CT data were imported into OnDemand software and identification of landmarks on the 3D surface rendering images and calculation of linear measurements were performed. Reproducibility of the measurements was assessed using repeated measures ANOVA and ICC, and the measurements were statistically compared using a Student t-test. Results All assessments under the direct measurement and image-based measurements on the 3D CT surface rendering images using MDCT and CBCT showed no statistically difference under the ICC examination. The measurements showed no differences between the direct measurements of dry skull and the image-based measurements on the 3D CT surface rendering images (P>.05). Conclusion Three-dimensional reconstructed surface rendering images using MDCT and CBCT would be appropriate for 3D measurements. PMID:22474645

  8. Lifetime Measurements of High Polarization Strained-Superlattice Gallium Arsenide at Beam Current > 1 Milliamp using a New 100kV Load Lock Photogun

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. Grames; P. A. Adderley; J. Brittian; J. Clark; J. Hansknecht; D. Machie; M. Poelker; M. L. Stutzman; R. Suleiman; K. E. L. Surles-Law

    2007-08-01

    A new 100 kV GaAs DC Load Lock Photogun has been constructed at Jefferson Laboratory, with improvements for photocathode preparation and for operation in a high voltage, ultra-high vacuum environment. Although difficult to gauge directly, we believe that the new gun design has better vacuum conditions compared to the previous gun design, as evidenced by longer photocathode lifetime, that is, the amount of charge extracted before the quantum efficiency of the photocathode drops by 1/e of the initial value via the ion back-bombardment mechanism. Photocathode lifetime measurements at DC beam intensity of up to 10 mA have been performed to benchmark operation of the new gun and for fundamental studies of the use of GaAs photocathodes at high average current*. These measurements demonstrate photocathode lifetime longer than one million Coulombs per square centimeter at a beam intensity higher than 1 mA. The photogun has been reconfigured with a high polarization strained superlattice photocathode (GaAs/GaAsP) and a mode-locked Ti:Sapphire laser operating near band-gap. Photocathode lifetime measurements at beam intensity greater than 1 mA are measured and presented for comparison.

  9. Dynamic bowtie filter for cone-beam/multi-slice CT.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fenglin; Yang, Qingsong; Cong, Wenxiang; Wang, Ge

    2014-01-01

    A pre-patient attenuator ("bowtie filter" or "bowtie") is used to modulate an incoming x-ray beam as a function of the angle of the x-ray with respect to a patient to balance the photon flux on a detector array. While the current dynamic bowtie design is focused on fan-beam geometry, in this study we propose a methodology for dynamic bowtie design in multi-slice/cone-beam geometry. The proposed 3D dynamic bowtie is an extension of the 2D prior art. The 3D bowtie consists of a highly attenuating bowtie (HB) filled in with heavy liquid and a weakly attenuating bowtie (WB) immersed in the liquid of the HB. The HB targets a balanced flux distribution on a detector array when no object is in the field of view (FOV). The WB compensates for an object in the FOV, and hence is a scaled-down version of the object. The WB is rotated and translated in synchrony with the source rotation and patient translation so that the overall flux balance is maintained on the detector array. First, the mathematical models of different scanning modes are established for an elliptical water phantom. Then, a numerical simulation study is performed to compare the performance of the scanning modes in the cases of the water phantom and a patient cross-section without any bowtie and with a dynamic bowtie. The dynamic bowtie can equalize the numbers of detected photons in the case of the water phantom. In practical cases, the dynamic bowtie can effectively reduce the dynamic range of detected signals inside the FOV. Furthermore, the WB can be individualized using a 3D printing technique as the gold standard. We have extended the dynamic bowtie concept from 2D to 3D by using highly attenuating liquid and moving a scale-reduced negative copy of an object being scanned. Our methodology can be applied to reduce radiation dose and facilitate photon-counting detection.

  10. Dynamic Bowtie Filter for Cone-Beam/Multi-Slice CT

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fenglin; Yang, Qingsong; Cong, Wenxiang; Wang, Ge

    2014-01-01

    A pre-patient attenuator (“bowtie filter” or “bowtie”) is used to modulate an incoming x-ray beam as a function of the angle of the x-ray with respect to a patient to balance the photon flux on a detector array. While the current dynamic bowtie design is focused on fan-beam geometry, in this study we propose a methodology for dynamic bowtie design in multi-slice/cone-beam geometry. The proposed 3D dynamic bowtie is an extension of the 2D prior art. The 3D bowtie consists of a highly attenuating bowtie (HB) filled in with heavy liquid and a weakly attenuating bowtie (WB) immersed in the liquid of the HB. The HB targets a balanced flux distribution on a detector array when no object is in the field of view (FOV). The WB compensates for an object in the FOV, and hence is a scaled-down version of the object. The WB is rotated and translated in synchrony with the source rotation and patient translation so that the overall flux balance is maintained on the detector array. First, the mathematical models of different scanning modes are established for an elliptical water phantom. Then, a numerical simulation study is performed to compare the performance of the scanning modes in the cases of the water phantom and a patient cross-section without any bowtie and with a dynamic bowtie. The dynamic bowtie can equalize the numbers of detected photons in the case of the water phantom. In practical cases, the dynamic bowtie can effectively reduce the dynamic range of detected signals inside the FOV. Furthermore, the WB can be individualized using a 3D printing technique as the gold standard. We have extended the dynamic bowtie concept from 2D to 3D by using highly attenuating liquid and moving a scale-reduced negative copy of an object being scanned. Our methodology can be applied to reduce radiation dose and facilitate photon-counting detection. PMID:25051067

  11. An index of beam hardening artifact for two-dimensional cone-beam CT tomographic images: establishment and preliminary evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Fusong; Lv, Peijun; Yang, Huifang; Wang, Yong; Sun, Yuchun

    2015-07-01

    Objectives: Based on the pixel gray value measurements, establish a beam-hardening artifacts index of the cone-beam CT tomographic image, and preliminarily evaluate its applicability. Methods: The 5mm-diameter metal ball and resin ball were fixed on the light-cured resin base plate respectively, while four vitro molars were fixed above and below the ball, on the left and right respectively, which have 10mm distance with the metal ball. Then, cone beam CT was used to scan the fixed base plate twice. The same layer tomographic images were selected from the two data and imported into the Photoshop software. The circle boundary was built through the determination of the center and radius of the circle, according to the artifact-free images section. Grayscale measurement tools were used to measure the internal boundary gray value G0, gray value G1 and G2 of 1mm and 20mm artifacts outside the circular boundary, the length L1 of the arc with artifacts in the circular boundary, the circumference L2. Hardening artifacts index was set A = (G1 / G0) * 0.5 + (G2 / G1) * 0.4 + (L2 / L1) * 0.1. Then, the A values of metal and resin materials were calculated respectively. Results: The A value of cobalt-chromium alloy material is 1, and resin material is 0. Conclusion: The A value reflects comprehensively the three factors of hardening artifacts influencing normal oral tissue image sharpness of cone beam CT. The three factors include relative gray value, the decay rate and range of artifacts.

  12. Poster — Thur Eve — 06: Dose assessment of cone beam CT imaging protocols as part of SPECT/CT examinations

    SciTech Connect

    Tonkopi, E; Ross, AA

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To assess radiation dose from the cone beam CT (CBCT) component of SPECT/CT studies and to compare with other CT examinations performed in our institution. Methods: We used an anthropomorphic chest phantom and the 6 cc ion chamber to measure entrance breast dose for several CBCT and diagnostic CT acquisition protocols. The CBCT effective dose was calculated with ImPACT software; the CT effective dose was evaluated from the DLP value and conversion factor, dependent on the anatomic region. The RADAR medical procedure radiation dose calculator was used to assess the nuclear medicine component of exam dose. Results: The entrance dose to the breast measured with the anthropomorphic phantom was 0.48 mGy and 9.41 mGy for cardiac and chest CBCT scans; and 4.59 mGy for diagnostic thoracic CT. The effective doses were 0.2 mSv, 3.2 mSv and 2.8 mSv respectively. For a small patient represented by the anthropomorphic phantom, the dose from the diagnostic CT was lower than from the CBCT scan, as a result of the exposure reduction options available on modern CT scanners. The CBCT protocols used the same fixed scanning techniques. The diagnostic CT dose based on the patient data was 35% higher than the phantom dose. For most SPECT/CT studies the dose from the CBCT component was comparable with the dose from the radiopharmaceutical. Conclusions: The patient radiation dose from the cone beam CT scan can be higher than that from a diagnostic CT and should be taken into consideration in evaluating total SPECT/CT patient dose.

  13. FFT and cone-beam CT reconstruction on graphics hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Després, Philippe; Sun, Mingshan; Hasegawa, Bruce H.; Prevrhal, Sven

    2007-03-01

    Graphics processing units (GPUs) are increasingly used for general purpose calculations. Their pipelined architecture can be exploited to accelerate various parallelizable algorithms. Medical imaging applications are inherently well suited to benefit from the development of GPU-based computational platforms. We evaluate in this work the potential of GPUs to improve the execution speed of two common medical imaging tasks, namely Fourier transforms and tomographic reconstructions. A two-dimensional fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm was GPU-implemented and compared, in terms of execution speed, to two popular CPU-based FFT routines. Similarly, the Feldkamp, David and Kress (FDK) algorithm for cone-beam tomographic reconstruction was implemented on the GPU and its performance compared to a CPU version. Different reconstruction strategies were employed to assess the performance of various GPU memory layouts. For the specific hardware used, GPU implementations of the FFT were up to 20 times faster than their CPU counterparts, but slower than highly optimized CPU versions of the algorithm. Tomographic reconstructions were faster on the GPU by a factor up to 30, allowing 256 3 voxel reconstructions of 256 projections in about 20 seconds. Overall, GPUs are an attractive alternative to other imaging-dedicated computing hardware like application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) and field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) in terms of cost, simplicity and versatility. With the development of simpler language extensions and programming interfaces, GPUs are likely to become essential tools in medical imaging.

  14. Noise suppression in scatter correction for cone-beam CT

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lei; Wang, Jing; Xing, Lei

    2009-01-01

    Scatter correction is crucial to the quality of reconstructed images in x-ray cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Most of existing scatter correction methods assume smooth scatter distributions. The high-frequency scatter noise remains in the projection images even after a perfect scatter correction. In this paper, using a clinical CBCT system and a measurement-based scatter correction, the authors show that a scatter correction alone does not provide satisfactory image quality and the loss of the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the scatter corrected image may overwrite the benefit of scatter removal. To circumvent the problem and truly gain from scatter correction, an effective scatter noise suppression method must be in place. They analyze the noise properties in the projections after scatter correction and propose to use a penalized weighted least-squares (PWLS) algorithm to reduce the noise in the reconstructed images. Experimental results on an evaluation phantom (Catphan©600) show that the proposed algorithm further reduces the reconstruction error in a scatter corrected image from 10.6% to 1.7% and increases the CNR by a factor of 3.6. Significant image quality improvement is also shown in the results on an anthropomorphic phantom, in which the global noise level is reduced and the local streaking artifacts around bones are suppressed. PMID:19378735

  15. In vivo verification of proton beam path by using post-treatment PET/CT imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Hsi, Wen C.; Indelicato, Daniel J.; Vargas, Carlos; Duvvuri, Srividya; Li Zuofeng; Palta, Jatinder

    2009-09-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to establish the in vivo verification of proton beam path by using proton-activated positron emission distributions. Methods: A total of 50 PET/CT imaging studies were performed on ten prostate cancer patients immediately after daily proton therapy treatment through a single lateral portal. The PET/CT and planning CT were registered by matching the pelvic bones, and the beam path of delivered protons was defined in vivo by the positron emission distribution seen only within the pelvic bones, referred to as the PET-defined beam path. Because of the patient position correction at each fraction, the marker-defined beam path, determined by the centroid of implanted markers seen in the post-treatment (post-Tx) CT, is used for the planned beam path. The angular variation and discordance between the PET- and marker-defined paths were derived to investigate the intrafraction prostate motion. For studies with large discordance, the relative location between the centroid and pelvic bones seen in the post-Tx CT was examined. The PET/CT studies are categorized for distinguishing the prostate motion that occurred before or after beam delivery. The post-PET CT was acquired after PET imaging to investigate prostate motion due to physiological changes during the extended PET acquisition. Results: The less than 2 deg. of angular variation indicates that the patient roll was minimal within the immobilization device. Thirty of the 50 studies with small discordance, referred as good cases, show a consistent alignment between the field edges and the positron emission distributions from the entrance to the distal edge. For those good cases, average displacements are 0.6 and 1.3 mm along the anterior-posterior (D{sub AP}) and superior-inferior (D{sub SI}) directions, respectively, with 1.6 mm standard deviations in both directions. For the remaining 20 studies demonstrating a large discordance (more than 6 mm in either D{sub AP} or D{sub SI}), 13

  16. SU-E-J-135: Feasibility of Using Quantitative Cone Beam CT for Proton Adaptive Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Jingqian, W; Wang, Q; Zhang, X; Wen, Z; Zhu, X; Frank, S; Li, H; Tsui, T; Zhu, L; Wei, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of using scatter corrected cone beam CT (CBCT) for proton adaptive planning. Methods: Phantom study was used to evaluate the CT number difference between the planning CT (pCT), quantitative CBCT (qCBCT) with scatter correction and calibrated Hounsfield units using adaptive scatter kernel superposition (ASKS) technique, and raw CBCT (rCBCT). After confirming the CT number accuracy, prostate patients, each with a pCT and several sets of weekly CBCT, were investigated for this study. Spot scanning proton treatment plans were independently generated on pCT, qCBCT and rCBCT. The treatment plans were then recalculated on all images. Dose-volume-histogram (DVH) parameters and gamma analysis were used to compare between dose distributions. Results: Phantom study suggested that Hounsfield unit accuracy for different materials are within 20 HU for qCBCT and over 250 HU for rCBCT. For prostate patients, proton dose could be calculated accurately on qCBCT but not on rCBCT. When the original plan was recalculated on qCBCT, tumor coverage was maintained when anatomy was consistent with pCT. However, large dose variance was observed when patient anatomy change. Adaptive plan using qCBCT was able to recover tumor coverage and reduce dose to normal tissue. Conclusion: It is feasible to use qu antitative CBCT (qCBCT) with scatter correction and calibrated Hounsfield units for proton dose calculation and adaptive planning in proton therapy. Partly supported by Varian Medical Systems.

  17. MR cone-beam CT fusion image overlay for fluoroscopically guided percutaneous biopsies in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Thakor, Avnesh S; Patel, Premal A; Gu, Richard; Rea, Vanessa; Amaral, Joao; Connolly, Bairbre L

    2016-03-01

    Lesions only visible on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging cannot easily be targeted for image-guided biopsy using ultrasound or X-rays but instead require MR guidance with MR-compatible needles and long procedure times (acquisition of multiple MR sequences). We developed an alternative method for performing these difficult biopsies in a standard interventional suite, by fusing MR with cone-beam CT images. The MR cone-beam CT fusion image is then used as an overlay to guide a biopsy needle to the target area under live fluoroscopic guidance. Advantages of this technique include (i) the ability for it to be performed in a conventional interventional suite, (ii) three-dimensional planning of the needle trajectory using cross-sectional imaging, (iii) real-time fluoroscopic guidance for needle trajectory correction and (iv) targeting within heterogeneous lesions based on MR signal characteristics to maximize the potential biopsy yield.

  18. Dental cone beam CT image quality possibly reduced by patient movement.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, K; O'Connor, S; Heath, N

    2013-01-01

    Patient artefacts in dental cone beam CT scans can happen for various reasons. These range from artefacts from metal restorations to movement. An audit was carried out in the Glasgow Dental Hospital analysing how many scans showed signs of "motion artefact", and then to assess if there was any correlation between patient age and movement artefacts. Specific age demographics were then analysed to see if these cohorts were at a higher risk of "movement artefacts".

  19. TH-A-18C-06: A Scatter Elimination Scheme for Cone Beam CT Using An Oscillating Narrow Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, H; Folkerts, M; Jia, X; Jiang, S; Xu, Y

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: While cone beam CT (CBCT) has been widely used in image guided radiation therapy, its low image quality, primarily caused by scattered x-rays, hinders advanced clinical applications, e.g., CBCT based on-line adaptive re-planning. We propose in this abstract a new scheme called oscillating narrow beam CBCT (ONB-CBCT) to eliminate scatter signals. Methods: ONB-CBCT consists of two major components. 1) Oscillating narrow beam (ONB) scan and 2) partitioned flat panel containing multiple individual detector strips and their own readouts. Both the beam oscillation and detector partition are along the superior-inferior (SI) direction. During data acquisition, at a given projection, the narrow beam sweep through the detector region, and different portions of the detector acquires projection data in synchrony with the narrow beam. ONB can be generated by a rotating slit collimator design with conventional tube with single focal spot, or by directly using a new source with multiple focal spots. A proof-of-principle study via Monte Carlo simulation is conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of ONB-CBCT. Results: As the beam becomes narrower, more and more scatter signals are eliminated. For the case with a bowtie filter and using 15 ONBs, the maximum and the average intensity error due to scatter are below 20 and 10 HU, respectively. Conclusion: ONB yields a narrowed exposure field at each snapshot and hence an inherently negligible scatter effect. Meanwhile, the individualized detector units guarantee high frame rate detection and hence a same large volume coverage as that in conventional CBCT. In summary, ONB-CBCT is a promising design to achieve high-quality CBCT imaging. This study is supported in part by NIH (1R01CA154747-01)

  20. Actively triggered 4d cone-beam CT acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, Martin F.; Wisotzky, Eric; Oelfke, Uwe; Nill, Simeon

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: 4d cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans are usually reconstructed by extracting the motion information from the 2d projections or an external surrogate signal, and binning the individual projections into multiple respiratory phases. In this “after-the-fact” binning approach, however, projections are unevenly distributed over respiratory phases resulting in inefficient utilization of imaging dose. To avoid excess dose in certain respiratory phases, and poor image quality due to a lack of projections in others, the authors have developed a novel 4d CBCT acquisition framework which actively triggers 2d projections based on the forward-predicted position of the tumor.Methods: The forward-prediction of the tumor position was independently established using either (i) an electromagnetic (EM) tracking system based on implanted EM-transponders which act as a surrogate for the tumor position, or (ii) an external motion sensor measuring the chest-wall displacement and correlating this external motion to the phase-shifted diaphragm motion derived from the acquired images. In order to avoid EM-induced artifacts in the imaging detector, the authors devised a simple but effective “Faraday” shielding cage. The authors demonstrated the feasibility of their acquisition strategy by scanning an anthropomorphic lung phantom moving on 1d or 2d sinusoidal trajectories.Results: With both tumor position devices, the authors were able to acquire 4d CBCTs free of motion blurring. For scans based on the EM tracking system, reconstruction artifacts stemming from the presence of the EM-array and the EM-transponders were greatly reduced using newly developed correction algorithms. By tuning the imaging frequency independently for each respiratory phase prior to acquisition, it was possible to harmonize the number of projections over respiratory phases. Depending on the breathing period (3.5 or 5 s) and the gantry rotation time (4 or 5 min), between ∼90 and 145

  1. Dose calculation accuracy using cone-beam CT (CBCT) for pelvic adaptive radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Huaiqun; Dong, Hang

    2009-10-01

    This study is to evaluate the dose calculation accuracy using Varian's cone-beam CT (CBCT) for pelvic adaptive radiotherapy. We first calibrated the Hounsfield Unit (HU) to electron density (ED) for CBCT using a mini CT QC phantom embedded into an IMRT QA phantom. We then used a Catphan 500 with an annulus around it to check the calibration. The combined CT QC and IMRT phantom provided correct HU calibration, but not Catphan with an annulus. For the latter, not only was the Teflon an incorrect substitute for bone, but the inserts were also too small to provide correct HUs for air and bone. For the former, three different scan ranges (6 cm, 12 cm and 20.8 cm) were used to investigate the HU dependence on the amount of scatter. To evaluate the dose calculation accuracy, CBCT and plan-CT for a pelvic phantom were acquired and registered. The single field plan, 3D conformal and IMRT plans were created on both CT sets. Without inhomogeneity correction, the two CT generated nearly the same plan. With inhomogeneity correction, the dosimetric difference between the two CT was mainly from the HU calibration difference. The dosimetric difference for 6 MV was found to be the largest for the single lateral field plan (maximum 6.7%), less for the 3D conformal plan (maximum 3.3%) and the least for the IMRT plan (maximum 2.5%). Differences for 18 MV were generally 1-2% less. For a single lateral field, calibration with 20.8 cm achieved the minimum dosimetric difference. For 3D and IMRT plans, calibration with a 12 cm range resulted in better accuracy. Because Catphan is the standard QA phantom for the on-board imager (OBI) device, we specifically recommend not using it for the HU calibration of CBCT.

  2. Dose calculation accuracy using cone-beam CT (CBCT) for pelvic adaptive radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Guan, Huaiqun; Dong, Hang

    2009-10-21

    This study is to evaluate the dose calculation accuracy using Varian's cone-beam CT (CBCT) for pelvic adaptive radiotherapy. We first calibrated the Hounsfield Unit (HU) to electron density (ED) for CBCT using a mini CT QC phantom embedded into an IMRT QA phantom. We then used a Catphan 500 with an annulus around it to check the calibration. The combined CT QC and IMRT phantom provided correct HU calibration, but not Catphan with an annulus. For the latter, not only was the Teflon an incorrect substitute for bone, but the inserts were also too small to provide correct HUs for air and bone. For the former, three different scan ranges (6 cm, 12 cm and 20.8 cm) were used to investigate the HU dependence on the amount of scatter. To evaluate the dose calculation accuracy, CBCT and plan-CT for a pelvic phantom were acquired and registered. The single field plan, 3D conformal and IMRT plans were created on both CT sets. Without inhomogeneity correction, the two CT generated nearly the same plan. With inhomogeneity correction, the dosimetric difference between the two CT was mainly from the HU calibration difference. The dosimetric difference for 6 MV was found to be the largest for the single lateral field plan (maximum 6.7%), less for the 3D conformal plan (maximum 3.3%) and the least for the IMRT plan (maximum 2.5%). Differences for 18 MV were generally 1-2% less. For a single lateral field, calibration with 20.8 cm achieved the minimum dosimetric difference. For 3D and IMRT plans, calibration with a 12 cm range resulted in better accuracy. Because Catphan is the standard QA phantom for the on-board imager (OBI) device, we specifically recommend not using it for the HU calibration of CBCT.

  3. Three-dimensional cone-beam region-of-interest (ROI) CT reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ruijie Rachel

    2001-06-01

    ROI cone-beam (CB) CT is proposed in this thesis as a new technique in which a set of partially filtered ROI images is used for CT reconstruction. It can be used in neural surgery as fluoroscopy 3D CT images with reduced dose outside the ROL Depending on the contrast resolution requirement of the CT images and therefore the thickness of the ROI filter, the dose can be reduced by 50%-70%. In this study, the shape of the ROI is rectangular in the middle of the image. In order to do CB reconstruction, the image distortion has to be corrected, because all the images were acquired by the image intensifier (II) where distortion occurs. We proposed a new method, named as super-global (SG) model with a set of parameters, to do distortion correction for all the images in a rotational run. The SG model is carefully tested and compared with the conventional global correction method Study shows that it is an accurate efficient method for the distortion correction of images acquired by rotational C-arms. The intensity of ROI images has to be equalized within and without ROI after distortion correction. First, the edge is detected; then equalization factors are applied to the filtered areas. Now the distortion-free and intensity-equalized images are used for CB backprojection to reconstruct the 3D CT images by Feldkamp algorithm. This algorithm is tested by a mathematical phantom reconstruction. Iso-center correction and uniform scattering subtraction is discussed and applied in the experimental phantom reconstruction. We took images of a phantom and a rabbit with and without contrast medium injection, and with and without ROI filtration. Their 3D CT images were obtained. For the rabbit, vascular CT images were obtained by subtracting CT images with contrast medium from those without contrast. The CT images of the ROI edges are in good shape, and no obvious artifact is observed. Though the filtered area has higher noise, its intensify is equalized pretty well with that of the

  4. Experimental Scatter Correction Methods in Industrial X-Ray Cone-Beam CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schörner, K.; Goldammer, M.; Stephan, J.

    2011-06-01

    Scattered radiation presents a major source of image degradation in industrial cone-beam computed tomography systems. Scatter artifacts introduce streaks, cupping and a loss of contrast in the reconstructed CT-volumes. In order to overcome scatter artifacts, we present two complementary experimental correction methods: the beam-stop array (BSA) and an inverse technique we call beam-hole array (BHA). Both correction methods are examined in comparative measurements where it is shown that the aperture-based BHA technique has practical and scatter-reducing advantages over the BSA. The proposed BHA correction method is successfully applied to a large-scale industrial specimen whereby scatter artifacts are reduced and contrast is enhanced significantly.

  5. GPU-accelerated regularized iterative reconstruction for few-view cone beam CT

    SciTech Connect

    Matenine, Dmitri; Goussard, Yves

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: The present work proposes an iterative reconstruction technique designed for x-ray transmission computed tomography (CT). The main objective is to provide a model-based solution to the cone-beam CT reconstruction problem, yielding accurate low-dose images via few-views acquisitions in clinically acceptable time frames. Methods: The proposed technique combines a modified ordered subsets convex (OSC) algorithm and the total variation minimization (TV) regularization technique and is called OSC-TV. The number of subsets of each OSC iteration follows a reduction pattern in order to ensure the best performance of the regularization method. Considering the high computational cost of the algorithm, it is implemented on a graphics processing unit, using parallelization to accelerate computations. Results: The reconstructions were performed on computer-simulated as well as human pelvic cone-beam CT projection data and image quality was assessed. In terms of convergence and image quality, OSC-TV performs well in reconstruction of low-dose cone-beam CT data obtained via a few-view acquisition protocol. It compares favorably to the few-view TV-regularized projections onto convex sets (POCS-TV) algorithm. It also appears to be a viable alternative to full-dataset filtered backprojection. Execution times are of 1–2 min and are compatible with the typical clinical workflow for nonreal-time applications. Conclusions: Considering the image quality and execution times, this method may be useful for reconstruction of low-dose clinical acquisitions. It may be of particular benefit to patients who undergo multiple acquisitions by reducing the overall imaging radiation dose and associated risks.

  6. Investigation of dosimetric variations of liver radiotherapy using deformable registration of planning CT and cone-beam CT.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pu; Yu, Gang; Chen, Jinhu; Ma, Changsheng; Qin, Shaohua; Yin, Yong; Liang, Yueqiang; Li, Hongsheng; Li, Dengwang

    2017-01-01

    Many patients with technically unresectable or medically inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) had hepatic anatomy variations as a result of interfraction deformation during fractionated radiotherapy. We conducted this retrospective study to investigate interfractional normal liver dosimetric consequences via reconstructing weekly dose in HCC patients. Twenty-three patients with HCC received conventional fractionated three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) were enrolled in this retrospective investigation. Among them, seven patients had been diagnosed of radiation-induced liver disease (RILD) and the other 16 patients had good prognosis after treatment course. The cone-beam CT (CBCT) scans were acquired once weekly for each patient throughout the treatment, deformable image registration (DIR) of planning CT (pCT) and CBCT was performed to acquire modified CBCT (mCBCT), and the structural contours were propagated by the DIR. The same plan was applied to mCBCT to perform dose calculation. Weekly dose distribution was displayed on the pCT dose space and compared using dose difference, target coverage, and dose volume histograms. Statistical analysis was performed to identify the significant dosimetric variations. Among the 23 patients, the three weekly normal liver D50 increased by 0.2 Gy, 4.2 Gy, and 4.7 Gy, respectively, for patients with RILD, and 1.0 Gy, 2.7 Gy, and 3.1 Gy, respectively, for patients without RILD. Mean dose to the normal liver (Dmean) increased by 0.5 Gy, 2.6 Gy, and 4.0 Gy, respectively, for patients with RILD, and 0.4 Gy, 3.1 Gy, and 3.4 Gy, respectively, for patients without RILD. Regarding patients with RILD, the average values of the third weekly D50 and Dmean were both over hepatic radiation tolerance, while the values of patients without RILD were below. The dosimetric consequence showed that the liver dose between patients with and without RILD were different relative to the planned dose, and the RILD patients suffered

  7. Enlarged longitudinal dose profiles in cone-beam CT and the need for modified dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, Shinichiro; Endo, Masahiro; Nishizawa, Kanae; Tsunoo, Takanori; Aoyama, Takahiko; Fujiwara, Hideaki; Murase, Kenya

    2005-04-01

    In order to examine phantom length necessary to assess radiation dose delivered to patients in cone-beam CT with an enlarged beamwidth, we measured dose profiles in cylindrical phantoms of sufficient length using a prototype 256-slice CT-scanner developed at our institute. Dose profiles parallel to the rotation axis were measured at the central and peripheral positions in PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate) phantoms of 160 or 320 mm diameter and 900 mm length. For practical application, we joined unit cylinders (150 mm long) together to provide phantoms of 900 mm length. Dose profiles were measured with a pin photodiode sensor having a sensitive region of approximately 2.8x2.8 mm{sup 2} and 2.7 mm thickness. Beamwidths of the scanner were varied from 20 to 138 mm. Dose profile integrals (DPI) were calculated using the measured dose profiles for various beamwidths and integration ranges. For the body phantom (320-mm-diam phantom), 76% of the DPI was represented for a 20 mm beamwidth and 60% was represented for a 138 mm beamwidth if dose profiles were integrated over a 100 mm range, while more than 90% of the DPI was represented for beamwidths between 20 and 138 mm if integration was carried out over a 300 mm range. The phantom length and integration range for dosimetry of cone-beam CT needed to be more than 300 mm to represent more than 90% of the DPI for the body phantom with the beamwidth of more than 20 mm. Although we reached this conclusion using the prototype 256-slice CT-scanner, it may be applied to other multislice CT-scanners as well.

  8. Kv5, Kv6, Kv8, and Kv9 subunits: No simple silent bystanders

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Members of the electrically silent voltage-gated K+ (Kv) subfamilies (Kv5, Kv6, Kv8, and Kv9, collectively identified as electrically silent voltage-gated K+ channel [KvS] subunits) do not form functional homotetrameric channels but assemble with Kv2 subunits into heterotetrameric Kv2/KvS channels with unique biophysical properties. Unlike the ubiquitously expressed Kv2 subunits, KvS subunits show a more restricted expression. This raises the possibility that Kv2/KvS heterotetramers have tissue-specific functions, making them potential targets for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Here, I provide an overview of the expression of KvS subunits in different tissues and discuss their proposed role in various physiological and pathophysiological processes. This overview demonstrates the importance of KvS subunits and Kv2/KvS heterotetramers in vivo and the importance of considering KvS subunits and Kv2/KvS heterotetramers in the development of novel treatments. PMID:26755771

  9. Target delineation for radiosurgery of a small brain arteriovenous malformation using high-resolution contrast-enhanced cone beam CT.

    PubMed

    van der Bom, Imramsjah M J; Gounis, Matthew J; Ding, Linda; Kühn, Anna Luisa; Goff, David; Puri, Ajit S; Wakhloo, Ajay K

    2014-06-01

    Three years following endovascular embolization of a 3 mm ruptured arteriovenous malformation (AVM) of the left superior colliculus in a 42-year-old man, digital subtraction angiography showed continuous regrowth of the lesion. Thin-slice MRI acquired for treatment planning did not show the AVM nidus. The patient was brought back to the angiography suite for high-resolution contrast-enhanced cone beam CT (VasoCT) acquired using an angiographic c-arm system. The lesion and nidus were visualized with VasoCT. MRI, CT and VasoCT data were transferred to radiation planning software and mutually co-registered. The nidus was annotated for radiation on VasoCT data by an experienced neurointerventional radiologist and a dose/treatment plan was completed. Due to image registration, the treatment area could be directly adopted into the MRI and CT data. The AVM was completely obliterated 10 months following completion of the radiosurgery treatment.

  10. Target delineation for radiosurgery of a small brain arteriovenous malformation using high-resolution contrast-enhanced cone beam CT.

    PubMed

    van der Bom, Imramsjah M J; Gounis, Matthew J; Ding, Linda; Kühn, Anna Luisa; Goff, David; Puri, Ajit S; Wakhloo, Ajay K

    2013-08-14

    Three years following endovascular embolization of a 3 mm ruptured arteriovenous malformation (AVM) of the left superior colliculus in a 42-year-old man, digital subtraction angiography showed continuous regrowth of the lesion. Thin-slice MRI acquired for treatment planning did not show the AVM nidus. The patient was brought back to the angiography suite for high-resolution contrast-enhanced cone beam CT (VasoCT) acquired using an angiographic c-arm system. The lesion and nidus were visualized with VasoCT. MRI, CT and VasoCT data were transferred to radiation planning software and mutually co-registered. The nidus was annotated for radiation on VasoCT data by an experienced neurointerventional radiologist and a dose/treatment plan was completed. Due to image registration, the treatment area could be directly adopted into the MRI and CT data. The AVM was completely obliterated 10 months following completion of the radiosurgery treatment.

  11. Method for measuring the intensity profile of a CT fan-beam filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiting, Bruce R.; Dohatcu, Andreea

    2014-03-01

    Research on CT systems often requires knowledge of intensity as a function of angle in the fan-beam, due to the presence of bowtie filters, for studies such as dose reduction simulation, Monte Carlo dose calculations, or statistical reconstruction algorithms. Since manufacturers consider the x-ray bowtie filter design to be proprietary information, several methods have been proposed to measure the beam intensity profile independently: 1) calculate statistical properties of noise in acquired sinograms (requires access to raw data files, which is also vendor proprietary); 2) measure the waveform of a dosimeter located away from the isocenter (requires dosimeter equipment costing > 10K). We present a novel method that is inexpensive (parts costing 100 from any hardware store, using Gafchromic film at $3 per measurement), requires no proprietary information, and can be performed in a few minutes. A fixture is built from perforated steel tubing, which forms an aperture that selectively samples the intensity at a particular fan-beam angle in a rotating gantry. Two exposures (1× and 2×) are made and self-developing radiochromic film (Gafchromic XR- Ashland Inc.) is then scanned on an inexpensive PC document scanner. An analysis method is described that linearizes the measurements for relative exposure. The resultant profile is corrected for geometric effects (1/LΛ2 fall-off, gantry dwell time) and background exposure, providing a noninvasive estimate of the CT fan-beam intensity present in an operational CT system. This method will allow researchers to conveniently measure parameters required for modeling the effects of bowtie filters in clinical scanners.

  12. 3D In Vivo Dosimetry Using Megavoltage Cone-Beam CT and EPID Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Elmpt, Wouter van Nijsten, Sebastiaan; Petit, Steven; Mijnheer, Ben; Lambin, Philippe; Dekker, Andre

    2009-04-01

    Purpose: To develop a method that reconstructs, independently of previous (planning) information, the dose delivered to patients by combining in-room imaging with transit dose measurements during treatment. Methods and Materials: A megavoltage cone-beam CT scan of the patient anatomy was acquired with the patient in treatment position. During treatment, delivered fields were measured behind the patient with an electronic portal imaging device. The dose information in these images was back-projected through the cone-beam CT scan and used for Monte Carlo simulation of the dose distribution inside the cone-beam CT scan. Validation was performed using various phantoms for conformal and IMRT plans. Clinical applicability is shown for a head-and-neck cancer patient treated with IMRT. Results: For single IMRT beams and a seven-field IMRT step-and-shoot plan, the dose distribution was reconstructed within 3%/3mm compared with the measured or planned dose. A three-dimensional conformal plan, verified using eight point-dose measurements, resulted in a difference of 1.3 {+-} 3.3% (1 SD) compared with the reconstructed dose. For the patient case, planned and reconstructed dose distribution was within 3%/3mm for about 95% of the points within the 20% isodose line. Reconstructed mean dose values, obtained from dose-volume histograms, were within 3% of prescribed values for target volumes and normal tissues. Conclusions: We present a new method that verifies the dose delivered to a patient by combining in-room imaging with the transit dose measured during treatment. This verification procedure opens possibilities for offline adaptive radiotherapy and dose-guided radiotherapy strategies taking into account the dose distribution delivered during treatment sessions.

  13. SU-D-207-06: Clinical Validations of Shading Correction for Cone-Beam CT Using Planning CT as a Prior

    SciTech Connect

    Tsui, T; Zhu, L; Wei, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Current cone-beam CT (CBCT) images contain severe shading artifacts mainly due to scatter, hindering their quantitative use in current radiation therapy. We have previously proposed an effective shading correction method for CBCT using planning CT (pCT) as prior knowledge. In this work, we investigate the method robustness via statistical analyses on studies of a large patient group and compare the performance with that of a state-of-the-art method implemented on the current commercial radiation therapy machine -- the Varian Truebeam system. Methods: Since radiotherapy patients routinely undergo multiple-detector CT (MDCT) scans in the planning procedure, we use the high-quality pCT as “free” prior knowledge for CBCT image improvement. The CBCT image with no correction is first spatially registered with the pCT. Primary CBCT projections are estimated via forward projections of the registered image. The low frequency errors in the projections, which stem from mainly scatter, are estimated by filtering the difference between original line integral and the estimated scatter projections. The corrected CBCT image is then reconstructed from the scatter corrected projections. The proposed method is evaluated on 40 cancer patients. Results: On all patient images, we compare errors on CT number, spatial non-uniformity (SNU) and image contrast, using pCT as the ground truth. T-tests show that our algorithm improves over the Varian method on CBCT accuracies of CT number and SNU with 90% confident. The average CT number error is reduced from 54.8 HU on the Varian method to 40.9 HU, and the SNU error is reduced from 7.7% to 3.8%. There is no obvious improvement on image contrast. Conclusion: Large-group patient studies show that the proposed pCT-based algorithm outperforms the Varian method of the Truebeam system on CBCT shading correction, by providing CBCT images with higher CT number accuracy and greater image uniformity.

  14. X-Ray Scatter Correction on Soft Tissue Images for Portable Cone Beam CT.

    PubMed

    Aootaphao, Sorapong; Thongvigitmanee, Saowapak S; Rajruangrabin, Jartuwat; Thanasupsombat, Chalinee; Srivongsa, Tanapon; Thajchayapong, Pairash

    2016-01-01

    Soft tissue images from portable cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scanners can be used for diagnosis and detection of tumor, cancer, intracerebral hemorrhage, and so forth. Due to large field of view, X-ray scattering which is the main cause of artifacts degrades image quality, such as cupping artifacts, CT number inaccuracy, and low contrast, especially on soft tissue images. In this work, we propose the X-ray scatter correction method for improving soft tissue images. The X-ray scatter correction scheme to estimate X-ray scatter signals is based on the deconvolution technique using the maximum likelihood estimation maximization (MLEM) method. The scatter kernels are obtained by simulating the PMMA sheet on the Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) software. In the experiment, we used the QRM phantom to quantitatively compare with fan-beam CT (FBCT) data in terms of CT number values, contrast to noise ratio, cupping artifacts, and low contrast detectability. Moreover, the PH3 angiography phantom was also used to mimic human soft tissues in the brain. The reconstructed images with our proposed scatter correction show significant improvement on image quality. Thus the proposed scatter correction technique has high potential to detect soft tissues in the brain.

  15. X-Ray Scatter Correction on Soft Tissue Images for Portable Cone Beam CT

    PubMed Central

    Aootaphao, Sorapong; Thongvigitmanee, Saowapak S.; Rajruangrabin, Jartuwat; Thanasupsombat, Chalinee; Srivongsa, Tanapon; Thajchayapong, Pairash

    2016-01-01

    Soft tissue images from portable cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scanners can be used for diagnosis and detection of tumor, cancer, intracerebral hemorrhage, and so forth. Due to large field of view, X-ray scattering which is the main cause of artifacts degrades image quality, such as cupping artifacts, CT number inaccuracy, and low contrast, especially on soft tissue images. In this work, we propose the X-ray scatter correction method for improving soft tissue images. The X-ray scatter correction scheme to estimate X-ray scatter signals is based on the deconvolution technique using the maximum likelihood estimation maximization (MLEM) method. The scatter kernels are obtained by simulating the PMMA sheet on the Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) software. In the experiment, we used the QRM phantom to quantitatively compare with fan-beam CT (FBCT) data in terms of CT number values, contrast to noise ratio, cupping artifacts, and low contrast detectability. Moreover, the PH3 angiography phantom was also used to mimic human soft tissues in the brain. The reconstructed images with our proposed scatter correction show significant improvement on image quality. Thus the proposed scatter correction technique has high potential to detect soft tissues in the brain. PMID:27022608

  16. SU-E-T-416: VMAT Dose Calculations Using Cone Beam CT Images: A Preliminary Study

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, S; Sehgal, V; Kuo, J; Daroui, P; Ramsinghani, N; Al-Ghazi, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Cone beam CT (CBCT) images have been used routinely for patient positioning throughout the treatment course. However, use of CBCT for dose calculation is still investigational. The purpose of this study is to assess the utility of CBCT images for Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) plan dose calculation. Methods: A CATPHAN 504 phantom (The Phantom Laboratory, Salem, NY) was used to compare the dosimetric and geometric accuracy between conventional CT and CBCT (in both full and half fan modes). Hounsfield units (HU) profiles at different density areas were evaluated. A C shape target that surrounds a central avoidance structure was created and a VMAT plan was generated on the CT images and copied to the CBCT phantom images. Patient studies included three brain patients, and one head and neck (H'N) patient. VMAT plans generated on the patients treatment planning CT was applied to CBCT images obtained during the first treatment. Isodose distributions and dosevolume- histograms (DVHs) were compared. Results: For the phantom study, the HU difference between CT and CBCT is within 100 (maximum 96 HU for Teflon CBCT images in full fan mode). The impact of these differences on the calculated dose distributions was clinically insignificant. In both phantom and patient studies, target DVHs based on CBCT images were in excellent agreement with those based on planning CT images. Mean, Median, near minimum (D98%), and near maximum (D2%) doses agreed within 0-2.5%. A slightly larger discrepancy is observed in the patient studies compared to that seen in the phantom study, (0-1% vs. 0 - 2.5%). Conclusion: CBCT images can be used to accurately predict dosimetric results, without any HU correction. It is feasible to use CBCT to evaluate the actual dose delivered at each fraction. The dosimetric consequences resulting from tumor response and patient geometry changes could be monitored.

  17. Evaluation of flat panel detector cone beam CT breast imaging with different sizes of breast phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Ruola; Conover, David; Lu, Xianghua; Zhang, Yan; Yu, Yong; Schiffhauer, Linda; Cullinan, Jeanne

    2005-04-01

    The sensitivity to detect small breast cancers and the specificity of conventional mammography (CM) remain limited owing to an overlap in the appearances of lesions and surrounding structure. We propose to address the limitations accompanying CM using flat panel detector (FPD)-based cone beam CT breast imaging (CBCTBI). The purpose of the study is to determine optimal x-ray operation ranges for different sizes of normal breasts and corresponding glandular dose levels. The current CBCT prototype consists of a modified GE HighSpeed Advantage CT gantry, an x-ray tube, a Varian PaxScan 4030CB FPD, a CT table and a PC. Two uncompressed breast phantoms, with the diameters of 10.8 and 13.8 cm, consist of three inserts: a layer of silicone jell simulating a background structure, a lucite plate on which five simulated carcinomas are mounted, and a plate on which six calcifications are attached. With a single scan, 300 projections were acquired for all phantom scans. The optimal x-ray techniques for different phantom sizes were determined. The total mean glandular doses for different size phantoms were measured using a CT pencil ionization chamber. With the optimal x-ray techniques that result in the maximal dose efficiency for the different tissue thickness, the image quality with two different phantoms was evaluated. The results demonstrate that the CBCTBI can detect a few millimeter-size simulated carcinoma and ~ 0.2 mm calcification with clinically acceptable mean glandular doses for different size breasts.

  18. GPU-Based 3D Cone-Beam CT Image Reconstruction for Large Data Volume

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xing; Hu, Jing-jing; Zhang, Peng

    2009-01-01

    Currently, 3D cone-beam CT image reconstruction speed is still a severe limitation for clinical application. The computational power of modern graphics processing units (GPUs) has been harnessed to provide impressive acceleration of 3D volume image reconstruction. For extra large data volume exceeding the physical graphic memory of GPU, a straightforward compromise is to divide data volume into blocks. Different from the conventional Octree partition method, a new partition scheme is proposed in this paper. This method divides both projection data and reconstructed image volume into subsets according to geometric symmetries in circular cone-beam projection layout, and a fast reconstruction for large data volume can be implemented by packing the subsets of projection data into the RGBA channels of GPU, performing the reconstruction chunk by chunk and combining the individual results in the end. The method is evaluated by reconstructing 3D images from computer-simulation data and real micro-CT data. Our results indicate that the GPU implementation can maintain original precision and speed up the reconstruction process by 110–120 times for circular cone-beam scan, as compared to traditional CPU implementation. PMID:19730744

  19. Scattered radiation in flat-detector based cone-beam CT: analysis of voxelized patient simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiegert, Jens; Bertram, Matthias

    2006-03-01

    This paper presents a systematic assessment of scattered radiation in flat-detector based cone-beam CT. The analysis is based on simulated scatter projections of voxelized CT images of different body regions allowing to accurately quantify scattered radiation of realistic and clinically relevant patient geometries. Using analytically computed primary projection data of high spatial resolution in combination with Monte-Carlo simulated scattered radiation, practically noise-free reference data sets are computed with and without inclusion of scatter. The impact of scatter is studied both in the projection data and in the reconstructed volume for the head, thorax, and pelvis regions. Currently available anti-scatter grid geometries do not sufficiently compensate scatter induced cupping and streak artifacts, requiring additional software-based scatter correction. The required accuracy of scatter compensation approaches increases with increasing patient size.

  20. [Periinterventional cone-beam-CT: application at transarterial chemoembolization of liver tumors].

    PubMed

    Adamus, R; Uder, M; Wilhelm, M; Loose, R W

    2011-07-01

    Periinterventional Cone-Beam CT (CBCT) today is a valuable tool in complex radiological interventions. Only little experience exists about CBCT in transarterial chemoembolisations (TACE) of liver tumors. 25 patients underwent periinterventional CBCT. We used a C-arc DSA with 30 × 40 cm flat panel detector. Image data with axial, coronal and 3D-reconstruction were acquired by 217° rotation in 8 seconds. In all 25 cases CBCT had an influence on the TACE regarding the decision which vessels to catheterize, the amount of retention of the embolisation agent or an abort because of insufficient vascularisation. In comparison with DSA alone, CBCT allows a better visualisation of tumour vessels, simplifies selective catheterisation, the decision whether an embolisation is possible and enables a good visualisation of Lipiodol retention. Hence, CBCT is a helpful periinterventional tool but cannot substitute CT and MRI in follow up.

  1. Implant planning and placement using optical scanning and cone beam CT technology.

    PubMed

    van der Zel, Jef M

    2008-08-01

    There is a growing interest in minimally invasive implant therapy as a standard prosthodontic treatment, providing complete restoration of occlusal function. A new treatment method (CADDIMA), which combines both computerized tomographic (CT) and optical laser-scan data for planning and design of surgical guides, implant abutments, and prosthetic devices, is described. Imaging using a "NewTom 3G" cone beam CT scanner and a modified laser triangulation scanner "D200c" is discussed, as are impression and surgical guide fabrication, which allow for flapless, precise implant placement and an accurate provisional prosthesis. The new approach gives the operator full control over the design of the implant prosthesis for planning of proper occlusal relations and shows promise for further evaluation.

  2. Characterization and correction of cupping effect artefacts in cone beam CT

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, AK; McDavid, WD

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to demonstrate and correct the cupping effect artefact that occurs owing to the presence of beam hardening and scatter radiation during image acquisition in cone beam CT (CBCT). Methods A uniform aluminium cylinder (6061) was used to demonstrate the cupping effect artefact on the Planmeca Promax 3D CBCT unit (Planmeca OY, Helsinki, Finland). The cupping effect was studied using a line profile plot of the grey level values using ImageJ software (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD). A hardware-based correction method using copper pre-filtration was used to address this artefact caused by beam hardening and a software-based subtraction algorithm was used to address scatter contamination. Results The hardware-based correction used to address the effects of beam hardening suppressed the cupping effect artefact but did not eliminate it. The software-based correction used to address the effects of scatter resulted in elimination of the cupping effect artefact. Conclusion Compensating for the presence of beam hardening and scatter radiation improves grey level uniformity in CBCT. PMID:22378754

  3. SU-E-J-43: Deformed Planning CT as An Electron Density Substitute for Cone-Beam CT

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, K; Godley, A

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To confirm that deforming the planning CT to the daily Cone-Beam CTs (CBCT) can provide suitable electron density for adaptive planning. We quantify the dosimetric difference between plans calculated on deformed planning CTs (DPCT) and daily CT-on-rails images (CTOR). CTOR is used as a test of the method as CTOR already contains accurate electron density to compare against. Methods: Five prostate only IMRT patients, each with five CTOR images, were selected and re-planned on Panther (Prowess Inc.) with a uniform 5 mm PTV expansion, prescribed 78 Gy. The planning CT was deformed to match each CTOR using ABAS (Elekta Inc.). Contours were drawn on the CTOR, and copied to the DPCT. The original treatment plan was copied to both the CTOR and DPCT, keeping the center of the prostate as the isocenter. The plans were then calculated using the collapsed cone heterogeneous dose engine of Prowess and typical DVH planning parameters used to compare them. Results: Each DPCT was visually compared to its CTOR with no differences observed. The agreement of the copied CTOR contours with the DPCT anatomy further demonstrated the deformation accuracy. The plans calculated using CTOR and DPCT were compared. Over the 25 plan pairs, the average difference between them for prostate D100, D98 and D95 were 0.5%, 0.2%, and 0.2%; PTV D98, D95 and mean dose: 0.3%, 0.2% and 0.3%; bladder V70, V60 and mean dose: 1.1%, 0.7%, and 0.2%; and rectum mean dose: 0.3%. (D100 is the dose covering 100% of the target; V70 is the volume of the organ receiving 70 Gy). Conclusion: We observe negligible difference between the dose calculated on the DPCT and the CTOR, implying that deformed planning CTs are a suitable substitute for electron density. The method can now be applied to CBCTs. Research version of Panther provided by Prowess Inc. Research version of ABAS provided by Elekta Inc.

  4. Investigation of uncertainties in image registration of cone beam CT to CT on an image-guided radiotherapy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sykes, J. R.; Brettle, D. S.; Magee, D. R.; Thwaites, D. I.

    2009-12-01

    Methods of measuring uncertainties in rigid body image registration of fan beam computed tomography (FBCT) to cone beam CT (CBCT) have been developed for automatic image registration algorithms in a commercial image guidance system (Synergy, Elekta, UK). The relationships between image registration uncertainty and both imaging dose and image resolution have been investigated with an anthropomorphic skull phantom and further measurements performed with patient images of the head. A new metric of target registration error is proposed. The metric calculates the mean distance traversed by a set of equi-spaced points on the surface of a 5 cm sphere, centred at the isocentre when transformed by the residual error of registration. Studies aimed at giving practical guidance on the use of the Synergy automated image registration, including choice of algorithm and use of the Clipbox are reported. The chamfer-matching algorithm was found to be highly robust to the increased noise induced by low-dose acquisitions. This would allow the imaging dose to be reduced from the current clinical norm of 2 mGy to 0.2 mGy without a clinically significant loss of accuracy. A study of the effect of FBCT slice thickness/spacing and CBCT voxel size showed that 2.5 mm and 1 mm, respectively, gave acceptable image registration performance. Registration failures were highly infrequent if the misalignment was typical of normal clinical set-up errors and these were easily identified. The standard deviation of translational registration errors, measured with patient images, was 0.5 mm on the surface of a 5 cm sphere centred on the treatment centre. The chamfer algorithm is suitable for routine clinical use with minimal need for close inspection of image misalignment.

  5. Development of high-resolution x-ray CT system using parallel beam geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoneyama, Akio; Baba, Rika; Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Takeda, Tohoru; Nakano, Haruhisa; Maki, Koutaro; Sumitani, Kazushi; Hirai, Yasuharu

    2016-01-01

    For fine three-dimensional observations of large biomedical and organic material samples, we developed a high-resolution X-ray CT system. The system consists of a sample positioner, a 5-μm scintillator, microscopy lenses, and a water-cooled sCMOS detector. Parallel beam geometry was adopted to attain a field of view of a few mm square. A fine three-dimensional image of birch branch was obtained using a 9-keV X-ray at BL16XU of SPring-8 in Japan. The spatial resolution estimated from the line profile of a sectional image was about 3 μm.

  6. Automated volume of interest delineation and rendering of cone beam CT images in interventional cardiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Cristian; Schäfer, Dirk; Eshuis, Peter; Carroll, John; Grass, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Interventional C-arm systems allow the efficient acquisition of 3D cone beam CT images. They can be used for intervention planning, navigation, and outcome assessment. We present a fast and completely automated volume of interest (VOI) delineation for cardiac interventions, covering the whole visceral cavity including mediastinum and lungs but leaving out rib-cage and spine. The problem is addressed in a model based approach. The procedure has been evaluated on 22 patient cases and achieves an average surface error below 2mm. The method is able to cope with varying image intensities, varying truncations due to the limited reconstruction volume, and partially with heavy metal and motion artifacts.

  7. Development of high-resolution x-ray CT system using parallel beam geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Yoneyama, Akio Baba, Rika; Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Takeda, Tohoru; Nakano, Haruhisa; Maki, Koutaro; Sumitani, Kazushi; Hirai, Yasuharu

    2016-01-28

    For fine three-dimensional observations of large biomedical and organic material samples, we developed a high-resolution X-ray CT system. The system consists of a sample positioner, a 5-μm scintillator, microscopy lenses, and a water-cooled sCMOS detector. Parallel beam geometry was adopted to attain a field of view of a few mm square. A fine three-dimensional image of birch branch was obtained using a 9-keV X-ray at BL16XU of SPring-8 in Japan. The spatial resolution estimated from the line profile of a sectional image was about 3 μm.

  8. Design and optimization of a dedicated cone-beam CT system for musculoskeletal extremities imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zbijewski, W.; De Jean, P.; Prakash, P.; Ding, Y.; Stayman, J. W.; Packard, N.; Senn, R.; Yang, D.; Yorkston, J.; Machado, A.; Carrino, J. A.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2011-03-01

    The design, initial imaging performance, and model-based optimization of a dedicated cone-beam CT (CBCT) scanner for musculoskeletal extremities is presented. The system offers a compact scanner that complements conventional CT and MR by providing sub-mm isotropic spatial resolution, the ability to image weight-bearing extremities, and the capability for integrated real-time fluoroscopy and digital radiography. The scanner employs a flat-panel detector and a fixed anode x-ray source and has a field of view of ~ (20x20x20) cm3. The gantry allows a "standing" configuration for imaging of weight-bearing lower extremities and a "sitting" configuration for imaging of upper extremities and unloaded lower extremities. Cascaded systems analysis guided the selection of x-ray technique (e.g., kVp, filtration, and dose) and system design (e.g., magnification factor), yielding input-quantum-limited performance at detector signal of 100 times the electronic noise, while maintaining patient dose below 5 mGy (a factor of ~2-3 less than conventional CT). A magnification of 1.3 optimized tradeoffs between source and detector blur for a 0.5 mm focal spot. A custom antiscatter grid demonstrated significant reduction of artifacts without loss of contrast-to-noise ratio or increase in dose. Image quality in cadaveric specimens was assessed on a CBCT bench, demonstrating exquisite bone detail, visualization of intra-articular morphology, and soft-tissue visibility approaching that of diagnostic CT. The capability to image loaded extremities and conduct multi-modality CBCT/fluoroscopy with improved workflow compared to whole-body CT could be of value in a broad spectrum of applications, including orthopaedics, rheumatology, surgical planning, and treatment assessment. A clinical prototype has been constructed for deployment in pilot study trials.

  9. Improving image accuracy of region-of-interest in cone-beam CT using prior image.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jiseoc; Kim, Jin Sung; Cho, Seungryong

    2014-03-06

    In diagnostic follow-ups of diseases, such as calcium scoring in kidney or fat content assessment in liver using repeated CT scans, quantitatively accurate and consistent CT values are desirable at a low cost of radiation dose to the patient. Region of-interest (ROI) imaging technique is considered a reasonable dose reduction method in CT scans for its shielding geometry outside the ROI. However, image artifacts in the reconstructed images caused by missing data outside the ROI may degrade overall image quality and, more importantly, can decrease image accuracy of the ROI substantially. In this study, we propose a method to increase image accuracy of the ROI and to reduce imaging radiation dose via utilizing the outside ROI data from prior scans in the repeated CT applications. We performed both numerical and experimental studies to validate our proposed method. In a numerical study, we used an XCAT phantom with its liver and stomach changing their sizes from one scan to another. Image accuracy of the liver has been improved as the error decreased from 44.4 HU to -0.1 HU by the proposed method, compared to an existing method of data extrapolation to compensate for the missing data outside the ROI. Repeated cone-beam CT (CBCT) images of a patient who went through daily CBCT scans for radiation therapy were also used to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method experimentally. The results showed improved image accuracy inside the ROI. The magnitude of error decreased from -73.2 HU to 18 HU, and effectively reduced image artifacts throughout the entire image.

  10. Optimal slice thickness for cone-beam CT with on-board imager

    PubMed Central

    Seet, KYT; Barghi, A; Yartsev, S; Van Dyk, J

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To find the optimal slice thickness (Δτ) setting for patient registration with kilovoltage cone-beam CT (kVCBCT) on the Varian On Board Imager (OBI) system by investigating the relationship of slice thickness to automatic registration accuracy and contrast-to-noise ratio. Materials and method: Automatic registration was performed on kVCBCT studies of the head and pelvis of a RANDO anthropomorphic phantom. Images were reconstructed with 1.0 ≤ Δτ (mm) ≤ 5.0 at 1.0 mm increments. The phantoms were offset by a known amount, and the suggested shifts were compared to the known shifts by calculating the residual error. A uniform cylindrical phantom with cylindrical inserts of various known CT numbers was scanned with kVCBCT at 1.0 ≤ Δτ (mm) ≤ 5.0 at increments of 0.5 mm. The contrast-to-noise ratios for the inserts were measured at each Δτ. Results: For the planning CT slice thickness used in this study, there was no significant difference in residual error below a threshold equal to the planning CT slice thickness. For Δτ > 3.0 mm, residual error increased for both the head and pelvis phantom studies. The contrast-to-noise ratio is proportional to slice thickness until Δτ = 2.5 mm. Beyond this point, the contrast-to-noise ratio was not affected by Δτ. Conclusion: Automatic registration accuracy is greatest when 1.0 ≤ Δτ (mm) ≤ 3.0 is used. Contrast-to-noise ratio is optimal for the 2.5 ≤ Δτ (mm) ≤ 5.0 range. Therefore 2.5 ≤ Δτ (mm) ≤ 3.0 is recommended for kVCBCT patient registration where the planning CT is 3.0 mm. PMID:21611047

  11. SU-E-T-161: Evaluation of Dose Calculation Based On Cone-Beam CT

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, T; Nakazawa, T; Saitou, Y; Nakata, A; Yano, M; Tateoka, K; Fujimoto, K; Sakata, K

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to convert pixel values in cone-beam CT (CBCT) using histograms of pixel values in the simulation CT (sim-CT) and the CBCT images and to evaluate the accuracy of dose calculation based on the CBCT. Methods: The sim-CT and CBCT images immediately before the treatment of 10 prostate cancer patients were acquired. Because of insufficient calibration of the pixel values in the CBCT, it is difficult to be directly used for dose calculation. The pixel values in the CBCT images were converted using an in-house program. A 7 fields treatment plans (original plan) created on the sim-CT images were applied to the CBCT images and the dose distributions were re-calculated with same monitor units (MUs). These prescription doses were compared with those of original plans. Results: In the results of the pixel values conversion in the CBCT images,the mean differences of pixel values for the prostate,subcutaneous adipose, muscle and right-femur were −10.78±34.60, 11.78±41.06, 29.49±36.99 and 0.14±31.15 respectively. In the results of the calculated doses, the mean differences of prescription doses for 7 fields were 4.13±0.95%, 0.34±0.86%, −0.05±0.55%, 1.35±0.98%, 1.77±0.56%, 0.89±0.69% and 1.69±0.71% respectively and as a whole, the difference of prescription dose was 1.54±0.4%. Conclusion: The dose calculation on the CBCT images achieve an accuracy of <2% by using this pixel values conversion program. This may enable implementation of efficient adaptive radiotherapy.

  12. The Relationships of the Maxillary Sinus With the Superior Alveolar Nerves and Vessels as Demonstrated by Cone-Beam CT Combined With μ-CT and Histological Analyses.

    PubMed

    Kasahara, Norio; Morita, Wataru; Tanaka, Ray; Hayashi, Takafumi; Kenmotsu, Shinichi; Ohshima, Hayato

    2016-05-01

    There are no available detailed data on the three-dimensional courses of the human superior alveolar nerves and vessels. This study aimed to clarify the relationships of the maxillary sinus with the superior alveolar nerves and vessels using cone-beam computed tomography (CT) combined with μ-CT and histological analyses. Digital imaging and communication in medicine data obtained from the scanned heads/maxillae of cadavers used for undergraduate/postgraduate dissection practice and skulls using cone-beam CT were reconstructed into three-dimensional (3D) images using software. The 3D images were compared with μ-CT images and histological sections. Cone-beam CT clarified the relationships of the maxillary sinus with the superior alveolar canals/grooves. The main anterior superior alveolar canal/groove ran anteriorly through the upper part of the sinus and terminated at the bottom of the nasal cavity near the piriform aperture. The main middle alveolar canal ran downward from the upper part of the sinus to ultimately join the anterior one. The main posterior alveolar canal ran through the lateral lower part of the sinus and communicated with the anterior one. Histological analyses demonstrated the existence of nerves and vessels in these canals/grooves, and the quantities of these structures varied across each canal/groove. Furthermore, the superior dental nerve plexus exhibited a network that was located horizontally to the occlusal plane, although these nerve plexuses appeared to be the vertical network that is described in most textbooks. In conclusion, cone-beam CT is suggested to be a useful method for clarifying the superior alveolar canals/grooves including the nerves and vessels.

  13. Electron stripping processes of H- ion beam in the 80 kV high voltage extraction column and low energy beam transport line at LANSCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draganic, I. N.

    2016-02-01

    Basic vacuum calculations were performed for various operating conditions of the Los Alamos National Neutron Science H- Cockcroft-Walton (CW) injector and the Ion Source Test Stand (ISTS). The vacuum pressure was estimated for both the CW and ISTS at five different points: (1) inside the H- ion source, (2) in front of the Pierce electrode, (3) at the extraction electrode, (4) at the column electrode, and (5) at the ground electrode. A static vacuum analysis of residual gases and the working hydrogen gas was completed for the normal ion source working regime. Gas density and partial pressure were estimated for the injected hydrogen gas. The attenuation of H- beam current and generation of electron current in the high voltage acceleration columns and low energy beam transport lines were calculated. The interaction of H- ions on molecular hydrogen (H2) is discussed as a dominant collision process in describing electron stripping rates. These results are used to estimate the observed increase in the ratio of electrons to H- ion beam in the ISTS beam transport line.

  14. Electron stripping processes of H{sup −} ion beam in the 80 kV high voltage extraction column and low energy beam transport line at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    Draganic, I. N.

    2016-02-15

    Basic vacuum calculations were performed for various operating conditions of the Los Alamos National Neutron Science H{sup −} Cockcroft-Walton (CW) injector and the Ion Source Test Stand (ISTS). The vacuum pressure was estimated for both the CW and ISTS at five different points: (1) inside the H{sup −} ion source, (2) in front of the Pierce electrode, (3) at the extraction electrode, (4) at the column electrode, and (5) at the ground electrode. A static vacuum analysis of residual gases and the working hydrogen gas was completed for the normal ion source working regime. Gas density and partial pressure were estimated for the injected hydrogen gas. The attenuation of H{sup −} beam current and generation of electron current in the high voltage acceleration columns and low energy beam transport lines were calculated. The interaction of H{sup −} ions on molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) is discussed as a dominant collision process in describing electron stripping rates. These results are used to estimate the observed increase in the ratio of electrons to H{sup −} ion beam in the ISTS beam transport line.

  15. Enhancement of breast calcification visualization and detection using a modified PG method in Cone Beam Breast CT.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiangkun; Ning, Ruola; Cai, Weixing; Benitez, Ricardo Betancourt

    2012-01-01

    Cone Beam Breast CT is a promising diagnostic modality in breast imaging. Its isotropic 3D spatial resolution enhances the characterization of micro-calcifications in breasts that might not be easily distinguishable in mammography. However, due to dose level considerations, it is beneficial to further enhance the visualization of calcifications in Cone Beam Breast CT images that might be masked by noise. In this work, the Papoulis-Gerchberg method was modified and implemented in Cone Beam Breast CT images to improve the visualization and detectability of calcifications. First, the PG method was modified and applied to the projections acquired during the scanning process; its effects on the reconstructed images were analyzed by measuring the Modulation Transfer Function and the Noise Power Spectrum. Second, Cone Beam Breast CT images acquired at different dose levels were pre-processed using this technique to enhance the visualization of calcification. Finally, a computer-aided diagnostic algorithm was utilized to evaluate the efficacy of this method to improve calcification detectability. The results demonstrated that this technique can effectively improve image quality by improving the Modulation Transfer Function with a minor increase in noise level. Consequently, the visualization and detectability of calcifications were improved in Cone Beam Breast CT images. This technique was also proved to be useful in reducing the x-ray dose without degrading visualization and detectability of calcifications.

  16. Enhancement of Breast Calcification Visualization and Detection Using a Modified PG Method in Cone Beam Breast CT

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiangkun; Cai, Weixing; Benitez, Ricardo Betancourt

    2012-01-01

    Cone Beam Breast CT is a promising diagnostic modality in breast imaging. Its isotropic 3D spatial resolution enhances the characterization of micro-calcifications in breasts that might not be easily distinguishable in mammography. However, due to dose level considerations, it is beneficial to further enhance the visualization of calcifications in Cone Beam Breast CT images that might be masked by noise. In this work, the Papoulis-Gerchberg method was modified and implemented in Cone Beam Breast CT images to improve the visualization and detectability of calcifications. First, the PG method was modified and applied to the projections acquired during the scanning process; its effects on the reconstructed images were analyzed by measuring the Modulation Transfer Function and the Noise Power Spectrum. Second, Cone Beam Breast CT images acquired at different dose levels were pre-processed using this technique to enhance the visualization of calcification. Finally, a computer-aided diagnostic algorithm was utilized to evaluate the efficacy of this method to improve calcification detectability. The results demonstrated that this technique can effectively improve image quality by improving the Modulation Transfer Function with a minor increase in noise level. Consequently, the visualization and detectability of calcifications were improved in Cone Beam Breast CT images. This technique was also proved to be useful in reducing the x-ray dose without degrading visualization and detectability of calcifications. PMID:22398591

  17. Accurate Coregistration between Ultra-High-Resolution Micro-SPECT and Circular Cone-Beam Micro-CT Scanners.

    PubMed

    Ji, Changguo; van der Have, Frans; Gratama van Andel, Hugo; Ramakers, Ruud; Beekman, Freek

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Spatially registering SPECT with CT makes it possible to anatomically localize SPECT tracers. In this study, an accurate method for the coregistration of ultra-high-resolution SPECT volumes and multiple cone-beam CT volumes is developed and validated, which does not require markers during animal scanning. Methods. Transferable animal beds were developed with an accurate mounting interface. Simple calibration phantoms make it possible to obtain both the spatial transformation matrix for stitching multiple CT scans of different parts of the animal and to register SPECT and CT. The spatial transformation for image coregistration is calculated once using Horn's matching algorithm. Animal images can then be coregistered without using markers. Results. For mouse-sized objects, average coregistration errors between SPECT and CT in X, Y, and Z directions are within 0.04 mm, 0.10 mm, and 0.19 mm, respectively. For rat-sized objects, these numbers are 0.22 mm, 0.14 mm, and 0.28 mm. Average 3D coregistration errors were within 0.24 mm and 0.42 mm for mouse and rat imaging, respectively. Conclusion. Extending the field-of-view of cone-beam CT by stitching is improved by prior registration of the CT volumes. The accuracy of registration between SPECT and CT is typically better than the image resolution of current ultra-high-resolution SPECT.

  18. 4D-Imaging of the Lung: Reproducibility of Lesion Size and Displacement on Helical CT, MRI, and Cone Beam CT in a Ventilated Ex Vivo System

    SciTech Connect

    Biederer, Juergen Dinkel, Julien; Remmert, Gregor; Jetter, Siri; Nill, Simeon; Moser, Torsten; Bendl, Rolf; Thierfelder, Carsten; Fabel, Michael; Oelfke, Uwe; Bock, Michael; Plathow, Christian; Bolte, Hendrik; Welzel, Thomas; Hoffmann, Beata; Hartmann, Guenter; Schlegel, Wolfgang; Debus, Juergen; Heller, Martin

    2009-03-01

    Purpose: Four-dimensional (4D) imaging is a key to motion-adapted radiotherapy of lung tumors. We evaluated in a ventilated ex vivo system how size and displacement of artificial pulmonary nodules are reproduced with helical 4D-CT, 4D-MRI, and linac-integrated cone beam CT (CBCT). Methods and Materials: Four porcine lungs with 18 agarose nodules (mean diameters 1.3-1.9 cm), were ventilated inside a chest phantom at 8/min and subject to 4D-CT (collimation 24 x 1.2 mm, pitch 0.1, slice/increment 24x10{sup 2}/1.5/0.8 mm, pitch 0.1, temporal resolution 0.5 s), 4D-MRI (echo-shared dynamic three-dimensional-flash; repetition/echo time 2.13/0.72 ms, voxel size 2.7 x 2.7 x 4.0 mm, temporal resolution 1.4 s) and linac-integrated 4D-CBCT (720 projections, 3-min rotation, temporal resolution {approx}1 s). Static CT without respiration served as control. Three observers recorded lesion size (RECIST-diameters x/y/z) and axial displacement. Interobserver- and interphase-variation coefficients (IO/IP VC) of measurements indicated reproducibility. Results: Mean x/y/z lesion diameters in cm were equal on static and dynamic CT (1.88/1.87; 1.30/1.39; 1.71/1.73; p > 0.05), but appeared larger on MRI and CBCT (2.06/1.95 [p < 0.05 vs. CT]; 1.47/1.28 [MRI vs. CT/CBCT p < 0.05]; 1.86/1.83 [CT vs. CBCT p < 0.05]). Interobserver-VC for lesion sizes were 2.54-4.47% (CT), 2.29-4.48% (4D-CT); 5.44-6.22% (MRI) and 4.86-6.97% (CBCT). Interphase-VC for lesion sizes ranged from 2.28% (4D-CT) to 10.0% (CBCT). Mean displacement in cm decreased from static CT (1.65) to 4D-CT (1.40), CBCT (1.23) and MRI (1.16). Conclusions: Lesion sizes are exactly reproduced with 4D-CT but overestimated on 4D-MRI and CBCT with a larger variability due to limited temporal and spatial resolution. All 4D-modalities underestimate lesion displacement.

  19. Does cone beam CT actually ameliorate stab wound analysis in bone?

    PubMed

    Gaudio, D; Di Giancamillo, M; Gibelli, D; Galassi, A; Cerutti, E; Cattaneo, C

    2014-01-01

    This study aims at verifying the potential of a recent radiological technology, cone beam CT (CBCT), for the reproduction of digital 3D models which may allow the user to verify the inner morphology of sharp force wounds within the bone tissue. Several sharp force wounds were produced by both single and double cutting edge weapons on cancellous and cortical bone, and then acquired by cone beam CT scan. The lesions were analysed by different software (a DICOM file viewer and reverse engineering software). Results verified the limited performances of such technology for lesions made on cortical bone, whereas on cancellous bone reliable models were obtained, and the precise morphology within the bone tissues was visible. On the basis of such results, a method for differential diagnosis between cutmarks by sharp tools with a single and two cutting edges can be proposed. On the other hand, the metrical computerised analysis of lesions highlights a clear increase of error range for measurements under 3 mm. Metric data taken by different operators shows a strong dispersion (% relative standard deviation). This pilot study shows that the use of CBCT technology can improve the investigation of morphological stab wounds on cancellous bone. Conversely metric analysis of the lesions as well as morphological analysis of wound dimension under 3 mm do not seem to be reliable.

  20. Simulations and experimental feasibility study of fan-beam coherent-scatter CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Adrian; Schlomka, Jens-Peter; Harding, Geoffrey L.

    2002-11-01

    Fan-beam coherent scatter computer tomography (CSCT) has been employed to obtain 2-dimensional images of spatially resolved diffraction patterns in order to supplement CT images in material discrimination. A Monte Carlo simulation tool DiPhoS (Diagnostic Photon Simulation) was used to create 2-dimensional scatter projection data sets of high-contrast water and Lucite phantom objects with plastic inserts. The results were used as input to a reconstruction routine based on a novel simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique (SIRT). At the same time an experimental demonstrator was assembled to confirm the simulations by measurements and to show the feasibility of coherent scatter CT. It consisted of a 4.5kW constant power X-ray tube, a rotatable object plate and a vertical detector column that could be panned around the object. Spatial resolution was ensured by mechanical collimation. Phantoms similar to those simulated were measured and reconstructed and the contrast achieved by CSCT between the materials under examination substantially exceeded that achieved in CT. A further step was taken by examining an animal tissue sample in the same way, the results of which show remarkable contrast between muscle, cartilage and fat, suggesting that CSCT can also be used in a medical scenario.

  1. Improving the accuracy of CT dimensional metrology by a novel beam hardening correction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiang; Li, Lei; Zhang, Feng; Xi, Xiaoqi; Deng, Lin; Yan, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Its powerful nondestructive characteristics are attracting more and more research into the study of computed tomography (CT) for dimensional metrology, which offers a practical alternative to the common measurement methods. However, the inaccuracy and uncertainty severely limit the further utilization of CT for dimensional metrology due to many factors, among which the beam hardening (BH) effect plays a vital role. This paper mainly focuses on eliminating the influence of the BH effect in the accuracy of CT dimensional metrology. To correct the BH effect, a novel exponential correction model is proposed. The parameters of the model are determined by minimizing the gray entropy of the reconstructed volume. In order to maintain the consistency and contrast of the corrected volume, a punishment term is added to the cost function, enabling more accurate measurement results to be obtained by the simple global threshold method. The proposed method is efficient, and especially suited to the case where there is a large difference in gray value between material and background. Different spheres with known diameters are used to verify the accuracy of dimensional measurement. Both simulation and real experimental results demonstrate the improvement in measurement precision. Moreover, a more complex workpiece is also tested to show that the proposed method is of general feasibility.

  2. An investigation into factors affecting electron density calibration for a megavoltage cone-beam CT system.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Jessica; Holloway, Lois C; Quinn, Alexandra; Fielding, Andrew

    2012-09-06

    There is a growing interest in the use of megavoltage cone-beam computed tomography (MV CBCT) data for radiotherapy treatment planning. To calculate accurate dose distributions, knowledge of the electron density (ED) of the tissues being irradiated is required. In the case of MV CBCT, it is necessary to determine a calibration-relating CT number to ED, utilizing the photon beam produced for MV CBCT. A number of different parameters can affect this calibration. This study was undertaken on the Siemens MV CBCT system, MVision, to evaluate the effect of the following parameters on the reconstructed CT pixel value to ED calibration: the number of monitor units (MUs) used (5, 8, 15 and 60 MUs), the image reconstruction filter (head and neck, and pelvis), reconstruction matrix size (256 by 256 and 512 by 512), and the addition of extra solid water surrounding the ED phantom. A Gammex electron density CT phantom containing EDs from 0.292 to 1.707 was imaged under each of these conditions. The linear relationship between MV CBCT pixel value and ED was demonstrated for all MU settings and over the range of EDs. Changes in MU number did not dramatically alter the MV CBCT ED calibration. The use of different reconstruction filters was found to affect the MV CBCT ED calibration, as was the addition of solid water surrounding the phantom. Dose distributions from treatment plans calculated with simulated image data from a 15 MU head and neck reconstruction filter MV CBCT image and a MV CBCT ED calibration curve from the image data parameters and a 15 MU pelvis reconstruction filter showed small and clinically insignificant differences. Thus, the use of a single MV CBCT ED calibration curve is unlikely to result in any clinical differences. However, to ensure minimal uncertainties in dose reporting, MV CBCT ED calibration measurements could be carried out using parameter-specific calibration measurements.

  3. Validation of a deformable image registration technique for cone beam CT-based dose verification

    SciTech Connect

    Moteabbed, M. Sharp, G. C.; Wang, Y.; Trofimov, A.; Efstathiou, J. A.; Lu, H.-M.

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: As radiation therapy evolves toward more adaptive techniques, image guidance plays an increasingly important role, not only in patient setup but also in monitoring the delivered dose and adapting the treatment to patient changes. This study aimed to validate a method for evaluation of delivered intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) dose based on multimodal deformable image registration (DIR) for prostate treatments. Methods: A pelvic phantom was scanned with CT and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Both images were digitally deformed using two realistic patient-based deformation fields. The original CT was then registered to the deformed CBCT resulting in a secondary deformed CT. The registration quality was assessed as the ability of the DIR method to recover the artificially induced deformations. The primary and secondary deformed CT images as well as vector fields were compared to evaluate the efficacy of the registration method and it’s suitability to be used for dose calculation. PLASTIMATCH, a free and open source software was used for deformable image registration. A B-spline algorithm with optimized parameters was used to achieve the best registration quality. Geometric image evaluation was performed through voxel-based Hounsfield unit (HU) and vector field comparison. For dosimetric evaluation, IMRT treatment plans were created and optimized on the original CT image and recomputed on the two warped images to be compared. The dose volume histograms were compared for the warped structures that were identical in both warped images. This procedure was repeated for the phantom with full, half full, and empty bladder. Results: The results indicated mean HU differences of up to 120 between registered and ground-truth deformed CT images. However, when the CBCT intensities were calibrated using a region of interest (ROI)-based calibration curve, these differences were reduced by up to 60%. Similarly, the mean differences in average vector field

  4. Validation of a deformable image registration technique for cone beam CT-based dose verification

    PubMed Central

    Moteabbed, M.; Sharp, G. C.; Wang, Y.; Trofimov, A.; Efstathiou, J. A.; Lu, H.-M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: As radiation therapy evolves toward more adaptive techniques, image guidance plays an increasingly important role, not only in patient setup but also in monitoring the delivered dose and adapting the treatment to patient changes. This study aimed to validate a method for evaluation of delivered intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) dose based on multimodal deformable image registration (dir) for prostate treatments. Methods: A pelvic phantom was scanned with CT and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Both images were digitally deformed using two realistic patient-based deformation fields. The original CT was then registered to the deformed CBCT resulting in a secondary deformed CT. The registration quality was assessed as the ability of the dir method to recover the artificially induced deformations. The primary and secondary deformed CT images as well as vector fields were compared to evaluate the efficacy of the registration method and it’s suitability to be used for dose calculation. plastimatch, a free and open source software was used for deformable image registration. A B-spline algorithm with optimized parameters was used to achieve the best registration quality. Geometric image evaluation was performed through voxel-based Hounsfield unit (HU) and vector field comparison. For dosimetric evaluation, IMRT treatment plans were created and optimized on the original CT image and recomputed on the two warped images to be compared. The dose volume histograms were compared for the warped structures that were identical in both warped images. This procedure was repeated for the phantom with full, half full, and empty bladder. Results: The results indicated mean HU differences of up to 120 between registered and ground-truth deformed CT images. However, when the CBCT intensities were calibrated using a region of interest (ROI)-based calibration curve, these differences were reduced by up to 60%. Similarly, the mean differences in average vector field

  5. Effect of voxel size on the accuracy of 3D reconstructions with cone beam CT

    PubMed Central

    Maret, D; Telmon, N; Peters, O A; Lepage, B; Treil, J; Inglèse, J M; Peyre, A; Kahn, J L; Sixou, M

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The various types of cone beam CT (CBCT) differ in several technical characteristics, notably their spatial resolution, which is defined by the acquisition voxel size. However, data are still lacking on the effects of voxel size on the metric accuracy of three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions. This study was designed to assess the effect of isotropic voxel size on the 3D reconstruction accuracy and reproducibility of CBCT data. Methods The study sample comprised 70 teeth (from the Institut d’Anatomie Normale, Strasbourg, France). The teeth were scanned with a KODAK 9500 3D® CBCT (Carestream Health, Inc., Marne-la-Vallée, France), which has two voxel sizes: 200 µm (CBCT 200 µm group) and 300 µm (CBCT 300 µm group). These teeth had also been scanned with the KODAK 9000 3D® CBCT (Carestream Health, Inc.) (CBCT 76 µm group) and the SCANCO Medical micro-CT XtremeCT (SCANCO Medical, Brüttisellen, Switzerland) (micro-CT 41 µm group) considered as references. After semi-automatic segmentation with AMIRA® software (Visualization Sciences Group, Burlington, MA), tooth volumetric measurements were obtained. Results The Bland–Altman method showed no difference in tooth volumes despite a slight underestimation for the CBCT 200 µm and 300 µm groups compared with the two reference groups. The underestimation was statistically significant for the volumetric measurements of the CBCT 300 µm group relative to the two reference groups (Passing–Bablok method). Conclusions CBCT is not only a tool that helps in diagnosis and detection but it has the complementary advantage of being a measuring instrument, the accuracy of which appears connected to the size of the voxels. Future applications of such measurements with CBCT are discussed. PMID:23166362

  6. Classification of teeth in cone-beam CT using deep convolutional neural network.

    PubMed

    Miki, Yuma; Muramatsu, Chisako; Hayashi, Tatsuro; Zhou, Xiangrong; Hara, Takeshi; Katsumata, Akitoshi; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Dental records play an important role in forensic identification. To this end, postmortem dental findings and teeth conditions are recorded in a dental chart and compared with those of antemortem records. However, most dentists are inexperienced at recording the dental chart for corpses, and it is a physically and mentally laborious task, especially in large scale disasters. Our goal is to automate the dental filing process by using dental x-ray images. In this study, we investigated the application of a deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) for classifying tooth types on dental cone-beam computed tomography (CT) images. Regions of interest (ROIs) including single teeth were extracted from CT slices. Fifty two CT volumes were randomly divided into 42 training and 10 test cases, and the ROIs obtained from the training cases were used for training the DCNN. For examining the sampling effect, random sampling was performed 3 times, and training and testing were repeated. We used the AlexNet network architecture provided in the Caffe framework, which consists of 5 convolution layers, 3 pooling layers, and 2 full connection layers. For reducing the overtraining effect, we augmented the data by image rotation and intensity transformation. The test ROIs were classified into 7 tooth types by the trained network. The average classification accuracy using the augmented training data by image rotation and intensity transformation was 88.8%. Compared with the result without data augmentation, data augmentation resulted in an approximately 5% improvement in classification accuracy. This indicates that the further improvement can be expected by expanding the CT dataset. Unlike the conventional methods, the proposed method is advantageous in obtaining high classification accuracy without the need for precise tooth segmentation. The proposed tooth classification method can be useful in automatic filing of dental charts for forensic identification.

  7. WE-G-18A-06: Sinogram Restoration in Helical Cone-Beam CT

    SciTech Connect

    Little, K; Riviere, P La

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To extend CT sinogram restoration, which has been shown in 2D to reduce noise and to correct for geometric effects and other degradations at a low computational cost, from 2D to a 3D helical cone-beam geometry. Methods: A method for calculating sinogram degradation coefficients for a helical cone-beam geometry was proposed. These values were used to perform penalized-likelihood sinogram restoration on simulated data that were generated from the FORBILD thorax phantom. Sinogram restorations were performed using both a quadratic penalty and the edge-preserving Huber penalty. After sinogram restoration, Fourier-based analytical methods were used to obtain reconstructions. Resolution-variance trade-offs were investigated for several locations within the reconstructions for the purpose of comparing sinogram restoration to no restoration. In order to compare potential differences, reconstructions were performed using different groups of neighbors in the penalty, two analytical reconstruction methods (Katsevich and single-slice rebinning), and differing helical pitches. Results: The resolution-variance properties of reconstructions restored using sinogram restoration with a Huber penalty outperformed those of reconstructions with no restoration. However, the use of a quadratic sinogram restoration penalty did not lead to an improvement over performing no restoration at the outer regions of the phantom. Application of the Huber penalty to neighbors both within a view and across views did not perform as well as only applying the penalty to neighbors within a view. General improvements in resolution-variance properties using sinogram restoration with the Huber penalty were not dependent on the reconstruction method used or the magnitude of the helical pitch. Conclusion: Sinogram restoration for noise and degradation effects for helical cone-beam CT is feasible and should be able to be applied to clinical data. When applied with the edge-preserving Huber penalty

  8. Optimizing 4D cone-beam CT acquisition protocol for external beam radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Li Tianfang; Xing Lei . E-mail: lei@reyes.stanford.edu

    2007-03-15

    Purpose: Four-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (4D-CBCT) imaging is sensitive to parameters such as gantry rotation speed, number of gantry rotations, X-ray pulse rate, and tube current, as well as a patient's breathing pattern. The aim of this study is to optimize the image acquisition on a patient-specific basis while minimizing the scan time and the radiation dose. Methods and Materials: More than 60 sets of 4D-CBCT images, each with a temporal resolution of 10 phases, were acquired using multiple-gantry rotation and slow-gantry rotation techniques. The image quality was quantified with a relative root mean-square error (RE) and correlated with various acquisition settings; specifically, varying gantry rotation speed, varying both the rotation speed and the number of rotations, and varying both the rotation speed and tube current to keep the radiation exposure constant. These experiments were repeated for three different respiratory periods. Results: With similar radiation dose, 4D-CBCT images acquired with low current and low rotation speed have better quality over images obtained with high current and high rotation speed. In general, a one-rotation low-speed scan is superior to a two-rotation double-speed scan, even though they provide the same number of projections. Furthermore, it is found that the image quality behaves monotonically with the relative speed as defined by the gantry rotation speed and the patient respiratory period. Conclusions: The RE curves established in this work can be used to predict the 4D-CBCT image quality before a scan. This allows the acquisition protocol to be optimized individually to balance the desired quality with the associated scanning time and patient radiation dose.

  9. The value of cone beam CT in assessing and managing a dilated odontome of a maxillary canine.

    PubMed

    Wall, Aoibheann; Ng, Suk; Djemal, Serpil

    2015-03-01

    A case of an unusual anomaly in a maxillary canine is described. A deep enamel invagination resulted in pulpal necrosis, longstanding infection and development of an associated radicular cyst. Diagnostic X-ray imaging was invaluable in demonstrating the complex root anatomy of the dilated odontome. In particular, a cone beam CT scan helped in the formulation of an appropriate treatment plan. Clinical Relevance: Three-dimensional imaging using cone beam CT was valuable in this case to demonstrate the complicated anatomy of a rare dental anomaly, and to help plan treatment.

  10. SU-E-J-103: Setup Errors Analysis by Cone-Beam CT (CBCT)-Based Imaged-Guided Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy for Esophageal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, H; Wang, W; Hu, W; Chen, X; Wang, X; Yu, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To quantify setup errors by pretreatment kilovolt cone-beam computed tomography(KV-CBCT) scans for middle or distal esophageal carcinoma patients. Methods: Fifty-two consecutive middle or distal esophageal carcinoma patients who underwent IMRT were included this study. A planning CT scan using a big-bore CT simulator was performed in the treatment position and was used as the reference scan for image registration with CBCT. CBCT scans(On-Board Imaging v1. 5 system, Varian Medical Systems) were acquired daily during the first treatment week. A total of 260 CBCT scans was assessed with a registration clip box defined around the PTV-thorax in the reference scan based on(nine CBCTs per patient) bony anatomy using Offline Review software v10.0(Varian Medical Systems). The anterior-posterior(AP), left-right(LR), superiorinferior( SI) corrections were recorded. The systematic and random errors were calculated. The CTV-to-PTV margins in each CBCT frequency was based on the Van Herk formula (2.5Σ+0.7σ). Results: The SD of systematic error (Σ) was 2.0mm, 2.3mm, 3.8mm in the AP, LR and SI directions, respectively. The average random error (σ) was 1.6mm, 2.4mm, 4.1mm in the AP, LR and SI directions, respectively. The CTV-to-PTV safety margin was 6.1mm, 7.5mm, 12.3mm in the AP, LR and SI directions based on van Herk formula. Conclusion: Our data recommend the use of 6 mm, 8mm, and 12 mm for esophageal carcinoma patient setup in AP, LR, SI directions, respectively.

  11. Poster — Thur Eve — 10: Partial kV CBCT, complete kV CBCT and EPID in breast treatment: a dose comparison study for skin, breasts, heart and lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Roussin, E; Archambault, L K; Wierzbicki, W

    2014-08-15

    The advantages of kilovoltage cone beam CT (kV CBCT) imaging over electronic portal imaging device (EPID) such as accurate 3D anatomy, soft tissue visualization, fast rigid registration and enhanced precision on patient positioning has lead to its increasing use in clinics. The benefits of this imaging technique are at the cost of increasing the dose to healthy surrounding organs. Our center has moved toward the use of daily partial rotation kV CBCT to restrict the dose to healthy tissues. This study aims to better quantify radiation doses from different image-guidance techniques such as tangential EPID, complete and partial kV CBCT for breast treatments. Cross-calibrated ionization chambers and kV calibrated Gafchromic films were used to measure the dose to the heart, lungs, breasts and skin. It was found that performing partial kV CBCT decreases the heart dose by about 36%, the lungs dose by 31%, the contralateral breast dose by 41% and the ipsilateral breast dose by 43% when compared to a full rotation CBCT. The skin dose measured for a full rotation CBCT was about 0.8 cGy for the contralateral breast and about 0.3 cGy for the ipsilateral breast. The study is still ongoing and results on skin doses for partial rotation kV CBCT as well as for tangential EPID images are upcoming.

  12. Beam-specific planning target volumes incorporating 4D CT for pencil beam scanning proton therapy of thoracic tumors.

    PubMed

    Lin, Liyong; Kang, Minglei; Huang, Sheng; Mayer, Rulon; Thomas, Andrew; Solberg, Timothy D; McDonough, James E; Simone, Charles B

    2015-11-08

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether organ sparing and target coverage can be simultaneously maintained for pencil beam scanning (PBS) proton therapy treatment of thoracic tumors in the presence of motion, stopping power uncertainties, and patient setup variations. Ten consecutive patients that were previously treated with proton therapy to 66.6/1.8 Gy (RBE) using double scattering (DS) were replanned with PBS. Minimum and maximum intensity images from 4D CT were used to introduce flexible smearing in the determination of the beam specific PTV (BSPTV). Datasets from eight 4D CT phases, using ± 3% uncertainty in stopping power and ± 3 mm uncertainty in patient setup in each direction, were used to create 8 × 12 × 10 = 960 PBS plans for the evaluation of 10 patients. Plans were normalized to provide identical coverage between DS and PBS. The average lung V20, V5, and mean doses were reduced from 29.0%, 35.0%, and 16.4 Gy with DS to 24.6%, 30.6%, and 14.1 Gy with PBS, respectively. The average heart V30 and V45 were reduced from 10.4% and 7.5% in DS to 8.1% and 5.4% for PBS, respectively. Furthermore, the maximum spinal cord, esophagus, and heart doses were decreased from 37.1 Gy, 71.7 Gy, and 69.2 Gy with DS to 31.3 Gy, 67.9 Gy, and 64.6 Gy with PBS. The conformity index (CI), homogeneity index (HI), and global maximal dose were improved from 3.2, 0.08, 77.4 Gy with DS to 2.8, 0.04, and 72.1 Gy with PBS. All differences are statistically significant, with p-values <0.05, with the exception of the heart V45 (p = 0.146). PBS with BSPTV achieves better organ sparing and improves target coverage using a repainting method for the treatment of thoracic tumors. Incorporating motion-related uncertainties is essential.

  13. Beam-specific planning target volumes incorporating 4D CT for pencil beam scanning proton therapy of thoracic tumors.

    PubMed

    Lin, Liyong; Kang, Minglei; Huang, Sheng; Mayer, Rulon; Thomas, Andrew; Solberg, Timothy D; McDonough, James E; Simone, Charles B

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether organ sparing and target coverage can be simultaneously maintained for pencil beam scanning (PBS) proton therapy treatment of thoracic tumors in the presence of motion, stopping power uncertainties, and patient setup variations. Ten consecutive patients that were previously treated with proton therapy to 66.6/1.8 Gy (RBE) using double scattering (DS) were replanned with PBS. Minimum and maximum intensity images from 4D CT were used to introduce flexible smearing in the determination of the beam specific PTV (BSPTV). Datasets from eight 4D CT phases, using ±3% uncertainty in stopping power and ±3 mm uncertainty in patient setup in each direction, were used to create 8×12×10=960 PBS plans for the evaluation of 10 patients. Plans were normalized to provide identical coverage between DS and PBS. The average lung V20, V5, and mean doses were reduced from 29.0%, 35.0%, and 16.4 Gy with DS to 24.6%, 30.6%, and 14.1 Gy with PBS, respectively. The average heart V30 and V45 were reduced from 10.4% and 7.5% in DS to 8.1% and 5.4% for PBS, respectively. Furthermore, the maximum spinal cord, esophagus, and heart doses were decreased from 37.1 Gy, 71.7 Gy, and 69.2 Gy with DS to 31.3 Gy, 67.9 Gy, and 64.6 Gy with PBS. The conformity index (CI), homogeneity index (HI), and global maximal dose were improved from 3.2, 0.08, 77.4 Gy with DS to 2.8, 0.04, and 72.1 Gy with PBS. All differences are statistically significant, with p-values <0.05, with the exception of the heart V45 (p=0.146). PBS with BSPTV achieves better organ sparing and improves target coverage using a repainting method for the treatment of thoracic tumors. Incorporating motion-related uncertainties is essential. PACS number: 87.55.D.

  14. Empirical binary tomography calibration (EBTC) for the precorrection of beam hardening and scatter for flat panel CT

    SciTech Connect

    Grimmer, Rainer; Kachelriess, Marc

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: Scatter and beam hardening are prominent artifacts in x-ray CT. Currently, there is no precorrection method that inherently accounts for tube voltage modulation and shaped prefiltration. Methods: A method for self-calibration based on binary tomography of homogeneous objects, which was proposed by B. Li et al. [''A novel beam hardening correction method for computed tomography,'' in Proceedings of the IEEE/ICME International Conference on Complex Medical Engineering CME 2007, pp. 891-895, 23-27 May 2007], has been generalized in order to use this information to preprocess scans of other, nonbinary objects, e.g., to reduce artifacts in medical CT applications. Further on, the method was extended to handle scatter besides beam hardening and to allow for detector pixel-specific and ray-specific precorrections. This implies that the empirical binary tomography calibration (EBTC) technique is sensitive to spectral effects as they are induced by the heel effect, by shaped prefiltration, or by scanners with tube voltage modulation. The presented method models the beam hardening correction by using a rational function, while the scatter component is modeled using the pep model of B. Ohnesorge et al. [''Efficient object scatter correction algorithm for third and fourth generation CT scanners,'' Eur. Radiol. 9(3), 563-569 (1999)]. A smoothness constraint is applied to the parameter space to regularize the underdetermined system of nonlinear equations. The parameters determined are then used to precorrect CT scans. Results: EBTC was evaluated using simulated data of a flat panel cone-beam CT scanner with tube voltage modulation and bow-tie prefiltration and using real data of a flat panel cone-beam CT scanner. In simulation studies, where the ground truth is known, the authors' correction model proved to be highly accurate and was able to reduce beam hardening by 97% and scatter by about 75%. Reconstructions of measured data showed significantly less artifacts than

  15. Limited-angle reverse helical cone-beam CT for pipeline with low rank decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Dong; Zeng, Li

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, tomographic imaging of pipeline in service by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is studied. With the developed scanning strategy and image model, the quality of reconstructed image is improved. First, a limited-angle reverse helical scanning strategy based on C-arm computed tomography (C-arm CT) is developed for the projection data acquisition of pipeline in service. Then, an image model which considering the resemblance among slices of pipeline is developed. Finally, split Bregman method based algorithm is implemented in solving the model aforementioned. Preliminary results of simulation experiments show that the projection data acquisition strategy and reconstruction method are efficient and feasible, and our method is superior to Feldkamp-Davis-Kress (FDK) algorithm and simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART).

  16. Reconstruction of a cone-beam CT image via forward iterative projection matching

    SciTech Connect

    Brock, R. Scott; Docef, Alen; Murphy, Martin J.

    2010-12-15

    Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of reconstructing a cone-beam CT (CBCT) image by deformably altering a prior fan-beam CT (FBCT) image such that it matches the anatomy portrayed in the CBCT projection data set. Methods: A prior FBCT image of the patient is assumed to be available as a source image. A CBCT projection data set is obtained and used as a target image set. A parametrized deformation model is applied to the source FBCT image, digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) that emulate the CBCT projection image geometry are calculated and compared to the target CBCT projection data, and the deformation model parameters are adjusted iteratively until the DRRs optimally match the CBCT projection data set. The resulting deformed FBCT image is hypothesized to be an accurate representation of the patient's anatomy imaged by the CBCT system. The process is demonstrated via numerical simulation. A known deformation is applied to a prior FBCT image and used to create a synthetic set of CBCT target projections. The iterative projection matching process is then applied to reconstruct the deformation represented in the synthetic target projections; the reconstructed deformation is then compared to the known deformation. The sensitivity of the process to the number of projections and the DRR/CBCT projection mismatch is explored by systematically adding noise to and perturbing the contrast of the target projections relative to the iterated source DRRs and by reducing the number of projections. Results: When there is no noise or contrast mismatch in the CBCT projection images, a set of 64 projections allows the known deformed CT image to be reconstructed to within a nRMS error of 1% and the known deformation to within a nRMS error of 7%. A CT image nRMS error of less than 4% is maintained at noise levels up to 3% of the mean projection intensity, at which the deformation error is 13%. At 1% noise level, the number of projections can be reduced to 8 while maintaining

  17. Automatic tracking of implanted fiducial markers in cone beam CT projection images

    SciTech Connect

    Marchant, T. E.; Skalski, A.; Matuszewski, B. J.

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: This paper describes a novel method for simultaneous intrafraction tracking of multiple fiducial markers. Although the proposed method is generic and can be adopted for a number of applications including fluoroscopy based patient position monitoring and gated radiotherapy, the tracking results presented in this paper are specific to tracking fiducial markers in a sequence of cone beam CT projection images. Methods: The proposed method is accurate and robust thanks to utilizing the mean shift and random sampling principles, respectively. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated with qualitative and quantitative methods, using data from two pancreatic and one prostate cancer patients and a moving phantom. The ground truth, for quantitative evaluation, was calculated based on manual tracking preformed by three observers. Results: The average dispersion of marker position error calculated from the tracking results for pancreas data (six markers tracked over 640 frames, 3840 marker identifications) was 0.25 mm (at iscoenter), compared with an average dispersion for the manual ground truth estimated at 0.22 mm. For prostate data (three markers tracked over 366 frames, 1098 marker identifications), the average error was 0.34 mm. The estimated tracking error in the pancreas data was < 1 mm (2 pixels) in 97.6% of cases where nearby image clutter was detected and in 100.0% of cases with no nearby image clutter. Conclusions: The proposed method has accuracy comparable to that of manual tracking and, in combination with the proposed batch postprocessing, superior robustness. Marker tracking in cone beam CT (CBCT) projections is useful for a variety of purposes, such as providing data for assessment of intrafraction motion, target tracking during rotational treatment delivery, motion correction of CBCT, and phase sorting for 4D CBCT.

  18. Modulation transfer function determination using the edge technique for cone-beam micro-CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Junyan; Liu, Wenlei; Gao, Peng; Liao, Qimei; Lu, Hongbing

    2016-03-01

    Evaluating spatial resolution is an essential work for cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) manufacturers, prototype designers or equipment users. To investigate the cross-sectional spatial resolution for different transaxial slices with CBCT, the slanted edge technique with a 3D slanted edge phantom are proposed and implemented on a prototype cone-beam micro-CT. Three transaxial slices with different cone angles are under investigation. An over-sampled edge response function (ERF) is firstly generated from the intensity of the slightly tiled air to plastic edge in each row of the transaxial reconstruction image. Then the oversampled ESF is binned and smoothed. The derivative of the binned and smoothed ERF gives the line spread function (LSF). At last the presampled modulation transfer function (MTF) is calculated by taking the modulus of the Fourier transform of the LSF. The spatial resolution is quantified with the spatial frequencies at 10% MTF level and full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) value. The spatial frequencies at 10% of MTFs are 3.1+/-0.08mm-1, 3.0+/-0.05mm-1, and 3.2+/-0.04mm-1 for the three transaxial slices at cone angles of 3.8°, 0°, and -3.8° respectively. The corresponding FWHMs are 252.8μm, 261.7μm and 253.6μm. Results indicate that cross-sectional spatial resolution has no much differences when transaxial slices being 3.8° away from z=0 plane for the prototype conebeam micro-CT.

  19. The influence of bowtie filtration on x-ray photons distribution in cone beam CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Shanghai; Feng, Peng; Wei, Biao; He, Peng; Deng, Luzhen; Zhang, Wei

    2015-10-01

    Bowtie filters are used to modulate an incoming x-ray beam as a function of the angle of the x-ray to balance the photon flux on a detector array. Because of their key roles in radiation dose reduction and multi-energy imaging, bowtie filters have attracted a major attention in modern X-ray computed tomography (CT). However, few researches are concerned on the effects of the structure and materials for the bowtie filter in the Cone Beam CT (CBCT). In this study, the influence of bowtie filters' structure and materials on X-ray photons distribution are analyzed using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations by MCNP5 code. In the current model, the phantom was radiated by virtual X-ray source (its' energy spectrum calculated by SpekCalc program) filtered using bowtie, then all photons were collected through array photoncounting detectors. In the process above, two bowtie filters' parameters which include center thickness (B), edge thickness (controlled by A), changed respectively. Two kinds of situation are simulated: 1) A=0.036, B=1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6mm and the material is aluminum; 2) A=0.016, 0.036, 0.056, 0.076, 0.096, B=2mm and the material is aluminum. All the X-ray photons' distribution are measured through MCNP. The results show that reduction in center thickness and edge thickness can reduce the number of background photons in CBCT. Our preliminary research shows that structure parameters of bowtie filter can influence X-ray photons, furthermore, radiation dose distribution, which provide some evidences in design of bowtie filter for reducing radiation dose in CBCT.

  20. A quality assurance program for image quality of cone-beam CT guidance in radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Bissonnette, Jean-Pierre; Moseley, Douglas J.; Jaffray, David A.

    2008-05-15

    The clinical introduction of volumetric x-ray image-guided radiotherapy systems necessitates formal commissioning of the hardware and image-guided processes to be used and drafts quality assurance (QA) for both hardware and processes. Satisfying both requirements provides confidence on the system's ability to manage geometric variations in patient setup and internal organ motion. As these systems become a routine clinical modality, the authors present data from their QA program tracking the image quality performance of ten volumetric systems over a period of 3 years. These data are subsequently used to establish evidence-based tolerances for a QA program. The volumetric imaging systems used in this work combines a linear accelerator with conventional x-ray tube and an amorphous silicon flat-panel detector mounted orthogonally from the accelerator central beam axis, in a cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) configuration. In the spirit of the AAPM Report No. 74, the present work presents the image quality portion of their QA program; the aspects of the QA protocol addressing imaging geometry have been presented elsewhere. Specifically, the authors are presenting data demonstrating the high linearity of CT numbers, the uniformity of axial reconstructions, and the high contrast spatial resolution of ten CBCT systems (1-2 mm) from two commercial vendors. They are also presenting data accumulated over the period of several months demonstrating the long-term stability of the flat-panel detector and of the distances measured on reconstructed volumetric images. Their tests demonstrate that each specific CBCT system has unique performance. In addition, scattered x rays are shown to influence the imaging performance in terms of spatial resolution, axial reconstruction uniformity, and the linearity of CT numbers.

  1. Iterative reconstruction of cone-beam CT data on a cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, Thomas M.; Gregor, Jens

    2007-02-01

    Three-dimensional iterative reconstruction of large CT data sets poses several challenges in terms of the associated computational and memory requirements. In this paper, we present results obtained by implementing a computational framework for reconstructing axial cone-beam CT data using a cluster of inexpensive dualprocessor PCs. In particular, we discuss our parallelization approach, which uses POSIX threads and message passing (MPI) for local and remote load distribution, as well as the interaction of that load distribution with the implementation of ordered subset based algorithms. We also consider a heuristic data-driven 3D focus of attention algorithm that reduces the amount of data that must be considered for many data sets. Furthermore, we present a modification to the SIRT algorithm that reduces the amount of data that must be communicated between processes. Finally, we introduce a method of separating the work in such a way that some computation can be overlapped with the MPI communication thus further reducing the overall run-time. We summarize the performance results using reconstructions of experimental data.

  2. Dose and image quality for a cone-beam C-arm CT system

    SciTech Connect

    Fahrig, Rebecca; Dixon, Robert; Payne, Thomas; Morin, Richard L.; Ganguly, Arundhuti; Strobel, Norbert

    2006-12-15

    We assess dose and image quality of a state-of-the-art angiographic C-arm system (Axiom Artis dTA, Siemens Medical Solutions, Forchheim, Germany) for three-dimensional neuro-imaging at various dose levels and tube voltages and an associated measurement method. Unlike conventional CT, the beam length covers the entire phantom, hence, the concept of computed tomography dose index (CTDI) is not the metric of choice, and one can revert to conventional dosimetry methods by directly measuring the dose at various points using a small ion chamber. This method allows us to define and compute a new dose metric that is appropriate for a direct comparison with the familiar CTDI{sub W} of conventional CT. A perception study involving the CATPHAN 600 indicates that one can expect to see at least the 9 mm inset with 0.5% nominal contrast at the recommended head-scan dose (60 mGy) when using tube voltages ranging from 70 kVp to 125 kVp. When analyzing the impact of tube voltage on image quality at a fixed dose, we found that lower tube voltages gave improved low contrast detectability for small-diameter objects. The relationships between kVp, image noise, dose, and contrast perception are discussed.

  3. Flat panel detector-based cone beam CT for dynamic imaging: system evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Ruola; Conover, David; Yu, Yong; Zhang, Yan; Cai, Weixing; Yang, Dong; Lu, Xianghua

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize a newly built flat panel detector (FPD)-based cone beam CT (CBCT) prototype for dynamic imaging. A CBCT prototype has been designed and constructed by completely modifying a GE HiSpeed Advantage (HSA) CT gantry, incorporating a newly acquired large size real-time FPD (Varian PaxScan 4030CB), a new x-ray generator and a dual focal spot angiography x-ray tube that allows the full coverage of the detector. During data acquisition, the x-ray tube and the FPD can be rotated on the gantry over Nx360 degrees due to integrated slip ring technology with the rotation speed of one second/revolution. With a single scan time of up to 40 seconds , multiple sets of reconstructions can be performed for dynamic studies. The upgrade of this system has been completed. The prototype was used for a series of preliminary phantom studies: different sizes of breast phantoms, a Humanoid chest phantom and scatter correction studies. The results of the phantom studies demonstrate that good image quality can be achieved with this newly built prototype.

  4. CT metal artifact reduction method correcting for beam hardening and missing projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verburg, Joost M.; Seco, Joao

    2012-05-01

    We present and validate a computed tomography (CT) metal artifact reduction method that is effective for a wide spectrum of clinical implant materials. Projections through low-Z implants such as titanium were corrected using a novel physics correction algorithm that reduces beam hardening errors. In the case of high-Z implants (dental fillings, gold, platinum), projections through the implant were considered missing and regularized iterative reconstruction was performed. Both algorithms were combined if multiple implant materials were present. For comparison, a conventional projection interpolation method was implemented. In a blinded and randomized evaluation, ten radiation oncologists ranked the quality of patient scans on which the different methods were applied. For scans that included low-Z implants, the proposed method was ranked as the best method in 90% of the reviews. It was ranked superior to the original reconstruction (p = 0.0008), conventional projection interpolation (p < 0.0001) and regularized limited data reconstruction (p = 0.0002). All reviewers ranked the method first for scans with high-Z implants, and better as compared to the original reconstruction (p < 0.0001) and projection interpolation (p = 0.004). We conclude that effective reduction of CT metal artifacts can be achieved by combining algorithms tailored to specific types of implant materials.

  5. Directional sinogram interpolation for motion weighted 4D cone-beam CT reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hua; Kruis, Matthijs; Sonke, Jan-Jakob

    2017-03-01

    The image quality of respiratory sorted four-dimensional (4D) cone-beam (CB) computed tomography (CT) is often limited by streak artifacts due to insufficient projections. A motion weighted reconstruction (MWR) method is proposed to decrease streak artifacts and improve image quality. Firstly, respiratory correlated CBCT projections were interpolated by directional sinogram interpolation (DSI) to generate additional CB projections for each phase and subsequently reconstructed. Secondly, local motion was estimated by deformable image registration of the interpolated 4D CBCT. Thirdly, a regular 3D FDK CBCT was reconstructed from the non-interpolated projections. Finally, weights were assigned to each voxel, based on the local motion, and then were used to combine the 3D FDK CBCT and interpolated 4D CBCT to generate the final 4D image. MWR method was compared with regular 4D CBCT scans as well as McKinnon and Bates (MKB) based reconstructions. Comparisons were made in terms of (1) comparing the steepness of an extracted profile from the boundary of the region-of-interest (ROI), (2) contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) inside certain ROIs, and (3) the root-mean-square-error (RMSE) between the planning CT and CBCT inside a homogeneous moving region. Comparisons were made for both a phantom and four patient scans. In a 4D phantom, RMSE were reduced by 24.7% and 38.7% for MKB and MWR respectively, compared to conventional 4D CBCT. Meanwhile, interpolation induced blur was minimal in static regions for MWR based reconstructions. In regions with considerable respiratory motion, image blur using MWR is less than the MKB and 3D Feldkamp (FDK) methods. In the lung cancer patients, average CNRs of MKB, DSI and MWR improved by a factor 1.7, 2.8 and 3.5 respectively relative to 4D FDK. MWR effectively reduces RMSE in 4D cone-beam CT and improves the image quality in both the static and respiratory moving regions compared to 4D FDK and MKB methods.

  6. [Impact of planning CT slice thickness on the accuracy of automatic target registration using the on-board cone-beam CT].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Hiroyuki; Tanooka, Masao; Doi, Hiroshi; Miura, Hideharu; Nakagawa, Hideo; Sakai, Toshiyuki; Oda, Masahiko; Yasumasa, Katsumi; Sakamoto, Kiyoshi; Kamikonya, Norihiko; Hirota, Shozo

    2011-01-01

    We have evaluated relationship between planning CT slice thickness and the accuracy of automatic target registration using cone-beam CT (CBCT). Planning CT images were acquired with reconstructed slice thickness of 1, 2, 3, 5, and 10mm for three different phantoms: Penta-Guide phantom, acrylic ball phantom, and pelvic phantom. After correctly placing the phantom at the isocenter using an in-room laser, we purposely displaced it by moving the treatment couch and then obtained CBCT images. Registration between the planning CT and the CBCT was performed using automatic target registration software, and the registration errors were recorded for each planning CT data set with different slice thickness. The respective average and standard deviation of errors for 10 mm slice thickness CT in the lateral, longitudinal, and vertical directions (n=15 data sets) were: 0.7 +/- 0.2mm, 0.8 +/- 0.2mm, and 0.2 +/- 0.2mm for the Penta-Guide phantom; 0.5 +/- 0.4 mm, 0.6 +/- 0.3 mm, and 0.4 +/- 0.3 mm for the acrylic ball phantom; and 0.6 +/- 0.2 mm, 0.9 +/- 0.2 mm, and 0.2 +/- 0.2 mm for the pelvic phantom. We found that the mean registration errors were always less than 1 mm regardless of the slice thickness tested. The results suggest that there is no obvious correlation between the planning CT slice thickness and the registration errors.

  7. Differences between panoramic and Cone Beam-CT in the surgical evaluation of lower third molars

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez y Baena, Ruggero; Beltrami, Riccardo; Tagliabo, Angelo; Rizzo, Silvana

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability to identify the contiguity between the root of the mandibular third molar and the mandibular canal (MC) in panoramic radiographs compared with Cone Beam-CT. Material and Methods Panoramic radiographs of 326 third molars and CBCT radiographs of 86 cases indicated for surgery and considered at risk were evaluated. The following signs were assessed in panoramic radiographs as risk factors: radiolucent band, loss of MC border, change in MC direction, MC narrowing, root narrowing, root deviation, bifid apex, superimposition, and contact between the root third molar and the MC. Results Radiographic signs associated with absence of MC cortical bone are: radiolucent band, loss of MC border, change in MC direction, and superimposition. The number of risk factors was significantly increased with an increasing depth of inclusion. CBCT revealed a significant association between the absence of MC cortical bone and a lingual or interradicular position of the MC. Conclusions In cases in which panoramic radiographs do not exclude contiguity between the MC and tooth, careful assessment the signs and risks on CBCT radiographs is indicated for proper identification of the relationships between anatomic structures. Key words:Panoramic radiography, Cone-Beam computed tomography, third molar, mandibular nerve. PMID:28210446

  8. Reconstruction algorithm for polychromatic CT imaging: application to beam hardening correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, C. H.; Whalen, R. T.; Beaupre, G. S.; Yen, S. Y.; Napel, S.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a new reconstruction algorithm for both single- and dual-energy computed tomography (CT) imaging. By incorporating the polychromatic characteristics of the X-ray beam into the reconstruction process, the algorithm is capable of eliminating beam hardening artifacts. The single energy version of the algorithm assumes that each voxel in the scan field can be expressed as a mixture of two known substances, for example, a mixture of trabecular bone and marrow, or a mixture of fat and flesh. These assumptions are easily satisfied in a quantitative computed tomography (QCT) setting. We have compared our algorithm to three commonly used single-energy correction techniques. Experimental results show that our algorithm is much more robust and accurate. We have also shown that QCT measurements obtained using our algorithm are five times more accurate than that from current QCT systems (using calibration). The dual-energy mode does not require any prior knowledge of the object in the scan field, and can be used to estimate the attenuation coefficient function of unknown materials. We have tested the dual-energy setup to obtain an accurate estimate for the attenuation coefficient function of K2 HPO4 solution.

  9. A Method to Improve Electron Density Measurement of Cone-Beam CT Using Dual Energy Technique

    PubMed Central

    Men, Kuo; Dai, Jian-Rong; Li, Ming-Hui; Chen, Xin-Yuan; Zhang, Ke; Tian, Yuan; Huang, Peng; Xu, Ying-Jie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To develop a dual energy imaging method to improve the accuracy of electron density measurement with a cone-beam CT (CBCT) device. Materials and Methods. The imaging system is the XVI CBCT system on Elekta Synergy linac. Projection data were acquired with the high and low energy X-ray, respectively, to set up a basis material decomposition model. Virtual phantom simulation and phantoms experiments were carried out for quantitative evaluation of the method. Phantoms were also scanned twice with the high and low energy X-ray, respectively. The data were decomposed into projections of the two basis material coefficients according to the model set up earlier. The two sets of decomposed projections were used to reconstruct CBCT images of the basis material coefficients. Then, the images of electron densities were calculated with these CBCT images. Results. The difference between the calculated and theoretical values was within 2% and the correlation coefficient of them was about 1.0. The dual energy imaging method obtained more accurate electron density values and reduced the beam hardening artifacts obviously. Conclusion. A novel dual energy CBCT imaging method to calculate the electron densities was developed. It can acquire more accurate values and provide a platform potentially for dose calculation. PMID:26346510

  10. Development of a Beam Hardening Correction Method for a microCT Scanner Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Kikushima, J.; Rodriguez-Villafuerte, M.; Martinez-Davalos, A.

    2010-12-07

    The radiographic projections acquired with a microCT were simulated and then corrected for beam hardening effects using the linearized signal to equivalent thickness (LSET) method. This procedure requires a calibration signal for each pixel obtained from a set of images with filters of increasing thickness. The projections are corrected by converting the signal to an equivalent thickness using interpolation over the calibration images. The method was validated using simulated projections of different phantoms. Two calibration sets were simulated using aluminum and water filters of thicknesses ranging from 0 to 5 mm and from 0 to 50 mm, respectively. A simulation of the phantoms' projections using a monoenergetic beam was also obtained to establish the relative intensity on the tomographic images when no cupping artifacts are present. Comparison between corrected and uncorrected tomographic images shows that the LSET method effectively corrects the cupping artifact. Streaking artifacts correction with the LSET method shows better results than with the traditional water correction method. Results are independent of the two calibration materials used.

  11. High-quality four-dimensional cone-beam CT by deforming prior images.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Gu, Xuejun

    2013-01-21

    Due to a limited number of projections at each phase, severe view aliasing artifacts are present in four-dimensional cone beam computed tomography (4D-CBCT) when reconstruction is performed using conventional algorithms. In this work, we aim to obtain high-quality 4D-CBCT of lung cancer patients in radiation therapy by deforming the planning CT. The deformation vector fields (DVF) to deform the planning CT are estimated through matching the forward projection of the deformed prior image and measured on-treatment CBCT projection. The estimation of the DVF is formulated as an unconstrained optimization problem, where the objective function to be minimized is the sum of the squared difference between the forward projection of the deformed planning CT and the measured 4D-CBCT projection. A nonlinear conjugate gradient method is used to solve the DVF. As the number of the variables in the DVF is much greater than the number of measurements, the solution to such a highly ill-posed problem is very sensitive to the initials during the optimization process. To improve the estimation accuracy of DVF, we proposed a new strategy to obtain better initials for the optimization. In this strategy, 4D-CBCT is first reconstructed by total variation minimization. Demons deformable registration is performed to register the planning CT and the 4D-CBCT reconstructed by total variation minimization. The resulted DVF from demons registration is then used as the initial parameters in the optimization process. A 4D nonuniform rotational B-spline-based cardiac-torso (NCAT) phantom and a patient 4D-CBCT are used to evaluate the algorithm. Image quality of 4D-CBCT is substantially improved by using the proposed strategy in both NCAT phantom and patient studies. The proposed method has the potential to improve the temporal resolution of 4D-CBCT. Improved 4D-CBCT can better characterize the motion of lung tumors and will be a valuable tool for image-guided adaptive radiation therapy.

  12. A hybrid reconstruction algorithm for fast and accurate 4D cone-beam CT imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Hao; Folkerts, Michael; Jiang, Steve B. E-mail: steve.jiang@UTSouthwestern.edu; Jia, Xun E-mail: steve.jiang@UTSouthwestern.edu; Zhen, Xin; Li, Yongbao; Pan, Tinsu; Cervino, Laura

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: 4D cone beam CT (4D-CBCT) has been utilized in radiation therapy to provide 4D image guidance in lung and upper abdomen area. However, clinical application of 4D-CBCT is currently limited due to the long scan time and low image quality. The purpose of this paper is to develop a new 4D-CBCT reconstruction method that restores volumetric images based on the 1-min scan data acquired with a standard 3D-CBCT protocol. Methods: The model optimizes a deformation vector field that deforms a patient-specific planning CT (p-CT), so that the calculated 4D-CBCT projections match measurements. A forward-backward splitting (FBS) method is invented to solve the optimization problem. It splits the original problem into two well-studied subproblems, i.e., image reconstruction and deformable image registration. By iteratively solving the two subproblems, FBS gradually yields correct deformation information, while maintaining high image quality. The whole workflow is implemented on a graphic-processing-unit to improve efficiency. Comprehensive evaluations have been conducted on a moving phantom and three real patient cases regarding the accuracy and quality of the reconstructed images, as well as the algorithm robustness and efficiency. Results: The proposed algorithm reconstructs 4D-CBCT images from highly under-sampled projection data acquired with 1-min scans. Regarding the anatomical structure location accuracy, 0.204 mm average differences and 0.484 mm maximum difference are found for the phantom case, and the maximum differences of 0.3–0.5 mm for patients 1–3 are observed. As for the image quality, intensity errors below 5 and 20 HU compared to the planning CT are achieved for the phantom and the patient cases, respectively. Signal-noise-ratio values are improved by 12.74 and 5.12 times compared to results from FDK algorithm using the 1-min data and 4-min data, respectively. The computation time of the algorithm on a NVIDIA GTX590 card is 1–1.5 min per phase

  13. High-quality four-dimensional cone-beam CT by deforming prior images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Gu, Xuejun

    2013-01-01

    Due to a limited number of projections at each phase, severe view aliasing artifacts are present in four-dimensional cone beam computed tomography (4D-CBCT) when reconstruction is performed using conventional algorithms. In this work, we aim to obtain high-quality 4D-CBCT of lung cancer patients in radiation therapy by deforming the planning CT. The deformation vector fields (DVF) to deform the planning CT are estimated through matching the forward projection of the deformed prior image and measured on-treatment CBCT projection. The estimation of the DVF is formulated as an unconstrained optimization problem, where the objective function to be minimized is the sum of the squared difference between the forward projection of the deformed planning CT and the measured 4D-CBCT projection. A nonlinear conjugate gradient method is used to solve the DVF. As the number of the variables in the DVF is much greater than the number of measurements, the solution to such a highly ill-posed problem is very sensitive to the initials during the optimization process. To improve the estimation accuracy of DVF, we proposed a new strategy to obtain better initials for the optimization. In this strategy, 4D-CBCT is first reconstructed by total variation minimization. Demons deformable registration is performed to register the planning CT and the 4D-CBCT reconstructed by total variation minimization. The resulted DVF from demons registration is then used as the initial parameters in the optimization process. A 4D nonuniform rotational B-spline-based cardiac-torso (NCAT) phantom and a patient 4D-CBCT are used to evaluate the algorithm. Image quality of 4D-CBCT is substantially improved by using the proposed strategy in both NCAT phantom and patient studies. The proposed method has the potential to improve the temporal resolution of 4D-CBCT. Improved 4D-CBCT can better characterize the motion of lung tumors and will be a valuable tool for image-guided adaptive radiation therapy.

  14. SU-E-J-72: Dosimetric Study of Cone-Beam CT-Based Radiation Treatment Planning Using a Patient-Specific Stepwise CT-Density Table

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S; Le, Q; Mutaf, Y; Yi, B; D’Souza, W

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To assess dose calculation accuracy of cone-beam CT (CBCT) based treatment plans using a patient-specific stepwise CT-density conversion table in comparison to conventional CT-based treatment plans. Methods: Unlike CT-based treatment planning which use fixed CT-density table, this study used patient-specific CT-density table to minimize the errors in reconstructed mass densities due to the effects of CBCT Hounsfield unit (HU) uncertainties. The patient-specific CT-density table was a stepwise function which maps HUs to only 6 classes of materials with different mass densities: air (0.00121g/cm3), lung (0.26g/cm3), adipose (0.95g/cm3), tissue (1.05 g/cm3), cartilage/bone (1.6g/cm3), and other (3g/cm3). HU thresholds to define different materials were adjusted for each CBCT via best match with the known tissue types in these images. Dose distributions were compared between CT-based plans and CBCT-based plans (IMRT/VMAT) for four types of treatment sites: head and neck (HN), lung, pancreas, and pelvis. For dosimetric comparison, PTV mean dose in both plans were compared. A gamma analysis was also performed to directly compare dosimetry in the two plans. Results: Compared to CT-based plans, the differences for PTV mean dose were 0.1% for pelvis, 1.1% for pancreas, 1.8% for lung, and −2.5% for HN in CBCT-based plans. The gamma passing rate was 99.8% for pelvis, 99.6% for pancreas, and 99.3% for lung with 3%/3mm criteria, and 80.5% for head and neck with 5%/3mm criteria. Different dosimetry accuracy level was observed: 1% for pelvis, 3% for lung and pancreas, and 5% for head and neck. Conclusion: By converting CBCT data to 6 classes of materials for dose calculation, 3% of dose calculation accuracy can be achieved for anatomical sites studied here, except HN which had a 5% accuracy. CBCT-based treatment planning using a patient-specific stepwise CT-density table can facilitate the evaluation of dosimetry changes resulting from variation in patient anatomy.

  15. An experimental study on the influence of scatter and beam hardening in x-ray CT for dimensional metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lifton, J. J.; Malcolm, A. A.; McBride, J. W.

    2016-01-01

    Scattered radiation and beam hardening introduce artefacts that degrade the quality of data in x-ray computed tomography (CT). It is unclear how these artefacts influence dimensional measurements evaluated from CT data. Understanding and quantifying the influence of these artefacts on dimensional measurements is required to evaluate the uncertainty of CT-based dimensional measurements. In this work the influence of scatter and beam hardening on dimensional measurements is investigated using the beam stop array scatter correction method and spectrum pre-filtration for the measurement of an object with internal and external cylindrical dimensional features. Scatter and beam hardening are found to influence dimensional measurements when evaluated using the ISO50 surface determination method. On the other hand, a gradient-based surface determination method is found to be robust to the influence of artefacts and leads to more accurate dimensional measurements than those evaluated using the ISO50 method. In addition to these observations the GUM method for evaluating standard measurement uncertainties is applied and the standard measurement uncertainty due to scatter and beam hardening is estimated.

  16. High-fidelity artifact correction for cone-beam CT imaging of the brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sisniega, A.; Zbijewski, W.; Xu, J.; Dang, H.; Stayman, J. W.; Yorkston, J.; Aygun, N.; Koliatsos, V.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2015-02-01

    CT is the frontline imaging modality for diagnosis of acute traumatic brain injury (TBI), involving the detection of fresh blood in the brain (contrast of 30-50 HU, detail size down to 1 mm) in a non-contrast-enhanced exam. A dedicated point-of-care imaging system based on cone-beam CT (CBCT) could benefit early detection of TBI and improve direction to appropriate therapy. However, flat-panel detector (FPD) CBCT is challenged by artifacts that degrade contrast resolution and limit application in soft-tissue imaging. We present and evaluate a fairly comprehensive framework for artifact correction to enable soft-tissue brain imaging with FPD CBCT. The framework includes a fast Monte Carlo (MC)-based scatter estimation method complemented by corrections for detector lag, veiling glare, and beam hardening. The fast MC scatter estimation combines GPU acceleration, variance reduction, and simulation with a low number of photon histories and reduced number of projection angles (sparse MC) augmented by kernel de-noising to yield a runtime of ~4 min per scan. Scatter correction is combined with two-pass beam hardening correction. Detector lag correction is based on temporal deconvolution of the measured lag response function. The effects of detector veiling glare are reduced by deconvolution of the glare response function representing the long range tails of the detector point-spread function. The performance of the correction framework is quantified in experiments using a realistic head phantom on a testbench for FPD CBCT. Uncorrected reconstructions were non-diagnostic for soft-tissue imaging tasks in the brain. After processing with the artifact correction framework, image uniformity was substantially improved, and artifacts were reduced to a level that enabled visualization of ~3 mm simulated bleeds throughout the brain. Non-uniformity (cupping) was reduced by a factor of 5, and contrast of simulated bleeds was improved from ~7 to 49.7 HU, in good agreement

  17. A One-Step Cone-Beam CT-Enabled Planning-to-Treatment Model for Palliative Radiotherapy-From Development to Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Rebecca K.S.; Letourneau, Daniel; Varma, Anita; Bissonnette, Jean Pierre; Fitzpatrick, David; Grabarz, Daniel; Elder, Christine; Martin, Melanie; Bezjak, Andrea; Panzarella, Tony; Gospodarowicz, Mary; Jaffray, David A.

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To develop a cone-beam computed tomography (CT)-enabled one-step simulation-to-treatment process for the treatment of bone metastases. Methods and Materials: A three-phase prospective study was conducted. Patients requiring palliative radiotherapy to the spine, mediastinum, or abdomen/pelvis suitable for treatment with simple beam geometry ({<=}2 beams) were accrued. Phase A established the accuracy of cone-beam CT images for the purpose of gross tumor target volume (GTV) definition. Phase B evaluated the feasibility of implementing the cone-beam CT-enabled planning process at the treatment unit. Phase C evaluated the online cone-beam CT-enabled process for the planning and treatment of patients requiring radiotherapy for bone metastases. Results: Eighty-four patients participated in this study. Phase A (n = 9) established the adequacy of cone-beam CT images for target definition. Phase B (n = 45) established the quality of treatment plans to be adequate for clinical implementation for bone metastases. When the process was applied clinically in bone metastases (Phase C), the degree of overlap between planning computed tomography (PCT) and cone-beam CT for GTV and between PCT and cone-beam CT for treatment field was 82% {+-} 11% and 97% {+-} 4%, respectively. The oncologist's decision to accept the plan under a time-pressured environment remained of high quality, with the cone-beam CT-generated treatment plan delivering at least 90% of the prescribed dose to 100% {+-} 0% of the cone-beam CT planning target volume (PTV). With the assumption that the PCT PTV is the gold-standard target, the cone-beam CT-generated treatment plan delivered at least 90% and at least 95% of dose to 98% {+-} 2% and 97% {+-} 5% of the PCT PTV, respectively. The mean time for the online planning and treatment process was 32.7 {+-} 4.0 minutes. Patient satisfaction was high, with a trend for superior satisfaction with the cone-beam CT-enabled process. Conclusions: The cone-beam CT

  18. Relationship between low tube voltage (70 kV) and the iodine delivery rate (IDR) in CT angiography: An experimental in-vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Pietsch, Hubertus; Korporaal, Johannes G.; Haberland, Ulrike; Mahnken, Andreas H.; Flohr, Thomas G.; Uder, Michael; Jost, Gregor

    2017-01-01

    Objective Very short acquisition times and the use of low-kV protocols in CTA demand modifications in the contrast media (CM) injection regimen. The aim of this study was to optimize the use of CM delivery parameters in thoraco-abdominal CTA in a porcine model. Materials and methods Six pigs (55–68 kg) were examined with a dynamic CTA protocol (454 mm scan length, 2.5 s temporal resolution, 70 s total acquisition time). Four CM injection protocols were applied in a randomized order. 120 kV CTA protocol: (A) 300 mg iodine/kg bodyweight (bw), IDR = 1.5 g/s (flow = 5 mL/s), injection time (ti) 12 s (60 kg bw). 70 kV CTA protocols: 150 mg iodine/kg bw: (B) IDR = 0.75 g/s (flow = 2.5 mL/s), ti = 12 s (60 kg bw); (C) IDR = 1.5 g/s (flow = 5 mL/s), ti = 12 s (60 kg bw); (D) IDR = 3.0 g/s (flow = 10 mL/s), ti = 3 s (60 kg bw). The complete CM bolus shape was monitored by creating time attenuation curves (TAC) in different vascular territories. Based on the TAC, the time to peak (TTP) and the peak enhancement were determined. The diagnostic window (relative enhancement > 300 HU), was calculated and compared to visual inspection of the corresponding CTA data sets. Results The average relative arterial peak enhancements after baseline correction were 358.6 HU (A), 356.6 HU (B), 464.0 HU (C), and 477.6 HU (D). The TTP decreased with increasing IDR and decreasing ti, protocols A and B did not differ significantly (systemic arteries, p = 0.843; pulmonary arteries, p = 0.183). The delay time for bolus tracking (trigger level 100 HU; target enhancement 300 HU) for single-phase CTA was comparable for protocol A and B (3.9, 4.3 s) and C and D (2.4, 2.0 s). The scan window time frame was comparable for the different protocols by visual inspection of the different CTA data sets and by analyzing the TAC. Conclusions All protocols provided sufficient arterial enhancement. The use of a 70 kV CTA protocol is recommended because of a 50% reduction of total CM volume and a 50% reduced

  19. TU-A-9A-09: Proton Beam X-Ray Fluorescence CT

    SciTech Connect

    Bazalova, M; Ahmad, M; Fahrig, R; Xing, L

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate x-ray fluorescence computed tomography induced with proton beams (pXFCT) for imaging of gold contrast agent. Methods: Proton-induced x-ray fluorescence was studied by means of Monte Carlo (MC) simulations using TOPAS, a MC code based on GEANT4. First, proton-induced K-shell and L-shell fluorescence was studied as a function of proton beam energy and 1) depth in water and 2) size of contrast object. Second, pXFCT images of a 2-cm diameter cylindrical phantom with four 5- mm diameter contrast vials and of a 20-cm diameter phantom with 1-cm diameter vials were simulated. Contrast vials were filled with water and water solutions with 1-5% gold per weight. Proton beam energies were varied from 70-250MeV. pXFCT sinograms were generated based on the net number of gold K-shell or L-shell x-rays determined by interpolations from the neighboring 0.5keV energy bins of spectra collected with an idealized 4π detector. pXFCT images were reconstructed with filtered-back projection, and no attenuation correction was applied. Results: Proton induced x-ray fluorescence spectra showed very low background compared to x-ray induced fluorescence. Proton induced L-shell fluorescence had a higher cross-section compared to K-shell fluorescence. Excitation of L-shell fluorescence was most efficient for low-energy protons, i.e. at the Bragg peak. K-shell fluorescence increased with increasing proton beam energy and object size. The 2% and 5% gold contrast vials were accurately reconstructed in K-shell pXFCT images of both the 2-cm and 20-cm diameter phantoms. Small phantom L-shell pXFCT image required attenuation correction and had a higher sensitivity for 70MeV protons compared to 250MeV protons. With attenuation correction, L-shell pXFCT might be a feasible option for imaging of small size (∼2cm) objects. Imaging doses for all simulations were 5-30cGy. Conclusion: Proton induced x-ray fluorescence CT promises to be an alternative quantitative imaging technique to

  20. Data consistency-driven scatter kernel optimization for x-ray cone-beam CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Changhwan; Park, Miran; Sung, Younghun; Lee, Jaehak; Choi, Jiyoung; Cho, Seungryong

    2015-08-01

    Accurate and efficient scatter correction is essential for acquisition of high-quality x-ray cone-beam CT (CBCT) images for various applications. This study was conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of using the data consistency condition (DCC) as a criterion for scatter kernel optimization in scatter deconvolution methods in CBCT. As in CBCT, data consistency in the mid-plane is primarily challenged by scatter, we utilized data consistency to confirm the degree of scatter correction and to steer the update in iterative kernel optimization. By means of the parallel-beam DCC via fan-parallel rebinning, we iteratively optimized the scatter kernel parameters, using a particle swarm optimization algorithm for its computational efficiency and excellent convergence. The proposed method was validated by a simulation study using the XCAT numerical phantom and also by experimental studies using the ACS head phantom and the pelvic part of the Rando phantom. The results showed that the proposed method can effectively improve the accuracy of deconvolution-based scatter correction. Quantitative assessments of image quality parameters such as contrast and structure similarity (SSIM) revealed that the optimally selected scatter kernel improves the contrast of scatter-free images by up to 99.5%, 94.4%, and 84.4%, and of the SSIM in an XCAT study, an ACS head phantom study, and a pelvis phantom study by up to 96.7%, 90.5%, and 87.8%, respectively. The proposed method can achieve accurate and efficient scatter correction from a single cone-beam scan without need of any auxiliary hardware or additional experimentation.

  1. Comparison measurements of DQE for two flat panel detectors: fluoroscopic detector vs. cone beam CT detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betancourt Benítez, Ricardo; Ning, Ruola; Conover, David

    2006-03-01

    The physical performance of two flat panel detectors (FPD) has been evaluated using a standard x-ray beam quality set by IEC, namely RQA5. The FPDs evaluated in this study are based on an amorphous silicon photodiode array that is coupled to a thallium-doped Cesium Iodide scintillator and to a thin film transistor (TFT) array. One detector is the PaxScan 2520 that is designed for fluoro imaging, and has a small dynamic range and a large image lag. The other detector is the PaxScan 4030CB that is designed for cone beam CT, and has a large dynamic range (>16-bit), a reduced image lag and many imaging modes. Varian Medical Systems manufactured both detectors. The linearity of the FPDs was investigated by using an ionization chamber and aluminum filtration in order to obtain the beam quality. Since the FPDs are used in fluoroscopic mode, image lag of the FPD was measured in order to investigate its effect on this study, especially its effect on DQE. The spatial resolution of the FPDs was determined by obtaining the pre-sampling modulation transfer function for each detector. A sharp edge was used in accordance to IEC 62220-1. Next, the Normalized Noise Power Spectrum (NNPS) was calculated for various exposures levels at RQA5 radiation quality. Finally, the DQE of each FPD was obtained with a modified version of the international standard set by IEC 62220-1. The results show that the physical performance in DQE and MTF of the PaxScan 4030CB is superior to that of PaxScan2520.

  2. Influence of electron density spatial distribution and X-ray beam quality during CT simulation on dose calculation accuracy.

    PubMed

    Nobah, Ahmad; Moftah, Belal; Tomic, Nada; Devic, Slobodan

    2011-04-06

    Impact of the various kVp settings used during computed tomography (CT) simulation that provides data for heterogeneity corrected dose distribution calculations in patients undergoing external beam radiotherapy with either high-energy photon or electron beams have been investigated. The change of the Hounsfield Unit (HU) values due to the influence of kVp settings and geometrical distribution of various tissue substitute materials has also been studied. The impact of various kVp settings and electron density (ED) distribution on the accuracy of dose calculation in high-energy photon beams was found to be well within 2%. In the case of dose distributions obtained with a commercially available Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithm for electron beams, differences of more than 10% were observed for different geometrical setups and kVp settings. Dose differences for the electron beams are relatively small at shallow depths but increase with depth around lower isodose values.

  3. Technical Note: FreeCT_wFBP: A robust, efficient, open-source implementation of weighted filtered backprojection for helical, fan-beam CT

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, John; Young, Stefano; Noo, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: With growing interest in quantitative imaging, radiomics, and CAD using CT imaging, the need to explore the impacts of acquisition and reconstruction parameters has grown. This usually requires extensive access to the scanner on which the data were acquired and its workflow is not designed for large-scale reconstruction projects. Therefore, the authors have developed a freely available, open-source software package implementing a common reconstruction method, weighted filtered backprojection (wFBP), for helical fan-beam CT applications. Methods: FreeCT_wFBP is a low-dependency, GPU-based reconstruction program utilizing c for the host code and Nvidia CUDA C for GPU code. The software is capable of reconstructing helical scans acquired with arbitrary pitch-values, and sampling techniques such as flying focal spots and a quarter-detector offset. In this work, the software has been described and evaluated for reconstruction speed, image quality, and accuracy. Speed was evaluated based on acquisitions of the ACR CT accreditation phantom under four different flying focal spot configurations. Image quality was assessed using the same phantom by evaluating CT number accuracy, uniformity, and contrast to noise ratio (CNR). Finally, reconstructed mass-attenuation coefficient accuracy was evaluated using a simulated scan of a FORBILD thorax phantom and comparing reconstructed values to the known phantom values. Results: The average reconstruction time evaluated under all flying focal spot configurations was found to be 17.4 ± 1.0 s for a 512 row × 512 column × 32 slice volume. Reconstructions of the ACR phantom were found to meet all CT Accreditation Program criteria including CT number, CNR, and uniformity tests. Finally, reconstructed mass-attenuation coefficient values of water within the FORBILD thorax phantom agreed with original phantom values to within 0.0001 mm2/g (0.01%). Conclusions: FreeCT_wFBP is a fast, highly configurable reconstruction package for

  4. Hounsfield unit recovery in clinical cone beam CT images of the thorax acquired for image guided radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slot Thing, Rune; Bernchou, Uffe; Mainegra-Hing, Ernesto; Hansen, Olfred; Brink, Carsten

    2016-08-01

    A comprehensive artefact correction method for clinical cone beam CT (CBCT) images acquired for image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) on a commercial system is presented. The method is demonstrated to reduce artefacts and recover CT-like Hounsfield units (HU) in reconstructed CBCT images of five lung cancer patients. Projection image based artefact corrections of image lag, detector scatter, body scatter and beam hardening are described and applied to CBCT images of five lung cancer patients. Image quality is evaluated through visual appearance of the reconstructed images, HU-correspondence with the planning CT images, and total volume HU error. Artefacts are reduced and CT-like HUs are recovered in the artefact corrected CBCT images. Visual inspection confirms that artefacts are indeed suppressed by the proposed method, and the HU root mean square difference between reconstructed CBCTs and the reference CT images are reduced by 31% when using the artefact corrections compared to the standard clinical CBCT reconstruction. A versatile artefact correction method for clinical CBCT images acquired for IGRT has been developed. HU values are recovered in the corrected CBCT images. The proposed method relies on post processing of clinical projection images, and does not require patient specific optimisation. It is thus a powerful tool for image quality improvement of large numbers of CBCT images.

  5. Hounsfield unit recovery in clinical cone beam CT images of the thorax acquired for image guided radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Thing, Rune Slot; Bernchou, Uffe; Mainegra-Hing, Ernesto; Hansen, Olfred; Brink, Carsten

    2016-08-07

    A comprehensive artefact correction method for clinical cone beam CT (CBCT) images acquired for image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) on a commercial system is presented. The method is demonstrated to reduce artefacts and recover CT-like Hounsfield units (HU) in reconstructed CBCT images of five lung cancer patients. Projection image based artefact corrections of image lag, detector scatter, body scatter and beam hardening are described and applied to CBCT images of five lung cancer patients. Image quality is evaluated through visual appearance of the reconstructed images, HU-correspondence with the planning CT images, and total volume HU error. Artefacts are reduced and CT-like HUs are recovered in the artefact corrected CBCT images. Visual inspection confirms that artefacts are indeed suppressed by the proposed method, and the HU root mean square difference between reconstructed CBCTs and the reference CT images are reduced by 31% when using the artefact corrections compared to the standard clinical CBCT reconstruction. A versatile artefact correction method for clinical CBCT images acquired for IGRT has been developed. HU values are recovered in the corrected CBCT images. The proposed method relies on post processing of clinical projection images, and does not require patient specific optimisation. It is thus a powerful tool for image quality improvement of large numbers of CBCT images.

  6. Cone-beam CT breast imaging with a flat panel detector: a simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lingyun; Shaw, Chris C.; Tu, Shu-Ju; Altunbas, Mustafa C.; Wang, Tianpeng; Lai, Chao-Jen; Liu, Xinming; Kappadath, S. C.

    2005-04-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of using a flat panel based cone-beam computer tomography (CT) system for 3-D breast imaging with computer simulation and imaging experiments. In our simulation study, 3-D phantoms were analytically modeled to simulate a breast loosely compressed into cylindrical shape with embedded soft tissue masses and calcifications. Attenuation coefficients were estimated to represent various types of breast tissue, soft tissue masses and calcifications to generate realistic image signal and contrast. Projection images were computed to incorporate x-ray attenuation, geometric magnification, x-ray detection, detector blurring, image pixelization and digitization. Based on the two-views mammography comparable dose level on the central axis of the phantom (also the rotation axis), x-ray kVp/filtration, transmittance through the phantom, detected quantum efficiency (DQE), exposure level, and imaging geometry, the photon fluence was estimated and used to estimate the phantom noise level on a pixel-by-pixel basis. This estimated noise level was then used with the random number generator to produce and add a fluctuation component to the noiseless transmitted image signal. The noise carrying projection images were then convolved with a Gaussian-like kernel, computed from measured 1-D line spread function (LSF) to simulated detector blurring. Additional 2-D Gaussian-like kernel is designed to suppress the noise fluctuation that inherently originates from projection images so that the reconstructed image detectability of low contrast masses phantom can be improved. Image reconstruction was performed using the Feldkamp algorithm. All simulations were performed on a 24 PC (2.4 GHz Dual-Xeon CPU) cluster with MPI parallel programming. With 600 mrads mean glandular dose (MGD) at the phantom center, soft tissue masses as small as 1 mm in diameter can be detected in a 10 cm diameter 50% glandular 50% adipose or fatter breast tissue, and 2 mm or larger

  7. Patient dose considerations for routine megavoltage cone-beam CT imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Morin, Olivier; Gillis, Amy; Descovich, Martina; Chen, Josephine; Aubin, Michele; Aubry, Jean-Francois; Chen Hong; Gottschalk, Alexander R.; Xia Ping; Pouliot, Jean

    2007-05-15

    Megavoltage cone-beam CT (MVCBCT), the recent addition to the family of in-room CT imaging systems for image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT), uses a conventional treatment unit equipped with a flat panel detector to obtain a three-dimensional representation of the patient in treatment position. MVCBCT has been used for more than two years in our clinic for anatomy verification and to improve patient alignment prior to dose delivery. The objective of this research is to evaluate the image acquisition dose delivered to patients for MVCBCT and to develop a simple method to reduce the additional dose resulting from routine MVCBCT imaging. Conventional CT scans of phantoms and patients were imported into a commercial treatment planning system (TPS: Phillips, Pinnacle) and an arc treatment mimicking the MVCBCT acquisition process was generated to compute the delivered acquisition dose. To validate the dose obtained from the TPS, a simple water-equivalent cylindrical phantom with spaces for MOSFETs and an ion chamber was used to measure the MVCBCT image acquisition dose. Absolute dose distributions were obtained by simulating MVCBCTs of 9 and 5 monitor units (MU) on pelvis and head and neck patients, respectively. A compensation factor was introduced to generate composite plans of treatment and MVCBCT imaging dose. The article provides a simple equation to compute the compensation factor. The developed imaging compensation method was tested on routinely used clinical plans for prostate and head and neck patients. The quantitative comparison between the calculated dose by the TPS and measurement points on the cylindrical phantom were all within 3%. The dose percentage difference for the ion chamber placed in the center of the phantom was only 0.2%. For a typical MVCBCT, the dose delivered to patients forms a small anterior-posterior gradient ranging from 0.6 to 1.2 cGy per MVCBCT MU. MVCBCT acquisitions in the pelvis and head and neck areas deliver slightly more dose than

  8. Reducing metal artifacts in cone-beam CT images by preprocessing projection data

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yongbin; Zhang Lifei; Zhu, X. Ronald; Lee, Andrew K.; Chambers, Mark; Dong Lei . E-mail: ldong@mdanderson.org

    2007-03-01

    Purpose: Computed tomography (CT) streak artifacts caused by metallic implants remain a challenge for the automatic processing of image data. The impact of metal artifacts in the soft-tissue region is magnified in cone-beam CT (CBCT), because the soft-tissue contrast is usually lower in CBCT images. The goal of this study was to develop an effective offline processing technique to minimize the effect. Methods and Materials: The geometry calibration cue of the CBCT system was used to track the position of the metal object in projection views. The three-dimensional (3D) representation of the object can be established from only two user-selected viewing angles. The position of the shadowed region in other views can be tracked by projecting the 3D coordinates of the object. Automatic image segmentation was used followed by a Laplacian diffusion method to replace the pixels inside the metal object with the boundary pixels. The modified projection data were then used to reconstruct a new CBCT image. The procedure was tested in phantoms, prostate cancer patients with implanted gold markers and metal prosthesis, and a head-and-neck patient with dental amalgam in the teeth. Results: Both phantom and patient studies demonstrated that the procedure was able to minimize the metal artifacts. Soft-tissue visibility was improved near or away from the metal object. The processing time was 1-2 s per projection. Conclusion: We have implemented an effective metal artifact-suppressing algorithm to improve the quality of CBCT images.

  9. Soft-tissue imaging with C-arm cone-beam CT using statistical reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Adam S.; Webster Stayman, J.; Otake, Yoshito; Kleinszig, Gerhard; Vogt, Sebastian; Gallia, Gary L.; Khanna, A. Jay; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.

    2014-02-01

    The potential for statistical image reconstruction methods such as penalized-likelihood (PL) to improve C-arm cone-beam CT (CBCT) soft-tissue visualization for intraoperative imaging over conventional filtered backprojection (FBP) is assessed in this work by making a fair comparison in relation to soft-tissue performance. A prototype mobile C-arm was used to scan anthropomorphic head and abdomen phantoms as well as a cadaveric torso at doses substantially lower than typical values in diagnostic CT, and the effects of dose reduction via tube current reduction and sparse sampling were also compared. Matched spatial resolution between PL and FBP was determined by the edge spread function of low-contrast (˜40-80 HU) spheres in the phantoms, which were representative of soft-tissue imaging tasks. PL using the non-quadratic Huber penalty was found to substantially reduce noise relative to FBP, especially at lower spatial resolution where PL provides a contrast-to-noise ratio increase up to 1.4-2.2× over FBP at 50% dose reduction across all objects. Comparison of sampling strategies indicates that soft-tissue imaging benefits from fully sampled acquisitions at dose above ˜1.7 mGy and benefits from 50% sparsity at dose below ˜1.0 mGy. Therefore, an appropriate sampling strategy along with the improved low-contrast visualization offered by statistical reconstruction demonstrates the potential for extending intraoperative C-arm CBCT to applications in soft-tissue interventions in neurosurgery as well as thoracic and abdominal surgeries by overcoming conventional tradeoffs in noise, spatial resolution, and dose.

  10. Adaptive planning using megavoltage fan-beam CT for radiation therapy with testicular shielding

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, Poonam; Kozak, Kevin; Tolakanahalli, Ranjini; Ramasubramanian, V.; Paliwal, Bhudatt R.; Welsh, James S.; Rong, Yi

    2012-07-01

    This study highlights the use of adaptive planning to accommodate testicular shielding in helical tomotherapy for malignancies of the proximal thigh. Two cases of young men with large soft tissue sarcomas of the proximal thigh are presented. After multidisciplinary evaluation, preoperative radiation therapy was recommended. Both patients were referred for sperm banking and lead shields were used to minimize testicular dose during radiation therapy. To minimize imaging artifacts, kilovoltage CT (kVCT) treatment planning was conducted without shielding. Generous hypothetical contours were generated on each 'planning scan' to estimate the location of the lead shield and generate a directionally blocked helical tomotherapy plan. To ensure the accuracy of each plan, megavoltage fan-beam CT (MVCT) scans were obtained at the first treatment and adaptive planning was performed to account for lead shield placement. Two important regions of interest in these cases were femurs and femoral heads. During adaptive planning for the first patient, it was observed that the virtual lead shield contour on kVCT planning images was significantly larger than the actual lead shield used for treatment. However, for the second patient, it was noted that the size of the virtual lead shield contoured on the kVCT image was significantly smaller than the actual shield size. Thus, new adaptive plans based on MVCT images were generated and used for treatment. The planning target volume was underdosed up to 2% and had higher maximum doses without adaptive planning. In conclusion, the treatment of the upper thigh, particularly in young men, presents several clinical challenges, including preservation of gonadal function. In such circumstances, adaptive planning using MVCT can ensure accurate dose delivery even in the presence of high-density testicular shields.

  11. Clinical implementation of intraoperative cone-beam CT in head and neck surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, M. J.; Chan, H.; Nithiananthan, S.; Qiu, J.; Barker, E.; Bachar, G.; Dixon, B. J.; Irish, J. C.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2011-03-01

    A prototype mobile C-arm for cone-beam CT (CBCT) has been translated to a prospective clinical trial in head and neck surgery. The flat-panel CBCT C-arm was developed in collaboration with Siemens Healthcare, and demonstrates both sub-mm spatial resolution and soft-tissue visibility at low radiation dose (e.g., <1/5th of a typical diagnostic head CT). CBCT images are available ~15 seconds after scan completion (~1 min acquisition) and reviewed at bedside using custom 3D visualization software based on the open-source Image-Guided Surgery Toolkit (IGSTK). The CBCT C-arm has been successfully deployed in 15 head and neck cases and streamlined into the surgical environment using human factors engineering methods and expert feedback from surgeons, nurses, and anesthetists. Intraoperative imaging is implemented in a manner that maintains operating field sterility, reduces image artifacts (e.g., carbon fiber OR table) and minimizes radiation exposure. Image reviews conducted with surgical staff indicate bony detail and soft-tissue visualization sufficient for intraoperative guidance, with additional artifact management (e.g., metal, scatter) promising further improvements. Clinical trial deployment suggests a role for intraoperative CBCT in guiding complex head and neck surgical tasks, including planning mandible and maxilla resection margins, guiding subcranial and endonasal approaches to skull base tumours, and verifying maxillofacial reconstruction alignment. Ongoing translational research into complimentary image-guidance subsystems include novel methods for real-time tool tracking, fusion of endoscopic video and CBCT, and deformable registration of preoperative volumes and planning contours with intraoperative CBCT.

  12. Flat panel detector-based cone-beam volume CT angiography imaging: system evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ning, R; Chen, B; Yu, R; Conover, D; Tang, X; Ning, Y

    2000-09-01

    Preliminary evaluation of recently developed large-area flat panel detectors (FPDs) indicates that FPDs have some potential advantages: compactness, absence of geometric distortion and veiling glare with the benefits of high resolution, high detective quantum efficiency (DQE), high frame rate and high dynamic range, small image lag (< 1%), and excellent linearity (approximately 1%). The advantages of the new FPD make it a promising candidate for cone-beam volume computed tomography (CT) angiography (CBVCTA) imaging. The purpose of this study is to characterize a prototype FPD-based imaging system for CBVCTA applications. A prototype FPD-based CBVCTA imaging system has been designed and constructed around a modified GE 8800 CT scanner. This system is evaluated for a CBVCTA imaging task in the head and neck using four phantoms and a frozen rat. The system is first characterized in terms of linearity and dynamic range of the detector. Then, the optimal selection of kVps for CBVCTA is determined and the effect of image lag and scatter on the image quality of the CBVCTA system is evaluated. Next, low-contrast resolution and high-contrast spatial resolution are measured. Finally, the example reconstruction images of a frozen rat are presented. The results indicate that the FPD-based CBVCT can achieve 2.75-lp/mm spatial resolution at 0% modulation transfer function (MTF) and provide more than enough low-contrast resolution for intravenous CBVCTA imaging in the head and neck with clinically acceptable entrance exposure level. The results also suggest that to use an FPD for large cone-angle applications, such as body angiography, further investigations are required.

  13. Reconstruction-plane-dependent weighted FDK algorithm for cone beam volumetric CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiangyang; Hsieh, Jiang

    2005-04-01

    The original FDK algorithm has been extensively employed in medical and industrial imaging applications. With an increased cone angle, cone beam (CB) artifacts in images reconstructed by the original FDK algorithm deteriorate, since the circular trajectory does not satisfy the so-called data sufficiency condition (DSC). A few "circular plus" trajectories have been proposed in the past to reduce CB artifacts by meeting the DSC. However, the circular trajectory has distinct advantages over other scanning trajectories in practical CT imaging, such as cardiac, vascular and perfusion applications. In addition to looking into the DSC, another insight into the CB artifacts of the original FDK algorithm is the inconsistency between conjugate rays that are 180° apart in view angle. The inconsistence between conjugate rays is pixel dependent, i.e., it varies dramatically over pixels within the image plane to be reconstructed. However, the original FDK algorithm treats all conjugate rays equally, resulting in CB artifacts that can be avoided if appropriate view weighting strategy is exercised. In this paper, a modified FDK algorithm is proposed, along with an experimental evaluation and verification, in which the helical body phantom and a humanoid head phantom scanned by a volumetric CT (64 x 0.625 mm) are utilized. Without extra trajectories supplemental to the circular trajectory, the modified FDK algorithm applies reconstruction-plane-dependent view weighting on projection data before 3D backprojection, which reduces the inconsistency between conjugate rays by suppressing the contribution of one of the conjugate rays with a larger cone angle. Both computer-simulated and real phantom studies show that, up to a moderate cone angle, the CB artifacts can be substantially suppressed by the modified FDK algorithm, while advantages of the original FDK algorithm, such as the filtered backprojection algorithm structure, 1D ramp filtering, and data manipulation efficiency, can be

  14. Small field of view cone beam CT temporomandibular joint imaging dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Lukat, T D; Wong, J C M; Lam, E W N

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Cone beam CT (CBCT) is generally accepted as the imaging modality of choice for visualisation of the osseous structures of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). The purpose of this study was to compare the radiation dose of a protocol for CBCT TMJ imaging using a large field of view Hitachi CB MercuRay™ unit (Hitachi Medical Systems, Tokyo, Japan) with an alternative approach that utilizes two CBCT acquisitions of the right and left TMJs using the Kodak 9000® 3D system (Carestream, Rochester, NY). Methods: 25 optically stimulated luminescence dosemeters were placed in various locations of an anthropomorphic RANDO® Man phantom (Alderson Research Laboratories, Stanford, CT). Dosimetric measurements were performed for each technique, and effective doses were calculated using the 2007 International Commission on Radiological Protection tissue weighting factor recommendations for all protocols. Results: The radiation effective dose for the CB MercuRay technique was 223.6 ± 1.1 μSv compared with 9.7 ± 0.1 μSv (child), 13.5 ± 0.9 μSv (adolescent/small adult) and 20.5 ± 1.3 μSv (adult) for the bilateral Kodak acquisitions. Conclusions: Acquisitions of individual right and left TMJ volumes using the Kodak 9000 3D CBCT imaging system resulted in a more than ten-fold reduction in the effective dose compared with the larger single field acquisition with the Hitachi CB MercuRay. This decrease is made even more significant when lower tube potential and tube current settings are used. PMID:24048693

  15. Regularization design for high-quality cone-beam CT of intracranial hemorrhage using statistical reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, H.; Stayman, J. W.; Xu, J.; Sisniega, A.; Zbijewski, W.; Wang, X.; Foos, D. H.; Aygun, N.; Koliatsos, V. E.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2016-03-01

    Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is associated with pathologies such as hemorrhagic stroke and traumatic brain injury. Multi-detector CT is the current front-line imaging modality for detecting ICH (fresh blood contrast 40-80 HU, down to 1 mm). Flat-panel detector (FPD) cone-beam CT (CBCT) offers a potential alternative with a smaller scanner footprint, greater portability, and lower cost potentially well suited to deployment at the point of care outside standard diagnostic radiology and emergency room settings. Previous studies have suggested reliable detection of ICH down to 3 mm in CBCT using high-fidelity artifact correction and penalized weighted least-squared (PWLS) image reconstruction with a post-artifact-correction noise model. However, ICH reconstructed by traditional image regularization exhibits nonuniform spatial resolution and noise due to interaction between the statistical weights and regularization, which potentially degrades the detectability of ICH. In this work, we propose three regularization methods designed to overcome these challenges. The first two compute spatially varying certainty for uniform spatial resolution and noise, respectively. The third computes spatially varying regularization strength to achieve uniform "detectability," combining both spatial resolution and noise in a manner analogous to a delta-function detection task. Experiments were conducted on a CBCT test-bench, and image quality was evaluated for simulated ICH in different regions of an anthropomorphic head. The first two methods improved the uniformity in spatial resolution and noise compared to traditional regularization. The third exhibited the highest uniformity in detectability among all methods and best overall image quality. The proposed regularization provides a valuable means to achieve uniform image quality in CBCT of ICH and is being incorporated in a CBCT prototype for ICH imaging.

  16. Volume-of-change cone-beam CT for image-guided surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Junghoon; Webster Stayman, J.; Otake, Yoshito; Schafer, Sebastian; Zbijewski, Wojciech; Khanna, A. Jay; Prince, Jerry L.; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.

    2012-08-01

    C-arm cone-beam CT (CBCT) can provide intraoperative 3D imaging capability for surgical guidance, but workflow and radiation dose are the significant barriers to broad utilization. One main reason is that each 3D image acquisition requires a complete scan with a full radiation dose to present a completely new 3D image every time. In this paper, we propose to utilize patient-specific CT or CBCT as prior knowledge to accurately reconstruct the aspects of the region that have changed by the surgical procedure from only a sparse set of x-rays. The proposed methods consist of a 3D-2D registration between the prior volume and a sparse set of intraoperative x-rays, creating digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) from the registered prior volume, computing difference images by subtracting DRRs from the intraoperative x-rays, a penalized likelihood reconstruction of the volume of change (VOC) from the difference images, and finally a fusion of VOC reconstruction with the prior volume to visualize the entire surgical field. When the surgical changes are local and relatively small, the VOC reconstruction involves only a small volume size and a small number of projections, allowing less computation and lower radiation dose than is needed to reconstruct the entire surgical field. We applied this approach to sacroplasty phantom data obtained from a CBCT test bench and vertebroplasty data with a fresh cadaver acquired from a C-arm CBCT system with a flat-panel detector. The VOCs were reconstructed from a varying number of images (10-66 images) and compared to the CBCT ground truth using four different metrics (mean squared error, correlation coefficient, structural similarity index and perceptual difference model). The results show promising reconstruction quality with structural similarity to the ground truth close to 1 even when only 15-20 images were used, allowing dose reduction by the factor of 10-20.

  17. Volume-of-change cone-beam CT for image-guided surgery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Junghoon; Stayman, J Webster; Otake, Yoshito; Schafer, Sebastian; Zbijewski, Wojciech; Khanna, A Jay; Prince, Jerry L; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H

    2012-08-07

    C-arm cone-beam CT (CBCT) can provide intraoperative 3D imaging capability for surgical guidance, but workflow and radiation dose are the significant barriers to broad utilization. One main reason is that each 3D image acquisition requires a complete scan with a full radiation dose to present a completely new 3D image every time. In this paper, we propose to utilize patient-specific CT or CBCT as prior knowledge to accurately reconstruct the aspects of the region that have changed by the surgical procedure from only a sparse set of x-rays. The proposed methods consist of a 3D-2D registration between the prior volume and a sparse set of intraoperative x-rays, creating digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) from the registered prior volume, computing difference images by subtracting DRRs from the intraoperative x-rays, a penalized likelihood reconstruction of the volume of change (VOC) from the difference images, and finally a fusion of VOC reconstruction with the prior volume to visualize the entire surgical field. When the surgical changes are local and relatively small, the VOC reconstruction involves only a small volume size and a small number of projections, allowing less computation and lower radiation dose than is needed to reconstruct the entire surgical field. We applied this approach to sacroplasty phantom data obtained from a CBCT test bench and vertebroplasty data with a fresh cadaver acquired from a C-arm CBCT system with a flat-panel detector. The VOCs were reconstructed from a varying number of images (10-66 images) and compared to the CBCT ground truth using four different metrics (mean squared error, correlation coefficient, structural similarity index and perceptual difference model). The results show promising reconstruction quality with structural similarity to the ground truth close to 1 even when only 15-20 images were used, allowing dose reduction by the factor of 10-20.

  18. Adaptive planning using megavoltage fan-beam CT for radiation therapy with testicular shielding.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Poonam; Kozak, Kevin; Tolakanahalli, Ranjini; Ramasubramanian, V; Paliwal, Bhudatt R; Welsh, James S; Rong, Yi

    2012-01-01

    This study highlights the use of adaptive planning to accommodate testicular shielding in helical tomotherapy for malignancies of the proximal thigh. Two cases of young men with large soft tissue sarcomas of the proximal thigh are presented. After multidisciplinary evaluation, preoperative radiation therapy was recommended. Both patients were referred for sperm banking and lead shields were used to minimize testicular dose during radiation therapy. To minimize imaging artifacts, kilovoltage CT (kVCT) treatment planning was conducted without shielding. Generous hypothetical contours were generated on each "planning scan" to estimate the location of the lead shield and generate a directionally blocked helical tomotherapy plan. To ensure the accuracy of each plan, megavoltage fan-beam CT (MVCT) scans were obtained at the first treatment and adaptive planning was performed to account for lead shield placement. Two important regions of interest in these cases were femurs and femoral heads. During adaptive planning for the first patient, it was observed that the virtual lead shield contour on kVCT planning images was significantly larger than the actual lead shield used for treatment. However, for the second patient, it was noted that the size of the virtual lead shield contoured on the kVCT image was significantly smaller than the actual shield size. Thus, new adaptive plans based on MVCT images were generated and used for treatment. The planning target volume was underdosed up to 2% and had higher maximum doses without adaptive planning. In conclusion, the treatment of the upper thigh, particularly in young men, presents several clinical challenges, including preservation of gonadal function. In such circumstances, adaptive planning using MVCT can ensure accurate dose delivery even in the presence of high-density testicular shields.

  19. Low-dose and scatter-free cone-beam CT imaging: a preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xue; Jia, Xun; Niu, Tianye; Zhu, Lei

    2012-03-01

    Clinical applications of CBCT imaging are still limited by excessive imaging dose from repeated scans and poor image quality mainly due to scatter contamination. Compressed sensing (CS) reconstruction algorithms have shown promises in recovering faithful signals from low-dose projection data, but do not serve well the needs of accurate CBCT imaging if effective scatter correction is not in place. Scatter can be accurately measured and removed using measurement-based methods. However, in conventional FDK reconstruction, these approaches are considered unpractical since they require multiple scans or moving the beam blocker during the data acquisition to compensate for the inevitable primary loss. In this work, we combine the measurement-based scatter correction and CS-based iterative reconstruction algorithm, such that scatter-free images can be obtained from low-dose data. We lower the CBCT dose by reducing the projection number and inserting lead strips between the x-ray source and the object. The insertion of lead strips also enables scatter measurement on the measured samples inside the strip shadows. CS-based iterative reconstruction is finally carried out to obtain scatter-free and low-dose CBCT images. Simulation studies are designed to optimize the lead strip geometry for a certain dose reduction ratio. After optimization, our approach reduces the CT number error from over 220HU to below 5HU on the Shepp-Logan phantom, with a dose reduction of ~80%. With the same dose reduction and the optimized method parameters, the CT number error is reduced from 242HU to 20HU in the selected region of interest on Catphan©600 phantom.

  20. Stereotactic radiosurgery for intradural spine tumors using cone-beam CT image guidance.

    PubMed

    Monserrate, Andrés; Zussman, Benjamin; Ozpinar, Alp; Niranjan, Ajay; Flickinger, John C; Gerszten, Peter C

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Cone-beam CT (CBCT) image guidance technology has been widely adopted for spine radiosurgery delivery. There is relatively little experience with spine radiosurgery for intradural tumors using CBCT image guidance. This study prospectively evaluated a series of intradural spine tumors treated with radiosurgery. Patient setup accuracy for spine radiosurgery delivery using CBCT image guidance for intradural spine tumors was determined. METHODS Eighty-two patients with intradural tumors were treated and prospectively evaluated. The positioning deviations of the spine radiosurgery treatments in patients were recorded. Radiosurgery was delivered using a linear accelerator with a beam modulator and CBCT image guidance combined with a robotic couch that allows positioning correction in 3 translational and 3 rotational directions. To measure patient movement, 3 quality assurance CBCTs were performed and recorded in 30 patients: before, halfway, and after the radiosurgery treatment. The positioning data and fused images of planning CT and CBCT from the treatments were analyzed to determine intrafraction patient movements. From each of 3 CBCTs, 3 translational and 3 rotational coordinates were obtained. RESULTS The radiosurgery procedure was successfully completed for all patients. Lesion locations included cervical (22), thoracic (17), lumbar (38), and sacral (5). Tumor histologies included schwannoma (27), neurofibromas (18), meningioma (16), hemangioblastoma (8), and ependymoma (5). The mean prescription dose was 17 Gy (range 12-27 Gy) delivered in 1-3 fractions. At the halfway point of the radiation, the translational variations and standard deviations were 0.4 ± 0.5, 0.5 ± 0.8, and 0.4 ± 0.5 mm in the lateral (x), longitudinal (y), and anteroposterior (z) directions, respectively. Similarly, the variations immediately after treatment were 0.5 ± 0.4, 0.5 ± 0.6, and 0.6 ± 0.5 mm along x, y, and z directions, respectively. The mean rotational angles were 0

  1. Task-driven image acquisition and reconstruction in cone-beam CT.

    PubMed

    Gang, Grace J; Stayman, J Webster; Ehtiati, Tina; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H

    2015-04-21

    This work introduces a task-driven imaging framework that incorporates a mathematical definition of the imaging task, a model of the imaging system, and a patient-specific anatomical model to prospectively design image acquisition and reconstruction techniques to optimize task performance. The framework is applied to joint optimization of tube current modulation, view-dependent reconstruction kernel, and orbital tilt in cone-beam CT. The system model considers a cone-beam CT system incorporating a flat-panel detector and 3D filtered backprojection and accurately describes the spatially varying noise and resolution over a wide range of imaging parameters in the presence of a realistic anatomical model. Task-based detectability index (d') is incorporated as the objective function in a task-driven optimization of image acquisition and reconstruction techniques. The orbital tilt was optimized through an exhaustive search across tilt angles ranging ± 30°. For each tilt angle, the view-dependent tube current and reconstruction kernel (i.e. the modulation profiles) that maximized detectability were identified via an alternating optimization. The task-driven approach was compared with conventional unmodulated and automatic exposure control (AEC) strategies for a variety of imaging tasks and anthropomorphic phantoms. The task-driven strategy outperformed the unmodulated and AEC cases for all tasks. For example, d' for a sphere detection task in a head phantom was improved by 30% compared to the unmodulated case by using smoother kernels for noisy views and distributing mAs across less noisy views (at fixed total mAs) in a manner that was beneficial to task performance. Similarly for detection of a line-pair pattern, the task-driven approach increased d' by 80% compared to no modulation by means of view-dependent mA and kernel selection that yields modulation transfer function and noise-power spectrum optimal to the task. Optimization of orbital tilt identified the tilt

  2. Task-driven image acquisition and reconstruction in cone-beam CT

    PubMed Central

    Gang, Grace J.; Stayman, J. Webster; Ehtiati, Tina; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.

    2015-01-01

    This work introduces a task-driven imaging framework that incorporates a mathematical definition of the imaging task, a model of the imaging system, and a patient-specific anatomical model to prospectively design image acquisition and reconstruction techniques to optimize task performance. The framework is applied to joint optimization of tube current modulation, view-dependent reconstruction kernel, and orbital tilt in cone-beam CT. The system model considers a cone-beam CT system incorporating a flat-panel detector and 3D filtered backprojection and accurately describes the spatially varying noise and resolution over a wide range of imaging parameters and in the presence of a realistic anatomical model. Task-based detectability index (d') is incorporated as the objective function in a task-driven optimization of image acquisition and reconstruction techniques. The orbital tilt was optimized through an exhaustive search across tilt angles ranging ±30°. For each tilt angle, the view-dependent tube current and reconstruction kernel (i.e., the modulation profiles) that maximized detectability were identified via an alternating optimization. The task-driven approach was compared with conventional unmodulated and automatic exposure control (AEC) strategies for a variety of imaging tasks and anthropomorphic phantoms. The task-driven strategy outperformed the unmodulated and AEC cases for all tasks. For example, d' for a sphere detection task in a head phantom was improved by 30% compared to the unmodulated case by using smoother kernels for noisy views and distributing mAs across less noisy views (at fixed total mAs) in a manner that was beneficial to task performance. Similarly for detection of a line-pair pattern, the task-driven approach increased d' by 80% compared to no modulation by means of view-dependent mA and kernel selection that yields modulation transfer function and noise-power spectrum optimal to the task. Optimization of orbital tilt identified the

  3. Task-driven image acquisition and reconstruction in cone-beam CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gang, Grace J.; Webster Stayman, J.; Ehtiati, Tina; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.

    2015-04-01

    This work introduces a task-driven imaging framework that incorporates a mathematical definition of the imaging task, a model of the imaging system, and a patient-specific anatomical model to prospectively design image acquisition and reconstruction techniques to optimize task performance. The framework is applied to joint optimization of tube current modulation, view-dependent reconstruction kernel, and orbital tilt in cone-beam CT. The system model considers a cone-beam CT system incorporating a flat-panel detector and 3D filtered backprojection and accurately describes the spatially varying noise and resolution over a wide range of imaging parameters in the presence of a realistic anatomical model. Task-based detectability index (d‧) is incorporated as the objective function in a task-driven optimization of image acquisition and reconstruction techniques. The orbital tilt was optimized through an exhaustive search across tilt angles ranging ±30°. For each tilt angle, the view-dependent tube current and reconstruction kernel (i.e. the modulation profiles) that maximized detectability were identified via an alternating optimization. The task-driven approach was compared with conventional unmodulated and automatic exposure control (AEC) strategies for a variety of imaging tasks and anthropomorphic phantoms. The task-driven strategy outperformed the unmodulated and AEC cases for all tasks. For example, d‧ for a sphere detection task in a head phantom was improved by 30% compared to the unmodulated case by using smoother kernels for noisy views and distributing mAs across less noisy views (at fixed total mAs) in a manner that was beneficial to task performance. Similarly for detection of a line-pair pattern, the task-driven approach increased d‧ by 80% compared to no modulation by means of view-dependent mA and kernel selection that yields modulation transfer function and noise-power spectrum optimal to the task. Optimization of orbital tilt identified the

  4. Deformable image registration with local rigidity constraints for cone-beam CT-guided spine surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reaungamornrat, S.; Wang, A. S.; Uneri, A.; Otake, Y.; Khanna, A. J.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2014-07-01

    Image-guided spine surgery (IGSS) is associated with reduced co-morbidity and improved surgical outcome. However, precise localization of target anatomy and adjacent nerves and vessels relative to planning information (e.g., device trajectories) can be challenged by anatomical deformation. Rigid registration alone fails to account for deformation associated with changes in spine curvature, and conventional deformable registration fails to account for rigidity of the vertebrae, causing unrealistic distortions in the registered image that can confound high-precision surgery. We developed and evaluated a deformable registration method capable of preserving rigidity of bones while resolving the deformation of surrounding soft tissue. The method aligns preoperative CT to intraoperative cone-beam CT (CBCT) using free-form deformation (FFD) with constraints on rigid body motion imposed according to a simple intensity threshold of bone intensities. The constraints enforced three properties of a rigid transformation—namely, constraints on affinity (AC), orthogonality (OC), and properness (PC). The method also incorporated an injectivity constraint (IC) to preserve topology. Physical experiments involving phantoms, an ovine spine, and a human cadaver as well as digital simulations were performed to evaluate the sensitivity to registration parameters, preservation of rigid body morphology, and overall registration accuracy of constrained FFD in comparison to conventional unconstrained FFD (uFFD) and Demons registration. FFD with orthogonality and injectivity constraints (denoted FFD+OC+IC) demonstrated improved performance compared to uFFD and Demons. Affinity and properness constraints offered little or no additional improvement. The FFD+OC+IC method preserved rigid body morphology at near-ideal values of zero dilatation ({ D} = 0.05, compared to 0.39 and 0.56 for uFFD and Demons, respectively) and shear ({ S} = 0.08, compared to 0.36 and 0.44 for uFFD and Demons

  5. A model-based scatter artifacts correction for cone beam CT

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wei; Vernekohl, Don; Zhu, Jun; Wang, Luyao; Xing, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Due to the increased axial coverage of multislice computed tomography (CT) and the introduction of flat detectors, the size of x-ray illumination fields has grown dramatically, causing an increase in scatter radiation. For CT imaging, scatter is a significant issue that introduces shading artifact, streaks, as well as reduced contrast and Hounsfield Units (HU) accuracy. The purpose of this work is to provide a fast and accurate scatter artifacts correction algorithm for cone beam CT (CBCT) imaging. Methods: The method starts with an estimation of coarse scatter profiles for a set of CBCT data in either image domain or projection domain. A denoising algorithm designed specifically for Poisson signals is then applied to derive the final scatter distribution. Qualitative and quantitative evaluations using thorax and abdomen phantoms with Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, experimental Catphan phantom data, and in vivo human data acquired for a clinical image guided radiation therapy were performed. Scatter correction in both projection domain and image domain was conducted and the influences of segmentation method, mismatched attenuation coefficients, and spectrum model as well as parameter selection were also investigated. Results: Results show that the proposed algorithm can significantly reduce scatter artifacts and recover the correct HU in either projection domain or image domain. For the MC thorax phantom study, four-components segmentation yields the best results, while the results of three-components segmentation are still acceptable. The parameters (iteration number K and weight β) affect the accuracy of the scatter correction and the results get improved as K and β increase. It was found that variations in attenuation coefficient accuracies only slightly impact the performance of the proposed processing. For the Catphan phantom data, the mean value over all pixels in the residual image is reduced from −21.8 to −0.2 HU and 0.7 HU for projection

  6. A dual cone-beam CT system for image guided radiotherapy: Initial performance characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Li Hao; Bowsher, James; Yin Fangfang; Giles, William

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of a recently developed benchtop dual cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) system with two orthogonally placed tube/detector sets. Methods: The benchtop dual CBCT system consists of two orthogonally placed 40 Multiplication-Sign 30 cm flat-panel detectors and two conventional x-ray tubes with two individual high-voltage generators sharing the same rotational axis. The x-ray source to detector distance is 150 cm and x-ray source to rotational axis distance is 100 cm for both subsystems. The objects are scanned through 200 Degree-Sign of rotation. The dual CBCT system utilized 110 Degree-Sign of projection data from one detector and 90 Degree-Sign from the other while the two individual single CBCTs utilized 200 Degree-Sign data from each detector. The system performance was characterized in terms of uniformity, contrast, spatial resolution, noise power spectrum, and CT number linearity. The uniformities, within the axial slice and along the longitudinal direction, and noise power spectrum were assessed by scanning a water bucket; the contrast and CT number linearity were measured using the Catphan phantom; and the spatial resolution was evaluated using a tungsten wire phantom. A skull phantom and a ham were also scanned to provide qualitative evaluation of high- and low-contrast resolution. Each measurement was compared between dual and single CBCT systems. Results: Compared to single CBCT, the dual CBCT presented: (1) a decrease in uniformity by 1.9% in axial view and 1.1% in the longitudinal view, as averaged for four energies (80, 100, 125, and 150 kVp); (2) comparable or slightly better contrast (0{approx}25 HU) for low-contrast objects and comparable contrast for high-contrast objects; (3) comparable spatial resolution; (4) comparable CT number linearity with R{sup 2}{>=} 0.99 for all four tested energies; (5) lower noise power spectrum in magnitude. Dual CBCT images of the skull phantom and the

  7. A dual modality phantom for cone beam CT and ultrasound image fusion in prostate implant

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, Angela; Beiki-Ardakan, Akbar; Tong, Shidong; Moseley, Douglas; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey; Jaffray, David; Yeung, Ivan W. T.

    2008-05-15

    In transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided prostate seed brachytherapy, TRUS provides good delineation of the prostate while x-ray imaging, e.g., C-arm, gives excellent contrast for seed localization. With the recent availability of cone beam CT (CBCT) technology, the combination of the two imaging modalities may provide an ideal system for intraoperative dosimetric feedback during implantation. A dual modality phantom made of acrylic and copper wire was designed to measure the accuracy and precision of image coregistration between a C-arm based CBCT and 3D TRUS. The phantom was scanned with TRUS and CBCT under the same setup condition. Successive parallel transverse ultrasound (US) images were acquired through manual stepping of the US probe across the phantom at an increment of 1 mm over 7.5 cm. The CBCT imaging was done with three reconstructed slice thicknesses (0.4, 0.8, and 1.6 mm) as well as at three different tilt angles (0 deg., 15 deg., 30 deg. ), and the coregistration between CBCT and US images was done using the Variseed system based on four fiducial markers. Fiducial localization error (FLE), fiducial registration error (FRE), and target registration error (TRE) were calculated for all registered image sets. Results showed that FLE were typically less than 0.4 mm, FRE were less than 0.5 mm, and TRE were typically less than 1 mm within the range of operation for prostate implant (i.e., <6 cm to surface of US probe). An analysis of variance test showed no significant difference in TRE for the CBCT-US fusion among the three slice thicknesses (p=0.37). As a comparison, the experiment was repeated with a US-conventional CT scanner combination. No significant difference in TRE was noted between the US-conventional CT fusion and that for all three CBCT image slice thicknesses (p=0.21). CBCT imaging was also performed at three different C-arm tilt angles of 0 deg., 15 deg., and 30 deg. and reconstructed at a slice thickness of 0.8 mm. There is no significant

  8. Improved image quality of cone beam CT scans for radiotherapy image guidance using fiber-interspaced antiscatter grid

    SciTech Connect

    Stankovic, Uros; Herk, Marcel van; Ploeger, Lennert S.; Sonke, Jan-Jakob

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Medical linear accelerator mounted cone beam CT (CBCT) scanner provides useful soft tissue contrast for purposes of image guidance in radiotherapy. The presence of extensive scattered radiation has a negative effect on soft tissue visibility and uniformity of CBCT scans. Antiscatter grids (ASG) are used in the field of diagnostic radiography to mitigate the scatter. They usually do increase the contrast of the scan, but simultaneously increase the noise. Therefore, and considering other scatter mitigation mechanisms present in a CBCT scanner, the applicability of ASGs with aluminum interspacing for a wide range of imaging conditions has been inconclusive in previous studies. In recent years, grids using fiber interspacers have appeared, providing grids with higher scatter rejection while maintaining reasonable transmission of primary radiation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of one such grid on CBCT image quality. Methods: The grid used (Philips Medical Systems) had ratio of 21:1, frequency 36 lp/cm, and nominal selectivity of 11.9. It was mounted on the kV flat panel detector of an Elekta Synergy linear accelerator and tested in a phantom and a clinical study. Due to the flex of the linac and presence of gridline artifacts an angle dependent gain correction algorithm was devised to mitigate resulting artifacts. Scan reconstruction was performed using XVI4.5 augmented with inhouse developed image lag correction and Hounsfield unit calibration. To determine the necessary parameters for Hounsfield unit calibration and software scatter correction parameters, the Catphan 600 (The Phantom Laboratory) phantom was used. Image quality parameters were evaluated using CIRS CBCT Image Quality and Electron Density Phantom (CIRS) in two different geometries: one modeling head and neck and other pelvic region. Phantoms were acquired with and without the grid and reconstructed with and without software correction which was adapted for the different

  9. TU-AB-204-00: Advances in Cone-Beam CT and Emerging Applications

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-15

    This symposium highlights advanced cone-beam CT (CBCT) technologies in four areas of emerging application in diagnostic imaging and image-guided interventions. Each area includes research that extends the spatial, temporal, and/or contrast resolution characteristics of CBCT beyond conventional limits through advances in scanner technology, acquisition protocols, and 3D image reconstruction techniques. Dr. G. Chen (University of Wisconsin) will present on the topic: Advances in C-arm CBCT for Brain Perfusion Imaging. Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability, and a fraction of people having an acute ischemic stroke are suitable candidates for endovascular therapy. Critical factors that affect both the likelihood of successful revascularization and good clinical outcome are: 1) the time between stroke onset and revascularization; and 2) the ability to distinguish patients who have a small volume of irreversibly injured brain (ischemic core) and a large volume of ischemic but salvageable brain (penumbra) from patients with a large ischemic core and little or no penumbra. Therefore, “time is brain” in the care of the stroke patients. C-arm CBCT systems widely available in angiography suites have the potential to generate non-contrast-enhanced CBCT images to exclude the presence of hemorrhage, time-resolved CBCT angiography to evaluate the site of occlusion and collaterals, and CBCT perfusion parametric images to assess the extent of the ischemic core and penumbra, thereby fulfilling the imaging requirements of a “one-stop-shop” in the angiography suite to reduce the time between onset and revascularization therapy. The challenges and opportunities to advance CBCT technology to fully enable the one-stop-shop C-arm CBCT platform for brain imaging will be discussed. Dr. R. Fahrig (Stanford University) will present on the topic: Advances in C-arm CBCT for Cardiac Interventions. With the goal of providing functional information during cardiac interventions

  10. Comparison of human and Hotelling observer performance for a fan-beam CT signal detection task

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Adrian A.; Sidky, Emil Y.; Reiser, Ingrid; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: A human observer study was performed for a signal detection task for the case of fan-beam x-ray computed tomography. Hotelling observer (HO) performance was calculated for the same detection task without the use of efficient channels. By considering the full image covariance produced by the filtered backprojection (FBP) algorithm and avoiding the use of channels in the computation of HO performance, the authors establish an absolute upper bound on signal detectability. Therefore, this study serves as a baseline for relating human and ideal observer performance in the case of fan-beam CT. Methods: Eight human observers participated in a two-alternative forced choice experiment where the signal of interest was a small simulated ellipsoid in the presence of independent, identically distributed Gaussian detector noise. Theoretical performance of the HO, which is equivalent to the ideal observer in this case (see Sec. 13.2.12 in Barrett and Myers [Foundations of Image Science (Wiley, Hoboken, NJ, 2004)], was also computed and compared to the performance of the human observers. In addition to a reference FBP implementation, two FBP implementations with inherent loss of HO signal detectability (e.g., by apodizing the ramp filter) were also investigated. Each of these latter two implementations takes the form of a discrete-to-discrete linear operator (i.e., a matrix), which has a nontrivial null-space resulting in the loss of detectability. Results: Estimated observer detectability index (\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal}\\begin{document}$\\hat{d}_A$\\end{document}d^A) values for the human observers and SNR values for the HO were obtained. While Hanning filtering in the FBP implementation with a cutoff frequency of 1/4 of the Nyquist frequency reduces HO SNR (due to the reconstruction matrix's nontrivial null-space), this filtering was shown to consistently improve human observer performance. By contrast, increasing the image pixel size was seen to have a comparable

  11. Noise suppression in reconstruction of low-Z target megavoltage cone-beam CT images

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Jing; Robar, James; Guan Huaiqun

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To improve the image contrast-to-noise (CNR) ratio for low-Z target megavoltage cone-beam CT (MV CBCT) using a statistical projection noise suppression algorithm based on the penalized weighted least-squares (PWLS) criterion. Methods: Projection images of a contrast phantom, a CatPhan{sup Registered-Sign} 600 phantom and a head phantom were acquired by a Varian 2100EX LINAC with a low-Z (Al) target and low energy x-ray beam (2.5 MeV) at a low-dose level and at a high-dose level. The projections were then processed by minimizing the PWLS objective function. The weighted least square (WLS) term models the noise of measured projection and the penalty term enforces the smoothing constraints of the projection image. The variance of projection data was chosen as the weight for the PWLS objective function and it determined the contribution of each measurement. An anisotropic quadratic form penalty that incorporates the gradient information of projection image was used to preserve edges during noise reduction. Low-Z target MV CBCT images were reconstructed by the FDK algorithm after each projection was processed by the PWLS smoothing. Results: Noise in low-Z target MV CBCT images were greatly suppressed after the PWLS projection smoothing, without noticeable sacrifice of the spatial resolution. Depending on the choice of smoothing parameter, the CNR of selected regions of interest in the PWLS processed low-dose low-Z target MV CBCT image can be higher than the corresponding high-dose image.Conclusion: The CNR of low-Z target MV CBCT images was substantially improved by using PWLS projection smoothing. The PWLS projection smoothing algorithm allows the reconstruction of high contrast low-Z target MV CBCT image with a total dose of as low as 2.3 cGy.

  12. Clinical Implementation Of Megavoltage Cone Beam CT As Part Of An IGRT Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Albin; Bauer, Lisa; Kinney, Vicki; Crooks, Cheryl

    2008-03-01

    Knowing where the tumor is at all times during treatment is the next challenge in the field of radiation therapy. This issue has become more important because with treatments such as Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT), healthy tissue is spared by using very tight margins around the tumor. These tight margins leave very small room for patient setup errors. The use of an imaging modality in the treatment room as a way to localize the tumor for patient set up is generally known as "Image Guided Radiation Therapy" or IGRT. This article deals with a form of IGRT known as Megavoltage Cone Beam Computed Tomography (MCBCT) using a Siemens Oncor linear accelerator currently in use at Firelands Regional Medical Center. With MCBCT, we are capable of acquiring CT images right before the treatment of the patient and then use this information to position the patient tumor according to the treatment plan. This article presents the steps followed in order to clinically implement this system, as well as some of the quality assurance tests suggested by the manufacturer and some tests developed in house

  13. Three-dimensional focus of attention for iterative cone-beam micro-CT reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, T. M.; Gregor, J.

    2006-09-01

    Three-dimensional iterative reconstruction of high-resolution, circular orbit cone-beam x-ray CT data is often considered impractical due to the demand for vast amounts of computer cycles and associated memory. In this paper, we show that the computational burden can be reduced by limiting the reconstruction to a small, well-defined portion of the image volume. We first discuss using the support region defined by the set of voxels covered by all of the projection views. We then present a data-driven preprocessing technique called focus of attention that heuristically separates both image and projection data into object and background before reconstruction, thereby further reducing the reconstruction region of interest. We present experimental results for both methods based on mouse data and a parallelized implementation of the SIRT algorithm. The computational savings associated with the support region are substantial. However, the results for focus of attention are even more impressive in that only about one quarter of the computer cycles and memory are needed compared with reconstruction of the entire image volume. The image quality is not compromised by either method.

  14. Motion artefacts in cone beam CT: an in vitro study about the effects on the images

    PubMed Central

    Molteni, Roberto; Lorini, Chiara; Taliani, Gian G; Matteuzzi, Benedetta; Mazzoni, Elisa; Colagrande, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In cone beam CT (CBCT), imperfect patient immobility, caused by involuntary movements, is one of the most important causes of artefacts and image quality degradation. Various works in literature address this topic, but seldom is the nature of the movement correlated with the type of artefact and the image degradation in a systematic manner, and the correlation analyzed and explained. Methods: All three types of movements that can occur during a scan—nodding, tilting and rolling—were applied to a dry skull, in various manners from abrupt to gradual through the entire scan, at different times and angles, over a wide range of displacements. 84 scans were performed, with different skull movements, and the resulting images examined by two skilled radiologists, rated in a four-point scale and statistically analyzed. A commercial CBCT machine was used, featuring supine patient positioning. Results: Different types of movements induce different artefacts, in different parts of the anatomy. In general, movement of short duration may lead to double contours (bilateral or monolateral depending upon the angle of the scan at which they occur), whereas gradual movements result into blurring. Conclusion: Not all movements cause motion artefacts that equally jeopardize the image. Rolling is the type of movement that most severely affects the image diagnostic value. Advances in knowledge: These findings may help practitioners to identify the causes of motion artefacts and the resulting image degradation, and remediate them, and manufacturers to improve the patient-positioning devices. PMID:26577438

  15. Prevalence of apical periodontitis detected in cone beam CT images of a Brazilian subpopulation

    PubMed Central

    Paes da Silva Ramos Fernandes, LM; Ordinola-Zapata, R; Húngaro Duarte, MA; Alvares Capelozza, AL

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of apical periodontitis (AP) detected in cone beam CT (CBCT) images from a database. Methods CBCT images of 300 Brazilian patients were assessed. AP images were measured in three dimensions. Age, gender, number and location of total teeth in each patient were considered. AP location was considered according to tooth groups. The extent of AP was determined by the largest diameter in any of the three dimensions. Percentages and the χ2 test were used for statistical analysis. Results AP was found in 51.4% of the patients and in 3.4% of the teeth. Higher prevalence of AP was found in 60- to 69-year-olds (73.1%) and in mandibular molars (5.9%) (p < 0.05). Inadequate endodontic treatment presented higher prevalence of AP (78.1%). Conclusions AP can be frequently found in CBCT examinations. The presence of AP has a significant association with patients' age, and tooth type and condition. CBCT databases are useful for cross-sectional studies about AP prevalence in a population. PMID:22752318

  16. Pseudo super-resolution for improved calcification characterization for cone beam breast CT (CBBCT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiangkun; Ning, Ruola; Cai, Weixing

    2010-04-01

    Cone Beam Breast CT imaging (CBBCT) is a promising tool for diagnosis of breast tumors and calcifications. However, as the sizes of calcifications in early stages are very small, it is not easy to distinguish them from background tissues because of the relatively high noise level. Therefore, it is necessary to enhance the visualization of calcifications for accurate detection. In this work, the Papoulis-Gerchberg (PG) method was introduced and modified to improve calcification characterization. PG method is an iterative algorithm of signal extrapolation and has been demonstrated to be very effective in image restoration like super-resolution (SR) and inpainting. The projection images were zoomed by bicubic interpolation method, then the modified PG method were applied to improve the image quality. The reconstruction from processed projection images showed that this approach can effectively improve the image quality by improving the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) with a limited increase in noise level. As a result, the detectability of calcifications was improved in CBBCT images.

  17. A motion-compensated cone-beam CT using electrical impedance tomography imaging.

    PubMed

    Pengpan, T; Smith, N D; Qiu, W; Yao, A; Mitchell, C N; Soleimani, M

    2011-01-01

    Cone-beam CT (CBCT) is an imaging technique used in conjunction with radiation therapy. For example CBCT is used to verify the position of lung cancer tumours just prior to radiation treatment. The accuracy of the radiation treatment of thoracic and upper abdominal structures is heavily affected by respiratory movement. Such movement typically blurs the CBCT reconstruction and ideally should be removed. Hence motion-compensated CBCT has recently been researched for correcting image artefacts due to breathing motion. This paper presents a new dual-modality approach where CBCT is aided by using electrical impedance tomography (EIT) for motion compensation. EIT can generate images of contrasts in electrical properties. The main advantage of using EIT is its high temporal resolution. In this paper motion information is extracted from EIT images and incorporated directly in the CBCT reconstruction. In this study synthetic moving data are generated using simulated and experimental phantoms. The paper demonstrates that image blur, created as a result of motion, can be reduced through motion compensation with EIT.

  18. 4D cone-beam CT reconstruction using multi-organ meshes for sliding motion modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Zichun; Gu, Xuejun; Mao, Weihua; Wang, Jing

    2016-02-01

    A simultaneous motion estimation and image reconstruction (SMEIR) strategy was proposed for 4D cone-beam CT (4D-CBCT) reconstruction and showed excellent results in both phantom and lung cancer patient studies. In the original SMEIR algorithm, the deformation vector field (DVF) was defined on voxel grid and estimated by enforcing a global smoothness regularization term on the motion fields. The objective of this work is to improve the computation efficiency and motion estimation accuracy of SMEIR for 4D-CBCT through developing a multi-organ meshing model. Feature-based adaptive meshes were generated to reduce the number of unknowns in the DVF estimation and accurately capture the organ shapes and motion. Additionally, the discontinuity in the motion fields between different organs during respiration was explicitly considered in the multi-organ mesh model. This will help with the accurate visualization and motion estimation of the tumor on the organ boundaries in 4D-CBCT. To further improve the computational efficiency, a GPU-based parallel implementation was designed. The performance of the proposed algorithm was evaluated on a synthetic sliding motion phantom, a 4D NCAT phantom, and four lung cancer patients. The proposed multi-organ mesh based strategy outperformed the conventional Feldkamp-Davis-Kress, iterative total variation minimization, original SMEIR and single meshing method based on both qualitative and quantitative evaluations.

  19. Diagnostic value of cone-beam CT in histologically confirmed otosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Liktor, Balázs; Révész, Péter; Csomor, Péter; Gerlinger, Imre; Sziklai, István; Karosi, Tamás

    2014-08-01

    This retrospective case review was performed with the aim to asses the value of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in the preoperative diagnosis of otosclerosis. A total of 32 patients with histologically confirmed stapedial otosclerosis, who underwent unilateral stapedectomies were analyzed. Preoperative temporal bone CBCT scans were performed in all cases. CBCT imaging was characterized by a slice thickness of 0.3 mm and multiplanar image reconstruction. Histopathologic examination of the removed stapes footplates was performed in all cases. Findings of CBCT were categorized according to Marshall's grading system (from grade 0 to grade 3). Histopathologic results were correlated to multiplanar reconstructed CBCT scans, respectively. Histologically active foci of otosclerosis (n = 21) were identified by CBCT in all cases with a sensitivity of 100 %. However, CBCT was unable to detect histologically inactive otosclerosis (n = 11, sensitivity = 0 %). According to CBCT scans, no retrofenestral lesions were found and all positive cases were recruited into the grade 1 group indicating solely fenestral lesions at the anterior pole of stapes footplates. In conclusion, CBCT is a reliable imaging method with considerably lower radiation dose than high-resolution CT (HRCT) in the preoperative diagnosis of otosclerosis. These results indicate that CBCT has high sensitivity and specificity in the detection of hypodense lesions due to histologically active otosclerosis.

  20. Extra projection data identification method for fast-continuous-rotation industrial cone-beam CT.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Duan, Shengling; Duan, Jinghui; Wang, Xiaolong; Li, Xingdong; Meng, Fanyong; Zhang, Jianhai

    2013-01-01

    Fast-continuous-rotation is an effective measure to improve the scanning speed and decrease the radiation dose for cone-beam CT. However, because of acceleration and deceleration of the motor, as well as the response lag of the scanning control terminals to the host PC, uneven-distributed and redundant projections are inevitably created, which seriously decrease the quality of the reconstruction images. In this paper, we first analyzed the aspects of the theoretical sequence chart of the fast-continuous-rotation mode. Then, an optimized sequence chart was proposed by extending the rotation angle span to ensure the effective 2π-span projections were situated in the stable rotation stage. In order to match the rotation angle with the projection image accurately, structure similarity (SSIM) index was used as a control parameter for extraction of the effective projection sequence which was exactly the complete projection data for image reconstruction. The experimental results showed that SSIM based method had a high accuracy of projection view locating and was easy to realize.

  1. Breast density quantification with cone-beam CT: a post-mortem study.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Travis; Ding, Huanjun; Le, Huy Q; Ducote, Justin L; Molloi, Sabee

    2013-12-07

    Forty post-mortem breasts were imaged with a flat-panel based cone-beam x-ray CT system at 50 kVp. The feasibility of breast density quantification has been investigated using standard histogram thresholding and an automatic segmentation method based on the fuzzy c-means algorithm (FCM). The breasts were chemically decomposed into water, lipid, and protein immediately after image acquisition was completed. The per cent fibroglandular volume (%FGV) from chemical analysis was used as the gold standard for breast density comparison. Both image-based segmentation techniques showed good precision in breast density quantification with high linear coefficients between the right and left breast of each pair. When comparing with the gold standard using %FGV from chemical analysis, Pearson's r-values were estimated to be 0.983 and 0.968 for the FCM clustering and the histogram thresholding techniques, respectively. The standard error of the estimate was also reduced from 3.92% to 2.45% by applying the automatic clustering technique. The results of the postmortem study suggested that breast tissue can be characterized in terms of water, lipid and protein contents with high accuracy by using chemical analysis, which offers a gold standard for breast density studies comparing different techniques. In the investigated image segmentation techniques, the FCM algorithm had high precision and accuracy in breast density quantification. In comparison to conventional histogram thresholding, it was more efficient and reduced inter-observer variation.

  2. Task-Based Regularization Design for Detection of Intracranial Hemorrhage in Cone-Beam CT

    PubMed Central

    Dang, H.; Stayman, J. W.; Xu, J.; Sisniega, A.; Zbijewski, W.; Wang, X.; Foos, D. H.; Aygun, N.; Koliatsos, V. E.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2016-01-01

    Prompt and reliable detection of acute intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is critical to treatment of a number of neurological disorders. Cone-beam CT (CBCT) systems are potentially suitable for detecting ICH (contrast 40-80 HU, size down to 1 mm) at the point of care but face major challenges in image quality requirements. Statistical reconstruction demonstrates improved noise-resolution tradeoffs in CBCT head imaging, but its capability in improving image quality with respect to the task of ICH detection remains to be fully investigated. Moreover, statistical reconstruction typically exhibits nonuniform spatial resolution and noise characteristics, leading to spatially varying detectability of ICH for a conventional penalty. In this work, we propose a spatially varying penalty design that maximizes detectability of ICH at each location throughout the image. We leverage theoretical analysis of spatial resolution and noise for a penalized weighted least-squares (PWLS) estimator, and employ a task-based imaging performance descriptor in terms of detectability index using a nonprewhitening observer model. Performance prediction was validated using a 3D anthropomorphic head phantom. The proposed penalty achieved superior detectability throughout the head and improved detectability in regions adjacent to the skull base by ~10% compared to a conventional uniform penalty. PWLS reconstruction with the proposed penalty demonstrated excellent visualization of simulated ICH in different regions of the head and provides further support for development of dedicated CBCT head scanning at the point-of-care in the neuro ICU and OR.

  3. 4D cone-beam CT reconstruction using multi-organ meshes for sliding motion modeling

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Zichun; Gu, Xuejun; Mao, Weihua; Wang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    A simultaneous motion estimation and image reconstruction (SMEIR) strategy was proposed for 4D cone-beam CT (4D-CBCT) reconstruction and showed excellent results in both phantom and lung cancer patient studies. In the original SMEIR algorithm, the deformation vector field (DVF) was defined on voxel grid and estimated by enforcing a global smoothness regularization term on the motion fields. The objective of this work is to improve the computation efficiency and motion estimation accuracy of SMEIR for 4D-CBCT through developing a multi-organ meshing model. Feature-based adaptive meshes were generated to reduce the number of unknowns in the DVF estimation and accurately capture the organ shapes and motion. Additionally, the discontinuity in the motion fields between different organs during respiration was explicitly considered in the multi-organ mesh model. This will help with the accurate visualization and motion estimation of the tumor on the organ boundaries in 4D-CBCT. To further improve the computational efficiency, a GPU-based parallel implementation was designed. The performance of the proposed algorithm was evaluated on a synthetic sliding motion phantom, a 4D NCAT phantom, and four lung cancer patients. The proposed multi-organ mesh based strategy outperformed the conventional Feldkamp–Davis–Kress, iterative total variation minimization, original SMEIR and single meshing method based on both qualitative and quantitative evaluations. PMID:26758496

  4. Implementation of the FDK algorithm for cone-beam CT on the cell broadband engine architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherl, Holger; Koerner, Mario; Hofmann, Hannes; Eckert, Wieland; Kowarschik, Markus; Hornegger, Joachim

    2007-03-01

    In most of today's commercially available cone-beam CT scanners, the well known FDK method is used for solving the 3D reconstruction task. The computational complexity of this algorithm prohibits its use for many medical applications without hardware acceleration. The brand-new Cell Broadband Engine Architecture (CBEA) with its high level of parallelism is a cost-efficient processor for performing the FDK reconstruction according to the medical requirements. The programming scheme, however, is quite different to any standard personal computer hardware. In this paper, we present an innovative implementation of the most time-consuming parts of the FDK algorithm: filtering and back-projection. We also explain the required transformations to parallelize the algorithm for the CBEA. Our software framework allows to compute the filtering and back-projection in parallel, making it possible to do an on-the-fly-reconstruction. The achieved results demonstrate that a complete FDK reconstruction is computed with the CBEA in less than seven seconds for a standard clinical scenario. Given the fact that scan times are usually much higher, we conclude that reconstruction is finished right after the end of data acquisition. This enables us to present the reconstructed volume to the physician in real-time, immediately after the last projection image has been acquired by the scanning device.

  5. Effect of anatomical backgrounds on detectability in volumetric cone beam CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Minah; Park, Subok; Baek, Jongduk

    2016-03-01

    As anatomical noise is often a dominating factor affecting signal detection in medical imaging, we investigate the effects of anatomical backgrounds on signal detection in volumetric cone beam CT images. Signal detection performances are compared between transverse and longitudinal planes with either uniform or anatomical backgrounds. Sphere objects with diameters of 1mm, 5mm, 8mm, and 11mm are used as the signals. Three-dimensional (3D) anatomical backgrounds are generated using an anatomical noise power spectrum, 1/fβ, with β=3, equivalent to mammographic background [1]. The mean voxel value of the 3D anatomical backgrounds is used as an attenuation coefficient of the uniform background. Noisy projection data are acquired by the forward projection of the uniform and anatomical 3D backgrounds with/without sphere lesions and by the addition of quantum noise. Then, images are reconstructed by an FDK algorithm [2]. For each signal size, signal detection performances in transverse and longitudinal planes are measured by calculating the task SNR of a channelized Hotelling observer with Laguerre-Gauss channels. In the uniform background case, transverse planes yield higher task SNR values for all sphere diameters but 1mm. In the anatomical background case, longitudinal planes yield higher task SNR values for all signal diameters. The results indicate that it is beneficial to use longitudinal planes to detect spherical signals in anatomical backgrounds.

  6. Breast density quantification with cone-beam CT: A post-mortem study

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Travis; Ding, Huanjun; Le, Huy Q.; Ducote, Justin L.; Molloi, Sabee

    2014-01-01

    Forty post-mortem breasts were imaged with a flat-panel based cone-beam x-ray CT system at 50 kVp. The feasibility of breast density quantification has been investigated using standard histogram thresholding and an automatic segmentation method based on the fuzzy c-means algorithm (FCM). The breasts were chemically decomposed into water, lipid, and protein immediately after image acquisition was completed. The percent fibroglandular volume (%FGV) from chemical analysis was used as the gold standard for breast density comparison. Both image-based segmentation techniques showed good precision in breast density quantification with high linear coefficients between the right and left breast of each pair. When comparing with the gold standard using %FGV from chemical analysis, Pearson’s r-values were estimated to be 0.983 and 0.968 for the FCM clustering and the histogram thresholding techniques, respectively. The standard error of the estimate (SEE) was also reduced from 3.92% to 2.45% by applying the automatic clustering technique. The results of the postmortem study suggested that breast tissue can be characterized in terms of water, lipid and protein contents with high accuracy by using chemical analysis, which offers a gold standard for breast density studies comparing different techniques. In the investigated image segmentation techniques, the FCM algorithm had high precision and accuracy in breast density quantification. In comparison to conventional histogram thresholding, it was more efficient and reduced inter-observer variation. PMID:24254317

  7. Measurement of inter and intra fraction organ motion in radiotherapy using cone beam CT projection images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchant, T. E.; Amer, A. M.; Moore, C. J.

    2008-02-01

    A method is presented for extraction of intra and inter fraction motion of seeds/markers within the patient from cone beam CT (CBCT) projection images. The position of the marker is determined on each projection image and fitted to a function describing the projection of a fixed point onto the imaging panel at different gantry angles. The fitted parameters provide the mean marker position with respect to the isocentre. Differences between the theoretical function and the actual projected marker positions are used to estimate the range of intra fraction motion and the principal motion axis in the transverse plane. The method was validated using CBCT projection images of a static marker at known locations and of a marker moving with known amplitude. The mean difference between actual and measured motion range was less than 1 mm in all directions, although errors of up to 5 mm were observed when large amplitude motion was present in an orthogonal direction. In these cases it was possible to calculate the range of motion magnitudes consistent with the observed marker trajectory. The method was shown to be feasible using clinical CBCT projections of a pancreas cancer patient.

  8. Descriptive study of the bifid mandibular canals and retromolar foramina: cone beam CT vs panoramic radiography

    PubMed Central

    Muinelo-Lorenzo, J; Suárez-Quintanilla, J A; Fernández-Alonso, A; Marsillas-Rascado, S

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the presence and morphologic characteristics of bifid mandibular canals (BMCs) and retromolar foramens (RFs) using cone beam CT (CBCT) and to determine their visualization on panoramic radiographs (PANs). Methods: A sample of 225 CBCT examinations was analysed for the presence of BMCs, as well as length, height, diameter and angle. The diameter of the RF was also determined. Subsequently, corresponding PANs were analysed to determine whether the BMCs and RFs were visible or not. Results: The BMCs were observed on CBCT in 83 out of the 225 patients (36.8%). With respect to gender, statistically significant differences were found in the number of BMCs. There were also significant differences in anatomical characteristics of the types of BMCs. Only 37.8% of the BMCs and 32.5% of the RFs identified on CBCT were also visible on PANs. The diameter had a significant effect on the capability of PANs to visualize BMCs and RFs (B = 0.791, p = 0.035; B = 1.900, p = 0.017, respectively). Conclusions: PANs are unable to sufficiently identify BMCs and RFs. The diameter of these anatomical landmarks represents a relevant factor for visualization on PANs. Pre-operative images using only PANs may lead to underestimation of the presence of BMCs and to surgical complications and anaesthetic failures, which could have been avoided. For true determination of BMCs, a CBCT device should be considered better than a PAN. PMID:24785820

  9. How I Do It: Cone-Beam CT during Transarterial Chemoembolization for Liver Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tacher, Vania; Radaelli, Alessandro; Lin, MingDe

    2015-01-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is an imaging technique that provides computed tomographic (CT) images from a rotational scan acquired with a C-arm equipped with a flat panel detector. Utilizing CBCT images during interventional procedures bridges the gap between the world of diagnostic imaging (typically three-dimensional imaging but performed separately from the procedure) and that of interventional radiology (typically two-dimensional imaging). CBCT is capable of providing more information than standard two-dimensional angiography in localizing and/or visualizing liver tumors (“seeing” the tumor) and targeting tumors though precise microcatheter placement in close proximity to the tumors (“reaching” the tumor). It can also be useful in evaluating treatment success at the time of procedure (“assessing” treatment success). CBCT technology is rapidly evolving along with the development of various contrast material injection protocols and multiphasic CBCT techniques. The purpose of this article is to provide a review of the principles of CBCT imaging, including purpose and clinical evidence of the different techniques, and to introduce a decision-making algorithm as a guide for the routine utilization of CBCT during transarterial chemoembolization of liver cancer. © RSNA, 2015 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:25625741

  10. Performance of cone-beam CT using a flat-panel imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, Masahiro; Tsunoo, Takanori; Satoh, Kazumasa; Matsusita, Satoshi; Kusakabe, Masahiro; Fukuda, Yasushi

    2001-06-01

    An active matrix flat-panel imager (FPI) is a good candidate for the 2-dimensional detector of cone beam CT (CBCT), because it has a wider dynamic range and less geometrical distortion than video-fluoroscopic system so far employed. However the performance of FPI-based CBCT has not been sufficiently examined yet. The aim of this work is to examine the performance of CBCT using a FPI with several phantoms. An X-ray tube, a phantom and a FPI were aligned on an experimental table. The FPI was PaxScan2520 provided by Varian Medical Systems. It has an active area of approximately 180x240mm and the pixel size is 127 micrometer. CsI is used as a scintillator. The phantom was rotated with 1-degree steps while 360 projection frames (1408x1888 active pixels each frame) were collected. 2x2 pixels were combined into a single pixel to reduce noise. 512x512x512 voxels were reconstructed with the Feldkamp method. The comparison was made between reconstructed images with or without scatter rejecting grid. The uniformity and linearity of reconstruction value was drastically improved with the grid. Scatter rejection using a thin-vane collimator was also examined, and it showed more effective than the grid.

  11. Iterative reconstruction optimisations for high angle cone-beam micro-CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recur, B.; Fauconneau, M.; Kingston, A.; Myers, G.; Sheppard, A.

    2014-09-01

    We address several acquisition questions that have arisen for the high cone-angle helical-scanning micro-CT facility developed at the Australian National University. These challenges are generally known in medical and industrial cone-beam scanners but can be neglected in these systems. For our large datasets, with more than 20483 voxels, minimising the number of operations (or iterations) is crucial. Large cone-angles enable high signal-to-noise ratio imaging and a large helical pitch to be used. This introduces two challenges: (i) non-uniform resolution throughout the reconstruction, (ii) over-scan beyond the region-of-interest significantly increases re- quired reconstructed volume size. Challenge (i) can be addressed by using a double-helix or lower pitch helix but both solutions slow down iterations. Challenge (ii) can also be improved by using a lower pitch helix but results in more projections slowing down iterations. This may be overcome using less projections per revolution but leads to more iterations required. Here we assume a given total time for acquisition and a given reconstruction technique (SART) and seek to identify the optimal trajectory and number of projections per revolution in order to produce the best tomogram, minimise reconstruction time required, and minimise memory requirements.

  12. Dose measurements for dental cone-beam CT: a comparison with MSCT and panoramic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deman, P.; Atwal, P.; Duzenli, C.; Thakur, Y.; Ford, N. L.

    2014-06-01

    To date there is a lack of published information on appropriate methods to determine patient doses from dental cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) equipment. The goal of this study is to apply and extend the methods recommended in the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Report 111 for CBCT equipment to characterize dose and effective dose for a range of dental imaging equipment. A protocol derived from the one proposed by Dixon et al (2010 Technical Report 111, American Association of Physicist in Medicine, MD, USA), was applied to dose measurements of multi-slice CT, dental CBCT (small and large fields of view (FOV)) and a dental panoramic system. The computed tomography dose index protocol was also performed on the MSCT to compare both methods. The dose distributions in a cylindrical polymethyl methacrylate phantom were characterized using a thimble ionization chamber and Gafchromic™ film (beam profiles). Gafchromic™ films were used to measure the dose distribution in an anthropomorphic phantom. A method was proposed to extend dose estimates to planes superior and inferior to the central plane. The dose normalized to 100 mAs measured in the center of the phantom for the large FOV dental CBCT (11.4 mGy/100 mAs) is two times lower than that of MSCT (20.7 mGy/100 mAs) for the same FOV, but approximately 15 times higher than for a panoramic system (0.6 mGy/100 mAs). The effective dose per scan (in clinical conditions) found for the dental CBCT are 167.60 ± 3.62, 61.30 ± 3.88 and 92.86 ± 7.76 mSv for the Kodak 9000 (fixed scan length of 3.7 cm), and the iCAT Next Generation for 6 cm and 13 cm scan lengths respectively. The method to extend the dose estimates from the central slice to superior and inferior slices indicates a good agreement between theory and measurement. The Gafchromic™ films provided useful beam profile data and 2D distributions of dose in phantom.

  13. Optical CT scanner for in-air readout of gels for external radiation beam 3D dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Ramm, Daniel; Rutten, Thomas P; Shepherd, Justin; Bezak, Eva

    2012-06-21

    Optical CT scanners for a 3D readout of externally irradiated radiosensitive hydrogels currently require the use of a refractive index (RI) matching liquid bath to obtain suitable optical ray paths through the gel sample to the detector. The requirement for a RI matching liquid bath has been negated by the design of a plastic cylindrical gel container that provides parallel beam geometry through the gel sample for the majority of the projection. The design method can be used for various hydrogels. Preliminary test results for the prototype laser beam scanner with ferrous xylenol-orange gel show geometric distortion of 0.2 mm maximum, spatial resolution limited to beam spot size of about 0.4 mm and 0.8% noise (1 SD) for a uniform irradiation. Reconstruction of a star pattern irradiated through the cylinder walls demonstrates the suitability for external beam applications. The extremely simple and cost-effective construction of this optical CT scanner, together with the simplicity of scanning gel samples without RI matching fluid increases the feasibility of using 3D gel dosimetry for clinical external beam dose verifications.

  14. Three-dimensional anisotropic adaptive filtering of projection data for noise reduction in cone beam CT

    SciTech Connect

    Maier, Andreas; Wigstroem, Lars; Hofmann, Hannes G.; Hornegger, Joachim; Zhu Lei; Strobel, Norbert; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2011-11-15

    speed-up of the processing (from 1336 to 150 s). Conclusions: Adaptive anisotropic filtering has the potential to substantially improve image quality and/or reduce the radiation dose required for obtaining 3D image data using cone beam CT.

  15. Deformable image registration for cone-beam CT guided transoral robotic base-of-tongue surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reaungamornrat, S.; Liu, W. P.; Wang, A. S.; Otake, Y.; Nithiananthan, S.; Uneri, A.; Schafer, S.; Tryggestad, E.; Richmon, J.; Sorger, J. M.; Siewerdsen, J. H.; Taylor, R. H.

    2013-07-01

    Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) offers a minimally invasive approach to resection of base-of-tongue tumors. However, precise localization of the surgical target and adjacent critical structures can be challenged by the highly deformed intraoperative setup. We propose a deformable registration method using intraoperative cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to accurately align preoperative CT or MR images with the intraoperative scene. The registration method combines a Gaussian mixture (GM) model followed by a variation of the Demons algorithm. First, following segmentation of the volume of interest (i.e. volume of the tongue extending to the hyoid), a GM model is applied to surface point clouds for rigid initialization (GM rigid) followed by nonrigid deformation (GM nonrigid). Second, the registration is refined using the Demons algorithm applied to distance map transforms of the (GM-registered) preoperative image and intraoperative CBCT. Performance was evaluated in repeat cadaver studies (25 image pairs) in terms of target registration error (TRE), entropy correlation coefficient (ECC) and normalized pointwise mutual information (NPMI). Retraction of the tongue in the TORS operative setup induced gross deformation >30 mm. The mean TRE following the GM rigid, GM nonrigid and Demons steps was 4.6, 2.1 and 1.7 mm, respectively. The respective ECC was 0.57, 0.70 and 0.73, and NPMI was 0.46, 0.57 and 0.60. Registration accuracy was best across the superior aspect of the tongue and in proximity to the hyoid (by virtue of GM registration of surface points on these structures). The Demons step refined registration primarily in deeper portions of the tongue further from the surface and hyoid bone. Since the method does not use image intensities directly, it is suitable to multi-modality registration of preoperative CT or MR with intraoperative CBCT. Extending the 3D image registration to the fusion of image and planning data in stereo-endoscopic video is anticipated to

  16. Effect of beam hardening on transmural myocardial perfusion quantification in myocardial CT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahmi, Rachid; Eck, Brendan L.; Levi, Jacob; Fares, Anas; Wu, Hao; Vembar, Mani; Dhanantwari, Amar; Bezerra, Hiram G.; Wilson, David L.

    2016-03-01

    The detection of subendocardial ischemia exhibiting an abnormal transmural perfusion gradient (TPG) may help identify ischemic conditions due to micro-vascular dysfunction. We evaluated the effect of beam hardening (BH) artifacts on TPG quantification using myocardial CT perfusion (CTP). We used a prototype spectral detector CT scanner (Philips Healthcare) to acquire dynamic myocardial CTP scans in a porcine ischemia model with partial occlusion of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery guided by pressure wire-derived fractional flow reserve (FFR) measurements. Conventional 120 kVp and 70 keV projection-based mono-energetic images were reconstructed from the same projection data and used to compute myocardial blood flow (MBF) using the Johnson-Wilson model. Under moderate LAD occlusion (FFR~0.7), we used three 5 mm short axis slices and divided the myocardium into three LAD segments and three remote segments. For each slice and each segment, we characterized TPG as the mean "endo-to-epi" transmural flow ratio (TFR). BH-induced hypoenhancement on the ischemic anterior wall at 120 kVp resulted in significantly lower mean TFR value as compared to the 70 keV TFR value (0.29+/-0.01 vs. 0.55+/-0.01 p<1e-05). No significant difference was measured between 120 kVp and 70 keV mean TFR values on segments moderately affected or unaffected by BH. In the entire ischemic LAD territory, 120 kVp mean endocardial flow was significantly reduced as compared to mean epicardial flow (15.80+/-10.98 vs. 40.85+/-23.44 ml/min/100g; p<1e-04). At 70 keV, BH was effectively minimized resulting in mean endocardial MBF of 40.85+/-15.3407 ml/min/100g vs. 74.09+/-5.07 ml/min/100g (p=0.0054) in the epicardium. We also found that BH artifact in the conventional 120 kVp images resulted in falsely reduced MBF measurements even under non-ischemic conditions.

  17. Three-dimensional anisotropic adaptive filtering of projection data for noise reduction in cone beam CT

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Andreas; Wigström, Lars; Hofmann, Hannes G.; Hornegger, Joachim; Zhu, Lei; Strobel, Norbert; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    .9-fold speed-up of the processing (from 1336 to 150 s). Conclusions: Adaptive anisotropic filtering has the potential to substantially improve image quality and∕or reduce the radiation dose required for obtaining 3D image data using cone beam CT. PMID:22047354

  18. Deformable image registration for cone-beam CT guided transoral robotic base-of-tongue surgery.

    PubMed

    Reaungamornrat, S; Liu, W P; Wang, A S; Otake, Y; Nithiananthan, S; Uneri, A; Schafer, S; Tryggestad, E; Richmon, J; Sorger, J M; Siewerdsen, J H; Taylor, R H

    2013-07-21

    Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) offers a minimally invasive approach to resection of base-of-tongue tumors. However, precise localization of the surgical target and adjacent critical structures can be challenged by the highly deformed intraoperative setup. We propose a deformable registration method using intraoperative cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to accurately align preoperative CT or MR images with the intraoperative scene. The registration method combines a Gaussian mixture (GM) model followed by a variation of the Demons algorithm. First, following segmentation of the volume of interest (i.e. volume of the tongue extending to the hyoid), a GM model is applied to surface point clouds for rigid initialization (GM rigid) followed by nonrigid deformation (GM nonrigid). Second, the registration is refined using the Demons algorithm applied to distance map transforms of the (GM-registered) preoperative image and intraoperative CBCT. Performance was evaluated in repeat cadaver studies (25 image pairs) in terms of target registration error (TRE), entropy correlation coefficient (ECC) and normalized pointwise mutual information (NPMI). Retraction of the tongue in the TORS operative setup induced gross deformation >30 mm. The mean TRE following the GM rigid, GM nonrigid and Demons steps was 4.6, 2.1 and 1.7 mm, respectively. The respective ECC was 0.57, 0.70 and 0.73, and NPMI was 0.46, 0.57 and 0.60. Registration accuracy was best across the superior aspect of the tongue and in proximity to the hyoid (by virtue of GM registration of surface points on these structures). The Demons step refined registration primarily in deeper portions of the tongue further from the surface and hyoid bone. Since the method does not use image intensities directly, it is suitable to multi-modality registration of preoperative CT or MR with intraoperative CBCT. Extending the 3D image registration to the fusion of image and planning data in stereo-endoscopic video is anticipated

  19. Calibration of megavoltage cone-beam CT for radiotherapy dose calculations: Correction of cupping artifacts and conversion of CT numbers to electron density

    SciTech Connect

    Petit, Steven F.; Elmpt, Wouter J. C. van; Nijsten, Sebastiaan M. J. J. G.; Lambin, Philippe; Dekker, Andre L. A. J.

    2008-03-15

    Megavoltage cone-beam CT (MV CBCT) is used for three-dimensional imaging of the patient anatomy on the treatment table prior to or just after radiotherapy treatment. To use MV CBCT images for radiotherapy dose calculation purposes, reliable electron density (ED) distributions are needed. Patient scatter, beam hardening and softening effects result in cupping artifacts in MV CBCT images and distort the CT number to ED conversion. A method based on transmission images is presented to correct for these effects without using prior knowledge of the object's geometry. The scatter distribution originating from the patient is calculated with pencil beam scatter kernels that are fitted based on transmission measurements. The radiological thickness is extracted from the scatter subtracted transmission images and is then converted to the primary transmission used in the cone-beam reconstruction. These corrections are performed in an iterative manner, without using prior knowledge regarding the geometry and composition of the object. The method was tested using various homogeneous and inhomogeneous phantoms with varying shapes and compositions, including a phantom with different electron density inserts, phantoms with large density variations, and an anthropomorphic head phantom. For all phantoms, the cupping artifact was substantially removed from the images and a linear relation between the CT number and electron density was found. After correction the deviations in reconstructed ED from the true values were reduced from up to 0.30 ED units to 0.03 for the majority of the phantoms; the residual difference is equal to the amount of noise in the images. The ED distributions were evaluated in terms of absolute dose calculation accuracy for homogeneous cylinders of different size; errors decreased from 7% to below 1% in the center of the objects for the uncorrected and corrected images, respectively, and maximum differences were reduced from 17% to 2%, respectively. The

  20. A prototype fan-beam optical CT scanner for 3D dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Warren G.; Rudko, D. A.; Braam, Nicolas A.; Jirasek, Andrew; Wells, Derek M.

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: The objective of this work is to introduce a prototype fan-beam optical computed tomography scanner for three-dimensional (3D) radiation dosimetry. Methods: Two techniques of fan-beam creation were evaluated: a helium-neon laser (HeNe, {lambda} = 543 nm) with line-generating lens, and a laser diode module (LDM, {lambda} = 635 nm) with line-creating head module. Two physical collimator designs were assessed: a single-slot collimator and a multihole collimator. Optimal collimator depth was determined by observing the signal of a single photodiode with varying collimator depths. A method of extending the dynamic range of the system is presented. Two sample types were used for evaluations: nondosimetric absorbent solutions and irradiated polymer gel dosimeters, each housed in 1 liter cylindrical plastic flasks. Imaging protocol investigations were performed to address ring artefacts and image noise. Two image artefact removal techniques were performed in sinogram space. Collimator efficacy was evaluated by imaging highly opaque samples of scatter-based and absorption-based solutions. A noise-based flask registration technique was developed. Two protocols for gel manufacture were examined. Results: The LDM proved advantageous over the HeNe laser due to its reduced noise. Also, the LDM uses a wavelength more suitable for the PRESAGE{sup TM} dosimeter. Collimator depth of 1.5 cm was found to be an optimal balance between scatter rejection, signal strength, and manufacture ease. The multihole collimator is capable of maintaining accurate scatter-rejection to high levels of opacity with scatter-based solutions (T < 0.015%). Imaging protocol investigations support the need for preirradiation and postirradiation scanning to reduce reflection-based ring artefacts and to accommodate flask imperfections and gel inhomogeneities. Artefact removal techniques in sinogram space eliminate streaking artefacts and reduce ring artefacts of up to {approx}40% in magnitude. The

  1. A GPU tool for efficient, accurate, and realistic simulation of cone beam CT projections

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Xun; Yan, Hao; Cerviño, Laura; Folkerts, Michael; Jiang, Steve B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Simulation of x-ray projection images plays an important role in cone beam CT (CBCT) related research projects, such as the design of reconstruction algorithms or scanners. A projection image contains primary signal, scatter signal, and noise. It is computationally demanding to perform accurate and realistic computations for all of these components. In this work, the authors develop a package on graphics processing unit (GPU), called gDRR, for the accurate and efficient computations of x-ray projection images in CBCT under clinically realistic conditions. Methods: The primary signal is computed by a trilinear ray-tracing algorithm. A Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is then performed, yielding the primary signal and the scatter signal, both with noise. A denoising process specifically designed for Poisson noise removal is applied to obtain a smooth scatter signal. The noise component is then obtained by combining the difference between the MC primary and the ray-tracing primary signals, and the difference between the MC simulated scatter and the denoised scatter signals. Finally, a calibration step converts the calculated noise signal into a realistic one by scaling its amplitude according to a specified mAs level. The computations of gDRR include a number of realistic features, e.g., a bowtie filter, a polyenergetic spectrum, and detector response. The implementation is fine-tuned for a GPU platform to yield high computational efficiency. Results: For a typical CBCT projection with a polyenergetic spectrum, the calculation time for the primary signal using the ray-tracing algorithms is 1.2–2.3 s, while the MC simulations take 28.1–95.3 s, depending on the voxel size. Computation time for all other steps is negligible. The ray-tracing primary signal matches well with the primary part of the MC simulation result. The MC simulated scatter signal using gDRR is in agreement with EGSnrc results with a relative difference of 3.8%. A noise calibration process is

  2. Task-based modeling and optimization of a cone-beam CT scanner for musculoskeletal imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Prakash, P.; Zbijewski, W.; Gang, G. J.; Ding, Y.; Stayman, J. W.; Yorkston, J.; Carrino, J. A.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: This work applies a cascaded systems model for cone-beam CT imaging performance to the design and optimization of a system for musculoskeletal extremity imaging. The model provides a quantitative guide to the selection of system geometry, source and detector components, acquisition techniques, and reconstruction parameters. Methods: The model is based on cascaded systems analysis of the 3D noise-power spectrum (NPS) and noise-equivalent quanta (NEQ) combined with factors of system geometry (magnification, focal spot size, and scatter-to-primary ratio) and anatomical background clutter. The model was extended to task-based analysis of detectability index (d') for tasks ranging in contrast and frequency content, and d' was computed as a function of system magnification, detector pixel size, focal spot size, kVp, dose, electronic noise, voxel size, and reconstruction filter to examine trade-offs and optima among such factors in multivariate analysis. The model was tested quantitatively versus the measured NPS and qualitatively in cadaver images as a function of kVp, dose, pixel size, and reconstruction filter under conditions corresponding to the proposed scanner. Results: The analysis quantified trade-offs among factors of spatial resolution, noise, and dose. System magnification (M) was a critical design parameter with strong effect on spatial resolution, dose, and x-ray scatter, and a fairly robust optimum was identified at M {approx} 1.3 for the imaging tasks considered. The results suggested kVp selection in the range of {approx}65-90 kVp, the lower end (65 kVp) maximizing subject contrast and the upper end maximizing NEQ (90 kVp). The analysis quantified fairly intuitive results--e.g., {approx}0.1-0.2 mm pixel size (and a sharp reconstruction filter) optimal for high-frequency tasks (bone detail) compared to {approx}0.4 mm pixel size (and a smooth reconstruction filter) for low-frequency (soft-tissue) tasks. This result suggests a specific protocol for

  3. TU-EF-207-05: Dedicated Cone-beam Breast CT

    SciTech Connect

    Vedantham, S.

    2015-06-15

    mode due to lower photon fluence per projection. This may require fast-frame acquisition and symmetric or asymmetric pixel binning in some systems. Recent studies investigated the performance of increased conversion layer thickness for contrast-enhanced imaging of the breast in dual-energy acquisition mode. In other direct conversion detectors operating in the avalanche mode, sensitivities close to the single photon response are also explored for mammography and breast tomosynthesis. The potential advantages and challenges of this approach are described. Dedicated breast CT brings x-ray imaging of the breast to true tomographic 3D imaging. It can eliminate the tissue superposition problem and does not require physical compression of the breast. Using cone beam geometry and a flat-panel detector, several hundred projections are acquired and reconstructed to near isotropic voxels. Multiplanar reconstruction facilitates viewing the breast volume in any desired orientation. Ongoing clinical studies, the current state-of-the art, and research to advance the technology are described. Learning Objectives: To understand the ongoing developments in x-ray imaging of the breast To understand the approaches and applications of spectral mammography To understand the potential advantages of distributed x-ray source arrays for digital breast tomosynthesis To understand the ongoing developments in detector technology for digital mammography and breast tomosynthesis To understand the current state-of-the-art for dedicated cone-beam breast CT and research to advance the technology. Research collaboration with Koning Corporation.

  4. Classification of impacted mandibular third molars on cone-beam CT images

    PubMed Central

    Maglione, Michele; Bazzocchi, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Background Neurological involvement is a serious complication associated to the surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars and the radiological investigation is the first mandatory step to assess the risk of a possible post-operative injury to the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN). The aim of this study was to introduce a new radiological classification that could be normally used in clinical practice to assess the relationship between an impacted third molar and mandibular canal on cone beam CT (CBCT) images. Material and Methods CBCT images of 80 patients (133 mandibular third molars) were independently studied by three members of the surgical team to draw a classification that could describe all the possible relationships between third molar and IAN on the cross-sectional images. Subsequently, the study population was subdivided according to this classification. The SPSS software, version 15.0 (SPSS® Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA) was used for the statistical analysis. Results Eight different classes were proposed (classes 0-7) and six of them (classes 1-6) were subdivided in two subtypes (subtypes A-B). The distribution of classes showed a prevalence of buccal or apical course of the mandibular canal followed by lingual position and inter-radicular one. No differences have resulted in terms of anatomic relationship between males and females apart from a higher risk of real contact without corticalization of the canal when the IAN had a lingual course for female group. Younger patients showed an increased rate of direct contact with a reduced calibre of the canal and/or without corticalization. Conclusions The use of this classification could be a valid support in clinical practice to obtain a common language among operators in order to define the possible relationships between an impacted third molar and the mandibular canal on CBCT images. Key words:CBCT, classification, inferior alveolar nerve, third molars. PMID:26155337

  5. Fast radioactive seed localization in intraoperative cone beam CT for low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yu-chi; Xiong, Jian-ping; Cohan, Gilad; Zaider, Marco; Mageras, Gig; Zelefsky, Michael

    2013-03-01

    A fast knowledge-based radioactive seed localization method for brachytherapy was developed to automatically localize radioactive seeds in an intraoperative volumetric cone beam CT (CBCT) so that corrections, if needed, can be made during prostate implant surgery. A transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) scan is acquired for intraoperative treatment planning. Planned seed positions are transferred to intraoperative CBCT following TRUS-to-CBCT registration using a reference CBCT scan of the TRUS probe as a template, in which the probe and its external fiducial markers are pre-segmented and their positions in TRUS are known. The transferred planned seeds and probe serve as an atlas to reduce the search space in CBCT. Candidate seed voxels are identified based on image intensity. Regions are grown from candidate voxels and overlay regions are merged. Region volume and intensity variance is checked against known seed volume and intensity profile. Regions meeting the above criteria are flagged as detected seeds; otherwise they are flagged as likely seeds and sorted by a score that is based on volume, intensity profile and distance to the closest planned seed. A graphical interface allows users to review and accept or reject likely seeds. Likely seeds with approximately twice the seed volume are automatically split. Five clinical cases are tested. Without any manual correction in seed detection, the method performed the localization in 5 seconds (excluding registration time) for a CBCT scan with 512×512×192 voxels. The average precision rate per case is 99% and the recall rate is 96% for a total of 416 seeds. All false negative seeds are found with 15 in likely seeds and 1 included in a detected seed. With the new method, updating of calculations of dose distribution during the procedure is possible and thus facilitating evaluation and improvement of treatment quality.

  6. Respiratory-triggered electron beam CT with integrated spirometry for evaluation of dynamic airflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNitt-Gray, Michael F.; Goldin, Jonathan G.; Welch, Mike; Szold, Oded; Levine, Michael; Aberle, Denise R.

    1996-04-01

    The purpose is to integrate time-attenuation curves from Electron-Beam CT with flow-time curves from spirometry in the analysis of airflow obstruction. A pressure-sensitive switch was connected between a spirometer mouthpiece and a modified EBCT scanner keyboard. The onset of expiratory flow causes pressure changes which simultaneously trigger EBCT and spirometric acquisitions. Subjects performed a forced expiratory maneuver, during which EBCT images of the lung were obtained every 500 ms using 130 kVp, 630 mA, 100 ms scan time and 3 mm collimation. From EBCT images, time-attenuation curves were generated for each of three zones (non-dependent, middle and dependent lung) using small ROIs (12 mm2) placed over approximately the same anatomic regions of lung. The resulting time- attenuation curves and flow-time curves were then superimposed. Two normal subjects, two subjects with emphysema and three lung transplant subjects have been studied to date. In normal subjects, lung attenuation increases steadily during the first 4 - 6 seconds of expiration, whereas in patients with emphysema, lung attenuation was relatively constant over the course of expiration. Lung transplant subjects show both of these characteristics--normal characteristics for the transplant lung and emphysematous characteristics for the native lung. Lung transplant subjects may also demonstrate some dynamics between transplant and diseased lung. Respiratory-triggered EBCT can be used to simultaneously acquire time-attenuation and flow-time data. This has been used to characterize dynamic airflow patterns in patients with respiratory disease.

  7. Automatic intrinsic cardiac and respiratory gating from cone-beam CT scans of the thorax region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Andreas; Sauppe, Sebastian; Lell, Michael; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2016-03-01

    We present a new algorithm that allows for raw data-based automated cardiac and respiratory intrinsic gating in cone-beam CT scans. It can be summarized in three steps: First, a median filter is applied to an initially reconstructed volume. The forward projection of this volume contains less motion information and is subtracted from the original projections. This results in new raw data that contain only moving and not static anatomy like bones, that would otherwise impede the cardiac or respiratory signal acquisition. All further steps are applied to these modified raw data. Second, the raw data are cropped to a region of interest (ROI). The ROI in the raw data is determined by the forward projection of a binary volume of interest (VOI) that includes the diaphragm for respiratory gating and most of the edge of the heart for cardiac gating. Third, the mean gray value in this ROI is calculated for every projection and the respiratory/cardiac signal is acquired using a bandpass filter. Steps two and three are carried out simultaneously for 64 or 1440 overlapping VOI inside the body for the respiratory or cardiac signal respectively. The signals acquired from each ROI are compared and the most consistent one is chosen as the desired cardiac or respiratory motion signal. Consistency is assessed by the standard deviation of the time between two maxima. The robustness and efficiency of the method is evaluated using simulated and measured patient data by computing the standard deviation of the mean signal difference between the ground truth and the intrinsic signal.

  8. Image-based motion compensation for high-resolution extremities cone-beam CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sisniega, A.; Stayman, J. W.; Cao, Q.; Yorkston, J.; Siewerdsen, J. H.; Zbijewski, W.

    2016-03-01

    Purpose: Cone-beam CT (CBCT) of the extremities provides high spatial resolution, but its quantitative accuracy may be challenged by involuntary sub-mm patient motion that cannot be eliminated with simple means of external immobilization. We investigate a two-step iterative motion compensation based on a multi-component metric of image sharpness. Methods: Motion is considered with respect to locally rigid motion within a particular region of interest, and the method supports application to multiple locally rigid regions. Motion is estimated by maximizing a cost function with three components: a gradient metric encouraging image sharpness, an entropy term that favors high contrast and penalizes streaks, and a penalty term encouraging smooth motion. Motion compensation involved initial coarse estimation of gross motion followed by estimation of fine-scale displacements using high resolution reconstructions. The method was evaluated in simulations with synthetic motion (1-4 mm) applied to a wrist volume obtained on a CMOS-based CBCT testbench. Structural similarity index (SSIM) quantified the agreement between motion-compensated and static data. The algorithm was also tested on a motion contaminated patient scan from dedicated extremities CBCT. Results: Excellent correction was achieved for the investigated range of displacements, indicated by good visual agreement with the static data. 10-15% improvement in SSIM was attained for 2-4 mm motions. The compensation was robust against increasing motion (4% decrease in SSIM across the investigated range, compared to 14% with no compensation). Consistent performance was achieved across a range of noise levels. Significant mitigation of artifacts was shown in patient data. Conclusion: The results indicate feasibility of image-based motion correction in extremities CBCT without the need for a priori motion models, external trackers, or fiducials.

  9. Beam hardening and motion artifacts in cardiac CT: evaluation and iterative correction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Zeyang; Lee, Okkyun; Taguchi, Katsuyuki

    2016-03-01

    For myocardial perfusion CT exams, beam hardening (BH) artifacts may degrade the accuracy of myocardial perfusion defect detection. Meanwhile, cardiac motion may make BH process inconsistent, which makes conventional BH correction (BHC) methods ineffective. The aims of this study were to assess the severity of BH artifacts and motion artifacts and propose a projection-based iterative BHC method which has a potential to handle the motion-induced inconsistency better than conventional methods. In this study, four sets of forward projection data were first acquired using both cylindrical phantoms and cardiac images as objects: (1) with monochromatic x-rays without motion; (2) with polychromatic x-rays without motion; (3) with monochromatic x-rays with motion; and (4) with polychromatic x-rays with motion. From each dataset, images were reconstructed using filtered back projection; for datasets 2 and 4, one of the following BHC methods was also performed: (A) no BHC; (B) BHC that concerns water only; and (C) BHC that takes both water and iodine into account, which is an iterative method we developed in this work. Biases of images were quantified by the mean absolute difference (MAD). The MAD of images with BH artifacts alone (dataset 2, without BHC) was comparable or larger than that of images with motion artifacts alone (dataset 3): In the study of cardiac image, BH artifacts account for over 80% of the total artifacts. The use of BHC was effective: with dataset 4, MAD values were 170 HU with no BHC, 54 HU with water BHC, and 42 HU with the proposed BHC. Qualitative improvements in image quality were also noticeable in reconstructed images.

  10. Evaluation of juxta-apical radiolucency in cone beam CT images

    PubMed Central

    Harada, N; Araki, K; Sano, T; Goto, T K

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to analyse the position and relationship of juxta-apical radiolucency (JAR) to the mandibular canal and buccal and/or lingual cortical plates using cone beam CT (CBCT). Methods: A retrospective study was carried out to analyse the JAR on CBCT for 27 patients. These findings were compared with 27 age- and sex-matched patients without the presence of JAR, which acted as the control group. The CBCT images were analysed according to a checklist, to evaluate the position of the JAR and its relationship to the mandibular canal. Then, any thinning or perforation of either the buccal or lingual cortical plate due to JAR was noted, and a classification to quantify the thinning of cortical plates was proposed. The findings in the two groups were analysed using a paired comparison by McNemar test. Results: A statistical increased thinning of cortical plates was seen in the JAR group compared with the control group, and most of the cases were in the J3 group. None of the patients in either the JAR or the control group showed perforation of the buccal and/or lingual cortical plate on CBCT images. Conclusions: A classification to quantify the thinning of cortical plates was proposed, which may be used for objective evaluation of the thinning of the cortical plates in future studies. The present study gives an insight into the relationship of the juxta-apical area with the mandibular canal and cortical plates in the mandible using CBCT. PMID:24694213

  11. SU-E-QI-08: Fourier Properties of Cone Beam CT Projection

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, T; Yan, H; Jia, X; Jiang, Steve B.; Mou, X

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To explore the Fourier properties of cone beam CT (CBCT) projections and apply the property to directly estimate noise level of CBCT projections without any prior information. Methods: By utilizing the property of Bessel function, we derivate the Fourier properties of the CBCT projections for an arbitrary point object. It is found that there exists a double-wedge shaped region in the Fourier space where the intensity is approximately zero. We further derivate the Fourier properties of independent noise added to CBCT projections. The expectation of the square of the module in any point of the Fourier space is constant and the value approximately equals to noise energy. We further validate the theory in numerical simulations for both a delta function object and a NCAT phantom with different levels of noise added. Results: Our simulation confirmed the existence of the double-wedge shaped region in Fourier domain for the x-ray projection image. The boundary locations of this region agree well with theoretical predictions. In the experiments of estimating noise level, the mean relative error between the theory estimation and the ground truth values is 2.697%. Conclusion: A novel theory on the Fourier properties of CBCT projections has been discovered. Accurate noise level estimation can be achieved by applying this theory directly to the measured CBCT projections. This work was supported in part by NIH(1R01CA154747-01), NSFC((No. 61172163), Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (No. 20110201110011) and China Scholarship Council.

  12. Evaluation of robustness of maximum likelihood cone-beam CT reconstruction with total variation regularization.

    PubMed

    Stsepankou, D; Arns, A; Ng, S K; Zygmanski, P; Hesser, J

    2012-10-07

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate an iterative maximum likelihood (ML) cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) reconstruction with total variation (TV) regularization with respect to the robustness of the algorithm due to data inconsistencies. Three different and (for clinical application) typical classes of errors are considered for simulated phantom and measured projection data: quantum noise, defect detector pixels and projection matrix errors. To quantify those errors we apply error measures like mean square error, signal-to-noise ratio, contrast-to-noise ratio and streak indicator. These measures are derived from linear signal theory and generalized and applied for nonlinear signal reconstruction. For quality check, we focus on resolution and CT-number linearity based on a Catphan phantom. All comparisons are made versus the clinical standard, the filtered backprojection algorithm (FBP). In our results, we confirm and substantially extend previous results on iterative reconstruction such as massive undersampling of the number of projections. Errors of projection matrix parameters of up to 1° projection angle deviations are still in the tolerance level. Single defect pixels exhibit ring artifacts for each method. However using defect pixel compensation, allows up to 40% of defect pixels for passing the standard clinical quality check. Further, the iterative algorithm is extraordinarily robust in the low photon regime (down to 0.05 mAs) when compared to FPB, allowing for extremely low-dose image acquisitions, a substantial issue when considering daily CBCT imaging for position correction in radiotherapy. We conclude that the ML method studied herein is robust under clinical quality assurance conditions. Consequently, low-dose regime imaging, especially for daily patient localization in radiation therapy is possible without change of the current hardware of the imaging system.

  13. A method for robust segmentation of arbitrarily shaped radiopaque structures in cone-beam CT projections

    SciTech Connect

    Poulsen, Per Rugaard; Fledelius, Walther; Keall, Paul J.; Weiss, Elisabeth; Lu Jun; Brackbill, Emily; Hugo, Geoffrey D.

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: Implanted markers are commonly used in radiotherapy for x-ray based target localization. The projected marker position in a series of cone-beam CT (CBCT) projections can be used to estimate the three dimensional (3D) target trajectory during the CBCT acquisition. This has important applications in tumor motion management such as motion inclusive, gating, and tumor tracking strategies. However, for irregularly shaped markers, reliable segmentation is challenged by large variations in the marker shape with projection angle. The purpose of this study was to develop a semiautomated method for robust and reliable segmentation of arbitrarily shaped radiopaque markers in CBCT projections. Methods: The segmentation method involved the following three steps: (1) Threshold based segmentation of the marker in three to six selected projections with large angular separation, good marker contrast, and uniform background; (2) construction of a 3D marker model by coalignment and backprojection of the threshold-based segmentations; and (3) construction of marker templates at all imaging angles by projection of the 3D model and use of these templates for template-based segmentation. The versatility of the segmentation method was demonstrated by segmentation of the following structures in the projections from two clinical CBCT scans: (1) Three linear fiducial markers (Visicoil) implanted in or near a lung tumor and (2) an artificial cardiac valve in a lung cancer patient. Results: Automatic marker segmentation was obtained in more than 99.9% of the cases. The segmentation failed in a few cases where the marker was either close to a structure of similar appearance or hidden behind a dense structure (data cable). Conclusions: A robust template-based method for segmentation of arbitrarily shaped radiopaque markers in CBCT projections was developed.

  14. Library-based scatter correction for dedicated cone beam breast CT: a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Linxi; Vedantham, Srinivasan; Karellas, Andrew; Zhu, Lei

    2016-04-01

    Purpose: Scatter errors are detrimental to cone-beam breast CT (CBBCT) accuracy and obscure the visibility of calcifications and soft-tissue lesions. In this work, we propose practical yet effective scatter correction for CBBCT using a library-based method and investigate its feasibility via small-group patient studies. Method: Based on a simplified breast model with varying breast sizes, we generate a scatter library using Monte-Carlo (MC) simulation. Breasts are approximated as semi-ellipsoids with homogeneous glandular/adipose tissue mixture. On each patient CBBCT projection dataset, an initial estimate of scatter distribution is selected from the pre-computed scatter library by measuring the corresponding breast size on raw projections and the glandular fraction on a first-pass CBBCT reconstruction. Then the selected scatter distribution is modified by estimating the spatial translation of the breast between MC simulation and the clinical scan. Scatter correction is finally performed by subtracting the estimated scatter from raw projections. Results: On two sets of clinical patient CBBCT data with different breast sizes, the proposed method effectively reduces cupping artifact and improves the image contrast by an average factor of 2, with an efficient processing time of 200ms per conebeam projection. Conclusion: Compared with existing scatter correction approaches on CBBCT, the proposed library-based method is clinically advantageous in that it requires no additional scans or hardware modifications. As the MC simulations are pre-computed, our method achieves a high computational efficiency on each patient dataset. The library-based method has shown great promise as a practical tool for effective scatter correction on clinical CBBCT.

  15. Image-Based Motion Compensation for High-Resolution Extremities Cone-Beam CT

    PubMed Central

    Sisniega, A.; Stayman, J. W.; Cao, Q.; Yorkston, J.; Siewerdsen, J. H.; Zbijewski, W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cone-beam CT (CBCT) of the extremities provides high spatial resolution, but its quantitative accuracy may be challenged by involuntary sub-mm patient motion that cannot be eliminated with simple means of external immobilization. We investigate a two-step iterative motion compensation based on a multi-component metric of image sharpness. Methods Motion is considered with respect to locally rigid motion within a particular region of interest, and the method supports application to multiple locally rigid regions. Motion is estimated by maximizing a cost function with three components: a gradient metric encouraging image sharpness, an entropy term that favors high contrast and penalizes streaks, and a penalty term encouraging smooth motion. Motion compensation involved initial coarse estimation of gross motion followed by estimation of fine-scale displacements using high resolution reconstructions. The method was evaluated in simulations with synthetic motion (1–4 mm) applied to a wrist volume obtained on a CMOS-based CBCT testbench. Structural similarity index (SSIM) quantified the agreement between motion-compensated and static data. The algorithm was also tested on a motion contaminated patient scan from dedicated extremities CBCT. Results Excellent correction was achieved for the investigated range of displacements, indicated by good visual agreement with the static data. 10–15% improvement in SSIM was attained for 2–4 mm motions. The compensation was robust against increasing motion (4% decrease in SSIM across the investigated range, compared to 14% with no compensation). Consistent performance was achieved across a range of noise levels. Significant mitigation of artifacts was shown in patient data. Conclusion The results indicate feasibility of image-based motion correction in extremities CBCT without the need for a priori motion models, external trackers, or fiducials. PMID:27346909

  16. SU-E-I-11: A New Cone-Beam CT System for Bedside Head Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, H; Zeng, W; Xu, P; Wang, Z; Xing, X; Sun, M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To design and develop a new mobile cone-beam CT (CBCT) system for head imaging with good soft-tissue visibility, to be used bedside in ICU and neurosurgery department to monitor treatment and operation outcome in brain patients. Methods: The imaging chain consists of a 30cmx25cm amorphous silicon flat panel detector and a pulsed, stationary anode monoblock x-ray source of 100kVp at a maximal tube current of 10mA. The detector and source are supported on motorized mechanisms to provide detector lateral shift and source angular tilt, enabling a centered digital radiographic imaging mode and half-fan CBCT, while maximizing the use of the x-ray field and keep the source to detector distance short. A focused linear anti-scatter grid is mounted on the detector, and commercial software with scatter and other corrective algorithms is used for data processing and image reconstruction. The gantry rotates around a horizontal axis, and is able to adjust its height for different patient table positions. Cables are routed through a custom protective sleeve over a large bore with an in-plane twister band, facilitating single 360-degree rotation without a slip-ring at a speed up to 5 seconds per rotation. A UPS provides about 10 minutes of operation off the battery when unplugged. The gantry is on locked casters, whose brake is control by two push handles on both sides for easy reposition. The entire system is designed to have a light weight and a compact size for excellent maneuverability. Results: System design is complete and main imaging components are tested. Initial results will be presented and discussed later in the presentation. Conclusion: A new mobile CBCT system for head imaging is being developed. With its compact size, a large bore, and quality design, it is expected to be a useful imaging tool for bedside uses. The work is supported by a grant from Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  17. Calculating tumor trajectory and dose-of-the-day using cone-beam CT projections

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Bernard L. Westerly, David; Miften, Moyed

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Cone-beam CT (CBCT) projection images provide anatomical data in real-time over several respiratory cycles, forming a comprehensive picture of tumor movement. The authors developed and validated a method which uses these projections to determine the trajectory of and dose to highly mobile tumors during each fraction of treatment. Methods: CBCT images of a respiration phantom were acquired, the trajectory of which mimicked a lung tumor with high amplitude (up to 2.5 cm) and hysteresis. A template-matching algorithm was used to identify the location of a steel BB in each CBCT projection, and a Gaussian probability density function for the absolute BB position was calculated which best fit the observed trajectory of the BB in the imager geometry. Two modifications of the trajectory reconstruction were investigated: first, using respiratory phase information to refine the trajectory estimation (Phase), and second, using the Monte Carlo (MC) method to sample the estimated Gaussian tumor position distribution. The accuracies of the proposed methods were evaluated by comparing the known and calculated BB trajectories in phantom-simulated clinical scenarios using abdominal tumor volumes. Results: With all methods, the mean position of the BB was determined with accuracy better than 0.1 mm, and root-mean-square trajectory errors averaged 3.8% ± 1.1% of the marker amplitude. Dosimetric calculations using Phase methods were more accurate, with mean absolute error less than 0.5%, and with error less than 1% in the highest-noise trajectory. MC-based trajectories prevent the overestimation of dose, but when viewed in an absolute sense, add a small amount of dosimetric error (<0.1%). Conclusions: Marker trajectory and target dose-of-the-day were accurately calculated using CBCT projections. This technique provides a method to evaluate highly mobile tumors using ordinary CBCT data, and could facilitate better strategies to mitigate or compensate for motion during

  18. Evaluation of robustness of maximum likelihood cone-beam CT reconstruction with total variation regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stsepankou, D.; Arns, A.; Ng, S. K.; Zygmanski, P.; Hesser, J.

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate an iterative maximum likelihood (ML) cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) reconstruction with total variation (TV) regularization with respect to the robustness of the algorithm due to data inconsistencies. Three different and (for clinical application) typical classes of errors are considered for simulated phantom and measured projection data: quantum noise, defect detector pixels and projection matrix errors. To quantify those errors we apply error measures like mean square error, signal-to-noise ratio, contrast-to-noise ratio and streak indicator. These measures are derived from linear signal theory and generalized and applied for nonlinear signal reconstruction. For quality check, we focus on resolution and CT-number linearity based on a Catphan phantom. All comparisons are made versus the clinical standard, the filtered backprojection algorithm (FBP). In our results, we confirm and substantially extend previous results on iterative reconstruction such as massive undersampling of the number of projections. Errors of projection matrix parameters of up to 1° projection angle deviations are still in the tolerance level. Single defect pixels exhibit ring artifacts for each method. However using defect pixel compensation, allows up to 40% of defect pixels for passing the standard clinical quality check. Further, the iterative algorithm is extraordinarily robust in the low photon regime (down to 0.05 mAs) when compared to FPB, allowing for extremely low-dose image acquisitions, a substantial issue when considering daily CBCT imaging for position correction in radiotherapy. We conclude that the ML method studied herein is robust under clinical quality assurance conditions. Consequently, low-dose regime imaging, especially for daily patient localization in radiation therapy is possible without change of the current hardware of the imaging system.

  19. Progressive cone beam CT dose control in image-guided radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Hao; Zhen, Xin; Cerviño, Laura; Jiang, Steve B.; Jia, Xun

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Cone beam CT (CBCT) in image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) offers a tremendous advantage for treatment guidance. The associated imaging dose is a clinical concern. One unique feature of CBCT-based IGRT is that the same patient is repeatedly scanned during a treatment course, and the contents of CBCT images at different fractions are similar. The authors propose a progressive dose control (PDC) scheme to utilize this temporal correlation for imaging dose reduction. Methods: A dynamic CBCT scan protocol, as opposed to the static one in the current clinical practice, is proposed to gradually reduce the imaging dose in each treatment fraction. The CBCT image from each fraction is processed by a prior-image based nonlocal means (PINLM) module to enhance its quality. The increasing amount of prior information from previous CBCT images prevents degradation of image quality due to the reduced imaging dose. Two proof-of-principle experiments have been conducted using measured phantom data and Monte Carlo simulated patient data with deformation. Results: In the measured phantom case, utilizing a prior image acquired at 0.4 mAs, PINLM is able to improve the image quality of a CBCT acquired at 0.2 mAs by reducing the noise level from 34.95 to 12.45 HU. In the synthetic patient case, acceptable image quality is maintained at four consecutive fractions with gradually decreasing exposure levels of 0.4, 0.1, 0.07, and 0.05 mAs. When compared with the standard low-dose protocol of 0.4 mAs for each fraction, an overall imaging dose reduction of more than 60% is achieved. Conclusions: PINLM-PDC is able to reduce CBCT imaging dose in IGRT utilizing the temporal correlations among the sequence of CBCT images while maintaining the quality. PMID:23718579

  20. Cone beam CT dose reduction in prostate radiotherapy using Likert scale methods

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Louise A; Jordan, Suzanne; Smith, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To use a Likert scale method to optimize image quality (IQ) for cone beam CT (CBCT) soft-tissue matching for image-guided radiotherapy of the prostate. Methods: 23 males with local/locally advanced prostate cancer had the CBCT IQ assessed using a 4-point Likert scale (4 = excellent, no artefacts; 3 = good, few artefacts; 2 = poor, just able to match; 1 = unsatisfactory, not able to match) at three levels of exposure. The lateral separations of the subjects were also measured. The Friedman test and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used to determine if the IQ was associated with the exposure level. We used the point-biserial correlation and a χ2 test to investigate the relationship between the separation and IQ. Results: The Friedman test showed that the IQ was related to exposure (p = 2 × 10−7) and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test demonstrated that the IQ decreased as exposure decreased (all p-values <0.005). We did not find a correlation between the IQ and the separation (correlation coefficient 0.045), but for separations <35 cm, it was possible to use the lowest exposure parameters studied. Conclusion: We can reduce exposure factors to 80% of those supplied with the system without hindering the matching process for all patients. For patients with lateral separations <35 cm, the exposure factors can be reduced further to 64% of the original values. Advances in knowledge: Likert scales are a useful tool for measuring IQ in the optimization of CBCT IQ for soft-tissue matching in radiotherapy image guidance applications. PMID:26689092

  1. Fusion of intraoperative cone-beam CT and endoscopic video for image-guided procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, M. J.; Chan, H.; Prisman, E.; Vescan, A.; Nithiananthan, S.; Qiu, J.; Weersink, R.; Irish, J. C.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2010-02-01

    Methods for accurate registration and fusion of intraoperative cone-beam CT (CBCT) with endoscopic video have been developed and integrated into a system for surgical guidance that accounts for intraoperative anatomical deformation and tissue excision. The system is based on a prototype mobile C-Arm for intraoperative CBCT that provides low-dose 3D image updates on demand with sub-mm spatial resolution and soft-tissue visibility, and also incorporates subsystems for real-time tracking and navigation, video endoscopy, deformable image registration of preoperative images and surgical plans, and 3D visualization software. The position and pose of the endoscope are geometrically registered to 3D CBCT images by way of real-time optical tracking (NDI Polaris) for rigid endoscopes (e.g., head and neck surgery), and electromagnetic tracking (NDI Aurora) for flexible endoscopes (e.g., bronchoscopes, colonoscopes). The intrinsic (focal length, principal point, non-linear distortion) and extrinsic (translation, rotation) parameters of the endoscopic camera are calibrated from images of a planar calibration checkerboard (2.5×2.5 mm2 squares) obtained at different perspectives. Video-CBCT registration enables a variety of 3D visualization options (e.g., oblique CBCT slices at the endoscope tip, augmentation of video with CBCT images and planning data, virtual reality representations of CBCT [surface renderings]), which can reveal anatomical structures not directly visible in the endoscopic view - e.g., critical structures obscured by blood or behind the visible anatomical surface. Video-CBCT fusion is evaluated in pre-clinical sinus and skull base surgical experiments, and is currently being incorporated into an ongoing prospective clinical trial in CBCT-guided head and neck surgery.

  2. Determining superficial dosimetry for the internal canthus from the Monte Carlo simulation of kV photon and MeV electron beams.

    PubMed

    Currie, B E

    2009-06-01

    This paper presents the findings of an investigation into the Monte Carlo simulation of superficial cancer treatments of an internal canthus site using both kilovoltage photons and megavoltage electrons. The EGSnrc system of codes for the Monte Carlo simulation of the transport of electrons and photons through a phantom representative of either a water phantom or treatment site in a patient is utilised. Two clinical treatment units are simulated: the Varian Medical Systems Clinac 2100C accelerator for 6 MeV electron fields and the Pantak Therapax SXT 150 X-ray unit for 100 kVp photon fields. Depth dose, profile and isodose curves for these simulated units are compared against those measured by ion chamber in a PTW Freiburg MP3 water phantom. Good agreement was achieved away from the surface of the phantom between simulated and measured data. Dose distributions are determined for both kV photon and MeV electron fields in the internal canthus site containing lead and tungsten shielding, rapidly sloping surfaces and different density interfaces. There is a relatively high level of deposition of dose in tissue-bone and tissue-cartilage interfaces in the kV photon fields in contrast to the MeV electron fields. This is reflected in the maximum doses in the PTV of the internal canthus field being 12 Gy for kV photons and 4.8 Gy for MeV electrons. From the dose distributions, DVH and dose comparators are used to assess the simulated treatment fields. Any indication as to which modality is preferable to treat the internal canthus requires careful consideration of many different factors, this investigation provides further perspective in being able to assess which modality is appropriate.

  3. Development of Prior Image-Based, High-Quality, Low-Dose Kilovoltage Cone Beam CT for Use in Adaptive Radiotherapy of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    mathematically ready for reconstruction. 1.1.4 Scatter compensation for synthesized physical phantom data Compared to diagnostic CT where X - ray beam spanning a...Truncated, Diagnostic -CT Data", SPIE Medical Imaging, Lake Buena Vista, Florida, 2013 37. X . Han, E. Pearson, C. A. Pelizzari, X . Pan, “Investigation of...Prince, C. A. Pelizzari, and X . Pan,“Evaluation of sparse-view reconstruction from flat - panel -detector cone-beam CT,” Physics in Medicine and Biology

  4. Cone-Beam CT with Flat-Panel-Detector Digital Angiography System: Early Experience in Abdominal Interventional Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Hirota, Shozo Nakao, Norio; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Maeda, Hiroaki; Ishikura, Reiichi; Miura, Koui; Sakamoto, Kiyoshi; Ueda, Ken; Baba, Rika

    2006-12-15

    We developed a cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) system equipped with a large flat-panel detector. Data obtained by 200{sup o} rotation imaging are reconstructed by means of CBCT to generate three-dimensional images. We report the use of CBCT angiography using CBCT in 10 patients with 8 liver malignancies and 2 hypersplenisms during abdominal interventional procedures. CBCT was very useful for interventional radiologists to confirm a perfusion area of the artery catheter wedged on CT by injection of contrast media through the catheter tip, although the image quality was slightly degraded, scoring as 2.60 on average by streak artifacts. CBCT is space-saving because it does not require a CT system with a gantry, and it is also time-saving because it does not require the transfer of patients.

  5. Anatomical background and generalized detectability in tomosynthesis and cone-beam CT

    SciTech Connect

    Gang, G. J.; Tward, D. J.; Lee, J.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2010-05-15

    Purpose: Anatomical background presents a major impediment to detectability in 2D radiography as well as 3D tomosynthesis and cone-beam CT (CBCT). This article incorporates theoretical and experimental analysis of anatomical background ''noise'' in cascaded systems analysis of 2D and 3D imaging performance to yield ''generalized'' metrics of noise-equivalent quanta (NEQ) and detectability index as a function of the orbital extent of the (circular arc) source-detector orbit. Methods: A physical phantom was designed based on principles of fractal self-similarity to exhibit power-law spectral density ({kappa}/f{sup {beta}}) comparable to various anatomical sites (e.g., breast and lung). Background power spectra [S{sub B}(f)] were computed as a function of source-detector orbital extent, including tomosynthesis ({approx}10 deg. - 180 deg.) and CBCT (180 deg. +fan to 360 deg.) under two acquisition schemes: (1) Constant angular separation between projections (variable dose) and (2) constant total number of projections (constant dose). The resulting S{sub B} was incorporated in the generalized NEQ, and detectability index was computed from 3D cascaded systems analysis for a variety of imaging tasks. Results: The phantom yielded power-law spectra within the expected spatial frequency range, quantifying the dependence of clutter magnitude ({kappa}) and correlation ({beta}) with increasing tomosynthesis angle. Incorporation of S{sub B} in the 3D NEQ provided a useful framework for analyzing the tradeoffs among anatomical, quantum, and electronic noise with dose and orbital extent. Distinct implications are posed for breast and chest tomosynthesis imaging system design--applications varying significantly in {kappa} and {beta}, and imaging task and, therefore, in optimal selection of orbital extent, number of projections, and dose. For example, low-frequency tasks (e.g., soft-tissue masses or nodules) tend to benefit from larger orbital extent and more fully 3D tomographic

  6. SU-E-I-59: Image Quality and Dose Measurement for Partial Cone-Beam CT

    SciTech Connect

    Abouei, E; Ford, N

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To characterize performance of cone beam CT (CBCT) used in dentistry investigating quantitatively the image quality and radiation dose during dental CBCT over different settings for partial rotation of the x-ray tube. Methods: Image quality and dose measurements were done on a variable field of view (FOV) dental CBCT (Carestream 9300). X-ray parameters for clinical settings were adjustable for 2–10 mA, 60–90 kVp, and two optional voxel size values, but time was fixed for each FOV. Image quality was assessed by scanning cylindrical poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA) image quality phantom (SEDENTEXCT IQ), and then the images were analyzed using ImageJ to calculate image quality parameters such as noise, uniformity, and contrast to noise ratio (CNR). A protocol proposed by SEDENTEXCT, dose index 1 (DI1), was applied to dose measurements obtained using a thimble ionization chamber and cylindrical PMMA dose index phantom (SEDENTEXCT DI). Dose distributions were obtained using Gafchromic film. The phantoms were positioned in the FOV to imitate a clinical positioning. Results: The image noise was 6–12.5% which, when normalized to the difference of mean voxel value of PMMA and air, was comparable between different FOVs. Uniformity was 93.5ß 99.7% across the images. CNR was 1.7–4.2 and 6.3–14.3 for LDPE and Aluminum, respectively. Dose distributions were symmetric about the rotation angle's bisector. For large and medium FOVs at 4 mA and 80–90 kVp, DI1 values were in the range of 1.26–3.23 mGy. DI1 values were between 1.01–1.93 mGy for small FOV (5×5 cm{sup 2}) at 4–5 mA and 75–84 kVp. Conclusion: Noise decreased by increasing kVp, and the CNR increased for each FOV. When FOV size increased, image noise increased and CNR decreased. DI1 values were increased by increasing tube current (mA), tube voltage (kVp), and/or FOV. Funding for this project from NSERC Discovery grant, UBC Faculty of Dentistry Research Equipment Grant and UBC Faculty of

  7. Improved compressed sensing-based cone-beam CT reconstruction using adaptive prior image constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ho; Xing, Lei; Davidi, Ran; Li, Ruijiang; Qian, Jianguo; Lee, Rena

    2012-04-01

    Volumetric cone-beam CT (CBCT) images are acquired repeatedly during a course of radiation therapy and a natural question to ask is whether CBCT images obtained earlier in the process can be utilized as prior knowledge to reduce patient imaging dose in subsequent scans. The purpose of this work is to develop an adaptive prior image constrained compressed sensing (APICCS) method to solve this problem. Reconstructed images using full projections are taken on the first day of radiation therapy treatment and are used as prior images. The subsequent scans are acquired using a protocol of sparse projections. In the proposed APICCS algorithm, the prior images are utilized as an initial guess and are incorporated into the objective function in the compressed sensing (CS)-based iterative reconstruction process. Furthermore, the prior information is employed to detect any possible mismatched regions between the prior and current images for improved reconstruction. For this purpose, the prior images and the reconstructed images are classified into three anatomical regions: air, soft tissue and bone. Mismatched regions are identified by local differences of the corresponding groups in the two classified sets of images. A distance transformation is then introduced to convert the information into an adaptive voxel-dependent relaxation map. In constructing the relaxation map, the matched regions (unchanged anatomy) between the prior and current images are assigned with smaller weight values, which are translated into less influence on the CS iterative reconstruction process. On the other hand, the mismatched regions (changed anatomy) are associated with larger values and the regions are updated more by the new projection data, thus avoiding any possible adverse effects of prior images. The APICCS approach was systematically assessed by using patient data acquired under standard and low-dose protocols for qualitative and quantitative comparisons. The APICCS method provides an

  8. TH-A-18C-01: Design Optimization of Segmented Scintillators for Megavoltage Cone- Beam CT

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, L; Antonuk, L; El-Mohri, Y; Zhao, Q; Jiang, H

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Active matrix flat-panel imagers incorporating thick, segmented scintillators for megavoltage cone-beam CT (MV CBCT) imaging have demonstrated strong potential for facilitating soft-tissue visualization at low, clinically practical doses. In order to identify scintillator design parameters that optimize performance for this purpose, a modeling technique which includes both radiation and optical effects and which lends itself to computationally practical implementation has been developed and explored. Methods: A hybrid modeling technique, based on Monte Carlo event-by-event simulation of radiation transport and separate determination of optical effects, was devised as an alternative to computationally prohibitive event-by- event simulations of both radiation and optical transport. The technique was validated against empirical results from a previously reported 1.13 cm thick, 1.016 mm element-to-element pitch BGO scintillator prototype. Using this technique, the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and spatial resolution performance of numerous scintillator designs, with thicknesses ranging from 0.5 to 6 cm and pitches ranging from 0.508 to 1.524 mm, were examined. Results: CNR and spatial resolution performance for the various scintillator designs demonstrate complex behavior as scintillator thickness and pitch are varied - exhibiting a clear trade-off between these two imaging metrics up to a thickness of ~3 cm. Based on these results, an optimization map highlighting those regions of design that provide a balance between these metrics was created. The map indicates that, for a given set of optical parameters, scintillator thickness and pitch can be judiciously chosen to maximize performance without resorting to thicker, more costly scintillators. Conclusion: Modeling radiation and optical effects in thick, segmented scintillators through use of a hybrid modeling technique provides a practical way to gain insight as to how to optimize the performance of such

  9. Should image rotation be addressed during routine cone-beam CT quality assurance?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayan, Ahmet S.; Lin, Haibo; Yeager, Caitlyn; Deville, Curtiland; McDonough, James; Zhu, Timothy C.; Anderson, Nathan; Bar Ad, Voichita; Lu, Hsiao-Ming; Both, Stefan

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether quality assurance (QA) for cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) image rotation is necessary in order to ensure the accuracy of CBCT based image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) and adaptive radiotherapy (ART). Misregistration of angular coordinates during CBCT acquisition may lead to a rotated reconstructed image. If target localization is performed based on this image, an under- or over-dosage of the target volume (TV) and organs at risk (OARs) may occur. Therefore, patient CT image sets were rotated by 1° up to 3° and the treatment plans were recalculated to quantify changes in dose-volume histograms. A computer code in C++ was written to model the TV displacement and overlap area of an ellipse shape at the target and dose prescription levels corresponding to the image rotation. We investigated clinical scenarios in IGRT and ART in order to study the implications of image rotation on dose distributions for: (1) lateral TV and isocenter (SBRT), (2) central TV and isocenter (IMRT), (3) lateral TV and isocenter (IMRT). Mathematical analysis showed the dose coverage of TV depends on its shape, size, location, and orientation relative to the isocenter. Evaluation of three first scenario for θ = 1° showed variations in TV D95 in the context of IGRT and ART when compared to the original plan were within 2.7 ± 2.6% and 7.7 ± 6.9% respectively while variations in the second and third scenarios were less significant (<0.5%) for the angular range evaluated. However a larger degree of variation was found in terms of minimum and maximum doses for target and OARs. The rotation of CBCT image data sets may have significant dosimetric consequences in IGRT and ART. The TV's location relative to isocenter and shape determine the extent of alterations in dose indicators. Our findings suggest that a CBCT QA criterion of 1° would be a reasonable action level to ensure accurate dose delivery.

  10. Self-calibration of cone-beam CT geometry using 3D–2D image registration

    PubMed Central

    Ouadah, S; Stayman, J W; Gang, G J; Ehtiati, T; Siewerdsen, J H

    2016-01-01

    Robotic C-arms are capable of complex orbits that can increase field of view, reduce artifacts, improve image quality, and/or reduce dose; however, it can be challenging to obtain accurate, reproducible geometric calibration required for image reconstruction for such complex orbits. This work presents a method for geometric calibration for an arbitrary source-detector orbit by registering 2D projection data to a previously acquired 3D image. It also yields a method by which calibration of simple circular orbits can be improved. The registration uses a normalized gradient information similarity metric and the covariance matrix adaptation-evolution strategy optimizer for robustness against local minima and changes in image content. The resulting transformation provides a ‘self-calibration’ of system geometry. The algorithm was tested in phantom studies using both a cone-beam CT (CBCT) test-bench and a robotic C-arm (Artis Zeego, Siemens Healthcare) for circular and non-circular orbits. Self-calibration performance was evaluated in terms of the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the point spread function in CBCT reconstructions, the reprojection error (RPE) of steel ball bearings placed on each phantom, and the overall quality and presence of artifacts in CBCT images. In all cases, self-calibration improved the FWHM—e.g. on the CBCT bench, FWHM = 0.86 mm for conventional calibration compared to 0.65 mm for self-calibration (p < 0.001). Similar improvements were measured in RPE—e.g. on the robotic C-arm, RPE = 0.73 mm for conventional calibration compared to 0.55 mm for self-calibration (p < 0.001). Visible improvement was evident in CBCT reconstructions using self-calibration, particularly about high-contrast, high-frequency objects (e.g. temporal bone air cells and a surgical needle). The results indicate that self-calibration can improve even upon systems with presumably accurate geometric calibration and is applicable to situations where conventional

  11. Self-calibration of cone-beam CT geometry using 3D-2D image registration.

    PubMed

    Ouadah, S; Stayman, J W; Gang, G J; Ehtiati, T; Siewerdsen, J H

    2016-04-07

    Robotic C-arms are capable of complex orbits that can increase field of view, reduce artifacts, improve image quality, and/or reduce dose; however, it can be challenging to obtain accurate, reproducible geometric calibration required for image reconstruction for such complex orbits. This work presents a method for geometric calibration for an arbitrary source-detector orbit by registering 2D projection data to a previously acquired 3D image. It also yields a method by which calibration of simple circular orbits can be improved. The registration uses a normalized gradient information similarity metric and the covariance matrix adaptation-evolution strategy optimizer for robustness against local minima and changes in image content. The resulting transformation provides a 'self-calibration' of system geometry. The algorithm was tested in phantom studies using both a cone-beam CT (CBCT) test-bench and a robotic C-arm (Artis Zeego, Siemens Healthcare) for circular and non-circular orbits. Self-calibration performance was evaluated in terms of the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the point spread function in CBCT reconstructions, the reprojection error (RPE) of steel ball bearings placed on each phantom, and the overall quality and presence of artifacts in CBCT images. In all cases, self-calibration improved the FWHM-e.g. on the CBCT bench, FWHM  =  0.86 mm for conventional calibration compared to 0.65 mm for self-calibration (p  <  0.001). Similar improvements were measured in RPE-e.g. on the robotic C-arm, RPE  =  0.73 mm for conventional calibration compared to 0.55 mm for self-calibration (p  <  0.001). Visible improvement was evident in CBCT reconstructions using self-calibration, particularly about high-contrast, high-frequency objects (e.g. temporal bone air cells and a surgical needle). The results indicate that self-calibration can improve even upon systems with presumably accurate geometric calibration and is

  12. Self-calibration of cone-beam CT geometry using 3D-2D image registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouadah, S.; Stayman, J. W.; Gang, G. J.; Ehtiati, T.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2016-04-01

    Robotic C-arms are capable of complex orbits that can increase field of view, reduce artifacts, improve image quality, and/or reduce dose; however, it can be challenging to obtain accurate, reproducible geometric calibration required for image reconstruction for such complex orbits. This work presents a method for geometric calibration for an arbitrary source-detector orbit by registering 2D projection data to a previously acquired 3D image. It also yields a method by which calibration of simple circular orbits can be improved. The registration uses a normalized gradient information similarity metric and the covariance matrix adaptation-evolution strategy optimizer for robustness against local minima and changes in image content. The resulting transformation provides a ‘self-calibration’ of system geometry. The algorithm was tested in phantom studies using both a cone-beam CT (CBCT) test-bench and a robotic C-arm (Artis Zeego, Siemens Healthcare) for circular and non-circular orbits. Self-calibration performance was evaluated in terms of the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the point spread function in CBCT reconstructions, the reprojection error (RPE) of steel ball bearings placed on each phantom, and the overall quality and presence of artifacts in CBCT images. In all cases, self-calibration improved the FWHM—e.g. on the CBCT bench, FWHM  =  0.86 mm for conventional calibration compared to 0.65 mm for self-calibration (p  <  0.001). Similar improvements were measured in RPE—e.g. on the robotic C-arm, RPE  =  0.73 mm for conventional calibration compared to 0.55 mm for self-calibration (p  <  0.001). Visible improvement was evident in CBCT reconstructions using self-calibration, particularly about high-contrast, high-frequency objects (e.g. temporal bone air cells and a surgical needle). The results indicate that self-calibration can improve even upon systems with presumably accurate geometric calibration and is

  13. Multiresolution iterative reconstruction in high-resolution extremity cone-beam CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Qian; Zbijewski, Wojciech; Sisniega, Alejandro; Yorkston, John; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.; Webster Stayman, J.

    2016-10-01

    Application of model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) to high resolution cone-beam CT (CBCT) is computationally challenging because of the very fine discretization (voxel size  <100 µm) of the reconstructed volume. Moreover, standard MBIR techniques require that the complete transaxial support for the acquired projections is reconstructed, thus precluding acceleration by restricting the reconstruction to a region-of-interest. To reduce the computational burden of high resolution MBIR, we propose a multiresolution penalized-weighted least squares (PWLS) algorithm, where the volume is parameterized as a union of fine and coarse voxel grids as well as selective binning of detector pixels. We introduce a penalty function designed to regularize across the boundaries between the two grids. The algorithm was evaluated in simulation studies emulating an extremity CBCT system and in a physical study on a test-bench. Artifacts arising from the mismatched discretization of the fine and coarse sub-volumes were investigated. The fine grid region was parameterized using 0.15 mm voxels and the voxel size in the coarse grid region was varied by changing a downsampling factor. No significant artifacts were found in either of the regions for downsampling factors of up to 4×. For a typical extremities CBCT volume size, this downsampling corresponds to an acceleration of the reconstruction that is more than five times faster than a brute force solution that applies fine voxel parameterization to the entire volume. For certain configurations of the coarse and fine grid regions, in particular when the boundary between the regions does not cross high attenuation gradients, downsampling factors as high as 10×  can be used without introducing artifacts, yielding a ~50×  speedup in PWLS. The proposed multiresolution algorithm significantly reduces the computational burden of high resolution iterative CBCT reconstruction and can be extended to other applications of

  14. Delayed-Phase Cone-Beam CT Improves Detectability of Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma During Conventional Transarterial Chemoembolization

    SciTech Connect

    Schernthaner, Ruediger Egbert; Lin, MingDe; Duran, Rafael; Chapiro, Julius; Wang, Zhijun; Geschwind, Jean-François

    2015-08-15

    PurposeTo evaluate the detectability of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) on dual-phase cone-beam CT (DPCBCT) during conventional transarterial chemoembolization (cTACE) compared to that of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) with respect to pre-procedure contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) of the liver.MethodsThis retrospective study included 17 consecutive patients (10 male, mean age 64) with ICC who underwent pre-procedure CE-MRI of the liver, and DSA and DPCBCT (early-arterial phase (EAP) and delayed-arterial phase (DAP)) just before cTACE. The visibility of each ICC lesion was graded by two radiologists on a three-rank scale (complete, partial, and none) on DPCBCT and DSA images, and then compared to pre-procedure CE-MRI.ResultsOf 61 ICC lesions, only 45.9 % were depicted by DSA, whereas EAP- and DAP-CBCT yielded a significantly higher detectability rate of 73.8 % and 93.4 %, respectively (p < 0.01). Out of the 33 lesions missed on DSA, 18 (54.5 %) and 30 (90.9 %) were revealed on EAP- and DAP-CBCT images, respectively. DSA depicted only one lesion that was missed by DPCBCT due to streak artifacts caused by a prosthetic mitral valve. DAP-CBCT identified significantly more lesions than EAP-CBCT (p < 0.01). Conversely, EAP-CBCT did not detect lesions missed by DAP-CBCT. For complete lesion visibility, DAP-CBCT yielded significantly higher detectability (78.7 %) compared to EAP (31.1 %) and DSA (21.3 %) (p < 0.01).ConclusionDPCBCT, and especially the DAP-CBCT, significantly improved the detectability of ICC lesions during cTACE compared to DSA. We recommend the routine use of DAP-CBCT in patients with ICC for per-procedure detectability and treatment planning in the setting of TACE.

  15. Dose and scatter characteristics of a novel cone beam CT system for musculoskeletal extremities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zbijewski, W.; Sisniega, A.; Vaquero, J. J.; Muhit, A.; Packard, N.; Senn, R.; Yang, D.; Yorkston, J.; Carrino, J. A.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2012-03-01

    A novel cone-beam CT (CBCT) system has been developed with promising capabilities for musculoskeletal imaging (e.g., weight-bearing extremities and combined radiographic / volumetric imaging). The prototype system demonstrates diagnostic-quality imaging performance, while the compact geometry and short scan orbit raise new considerations for scatter management and dose characterization that challenge conventional methods. The compact geometry leads to elevated, heterogeneous x-ray scatter distributions - even for small anatomical sites (e.g., knee or wrist), and the short scan orbit results in a non-uniform dose distribution. These complex dose and scatter distributions were investigated via experimental measurements and GPU-accelerated Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. The combination provided a powerful basis for characterizing dose distributions in patient-specific anatomy, investigating the benefits of an antiscatter grid, and examining distinct contributions of coherent and incoherent scatter in artifact correction. Measurements with a 16 cm CTDI phantom show that the dose from the short-scan orbit (0.09 mGy/mAs at isocenter) varies from 0.16 to 0.05 mGy/mAs at various locations on the periphery (all obtained at 80 kVp). MC estimation agreed with dose measurements within 10-15%. Dose distribution in patient-specific anatomy was computed with MC, confirming such heterogeneity and highlighting the elevated energy deposition in bone (factor of ~5-10) compared to soft-tissue. Scatter-to-primary ratio (SPR) up to ~1.5-2 was evident in some regions of the knee. A 10:1 antiscatter grid was found earlier to result in significant improvement in soft-tissue imaging performance without increase in dose. The results of MC simulations elucidated the mechanism behind scatter reduction in the presence of a grid. A ~3-fold reduction in average SPR was found in the MC simulations; however, a linear grid was found to impart additional heterogeneity in the scatter distribution

  16. Combined MV + kV inverse treatment planning for optimal kV dose incorporation in IGRT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grelewicz, Zachary; Wiersma, Rodney D.

    2014-04-01

    Despite the existence of real-time kV intra-fractional tumor tracking strategies for many years, clinical adoption has been held back by concern over the excess kV imaging dose cost to the patient when imaging in continuous fluoroscopic mode. This work aims to solve this problem by investigating, for the first time, the use of convex optimization tools to optimally integrate this excess kV imaging dose into the MV therapeutic dose in order to make real-time kV tracking clinically feasible. Phase space files modeling both a 6 MV treatment beam and a kV on-board-imaging beam of a commercial LINAC were generated with BEAMnrc, and used to generate dose influence matrices in DOSXYZnrc for ten previously treated lung cancer patients. The dose optimization problem for IMRT, formulated as a quadratic problem, was modified to include additional constraints as required for real-time kV intra-fractional tracking. An interior point optimizer was used to solve the modified optimization problem. It was found that when using large kV imaging apertures during fluoroscopic tracking, combined MV + kV optimization lead to a 0.5%-5.17% reduction in the total number of monitor units assigned to the MV beam due to inclusion of the kV dose over the ten patients. This was accompanied by a reduction of up to 42% of the excess kV dose compared to standard MV IMRT with kV tracking. For all kV field sizes considered, combined MV + kV optimization provided prescription dose to the treatment volume coverage equal to the no-imaging case, yet superior to standard MV IMRT with non-optimized kV fluoroscopic tracking. With combined MV + kV optimization, it is possible to quantify in a patient specific way the dosimetric effect of real-time imaging on the patient. Such information is necessary when substantial kV imaging is performed.

  17. SU-E-J-153: Reconstructing 4D Cone Beam CT Images for Clinical QA of Lung SABR Treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Beaudry, J; Bergman, A; Cropp, R

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To verify that the planned Primary Target Volume (PTV) and Internal Gross Tumor Volume (IGTV) fully enclose a moving lung tumor volume as visualized on a pre-SABR treatment verification 4D Cone Beam CT. Methods: Daily 3DCBCT image sets were acquired immediately prior to treatment for 10 SABR lung patients using the on-board imaging system integrated into a Varian TrueBeam (v1.6: no 4DCBCT module available). Respiratory information was acquired during the scan using the Varian RPM system. The CBCT projections were sorted into 8 bins offline, both by breathing phase and amplitude, using in-house software. An iterative algorithm based on total variation minimization, implemented in the open source reconstruction toolkit (RTK), was used to reconstruct the binned projections into 4DCBCT images. The relative tumor motion was quantified by tracking the centroid of the tumor volume from each 4DCBCT image. Following CT-CBCT registration, the planning CT volumes were compared to the location of the CBCT tumor volume as it moves along its breathing trajectory. An overlap metric quantified the ability of the planned PTV and IGTV to contain the tumor volume at treatment. Results: The 4DCBCT reconstructed images visibly show the tumor motion. The mean overlap between the planned PTV (IGTV) and the 4DCBCT tumor volumes was 100% (94%), with an uncertainty of 5% from the 4DCBCT tumor volume contours. Examination of the tumor motion and overlap metric verify that the IGTV drawn at the planning stage is a good representation of the tumor location at treatment. Conclusion: It is difficult to compare GTV volumes from a 4DCBCT and a planning CT due to image quality differences. However, it was possible to conclude the GTV remained within the PTV 100% of the time thus giving the treatment staff confidence that SABR lung treatements are being delivered accurately.

  18. SU-E-J-92: On-Line Cone Beam CT Based Planning for Emergency and Palliative Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Held, M; Morin, O; Pouliot, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate and develop the feasibility of on-line cone beam CT based planning for emergency and palliative radiotherapy treatments. Methods: Subsequent to phantom studies, a case library of 28 clinical megavoltage cone beam CT (MVCBCT) was built to assess dose-planning accuracies on MVCBCT for all anatomical sites. A simple emergency treatment plan was created on the MVCBCT and copied to its reference CT. The agreement between the dose distributions of each image pair was evaluated by the mean dose difference of the dose volume and the gamma index of the central 2D axial plane. An array of popular urgent and palliative cases was also evaluated for imaging component clearance and field-of-view. Results: The treatment cases were categorized into four groups (head and neck, thorax/spine, pelvis and extremities). Dose distributions for head and neck treatments were predicted accurately in all cases with a gamma index of >95% for 2% and 2 mm criteria. Thoracic spine treatments had a gamma index as low as 60% indicating a need for better uniformity correction and tissue density calibration. Small anatomy changes between CT and MVCBCT could contribute to local errors. Pelvis and sacral spine treatment cases had a gamma index between 90% and 98% for 3%/3 mm criteria. The limited FOV became an issue for large pelvis patients. Imaging clearance was difficult for cases where the tumor was positioned far off midline. Conclusion: The MVCBCT based dose planning and delivery approach is feasible in many treatment cases. Dose distributions for head and neck patients are unrestrictedly predictable. Some FOV restrictions apply to other treatment sites. Lung tissue is most challenging for accurate dose calculations given the current imaging filters and corrections. Additional clinical cases for extremities need to be included in the study to assess the full range of site-specific planning accuracies. This work is supported by Siemens.

  19. Radiobiologically optimized couch shift: A new localization paradigm using cone-beam CT for prostate radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yimei Gardner, Stephen J.; Wen, Ning; Zhao, Bo; Gordon, James; Brown, Stephen; Chetty, Indrin J.

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: To present a novel positioning strategy which optimizes radiation delivery by utilizing radiobiological response knowledge and evaluate its use during prostate external beam radiotherapy. Methods: Five patients with low or intermediate risk prostate cancer were evaluated retrospectively in this IRB-approved study. For each patient, a VMAT plan with one 358° arc was generated on the planning CT (PCT) to deliver 78 Gy in 39 fractions. Five representative pretreatment cone beam CTs (CBCT) were selected for each patient. The CBCT images were registered to PCT by a human observer, which consisted of an initial automated registration with three degrees-of-freedom, followed by manual adjustment for agreement at the prostate/rectal wall interface. To determine the optimal treatment position for each CBCT, a search was performed centering on the observer-matched position (OM-position) utilizing a score function based on radiobiological and dosimetric indices (EUD{sub prostate}, D99{sub prostate}, NTCP{sub rectum}, and NTCP{sub bladder}) for the prostate, rectum, and bladder. We termed the optimal treatment position the radiobiologically optimized couch shift position (ROCS-position). Results: The dosimetric indices, averaged over the five patients’ treatment plans, were (mean ± SD) 79.5 ± 0.3 Gy (EUD{sub prostate}), 78.2 ± 0.4 Gy (D99{sub prostate}), 11.1% ± 2.7% (NTCP{sub rectum}), and 46.9% ± 7.6% (NTCP{sub bladder}). The corresponding values from CBCT at the OM-positions were 79.5 ± 0.6 Gy (EUD{sub prostate}), 77.8 ± 0.7 Gy (D99{sub prostate}), 12.1% ± 5.6% (NTCP{sub rectum}), and 51.6% ± 15.2% (NTCP{sub bladder}), respectively. In comparison, from CBCT at the ROCS-positions, the dosimetric indices were 79.5 ± 0.6 Gy (EUD{sub prostate}), 77.3 ± 0.6 Gy (D99{sub prostate}), 8.0% ± 3.3% (NTCP{sub rectum}), and 46.9% ± 15.7% (NTCP{sub bladder}). Excessive NTCP{sub rectum} was observed on Patient 5 (19.5% ± 6.6%) corresponding to localization at OM

  20. Automated Patient Positioning Guided by Cone-Beam CT for Prostate Radiotherapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    each CT slice was 512512 and 0.980.98 mm2, respectively. The 4D CT images were transferred through DICOM to a personal com- puter with a Pentium IV...on top of the image in order to vi- sualize the contour in a conventional fashion. These contours can be exported as ASCII or DICOM -RT format for... DICOM to a high-performance personal computer with a Xeon 3.6 GHz processor for image processing. The manually outlined con- tours in the pCT images are

  1. C-Arm Cone-Beam CT-Guided Transthoracic Lung Core Needle Biopsy as a Standard Diagnostic Tool

    PubMed Central

    Jaconi, Marta; Pagni, Fabio; Vacirca, Francesco; Leni, Davide; Corso, Rocco; Cortinovis, Diego; Bidoli, Paolo; Bono, Francesca; Cuttin, Maria S.; Valente, Maria G.; Pesci, Alberto; Bedini, Vittorio A.; Leone, Biagio E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract C-arm cone-beam computed tomography (CT)-guided transthoracic lung core needle biopsy (CNB) is a safe and accurate procedure for the evaluation of patients with pulmonary nodules. This article will focus on the clinical features related to CNB in terms of diagnostic performance and complication rate. Moreover, the concept of categorizing pathological diagnosis into 4 categories, which could be used for clinical management, follow-up, and quality assurance is also introduced. We retrospectively collected data regarding 375 C-arm cone-beam CT-guided CNBs from January 2010 and June 2014. Clinical and radiological variables were evaluated in terms of success or failure rate. Pathological reports were inserted in 4 homogenous groups (nondiagnostic-L1, benign-L2, malignant not otherwise specified-L3, and malignant with specific histotype-L4), defining for each category a hierarchy of suggested actions. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value and accuracy for patients subjected to CNBs were of 96.8%, 100%, 100%, 100%, and 97.2%, respectively. Roughly 75% of our samples were diagnosed as malignant, with 60% lung adenocarcinoma diagnoses. Molecular analyses were performed on 85 malignant samples to verify applicability of targeted therapy. The rate of “nondiagnostic” samples was 12%. C-arm cone-beam CT-guided transthoracic lung CNB can represent the gold standard for the diagnostic evaluation of pulmonary nodules. A clinical and pathological multidisciplinary evaluation of CNBs was needed in terms of integration of radiological, histological, and oncological data. This approach provided exceptional performances in terms of specificity, positive and negative predictive values; sensitivity in our series was lower compared with other large studies, probably due to the application of strong criteria of adequacy for CNBs (L1 class rate). The satisfactory rate of collected material was evaluated not only in terms of merely diagnostic

  2. Scatter correction for full-fan volumetric CT using a stationary beam blocker in a single full scan

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Tianye; Zhu, Lei

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Applications of volumetric CT (VCT) are hampered by shading and streaking artifacts in the reconstructed images. These artifacts are mainly due to strong x-ray scatter signals accompanied with the large illumination area within one projection, which lead to CT number inaccuracy, image contrast loss and spatial nonuniformity. Although different scatter correction algorithms have been proposed in literature, a standard solution still remains unclear. Measurement-based methods use a beam blocker to acquire scatter samples. These techniques have unrivaled advantages over other existing algorithms in that they are simple and efficient, and achieve high scatter estimation accuracy without prior knowledge of the imaged object. Nevertheless, primary signal loss is inevitable in the scatter measurement, and multiple scans or moving the beam blocker during data acquisition are typically employed to compensate for the missing primary data. In this paper, we propose a new measurement-based scatter correction algorithm without primary compensation for full-fan VCT. An accurate reconstruction is obtained with one single-scan and a stationary x-ray beam blocker, two seemingly incompatible features which enable simple and efficient scatter correction without increase of scan time or patient dose. Methods: Based on the CT reconstruction theory, we distribute the blocked data over the projection area where primary signals are considered approximately redundant in a full scan, such that the CT image quality is not degraded even with primary loss. Scatter is then accurately estimated by interpolation and scatter-corrected CT images are obtained using an FDK-based reconstruction algorithm. Results: The proposed method is evaluated using two phantom studies on a tabletop CBCT system. On the Catphan©600 phantom, our approach reduces the reconstruction error from 207 Hounsfield unit (HU) to 9 HU in the selected region of interest, and improves the image contrast by a factor of 2

  3. Low-Dose and Scatter-Free Cone-Beam CT Imaging Using a Stationary Beam Blocker in a Single Scan: Phantom Studies

    PubMed Central

    Petrongolo, Michael; Niu, Tianye; Zhu, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Excessive imaging dose from repeated scans and poor image quality mainly due to scatter contamination are the two bottlenecks of cone-beam CT (CBCT) imaging. Compressed sensing (CS) reconstruction algorithms show promises in recovering faithful signals from low-dose projection data but do not serve well the needs of accurate CBCT imaging if effective scatter correction is not in place. Scatter can be accurately measured and removed using measurement-based methods. However, these approaches are considered unpractical in the conventional FDK reconstruction, due to the inevitable primary loss for scatter measurement. We combine measurement-based scatter correction and CS-based iterative reconstruction to generate scatter-free images from low-dose projections. We distribute blocked areas on the detector where primary signals are considered redundant in a full scan. Scatter distribution is estimated by interpolating/extrapolating measured scatter samples inside blocked areas. CS-based iterative reconstruction is finally carried out on the undersampled data to obtain scatter-free and low-dose CBCT images. With only 25% of conventional full-scan dose, our method reduces the average CT number error from 250 HU to 24 HU and increases the contrast by a factor of 2.1 on Catphan 600 phantom. On an anthropomorphic head phantom, the average CT number error is reduced from 224 HU to 10 HU in the central uniform area. PMID:24348742

  4. Assessment of contrast enhanced respiration managed cone-beam CT for image guided radiotherapy of intrahepatic tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Nikolaj K. G.; Stewart, Errol; Lock, Michael; Fisher, Barbara; Kozak, Roman; Chen, Jeff; Lee, Ting-Yim; Wong, Eugene

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Contrast enhancement and respiration management are widely used during image acquisition for radiotherapy treatment planning of liver tumors along with respiration management at the treatment unit. However, neither respiration management nor intravenous contrast is commonly used during cone-beam CT (CBCT) image acquisition for alignment prior to radiotherapy. In this study, the authors investigate the potential gains of injecting an iodinated contrast agent in combination with respiration management during CBCT acquisition for liver tumor radiotherapy. Methods: Five rabbits with implanted liver tumors were subjected to CBCT with and without motion management and contrast injection. The acquired CBCT images were registered to the planning CT to determine alignment accuracy and dosimetric impact. The authors developed a simulation tool for simulating contrast-enhanced CBCT images from dynamic contrast enhanced CT imaging (DCE-CT) to determine optimal contrast injection protocols. The tool was validated against contrast-enhanced CBCT of the rabbit subjects and was used for five human patients diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma. Results: In the rabbit experiment, when neither motion management nor contrast was used, tumor centroid misalignment between planning image and CBCT was 9.2 mm. This was reduced to 2.8 mm when both techniques were employed. Tumors were not visualized in clinical CBCT images of human subjects. Simulated contrast-enhanced CBCT was found to improve tumor contrast in all subjects. Different patients were found to require different contrast injections to maximize tumor contrast. Conclusions: Based on the authors’ animal study, respiration managed contrast enhanced CBCT improves IGRT significantly. Contrast enhanced CBCT benefits from patient specific tracer kinetics determined from DCE-CT.

  5. 2D wavelet-analysis-based calibration technique for flat-panel imaging detectors: application in cone beam volume CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiangyang; Ning, Ruola; Yu, Rongfeng; Conover, David L.

    1999-05-01

    The application of the newly developed flat panel x-ray imaging detector in cone beam volume CT has attracted increasing interest recently. Due to an imperfect solid state array manufacturing process, however, defective elements, gain non-uniformity and offset image unavoidably exist in all kinds of flat panel x-ray imaging detectors, which will cause severe streak and ring artifacts in a cone beam reconstruction image and severely degrade image quality. A calibration technique, in which the artifacts resulting from the defective elements, gain non-uniformity and offset image can be reduced significantly, is presented in this paper. The detection of defective elements is distinctively based upon two-dimensional (2D) wavelet analysis. Because of its inherent localizability in recognizing singularities or discontinuities, wavelet analysis possesses the capability of detecting defective elements over a rather large x-ray exposure range, e.g., 20% to approximately 60% of the dynamic range of the detector used. Three-dimensional (3D) images of a low-contrast CT phantom have been reconstructed from projection images acquired by a flat panel x-ray imaging detector with and without calibration process applied. The artifacts caused individually by defective elements, gain non-uniformity and offset image have been separated and investigated in detail, and the correlation with each other have also been exposed explicitly. The investigation is enforced by quantitative analysis of the signal to noise ratio (SNR) and the image uniformity of the cone beam reconstruction image. It has been demonstrated that the ring and streak artifacts resulting from the imperfect performance of a flat panel x-ray imaging detector can be reduced dramatically, and then the image qualities of a cone beam reconstruction image, such as contrast resolution and image uniformity are improved significantly. Furthermore, with little modification, the calibration technique presented here is also applicable

  6. Percutaneous Transthoracic Lung Biopsy: Comparison Between C-Arm Cone-Beam CT and Conventional CT Guidance

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yun-Chung; Tsai, Sheng-Heng; Cheng, Yuchi; Chen, Jeon-Hor; Chai, Jyh-Wen; Chen, Clayton Chi-Chang

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: C-arm cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a comparatively novel modality for guiding percutaneous transthoracic lung biopsies (PTLBs), and despite its potential advantages over conventional computed tomography (CCT), a head-to-head comparison of the two techniques has yet to be reported in the literature. This study aims to evaluate the diagnostic value and safety of CBCT-guided PTLB compared to CCT-guided biopsy, with cases performed in a single hospital. METHODS: A total of 104 PTLB patients were retrospectively analyzed in this study. 35 PTLBs were performed under CBCT guidance, and 69 PTLBs were performed under CCT guidance. Diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for malignancy as well as procedure time, radiation dose of patients, and complication rate in the two groups were compared. RESULTS: Total procedure time was significantly lower in the CBCT group (32 ± 11 minutes) compared to the CCT group (38 ± 9.7 minutes; P = .009), especially among patients ≥ 70 years of age (CBCT: 33 ± 12 minutes, CCT: 42 ± 13, P = .022). For lesions in the lower lobes, the CBCT-guided group received significantly reduced effective radiation dose (2.9 ± 1.6 mSv) than CCT-guided patients (3.7 ± 0.80; P = .042). Diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for malignancy were comparable between the two groups, as were post-biopsy complication rates. CONCLUSION: CBCT guidance significantly reduces the procedure time and radiation exposure for PTLBs compared with CCT, and should be considered in clinical settings that may be difficult or time-consuming to perform under CCT. PMID:26310371

  7. Assessment of protocols in cone-beam CT with symmetric and asymmetric beams usingeffective dose and air kerma-area product.

    PubMed

    Batista, Wilson Otto; Soares, Maria Rosangela; de Oliveira, Marcus V L; Maia, Ana F; Caldas, Linda V E

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to evaluate and compare protocols with similar purposes in a cone beam CT scanner using thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) and the air kerma-area product (PKA) as the kerma index. The measurements were performed on two protocols used to obtain an image of the maxilla-mandible using the equipment GENDEX GXCB 500: Protocol [GX1] extended diameter and asymmetric beam (14cm×8.5cm-maxilla/mandible) and protocol [GX2] symmetrical beam (8.5cm×8.5cm-maxillary/mandible). LiF dosimeters inserted into a female anthropomorphic phantom were used. For both protocols, the value of PKA was evaluated using a PTW Diamentor E2 meter and the multimeter Radcal Rapidose system. The results obtained for the effective dose/PKA were separated by protocol image. [GX1]: 44.5µSv/478mGycm(2); [GX2]: 54.8µSv/507mGycm(2). Although the ratio of the diameters (14cm/8.5cm)=1.65, the ratio of effective dose values (44.5µSv/54.8µSv)=0.81, that is, the effective dose of the protocol with extended diameter is 19% smaller. The PKA values reveal very similar results between the two protocols. For the cases where the scanner uses an asymmetric beam to obtain images with large diameters that cover the entire face, there are advantages from the point of view of reducing the exposure of patients when compared to the use of symmetrical beam and/or to FOV images with a smaller diameter.

  8. MRI to CT prostate registration for improved targeting in cancer external beam radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Commandeur, Frederic; Simon, Antoine; Mathieu, Romain; Nassef, Mohamed; Ospina, Juan David; Rolland, Yan; Haigron, Pascal; De Crevoisier, Renaud; Acosta, Oscar

    2016-06-16

    External radiotherapy is a major clinical treatment for localized prostate cancer. Currently, computed tomography (CT) is used to delineate the prostate and to plan the radiotherapy treatment. However, CT images suffer from a poor soft tissue contrast and do not allow an accurate organ delineation. On the contrary, Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides rich details and high soft tissue contrast, allowing tumor detection. Thus, the intra-individual propagation of MRI delineations towards the planning CT may improve tumor targeting. In this paper we introduce a new method to propagate MRI prostate delineations to the planning CT. In a first step, a random forest (RF) classification is performed to coarsely detect the prostate in the CT images, yielding a prostate probability membership for each voxel and a prostate hard segmentation. Then the registration is performed using a new similarity metric which maximizes the probability and the collinearity between the normals of the MR existing contour and the contour resulting from the CT classification. A first study on synthetic data was performed to analyze the influence of the metric parameters with different levels of noise. Then, the method was also evaluated on real MR-CT data using manual alignments and intraprostatic fiducial markers and compared to a classically used mutual information (MI) approach. The proposed metric outperformed MI by 7% in terms of Dice score coefficient (DSC), by 3.14 mm the Hausdorff Distance (HD) and 2.13 mm the markers position errors (MPE). Finally, the impact of registration uncertainties on the treatment planning was evaluated, demonstrating the potential advantage of the proposed approach in a clinical setup to define a precise target.

  9. A novel research platform for electromagnetic navigated bronchoscopy using cone beam CT imaging and an animal model.

    PubMed

    Leira, Håkon Olav; Amundsen, Tore; Tangen, Geir Arne; Bø, Lars Eirik; Manstad-Hulaas, Frode; Langø, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetic guided bronchoscopy is a new field of research, essential for the development of advanced investigation of the airways and lung tissue. Consecutive problem-based solutions and refinements are urgent requisites to achieve improvements. For that purpose, our intention is to build a complete research platform for electromagnetic guided bronchoscopy. The experimental interventional electromagnetic field tracking system in conjunction with a C-arm cone beam CT unit is presented in this paper. The animal model and the navigation platform performed well and the aims were achieved; the 3D localization of foreign bodies and their navigated and tracked removal, assessment of tracking accuracy that showed a high level of precision, and assessment of image quality. The platform may prove to be a suitable platform for further research and development and a full-fledged electromagnetic guided bronchoscopy navigation system. The inclusion of the C-arm cone beam CT unit in the experimental setup adds a number of new possibilities for diagnostic procedures and accuracy measurements. Among other future challenges that need to be solved are the interaction between the C-arm and the electromagnetic navigation field, as we demonstrate in this feasibility study.

  10. A sinogram based technique for image correction and removal of metal clip artifacts in cone beam breast CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T.; Shen, Y.; Zhong, Y.; Lai, C.-J.; Wang, J.; Shaw, C. C.

    2014-03-01

    Cone beam CT (CBCT) technique provides true three-dimensional (3D) images of a breast; however, metal clips and needles used for surgical planning can cause artifacts, which may extend to many adjacent slices, in the reconstructed images obtained by the Feldkamp-Davis-Kress (FDK) filtered backprojection method,. In this paper, a sinogram based method to remove the metal clips in the projection image data is described and discussed for improving the quality of reconstructed breast images. First, the original projection data was reconstructed using the FDK algorithm to obtain a volumetric image with metal clips and artifacts. Second, the volumetric image was segmented by using the threshold method to obtain a 3D map of metal objects. Third, a forward projection algorithm is applied to the metal object map to obtain projection map of metal objects. Finally, the original projection images and projection map of metal objects are reorganized into sinograms for correction in the angular space on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Cone beam CT images of a mastectomy breast specimen are used to demonstrate the feasibility of using this technique for removal of metal object artifacts. Preliminary results have demonstrated that metal objects artifacts in 3D images were reduced and the image quality were improved.

  11. The Reconstruction Toolkit (RTK), an open-source cone-beam CT reconstruction toolkit based on the Insight Toolkit (ITK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rit, S.; Vila Oliva, M.; Brousmiche, S.; Labarbe, R.; Sarrut, D.; Sharp, G. C.

    2014-03-01

    We propose the Reconstruction Toolkit (RTK, http://www.openrtk.org), an open-source toolkit for fast cone-beam CT reconstruction, based on the Insight Toolkit (ITK) and using GPU code extracted from Plastimatch. RTK is developed by an open consortium (see affiliations) under the non-contaminating Apache 2.0 license. The quality of the platform is daily checked with regression tests in partnership with Kitware, the company supporting ITK. Several features are already available: Elekta, Varian and IBA inputs, multi-threaded Feldkamp-David-Kress reconstruction on CPU and GPU, Parker short scan weighting, multi-threaded CPU and GPU forward projectors, etc. Each feature is either accessible through command line tools or C++ classes that can be included in independent software. A MIDAS community has been opened to share CatPhan datasets of several vendors (Elekta, Varian and IBA). RTK will be used in the upcoming cone-beam CT scanner developed by IBA for proton therapy rooms. Many features are under development: new input format support, iterative reconstruction, hybrid Monte Carlo / deterministic CBCT simulation, etc. RTK has been built to freely share tomographic reconstruction developments between researchers and is open for new contributions.

  12. Investigation on viewing direction dependent detectability in a reconstructed 3D volume for a cone beam CT system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Junhan; Lee, Changwoo; Baek, Jongduk

    2015-03-01

    In medical imaging systems, several factors (e.g., reconstruction algorithm, noise structures, target size, contrast, etc) affect the detection performance and need to be considered for object detection. In a cone beam CT system, FDK reconstruction produces different noise structures in axial and coronal slices, and thus we analyzed directional dependent detectability of objects using detection SNR of Channelized Hotelling observer. To calculate the detection SNR, difference-of-Gaussian channel model with 10 channels was implemented, and 20 sphere objects with different radius (i.e., 0.25 (mm) to 5 (mm) equally spaced by 0.25 (mm)), reconstructed by FDK algorithm, were used as object templates. Covariance matrix in axial and coronal direction was estimated from 3000 reconstructed noise volumes, and then the SNR ratio between axial and coronal direction was calculated. Corresponding 2D noise power spectrum was also calculated. The results show that as the object size increases, the SNR ratio decreases, especially lower than 1 when the object size is larger than 2.5 mm radius. The reason is because the axial (coronal) noise power is higher in high (low) frequency band, and therefore the detectability of a small (large) object is higher in coronal (axial) images. Our results indicate that it is more beneficial to use coronal slices in order to improve the detectability of a small object in a cone beam CT system.

  13. Registration of the Cone Beam CT and Blue-Ray Scanned Dental Model Based on the Improved ICP Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhenhua; Xu, Songsong; Guo, Xiaoyan

    2014-01-01

    Multimodality image registration and fusion has complementary significance for guiding dental implant surgery. As the needs of the different resolution image registration, we develop an improved Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm that focuses on the registration of Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CT) image and high-resolution Blue-light scanner image. The proposed algorithm includes two major phases, coarse and precise registration. Firstly, for reducing the matching interference of human subjective factors, we extract feature points based on curvature characteristics and use the improved three point's translational transformation method to realize coarse registration. Then, the feature point set and reference point set, obtained by the initial registered transformation, are processed in the precise registration step. Even with the unsatisfactory initial values, this two steps registration method can guarantee the global convergence and the convergence precision. Experimental results demonstrate that the method has successfully realized the registration of the Cone Beam CT dental model and the blue-ray scanner model with higher accuracy. So the method could provide researching foundation for the relevant software development in terms of the registration of multi-modality medical data. PMID:24511309

  14. Sci—Fri AM: Mountain — 02: A comparison of dose reduction methods on image quality for cone beam CT

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, R; Buckley, LA

    2014-08-15

    Modern radiotherapy uses highly conformai dose distributions and therefore relies on daily image guidance for accurate patient positioning. Kilovoltage cone beam CT is one technique that is routinely used for patient set-up and results in a high dose to the patient relative to planar imaging techniques. This study uses an Elekta Synergy linac equipped with XVI cone beam CT to investigate the impact of various imaging parameters on dose and image quality. Dose and image quality are assessed as functions of x-ray tube voltage, tube current and the number of projections in the scan. In each case, the dose measurements confirm that as each parameter increases the dose increases. The assessment of high contrast resolution shows little dependence on changes to the image technique. However, low contrast visibility suggests a trade off between dose and image quality. Particularly for changes in tube potential, the dose increases much faster as a function of voltage than the corresponding increase in low contrast image quality. This suggests using moderate values of the peak tube voltage (100 – 120 kVp) since higher values result in significant dose increases with little gain in image quality. Measurements also indicate that increasing tube current achieves the greatest degree of improvement in the low contrast visibility. The results of this study highlight the need to establish careful imaging protocols to limit dose to the patient and to limit changes to the imaging parameters to those cases where there is a clear clinical requirement for improved image quality.

  15. Systematic analysis of biological and physical limitations of proton beam range verification with offline PET/CT scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knopf, A.; Parodi, K.; Bortfeld, T.; Shih, H. A.; Paganetti, H.

    2009-07-01

    The clinical use of offline positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scans for proton range verification is currently under investigation at the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). Validation is achieved by comparing measured activity distributions, acquired in patients after receiving one fraction of proton irradiation, with corresponding Monte Carlo (MC) simulated distributions. Deviations between measured and simulated activity distributions can either reflect errors during the treatment chain from planning to delivery or they can be caused by various inherent challenges of the offline PET/CT verification method. We performed a systematic analysis to assess the impact of the following aspects on the feasibility and accuracy of the offline PET/CT method: (1) biological washout processes, (2) patient motion, (3) Hounsfield unit (HU) based tissue classification for the simulation of the activity distributions and (4) tumor site specific aspects. It was found that the spatial reproducibility of the measured activity distributions is within 1 mm. However, the feasibility of range verification is restricted to a limited amount of positions and tumor sites. Washout effects introduce discrepancies between the measured and simulated ranges of about 4 mm at positions where the proton beam stops in soft tissue. Motion causes spatial deviations of up to 3 cm between measured and simulated activity distributions in abdominopelvic tumor cases. In these later cases, the MC simulated activity distributions were found to be limited to about 35% accuracy in absolute values and about 2 mm in spatial accuracy depending on the correlativity of HU into the physical and biological parameters of the irradiated tissue. Besides, for further specific tumor locations, the beam arrangement, the limited accuracy of rigid co-registration and organ movements can prevent the success of PET/CT range verification. All the addressed factors explain why the proton beam range can

  16. Scattered radiation in flat-detector based cone-beam CT: propagation of signal, contrast, and noise into reconstructed volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiegert, Jens; Hohmann, Steffen; Bertram, Matthias

    2007-03-01

    This paper presents a novel framework for the systematic assessment of the impact of scattered radiation in .at-detector based cone-beam CT. While it is well known that scattered radiation causes three di.erent types of artifacts in reconstructed images (inhomogeneity artifacts such as cupping and streaks, degradation of contrast, and enhancement of noise), investigations in the literature quantify the impact of scatter mostly only in terms of inhomogeneity artifacts, giving little insight, e.g., into the visibility of low contrast lesions. Therefore, for this study a novel framework has been developed that in addition to normal reconstruction of the CT (HU) number allows for reconstruction of voxelized expectation values of three additional important characteristics of image quality: signal degradation, contrast reduction, and noise variances. The new framework has been applied to projection data obtained with voxelized Monte-Carlo simulations of clinical CT data sets of high spatial resolution. Using these data, the impact of scattered radiation was thoroughly studied for realistic and clinically relevant patient geometries of the head, thorax, and pelvis region. By means of spatially resolved reconstructions of contrast and noise propagation, the image quality of a scenario with using standard antiscatter grids could be evaluated with great detail. Results show the spatially resolved contrast degradation and the spatially resolved expected standard deviation of the noise at any position in the reconstructed object. The new framework represents a general tool for analyzing image quality in reconstructed images.

  17. An efficient Monte Carlo-based algorithm for scatter correction in keV cone-beam CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poludniowski, G.; Evans, P. M.; Hansen, V. N.; Webb, S.

    2009-06-01

    A new method is proposed for scatter-correction of cone-beam CT images. A coarse reconstruction is used in initial iteration steps. Modelling of the x-ray tube spectra and detector response are included in the algorithm. Photon diffusion inside the imaging subject is calculated using the Monte Carlo method. Photon scoring at the detector is calculated using forced detection to a fixed set of node points. The scatter profiles are then obtained by linear interpolation. The algorithm is referred to as the coarse reconstruction and fixed detection (CRFD) technique. Scatter predictions are quantitatively validated against a widely used general-purpose Monte Carlo code: BEAMnrc/EGSnrc (NRCC, Canada). Agreement is excellent. The CRFD algorithm was applied to projection data acquired with a Synergy XVI CBCT unit (Elekta Limited, Crawley, UK), using RANDO and Catphan phantoms (The Phantom Laboratory, Salem NY, USA). The algorithm was shown to be effective in removing scatter-induced artefacts from CBCT images, and took as little as 2 min on a desktop PC. Image uniformity was greatly improved as was CT-number accuracy in reconstructions. This latter improvement was less marked where the expected CT-number of a material was very different to the background material in which it was embedded.

  18. Moving metal artifact reduction in cone-beam CT scans with implanted cylindrical gold markers

    SciTech Connect

    Toftegaard, Jakob Fledelius, Walther; Worm, Esben S.; Poulsen, Per R.; Seghers, Dieter; Huber, Michael; Brehm, Marcus; Elstrøm, Ulrik V.

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: Implanted gold markers for image-guided radiotherapy lead to streaking artifacts in cone-beam CT (CBCT) scans. Several methods for metal artifact reduction (MAR) have been published, but they all fail in scans with large motion. Here the authors propose and investigate a method for automatic moving metal artifact reduction (MMAR) in CBCT scans with cylindrical gold markers. Methods: The MMAR CBCT reconstruction method has six steps. (1) Automatic segmentation of the cylindrical markers in the CBCT projections. (2) Removal of each marker in the projections by replacing the pixels within a masked area with interpolated values. (3) Reconstruction of a marker-free CBCT volume from the manipulated CBCT projections. (4) Reconstruction of a standard CBCT volume with metal artifacts from the original CBCT projections. (5) Estimation of the three-dimensional (3D) trajectory during CBCT acquisition for each marker based on the segmentation in Step 1, and identification of the smallest ellipsoidal volume that encompasses 95% of the visited 3D positions. (6) Generation of the final MMAR CBCT reconstruction from the marker-free CBCT volume of Step 3 by replacing the voxels in the 95% ellipsoid with the corresponding voxels of the standard CBCT volume of Step 4. The MMAR reconstruction was performed retrospectively using a half-fan CBCT scan for 29 consecutive stereotactic body radiation therapy patients with 2–3 gold markers implanted in the liver. The metal artifacts of the MMAR reconstructions were scored and compared with a standard MAR reconstruction by counting the streaks and by calculating the standard deviation of the Hounsfield units in a region around each marker. Results: The markers were found with the same autosegmentation settings in 27 CBCT scans, while two scans needed slightly changed settings to find all markers automatically in Step 1 of the MMAR method. MMAR resulted in 15 scans with no streaking artifacts, 11 scans with 1–4 streaks, and 3 scans

  19. Robust methods for automatic image-to-world registration in cone-beam CT interventional guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Dang, H.; Otake, Y.; Schafer, S.; Stayman, J. W.; Kleinszig, G.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: Real-time surgical navigation relies on accurate image-to-world registration to align the coordinate systems of the image and patient. Conventional manual registration can present a workflow bottleneck and is prone to manual error and intraoperator variability. This work reports alternative means of automatic image-to-world registration, each method involving an automatic registration marker (ARM) used in conjunction with C-arm cone-beam CT (CBCT). The first involves a Known-Model registration method in which the ARM is a predefined tool, and the second is a Free-Form method in which the ARM is freely configurable. Methods: Studies were performed using a prototype C-arm for CBCT and a surgical tracking system. A simple ARM was designed with markers comprising a tungsten sphere within infrared reflectors to permit detection of markers in both x-ray projections and by an infrared tracker. The Known-Model method exercised a predefined specification of the ARM in combination with 3D-2D registration to estimate the transformation that yields the optimal match between forward projection of the ARM and the measured projection images. The Free-Form method localizes markers individually in projection data by a robust Hough transform approach extended from previous work, backprojected to 3D image coordinates based on C-arm geometric calibration. Image-domain point sets were transformed to world coordinates by rigid-body point-based registration. The robustness and registration accuracy of each method was tested in comparison to manual registration across a range of body sites (head, thorax, and abdomen) of interest in CBCT-guided surgery, including cases with interventional tools in the radiographic scene. Results: The automatic methods exhibited similar target registration error (TRE) and were comparable or superior to manual registration for placement of the ARM within {approx}200 mm of C-arm isocenter. Marker localization in projection data was robust across all

  20. Algorithm-enabled exploration of image-quality potential of cone-beam CT in image-guided radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiao; Pearson, Erik; Pelizzari, Charles; Al-Hallaq, Hania; Sidky, Emil Y.; Bian, Junguo; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2015-06-01

    Kilo-voltage (KV) cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) unit mounted onto a linear accelerator treatment system, often referred to as on-board imager (OBI), plays an increasingly important role in image-guided radiation therapy. While the FDK algorithm is currently used for reconstructing images from clinical OBI data, optimization-based reconstruction has also been investigated for OBI CBCT. An optimization-based reconstruction involves numerous parameters, which can significantly impact reconstruction properties (or utility). The success of an optimization-based reconstruction for a particular class of practical applications thus relies strongly on appropriate selection of parameter values. In the work, we focus on tailoring the constrained-TV-minimization-based reconstruction, an optimization-based reconstruction previously shown of some potential for CBCT imaging conditions of practical interest, to OBI imaging through appropriate selection of parameter values. In particular, for given real data of phantoms and patient collected with OBI CBCT, we first devise utility metrics specific to OBI-quality-assurance tasks and then apply them to guiding the selection of parameter values in constrained-TV-minimization-based reconstruction. The study results show that the reconstructions are with improvement, relative to clinical FDK reconstruction, in both visualization and quantitative assessments in terms of the devised utility metrics.

  1. Algorithm-enabled exploration of image-quality potential of cone-beam CT in image-guided radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xiao; Pearson, Erik; Pelizzari, Charles; Al-Hallaq, Hania; Sidky, Emil Y.; Bian, Junguo; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2015-01-01

    Kilo-voltage (KV) cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) unit mounted onto a linear accelerator treatment system, often referred to as on-board imager (OBI), plays an increasingly important role in image-guide radiation therapy. While the FDK algorithm is used currently for reconstructing images from clinical OBI data, optimization-based reconstruction has also been investigated for OBI CBCT. An optimization-based reconstruction involves numerous parameters, which can significantly impact reconstruction properties (or utility). The success of an optimization-based reconstruction for a particular class of practical applications thus relies strongly on appropriate selection of parameter values. In the work, we focus on tailoring the constrained-TV-minimization-based reconstruction, an optimization-based reconstruction previously shown of some potential for CBCT imaging conditions of practical interest, to OBI imaging through appropriate selection of parameter values. In particular, for given real data of phantoms and patient collected with OBI CBCT, we first devise utility metrics specific to OBI-quality-assurance tasks and then apply them to guiding the selection of parameter values in constrained-TV-minimization-based reconstruction. The study results show that the reconstructions are with improvement, relative to clinical FDK reconstruction, in both visualization and quantitative assessments in terms of the devised utility metrics. PMID:26020490

  2. Intraoperative imaging for patient safety and QA: detection of intracranial hemorrhage using C-arm cone-beam CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schafer, Sebastian; Wang, Adam; Otake, Yoshito; Stayman, J. W.; Zbijewski, Wojciech; Kleinszig, Gerhard; Xia, Xuewei; Gallia, Gary L.; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.

    2013-03-01

    Intraoperative imaging could improve patient safety and quality assurance (QA) via the detection of subtle complications that might otherwise only be found hours after surgery. Such capability could therefore reduce morbidity and the need for additional intervention. Among the severe adverse events that could be more quickly detected by high-quality intraoperative imaging is acute intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), conventionally assessed using post-operative CT. A mobile C-arm capable of high-quality cone-beam CT (CBCT) in combination with advanced image reconstruction techniques is reported as a means of detecting ICH in the operating room. The system employs an isocentric C-arm with a flat-panel detector in dual gain mode, correction of x-ray scatter and beam-hardening, and a penalized likelihood (PL) iterative reconstruction method. Performance in ICH detection was investigated using a quantitative phantom focusing on (non-contrast-enhanced) blood-brain contrast, an anthropomorphic head phantom, and a porcine model with injection of fresh blood bolus. The visibility of ICH was characterized in terms of contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and qualitative evaluation of images by a neurosurgeon. Across a range of size and contrast of the ICH as well as radiation dose from the CBCT scan, the CNR was found to increase from ~2.2-3.7 for conventional filtered backprojection (FBP) to ~3.9-5.4 for PL at equivalent spatial resolution. The porcine model demonstrated superior ICH detectability for PL. The results support the role of high-quality mobile C-arm CBCT employing advanced reconstruction algorithms for detecting subtle complications in the operating room at lower radiation dose and lower cost than intraoperative CT scanners and/or fixedroom C-arms. Such capability could present a potentially valuable aid to patient safety and QA.

  3. Cone-beam CT of traumatic brain injury using statistical reconstruction with a post-artifact-correction noise model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, H.; Stayman, J. W.; Sisniega, A.; Xu, J.; Zbijewski, W.; Yorkston, J.; Aygun, N.; Koliatsos, V.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2015-03-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability. The current front-line imaging modality for TBI detection is CT, which reliably detects intracranial hemorrhage (fresh blood contrast 30-50 HU, size down to 1 mm) in non-contrast-enhanced exams. Compared to CT, flat-panel detector (FPD) cone-beam CT (CBCT) systems offer lower cost, greater portability, and smaller footprint suitable for point-of-care deployment. We are developing FPD-CBCT to facilitate TBI detection at the point-of-care such as in emergent, ambulance, sports, and military applications. However, current FPD-CBCT systems generally face challenges in low-contrast, soft-tissue imaging. Model-based reconstruction can improve image quality in soft-tissue imaging compared to conventional filtered back-projection (FBP) by leveraging high-fidelity forward model and sophisticated regularization. In FPD-CBCT TBI imaging, measurement noise characteristics undergo substantial change following artifact correction, resulting in non-negligible noise amplification. In this work, we extend the penalized weighted least-squares (PWLS) image reconstruction to include the two dominant artifact corrections (scatter and beam hardening) in FPD-CBCT TBI imaging by correctly modeling the variance change following each correction. Experiments were performed on a CBCT test-bench using an anthropomorphic phantom emulating intra-parenchymal hemorrhage in acute TBI, and the proposed method demonstrated an improvement in blood-brain contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR = 14.2) compared to FBP (CNR = 9.6) and PWLS using conventional weights (CNR = 11.6) at fixed spatial resolution (1 mm edge-spread width at the target contrast). The results support the hypothesis that FPD-CBCT can fulfill the image quality requirements for reliable TBI detection, using high-fidelity artifact correction and statistical reconstruction with accurate post-artifact-correction noise models.

  4. Estimation of organ doses from kilovoltage cone-beam CT imaging used during radiotherapy patient position verification

    SciTech Connect

    Hyer, Daniel E.; Hintenlang, David E.

    2010-09-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a practical method for estimating organ doses from kilovoltage cone-beam CT (CBCT) that can be performed with readily available phantoms and dosimeters. The accuracy of organ dose estimates made using the ImPACT patient dose calculator was also evaluated. Methods: A 100 mm pencil chamber and standard CT dose index (CTDI) phantoms were used to measure the cone-beam dose index (CBDI). A weighted CBDI (CBDI{sup w}) was then calculated from these measurements to represent the average volumetric dose in the CTDI phantom. By comparing CBDI{sup w} to the previously published organ doses, organ dose conversion coefficients were developed. The measured CBDI values were also used as inputs for the ImPACT calculator to estimate organ doses. All CBDI dose measurements were performed on both the Elekta XVI and Varian OBI at three clinically relevant locations: Head, chest, and pelvis. Results: The head, chest, and pelvis protocols yielded CBDI{sup w} values of 0.98, 16.62, and 24.13 mGy for the XVI system and 5.17, 6.14, and 21.57 mGy for the OBI system, respectively. Organ doses estimated with the ImPACT CT dose calculator showed a large range of variation from the previously measured organ doses, demonstrating its limitations for use with CBCT. Conclusions: The organ dose conversion coefficients developed in this work relate CBDI{sup w} values to organ doses previously measured using the same clinical protocols. Ultimately, these coefficients will allow for the quick estimation of organ doses from routine measurements performed using standard CTDI phantoms and pencil chambers.

  5. Does cone-beam CT alter treatment plans? Comparison of preoperative implant planning using panoramic versus cone-beam CT images

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Maria Eugenia; Noriega, Jorge; Castro, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The present study was performed to compare the planning of implant placement based on panoramic radiography (PAN) and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images, and to study the impact of the image dataset on the treatment planning. Materials and Methods One hundred five partially edentulous patients (77 males, 28 females, mean age: 46 years, range: 26-67 years) seeking oral implant rehabilitation were referred for presurgical imaging. Imaging consisted of PAN and CBCT imaging. Four observers planned implant treatment based on the two-dimensional (2D) image datasets and at least one month later on the three-dimensional (3D) image dataset. Apart from presurgical diagnostic and dimensional measurement tasks, the observers needed to indicate the surgical confidence levels and assess the image quality in relation to the presurgical needs. Results All observers confirmed that both imaging modalities (PAN and CBCT) gave similar values when planning implant diameter. Also, the results showed no differences between both imaging modalities for the length of implants with an anterior location. However, significant differences were found in the length of implants with a posterior location. For implant dimensions, longer lengths of the implants were planned with PAN, as confirmed by two observers. CBCT provided images with improved scores for subjective image quality and surgical confidence levels. Conclusion Within the limitations of this study, there was a trend toward PAN-based preoperative planning of implant placement leading towards the use of longer implants within the posterior jaw bone. PMID:24944961

  6. SU-E-J-113: The Influence of Optimizing Pediatric CT Simulator Protocols On the Treatment Dose Calculation in Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y; Zhang, J; Hu, Q; Tie, J; Wu, H; Deng, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the possibility of applying optimized scanning protocols for pediatric CT simulation by quantifying the dosimetric inaccuracy introduced by using a fixed HU to density conversion. Methods: The images of a CIRS electron density reference phantom (Model 062) were acquired by a Siemens CT simulator (Sensation Open) using the following settings of tube voltage and beam current: 120 kV/190mA (the reference protocol used to calibrate CT for our treatment planning system (TPS)); Fixed 190mA combined with all available kV: 80, 100, and 140; fixed 120 kV and various current from 37 to 444 mA (scanner extremes) with interval of 30 mA. To avoid the HU uncertainty of point sampling in the various inserts of known electron densities, the mean CT numbers of the central cylindrical volume were calculated using DICOMan software. The doses per 100 MU to the reference point (SAD=100cm, Depth=10cm, Field=10X10cm, 6MV photon beam) in a virtual cubic phantom (30X30X30cm) were calculated using Eclipse TPS (calculation model: AcurosXB-11031) by assigning the CT numbers to HU of typical materials acquired by various protocols. Results: For the inserts of densities less than muscle, CT number fluctuations of all protocols were within the tolerance of 10 HU as accepted by AAPM-TG66. For more condensed materials, fixed kV yielded stable HU with any mA combination where largest disparities were found in 1750mg/cc insert: HU{sub reference}=1801(106.6cGy), HU{sub minimum}=1799 (106.6cGy, error{sub dose}=0.00%), HU{sub maximum}=1815 (106.8cGy, error{sub dose}=0.19%). Yet greater disagreements were observed with increasing density when kV was modified: HU{sub minimum}=1646 (104.5cGy, error{sub dose}=- 1.97%), HU{sub maximum}=2487 (116.4cGy, error{sub dose}=9.19%) in 1750mg/cc insert. Conclusion: Without affecting treatment dose calculation, personalized mA optimization of CT simulator can be conducted by fixing kV for a better cost-effectiveness of imaging dose and quality

  7. An autopsy case of otogenic intracranial abscess and meningitis with Bezold's abscess: evaluation of inflammatory bone destruction by postmortem cone-beam CT.

    PubMed

    Kanawaku, Yoshimasa; Yanase, Takeshi; Hayashi, Kino; Harada, Kazuki; Kanetake, Jun; Fukunaga, Tatsushige

    2013-11-01

    The deceased was an unidentified young male found unconscious on a walkway. On autopsy, outer and inner fistulae of the left temporal bone, subcutaneous abscess in the left side of the neck and head, and an intracranial abscess were noted. A portion of the left temporal bone was removed and scanned by cone-beam computed tomography (CT) (normally used for dentistry applications) to evaluate the lesion. The cone-beam CT image revealed roughening of the bone wall and hypolucency of the mastoid air cells, consistent with an inflammatory bone lesion. According to autopsy and imaging findings, the cause of death was diagnosed as intracranial abscess with Bezold's abscess secondary to left mastoiditis as a complication of otitis media. Although determining the histopathology of bone specimens is time-consuming and costly work, we believe that use of cone-beam CT for hard tissue specimens can be useful in forensic practice.

  8. Cone beam CT with zonal filters for simultaneous dose reduction, improved target contrast and automated set-up in radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Moore, C J; Marchant, T E; Amer, A M

    2006-05-07

    Cone beam CT (CBCT) using a zonal filter is introduced. The aims are reduced concomitant imaging dose to the patient, simultaneous control of body scatter for improved image quality in the tumour target zone and preserved set-up detail for radiotherapy. Aluminium transmission diaphragms added to the CBCT x-ray tube of the Elekta Synergytrade mark linear accelerator produced an unattenuated beam for a central "target zone" and a partially attenuated beam for an outer "set-up zone". Imaging doses and contrast noise ratios (CNR) were measured in a test phantom for transmission diaphragms 12 and 24 mm thick, for 5 and 10 cm long target zones. The effect on automatic registration of zonal CBCT to conventional CT was assessed relative to full-field and lead-collimated images of an anthropomorphic phantom. Doses along the axis of rotation were reduced by up to 50% in both target and set-up zones, and weighted dose (two thirds surface dose plus one third central dose) was reduced by 10-20% for a 10 cm long target zone. CNR increased by up to 15% in zonally filtered CBCT images compared to full-field images. Automatic image registration remained as robust as that with full-field images and was superior to CBCT coned down using lead-collimation. Zonal CBCT significantly reduces imaging dose and is expected to benefit radiotherapy through improved target contrast, required to assess target coverage, and wide-field edge detail, needed for robust automatic measurement of patient set-up error.

  9. Improving Image Quality of On-Board Cone-Beam CT in Radiation Therapy Using Image Information Provided by Planning Multi-Detector CT: A Phantom Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ching-Ching; Chen, Fong-Lin; Lo, Yeh-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to improve the image quality of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) mounted on the gantry of a linear accelerator used in radiation therapy based on the image information provided by planning multi-detector CT (MDCT). Methods MDCT-based shading correction for CBCT and virtual monochromatic CT (VMCT) synthesized using the dual-energy method were performed. In VMCT, the high-energy data were obtained from CBCT, while the low-energy data were obtained from MDCT. An electron density phantom was used to investigate the efficacy of shading correction and VMCT on improving the target detectability, Hounsfield unit (HU) accuracy and variation, which were quantified by calculating the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), the percent difference (%Diff) and the standard deviation of the CT numbers for tissue equivalent background material, respectively. Treatment plan studies for a chest phantom were conducted to investigate the effects of image quality improvement on dose planning. Results For the electron density phantom, the mean value of CNR was 17.84, 26.78 and 34.31 in CBCT, shading-corrected CBCT and VMCT, respectively. The mean value of %Diff was 152.67%, 11.93% and 7.66% in CBCT, shading-corrected CBCT and VMCT, respectively. The standard deviation within a uniform background of CBCT, shading-corrected CBCT and VMCT was 85, 23 and 15 HU, respectively. With regards to the chest phantom, the monitor unit (MU) difference between the treatment plan calculated using MDCT and those based on CBCT, shading corrected CBCT and VMCT was 6.32%, 1.05% and 0.94%, respectively. Conclusions Enhancement of image quality in on-board CBCT can contribute to daily patient setup and adaptive dose delivery, thus enabling higher confidence in patient treatment accuracy in radiation therapy. Based on our results, VMCT has the highest image quality, followed by the shading corrected CBCT and the original CBCT. The research results presented in this study should be

  10. Cone beam CT imaging with limited angle of projections and prior knowledge for volumetric verification of non-coplanar beam radiation therapy: a proof of concept study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Bowen; Xing, Lei; Han, Bin; Koong, Albert; Chang, Daniel; Cheng, Jason; Li, Ruijiang

    2013-11-01

    Non-coplanar beams are important for treatment of both cranial and noncranial tumors. Treatment verification of such beams with couch rotation/kicks, however, is challenging, particularly for the application of cone beam CT (CBCT). In this situation, only limited and unconventional imaging angles are feasible to avoid collision between the gantry, couch, patient, and on-board imaging system. The purpose of this work is to develop a CBCT verification strategy for patients undergoing non-coplanar radiation therapy. We propose an image reconstruction scheme that integrates a prior image constrained compressed sensing (PICCS) technique with image registration. Planning CT or CBCT acquired at the neutral position is rotated and translated according to the nominal couch rotation/translation to serve as the initial prior image. Here, the nominal couch movement is chosen to have a rotational error of 5° and translational error of 8 mm from the ground truth in one or more axes or directions. The proposed reconstruction scheme alternates between two major steps. First, an image is reconstructed using the PICCS technique implemented with total-variation minimization and simultaneous algebraic reconstruction. Second, the rotational/translational setup errors are corrected and the prior image is updated by applying rigid image registration between the reconstructed image and the previous prior image. The PICCS algorithm and rigid image registration are alternated iteratively until the registration results fall below a predetermined threshold. The proposed reconstruction algorithm is evaluated with an anthropomorphic digital phantom and physical head phantom. The proposed algorithm provides useful volumetric images for patient setup using projections with an angular range as small as 60°. It reduced the translational setup errors from 8 mm to generally <1 mm and the rotational setup errors from 5° to <1°. Compared with the PICCS algorithm alone, the integration of rigid

  11. Pulmonary Masses: Initial Results of Cone-beam CT Guidance with Needle Planning Software for Percutaneous Lung Biopsy

    SciTech Connect

    Braak, Sicco J.; Herder, Gerarda J. M.; Heesewijk, Johannes P. M. van Strijen, Marco J. L. van

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcome of percutaneous lung biopsy (PLB) findings using cone-beam computed tomographic (CT) guidance (CBCT guidance) and compared to conventional biopsy guidance techniques. Methods: CBCT guidance is a stereotactic technique for needle interventions, combining 3D soft-tissue cone-beam CT, needle planning software, and real-time fluoroscopy. Between March 2007 and August 2010, we performed 84 Tru-Cut PLBs, where bronchoscopy did not provide histopathologic diagnosis. Mean patient age was 64.6 (range 24-85) years; 57 patients were men, and 25 were women. Records were prospectively collected for calculating sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy. We also registered fluoroscopy time, room time, interventional time, dose-area product (DAP), and complications. Procedures were divided into subgroups (e.g., location, size, operator). Results: Mean lesion diameter was 32.5 (range 3.0-93.0) mm, and the mean number of samples per biopsy procedure was 3.2 (range 1-7). Mean fluoroscopy time was 161 (range 104-551) s, room time was 34 (range 15-79) min, mean DAP value was 25.9 (range 3.9-80.5) Gy{center_dot}cm{sup -2}, and interventional time was 18 (range 5-65) min. Of 84 lesions, 70 were malignant (83.3%) and 14 were benign (16.7%). Seven (8.3%) of the biopsy samples were nondiagnostic. All nondiagnostic biopsied lesions proved to be malignant during surgical resection. The outcome for sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy was 90% (95% confidence interval [CI] 86-96), 100% (95% CI 82-100), 100% (95% CI 96-100), 66.7% (95% CI 55-83), and 91.7% (95% CI 86-96), respectively. Sixteen patients (19%) had minor and 2 (2.4%) had major complications. Conclusion: CBCT guidance is an effective method for PLB, with results comparable to CT/CT fluoroscopy guidance.

  12. [Comparison of a dental cone beam CT with a multi-detector row CT on effective doses and physical image quality].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Yutaka; Tokumori, Kenji; Okamura, Kazutoshi; Yoshiura, Kazunori

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare a dental cone beam computed tomography (dental CBCT) and a multi-detector row CT (MDCT) using effective doses and physical image quality. A dental mode (D-mode) and an implant mode (I-mode) were employed for calculating effective doses. Field of view (FOV) size of the MDCT was 150 mm. Three types of images were obtained using 3 different reconstruction functions: FC1 (for abdomen images), FC30 (for internal ear and bone images) and FC81 (for high resolution images). Effective doses obtained with the D-mode and with the I-mode were about 20% and 50% of those obtained with the MDCT, respectively. Resolution properties obtained with the D-mode and I-mode were superior to that of the MDCT in a high frequency range. Noise properties of the D-mode and the I-mode were better than those with FC81. It was found that the dental CBCT has better potential as compared with MDCT in both dental and implant modes.

  13. SU-E-I-57: Evaluation and Optimization of Effective-Dose Using Different Beam-Hardening Filters in Clinical Pediatric Shunt CT Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, K; Aldoohan, S; Collier, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Study image optimization and radiation dose reduction in pediatric shunt CT scanning protocol through the use of different beam-hardening filters Methods: A 64-slice CT scanner at OU Childrens Hospital has been used to evaluate CT image contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and measure effective-doses based on the concept of CT dose index (CTDIvol) using the pediatric head shunt scanning protocol. The routine axial pediatric head shunt scanning protocol that has been optimized for the intrinsic x-ray tube filter has been used to evaluate CNR by acquiring images using the ACR approved CT-phantom and radiation dose CTphantom, which was used to measure CTDIvol. These results were set as reference points to study and evaluate the effects of adding different filtering materials (i.e. Tungsten, Tantalum, Titanium, Nickel and Copper filters) to the existing filter on image quality and radiation dose. To ensure optimal image quality, the scanner routine air calibration was run for each added filter. The image CNR was evaluated for different kVps and wide range of mAs values using above mentioned beam-hardening filters. These scanning protocols were run under axial as well as under helical techniques. The CTDIvol and the effective-dose were measured and calculated for all scanning protocols and added filtration, including the intrinsic x-ray tube filter. Results: Beam-hardening filter shapes energy spectrum, which reduces the dose by 27%. No noticeable changes in image low contrast detectability Conclusion: Effective-dose is very much dependent on the CTDIVol, which is further very much dependent on beam-hardening filters. Substantial reduction in effective-dose is realized using beam-hardening filters as compare to the intrinsic filter. This phantom study showed that significant radiation dose reduction could be achieved in CT pediatric shunt scanning protocols without compromising in diagnostic value of image quality.

  14. Evaluation of the cone beam CT for internal target volume localization in lung stereotactic radiotherapy in comparison with 4D MIP images

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lu; Chen, Xiaoming; Lin, Mu-Han; Lin, Teh; Fan, Jiajin; Jin, Lihui; Ma, Charlie M.; Xue, Jun

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate whether the three-dimensional cone-beam CT (CBCT) is clinically equivalent to the four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) maximum intensity projection (MIP) reconstructed images for internal target volume (ITV) localization in image-guided lung stereotactic radiotherapy.Methods: A ball-shaped polystyrene phantom with built-in cube, sphere, and cone of known volumes was attached to a motor-driven platform, which simulates a sinusoidal movement with changeable motion amplitude and frequency. Target motion was simulated in the patient in a superior-inferior (S-I) direction with three motion periods and 2 cm peak-to-peak amplitudes. The Varian onboard Exact-Arms kV CBCT system and the GE LightSpeed four-slice CT integrated with the respiratory-position-management 4DCT scanner were used to scan the moving phantom. MIP images were generated from the 4DCT images. The clinical equivalence of the two sets of images was evaluated by comparing the extreme locations of the moving objects along the motion direction, the centroid position of the ITV, and the ITV volumes that were contoured automatically by Velocity or calculated with an imaging gradient method. The authors compared the ITV volumes determined by the above methods with those theoretically predicted by taking into account the physical object dimensions and the motion amplitudes. The extreme locations were determined by the gradient method along the S-I axis through the center of the object. The centroid positions were determined by autocenter functions. The effect of motion period on the volume sizes was also studied.Results: It was found that the extreme locations of the objects determined from the two image modalities agreed with each other satisfactorily. They were not affected by the motion period. The average difference between the two modalities in the extreme locations was 0.68% for the cube, 1.35% for the sphere, and 0.5% for the cone, respectively. The maximum difference in the

  15. Microcalcification detection using cone-beam CT mammography with a flat-panel imager.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xing; Vedula, Aruna A; Glick, Stephen J

    2004-06-07

    The purpose of this study was to investigate microcalcification detectability using CT mammography with a flat-panel imager. To achieve this, a computer simulation was developed to model an amorphous-silicon, CsI based flat-panel imager system using a linear cascaded model. The breast was modelled as a hemi-ellipsoid shape with composition of 50% adipose and 50% glandular tissue. Microcalcifications were modelled as small spheres having a composition of calcium carbonate. The results show that with a mean glandular dose equivalent to that typically used in two-view screening mammography, CT mammography with a flat-panel detector is capable of providing images where most microcalcifications are detectable. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) study was conducted by five physicist observers viewing simulated CT mammography reconstructions. The results suggest that the microcalcification with its diameter equal to or greater than 0.175 mm can be detected with an average area under the ROC curve (AUC) greater than 0.95 using 0.1 or 0.2 mm pixelized detectors. The results also indicate that the optimal pixel size of the detector is around 0.2 mm for microcalcification detection, based on the trade-off between detectability of microcalcifications and the time required for data acquisition and reconstruction.

  16. TH-A-18C-04: Ultrafast Cone-Beam CT Scatter Correction with GPU-Based Monte Carlo Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Y; Bai, T; Yan, H; Ouyang, L; Wang, J; Pompos, A; Jiang, S; Jia, X; Zhou, L

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Scatter artifacts severely degrade image quality of cone-beam CT (CBCT). We present an ultrafast scatter correction framework by using GPU-based Monte Carlo (MC) simulation and prior patient CT image, aiming at automatically finish the whole process including both scatter correction and reconstructions within 30 seconds. Methods: The method consists of six steps: 1) FDK reconstruction using raw projection data; 2) Rigid Registration of planning CT to the FDK results; 3) MC scatter calculation at sparse view angles using the planning CT; 4) Interpolation of the calculated scatter signals to other angles; 5) Removal of scatter from the raw projections; 6) FDK reconstruction using the scatter-corrected projections. In addition to using GPU to accelerate MC photon simulations, we also use a small number of photons and a down-sampled CT image in simulation to further reduce computation time. A novel denoising algorithm is used to eliminate MC scatter noise caused by low photon numbers. The method is validated on head-and-neck cases with simulated and clinical data. Results: We have studied impacts of photo histories, volume down sampling factors on the accuracy of scatter estimation. The Fourier analysis was conducted to show that scatter images calculated at 31 angles are sufficient to restore those at all angles with <0.1% error. For the simulated case with a resolution of 512×512×100, we simulated 10M photons per angle. The total computation time is 23.77 seconds on a Nvidia GTX Titan GPU. The scatter-induced shading/cupping artifacts are substantially reduced, and the average HU error of a region-of-interest is reduced from 75.9 to 19.0 HU. Similar results were found for a real patient case. Conclusion: A practical ultrafast MC-based CBCT scatter correction scheme is developed. The whole process of scatter correction and reconstruction is accomplished within 30 seconds. This study is supported in part by NIH (1R01CA154747-01), The Core Technology Research

  17. Antiscatter grids in mobile C-arm cone-beam CT: Effect on image quality and dose

    SciTech Connect

    Schafer, S.; Stayman, J.W.; Zbijewski, W.; Schmidgunst, C.; Kleinszig, G.; Siewerdsen, J.H.

    2012-01-15

    Purpose: X-ray scatter is a major detriment to image quality in cone-beam CT (CBCT). Existing geometries exhibit strong differences in scatter susceptibility with more compact geometries, e.g., dental or musculoskeletal, benefiting from antiscatter grids, whereas in more extended geometries, e.g., IGRT, grid use carries tradeoffs in image quality per unit dose. This work assesses the tradeoffs in dose and image quality for grids applied in the context of low-dose CBCT on a mobile C-arm for image-guided surgery. Methods: Studies were performed on a mobile C-arm equipped with a flat-panel detector for high-quality CBCT. Antiscatter grids of grid ratio (GR) 6:1-12:1, 40 lp/cm, were tested in ''body'' surgery, i.e., spine, using protocols for bone and soft-tissue visibility in the thoracic and abdominal spine. Studies focused on grid orientation, CT number accuracy, image noise, and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in quantitative phantoms at constant dose. Results: There was no effect of grid orientation on possible gridline artifacts, given accurate angle-dependent gain calibration. Incorrect calibration was found to result in gridline shadows in the projection data that imparted high-frequency artifacts in 3D reconstructions. Increasing GR reduced errors in CT number from 31%, thorax, and 37%, abdomen, for gridless operation to 2% and 10%, respectively, with a 12:1 grid, while image noise increased by up to 70%. The CNR of high-contrast objects was largely unaffected by grids, but low-contrast soft-tissues suffered reduction in CNR, 2%-65%, across the investigated GR at constant dose. Conclusions: While grids improved CT number accuracy, soft-tissue CNR was reduced due to attenuation of primary radiation. CNR could be restored by increasing dose by factors of {approx}1.6-2.5 depending on GR, e.g., increase from 4.6 mGy for the thorax and 12.5 mGy for the abdomen without antiscatter grids to approximately 12 mGy and 30 mGy, respectively, with a high-GR grid. However

  18. Ultrafast and scalable cone-beam CT reconstruction using MapReduce in a cloud computing environment

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Bowen; Pratx, Guillem; Xing, Lei

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Four-dimensional CT (4DCT) and cone beam CT (CBCT) are widely used in radiation therapy for accurate tumor target definition and localization. However, high-resolution and dynamic image reconstruction is computationally demanding because of the large amount of data processed. Efficient use of these imaging techniques in the clinic requires high-performance computing. The purpose of this work is to develop a novel ultrafast, scalable and reliable image reconstruction technique for 4D CBCT/CT using a parallel computing framework called MapReduce. We show the utility of MapReduce for solving large-scale medical physics problems in a cloud computing environment. Methods: In this work, we accelerated the Feldcamp–Davis–Kress (FDK) algorithm by porting it to Hadoop, an open-source MapReduce implementation. Gated phases from a 4DCT scans were reconstructed independently. Following the MapReduce formalism, Map functions were used to filter and backproject subsets of projections, and Reduce function to aggregate those partial backprojection into the whole volume. MapReduce automatically parallelized the reconstruction process on a large cluster of computer nodes. As a validation, reconstruction of a digital phantom and an acquired CatPhan 600 phantom was performed on a commercial cloud computing environment using the proposed 4D CBCT/CT reconstruction algorithm. Results: Speedup of reconstruction time is found to be roughly linear with the number of nodes employed. For instance, greater than 10 times speedup was achieved using 200 nodes for all cases, compared to the same code executed on a single machine. Without modifying the code, faster reconstruction is readily achievable by allocating more nodes in the cloud computing environment. Root mean square error between the images obtained using MapReduce and a single-threaded reference implementation was on the order of 10−7. Our study also proved that cloud computing with MapReduce is fault tolerant: the

  19. Antiscatter grids in mobile C-arm cone-beam CT: Effect on image quality and dose

    PubMed Central

    Schafer, S.; W. Stayman, J.; Zbijewski, W.; Schmidgunst, C.; Kleinszig, G.; H. Siewerdsen, J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: X-ray scatter is a major detriment to image quality in cone-beam CT (CBCT). Existing geometries exhibit strong differences in scatter susceptibility with more compact geometries, e.g., dental or musculoskeletal, benefiting from antiscatter grids, whereas in more extended geometries, e.g., IGRT, grid use carries tradeoffs in image quality per unit dose. This work assesses the tradeoffs in dose and image quality for grids applied in the context of low-dose CBCT on a mobile C-arm for image-guided surgery.Methods: Studies were performed on a mobile C-arm equipped with a flat-panel detector for high-quality CBCT. Antiscatter grids of grid ratio (GR) 6:1–12:1, 40 lp/cm, were tested in “body” surgery, i.e., spine, using protocols for bone and soft-tissue visibility in the thoracic and abdominal spine. Studies focused on grid orientation, CT number accuracy, image noise, and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in quantitative phantoms at constant dose.Results: There was no effect of grid orientation on possible gridline artifacts, given accurate angle-dependent gain calibration. Incorrect calibration was found to result in gridline shadows in the projection data that imparted high-frequency artifacts in 3D reconstructions. Increasing GR reduced errors in CT number from 31%, thorax, and 37%, abdomen, for gridless operation to 2% and 10%, respectively, with a 12:1 grid, while image noise increased by up to 70%. The CNR of high-contrast objects was largely unaffected by grids, but low-contrast soft-tissues suffered reduction in CNR, 2%–65%, across the investigated GR at constant dose.Conclusions: While grids improved CT number accuracy, soft-tissue CNR was reduced due to attenuation of primary radiation. CNR could be restored by increasing dose by factors of ∼1.6–2.5 depending on GR, e.g., increase from 4.6 mGy for the thorax and 12.5 mGy for the abdomen without antiscatter grids to approximately 12 mGy and 30 mGy, respectively, with a high-GR grid. However

  20. Investigation into image quality and dose for different patient geometries with multiple cone-beam CT systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, Stephen J.; Studenski, Matthew T.; Giaddui, Tawfik; Galvin, James; Yu, Yan; Xiao, Ying; Cui, Yunfeng

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To provide quantitative and qualitative image quality metrics and imaging dose for modern Varian On-board Imager (OBI) (ver. 1.5) and Elekta X-ray Volume Imager (XVI) (ver. 4.5R) cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) systems in a clinical adaptive radiation therapy environment by accounting for varying patient thickness. Methods: Image quality measurements were acquired with Catphan 504 phantom (nominal diameter and with additional 10 cm thickness) for OBI and XVI systems and compared to planning CT (pCT) (GE LightSpeed). Various clinical protocols were analyzed for the OBI and XVI systems and analyzed using image quality metrics, including spatial resolution, low contrast detectability, uniformity, and HU sensitivity. Imaging dose measurements were acquired in Wellhofer Scanditronix i'mRT phantom at nominal phantom diameter and with additional 4 cm phantom diameter using GafChromic XRQA2 film. Calibration curves were generated using previously published in-air Air Kerma calibration method. Results: The OBI system full trajectory scans exhibited very little dependence on phantom thickness for accurate HU calculation, while half-trajectory scans with full-fan filter exhibited dependence of HU calculation on phantom thickness. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) for the OBI scans decreased with additional phantom thickness. The uniformity of Head protocol scan was most significantly affected with additional phantom thickness. The spatial resolution and CNR compared favorably with pCT, while the uniformity of the OBI system was slightly inferior to pCT. The OBI scan protocol dose levels for nominal phantom thickness at the central portion of the phantom were 2.61, 0.72, and 1.88 cGy, and for additional phantom thickness were 1.95, 0.48, and 1.52 cGy, for the Pelvis, Thorax, and Spotlight protocols, respectively. The XVI system scans exhibited dependence on phantom thickness for accurate HU calculation regardless of trajectory. The CNR for the XVI scans decreased

  1. Investigation into image quality and dose for different patient geometries with multiple cone-beam CT systems

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Stephen J.; Studenski, Matthew T.; Giaddui, Tawfik; Cui, Yunfeng; Galvin, James; Yu, Yan; Xiao, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To provide quantitative and qualitative image quality metrics and imaging dose for modern Varian On-board Imager (OBI) (ver. 1.5) and Elekta X-ray Volume Imager (XVI) (ver. 4.5R) cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) systems in a clinical adaptive radiation therapy environment by accounting for varying patient thickness. Methods: Image quality measurements were acquired with Catphan 504 phantom (nominal diameter and with additional 10 cm thickness) for OBI and XVI systems and compared to planning CT (pCT) (GE LightSpeed). Various clinical protocols were analyzed for the OBI and XVI systems and analyzed using image quality metrics, including spatial resolution, low contrast detectability, uniformity, and HU sensitivity. Imaging dose measurements were acquired in Wellhofer Scanditronix i'mRT phantom at nominal phantom diameter and with additional 4 cm phantom diameter using GafChromic XRQA2 film. Calibration curves were generated using previously published in-air Air Kerma calibration method. Results: The OBI system full trajectory scans exhibited very little dependence on phantom thickness for accurate HU calculation, while half-trajectory scans with full-fan filter exhibited dependence of HU calculation on phantom thickness. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) for the OBI scans decreased with additional phantom thickness. The uniformity of Head protocol scan was most significantly affected with additional phantom thickness. The spatial resolution and CNR compared favorably with pCT, while the uniformity of the OBI system was slightly inferior to pCT. The OBI scan protocol dose levels for nominal phantom thickness at the central portion of the phantom were 2.61, 0.72, and 1.88 cGy, and for additional phantom thickness were 1.95, 0.48, and 1.52 cGy, for the Pelvis, Thorax, and Spotlight protocols, respectively. The XVI system scans exhibited dependence on phantom thickness for accurate HU calculation regardless of trajectory. The CNR for the XVI scans decreased

  2. High-quality 3D correction of ring and radiant artifacts in flat panel detector-based cone beam volume CT imaging.

    PubMed

    Anas, Emran Mohammad Abu; Kim, Jae Gon; Lee, Soo Yeol; Hasan, Md Kamrul

    2011-10-07

    The use of an x-ray flat panel detector is increasingly becoming popular in 3D cone beam volume CT machines. Due to the deficient semiconductor array manufacturing process, the cone beam projection data are often corrupted by different types of abnormalities, which cause severe ring and radiant artifacts in a cone beam reconstruction image, and as a result, the diagnostic image quality is degraded. In this paper, a novel technique is presented for the correction of error in the 2D cone beam projections due to abnormalities often observed in 2D x-ray flat panel detectors. Template images are derived from the responses of the detector pixels using their statistical properties and then an effective non-causal derivative-based detection algorithm in 2D space is presented for the detection of defective and mis-calibrated detector elements separately. An image inpainting-based 3D correction scheme is proposed for the estimation of responses of defective detector elements, and the responses of the mis-calibrated detector elements are corrected using the normalization technique. For real-time implementation, a simplification of the proposed off-line method is also suggested. Finally, the proposed algorithms are tested using different real cone beam volume CT images and the experimental results demonstrate that the proposed methods can effectively remove ring and radiant artifacts from cone beam volume CT images compared to other reported techniques in the literature.

  3. Image quality improvement in megavoltage cone beam CT using an imaging beam line and a sintered pixelated array system

    SciTech Connect

    Breitbach, Elizabeth K.; Maltz, Jonathan S.; Gangadharan, Bijumon; Bani-Hashemi, Ali; Anderson, Carryn M.; Bhatia, Sudershan K.; Stiles, Jared; Edwards, Drake S.; Flynn, Ryan T.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To quantify the improvement in megavoltage cone beam computed tomography (MVCBCT) image quality enabled by the combination of a 4.2 MV imaging beam line (IBL) with a carbon electron target and a detector system equipped with a novel sintered pixelated array (SPA) of translucent Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S ceramic scintillator. Clinical MVCBCT images are traditionally acquired with the same 6 MV treatment beam line (TBL) that is used for cancer treatment, a standard amorphous Si (a-Si) flat panel imager, and the Kodak Lanex Fast-B (LFB) scintillator. The IBL produces a greater fluence of keV-range photons than the TBL, to which the detector response is more optimal, and the SPA is a more efficient scintillator than the LFB. Methods: A prototype IBL + SPA system was installed on a Siemens Oncor linear accelerator equipped with the MVision{sup TM} image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) system. A SPA strip consisting of four neighboring tiles and measuring 40 cm by 10.96 cm in the crossplane and inplane directions, respectively, was installed in the flat panel imager. Head- and pelvis-sized phantom images were acquired at doses ranging from 3 to 60 cGy with three MVCBCT configurations: TBL + LFB, IBL + LFB, and IBL + SPA. Phantom image quality at each dose was quantified using the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and modulation transfer function (MTF) metrics. Head and neck, thoracic, and pelvic (prostate) cancer patients were imaged with the three imaging system configurations at multiple doses ranging from 3 to 15 cGy. The systems were assessed qualitatively from the patient image data. Results: For head and neck and pelvis-sized phantom images, imaging doses of 3 cGy or greater, and relative electron densities of 1.09 and 1.48, the CNR average improvement factors for imaging system change of TBL + LFB to IBL + LFB, IBL + LFB to IBL + SPA, and TBL + LFB to IBL + SPA were 1.63 (p < 10{sup -8}), 1.64 (p < 10{sup -13}), 2.66 (p < 10{sup -9}), respectively. For all imaging

  4. Cone beam CT as an aid to diagnosing mixed radiopaque radiolucent lesions in the mandibular incisor region

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Unni; Al Maslamani, Manal; Moule, Alex J

    2015-01-01

    We present two cases where the identities of mixed radiopaque radiolucent lesions in the lower incisor region were unclear, although the position of the lesions and positive pulp sensitivity tests were suggestive of periapical osseous dysplasia. In the first case, the lesion presented as a solitary round mixed radiopaque radiolucent periapical lesion, suggestive in some images as periapical osseous dysplasia. Cone beam CT (CBCT) provided clear images, which confirmed the diagnosis and, additionally, the images showed evidence of initial lesions associated with other anterior teeth and some destruction of the labial plate, not evident on the conventional radiographs. In the second case, radiopacities were identified within the lesion on conventional radiographs, but CBCT imaging also showed extensive and unexpected perforation of the lingual plate. Such destruction of cortical plates may be a feature of periapical osseous dysplasia, which is not visible in conventional radiography. PMID:25576510

  5. WE-FG-207A-03: Low-Dose Cone-Beam Breast CT: Physics and Technology Development.

    PubMed

    Boone, J

    2016-06-01

    dedicated breast CT. The development of large-area flat-panel detectors with field-of-view sufficient to image the entire breast in each projection enabled development of flat-panel cone-beam breast CT. More recently, the availability of complimentary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) detectors with lower system noise and finer pixel pitch, combined with the development of x-ray tubes with focal spot dimensions similar to mammography systems, has shown improved spatial resolution and could improve visualization of microcalcifications. These technological developments promise clinical translation of low-dose cone-beam breast CT. Dedicated photon-counting breast CT (pcBCT) systems represent a novel detector design, which provide high spatial resolution (∼ 100µm) and low mean glandular dose (MGD). The CdTe-based direct conversion detector technology was previously evaluated and confirmed by simulations and basic experiments on laboratory setups [Kalender et al., Eur Radiol 22: 1-8, 2012]. Measurements of dose, technical image quality parameters, and surgical specimens on a pcBCT scanner have been completed. Comparative evaluation of surgical specimens showed that pcBCT outperformed mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis with respect to 3D spatial resolution, detectability of calcifications, and soft tissue delineation. Major barriers to widespread clinical use of BCT relate to radiation dose, imaging of microcalcifications, and adequate coverage of breast tissue near the chest wall. Adequate chest wall coverage is also technically challenging but recent progress in x-ray tube, detector and table design now enables full breast coverage in the majority of patients. At this time, BCT has been deemed to be suitable for diagnostic imaging but not yet for screening. The mean glandular dose (MGD) from BCT has been reported to be between 5.7 to 27.8 mGy, and this range is comparable to, and within the range of, the MGD of 2.6 to 31.6 mGy in diagnostic mammography. In

  6. Five-dimensional motion compensation for respiratory and cardiac motion with cone-beam CT of the thorax region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauppe, Sebastian; Hahn, Andreas; Brehm, Marcus; Paysan, Pascal; Seghers, Dieter; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2016-03-01

    We propose an adapted method of our previously published five-dimensional (5D) motion compensation (MoCo) algorithm1, developed for micro-CT imaging of small animals, to provide for the first time motion artifact-free 5D cone-beam CT (CBCT) images from a conventional flat detector-based CBCT scan of clinical patients. Image quality of retrospectively respiratory- and cardiac-gated volumes from flat detector CBCT scans is deteriorated by severe sparse projection artifacts. These artifacts further complicate motion estimation, as it is required for MoCo image reconstruction. For high quality 5D CBCT images at the same x-ray dose and the same number of projections as todays 3D CBCT we developed a double MoCo approach based on motion vector fields (MVFs) for respiratory and cardiac motion. In a first step our already published four-dimensional (4D) artifact-specific cyclic motion-compensation (acMoCo) approach is applied to compensate for the respiratory patient motion. With this information a cyclic phase-gated deformable heart registration algorithm is applied to the respiratory motion-compensated 4D CBCT data, thus resulting in cardiac MVFs. We apply these MVFs on double-gated images and thereby respiratory and cardiac motion-compensated 5D CBCT images are obtained. Our 5D MoCo approach processing patient data acquired with the TrueBeam 4D CBCT system (Varian Medical Systems). Our double MoCo approach turned out to be very efficient and removed nearly all streak artifacts due to making use of 100% of the projection data for each reconstructed frame. The 5D MoCo patient data show fine details and no motion blurring, even in regions close to the heart where motion is fastest.

  7. SU-D-207-01: Markerless Respiratory Motion Tracking with Contrast Enhanced Thoracic Cone Beam CT Projections

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, M; Yuan, Y; Rosenzweig, K; Lo, Y; Brousmiche, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a novel technique to enhance the image contrast of clinical cone beam CT projections and extract respiratory signals based on anatomical motion using the modified Amsterdam Shroud (AS) method to benefit image guided radiation therapy. Methods: Thoracic cone beam CT projections acquired prior to treatment were preprocessed to increase their contrast for better respiratory signal extraction. Air intensity on raw images was firstly estimated and then applied to correct the projections to generate new attenuation images that were subsequently improved with deeper anatomy feature enhancement through taking logarithm operation, derivative along superior-inferior direction, respectively. All pixels on individual post-processed two dimensional images were horizontally summed to one column and all projections were combined side by side to create an AS image from which patient’s respiratory signal was extracted. The impact of gantry rotation on the breathing signal rendering was also investigated. Ten projection image sets from five lung cancer patients acquired with the Varian Onboard Imager on 21iX Clinac (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) were employed to assess the proposed technique. Results: Application of the air correction on raw projections showed that more than an order of magnitude of contrast enhancement was achievable. The typical contrast on the raw projections is around 0.02 while that on attenuation images could greater than 0.5. Clear and stable breathing signal can be reliably extracted from the new images while the uncorrected projection sets failed to yield clear signals most of the time. Conclusion: Anatomy feature plays a key role in yielding breathing signal from the projection images using the AS technique. The air correction process facilitated the contrast enhancement significantly and attenuation images thus obtained provides a practical solution to obtaining markerless breathing motion tracking.

  8. A comprehensive study on decreasing the kilovoltage cone-beam CT dose by reducing the projection number.

    PubMed

    Lu, Bo; Lu, Haibin; Palta, Jatinder

    2010-05-12

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of kilovoltage cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) on registration accuracy and image qualities with a reduced number of planar projections used in volumetric imaging reconstruction. The ultimate goal is to evaluate the possibility of reducing the patient dose while maintaining registration accuracy under different projection-number schemes for various clinical sites. An Elekta Synergy Linear accelerator with an onboard CBCT system was used in this study. The quality of the Elekta XVI cone-beam three-dimensional volumetric images reconstructed with a decreasing number of projections was quantitatively evaluated by a Catphan phantom. Subsequently, we tested the registration accuracy of imaging data sets on three rigid anthropomorphic phantoms and three real patient sites under the reduced projection-number (as low as 1/6th) reconstruction of CBCT data with different rectilinear shifts and rota-tions. CBCT scan results of the Catphan phantom indicated the CBCT images got noisier when the number of projections was reduced, but their spatial resolution and uniformity were hardly affected. The maximum registration errors under the small amount transformation of the reference CT images were found to be within 0.7 mm translation and 0.3 masculine rotation. However, when the projection number was lower than one-fourth of the full set with a large amount of transformation of reference CT images, the registration could easily be trapped into local minima solutions for a nonrigid anatomy. We concluded, by using projection-number reduction strategy under conscientious care, imaging-guided localization procedure could achieve a lower patient dose without losing the registration accuracy for various clinical sites and situations. A faster scanning time is the main advantage compared to the mA decrease-based, dose-reduction method.

  9. CT-Guided 125I Seed Interstitial Brachytherapy as a Salvage Treatment for Recurrent Spinal Metastases after External Beam Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Lihong; Cao, Qianqian; Yang, Jiwen; Meng, Na; Guo, Fuxin; Jiang, Yuliang; Tian, Suqing; Sun, Haitao

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility, safety, and clinical efficacy of CT-guided 125I seed interstitial brachytherapy in patients with recurrent spinal metastases after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Between August 2003 and September 2015, 26 spinal metastatic lesions (24 patients) were reirradiated by this salvage therapy modality. Treatment for all patients was preplanned using a three-dimensional treatment planning system 3–5 days before 125I seed interstitial brachytherapy; dosimetry verification was performed immediately after seed implantation. Median actual D90 was 99 Gy (range, 90–176), and spinal cord median Dmax was 39 Gy (range, 6–110). Median local control (LC) was 12 months (95% CI: 7.0–17.0). The 6- and 12-month LC rates were 52% and 40%, respectively. Median overall survival (OS) was 11 months (95% CI: 7.7–14.3); 6-month and 1-, 2-, and 3-year OS rates were 65%, 37%, 14%, and 9%, respectively. Pain-free survival ranged from 2 to 42 months (median, 6; 95% CI: 4.6–7.4). Treatment was well-tolerated, with no radiation-induced vertebral compression fractures or myelopathy reported. Reirradiation with CT-guided 125I seed interstitial brachytherapy appears to be feasible, safe, and effective as pain relief or salvage treatment for patients with recurrent spinal metastases after EBRT. PMID:28105434

  10. GPU-based streaming architectures for fast cone-beam CT image reconstruction and demons deformable registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, G. C.; Kandasamy, N.; Singh, H.; Folkert, M.

    2007-09-01

    This paper shows how to significantly accelerate cone-beam CT reconstruction and 3D deformable image registration using the stream-processing model. We describe data-parallel designs for the Feldkamp, Davis and Kress (FDK) reconstruction algorithm, and the demons deformable registration algorithm, suitable for use on a commodity graphics processing unit. The streaming versions of these algorithms are implemented using the Brook programming environment and executed on an NVidia 8800 GPU. Performance results using CT data of a preserved swine lung indicate that the GPU-based implementations of the FDK and demons algorithms achieve a substantial speedup—up to 80 times for FDK and 70 times for demons when compared to an optimized reference implementation on a 2.8 GHz Intel processor. In addition, the accuracy of the GPU-based implementations was found to be excellent. Compared with CPU-based implementations, the RMS differences were less than 0.1 Hounsfield unit for reconstruction and less than 0.1 mm for deformable registration.

  11. Development of a 3D CT-scanner using a cone beam and video-fluoroscopic system.

    PubMed

    Endo, M; Yoshida, K; Kamagata, N; Satoh, K; Okazaki, T; Hattori, Y; Kobayashi, S; Jimbo, M; Kusakabe, M; Tateno, Y

    1998-01-01

    We describe the design and implementation of a system that acquires three-dimensional (3D) data of high-contrast objects such as bone, lung, and blood vessels (enhanced by contrast agent). This 3D computed tomography (CT) system is based on a cone beam and video-fluoroscopic system and yields data that is amenable to 3D image processing. An X-ray tube and a large area two-dimensional detector were mounted on a single frame and rotated around objects in 12 seconds. The large area detector consisted of a fluorescent plate and a charge coupled device (CCD) video camera. While the X-ray tube was rotated around the object, a pulsed X-ray was generated (30 pulses per second) and 360 projected images were collected in a 12-second scan. A 256 x 256 x 256 matrix image was reconstructed using a high-speed parallel processor. Reconstruction required approximately 6 minutes. Two volunteers underwent scans of the head or chest. High-contrast objects such as bronchial, vascular, and mediastinal structures in the thorax, or bones and air cavities in the head were delineated in a "real" 3D format. Our 3D CT-scanner appears to produce data useful for clinical imaging and 3D image processing.

  12. Technical Note: Improved CT number stability across patient size using dual-energy CT virtual monoenergetic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Michalak, Gregory; Grimes, Joshua; Fletcher, Joel; Yu, Lifeng; Leng, Shuai; McCollough, Cynthia; Halaweish, Ahmed

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate, over a wide range of phantom sizes, CT number stability achieved using two techniques for generating dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) virtual monoenergetic images. Methods: Water phantoms ranging in lateral diameter from 15 to 50 cm and containing a CT number test object were scanned on a DSCT scanner using both single-energy (SE) and dual-energy (DE) techniques. The SE tube potentials were 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 120, 130, 140, and 150 kV; the DE tube potential pairs were 80/140, 70/150Sn, 80/150Sn, 90/150Sn, and 100/150Sn kV (Sn denotes that the 150 kV beam was filtered with a 0.6 mm tin filter). Virtual monoenergetic images at energies ranging from 40 to 140 keV were produced from the DECT data using two algorithms, monoenergetic (mono) and monoenergetic plus (mono+). Particularly in large phantoms, water CT number errors and/or artifacts were observed; thus, datasets with water CT numbers outside ±10 HU or with noticeable artifacts were excluded from the study. CT numbers were measured to determine CT number stability across all phantom sizes. Results: Data exclusions were generally limited to cases when a SE or DE technique with a tube potential of less than 90 kV was used to scan a phantom larger than 30 cm. The 90/150Sn DE technique provided the most accurate water background over the large range of phantom sizes evaluated. Mono and mono+ provided equally improved CT number stability as a function of phantom size compared to SE; the average deviation in CT number was only 1.4% using 40 keV and 1.8% using 70 keV, while SE had an average deviation of 11.8%. Conclusions: The authors’ report demonstrates, across all phantom sizes, the improvement in CT number stability achieved with mono and mono+ relative to SE.

  13. High temporal resolution cardiac cone-beam CT using a slowly rotating C-arm gantry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guang-Hong; Tang, Jie; Nett, Brian; Leng, Shuai; Zambelli, Joseph; Qi, Zhihua; Bevins, Nick; Reeder, Scott; Rowley, Howard

    2009-02-01

    Purpose: To achieve three dimensional isotropic dynamic cardiac CT imaging with high temporal resolution for evaluation of cardiac function with a slowly rotating C-arm system. Method and Materials: A recently introduced extension to compressed sensing, viz. Prior Image Constrained Compressed Sensing (PICCS), in which a prior image is used as a constraint in the reconstruction has enabled this application. An in-vivo animal experiment (e.g. a beagle model) was conducted using an interventional C-arm system. The imaging protocol was as follows: contrast was injected, the contrast equilibrated, breathing was suspended for ~14 seconds during which time 420 equally spaced projections were acquired. This data set was used to reconstruct a fully sampled blurred image volume using the conventional FDK algorithm (e.g. the prior image). Then the data set was retrospectively gated into 19 phases according to the recorded ECG signal (heart rate ~ 95bpm) and images were reconstructed with the PICCS algorithm. Results: Cardiac MR was used as the gold standard due to its high temporal resolution. The same short-axis slice was selected from the PICCS-CT data set and the MR data set. Manual contouring on the peak systolic and peak diastolic frames was performed to assess the ejection fraction contribution from this single plane. The calculated ejection fractions with PICCS-CT agreed well with the MR results. Conclusion: We have demonstrated the ability to use a slowly rotating interventional C-arm system in order to make measurements of cardiac function. The new technique provides high isotropic spatial resolution (~0.5 mm) along with high temporal resolution (~ 33 ms). The evaluation of cardiac function demonstrated a great agreement with single slice cardiac MR.

  14. 4D cone beam CT-based dose assessment for SBRT lung cancer treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Weixing; Dhou, Salam; Cifter, Fulya; Myronakis, Marios; Hurwitz, Martina H.; Williams, Christopher L.; Berbeco, Ross I.; Seco, Joao; Lewis, John H.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a 4DCBCT-based dose assessment method for calculating actual delivered dose for patients with significant respiratory motion or anatomical changes during the course of SBRT. To address the limitation of 4DCT-based dose assessment, we propose to calculate the delivered dose using time-varying (‘fluoroscopic’) 3D patient images generated from a 4DCBCT-based motion model. The method includes four steps: (1) before each treatment, 4DCBCT data is acquired with the patient in treatment position, based on which a patient-specific motion model is created using a principal components analysis algorithm. (2) During treatment, 2D time-varying kV projection images are continuously acquired, from which time-varying ‘fluoroscopic’ 3D images of the patient are reconstructed using the motion model. (3) Lateral truncation artifacts are corrected using planning 4DCT images. (4) The 3D dose distribution is computed for each timepoint in the set of 3D fluoroscopic images, from which the total effective 3D delivered dose is calculated by accumulating deformed dose distributions. This approach is validated using six modified XCAT phantoms with lung tumors and different respiratory motions derived from patient data. The estimated doses are compared to that calculated using ground-truth XCAT phantoms. For each XCAT phantom, the calculated delivered tumor dose values generally follow the same trend as that of the ground truth and at most timepoints the difference is less than 5%. For the overall delivered dose, the normalized error of calculated 3D dose distribution is generally less than 3% and the tumor D95 error is less than 1.5%. XCAT phantom studies indicate the potential of the proposed method to accurately estimate 3D tumor dose distributions for SBRT lung treatment based on 4DCBCT imaging and motion modeling. Further research is necessary to investigate its performance for clinical patient data.

  15. Characterization of a parallel beam CCD optical-CT apparatus for 3D radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krstajić, Nikola; Doran, Simon J.

    2006-12-01

    This paper describes the initial steps we have taken in establishing CCD based optical-CT as a viable alternative for 3-D radiation dosimetry. First, we compare the optical density (OD) measurements from a high quality test target and variable neutral density filter (VNDF). A modulation transfer function (MTF) of individual projections is derived for three positions of the sinusoidal test target within the scanning tank. Our CCD is then characterized in terms of its signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Finally, a sample reconstruction of a scan of a PRESAGETM (registered trademark of Heuris Pharma, NJ, Skillman, USA.) dosimeter is given, demonstrating the capabilities of the apparatus.

  16. TU-EF-204-12: Quantitative Evaluation of Spectral Detector CT Using Virtual Monochromatic Images: Initial Results

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, X; Guild, J; Arbique, G; Anderson, J; Dhanantwari, A; Yagil, Y

    2015-06-15

    Purpose To evaluate the image quality and spectral information of a spectral detector CT (SDCT) scanner using virtual monochromatic (VM) energy images. Methods The SDCT scanner (Philips Healthcare) was equipped with a dual-layer detector and spectral iterative reconstruction (IR), which generates conventional 80–140 kV polychromatic energy (PE) CT images using both detector layers, PE images from the low-energy (upper) and high-energy (lower) detector layers and VM images. A solid water phantom with iodine (2.0–20.0 mg I/ml) and calcium (50.0–600.0 mg Ca/ml) rod inserts was used to evaluate effective energy estimate (EEE) and iodine contrast to noise ratio (CNR). The EEE corresponding to an insert CT number in a PE image was calculated from a CT number fit to the VM image set. Since PE image is prone to beam-hardening artifact EEE may underestimate the actual energy separation from two layers of the detector. A 30-cm-diameter water phantom was used to evaluate noise power spectrum (NPS). The phantoms were scanned at 120 and 140 kV with the same CTDIvol. Results The CT number difference for contrast inserts in VM images (50–150 keV) was 1.3±6% between 120 and 140 kV scans. The difference of EEE calculated from low- and high-energy detector images was 11.5 and 16.7 keV for 120 and 140 kV scans, respectively. The differences calculated from 140 and 100 kV conventional PE images were 12.8, and 20.1 keV from 140 and 80 kV conventional PE images. The iodine CNR increased monotonically with decreased keV. Compared to conventional PE images, the peak of NPS curves from VM images were shifted to lower frequency. Conclusion The EEE results indicates that SDCT at 120 and 140 kV may have energy separation comparable to 100/140 kV and 80/140 kV dual-kV imaging. The effects of IR on CNR and NPS require further investigation for SDCT. Author YY and AD are Philips Healthcare employees.

  17. Accelerating statistical image reconstruction algorithms for fan-beam x-ray CT using cloud computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Somesh; Rao, A. Ravishankar; Sheinin, Vadim

    2011-03-01

    Statistical image reconstruction algorithms potentially offer many advantages to x-ray computed tomography (CT), e.g. lower radiation dose. But, their adoption in practical CT scanners requires extra computation power, which is traditionally provided by incorporating additional computing hardware (e.g. CPU-clusters, GPUs, FPGAs etc.) into a scanner. An alternative solution is to access the required computation power over the internet from a cloud computing service, which is orders-of-magnitude more cost-effective. This is because users only pay a small pay-as-you-go fee for the computation resources used (i.e. CPU time, storage etc.), and completely avoid purchase, maintenance and upgrade costs. In this paper, we investigate the benefits and shortcomings of using cloud computing for statistical image reconstruction. We parallelized the most time-consuming parts of our application, the forward and back projectors, using MapReduce, the standard parallelization library on clouds. From preliminary investigations, we found that a large speedup is possible at a very low cost. But, communication overheads inside MapReduce can limit the maximum speedup, and a better MapReduce implementation might become necessary in the future. All the experiments for this paper, including development and testing, were completed on the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) for less than $20.

  18. A motion-compensated scheme for helical cone-beam reconstruction in cardiac CT angiography

    SciTech Connect

    Stevendaal, U. van; Berg, J. von; Lorenz, C.; Grass, M.

    2008-07-15

    Since coronary heart disease is one of the main causes of death all over the world, cardiac computed tomography (CT) imaging is an application of very high interest in order to verify indications timely. Due to the cardiac motion, electrocardiogram (ECG) gating has to be implemented into the reconstruction of the measured projection data. However, the temporal and spatial resolution is limited due to the mechanical movement of the gantry and due to the fact that a finite angular span of projections has to be acquired for the reconstruction of each voxel. In this article, a motion-compensated reconstruction method for cardiac CT is described, which can be used to increase the signal-to-noise ratio or to suppress motion blurring. Alternatively, it can be translated into an improvement of the temporal and spatial resolution. It can be applied to the entire heart in common and to high contrast objects moving with the heart in particular, such as calcified plaques or devices like stents. The method is based on three subsequent steps: As a first step, the projection data acquired in low pitch helical acquisition mode together with the ECG are reconstructed at multiple phase points. As a second step, the motion-vector field is calculated from the reconstructed images in relation to the image in a reference phase. Finally, a motion-compensated reconstruction is carried out for the reference phase using those projections, which cover the cardiac phases for which the motion-vector field has been determined.

  19. A practical cone-beam CT scatter correction method with optimized Monte Carlo simulations for image-guided radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuan; Bai, Ti; Yan, Hao; Ouyang, Luo; Pompos, Arnold; Wang, Jing; Zhou, Linghong; Jiang, Steve B; Jia, Xun

    2015-05-07

    Cone-beam CT (CBCT) has become the standard image guidance tool for patient setup in image-guided radiation therapy. However, due to its large illumination field, scattered photons severely degrade its image quality. While kernel-based scatter correction methods have been used routinely in the clinic, it is still desirable to develop Monte Carlo (MC) simulation-based methods due to their accuracy. However, the high computational burden of the MC method has prevented routine clinical application. This paper reports our recent development of a practical method of MC-based scatter estimation and removal for CBCT. In contrast with conventional MC approaches that estimate scatter signals using a scatter-contaminated CBCT image, our method used a planning CT image for MC simulation, which has the advantages of accurate image intensity and absence of image truncation. In our method, the planning CT was first rigidly registered with the CBCT. Scatter signals were then estimated via MC simulation. After scatter signals were removed from the raw CBCT projections, a corrected CBCT image was reconstructed. The entire workflow was implemented on a GPU platform for high computational efficiency. Strategies such as projection denoising, CT image downsampling, and interpolation along the angular direction were employed to further enhance the calculation speed. We studied the impact of key parameters in the workflow on the resulting accuracy and efficiency, based on which the optimal parameter values were determined. Our method was evaluated in numerical simulation, phantom, and real patient cases. In the simulation cases, our method reduced mean HU errors from 44 to 3 HU and from 78 to 9 HU in the full-fan and the half-fan cases, respectively. In both the phantom and the patient cases, image artifacts caused by scatter, such as ring artifacts around the bowtie area, were reduced. With all the techniques employed, we achieved computation time of less than 30 s including the

  20. A Practical Cone-beam CT Scatter Correction Method with Optimized Monte Carlo Simulations for Image-Guided Radiation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yuan; Bai, Ti; Yan, Hao; Ouyang, Luo; Pompos, Arnold; Wang, Jing; Zhou, Linghong; Jiang, Steve B.; Jia, Xun

    2015-01-01

    Cone-beam CT (CBCT) has become the standard image guidance tool for patient setup in image-guided radiation therapy. However, due to its large illumination field, scattered photons severely degrade its image quality. While kernel-based scatter correction methods have been used routinely in the clinic, it is still desirable to develop Monte Carlo (MC) simulation-based methods due to their accuracy. However, the high computational burden of the MC method has prevented routine clinical application. This paper reports our recent development of a practical method of MC-based scatter estimation and removal for CBCT. In contrast with conventional MC approaches that estimate scatter signals using a scatter-contaminated CBCT image, our method used a planning CT image for MC simulation, which has the advantages of accurate image intensity and absence of image truncation. In our method, the planning CT was first rigidly registered with the CBCT. Scatter signals were then estimated via MC simulation. After scatter signals were removed from the raw CBCT projections, a corrected CBCT image was reconstructed. The entire workflow was implemented on a GPU platform for high computational efficiency. Strategies such as projection denoising, CT image downsampling, and interpolation along the angular direction were employed to further enhance the calculation speed. We studied the impact of key parameters in the workflow on the resulting accuracy and efficiency, based on which the optimal parameter values were determined. Our method was evaluated in numerical simulation, phantom, and real patient cases. In the simulation cases, our method reduced mean HU errors from 44 HU to 3 HU and from 78 HU to 9 HU in the full-fan and the half-fan cases, respectively. In both the phantom and the patient cases, image artifacts caused by scatter, such as ring artifacts around the bowtie area, were reduced. With all the techniques employed, we achieved computation time of less than 30 sec including the

  1. A practical cone-beam CT scatter correction method with optimized Monte Carlo simulations for image-guided radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yuan; Bai, Ti; Yan, Hao; Ouyang, Luo; Pompos, Arnold; Wang, Jing; Zhou, Linghong; Jiang, Steve B.; Jia, Xun

    2015-05-01

    Cone-beam CT (CBCT) has become the standard image guidance tool for patient setup in image-guided radiation therapy. However, due to its large illumination field, scattered photons severely degrade its image quality. While kernel-based scatter correction methods have been used routinely in the clinic, it is still desirable to develop Monte Carlo (MC) simulation-based methods due to their accuracy. However, the high computational burden of the MC method has prevented routine clinical application. This paper reports our recent development of a practical method of MC-based scatter estimation and removal for CBCT. In contrast with conventional MC approaches that estimate scatter signals using a scatter-contaminated CBCT image, our method used a planning CT image for MC simulation, which has the advantages of accurate image intensity and absence of image truncation. In our method, the planning CT was first rigidly registered with the CBCT. Scatter signals were then estimated via MC simulation. After scatter signals were removed from the raw CBCT projections, a corrected CBCT image was reconstructed. The entire workflow was implemented on a GPU platform for high computational efficiency. Strategies such as projection denoising, CT image downsampling, and interpolation along the angular direction were employed to further enhance the calculation speed. We studied the impact of key parameters in the workflow on the resulting accuracy and efficiency, based on which the optimal parameter values were determined. Our method was evaluated in numerical simulation, phantom, and real patient cases. In the simulation cases, our method reduced mean HU errors from 44 to 3 HU and from 78 to 9 HU in the full-fan and the half-fan cases, respectively. In both the phantom and the patient cases, image artifacts caused by scatter, such as ring artifacts around the bowtie area, were reduced. With all the techniques employed, we achieved computation time of less than 30 s including the

  2. Reduced exposure using asymmetric cone beam processing for wide area detector cardiac CT.

    PubMed

    Bedayat, Arash; Rybicki, Frank J; Kumamaru, Kanako; Powers, Sara L; Signorelli, Jason; Steigner, Michael L; Steveson, Chloe; Soga, Shigeyoshi; Adams, Kimberly; Mitsouras, Dimitrios; Clouse, Melvin; Mather, Richard T

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate dose reduction after implementation of asymmetrical cone beam processing using exposure differences measured in a water phantom and a small cohort of clinical coronary CTA patients. Two separate 320 × 0.5 mm detector row scans of a water phantom used identical cardiac acquisition parameters before and after software modifications from symmetric to asymmetric cone beam acquisition and processing. Exposure was measured at the phantom surface with Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dosimeters at 12 equally spaced angular locations. Mean HU and standard deviation (SD) for both approaches were compared using ROI measurements obtained at the center plus four peripheral locations in the water phantom. To assess image quality, mean HU and standard deviation (SD) for both approaches were compared using ROI measurements obtained at five points within the water phantom. Retrospective evaluation of 64 patients (37 symmetric; 27 asymmetric acquisition) included clinical data, scanning parameters, quantitative plus qualitative image assessment, and estimated radiation dose. In the water phantom, the asymmetric cone beam processing reduces exposure by approximately 20% with no change in image quality. The clinical coronary CTA patient groups had comparable demographics. The estimated dose reduction after implementation of the asymmetric approach was roughly 24% with no significant difference between the symmetric and asymmetric approach with respect to objective measures of image quality or subjective assessment using a four point scale. When compared to a symmetric approach, the decreased exposure, subsequent lower patient radiation dose, and similar image quality from asymmetric cone beam processing supports its routine clinical use.

  3. Reducing beam hardening effects and metal artefacts in spectral CT using Medipix3RX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajendran, K.; Walsh, M. F.; de Ruiter, N. J. A.; Chernoglazov, A. I.; Panta, R. K.; Butler, A. P. H.; Butler, P. H.; Bell, S. T.; Anderson, N. G.; Woodfield, T. B. F.; Tredinnick, S. J.; Healy, J. L.; Bateman, C. J.; Aamir, R.; Doesburg, R. M. N.; Renaud, P. F.; Gieseg, S. P.; Smithies, D. J.; Mohr, J. L.; Mandalika, V. B. H.; Opie, A. M. T.; Cook, N. J.; Ronaldson, J. P.; Nik, S. J.; Atharifard, A.; Clyne, M.; Bones, P. J.; Bartneck, C.; Grasset, R.; Schleich, N.; Billinghurst, M.

    2014-03-01

    This paper discusses methods for reducing beam hardening effects and metal artefacts using spectral x-ray information in biomaterial samples. A small-animal spectral scanner was operated in the 15 to 80 keV x-ray energy range for this study. We use the photon-processing features of a CdTe-Medipix3RX ASIC in charge summing mode to reduce beam hardening and associated artefacts. We present spectral data collected for metal alloy samples, its analysis using algebraic 3D reconstruction software and volume visualisation using a custom volume rendering software. The cupping effect and streak artefacts are quantified in the spectral datasets. The results show reduction in beam hardening effects and metal artefacts in the narrow high energy range acquired using the spectroscopic detector. A post-reconstruction comparison between CdTe-Medipix3RX and Si-Medipix3.1 is discussed. The raw data and processed data are made available (http://hdl.handle.net/10092/8851) for testing with other software routines.

  4. Combined dose and geometry correction (DMG) for low energy multi electron beam lithography (5kV): application to the 16nm node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Luc; Manakli, Serdar; Bayle, Sebastien; Belledent, Jérôme; Soulan, Sebastien; Wiedemann, Pablo; Farah, Abdi; Schiavone, Patrick

    2012-03-01

    Lithography faces today many challenges to meet the ITRS road-map. 193nm is still today the only existing industrial option to address high volume production for the 22nm node. Nevertheless to achieve such a resolution, double exposure is mandatory for critical level patterning. EUV lithography is still challenged by the availability of high power source and mask defectivity and suffers from a high cost of ownership perspective. Its introduction is now not foreseen before 2015. Parallel to these mask-based technologies, maskless lithography regularly makes significant progress in terms of potential and maturity. The massively parallel e-beam solution appears as a real candidate for high volume manufacturing. Several industrial projects are under development, one in the US, with the KLA REBL project and two in Europe driven by IMS Nanofabrication (Austria; MAPPER (The Netherlands). Among the developments to be performed to secure the takeoff of the multi-beam technology, the availability of a rapid and robust data treatment solution will be one of the major challenges. Within this data preparation flow, advanced proximity effect corrections must be implemented to address the 16nm node and below. This paper will detail this process and compare correction strategies in terms of robustness and accuracy. It will be based on results obtained using a MAPPER tool within the IMAGINE program driven by CEA-LETI, in Grenoble, France. All proximity effects corrections and the dithering step were performed using the software platform Inscale® from Aselta Nanographics. One important advantage of Inscale® is the ability to combine both model based dose and geometry adjustment to accurately pattern critical features. The paper will focus on the advantage of combining those two corrections at the 16nm node instead of using only geometry corrections. Thanks to the simulation capability of Inscale®, pattern fidelity and correction robustness will be evaluated and compared between

  5. Dose and detectability for a cone-beam C-arm CT system revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Ganguly, Arundhuti; Yoon, Sungwon; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2010-05-15

    Purpose: The authors had previously published measurements of the detectability of disk-shaped contrast objects in images obtained from a C-arm CT system. A simple approach based on Rose's criterion was used to scale the date, assuming the threshold for the smallest diameter detected should be inversely proportional to (dose){sup 1/2}. A more detailed analysis based on recent theoretical modeling of C-arm CT images is presented in this work. Methods: The signal and noise propagations in a C-arm based CT system have been formulated by other authors using cascaded systems analysis. They established a relationship between detectability and the noise equivalent quanta. Based on this model, the authors obtained a relation between x-ray dose and the diameter of the smallest disks detected. A closed form solution was established by assuming no rebinning and no resampling of data, with low additive noise and using a ramp filter. For the case when no such assumptions were made, a numerically calculated solution using previously reported imaging and reconstruction parameters was obtained. The detection probabilities for a range of dose and kVp values had been measured previously. These probabilities were normalized to a single dose of 56.6 mGy using the Rose-criteria-based relation to obtain a universal curve. Normalizations based on the new numerically calculated relationship were compared to the measured results. Results: The theoretical and numerical calculations have similar results and predict the detected diameter size to be inversely proportional to (dose){sup 1/3} and (dose){sup 1/2.8}, respectively. The normalized experimental curves and the associated universal plot using the new relation were not significantly different from those obtained using the Rose-criterion-based normalization. Conclusions: From numerical simulations, the authors found that the diameter of detected disks depends inversely on the cube root of the dose. For observer studies for disks larger

  6. Assessment of CT numbers in limited and medium field-of-view scans taken using Accuitomo 170 and Veraviewepocs 3De cone-beam computed tomography scanners

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Matheus L.; Tosoni, Guilherme M.; Lindsey, David H.; Mendoza, Kristopher; Tetradis, Sotirios

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess the influence of anatomic location on the relationship between computed tomography (CT) number and X-ray attenuation in limited and medium field-of-view (FOV) scans. Materials and Methods Tubes containing solutions with different concentrations of K2HPO4 were placed in the tooth sockets of a human head phantom. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans were acquired, and CT numbers of the K2HPO4 solutions were measured. The relationship between CT number and K2HPO4 concentration was examined by linear regression analyses. Then, the variation in CT number according to anatomic location was examined. Results The relationship between K2HPO4 concentration and CT number was strongly linear. The slopes of the linear regressions for the limited FOVs were almost 2-fold lower than those for the medium FOVs. The absolute CT number differed between imaging protocols and anatomic locations. Conclusion There is a strong linear relationship between X-ray attenuation and CT number. The specific imaging protocol and anatomic location of the object strongly influence this relationship. PMID:25473635

  7. 2D beam hardening correction for micro-CT of immersed hard tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Graham; Mills, David

    2016-10-01

    Beam hardening artefacts arise in tomography and microtomography with polychromatic sources. Typically, specimens appear to be less dense in the center of reconstructions because as the path length through the specimen increases, so the X-ray spectrum is shifted towards higher energies due to the preferential absorption of low energy photons. Various approaches have been taken to reduce or correct for these artefacts. Pre-filtering the X-ray beam with a thin metal sheet will reduce soft energy X-rays and thus narrow the spectrum. Correction curves can be applied to the projections prior to reconstruction which transform measured attenuation with polychromatic radiation to predicted attenuation with monochromatic radiation. These correction curves can be manually selected, iteratively derived from reconstructions (this generally works where density is assumed to be constant) or derived from a priori information about the X-ray spectrum and specimen composition. For hard tissue specimens, the latter approach works well if the composition is reasonably homogeneous. In the case of an immersed or embedded specimen (e.g., tooth or bone) the relative proportions of mineral and "organic" (including medium and plastic container) species varies considerably for different ray paths and simple beam hardening correction does not give accurate results. By performing an initial reconstruction, the total path length through the container can be determined. By modelling the X-ray properties of the specimen, a 2D correction transform can then be created such that the predicted monochromatic attenuation can be derived as a function of both the measured polychromatic attenuation and the container path length.

  8. Clinical introduction of image lag correction for a cone beam CT system

    SciTech Connect

    Stankovic, Uros; Ploeger, Lennert S.; Sonke, Jan-Jakob Herk, Marcel van

    2016-03-15

    Purpose: Image lag in the flat-panel detector used for Linac integrated cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) has a degrading effect on CBCT image quality. The most prominent visible artifact is the presence of bright semicircular structure in the transverse view of the scans, known also as radar artifact. Several correction strategies have been proposed, but until now the clinical introduction of such corrections remains unreported. In November 2013, the authors have clinically implemented a previously proposed image lag correction on all of their machines at their main site in Amsterdam. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the effect of the correction on the quality of CBCT images and evaluate the required calibration frequency. Methods: Image lag was measured in five clinical CBCT systems (Elekta Synergy 4.6) using an in-house developed beam interrupting device that stops the x-ray beam midway through the data acquisition of an unattenuated beam for calibration. A triple exponential falling edge response was fitted to the measured data and used to correct image lag from projection images with an infinite response. This filter, including an extrapolation for saturated pixels, was incorporated in the authors’ in-house developed clinical CBCT reconstruction software. To investigate the short-term stability of the lag and associated parameters, a series of five image lag measurement over a period of three months was performed. For quantitative analysis, the authors have retrospectively selected ten patients treated in the pelvic region. The apparent contrast was quantified in polar coordinates for scans reconstructed using the parameters obtained from different dates with and without saturation handling. Results: Visually, the radar artifact was minimal in scans reconstructed using image lag correction especially when saturation handling was used. In patient imaging, there was a significant reduction of the apparent contrast from 43 ± 16.7 to

  9. SU-E-J-47: Comparison of Online Image Registrations of Varian TrueBeam Cone-Beam CT and BrainLab ExacTrac Imaging Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J; Shi, W; Andrews, D; Werner-Wasik, M; Yu, Y; Liu, H

    2015-06-15

    Purpose To compare online image registrations of TrueBeam cone-beam CT (CBCT) and BrainLab ExacTrac imaging systems. Methods Tests were performed on a Varian TrueBeam STx linear accelerator (Version 2.0), which is integrated with a BrainLab ExacTrac imaging system (Version 6.0.5). The study was focused on comparing the online image registrations for translational shifts. A Rando head phantom was placed on treatment couch and immobilized with a BrainLab mask. The phantom was shifted by moving the couch translationally for 8 mm with a step size of 1 mm, in vertical, longitudinal, and lateral directions, respectively. At each location, the phantom was imaged with CBCT and ExacTrac x-ray. CBCT images were registered with TrueBeam and ExacTrac online registration algorithms, respectively. And ExacTrac x-ray image registrations were performed. Shifts calculated from different registrations were compared with nominal couch shifts. Results The averages and ranges of absolute differences between couch shifts and calculated phantom shifts obtained from ExacTrac x-ray registration, ExacTrac CBCT registration with default window, ExaxTrac CBCT registration with adjusted window (bone), Truebeam CBCT registration with bone window, and Truebeam CBCT registration with soft tissue window, were: 0.07 (0.02–0.14), 0.14 (0.01–0.35), 0.12 (0.02–0.28), 0.09 (0–0.20), and 0.06 (0–0.10) mm, in vertical direction; 0.06 (0.01–0.12), 0.27 (0.07–0.57), 0.23 (0.02–0.48), 0.04 (0–0.10), and 0.08 (0– 0.20) mm, in longitudinal direction; 0.05 (0.01–0.21), 0.35 (0.14–0.80), 0.25 (0.01–0.56), 0.19 (0–0.40), and 0.20 (0–0.40) mm, in lateral direction. Conclusion The shifts calculated from ExacTrac x-ray and TrueBeam CBCT registrations were close to each other (the differences between were less than 0.40 mm in any direction), and had better agreements with couch shifts than those from ExacTrac CBCT registrations. There were no significant differences between TrueBeam

  10. Augmented reality and cone beam CT guidance for transoral robotic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Richmon, Jeremy D.; Sorger, Jonathan M.; Azizian, Mahdi; Taylor, Russell H.

    2015-01-01

    In transoral robotic surgery preoperative image data do not reflect large deformations of the operative workspace from perioperative setup. To address this challenge, in this study we explore image guidance with cone beam computed tomographic angiography to guide the dissection of critical vascular landmarks and resection of base-of-tongue neoplasms with adequate margins for transoral robotic surgery. We identify critical vascular landmarks from perioperative c-arm imaging to augment the stereoscopic view of a da Vinci si robot in addition to incorporating visual feedback from relative tool positions. Experiments resecting base-of-tongue mock tumors were conducted on a series of ex vivo and in vivo animal models comparing the proposed workflow for video augmentation to standard non-augmented practice and alternative, fluoroscopy-based image guidance. Accurate identification of registered augmented critical anatomy during controlled arterial dissection and en bloc mock tumor resection was possible with the augmented reality system. The proposed image-guided robotic system also achieved improved resection ratios of mock tumor margins (1.00) when compared to control scenarios (0.0) and alternative methods of image guidance (0.58). The experimental results show the feasibility of the proposed workflow and advantages of cone beam computed tomography image guidance through video augmentation of the primary stereo endoscopy as compared to control and alternative navigation methods. PMID:26531203

  11. Dry skull positioning device for extra-oral radiology and cone-beam CT.

    PubMed

    Beaini, Thiago Leite; Dias, Paulo Eduardo Miamoto; Melani, Rodolfo Francisco Haltenhoff

    2014-01-01

    Extra-oral radiographs of dry skulls on scientific or forensic context have head position as a critical procedure. The aims of this article are to present a multi-purposed head-positioning device, and to describe the new method of image acquirement using the device to adequately keep the head in a correct and safe position during radiological or tomographic exam. The design was created from an average-sized skull and then tested in 20 others with different morphologies, sizes, weights, and structural state of preservation. A series of digital and analog orthopantomographies followed by a cone-beam computer tomography were obtained to assure that the correct positioning standards and anatomical visualization were achievable. The developed device properly kept adult skulls in position for all extra-oral radiographic exams, providing to operators a secure and facilitated way to achieve the proper position standards. The device did not impair the visualization of the anatomical structures neither on radiographs nor in cone-beam computer tomography.

  12. Augmented reality and cone beam CT guidance for transoral robotic surgery.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen P; Richmon, Jeremy D; Sorger, Jonathan M; Azizian, Mahdi; Taylor, Russell H

    2015-09-01

    In transoral robotic surgery preoperative image data do not reflect large deformations of the operative workspace from perioperative setup. To address this challenge, in this study we explore image guidance with cone beam computed tomographic angiography to guide the dissection of critical vascular landmarks and resection of base-of-tongue neoplasms with adequate margins for transoral robotic surgery. We identify critical vascular landmarks from perioperative c-arm imaging to augment the stereoscopic view of a da Vinci si robot in addition to incorporating visual feedback from relative tool positions. Experiments resecting base-of-tongue mock tumors were conducted on a series of ex vivo and in vivo animal models comparing the proposed workflow for video augmentation to standard non-augmented practice and alternative, fluoroscopy-based image guidance. Accurate identification of registered augmented critical anatomy during controlled arterial dissection and en bloc mock tumor resection was possible with the augmented reality system. The proposed image-guided robotic system also achieved improved resection ratios of mock tumor margins (1.00) when compared to control scenarios (0.0) and alternative methods of image guidance (0.58). The experimental results show the feasibility of the proposed workflow and advantages of cone beam computed tomography image guidance through video augmentation of the primary stereo endoscopy as compared to control and alternative navigation methods.

  13. Characterization of the nanoDot OSLD dosimeter in CT

    SciTech Connect

    Scarboro, Sarah B.; Cody, Dianna; Followill, David; Court, Laurence; Stingo, Francesco C.; Kry, Stephen F.; Alvarez, Paola; Zhang, Di; McNitt-Gray, Michael

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: The extensive use of computed tomography (CT) in diagnostic procedures is accompanied by a growing need for more accurate and patient-specific dosimetry techniques. Optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters (OSLDs) offer a potential solution for patient-specific CT point-based surface dosimetry by measuring air kerma. The purpose of this work was to characterize the OSLD nanoDot for CT dosimetry, quantifying necessary correction factors, and evaluating the uncertainty of these factors. Methods: A characterization of the Landauer OSL nanoDot (Landauer, Inc., Greenwood, IL) was conducted using both measurements and theoretical approaches in a CT environment. The effects of signal depletion, signal fading, dose linearity, and angular dependence were characterized through direct measurement for CT energies (80–140 kV) and delivered doses ranging from ∼5 to >1000 mGy. Energy dependence as a function of scan parameters was evaluated using two independent approaches: direct measurement and a theoretical approach based on Burlin cavity theory and Monte Carlo simulated spectra. This beam-quality dependence was evaluated for a range of CT scanning parameters. Results: Correction factors for the dosimeter response in terms of signal fading, dose linearity, and angular dependence were found to be small for most measurement conditions (<3%). The relative uncertainty was determined for each factor and reported at the two-sigma level. Differences in irradiation geometry (rotational versus static) resulted in a difference in dosimeter signal of 3% on average. Beam quality varied with scan parameters and necessitated the largest correction factor, ranging from 0.80 to 1.15 relative to a calibration performed in air using a 120 kV beam. Good agreement was found between the theoretical and measurement approaches. Conclusions: Correction factors for the measurement of air kerma were generally small for CT dosimetry, although angular effects, and particularly effects due

  14. Characterization of the nanoDot OSLD dosimeter in CT

    PubMed Central

    Scarboro, Sarah B.; Cody, Dianna; Alvarez, Paola; Followill, David; Court, Laurence; Stingo, Francesco C.; Zhang, Di; Kry, Stephen F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The extensive use of computed tomography (CT) in diagnostic procedures is accompanied by a growing need for more accurate and patient-specific dosimetry techniques. Optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters (OSLDs) offer a potential solution for patient-specific CT point-based surface dosimetry by measuring air kerma. The purpose of this work was to characterize the OSLD nanoDot for CT dosimetry, quantifying necessary correction factors, and evaluating the uncertainty of these factors. Methods: A characterization of the Landauer OSL nanoDot (Landauer, Inc., Greenwood, IL) was conducted using both measurements and theoretical approaches in a CT environment. The effects of signal depletion, signal fading, dose linearity, and angular dependence were characterized through direct measurement for CT energies (80–140 kV) and delivered doses ranging from ∼5 to >1000 mGy. Energy dependence as a function of scan parameters was evaluated using two independent approaches: direct measurement and a theoretical approach based on Burlin cavity theory and Monte Carlo simulated spectra. This beam-quality dependence was evaluated for a range of CT scanning parameters. Results: Correction factors for the dosimeter response in terms of signal fading, dose linearity, and angular dependence were found to be small for most measurement conditions (<3%). The relative uncertainty was determined for each factor and reported at the two-sigma level. Differences in irradiation geometry (rotational versus static) resulted in a difference in dosimeter signal of 3% on average. Beam quality varied with scan parameters and necessitated the largest correction factor, ranging from 0.80 to 1.15 relative to a calibration performed in air using a 120 kV beam. Good agreement was found between the theoretical and measurement approaches. Conclusions: Correction factors for the measurement of air kerma were generally small for CT dosimetry, although angular effects, and particularly effects due

  15. SU-E-I-62: Assessing Radiation Dose Reduction and CT Image Optimization Through the Measurement and Analysis of the Detector Quantum Efficiency (DQE) of CT Images Using Different Beam Hardening Filters

    SciTech Connect

    Collier, J; Aldoohan, S; Gill, K

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Reducing patient dose while maintaining (or even improving) image quality is one of the foremost goals in CT imaging. To this end, we consider the feasibility of optimizing CT scan protocols in conjunction with the application of different beam-hardening filtrations and assess this augmentation through noise-power spectrum (NPS) and detector quantum efficiency (DQE) analysis. Methods: American College of Radiology (ACR) and Catphan phantoms (The Phantom Laboratory) were scanned with a 64 slice CT scanner when additional filtration of thickness and composition (e.g., copper, nickel, tantalum, titanium, and tungsten) had been applied. A MATLAB-based code was employed to calculate the image of noise NPS. The Catphan Image Owl software suite was then used to compute the modulated transfer function (MTF) responses of the scanner. The DQE for each additional filter, including the inherent filtration, was then computed from these values. Finally, CT dose index (CTDIvol) values were obtained for each applied filtration through the use of a 100 mm pencil ionization chamber and CT dose phantom. Results: NPS, MTF, and DQE values were computed for each applied filtration and compared to the reference case of inherent beam-hardening filtration only. Results showed that the NPS values were reduced between 5 and 12% compared to inherent filtration case. Additionally, CTDIvol values were reduced between 15 and 27% depending on the composition of filtration applied. However, no noticeable changes in image contrast-to-noise ratios were noted. Conclusion: The reduction in the quanta noise section of the NPS profile found in this phantom-based study is encouraging. The reduction in both noise and dose through the application of beam-hardening filters is reflected in our phantom image quality. However, further investigation is needed to ascertain the applicability of this approach to reducing patient dose while maintaining diagnostically acceptable image qualities in a

  16. SU-C-207-03: Optimization of a Collimator-Based Sparse Sampling Technique for Low-Dose Cone-Beam CT

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, T; Cho, S; Kim, I; Han, B

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In computed tomography (CT) imaging, radiation dose delivered to the patient is one of the major concerns. Sparse-view CT takes projections at sparser view angles and provides a viable option to reducing dose. However, a fast power switching of an X-ray tube, which is needed for the sparse-view sampling, can be challenging in many CT systems. We have earlier proposed a many-view under-sampling (MVUS) technique as an alternative to sparse-view CT. In this study, we investigated the effects of collimator parameters on the image quality and aimed to optimize the collimator design. Methods: We used a bench-top circular cone-beam CT system together with a CatPhan600 phantom, and took 1440 projections from a single rotation. The multi-slit collimator made of tungsten was mounted on the X-ray source for beam blocking. For image reconstruction, we used a total-variation minimization (TV) algorithm and modified the backprojection step so that only the measured data through the collimator slits are to be used in the computation. The number of slits and the reciprocation frequency have been varied and the effects of them on the image quality were investigated. We also analyzed the sampling efficiency: the sampling density and data incoherence in each case. We tested three sets of slits with their number of 6, 12 and 18, each at reciprocation frequencies of 10, 30, 50 and 70 Hz/ro. Results: Consistent results in the image quality have been produced with the sampling efficiency, and the optimum condition was found to be using 12 slits at 30 Hz/ro. As image quality indices, we used the CNR and the detectability. Conclusion: We conducted an experiment with a moving multi-slit collimator to realize a sparse-sampled cone-beam CT. Effects of collimator parameters on the image quality have been systematically investigated, and the optimum condition has been reached.

  17. Deformable Image Registration with Local Rigidity Constraints for Cone-Beam CT Guided Spine Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Reaungamornrat, S.; Wang, A. S.; Uneri, A.; Otake, Y.; Khanna, A. J.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Image-guided spine surgery is associated with reduced co-morbidity and improved surgical outcome. However, precise localization of target anatomy and adjacent nerves and vessels relative to planning information (e.g., device trajectories) can be challenged by anatomical deformation. Rigid registration alone fails to account for deformation associated with changes in spine curvature, and conventional deformable registration fails to account for rigidity of the vertebrae, causing unrealistic distortions in the registered image that can confound high-precision surgery. We developed and evaluated a deformable registration method capable of preserving rigidity of bones while resolving the deformation of surrounding soft tissue. The method aligns preoperative CT to intraoperative CBCT using free-form deformation (FFD) with constraints on rigid body motion imposed according to a simple intensity threshold of bone intensities. The constraints enforced 3 properties of a rigid transformation – namely, constraints on affinity (AC), orthogonality (OC), and properness (PC). The method also incorporated an injectivity constraint (IC) to preserve topology. Physical experiments involving phantoms, an ovine spine, and a human cadaver as well as digital simulations were performed to evaluate the sensitivity to registration parameters, preservation of rigid body morphology, and overall registration accuracy of constrained FFD in comparison to conventional unconstrained FFD (denoted uFFD) and Demons registration. FFD with orthogonality and injectivity constraints (denoted FFD+OC+IC) demonstrated improved performance compared to uFFD and Demons. Affinity and properness constraints offered little or no additional improvement. The FFD+OC+IC method preserved rigid body morphology at near-ideal values of zero dilatation (𝒟 = 0.05, compared to 0.39 and 0.56 for uFFD and Demons, respectively) and shear (𝒮 = 0.08, compared to 0.36 and 0.44 for uFFD and Demons, respectively

  18. Shading correction for on-board cone-beam CT in radiation therapy using planning MDCT images

    SciTech Connect

    Niu Tianye; Sun, Mingshan; Star-Lack, Josh; Gao Hewei; Fan Qiyong; Zhu Lei

    2010-10-15

    Purpose: Applications of cone-beam CT (CBCT) to image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) are hampered by shading artifacts in the reconstructed images. These artifacts are mainly due to scatter contamination in the projections but also can result from uncorrected beam hardening effects as well as nonlinearities in responses of the amorphous silicon flat panel detectors. While currently, CBCT is mainly used to provide patient geometry information for treatment setup, more demanding applications requiring high-quality CBCT images are under investigation. To tackle these challenges, many CBCT correction algorithms have been proposed; yet, a standard approach still remains unclear. In this work, we propose a shading correction method for CBCT that addresses artifacts from low-frequency projection errors. The method is consistent with the current workflow of radiation therapy. Methods: With much smaller inherent scatter signals and more accurate detectors, diagnostic multidetector CT (MDCT) provides high quality CT images that are routinely used for radiation treatment planning. Using the MDCT image as ''free'' prior information, we first estimate the primary projections in the CBCT scan via forward projection of the spatially registered MDCT data. Since most of the CBCT shading artifacts stem from low-frequency errors in the projections such as scatter, these errors can be accurately estimated by low-pass filtering the difference between the estimated and raw CBCT projections. The error estimates are then subtracted from the raw CBCT projections. Our method is distinct from other published correction methods that use the MDCT image as a prior because it is projection-based and uses limited patient anatomical information from the MDCT image. The merit of CBCT-based treatment monitoring is therefore retained. Results: The proposed method is evaluated using two phantom studies on tabletop systems. On the Catphan(c)600 phantom, our approach reduces the reconstruction error

  19. Cascaded systems analysis of the 3D noise transfer characteristics of flat-panel cone-beam CT.

    PubMed

    Tward, Daniel J; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H

    2008-12-01

    The physical factors that govern 2D and 3D imaging performance may be understood from quantitative analysis of the spatial-frequency-dependent signal and noise transfer characteristics [e.g., modulation transfer function (MTF), noise-power spectrum (NPS), detective quantum efficiency (DQE), and noise-equivalent quanta (NEQ)] along with a task-based assessment of performance (e.g., detectability index). This paper advances a theoretical framework based on cascaded systems analysis for calculation of such metrics in cone-beam CT (CBCT). The model considers the 2D projection NPS propagated through a series of reconstruction stages to yield the 3D NPS and allows quantitative investigation of tradeoffs in image quality associated with acquisition and reconstruction techniques. While the mathematical process of 3D image reconstruction is deterministic, it is shown that the process is irreversible, the associated reconstruction parameters significantly affect the 3D DQE and NEQ, and system optimization should consider the full 3D imaging chain. Factors considered in the cascade include: system geometry; number of projection views; logarithmic scaling; ramp, apodization, and interpolation filters; 3D back-projection; and 3D sampling (noise aliasing). The model is validated in comparison to experiment across a broad range of dose, reconstruction filters, and voxel sizes, and the effects of 3D noise correlation on detectability are explored. The work presents a model for the 3D NPS, DQE, and NEQ of CBCT that reduces to conventional descriptions of axial CT as a special case and provides a fairly general framework that can be applied to the design and optimization of CBCT systems for various applications.

  20. Dosimetric Impact of Online Correction via Cone-Beam CT-Based Image Guidance for Stereotactic Lung Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Galerani, Ana Paula; Grills, Inga; Hugo, Geoffrey; Kestin, Larry; Mohammed, Nasiruddin; Chao, K. Kenneth; Suen, Andrew; Martinez, Alvaro; Yan, Di

    2010-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the dosimetric impact of online cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) guided correction in lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: Twenty planning and 162 CBCT images from 20 patients undergoing lung SBRT were analyzed. The precorrection CBCT (CBCT after patient setup, no couch correction) was registered to planning CT using soft tissue; couch shift was applied, with a second CBCT for verification (postcorrection CBCT). Targets and normal structures were delineated on CBCTs: gross tumor volume (GTV), clinical target volume (CTV), cord, esophagus, lung, proximal bronchial tree, and aorta. Dose distributions on all organs manifested on each CBCT were compared with those planned on the CT. Results: Without CBCT guided target position correction, target dose reduced with respect to treatment plan. Mean and standard deviation of treatment dose discrepancy from the plan were -3.2% (4.9%), -2.1% (4.4%), -6.1% (10.7%), and -3.5% (7%) for GTV D{sub 99%}, GTV D{sub 95%}, CTV D{sub 99%}, and CTV D{sub 95%}, respectively. With CBCT correction, the results were -0.4% (2.6%), 0.1% (1.7%), -0.3% (4.2%), and 0.5% (3%). Mean and standard deviation of the difference in normal organ maximum dose were 2.2% (6.5%) before correction and 2.4% (5.9%) after correction for esophagus; 6.1% (14.1%) and 3.8% (8.1%) for cord; 3.1% (17.5%) and 6.2% (9.8%) for proximal bronchial tree; and 17.7% (19.5%) and 14.1% (17%) for aorta. Conclusion: Online CBCT guidance improves the accuracy of target dose delivery for lung SBRT. However, treatment dose to normal tissue can vary regardless of the correction. Normal tissues should be considered during target registration, according to target proximity.

  1. Comparative evaluation of a novel 3D segmentation algorithm on in-treatment radiotherapy cone beam CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Gareth; Moore, Chris

    2007-03-01

    Image segmentation and delineation is at the heart of modern radiotherapy, where the aim is to deliver as high a radiation dose as possible to a cancerous target whilst sparing the surrounding healthy tissues. This, of course, requires that a radiation oncologist dictates both where the tumour and any nearby critical organs are located. As well as in treatment planning, delineation is of vital importance in image guided radiotherapy (IGRT): organ motion studies demand that features across image databases are accurately segmented, whilst if on-line adaptive IGRT is to become a reality, speedy and correct target identification is a necessity. Recently, much work has been put into the development of automatic and semi-automatic segmentation tools, often using prior knowledge to constrain some grey level, or derivative thereof, interrogation algorithm. It is hoped that such techniques can be applied to organ at risk and tumour segmentation in radiotherapy. In this work, however, we make the assumption that grey levels do not necessarily determine a tumour's extent, especially in CT where the attenuation coefficient can often vary little between cancerous and normal tissue. In this context we present an algorithm that generates a discontinuity free delineation surface driven by user placed, evidence based support points. In regions of sparse user supplied information, prior knowledge, in the form of a statistical shape model, provides guidance. A small case study is used to illustrate the method. Multiple observers (between 3 and 7) used both the presented tool and a commercial manual contouring package to delineate the bladder on a serially imaged (10 cone beam CT volumes ) prostate patient. A previously presented shape analysis technique is used to quantitatively compare the observer variability.

  2. Cone-beam CT with a flat-panel detector: From image science to image-guided surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.

    2011-08-01

    The development of large-area flat-panel X-ray detectors (FPDs) has spurred investigation in a spectrum of advanced medical imaging applications, including tomosynthesis and cone-beam CT (CBCT). Recent research has extended image quality metrics and theoretical models to such applications, providing a quantitative foundation for the assessment of imaging performance as well as a general framework for the design, optimization, and translation of such technologies to new applications. For example, cascaded systems models of the Fourier domain metrics, such as noise-equivalent quanta (NEQ), have been extended to these modalities to describe the propagation of signal and noise through the image acquisition and reconstruction chain and to quantify the factors that govern spatial resolution, image noise, and detectability. Moreover, such models have demonstrated basic agreement with human observer performance for a broad range of imaging conditions and imaging tasks. These developments in image science have formed a foundation for the knowledgeable development and translation of CBCT to new applications in image-guided interventions—for example, CBCT implemented on a mobile surgical C-arm for intraoperative 3D imaging. The ability to acquire high-quality 3D images on demand during surgical intervention overcomes conventional limitations of surgical guidance in the context of preoperative images alone. A prototype mobile C-arm developed in academic-industry partnership demonstrates CBCT with low radiation dose, sub-mm spatial resolution, and soft-tissue visibility potentially approaching that of diagnostic CT. Integration of the 3D imaging system with real-time tracking, deformable registration, endoscopic video, and 3D visualization offers a promising addition to the surgical arsenal in interventions ranging from head-and-neck/skull base surgery to spine, orthopaedic, thoracic, and abdominal surgeries. Cadaver studies show the potential for significant boosts in

  3. A protocol to extend the longitudinal coverage of on-board cone-beam CT.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Dandan; Lu, Jun; Jefferson, Ariel; Zhang, Cheng; Wu, Jian; Sleeman, William; Weiss, Elisabeth; Dogan, Nesrin; Song, Shiyu; Williamson, Jeffrey

    2012-07-05

    The longitudinal coverage of a LINAC-mounted CBCT scan is limited to the corresponding dimensional limits of its flat panel detector, which is often shorter than the length of the treatment field. These limits become apparent when fields are designed to encompass wide regions, as when providing nodal coverage. Therefore, we developed a novel protocol to acquire double orbit CBCT images using a commercial system, and combine the images to extend the longitudinal coverage for image-guided adaptive radiotherapy (IGART). The protocol acquires two CBCT scans with a couch shift similar to the "step-and-shoot" cine CT acquisition, allowing a small longitudinal overlap of the two reconstructed volumes. An in-house DICOM reading/writing software was developed to combine the two image sets into one. Three different approaches were explored to handle the possible misalignment between the two image subsets: simple stacking, averaging the overlapped volumes, and a 3D-3D image registration with the three translational degrees of freedom. Using thermoluminescent dosimeters and custom-designed holders for a CTDI phantom set, dose measurements were carried out to assess the resultant imaging dose of the technique and its geometric distribution. Deformable registration was tested on patient images generated with the double-orbit protocol, using both the planning FBCT and the artificially deformed CBCT as source images. The protocol was validated on phantoms and has been employed clinically for IRB-approved IGART studies for head and neck and prostate cancer patients.

  4. The effect of irregular breathing patterns on internal target volumes in four-dimensional CT and cone-beam CT images in the context of stereotactic lung radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, N.; Kron, T.; Roxby, P.; Franich, R.; Dunn, L.; Aarons, Y.; Chesson, B.; Siva, S.; Duplan, D.; Ball, D.

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: Stereotactic lung radiotherapy is complicated by tumor motion from patient respiration. Four-dimensional CT (4DCT) imaging is a motion compensation method used in treatment planning to generate a maximum intensity projection (MIP) internal target volume (ITV). Image guided radiotherapy during treatment may involve acquiring a volumetric cone-beam CT (CBCT) image and visually aligning the tumor to the planning 4DCT MIP ITV contour. Moving targets imaged with CBCT can appear blurred and currently there are no studies reporting on the effect that irregular breathing patterns have on CBCT volumes and their alignment to 4DCT MIP ITV contours. The objective of this work was therefore to image a phantom moving with irregular breathing patterns to determine whether any configurations resulted in errors in volume contouring or alignment. Methods: A Perspex thorax phantom was used to simulate a patient. Three wooden 'lung' inserts with embedded Perspex 'lesions' were moved up to 4 cm with computer-generated motion patterns, and up to 1 cm with patient-specific breathing patterns. The phantom was imaged on 4DCT and CBCT with the same acquisition settings used for stereotactic lung patients in the clinic and the volumes on all phantom images were contoured. This project assessed the volumes for qualitative and quantitative changes including volume, length of the volume, and errors in alignment between CBCT volumes and 4DCT MIP ITV contours. Results: When motion was introduced 4DCT and CBCT volumes were reduced by up to 20% and 30% and shortened by up to 7 and 11 mm, respectively, indicating that volume was being under-represented at the extremes of motion. Banding artifacts were present in 4DCT MIP images, while CBCT volumes were largely reduced in contrast. When variable amplitudes from patient traces were used and CBCT ITVs were compared to 4DCT MIP ITVs there was a distinct trend in reduced ITV with increasing amplitude that was not seen when compared to true ITVs

  5. A dedicated cone-beam CT system for musculoskeletal extremities imaging: Design, optimization, and initial performance characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Zbijewski, W.; De Jean, P.; Prakash, P.; Ding, Y.; Stayman, J. W.; Packard, N.; Senn, R.; Yang, D.; Yorkston, J.; Machado, A.; Carrino, J. A.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: This paper reports on the design and initial imaging performance of a dedicated cone-beam CT (CBCT) system for musculoskeletal (MSK) extremities. The system complements conventional CT and MR and offers a variety of potential clinical and logistical advantages that are likely to be of benefit to diagnosis, treatment planning, and assessment of therapy response in MSK radiology, orthopaedic surgery, and rheumatology. Methods: The scanner design incorporated a host of clinical requirements (e.g., ability to scan the weight-bearing knee in a natural stance) and was guided by theoretical and experimental analysis of image quality and dose. Such criteria identified the following basic scanner components and system configuration: a flat-panel detector (FPD, Varian 3030+, 0.194 mm pixels); and a low-power, fixed anode x-ray source with 0.5 mm focal spot (SourceRay XRS-125-7K-P, 0.875 kW) mounted on a retractable C-arm allowing for two scanning orientations with the capability for side entry, viz. a standing configuration for imaging of weight-bearing lower extremities and a sitting configuration for imaging of tensioned upper extremity and unloaded lower extremity. Theoretical modeling employed cascaded systems analysis of modulation transfer function (MTF) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) computed as a function of system geometry, kVp and filtration, dose, source power, etc. Physical experimentation utilized an imaging bench simulating the scanner geometry for verification of theoretical results and investigation of other factors, such as antiscatter grid selection and 3D image quality in phantom and cadaver, including qualitative comparison to conventional CT. Results: Theoretical modeling and benchtop experimentation confirmed the basic suitability of the FPD and x-ray source mentioned above. Clinical requirements combined with analysis of MTF and DQE yielded the following system geometry: a {approx}55 cm source-to-detector distance; 1.3 magnification; a

  6. The performance of an optical cone-beam CT scanner adapted for radiochromic film dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Babic, Steven; Jordan, Kevin

    2012-11-07

    The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate commercial optical cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scanners as devices for reading EBT2 radiochromic film. A secondary objective was to implement a spatial correction for stray light present within optical CBCT systems. Square (12.7 × 12.7 cm²) EBT2 films were positioned vertically in the middle of a small water-filled tank, co-linear with the central beam axis of a 12 MeV electron beam. A total dose of 4.0 Gy was delivered at depth of 3.0 cm. Films were imaged prior to irradiation and 24 hours post-irradiation. Two different models of scanners, Vista15™ and Vista10™, were used to read out the irradiated films. In the Vista15™ scanner, residual light scatter was corrected for using: 1) a single vertical slot array and 2) a slot pair array that produced a vertical fan beam of light. Vista10™ was modified to have a smaller acceptance angle of scattered light and further corrections for residual scatter were made using a multiple slot array. With these different geometries, composite 'open field' and 'shadow field' images were generated and processed to create 'glare-free' pre and post-irradiation film images respectively, from which the net optical density (OD) was calculated. Results were compared against the open light field measurement in which no correction for stray light was made. Using the above scanners, EBT2 films were additionally read out to obtain 12 MeV electron and 6 MV photon percentage depth doses. By correcting for stray light it was found that the central-axis change in the net OD increased particularly in the 12 MeV electron build-up region and at the depth of maximum dose (d(max) = 3.0 cm) where light transmission is lowest. In the open light field measurement acquired with the Vista15™ scanner the net OD was 0.87 +/-0.02. Using single vertical slot array geometry to correct for stray light, the net OD was 0.94 +/-0.02, while with the slot pair array the net OD was 0.99 +/-0

  7. Cone Beam CT in Diagnosis and Surgical Planning of Dentigerous Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Deana, Naira Figueiredo

    2017-01-01

    Diagnosis and preoperative planning are critical in the execution of any surgical procedure. Panoramic radiography is a routine method used in dentistry to assist clinical diagnosis; however, with this technique 3D anatomical structures are compressed into 2D images, resulting in overlapping of structures which are of interest in the diagnosis. In this study we report the case of a patient who presented with a dentigerous cyst of expressive dimensions in the body of the mandible region. The surgery was planned and executed after observing the margins of the lesion by Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT). We conclude that CBCT is a precise method to help diagnosis; it provides greater accuracy in surgical treatment planning through 3D image display, allowing more effective results. PMID:28293442

  8. Reproducibility of facial soft tissue thicknesses for craniofacial reconstruction using cone-beam CT images.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hyeon-Shik; Kim, Kyul; Moon, Da-Nal; Kim, Jae-Hyung; Wilkinson, Caroline

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility of the soft tissue (ST) thicknesses at 31 landmarks using the cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images obtained from 20 adult subjects. Four observers carried out ST thickness measurements using Skull Measure software, and the inter- and intra-observer error rates were evaluated. Only five of 31 landmarks showed significant differences in recorded ST thickness between the observers. When excluding inexperienced observers, only one landmark showed a significant difference between the observers. Regarding the intra-observer reproducibility, the ST thickness measurements at three landmarks showed low correlation coefficients. The results of this study indicate that CBCT images can be used to measure ST thickness with high reproducibility. However, some landmarks need to be redefined to reliably measure ST thickness on CBCT images.

  9. Artefacts in Cone Beam CT Mimicking an Extrapalatal Canal of Root-Filled Maxillary Molar.

    PubMed

    Camilo, Carla Cristina; Brito-Júnior, Manoel; Faria-E-Silva, André Luis; Quintino, Alex Carvalho; de Paula, Adrianne Freire; Cruz-Filho, Antônio Miranda; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião

    2013-01-01

    Despite the advantages of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), the images provided by this diagnostic tool can produce artifacts and compromise accurate diagnostic assessment. This paper describes an endodontic treatment of a maxillary molar where CBCT images suggested the presence of a nonexistent third root canal in the palatal root. An endodontic treatment was performed in a first maxillary molar with palatal canals, and the tooth was restored with a cast metal crown. The patient returned four years later presenting with a discomfort in chewing, which was reduced after occlusal adjustment. CBCT was prescribed to verify additional diagnostic information. Axial scans on coronal, middle, and apical palatal root sections showed images similar to a third root canal. However, sagittal scans demonstrated that these images were artifacts caused by root canal fillings. A careful interpretation of CBCT images in root-filled teeth must be done to avoid mistakes in treatment.

  10. A Diagnosis of Maxillary Sinus Fracture with Cone-Beam CT: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Selmi Yardimci; Misirlioglu, Melda; Adisen, Mehmet Zahit

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present the case of maxillofacial trauma patient with maxillary sinus fracture diagnosed with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and to explore the applications of this technique in evaluating the maxillofacial region. A 23-year-old male patient attempted to our clinic who had an injury at midface with complaints of swelling, numbness. The patient was examined before in emergency center but any diagnosis was made about the maxillofacial trauma. The patient re-examined clinically and radiographically. A fracture on the frontal wall of maxillary sinus is determined with the aid of CBCT. The patient consulted with the department of maxillofacial surgery and it is decided that any surgical treatment was not necessary. The emerging technique CBCT would not be the primary choice of imaging maxillofacial trauma. Nevertheless, when advantages considered this imaging procedure could be the modality of choice according to the case. PMID:25045417

  11. Artefacts in Cone Beam CT Mimicking an Extrapalatal Canal of Root-Filled Maxillary Molar

    PubMed Central

    Camilo, Carla Cristina; Brito-Júnior, Manoel; Faria-e-Silva, André Luis; Quintino, Alex Carvalho; de Paula, Adrianne Freire; Cruz-Filho, Antônio Miranda; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião

    2013-01-01

    Despite the advantages of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), the images provided by this diagnostic tool can produce artifacts and compromise accurate diagnostic assessment. This paper describes an endodontic treatment of a maxillary molar where CBCT images suggested the presence of a nonexistent third root canal