The effect of phase advance errors between interaction points on beam halos
Chen, T.; Irwin, J.; Siemann, R.H.
1995-06-01
Phase advance errors between interaction points (IP) break the symmetry of multi-IP colliders. This symmetry breaking introduces new, lower order resonances which may chance the halo from the beam-beam interaction dramatically. In this paper, the mechanism of introducing new resonances is discussed. Simulation results showing the changes due to phase advance errors are presented. Simulation results are compared with experimental measurements at VEPP-2M.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neben, Abraham R.; Hewitt, Jacqueline N.; Bradley, Richard F.; Dillon, Joshua S.; Bernardi, G.; Bowman, J. D.; Briggs, F.; Cappallo, R. J.; Corey, B. E.; Deshpande, A. A.; Goeke, R.; Greenhill, L. J.; Hazelton, B. J.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Kaplan, D. L.; Lonsdale, C. J.; McWhirter, S. R.; Mitchell, D. A.; Morales, M. F.; Morgan, E.; Oberoi, D.; Ord, S. M.; Prabu, T.; Udaya Shankar, N.; Srivani, K. S.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Tingay, S. J.; Wayth, R. B.; Webster, R. L.; Williams, A.; Williams, C. L.
2016-03-01
Accurate antenna beam models are critical for radio observations aiming to isolate the redshifted 21 cm spectral line emission from the Dark Ages and the Epoch of Reionization (EOR) and unlock the scientific potential of 21 cm cosmology. Past work has focused on characterizing mean antenna beam models using either satellite signals or astronomical sources as calibrators, but antenna-to-antenna variation due to imperfect instrumentation has remained unexplored. We characterize this variation for the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) through laboratory measurements and simulations, finding typical deviations of the order of ±10%-20% near the edges of the main lobe and in the sidelobes. We consider the ramifications of these results for image- and power spectrum-based science. In particular, we simulate visibilities measured by a 100 m baseline and find that using an otherwise perfect foreground model, unmodeled beam-forming errors severely limit foreground subtraction accuracy within the region of Fourier space contaminated by foreground emission (the “wedge”). This region likely contains much of the cosmological signal, and accessing it will require measurement of per-antenna beam patterns. However, unmodeled beam-forming errors do not contaminate the Fourier space region expected to be free of foreground contamination (the “EOR window”), showing that foreground avoidance remains a viable strategy.
Neben, Abraham R.; Hewitt, Jacqueline N.; Dillon, Joshua S.; Goeke, R.; Morgan, E.; Bradley, Richard F.; Bernardi, G.; Bowman, J. D.; Briggs, F.; Cappallo, R. J.; Corey, B. E.; Lonsdale, C. J.; McWhirter, S. R.; Deshpande, A. A.; Greenhill, L. J.; Hazelton, B. J.; Morales, M. F.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Kaplan, D. L.; Mitchell, D. A.; and others
2016-03-20
Accurate antenna beam models are critical for radio observations aiming to isolate the redshifted 21 cm spectral line emission from the Dark Ages and the Epoch of Reionization (EOR) and unlock the scientific potential of 21 cm cosmology. Past work has focused on characterizing mean antenna beam models using either satellite signals or astronomical sources as calibrators, but antenna-to-antenna variation due to imperfect instrumentation has remained unexplored. We characterize this variation for the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) through laboratory measurements and simulations, finding typical deviations of the order of ±10%–20% near the edges of the main lobe and in the sidelobes. We consider the ramifications of these results for image- and power spectrum-based science. In particular, we simulate visibilities measured by a 100 m baseline and find that using an otherwise perfect foreground model, unmodeled beam-forming errors severely limit foreground subtraction accuracy within the region of Fourier space contaminated by foreground emission (the “wedge”). This region likely contains much of the cosmological signal, and accessing it will require measurement of per-antenna beam patterns. However, unmodeled beam-forming errors do not contaminate the Fourier space region expected to be free of foreground contamination (the “EOR window”), showing that foreground avoidance remains a viable strategy.
Role of recovery pass beam phase error in RF system design for same cell energy recovery FELs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vetter, A. M.
1999-06-01
Recovery of residual energy in the electron beam leaving the FEL interaction region allows considerable improvement in two problem areas of particular concern in high average power designs: (1) the RF power required to generate a given average optical output power is reduced, and (2) the power and energy of the beam which must be dumped are reduced, with concomitant reductions in the amount of heat which must be removed and in the radiation shielding requirements. Recirculation of the beam for a second pass through the linac allows the residual beam power to be recovered in the same RF structure used for acceleration, minimizing the investment in structure and yielding a compact layout. If the energy recovered from the beam is adjusted so that the part which interacted with the FEL optical fields is reduced to the same energy as the part of the beam which did not ("differential" energy recovery), then a relationship between the RF power required, the power delivered to the FEL optical mode, the beam current, and the linac structure's external coupling coefficient is established. For a 100 kW optical output example using eight TESLA-type super conducting cavities, a minimum of 250 kW of RF power is required if Qe is adjusted to 2×10 6. This would be less power than that required for beam loading in the injector linac.
Phase Errors and the Capture Effect
Blair, J., and Machorro, E.
2011-11-01
This slide-show presents analysis of spectrograms and the phase error of filtered noise in a signal. When the filtered noise is smaller than the signal amplitude, the phase error can never exceed 90{deg}, so the average phase error over many cycles is zero: this is called the capture effect because the largest signal captures the phase and frequency determination.
Glaeser, Robert. M.; Typke, Dieter; Tiemeijer, Peter C.; Pulokas, James; Cheng, Anchi
2011-01-01
Electron microscopy at a resolution of 0.4 nm or better requires more careful adjustment of the illumination than is the case at a resolution of 0.8 nm. The use of current-axis alignment is not always sufficient, for example, to avoid the introduction of large phase errors, at higher resolution, due to axial coma. In addition, one must also ensure that off-axis coma does not corrupt the data quality at the higher resolution. We particularly emphasize that the standard CTF correction does not account for the phase error associated with coma. We explain the cause of both axial coma and the typically most troublesome component of off-axis coma in terms of the well-known shift of the electron diffraction pattern relative to the optical axis that occurs when the illumination is not parallel to the axis. We review the experimental conditions under which coma causes unacceptably large phase errors, and we discuss steps that can be taken when setting up the conditions of illumination, so as to ensure that neither axial nor off-axis coma is a problem. PMID:21182964
Dose error analysis for a scanned proton beam delivery system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coutrakon, G.; Wang, N.; Miller, D. W.; Yang, Y.
2010-12-01
All particle beam scanning systems are subject to dose delivery errors due to errors in position, energy and intensity of the delivered beam. In addition, finite scan speeds, beam spill non-uniformities, and delays in detector, detector electronics and magnet responses will all contribute errors in delivery. In this paper, we present dose errors for an 8 × 10 × 8 cm3 target of uniform water equivalent density with 8 cm spread out Bragg peak and a prescribed dose of 2 Gy. Lower doses are also analyzed and presented later in the paper. Beam energy errors and errors due to limitations of scanning system hardware have been included in the analysis. By using Gaussian shaped pencil beams derived from measurements in the research room of the James M Slater Proton Treatment and Research Center at Loma Linda, CA and executing treatment simulations multiple times, statistical dose errors have been calculated in each 2.5 mm cubic voxel in the target. These errors were calculated by delivering multiple treatments to the same volume and calculating the rms variation in delivered dose at each voxel in the target. The variations in dose were the result of random beam delivery errors such as proton energy, spot position and intensity fluctuations. The results show that with reasonable assumptions of random beam delivery errors, the spot scanning technique yielded an rms dose error in each voxel less than 2% or 3% of the 2 Gy prescribed dose. These calculated errors are within acceptable clinical limits for radiation therapy.
Phase and amplitude errors in FM radars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Griffiths, Hugh D.
The constraints on phase and amplitude errors are determined for various types of FM radar by calculating the range sidelobe levels on the point target response due to the phase and amplitude modulation of the target echo. It is shown that under certain circumstances the constraints on phase linearity appropriate for conventional pulse compression radars are unnecessarily stringent, and quite large phase errors can be tolerated provided the relative delay of the local oscillator with respect to the target echo is small compared with the periodicity of the phase error characteristic. The constraints on amplitude flatness, however, are severe under almost all circumstances.
Single antenna phase errors for NAVSPASUR receivers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andrew, M. D.; Wadiak, E. J.
1988-11-01
Interferometrics Inc. has investigated the phase errors on single antenna NAVSPASUR data. We find that the single antenna phase errors are well modeled as a function of signal strength only. The phase errors associated with data from the Kickapoo transmitter are larger than the errors from the low-power transmitters (i.e., Gila River and Jordan Lake). Further, the errors in the phase data associated with the Kickapoo transmitter show significant variability among data taken on different days. We have applied a quadratic polynomial fit to the single antenna phases to derive the Doppler shift and chirp, and we have estimated the formal errors associated with these quantities. These formal errors have been parameterized as a function of peak signal strength and number of data frames. We find that for a typical satellite observation the derived Doppler shift has a formal error of approx. 0.2 Hz and the derived chirp has a formal error of 0 less than or approx. 1 Hz/sec. There is a clear systematic bias in the derived chirp for targets illuminated by the Kickapoo transmitter. Near-field effects probably account for the larger phase errors and the chirp bias of the Kickapoo transmitter.
Beam induced vacuum measurement error in BEPC II
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Tao; Xiao, Qiong; Peng, XiaoHua; Wang, HaiJing
2011-12-01
When the beam in BEPCII storage ring aborts suddenly, the measured pressure of cold cathode gauges and ion pumps will drop suddenly and decrease to the base pressure gradually. This shows that there is a beam induced positive error in the pressure measurement during beam operation. The error is the difference between measured and real pressures. Right after the beam aborts, the error will disappear immediately and the measured pressure will then be equal to real pressure. For one gauge, we can fit a non-linear pressure-time curve with its measured pressure data 20 seconds after a sudden beam abortion. From this negative exponential decay pumping-down curve, real pressure at the time when the beam starts aborting is extrapolated. With the data of several sudden beam abortions we have got the errors of that gauge in different beam currents and found that the error is directly proportional to the beam current, as expected. And a linear data-fitting gives the proportion coefficient of the equation, which we derived to evaluate the real pressure all the time when the beam with varied currents is on.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Chanmi; Kim, Eun-San; Hahn, Garam
2016-11-01
The Korea Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator consists of an injector and a synchrotron for an ion medical accelerator that is the first carbon-ion therapy system in Korea. The medium energy beam transport(MEBT) line connects the interdigital H-mode drift tube linac and the synchrotron. We investigated the beam conditions after the charge stripper by using the LISE++ and the SRIM codes. The beam was stripped from C4+ into C6+ by using the charge stripper. We investigated the performance of a de-buncher in optimizing the energy spread and the beam distribution in z-dW/W (direction of beam progress-beam and energy) phase. We obtained the results of the tracking simulation and the error analysis by using the TRACK code. Possible misalignments and rotations of the magnets were considered in the simulations. States of the beam were examined when errors occurred in the magnets by the applying analytic fringe field model in TRACK code. The condition for the beam orbit was optimized by using correctors and profile monitors to correct the orbit. In this paper, we focus on the beam dynamics and the error studies dedicated to the MEBT beam line and show the optimized beam parameters for the MEBT.
Beam Tomography in Longitudinal Phase Space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mane, V.; Wei, J.; Peggs, S.
1997-05-01
Longitudinal particle motion in circular accelerators is typically monitored by one dimensional (1-D) profiles. Adiabatic particle motion in 2-D phase space can be reconstructed with tomographic techniques, using 1-D profiles. In this paper, we discuss a filtered backprojection algorithm, with a high pass ramp or Hann filter, for phase space reconstruction. The algorithm uses several projections of the beam at equally spaced angles over half a synchrotron period. A computer program RADON has been developed to process digitized mountain range data and do the phase space reconstruction for the AGS, and later for Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Analysis has been performed to determine the sensitivity to machine parameters and data acquisition errors. During the Sextant test of RHIC in early 1997, this program has been successfully employed to reconstruct the motion of Au^77+ beam in the AGS.
Errors of phase and data assimilation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lawson, W. G.; Hansen, J.
2003-04-01
Strong, localized weather events like tropical cyclones and squall lines are important to predict well. However, this is difficult because their compact nature readily allows for appreciable error growth in both amplitude and phase. Ensemble methods allow model states to disperse in both amplitude and phase, but traditional ensemble data assimilation (DA) schemes (like the ensemble Kalman filter) are only equipped to handle errors in amplitude; they are not suited to correct errors in phase, i.e. position. To get around this problem, forecasters currently resort to practices like bogussing which are messy and arbitrary. Towards finding an objective method to handle errors of phase, we have developed a method that separates the assimilation process into two steps, one to address phase errors and the other amplitude errors. The idea is to eliminate errors of phase across the ensemble members before attempting to do typical Eulerian DA to correct amplitudes. This is accomplished by distorting and shifting the localized events within ensemble members to an agreed upon location (either an analyzed position or the observed position), doing the traditional DA, and then restoring and shifting the features back to an analyzed location. In this way, each ensemble member retains its localized event, and the ensemble mean reflects a probabilistic expression of possible model states.
Cui, Junning; He, Zhangqiang; Jiu, Yuanwei; Tan, Jiubin; Sun, Tao
2016-09-01
The demand for minimal cyclic nonlinearity error in laser interferometry is increasing as a result of advanced scientific research projects. Research shows that the quadrature phase error is the main effect that introduces cyclic nonlinearity error, and polarization-mixing cross talk during beam splitting is the main error source that causes the quadrature phase error. In this paper, a new homodyne quadrature laser interferometer configuration based on nonpolarization beam splitting and balanced interference between two circularly polarized laser beams is proposed. Theoretical modeling indicates that the polarization-mixing cross talk is elaborately avoided through nonpolarizing and Wollaston beam splitting, with a minimum number of quadrature phase error sources involved. Experimental results show that the cyclic nonlinearity error of the interferometer is up to 0.6 nm (peak-to-valley value) without any correction and can be further suppressed to 0.2 nm with a simple gain and offset correction method.
Laser beam complex amplitude measurement by phase diversity.
Védrenne, Nicolas; Mugnier, Laurent M; Michau, Vincent; Velluet, Marie-Thérèse; Bierent, Rudolph
2014-02-24
The control of the optical quality of a laser beam requires a complex amplitude measurement able to deal with strong modulus variations and potentially highly perturbed wavefronts. The method proposed here consists in an extension of phase diversity to complex amplitude measurements that is effective for highly perturbed beams. Named camelot for Complex Amplitude MEasurement by a Likelihood Optimization Tool, it relies on the acquisition and processing of few images of the beam section taken along the optical path. The complex amplitude of the beam is retrieved from the images by the minimization of a Maximum a Posteriori error metric between the images and a model of the beam propagation. The analytical formalism of the method and its experimental validation are presented. The modulus of the beam is compared to a measurement of the beam profile, the phase of the beam is compared to a conventional phase diversity estimate. The precision of the experimental measurements is investigated by numerical simulations.
Momentum errors in an RF separated beam
T. Kobilarcik
2002-09-19
The purity of an RF separated beam is affected by the difference in mass of the particle types and the momentum bite of the beam. The resulting time-of-flight difference between different types allows separation to occur; the finite momentum bite results in chromatic aberration. Both these features also give rise to a particle type dependent velocity bite, which must also be taken into account. This memo demonstrates a generalizable method for calculating the effect.
Laser Phase Errors in Seeded FELs
Ratner, D.; Fry, A.; Stupakov, G.; White, W.; /SLAC
2012-03-28
Harmonic seeding of free electron lasers has attracted significant attention from the promise of transform-limited pulses in the soft X-ray region. Harmonic multiplication schemes extend seeding to shorter wavelengths, but also amplify the spectral phase errors of the initial seed laser, and may degrade the pulse quality. In this paper we consider the effect of seed laser phase errors in high gain harmonic generation and echo-enabled harmonic generation. We use simulations to confirm analytical results for the case of linearly chirped seed lasers, and extend the results for arbitrary seed laser envelope and phase.
Phase Slip in an Undulator with Pole and BPM Errors
Emma, Paul J
2001-06-25
A statistical analysis of a corrected electron trajectory through a planar FEL undulator is used to predict the optimal beam position monitor (BPM) spacing. The undulator is composed of modular sections, each containing many dipoles with random field and roll angle errors. Located between each section are inaccurate BPMs, steering correctors, and possibly quadrupole magnets. An analytical formula for electron-to-photon phase errors is derived and used to estimate the best BPM spacing. The results are applied to the LCLS FEL undulator [LCLS Design Study Report, SLAC-R-521, April 1998], which has demanding requirements on electron trajectory straightness.
Single Antenna Phase Errors for NAVSPASUR Receivers
1988-11-30
with data from the Kickapoo transmitter 3 are larger than the errors from the low-power transmitters (i.e., Gila River and Jordan Lake). Further, the...errors in the phase data associated with the Kickapoo transmitter show significant variability among data taken on different days.i We have applied a...a clear systematic bias in the derived chirp for targets illuminated by the Kickapoo transmitter. Near-field effects probably account for the larger
The beam delivery modeling and error sources analysis of beam stabilization system for lithography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jun; Huang, Lihua; Hou, Liying; He, Guojun; Ren, Bingqiang; Zeng, Aijun; Huang, Huijie
2013-12-01
Beam stabilization system is one of the most important units for lithography, which can accomplish displacement and pointing detection and control and includes beam measurement unit(BMU) and beam steering unit(BSU). Our group has set up a beam stabilization system and verified preliminarily beam stabilization algorithm of precise control beam position and angle. In the article, we establish beam delivery mathematic model and analyze the system inherent error. This shows that the reason why image rotation effect arises at the output plane of beam stabilization is the fast steering mirror (FSM) rotation of BSU in the process of beam stabilization. Two FSMs rotation around 45o axis of FSM make the most contribution to image rotation which rotates 1.414 mrad as two FSMs rotation angle difference changes 1 mrad. It is found that error sources include three key points: FSM accuracy; measurement noise and beam translation by passing through of beam splitters changing as the ambient temperature changing. FSM accuracy leads to the maximum 13.2μm displacement error and 24.49μrad angle error. Measurement inaccuracy as a result of 5μm measurement noise results in the maximum 0.126mm displacement error and 57.2μrad angle error. Beam translation errors can be negligible if temperature is unchanged. We have achieved beam stability of about 15.5μrad for angle and 28μm for displacement (both 1σ) after correcting 2mm initial displacement deviation and 5mrad initial angle deviation with regard to the system rebuilt due to practical requirements.
Error-Induced Beam Degradation in Fermilab's Accelerators
Yoon, Sung-Young Phil
2008-01-01
In Part I, three independent models of Fermilab's Booster synchrotron are presented. All three models are constructed to investigate and explore the effects of unavoidable machine errors on a proton beam under the influence of space-charge effects. The first is a stochastic noise model. Electric current fluctuations arising from power supplies are ubiquitous and unavoidable and are a source of instabilities in accelerators of all types. A new noise module for generating the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (O-U) stochastic noise is first created and incorporated into the existing Object-oriented Ring Beam Injection and Tracking (ORBIT-FNAL) package. After being convinced with a preliminary model that the noise, particularly non-white noise, does matter to beam quality, we proceeded to measure directly current ripples and common-mode voltages from all four Gradient Magnet Power Supplies (GMPS). Then, the current signals are Fourier-analyzed. Based upon the power spectra of current signals, we tune up the Ornstein-Uhlnbeck noise model. As a result, we are able to closely match the frequency spectra between current measurements and the modeled O-U stochastic noise. The stochastic noise modeled upon measurements is applied to the Booster beam in the presence of the full space-charge effects. This noise model, accompanied by a suite of beam diagnostic calculations, manifests that the stochastic noise, impinging upon the beam and coupled to the space-charge effects, can substantially enhance the beam degradation process throughout the injection period. The second model is a magnet misalignment model. It is the first time to utilize the latest beamline survey data for building a magnet-by-magnet misalignment model. Given as-found survey fiducial coordinates, we calculate all types of magnet alignment errors (station error, pitch, yaw, roll, twists, etc.) are implemented in the model. We then follow up with statistical analysis to understand how each type of alignment errors are
Error-induced beam degradation in Fermilab's accelerators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yong, Sung-Yong Phil
In Part I, three independent models of Fermilab's Booster synchrotron are presented. All three models are constructed to investigate and to explore the effects of unavoidable machine errors on a proton beam under the influence of space-charge effects. The first is a stochastic noise model. Electric current fluctuations arising from power supplies are ubiquitous and unavoidable and are a source of instabilities in accelerators of all types. A new noise module for generating the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (O-U) stochastic noise is first created and incorporated into the existing Object-oriented Ring Beam Injection and Tracking (ORBIT-FNAL) package. After being convinced that the noise does matter to a beam with a preliminary model, we proceed to measure directly current ripples and common-mode voltages from all four Gradient Magnet Power Supplies (GMPS). Then, the current signals are Fourier-analyzed. Based upon the power spectra of current signals, we tune up the Ornstein-Uhlnbeck noise model. As a result, we are able to closely match the frequency spectra between current measurements and the modeled O-U stochastic noise. The stochastic noise modeled upon measurements is applied to the Booster beam in the presence of the full space-charge effects. This noise model, accompanied by a suite of beam diagnostic calculations, manifests that the stochastic noise, impinging upon the beam and coupled to the space-charge effects, can substantially enhance the beam degradation process throughout the injection period. The second model is a magnet misalignment model. It is the first time to utilize the latest beamline survey data for building a magnet-by-magnet misalignment model. Given as-found survey fiducial coordinates, we calculate all types of magnet alignment errors (station error, pitch, yaw, roll, twists, etc.) are implemented in the model. We then follow up with statistical analysis to understand how each type of alignment errors are currently distributed around the Booster
Beam masking to reduce cyclic error in beam launcher of interferometer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ames, Lawrence L. (Inventor); Bell, Raymond Mark (Inventor); Dutta, Kalyan (Inventor)
2005-01-01
Embodiments of the present invention are directed to reducing cyclic error in the beam launcher of an interferometer. In one embodiment, an interferometry apparatus comprises a reference beam directed along a reference path, and a measurement beam spatially separated from the reference beam and being directed along a measurement path contacting a measurement object. The reference beam and the measurement beam have a single frequency. At least a portion of the reference beam and at least a portion of the measurement beam overlapping along a common path. One or more masks are disposed in the common path or in the reference path and the measurement path to spatially isolate the reference beam and the measurement beam from one another.
Self-Nulling Beam Combiner Using No External Phase Inverter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bloemhof, Eric E.
2010-01-01
A self-nulling beam combiner is proposed that completely eliminates the phase inversion subsystem from the nulling interferometer, and instead uses the intrinsic phase shifts in the beam splitters. Simplifying the flight instrument in this way will be a valuable enhancement of mission reliability. The tighter tolerances on R = T (R being reflection and T being transmission coefficients) required by the self-nulling configuration actually impose no new constraints on the architecture, as two adaptive nullers must be situated between beam splitters to correct small errors in the coatings. The new feature is exploiting the natural phase shifts in beam combiners to achieve the 180 phase inversion necessary for nulling. The advantage over prior art is that an entire subsystem, the field-flipping optics, can be eliminated. For ultimate simplicity in the flight instrument, one might fabricate coatings to very high tolerances and dispense with the adaptive nullers altogether, with all their moving parts, along with the field flipper subsystem. A single adaptive nuller upstream of the beam combiner may be required to correct beam train errors (systematic noise), but in some circumstances phase chopping reduces these errors substantially, and there may be ways to further reduce the chop residuals. Though such coatings are beyond the current state of the art, the mechanical simplicity and robustness of a flight system without field flipper or adaptive nullers would perhaps justify considerable effort on coating fabrication.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nye, J. F.
2011-07-01
In a section through a monochromatic light beam the contour map of phase contains saddle points. It has already been shown that a two-dimensional model of two superposed coaxial Gaussian beams, in antiphase and having different waist sizes, contains two saddles that perform an elaborate dance as the ratio of the amplitudes of the beams is altered. The present paper explains why this choreography is qualitatively identical to that found in a symmetrical version of an earlier and simpler two-dimensional model, where a plane wave is modulated by a quadratic polynomial. If wavefronts are defined as lines of equal phase, successive wavefronts pinch together in these models, and change their connectedness as they pass through two fixed saddle points on the axis. Although the idea of a phase saddle is not generally applicable in three dimensions, it can be extended to three dimensions in axially symmetric models, for example, two superposed coaxial Gaussian beams. The saddles are features of the set of azimuthal planes, and can either form rings around the axis or be on the axis itself. The action here as a parameter changes takes a more dramatic form, because it involves both a vortex ring and two saddle points on the axis, which collide and explode into a concentric saddle ring. The physical significance of saddles is that they change the topology of the wavefronts. In two dimensions a moving wavefront line passing through a fixed saddle point on the axis undergoes reconnection. As it meets an off-axis saddle the same process occurs but in a different orientation. In three dimensions as a wavefront passes through a saddle point on the axis, its local form changes from a hyperboloid of two sheets to a hyperboloid of one sheet, or vice versa, via a cone of angle 2\\tan^{-1}\\sqrt 2=109^{\\circ } . As it passes through a saddle ring a similar transition occurs simultaneously at all points of the ring. The changes in the topology of a wavefront as it encounters a monkey
Interferometric phase measurement techniques for coherent beam combining
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Antier, Marie; Bourderionnet, Jérôme; Larat, Christian; Lallier, Eric; Primot, Jérôme; Brignon, Arnaud
2015-03-01
Coherent beam combining of fiber amplifiers provides an attractive mean of reaching high power laser. In an interferometric phase measurement the beams issued for each fiber combined are imaged onto a sensor and interfere with a reference plane wave. This registration of interference patterns on a camera allows the measurement of the exact phase error of each fiber beam in a single shot. Therefore, this method is a promising candidate toward very large number of combined fibers. Based on this technique, several architectures can be proposed to coherently combine a high number of fibers. The first one based on digital holography transfers directly the image of the camera to spatial light modulator (SLM). The generated hologram is used to compensate the phase errors induced by the amplifiers. This architecture has therefore a collective phase measurement and correction. Unlike previous digital holography technique, the probe beams measuring the phase errors between the fibers are co-propagating with the phase-locked signal beams. This architecture is compatible with the use of multi-stage isolated amplifying fibers. In that case, only 20 pixels per fiber on the SLM are needed to obtain a residual phase shift error below λ/10rms. The second proposed architecture calculates the correction applied to each fiber channel by tracking the relative position of the interference finges. In this case, a phase modulator is placed on each channel. In that configuration, only 8 pixels per fiber on the camera is required for a stable close loop operation with a residual phase error of λ/20rms, which demonstrates the scalability of this concept.
Annular beam with segmented phase gradients
Cheng, Shubo; Wu, Liang; Tao, Shaohua
2016-08-15
An annular beam with a single uniform-intensity ring and multiple segments of phase gradients is proposed in this paper. Different from the conventional superposed vortices, such as the modulated optical vortices and the collinear superposition of multiple orbital angular momentum modes, the designed annular beam has a doughnut intensity distribution whose radius is independent of the phase distribution of the beam in the imaging plane. The phase distribution along the circumference of the doughnut beam can be segmented with different phase gradients. Similar to a vortex beam, the annular beam can also exert torques and rotate a trapped particle owing to the orbital angular momentum of the beam. As the beam possesses different phase gradients, the rotation velocity of the trapped particle can be varied along the circumference. The simulation and experimental results show that an annular beam with three segments of different phase gradients can rotate particles with controlled velocities. The beam has potential applications in optical trapping and optical information processing.
Phase anomalies in Bessel-Gauss beams.
Kim, Myun-Sik; Scharf, Toralf; Assafrao, Alberto da Costa; Rockstuhl, Carsten; Pereira, Silvania F; Urbach, H Paul; Herzig, Hans Peter
2012-12-17
Bessel-Gauss beams are known as non-diffracting beams. They can be obtained by focusing an annularly shaped collimated laser beam. Here, we report for the first time on the direct measurement of the phase evolution of such beams by relying on longitudinal-differential interferometry. We found that the characteristics of Bessel-Gauss beams cause a continuously increasing phase anomaly in the spatial domain where such beams do not diverge, i.e. there is a larger phase advance of the beam when compared to a referential plane wave. Simulations are in excellent agreement with measurements. We also provide an analytical treatment of the problem that matches both experimental and numerical results and provides an intuitive explanation.
Phase control of the microwave radiation in free electron laser two-beam accelerator
Goren, Y.; Sessler, A.M.
1987-07-01
A phase control system for the FEL portion of Two-Beam Accelerator is proposed. The control keeps the phase error within acceptable bounds. The control mechanism is analyzed, both analytically in a ''resonant particle'' approximation and numerically in a multi-particle simulation code. Sensitivity of phase errors to the FEL parameters has been noticed.
Phase errors due to speckles in laser fringe projection.
Rosendahl, Sara; Hällstig, Emil; Gren, Per; Sjödahl, Mikael
2010-04-10
When measuring a three-dimensional shape with triangulation and projected interference fringes it is of interest to reduce speckle contrast without destroying the coherence of the projected light. A moving aperture is used to suppress the speckles and thereby reduce the phase error in the fringe image. It is shown that the phase error depends linearly on the ratio between the speckle contrast and the modulation of the fringes. In this investigation the spatial carrier method was used to extract the phase, where the phase error also depends on filtering the Fourier spectrum. An analytical expression for the phase error is derived. Both the speckle reduction and the theoretical expressions for the phase error are verified by simulations and experiments. It was concluded that a movement of the aperture by three aperture diameters during exposure of the image reduces the speckle contrast and hence the phase error by 60%. In the experiments, a phase error of 0.2 rad was obtained.
Correcting the magnification error of fan beam densitometers.
Griffiths, M R; Noakes, K A; Pocock, N A
1997-01-01
Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), using a narrow pencil-shaped X-ray beam coupled to a single detector, has been used extensively. More recently, DXA using a fan- shaped X-ray beam coupled to an array of detectors has been introduced. This new generation of scanners causes an inherent magnification of scanned structures as the distance from the X-ray source decreases. This magnification, which occurs in the medial-lateral direction but not in the craniocaudal direction, does not affect bone mineral density (BMD). There are, however, significant changes of bone mineral content (BMC), bone area, and parameters of hip geometry, with varying distance of the bone scanned from the X-ray source. Variability of soft tissue thickness in vivo, by altering the distance of the skeleton from the scanning table and X-ray source, may cause clinically significant errors of BMC, bone area, and proximal femur geometry when measured using fan-beam densitometers. We analyzed the geometry of Lunar and Hologic fan beam scanners to derive equations expressing the true width of scanned structures in terms of the apparent width and machine dimensions. We also showed mathematic ally that performing an additional scan, at a different distance from the X-ray source than the first scan, provides simultaneous equations that can be solved to derive the real width of a scanned bone. This hypothesis was tested on the Lunar Expert using aluminium phantoms scanned at different table heights. There was an excellent correlation, r = 0.99 (p < 0.001), between the predicted phantom width and the measured phantom width. In conclusion, this study shows that the magnification error of fan beam DXA can be corrected using a dual scanning technique. This has important implications in the clinical usefulness of BMC and geometrical measurements obtained from these scanners.
Error analysis in post linac to driver linac transport beam line of RAON
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Chanmi; Kim, Eun-San
2016-07-01
We investigated the effects of magnet errors in the beam transport line connecting the post linac to the driver linac (P2DT) in the Rare Isotope Accelerator in Korea (RAON). The P2DT beam line is bent by 180-degree to send the radioactive Isotope Separation On-line (ISOL) beams accelerated in Linac-3 to Linac-2. This beam line transports beams with multi-charge state 132Sn45,46,47. The P2DT beam line includes 42 quadrupole, 4 dipole and 10 sextupole magnets. We evaluate the effects of errors on the trajectory of the beam by using the TRACK code, which includes the translational and the rotational errors of the quadrupole, dipole and sextupole magnets in the beam line. The purpose of this error analysis is to reduce the rate of beam loss in the P2DT beam line. The distorted beam trajectories can be corrected by using six correctors and seven monitors.
Bachman, Daniel; Chen, Zhijiang; Wang, Christopher; Fedosejevs, Robert; Tsui, Ying Y.; Van, Vien
2016-11-29
Phase errors caused by fabrication variations in silicon photonic integrated circuits are an important problem, which negatively impacts device yield and performance. This study reports our recent progress in the development of a method for permanent, postfabrication phase error correction of silicon photonic circuits based on femtosecond laser irradiation. Using beam shaping technique, we achieve a 14-fold enhancement in the phase tuning resolution of the method with a Gaussian-shaped beam compared to a top-hat beam. The large improvement in the tuning resolution makes the femtosecond laser method potentially useful for very fine phase trimming of silicon photonic circuits. Finally, we also show that femtosecond laser pulses can directly modify silicon photonic devices through a SiO_{2} cladding layer, making it the only permanent post-fabrication method that can tune silicon photonic circuits protected by an oxide cladding.
Bachman, Daniel; Chen, Zhijiang; Wang, Christopher; ...
2016-11-29
Phase errors caused by fabrication variations in silicon photonic integrated circuits are an important problem, which negatively impacts device yield and performance. This study reports our recent progress in the development of a method for permanent, postfabrication phase error correction of silicon photonic circuits based on femtosecond laser irradiation. Using beam shaping technique, we achieve a 14-fold enhancement in the phase tuning resolution of the method with a Gaussian-shaped beam compared to a top-hat beam. The large improvement in the tuning resolution makes the femtosecond laser method potentially useful for very fine phase trimming of silicon photonic circuits. Finally, wemore » also show that femtosecond laser pulses can directly modify silicon photonic devices through a SiO2 cladding layer, making it the only permanent post-fabrication method that can tune silicon photonic circuits protected by an oxide cladding.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Wei; Li, Chao; Sun, Zhao-Yang; Zhao, Yu; Wu, Shi-You; Fang, Guang-You
2016-08-01
In the terahertz (THz) band, the inherent shake of the human body may strongly impair the image quality of a beam scanning single frequency holography system for personnel screening. To realize accurate shake compensation in imaging processing, it is quite necessary to develop a high-precision measure system. However, in many cases, different parts of a human body may shake to different extents, resulting in greatly increasing the difficulty in conducting a reasonable measurement of body shake errors for image reconstruction. In this paper, a body shake error compensation algorithm based on the raw data is proposed. To analyze the effect of the body shake on the raw data, a model of echoed signal is rebuilt with considering both the beam scanning mode and the body shake. According to the rebuilt signal model, we derive the body shake error estimated method to compensate for the phase error. Simulation on the reconstruction of point targets with shake errors and proof-of-principle experiments on the human body in the 0.2-THz band are both performed to confirm the effectiveness of the body shake compensation algorithm proposed. Project supported by the Knowledge Innovation Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. YYYJ-1123).
Method and apparatus for optical phase error correction
DeRose, Christopher; Bender, Daniel A.
2014-09-02
The phase value of a phase-sensitive optical device, which includes an optical transport region, is modified by laser processing. At least a portion of the optical transport region is exposed to a laser beam such that the phase value is changed from a first phase value to a second phase value, where the second phase value is different from the first phase value. The portion of the optical transport region that is exposed to the laser beam can be a surface of the optical transport region or a portion of the volume of the optical transport region. In an embodiment of the invention, the phase value of the optical device is corrected by laser processing. At least a portion of the optical transport region is exposed to a laser beam until the phase value of the optical device is within a specified tolerance of a target phase value.
Liquid-Phase Beam Pen Lithography.
He, Shu; Xie, Zhuang; Park, Daniel J; Liao, Xing; Brown, Keith A; Chen, Peng-Cheng; Zhou, Yu; Schatz, George C; Mirkin, Chad A
2016-02-24
Beam pen lithography (BPL) in the liquid phase is evaluated. The effect of tip-substrate gap and aperture size on patterning performance is systematically investigated. As a proof-of-concept experiment, nanoarrays of nucleotides are synthesized using BPL in an organic medium, pointing toward the potential of using liquid phase BPL to perform localized photochemical reactions that require a liquid medium.
Phasing piston error in segmented telescopes.
Jiang, Junlun; Zhao, Weirui
2016-08-22
To achieve a diffraction-limited imaging, the piston errors between the segments of the segmented primary mirror telescope should be reduced to λ/40 RMS. We propose a method to detect the piston error by analyzing the intensity distribution on the image plane according to the Fourier optics principle, which can capture segments with the piston errors as large as the coherence length of the input light and reduce these to 0.026λ RMS (λ = 633nm). This method is adaptable to any segmented and deployable primary mirror telescope. Experiments have been carried out to validate the feasibility of the method.
Phase shifter for antenna beam steering
Jindal, Ravi; Razban, Tchanguiz
2016-03-09
Wide band Array Antenna operates in Ku-band (10.7-12.7 GHz) frequency composed of N×N radiating elements. This antenna aims at the reception of television satellite signals. The goal of this research is to provide better possibility of electronic beam control instead of manual or mechanical control, and design compact and low cost phase shifters to be inserted in the feeding network of this antenna. The electronic control of the phase shifter will allow the control of beam steering. The emphasis of this project will be done at the beginning on the design of a good phase shifter in Ku band. The aim of this research is to define, simulate, release and measure a continuous phase shifter. Better reflection loss, low transmission loss, low Cost of array antennas, large range of phase-shifter, phase flatness and bandwidth will be achieved by providing better gain.
Beam splitter phase shifts: Wave optics approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agnesi, Antonio; Degiorgio, Vittorio
2017-10-01
We investigate the phase relationships between transmitted and reflected waves in a lossless beam splitter having a multilayer structure, using the matrix approach as outlined in classical optics books. Contrarily to the case of the quantum optics formalism generally employed to describe beam splitters, these matrices are not unitary. In this note we point out the existence of general relations among the elements of the transfer matrix that describes the multilayer beam splitter. Such relations, which are independent of the detailed structure of the beam splitter, fix the phase shifts between reflected and transmitted waves. It is instructive to see how the results obtained by Zeilinger by using spinor algebra and Pauli matrices can be easily derived from our general relations.
Phase space analysis of velocity bunched beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Filippetto, D.; Bellaveglia, M.; Castellano, M.; Chiadroni, E.; Cultrera, L.; di Pirro, G.; Ferrario, M.; Ficcadenti, L.; Gallo, A.; Gatti, G.; Pace, E.; Vaccarezza, C.; Vicario, C.; Bacci, A.; Rossi, A. R.; Serafini, L.; Cianchi, A.; Marchetti, B.; Giannessi, L.; Labat, M.; Quattromini, M.; Ronsivalle, C.; Marrelli, C.; Migliorati, M.; Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L.; Serluca, M.
2011-09-01
Peak current represents a key demand for new generation electron beam photoinjectors. Many beam applications, such as free electron laser, inverse Compton scattering, terahertz radiation generation, have efficiencies strongly dependent on the bunch length and current. A method of beam longitudinal compression (called velocity bunching) has been proposed some years ago, based on beam longitudinal phase space rotation in a rf field potential. The control of such rotation can lead to a compression factor in excess of 10, depending on the initial longitudinal emittance. Code simulations have shown the possibility to fully compensate the transverse emittance growth during rf compression, and this regime has been experimentally proven recently at SPARC. The key point is the control of transverse beam plasma oscillations, in order to freeze the emittance at its lowest value at the end of compression. Longitudinal and transverse phase space distortions have been observed during the experiments, leading to asymmetric current profiles and higher final projected emittances. In this paper we discuss in detail the results obtained at SPARC in the regime of velocity bunching, analyzing such nonlinearities and identifying the causes. The beam degradation is discussed, both for slice and projected parameters. Analytical tools are derived to experimentally quantify the effect of such distortions on the projected emittance.
Some considerations of reduction of reference phase error in phase-stepping interferometry.
Schwider, J; Dresel, T; Manzke, B
1999-02-01
Positioning errors and miscalibrations of the phase-stepping device in a phase-stepping interferometer lead to systematic errors proportional to twice the measured phase distribution. We discuss the historical development of various error-compensating phase-shift algorithms from a unified mathematical point of view. Furthermore, we demonstrate experimentally that systematic errors can also be removed a posteriori. A Twyman-Green-type microlens test interferometer was used for the experiments.
Tailoring accelerating beams in phase space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wen, Yuanhui; Chen, Yujie; Zhang, Yanfeng; Chen, Hui; Yu, Siyuan
2017-02-01
An appropriate wave-front design will enable light fields that propagate along arbitrary trajectories, thus forming accelerating beams in free space. Previous strategies for designing such accelerating beams rely mainly on caustic methods, which start from diffraction integrals and deal only with two-dimensional fields. Here we introduce an alternate perspective to construct accelerating beams in phase space by designing the corresponding Wigner distribution function (WDF). We find that such a WDF-based method is capable of providing both the initial field distribution and the angular spectrum in need by projecting the WDF into the real space and the Fourier space, respectively. Moreover, this approach applies to the construction of both two- and three-dimensional fields, greatly generalizing previous caustic methods. It may therefore open a new route for construction of highly tailored accelerating beams and facilitate applications ranging from particle manipulation and trapping to optical routing as well as material processing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bedrossian, Manuel; Nadeau, Jay; Serabyn, Eugene; Lindensmith, Chris
2017-02-01
Quantitative phase imaging (QPI) has many applications in a broad range of disciplines from astronomy to microbiology. QPI is often performed by optical interferometry, where two coherent beams of light are used to produce interference patterns at a detector plane. Many algorithms exist to calculate the phase of the incident light from these recorded interference patterns as well as enhance their quality by various de-noising methods. Many of these de-noising algorithms, however, corrupt the quantitative aspect of the measurement, resulting in phase contrast images. Among these phase calculation techniques and de-noising algorithms, none approach the optimization of phase measurements by theoretically addressing the various sources of error in its measurement, as well as how these errors propagate to the phase calculations. In this work, we investigate the various sources of error in the measurements required for QPI, as well as theoretically derive the influence of each source of error on the overall phase calculation for three common phase calculation techniques: the four bucket/step method, three bucket/step method, and the Carré method. The noise characteristics of each of these techniques are discussed and compared using error parameters of a readily available CCD sensor array. Additionally, experimental analysis is conducted on interferograms to investigate the influence of speckle noise on the phase measurements of the three algorithms discussed.
Phase-stepping interferometry: methods for reducing errors caused by camera nonlinearities.
Schödel, René; Nicolaus, Arnold; Bönsch, Gerhard
2002-01-01
Phase errors that arise in phase-stepping interferometry are discussed. Investigations were performed by use of a Twyman-Green interferometer equipped with a compensation plate with a variable and servo-controlled tilt angle. With this instrument, phase-stepping errors can be reduced to a negligible level. There are, however, phase errors that are caused by camera nonlinearities. Two methods for minimizing these errors are presented. The first method is based on the simple idea that the interference intensity at the output of a two-beam interferometer has an exact cosine shape. The camera signals were monitored as a function of the tilt angle of the compensation plate, and the deviation from the cosine form was used to produce a correction. The second method is based on the idea that, under specific conditions, errors of an average of two phase measurements may compensate for each other. Numerical calculations were performed and give evidence of this hypothesis. Each method, the signal-correction and the averaging method, drastically reduces errors in evaluation of phases. The combination of both methods is a powerful tool that allows precise phase data to be obtained with an uncertainty, in the range lambda/2000 approximately 0.3 nm, that is caused mainly by signal noise.
Research on calibration error of carrier phase against antenna arraying
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Ke; Hou, Xiaomin
2016-11-01
It is the technical difficulty of uplink antenna arraying that signals from various quarters can not be automatically aligned at the target in deep space. The size of the far-field power combining gain is directly determined by the accuracy of carrier phase calibration. It is necessary to analyze the entire arraying system in order to improve the accuracy of the phase calibration. This paper analyzes the factors affecting the calibration error of carrier phase of uplink antenna arraying system including the error of phase measurement and equipment, the error of the uplink channel phase shift, the position error of ground antenna, calibration receiver and target spacecraft, the error of the atmospheric turbulence disturbance. Discuss the spatial and temporal autocorrelation model of atmospheric disturbances. Each antenna of the uplink antenna arraying is no common reference signal for continuous calibration. So it must be a system of the periodic calibration. Calibration is refered to communication of one or more spacecrafts in a certain period. Because the deep space targets are not automatically aligned to multiplexing received signal. Therefore the aligned signal should be done in advance on the ground. Data is shown that the error can be controlled within the range of demand by the use of existing technology to meet the accuracy of carrier phase calibration. The total error can be controlled within a reasonable range.
Xu, Xianfeng; Cai, Luzhong; Gao, Fei; Jia, Yulei; Zhang, Hui
2015-11-10
A simple and convenient method, without the need for any additional optical devices and measurements, is suggested to improve the quality of the reconstructed object wavefront in two-step phase-shifting digital holography by decreasing the errors caused by reference beam tilt, which often occurs in practice and subsequently introduces phase distortion in the reconstructed wave. The effects of reference beam tilt in two-step generalized interferometry is analyzed theoretically, showing that this tilt incurs no error either on the extracted phase shift or on the retrieved real object wave amplitude on the recording plane, but causes great deformation of the recovered object wavefront. A corresponding error detection and correction approach is proposed, and the formulas to calculate the tilt angle and correct the wavefront are deduced. A series of computer simulations to find and remove the wavefront errors caused by reference beam tilt demonstrate the effectiveness of this method.
Developing beam phasing on the Nova laser
Ehrlich, R.B.; Amendt, P.A.; Dixit, S.N.; Hammel, B.A.; Kalantar, D.H.; Pennington, D.M.; Weiland, T.L.
1997-03-10
We are presently adding the capability to irradiate indirectly-driven Nova targets with two rings of illumination inside each end of the hohlraum for studies of time-dependent second Legendre (P2) and time- integrated fourth Legendre (P4) flux asymmetry control. The rings will be formed with specially designed kinoform phase plates (KPPs), which will direct each half of each beam into two separate rings that are nearly uniform azimuthally. The timing and temporal pulse shape of the outer rings will be controlled independently from those of the inner rings, allowing for phasing of the pulse shapes to control time dependent asymmetry. Modifications to the incident beam diagnostics (IBDS) will enable us to verify that acceptable levels of power balance among the contributing segments of each ring have been achieved on each shot. Current techniques for precision beam pointing and timing are expected to be sufficiently accurate for these experiments. We present a design for an affordable retrofit to achieve beam phasing on Nova, results of a simplified demonstration, and calculations highlighting the anticipated benefits.
Clock error, jitter, phase error, and differential time of arrival in satellite communications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sorace, Ron
The maintenance of synchronization in satellite communication systems is critical in contemporary systems, since many signal processing and detection algorithms depend on ascertaining time references. Unfortunately, proper synchronism becomes more difficult to maintain at higher frequencies. Factors such as clock error or jitter, noise, and phase error at a coherent receiver may corrupt a transmitted signal and degrade synchronism at the terminations of a communication link. Further, in some systems an estimate of propagation delay is necessary, but this delay may vary stochastically with the range of the link. This paper presents a model of the components of synchronization error including a simple description of clock error and examination of recursive estimation of the propagation delay time for messages between elements in a satellite communication system. Attention is devoted to jitter, the sources of which are considered to be phase error in coherent reception and jitter in the clock itself.
Experimental analysis of beam pointing system based on liquid crystal optical phase array
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Yubin; Zhang, Jianmin; Zhang, Zhen
2016-12-01
In this paper, we propose and demonstrate an elementary non-mechanical beam aiming and steering system with a single liquid crystal optical phase array (LC-OPA) and charge-coupled device (CCD). With the conventional method of beam steering control, the LC-OPA device can realize one dimensional beam steering continuously. An improved beam steering strategy is applied to realize two dimensional beam steering with a single LC-OPA. The whole beam aiming and steering system, including an LC-OPA and a retroreflective target, is controlled by the monitor. We test the feasibility of beam steering strategy both in one dimension and in two dimension at first, then the whole system is build up based on the improved strategy. The experimental results show that the max experimental pointing error is 56 μrad, and the average pointing error of the system is 19 μrad.
Wang, Jiazhou; Jin, Xiance; Peng, Jiayuan; Xie, Jiang; Chen, Junchao; Hu, Weigang
2016-05-08
This study investigated the impact of beam complexities on planar quality assur-ance and plan quality robustness by introducing MLC errors in intensity-modulate radiation therapy. Forty patients' planar quality assurance (QA) plans were enrolled in this study, including 20 dynamic MLC (DMLC) IMRT plans and 20 static MLC (SMLC) IMRT plans. The total beam numbers were 150 and 160 for DMLC and SMLC, respectively. Six different magnitudes of MLC errors were introduced to these beams. Gamma pass rates were calculated by comparing error-free fluence and error-induced fluence. The plan quality variation was acquired by comparing PTV coverage. Eight complexity scores were calculated based on the beam flu-ence and the MLC sequence. The complexity scores include fractal dimension, monitor unit, modulation index, fluence map complexity, weighted average of field area, weighted average of field perimeter, and small aperture ratio (< 5 cm2 and < 50cm2). The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was calculated to analyze the correlation between these scores and gamma pass rate and plan quality varia-tion. For planar QA, the most significant complexity index was fractal dimension for DMLC (p = -0.40) and weighted segment area for SMLC (p = 0.27) at low magnitude MLC error. For plan quality, the most significant complexity index was weighted segment perimeter for DMLC (p = 0.56) and weighted segment area for SMLC (p= 0.497) at low magnitude MLC error. The sensitivity of planar QA was weakly associated with the field complexity with low magnitude MLC error, but the plan quality robustness was associated with beam complexity. Plans with simple beams were more robust to MLC error.
Wang, Jiazhou; Jin, Xiance; Peng, Jiayuan; Xie, Jiang; Chen, Junchao; Hu, Weigang
2016-05-01
This study investigated the impact of beam complexities on planar quality assurance and plan quality robustness by introducing MLC errors in intensity-modulate radiation therapy. Forty patients' planar quality assurance (QA) plans were enrolled in this study, including 20 dynamic MLC (DMLC) IMRT plans and 20 static MLC (SMLC) IMRT plans. The total beam numbers were 150 and 160 for DMLC and SMLC, respectively. Six different magnitudes of MLC errors were introduced to these beams. Gamma pass rates were calculated by comparing error-free fluence and error-induced fluence. The plan quality variation was acquired by comparing PTV coverage. Eight complexity scores were calculated based on the beam fluence and the MLC sequence. The complexity scores include fractal dimension, monitor unit, modulation index, fluence map complexity, weighted average of field area, weighted average of field perimeter, and small aperture ratio (<5cm2 and<50 cm2). The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was calculated to analyze the correlation between these scores and gamma pass rate and plan quality variation. For planar QA, the most significant complexity index was fractal dimension for DMLC (p=-0.40) and weighted segment area for SMLC (p=0.27) at low magnitude MLC error. For plan quality, the most significant complexity index was weighted segment perimeter for DMLC (p=0.56) and weighted segment area for SMLC (p=0.497) at low magnitude MLC error. The sensitivity of planar QA was weakly associated with the field complexity with low magnitude MLC error, but the plan quality robustness was associated with beam complexity. Plans with simple beams were more robust to MLC error. PACS number(s): 87.55.
SYSTEMATIC ERROR REDUCTION: NON-TILTED REFERENCE BEAM METHOD FOR LONG TRACE PROFILER.
QIAN,S.; QIAN, K.; HONG, Y.; SENG, L.; HO, T.; TAKACS, P.
2007-08-25
Systematic error in the Long Trace Profiler (LTP) has become the major error source as measurement accuracy enters the nanoradian and nanometer regime. Great efforts have been made to reduce the systematic error at a number of synchrotron radiation laboratories around the world. Generally, the LTP reference beam has to be tilted away from the optical axis in order to avoid fringe overlap between the sample and reference beams. However, a tilted reference beam will result in considerable systematic error due to optical system imperfections, which is difficult to correct. Six methods of implementing a non-tilted reference beam in the LTP are introduced: (1) application of an external precision angle device to measure and remove slide pitch error without a reference beam, (2) independent slide pitch test by use of not tilted reference beam, (3) non-tilted reference test combined with tilted sample, (4) penta-prism scanning mode without a reference beam correction, (5) non-tilted reference using a second optical head, and (6) alternate switching of data acquisition between the sample and reference beams. With a non-tilted reference method, the measurement accuracy can be improved significantly. Some measurement results are presented. Systematic error in the sample beam arm is not addressed in this paper and should be treated separately.
Classical light beams and geometric phases.
Mukunda, N; Chaturvedi, S; Simon, R
2014-06-01
We present a study of geometric phases in classical wave and polarization optics using the basic mathematical framework of quantum mechanics. Important physical situations taken from scalar wave optics, pure polarization optics, and the behavior of polarization in the eikonal or ray limit of Maxwell's equations in a transparent medium are considered. The case of a beam of light whose propagation direction and polarization state are both subject to change is dealt with, attention being paid to the validity of Maxwell's equations at all stages. Global topological aspects of the space of all propagation directions are discussed using elementary group theoretical ideas, and the effects on geometric phases are elucidated.
Laser Phase Errors in Seeded Free Electron Lasers
Ratner, D.; Fry, A.; Stupakov, G.; White, W.; /SLAC
2012-04-17
Harmonic seeding of free electron lasers has attracted significant attention as a method for producing transform-limited pulses in the soft x-ray region. Harmonic multiplication schemes extend seeding to shorter wavelengths, but also amplify the spectral phase errors of the initial seed laser, and may degrade the pulse quality and impede production of transform-limited pulses. In this paper we consider the effect of seed laser phase errors in high gain harmonic generation and echo-enabled harmonic generation. We use simulations to confirm analytical results for the case of linearly chirped seed lasers, and extend the results for arbitrary seed laser envelope and phase.
The effects of error augmentation on learning to walk on a narrow balance beam.
Domingo, Antoinette; Ferris, Daniel P
2010-10-01
Error augmentation during training has been proposed as a means to facilitate motor learning due to the human nervous system's reliance on performance errors to shape motor commands. We studied the effects of error augmentation on short-term learning of walking on a balance beam to determine whether it had beneficial effects on motor performance. Four groups of able-bodied subjects walked on a treadmill-mounted balance beam (2.5-cm wide) before and after 30 min of training. During training, two groups walked on the beam with a destabilization device that augmented error (Medium and High Destabilization groups). A third group walked on a narrower beam (1.27-cm) to augment error (Narrow). The fourth group practiced walking on the 2.5-cm balance beam (Wide). Subjects in the Wide group had significantly greater improvements after training than the error augmentation groups. The High Destabilization group had significantly less performance gains than the Narrow group in spite of similar failures per minute during training. In a follow-up experiment, a fifth group of subjects (Assisted) practiced with a device that greatly reduced catastrophic errors (i.e., stepping off the beam) but maintained similar pelvic movement variability. Performance gains were significantly greater in the Wide group than the Assisted group, indicating that catastrophic errors were important for short-term learning. We conclude that increasing errors during practice via destabilization and a narrower balance beam did not improve short-term learning of beam walking. In addition, the presence of qualitatively catastrophic errors seems to improve short-term learning of walking balance.
Phase error analysis and compensation considering ambient light for phase measuring profilometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Ping; Liu, Xinran; He, Yi; Zhu, Tongjing
2014-04-01
The accuracy of phase measuring profilometry (PMP) system based on phase-shifting method is susceptible to gamma non-linearity of the projector-camera pair and uncertain ambient light inevitably. Although many researches on gamma model and phase error compensation methods have been implemented, the effect of ambient light is not explicit all along. In this paper, we perform theoretical analysis and experiments of phase error compensation taking account of both gamma non-linearity and uncertain ambient light. First of all, a mathematical phase error model is proposed to illustrate the reason of phase error generation in detail. We propose that the phase error is related not only to the gamma non-linearity of the projector-camera pair, but also to the ratio of intensity modulation to average intensity in the fringe patterns captured by the camera which is affected by the ambient light. Subsequently, an accurate phase error compensation algorithm is proposed based on the mathematical model, where the relationship between phase error and ambient light is illustrated. Experimental results with four-step phase-shifting PMP system show that the proposed algorithm can alleviate the phase error effectively even though the ambient light is considered.
Electron Phase Slip in an Undulator with Dipole Field and BPM Errors
Emma, P.
2005-01-31
A statistical analysis of a corrected electron trajectory through a planar undulator is used to predict the optimal beam position monitor (BPM) spacing. The undulator is composed of multiple modular sections, each containing many dipoles with random field strength and roll angle errors. Located between each section are inaccurate BPMs, steering correctors, and quadrupole magnets. An analytical formula for electron-to-photon phase errors is derived and is also used to estimate the optimum BPM spacing. The rms trajectory amplitude is also predicted and the results are applied to the LCLS FEL undulator where the requirements on electron trajectory straightness are very demanding.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steingrueber, Ralf; Engel, Herbert; Lessle, Werner
2001-08-01
Electron-beam lithography is the technique of choice to generate in a flexible and accurate way structures and components in the micrometer region and below. Due to its particular exposure strategy, i.e. matching equidistant subfields to a complete pattern, electron-beam systems show typical displacement effects known as stitching errors. These errors can be of dramatic disturbance if they occur in high resolution patterns. This paper presents an exposure scheme which essentially reduces stitching errors by using a multiple exposure technique. The influence of this technique on the value of stitching errors and its interference with the process window as well as total processing time is reported.
Active retrodirective arrays for SPS beam pointing. [phase conjugation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chernoff, R.
1980-01-01
The basic requirement of the SPS beam pointing system is that it deliver a certain amount of S-band (lambda = 12.5 cm) power to a 9.6 km diameter receiving rectenna on the ground. The power is transmitted from a 1.0 km diameter antenna array on the SPS, which is, for a rectenna at about plus or minus 40 deg. latitude, some 37.5x10 to the 6th power km distant. At the present time ARA's appear to be the best bet to realize this very stringent beam pointing requirement. An active retrodirective array (ARA) transmits a beam towards the apparent source of an illuminating signal called the pilot. The array produces, not merely reflects, RF power. Retrodirectivity is achieved by retransmitting from each element of the array a signal whose phase is the "conjugate" of that received by the element. Phase conjugate circuits and pointing errors in ARA's are described. Results obtained using a 2-element X-band ARA and an 8-element S-band ARA are included.
Topological phase structure of vector vortex beams.
Souza, C E R; Huguenin, J A O; Khoury, A Z
2014-05-01
The topological phase acquired by vector vortex optical beams is investigated. Under local unitary operations on their polarization and transverse degrees of freedom, the vector vortices can only acquire discrete geometric phase values, 0 or π, associated with closed paths belonging to different homotopy classes on the SO(3) manifold. These discrete values are demonstrated through interferometric measurements, and the spin-orbit mode separability is associated to the visibility of the interference patterns. The local unitary operations performed on the vector vortices involved both polarization and transverse mode transformations with birefringent wave plates and astigmatic mode converters. The experimental results agree with our theoretical simulations and generalize our previous results obtained with polarization transformations only.
Parallel-quadrature phase-shifting digital holographic microscopy using polarization beam splitter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, Bhargab; Yelleswarapu, Chandra S.; Rao, D. V. G. L. N.
2012-11-01
We present a digital holography microscopy technique based on a parallel-quadrature phase-shifting method. Two π/2 phase-shifted holograms are recorded simultaneously using polarization phase-shifting principle, slightly off-axis recording geometry, and two identical CCD sensors. The parallel phase-shifting is realized by combining circularly polarized object beam with a 45° degree polarized reference beam through a polarizing beam splitter. DC term is eliminated by subtracting the two holograms from each other and the object information is reconstructed after selecting the frequency spectrum of the real image. Both amplitude and phase object reconstruction results are presented. Simultaneous recording eliminates phase errors caused by mechanical vibrations and air turbulences. The slightly off-axis recording geometry with phase-shifting allows a much larger dimension of the spatial filter for reconstruction of the object information. This leads to better reconstruction capability than traditional off-axis holography.
Parallel-quadrature phase-shifting digital holographic microscopy using polarization beam splitter.
Das, Bhargab; Yelleswarapu, Chandra S; Rao, Dvgln
2012-11-01
We present a digital holography microscopy technique based on parallel-quadrature phase-shifting method. Two π/2 phase-shifted holograms are recorded simultaneously using polarization phase-shifting principle, slightly off-axis recording geometry, and two identical CCD sensors. The parallel phase-shifting is realized by combining circularly polarized object beam with a 45° degree polarized reference beam through a polarizing beam splitter. DC term is eliminated by subtracting the two holograms from each other and the object information is reconstructed after selecting the frequency spectrum of the real image. Both amplitude and phase object reconstruction results are presented. Simultaneous recording eliminates phase errors caused by mechanical vibrations and air turbulences. The slightly off-axis recording geometry with phase-shifting allows a much larger dimension of the spatial filter for reconstruction of the object information. This leads to better reconstruction capability than traditional off-axis holography.
Parallel-quadrature phase-shifting digital holographic microscopy using polarization beam splitter
Das, Bhargab; Yelleswarapu, Chandra S; Rao, DVGLN
2012-01-01
We present a digital holography microscopy technique based on parallel-quadrature phase-shifting method. Two π/2 phase-shifted holograms are recorded simultaneously using polarization phase-shifting principle, slightly off-axis recording geometry, and two identical CCD sensors. The parallel phase-shifting is realized by combining circularly polarized object beam with a 45° degree polarized reference beam through a polarizing beam splitter. DC term is eliminated by subtracting the two holograms from each other and the object information is reconstructed after selecting the frequency spectrum of the real image. Both amplitude and phase object reconstruction results are presented. Simultaneous recording eliminates phase errors caused by mechanical vibrations and air turbulences. The slightly off-axis recording geometry with phase-shifting allows a much larger dimension of the spatial filter for reconstruction of the object information. This leads to better reconstruction capability than traditional off-axis holography. PMID:23109732
Phase-shifting error and its elimination in phase-shifting digital holography.
Guo, Cheng-Shan; Zhang, Li; Wang, Hui-Tian; Liao, Jun; Zhu, Y Y
2002-10-01
We investigate the influence of phase-shifting error on the quality of the reconstructed image in digital holography and propose a method of error elimination for a perfect image. In this method the summation of the intensity bit errors of the reconstructed image is taken as an evaluation function for an iterative algorithm to find the exact phase-shifting value. The feasibility of this method is demonstrated by computer simulation.
Acousto-optic liquid-crystal analog beam former for phased-array antennas.
Riza, N A
1994-06-10
A compact phased-array antenna acousto-optic beam former with element-level analog phase (0-2π) and amplitude control using nematic-liquid-crystal display-type technology is experimentally demonstrated. Measurements indicate > 6-bit phase control and 52.6 dB of amplitude-attenuation control. High-quality error calibration and antenna sidelobe-level control is possible with this low-control-power analog beam former. Optical system options using rf Bragg cells or wideband Bragg cells are discussed, with the rf design being the current preferred approach. Transmit-receive beam forming based on frequency upconversion-downconversion by electronic mixing is introduced for the rf Bragg-cell beam former, and comparisons with digital beam forming are highlighted. A millimeter-wave signal generation and control optical architecture is described.
Stitching-error reduction in gratings by shot-shifted electron-beam lithography
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dougherty, D. J.; Muller, R. E.; Maker, P. D.; Forouhar, S.
2001-01-01
Calculations of the grating spatial-frequency spectrum and the filtering properties of multiple-pass electron-beam writing demonstrate a tradeoff between stitching-error suppression and minimum pitch separation. High-resolution measurements of optical-diffraction patterns show a 25-dB reduction in stitching-error side modes.
Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission Commissioning Phase Orbit Determination Error Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chung, Lauren R.; Novak, Stefan; Long, Anne; Gramling, Cheryl
2009-01-01
The Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) mission commissioning phase starts in a 185 km altitude x 12 Earth radii (RE) injection orbit and lasts until the Phase 1 mission orbits and orientation to the Earth-Sun li ne are achieved. During a limited time period in the early part of co mmissioning, five maneuvers are performed to raise the perigee radius to 1.2 R E, with a maneuver every other apogee. The current baseline is for the Goddard Space Flight Center Flight Dynamics Facility to p rovide MMS orbit determination support during the early commissioning phase using all available two-way range and Doppler tracking from bo th the Deep Space Network and Space Network. This paper summarizes th e results from a linear covariance analysis to determine the type and amount of tracking data required to accurately estimate the spacecraf t state, plan each perigee raising maneuver, and support thruster cal ibration during this phase. The primary focus of this study is the na vigation accuracy required to plan the first and the final perigee ra ising maneuvers. Absolute and relative position and velocity error hi stories are generated for all cases and summarized in terms of the ma ximum root-sum-square consider and measurement noise error contributi ons over the definitive and predictive arcs and at discrete times inc luding the maneuver planning and execution times. Details of the meth odology, orbital characteristics, maneuver timeline, error models, and error sensitivities are provided.
Analysis of uncompensated phase error on automatic target recognition performance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Montagnino, Lee J.; Cassabaum, Mary L.; Halversen, Shawn D.; Rupp, Chad T.; Wagner, Gregory M.; Young, Matthew T.
2009-05-01
Performance of Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) algorithms for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems relies heavily on the system performance and specifications of the SAR sensor. A representative multi-stage SAR ATR algorithm [1, 2] is analyzed across imagery containing phase errors in the down-range direction induced during the transmission of the radar's waveform. The degradation induced on the SAR imagery by the phase errors is measured in terms of peak phase error, Root-Mean-Square (RMS) phase error, and multiplicative noise. The ATR algorithm consists of three stages: a two-parameter CFAR, a discrimination stage to reduce false alarms, and a classification stage to identify targets in the scene. The end-to-end performance of the ATR algorithm is quantified as a function of the multiplicative noise present in the SAR imagery through Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves. Results indicate that the performance of the ATR algorithm presented is robust over a 3dB change in multiplicative noise.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Natarajan, Suresh; Gardner, C. S.
1987-01-01
Receiver timing synchronization of an optical Pulse-Position Modulation (PPM) communication system can be achieved using a phased-locked loop (PLL), provided the photodetector output is suitably processed. The magnitude of the PLL phase error is a good indicator of the timing error at the receiver decoder. The statistics of the phase error are investigated while varying several key system parameters such as PPM order, signal and background strengths, and PPL bandwidth. A practical optical communication system utilizing a laser diode transmitter and an avalanche photodiode in the receiver is described, and the sampled phase error data are presented. A linear regression analysis is applied to the data to obtain estimates of the relational constants involving the phase error variance and incident signal power.
Beam shaping with multiple-powered phase masks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuang, Dengfeng; Lépine, Thierry; Tian, Jianliang; Dufouleur, Paul
2014-11-01
We present multiple-powered phase masks to convert a plane wave beam into different shaped beams. With the squared phase mask, a hollow beam is obtained before the Fourier plane of the converging lens and a highly focused beam is obtained after the Fourier plane. With the fourth-power phase mask, a crosshair beam with highly focused point in the center is formed on the Fourier plane, then a beam lattice with strong light spots on the four corners is generated after the Fourier plane and the beam lattice has different size on different observing distances. With the fifth-power phase mask, a self-bending beam is generated over long propagation distances.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chung, Ting-Yi; Huang, Szu-Jung; Fu, Huang-Wen; Chang, Ho-Ping; Chang, Cheng-Hsiang; Hwang, Ching-Shiang
2016-08-01
The effect of an APPLE II-type elliptically polarized undulator (EPU) on the beam dynamics were investigated using active and passive methods. To reduce the tune shift and improve the injection efficiency, dynamic multipole errors were compensated using L-shaped iron shims, which resulted in stable top-up operation for a minimum gap. The skew quadrupole error was compensated using a multipole corrector, which was located downstream of the EPU for minimizing betatron coupling, and it ensured the enhancement of the synchrotron radiation brightness. The investigation methods, a numerical simulation algorithm, a multipole error correction method, and the beam-based measurement results are discussed.
Optical beam forming techniques for phased array antennas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, Te-Kao; Chandler, Charles W.
1993-01-01
Three optical beam forming techniques are identified as applicable to large spaceborne phased array antennas. They are 1) the fiber replacement of conventional RF phased array distribution and control components, 2) spatial beam forming, and 3) optical beam splitting techniques. Two novel optical beam forming approaches, i.e., the spatial beam forming with a 'smart pixel' spatial light modulator (SLM) and the optical beam splitting approaches are conceived with integrated quasi-optical components. Also presented are the transmit and receive array architectures with the new SLM.
Atmospheric turbulence induced synthetic aperture lidar phase error compensation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Tian-an; Li, Hong-ping
2016-12-01
The resolution of a conventional optical imaging radar system is constrained by the diffraction limit of the telescope's aperture. The combination of lidar and synthetic aperture processing techniques can overcome the diffraction limit and provide a higher resolution air borne remote sensor. Atmospheric turbulence is an important factor affecting lidar imaging, and the phase screen simulation method is an effective method to simulate the degradation of laser signal propagating through turbulent atmosphere. By using Monte-Carlo random factor, the randomness of phase screens can be improved. The lidar imaging with different turbulence intensity is also calculated in this paper, then the improved rank one phase estimation autofocus method is used to compensate the imaging phase errors. The results show that the method of generating phase screen is consistent with the statistics of atmospheric turbulence, which can well simulate the effect of atmospheric turbulence on synthetic aperture lidar, and the influence on synthetic aperture lidar azimuth resolution is greater when atmospheric turbulence is stronger. Improved rank one phase estimation algorithm has good autofocus effect, which can effectively compensate the phase errors and enhance the image quality degraded by turbulence.
Phase-modulation method for AWG phase-error measurement in the frequency domain.
Takada, Kazumasa; Hirose, Tomohiro
2009-12-15
We report a phase-modulation method for measuring arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) phase error in the frequency domain. By combining the method with a digital sampling technique that we have already reported, we can measure the phase error within an accuracy of +/-0.055 rad for the center 90% waveguides in the array even when no carrier frequencies are generated in the beat signal from the interferometer.
EFFECT OF SOLENOID FIELD ERRORS ON ELECTRON BEAM TEMPERATURES IN THE RHIC ELECTRON COOLER.
MONTAG,C.KEWISCH,J.
2003-05-12
As part of a future upgrade to the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), electron cooling is foreseen to decrease ion beam emittances. Within the electron cooling section, the ''hot'' ion beam is immersed in a ''cold'' electron beam. The cooling effect is further enhanced by a solenoid field in the cooling section, which forces the electrons to spiral around the field lines with a (Larmor) radius of 10 micrometers, reducing the effective transverse temperature by orders of magnitude. Studies of the effect of solenoid field errors on electron beam temperatures are reported.
An aperture phase compensation technique for off-axis beam synthesis in parabolic reflector antennas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Browning, D. J.; Adatia, N. A.; Rudge, A. W.
An aperture phase compensation technique is described which utilizes an orthogonal beam-forming matrix to apply discrete phase correction to the unwanted aperture phase error terms. The technique utilizes the existence of the two-dimensional Fourier transform relationship between the electric field distribution in the aperture and that in the focal plane region. The phase error components present in the aperture of the antenna when the primary feed is displaced from the focus are identified, and a set of discrete corrections is applied to the aperture phase. The technique is investigated for both singly and doubly curved parabolic reflector antennas using linear and planar arrays coupled to one-dimensional and two-dimensional orthogonal beam-forming matrices respectively. The application of the technique is here confined to offset configurations.
Strongly Phase-Aberrated Nondiffraction Limited Laser Beams
1976-01-01
AFWL-TR-75-153 AFWL-TR 75-153 A CO o o v v v STRONGLY PHASE-ABERRATED NOND1FFRACTION LIMITED LASER BEAMS Charles B. Hogge January 1976...8217./’< ^^U/.v:4;->) <ju5^ Nondiffraction limited ; /; ^’ Aberrations ’ ^»^ ^ Random phase 20 ABSTRACT (Continue on...Results for Strongly Phase Aberrated Nondiffraction Limited Beams 36 IV SYSTEM JITTER AND CASCADED RANDOM PHASE DISTORTIONS 53 System
Some effects of quantization on a noiseless phase-locked loop. [sampling phase errors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Greenhall, C. A.
1979-01-01
If the VCO of a phase-locked receiver is to be replaced by a digitally programmed synthesizer, the phase error signal must be sampled and quantized. Effects of quantizing after the loop filter (frequency quantization) or before (phase error quantization) are investigated. Constant Doppler or Doppler rate noiseless inputs are assumed. The main result gives the phase jitter due to frequency quantization for a Doppler-rate input. By itself, however, frequency quantization is impractical because it makes the loop dynamic range too small.
The effect of exit beam phase aberrations on parallel beam coherent x-ray reconstructions
Hruszkewycz, S. O.; Fuoss, P. H.; Harder, R.; Xiao, X.
2010-12-15
Diffraction artifacts from imperfect x-ray windows near the sample are an important consideration in the design of coherent x-ray diffraction measurements. In this study, we used simulated and experimental diffraction patterns in two and three dimensions to explore the effect of phase imperfections in a beryllium window (such as a void or inclusion) on the convergence behavior of phasing algorithms and on the ultimate reconstruction. A predictive relationship between beam wavelength, sample size, and window position was derived to explain the dependence of reconstruction quality on beryllium defect size. Defects corresponding to this prediction cause the most damage to the sample exit wave and induce signature error oscillations during phasing that can be used as a fingerprint of experimental x-ray window artifacts. The relationship between x-ray window imperfection size and coherent x-ray diffractive imaging reconstruction quality explored in this work can play an important role in designing high-resolution in situ coherent imaging instrumentation and will help interpret the phasing behavior of coherent diffraction measured in these in situ environments.
The effect of exit beam phase aberrations on parallel beam coherent x-ray reconstructions.
Hruszkewycz, S. O.; Harder, R.; Xiao, X.; Fuoss, P. H.
2010-12-01
Diffraction artifacts from imperfect x-ray windows near the sample are an important consideration in the design of coherent x-ray diffraction measurements. In this study, we used simulated and experimental diffraction patterns in two and three dimensions to explore the effect of phase imperfections in a beryllium window (such as a void or inclusion) on the convergence behavior of phasing algorithms and on the ultimate reconstruction. A predictive relationship between beam wavelength, sample size, and window position was derived to explain the dependence of reconstruction quality on beryllium defect size. Defects corresponding to this prediction cause the most damage to the sample exit wave and induce signature error oscillations during phasing that can be used as a fingerprint of experimental x-ray window artifacts. The relationship between x-ray window imperfection size and coherent x-ray diffractive imaging reconstruction quality explored in this work can play an important role in designing high-resolution in situ coherent imaging instrumentation and will help interpret the phasing behavior of coherent diffraction measured in these in situ environments.
Phased laser array for generating a powerful laser beam
Holzrichter, John F.; Ruggiero, Anthony J.
2004-02-17
A first injection laser signal and a first part of a reference laser beam are injected into a first laser element. At least one additional injection laser signal and at least one additional part of a reference laser beam are injected into at least one additional laser element. The first part of a reference laser beam and the at least one additional part of a reference laser beam are amplified and phase conjugated producing a first amplified output laser beam emanating from the first laser element and an additional amplified output laser beam emanating from the at least one additional laser element. The first amplified output laser beam and the additional amplified output laser beam are combined into a powerful laser beam.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Short, David A.; North, Gerald R.
1990-01-01
A comparison of rain rates retrieved from the Nimbus 5 electronically scanning microwave radiometer brightness temperatures and observed from shipboard radars during the Global Atlantic Tropical Experiment (GATE) phase I shows that the beam filling error is the major source of discrepancy between the two. When averaged over a large scene (the GATE radar array, 400 km in diameter), the beam filling error is quite stable, being 50 percent of the observed rain rate. This suggests the simple procedure of multiplying retrieved rain rates by 2 (correction factor). A statistical model of the beam filling error is developed by envisioning an idealized instrument field-of-view that encompasses an entire gamma distribution of rain rates. A modeled correction factor near 2 is found for rain rate and temperature characteristics consistent with GATE conditions. The statistical model also suggests that the correction factor varies from 1.5 to 2.5 for suppressed to enhanced tropical convective regimes, and decreases to 1.5 as the freezing level and average depth of the rain column decreases to 2.5 km.
Highly efficient electron vortex beams generated by nanofabricated phase holograms
Grillo, Vincenzo; Mafakheri, Erfan; Frabboni, Stefano
2014-01-27
We propose an improved type of holographic-plate suitable for the shaping of electron beams. The plate is fabricated by a focused ion beam on a silicon nitride membrane and introduces a controllable phase shift to the electron wavefunction. We adopted the optimal blazed-profile design for the phase hologram, which results in the generation of highly efficient (25%) electron vortex beams. This approach paves the route towards applications in nano-scale imaging and materials science.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rocha, G.; Pagano, L.; Górski, K. M.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Lange, A. E.
2010-04-01
We introduce a new method to propagate uncertainties in the beam shapes used to measure the cosmic microwave background to cosmological parameters determined from those measurements. The method, called markov chain beam randomization (MCBR), randomly samples from a set of templates or functions that describe the beam uncertainties. The method is much faster than direct numerical integration over systematic “nuisance” parameters, and is not restricted to simple, idealized cases as is analytic marginalization. It does not assume the data are normally distributed, and does not require Gaussian priors on the specific systematic uncertainties. We show that MCBR properly accounts for and provides the marginalized errors of the parameters. The method can be generalized and used to propagate any systematic uncertainties for which a set of templates is available. We apply the method to the Planck satellite, and consider future experiments. Beam measurement errors should have a small effect on cosmological parameters as long as the beam fitting is performed after removal of 1/f noise.
Pacheco, Shaun; Brand, Jonathan F; Zaverton, Melissa; Milster, Tom; Liang, Rongguang
2015-05-04
A method to design one-dimensional beam-spitting phase gratings with low sensitivity to fabrication errors is described. The method optimizes the phase function of a grating by minimizing the integrated variance of the energy of each output beam over a range of fabrication errors. Numerical results for three 1x9 beam splitting phase gratings are given. Two optimized gratings with low sensitivity to fabrication errors were compared with a grating designed for optimal efficiency. These three gratings were fabricated using gray-scale photolithography. The standard deviation of the 9 outgoing beam energies in the optimized gratings were 2.3 and 3.4 times lower than the optimal efficiency grating.
Pacheco, Shaun; Brand, Jonathan F.; Zaverton, Melissa; Milster, Tom; Liang, Rongguang
2015-01-01
A method to design one-dimensional beam-spitting phase gratings with low sensitivity to fabrication errors is described. The method optimizes the phase function of a grating by minimizing the integrated variance of the energy of each output beam over a range of fabrication errors. Numerical results for three 1x9 beam splitting phase gratings are given. Two optimized gratings with low sensitivity to fabrication errors were compared with a grating designed for optimal efficiency. These three gratings were fabricated using gray-scale photolithography. The standard deviation of the 9 outgoing beam energies in the optimized gratings were 2.3 and 3.4 times lower than the optimal efficiency grating. PMID:25969268
Phase errors in gossamer membrane primary objective gratings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ditto, Thomas D.; Ritter, Joseph M.
2008-07-01
A ribbon-shaped primary objective grating (POG) telescope lends itself to deployment in space, because it can be stowed for transport on a roll. Unlike mirrors which need to be segmented for sizes beyond the diameter of the fairing or payload bay, the ribbon is a continuous integral surface transported on a drum and unfurled during deployment. A flat POG membrane abandons a standard three dimensional figure requirement of mirrors and solves the problem of making primary objectives from tensile structures. Moreover, POG telescopes enjoy relaxed surface dimensional tolerances compared with mirrors. We have demonstrated mathematically and empirically that the tolerance for flatness relaxes as the receiving angle increases toward grazing exodus where the magnification of the POG is greatest. At the same time, the tolerance for phase error is worsened as the angle of reconstruction moves toward grazing exodus. The problem will be aggravated by the rigors of the space deployment environment. We give a mathematical treatment for the flatness and phase error. We mention engineering methods that could ameliorate the error.
A phase-space beam position monitor for synchrotron radiation.
Samadi, Nazanin; Bassey, Bassey; Martinson, Mercedes; Belev, George; Dallin, Les; de Jong, Mark; Chapman, Dean
2015-07-01
The stability of the photon beam position on synchrotron beamlines is critical for most if not all synchrotron radiation experiments. The position of the beam at the experiment or optical element location is set by the position and angle of the electron beam source as it traverses the magnetic field of the bend-magnet or insertion device. Thus an ideal photon beam monitor would be able to simultaneously measure the photon beam's position and angle, and thus infer the electron beam's position in phase space. X-ray diffraction is commonly used to prepare monochromatic beams on X-ray beamlines usually in the form of a double-crystal monochromator. Diffraction couples the photon wavelength or energy to the incident angle on the lattice planes within the crystal. The beam from such a monochromator will contain a spread of energies due to the vertical divergence of the photon beam from the source. This range of energies can easily cover the absorption edge of a filter element such as iodine at 33.17 keV. A vertical profile measurement of the photon beam footprint with and without the filter can be used to determine the vertical centroid position and angle of the photon beam. In the measurements described here an imaging detector is used to measure these vertical profiles with an iodine filter that horizontally covers part of the monochromatic beam. The goal was to investigate the use of a combined monochromator, filter and detector as a phase-space beam position monitor. The system was tested for sensitivity to position and angle under a number of synchrotron operating conditions, such as normal operations and special operating modes where the photon beam is intentionally altered in position and angle at the source point. The results are comparable with other methods of beam position measurement and indicate that such a system is feasible in situations where part of the synchrotron beam can be used for the phase-space measurement.
LASER BEAMS: On a method for obtaining laser beams with a phase singularity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malyutin, A. A.
2004-03-01
A method is analysed for obtaining laser beams with a phase singularity with the help of phase screens described by the function of the type exp(ilphi). It is shown that this method is used to obtain laser beams in the form of single rings with a smooth intensity distribution in the far-field radiation zone (at the lens focus) representing the superposition of Laguerre — Gaussian modes. In the near-field zone and, in the presence of aperture clipping, also in the focal region, the beams with a more complicated structure can be observed. The scaling of the radius corresponding to the maximum intensity of the beam both in the absence and presence of aperture clipping occurs linearly with the singularity charge l. The influence of the beam decentration and of the phase screen on the structure of phase-singularity beams is estimated.
The effects of betatron phase advances on beam-beam and its compensation in RHIC
Luo, Y.; Fischer, W.; Gu, X.; Tepikian, S.; Trbojevic, D.
2011-03-28
In this article we perform simulation studies to investigate the effects of betatron phase advances between the beam-beam interaction points on half-integer resonance driving term, second order chromaticty and dynamic aperture in RHIC. The betatron phase advances are adjusted with artificial matrices inserted in the middle of arcs. The lattices for the 2011 RHIC polarized proton (p-p) run and 2010 RHIC Au-Au runs are used in this study. We also scan the betatron phase advances between IP8 and the electron lens for the proposed Blue ring lattice with head-on beam-beam compensation.
Ion beam machining error control and correction for small scale optics.
Xie, Xuhui; Zhou, Lin; Dai, Yifan; Li, Shengyi
2011-09-20
Ion beam figuring (IBF) technology for small scale optical components is discussed. Since the small removal function can be obtained in IBF, it makes computer-controlled optical surfacing technology possible to machine precision centimeter- or millimeter-scale optical components deterministically. Using a small ion beam to machine small optical components, there are some key problems, such as small ion beam positioning on the optical surface, material removal rate, ion beam scanning pitch control on the optical surface, and so on, that must be seriously considered. The main reasons for the problems are that it is more sensitive to the above problems than a big ion beam because of its small beam diameter and lower material ratio. In this paper, we discuss these problems and their influences in machining small optical components in detail. Based on the identification-compensation principle, an iterative machining compensation method is deduced for correcting the positioning error of an ion beam with the material removal rate estimated by a selected optimal scanning pitch. Experiments on ϕ10 mm Zerodur planar and spherical samples are made, and the final surface errors are both smaller than λ/100 measured by a Zygo GPI interferometer.
Li, Heng; Liu, Wei; Park, Peter; Matney, Jason; Liao, Zhongxing; Chang, Joe; Zhang, Xiaodong; Li, Yupeng; Zhu, Ronald X
2014-09-08
The objective of this study was to evaluate and understand the systematic error between the planned three-dimensional (3D) dose and the delivered dose to patient in scanning beam proton therapy for lung tumors. Single-field and multifield optimized scanning beam proton therapy plans were generated for ten patients with stage II-III lung cancer with a mix of tumor motion and size. 3D doses in CT datasets for different respiratory phases and the time-weighted average CT, as well as the four-dimensional (4D) doses were computed for both plans. The 3D and 4D dose differences for the targets and different organs at risk were compared using dose-volume histogram (DVH) and voxel-based techniques, and correlated with the extent of tumor motion. The gross tumor volume (GTV) dose was maintained in all 3D and 4D doses, using the internal GTV override technique. The DVH and voxel-based techniques are highly correlated. The mean dose error and the standard deviation of dose error for all target volumes were both less than 1.5% for all but one patient. However, the point dose difference between the 3D and 4D doses was up to 6% for the GTV and greater than 10% for the clinical and planning target volumes. Changes in the 4D and 3D doses were not correlated with tumor motion. The planning technique (single-field or multifield optimized) did not affect the observed systematic error. In conclusion, the dose error in 3D dose calculation varies from patient to patient and does not correlate with lung tumor motion. Therefore, patient-specific evaluation of the 4D dose is important for scanning beam proton therapy for lung tumors.
Propagation of an Airy beam with a spiral phase.
Chu, Xiuxiang
2012-12-15
The propagation of an Airy beam with a spiral phase is studied. The centroid position and spread of the beam are investigated analytically for different topological charges. Study shows that the centroid position of the Airy beam with a spiral phase keeps moving during propagation. The motion with positive topological charge is in the direction opposite to that with negative topological charge. The speed of the motion of the centroid position is proportional to the topological charge and the normalized distance. From the variation of the second moment of the beam, we can also see that the beam spread is speeded up by the spiral phase during propagation. The speed of the beam spread is proportional to the square of the topological charge.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, S.; Quan, C.; Zhu, R.; Tay, C. J.
2012-08-01
Digital sinusoidal phase-shifting fringe projection profilometry (DSPFPP) is a powerful tool to reconstruct three-dimensional (3D) surface of diffuse objects. However, a highly accurate profile is often hindered by nonlinear response, color crosstalk and imbalance of a pair of digital projector and CCD/CMOS camera. In this paper, several phase error correction methods, such as Look-Up-Table (LUT) compensation, intensity correction, gamma correction, LUT-based hybrid method and blind phase error suppression for gray and color-encoded DSPFPP are described. Experimental results are also demonstrated to evaluate the effectiveness of each method.
Caustic beams from unusual powers of the spectral phase.
Vaveliuk, Pablo; Lencina, Alberto; Martínez-Matos, Óscar
2017-10-01
Caustic optical beams arising from a spectral phase whose power lies in an unusual range of values less than two are presented. Unlike what happens for conventional phase powers greater than two, it is feasible to generate caustic structures having properties that do not follow the established sorting. For instance, an asymptotic cusp caustic beam having a cusp point at infinity is demonstrated. For the sake of completeness, the caustic beam properties are analyzed within the whole real range of the phase power. Accurate behavior rules between the symmetries of the beam spectral phase and its intensity distribution are found. These findings strengthen the fundamentals and engineering on caustic beams in diverse optical and physical branches.
Optical beam forming techniques for phased array antennas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, Te-Kao; Chandler, C.
1993-01-01
Conventional phased array antennas using waveguide or coax for signal distribution are impractical for large scale implementation on satellites or spacecraft because they exhibit prohibitively large system size, heavy weight, high attenuation loss, limited bandwidth, sensitivity to electromagnetic interference (EMI) temperature drifts and phase instability. However, optical beam forming systems are smaller, lighter, and more flexible. Three optical beam forming techniques are identified as applicable to large spaceborne phased array antennas. They are (1) the optical fiber replacement of conventional RF phased array distribution and control components, (2) spatial beam forming, and (3) optical beam splitting with integrated quasi-optical components. The optical fiber replacement and the spatial beam forming approaches were pursued by many organizations. Two new optical beam forming architectures are presented. Both architectures involve monolithic integration of the antenna radiating elements with quasi-optical grid detector arrays. The advantages of the grid detector array in the optical process are the higher power handling capability and the dynamic range. One architecture involves a modified version of the original spatial beam forming approach. The basic difference is the spatial light modulator (SLM) device for controlling the aperture field distribution. The original liquid crystal light valve SLM is replaced by an optical shuffling SLM, which was demonstrated for the 'smart pixel' technology. The advantages are the capability of generating the agile beams of a phased array antenna and to provide simultaneous transmit and receive functions. The second architecture considered is the optical beam splitting approach. This architecture involves an alternative amplitude control for each antenna element with an optical beam power divider comprised of mirrors and beam splitters. It also implements the quasi-optical grid phase shifter for phase control and grid
Optical beam forming techniques for phased array antennas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Te-Kao; Chandler, C.
Conventional phased array antennas using waveguide or coax for signal distribution are impractical for large scale implementation on satellites or spacecraft because they exhibit prohibitively large system size, heavy weight, high attenuation loss, limited bandwidth, sensitivity to electromagnetic interference (EMI) temperature drifts and phase instability. However, optical beam forming systems are smaller, lighter, and more flexible. Three optical beam forming techniques are identified as applicable to large spaceborne phased array antennas. They are (1) the optical fiber replacement of conventional RF phased array distribution and control components, (2) spatial beam forming, and (3) optical beam splitting with integrated quasi-optical components. The optical fiber replacement and the spatial beam forming approaches were pursued by many organizations. Two new optical beam forming architectures are presented. Both architectures involve monolithic integration of the antenna radiating elements with quasi-optical grid detector arrays. The advantages of the grid detector array in the optical process are the higher power handling capability and the dynamic range. One architecture involves a modified version of the original spatial beam forming approach. The basic difference is the spatial light modulator (SLM) device for controlling the aperture field distribution. The original liquid crystal light valve SLM is replaced by an optical shuffling SLM, which was demonstrated for the 'smart pixel' technology. The advantages are the capability of generating the agile beams of a phased array antenna and to provide simultaneous transmit and receive functions. The second architecture considered is the optical beam splitting approach. This architecture involves an alternative amplitude control for each antenna element with an optical beam power divider comprised of mirrors and beam splitters. It also implements the quasi-optical grid phase shifter for phase control and grid
Optical beam forming techniques for phased array antennas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, Te-Kao; Chandler, C.
1993-01-01
Conventional phased array antennas using waveguide or coax for signal distribution are impractical for large scale implementation on satellites or spacecraft because they exhibit prohibitively large system size, heavy weight, high attenuation loss, limited bandwidth, sensitivity to electromagnetic interference (EMI) temperature drifts and phase instability. However, optical beam forming systems are smaller, lighter, and more flexible. Three optical beam forming techniques are identified as applicable to large spaceborne phased array antennas. They are (1) the optical fiber replacement of conventional RF phased array distribution and control components, (2) spatial beam forming, and (3) optical beam splitting with integrated quasi-optical components. The optical fiber replacement and the spatial beam forming approaches were pursued by many organizations. Two new optical beam forming architectures are presented. Both architectures involve monolithic integration of the antenna radiating elements with quasi-optical grid detector arrays. The advantages of the grid detector array in the optical process are the higher power handling capability and the dynamic range. One architecture involves a modified version of the original spatial beam forming approach. The basic difference is the spatial light modulator (SLM) device for controlling the aperture field distribution. The original liquid crystal light valve SLM is replaced by an optical shuffling SLM, which was demonstrated for the 'smart pixel' technology. The advantages are the capability of generating the agile beams of a phased array antenna and to provide simultaneous transmit and receive functions. The second architecture considered is the optical beam splitting approach. This architecture involves an alternative amplitude control for each antenna element with an optical beam power divider comprised of mirrors and beam splitters. It also implements the quasi-optical grid phase shifter for phase control and grid
Overview of Phase Space Manipulations of Relativistic Electron Beams
Xiang, Dao; /SLAC
2012-08-31
Phase space manipulation is a process to rearrange beam's distribution in 6-D phase space. In this paper, we give an overview of the techniques for tailoring beam distribution in 2D, 4D, and 6D phase space to meet the requirements of various applications. These techniques become a new focus of accelerator physics R&D and very likely these advanced concepts will open up new opportunities in advanced accelerators and the science enabled by them.
Phase stability of injection-locked beam of semiconductor lasers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kwon, Jin Hyuk; Kim, Do Hoon; Schuster, Gregory; Lee, Ja H.
1992-01-01
An experiment on the phase stability of an injection locked beam was done by using AlGaAs semiconductor lasers. The coherence of two beams from master and slave lasers was measured by interference between the beams in the Twymann-Green interferometer. The phase change of the output beam of the slave laser as a function of the driving current was measured in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer consisting of the master and slave lasers, and a value of 2.5 radians/mA was obtained.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Minkang; Zhou, Changhe; Wei, Chunlong; Jia, Wei; Lu, Yancong; Xiang, Changcheng; Xiang, XianSong
2016-10-01
Large-sized gratings are essential optical elements in laser fusion and space astronomy facilities. Scanning beam interference lithography is an effective method to fabricate large-sized gratings. To minimize the nonlinear phase written into the photo-resist, the image grating must be measured to adjust the left and right beams to interfere at their waists. In this paper, we propose a new method to conduct wavefront metrology based on phase-stepping interferometry. Firstly, a transmission grating is used to combine the two beams to form an interferogram which is recorded by a charge coupled device(CCD). Phase steps are introduced by moving the grating with a linear stage monitored by a laser interferometer. A series of interferograms are recorded as the displacement is measured by the laser interferometer. Secondly, to eliminate the tilt and piston error during the phase stepping, the iterative least square phase shift method is implemented to obtain the wrapped phase. Thirdly, we use the discrete cosine transform least square method to unwrap the phase map. Experiment results indicate that the measured wavefront has a nonlinear phase around 0.05 λ@404.7nm. Finally, as the image grating is acquired, we simulate the print-error written into the photo-resist.
Orbit error correction on the high energy beam transport line at the KHIMA accelerator system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Chawon; Yim, Heejoong; Hahn, Garam; An, Dong Hyun
2016-09-01
For the purpose of treatment of various cancers and medical research, a synchrotron based medical machine has been developed under the Korea Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (KHIMA) project and is scheduled for use to treat patient at the beginning of 2018. The KHIMA synchrotron is designed to accelerate and extract carbon ion (proton) beams with various energies from 110 to 430 MeV/u (60 to 230 MeV). Studies on the lattice design and beam optics for the High Energy Beam Transport (HEBT) line at the KHIMA accelerator system have been carried out using the WinAgile and the MAD-X codes. Because magnetic field errors and misalignments introduce deviations from the design parameters, these error sources should be treated explicitly, and the sensitivity of the machine's lattice to different individual error sources should be considered. Various types of errors, both static and dynamic, have been taken into account and have been consequentially corrected with a dedicated correction algorithm by using the MAD-X program. Based on the error analysis, the optimized correction setup is decided, and the specifications for the correcting magnets of the HEBT lines are determined.
Iterative Phase Optimization of Elementary Quantum Error Correcting Codes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Müller, M.; Rivas, A.; Martínez, E. A.; Nigg, D.; Schindler, P.; Monz, T.; Blatt, R.; Martin-Delgado, M. A.
2016-07-01
Performing experiments on small-scale quantum computers is certainly a challenging endeavor. Many parameters need to be optimized to achieve high-fidelity operations. This can be done efficiently for operations acting on single qubits, as errors can be fully characterized. For multiqubit operations, though, this is no longer the case, as in the most general case, analyzing the effect of the operation on the system requires a full state tomography for which resources scale exponentially with the system size. Furthermore, in recent experiments, additional electronic levels beyond the two-level system encoding the qubit have been used to enhance the capabilities of quantum-information processors, which additionally increases the number of parameters that need to be controlled. For the optimization of the experimental system for a given task (e.g., a quantum algorithm), one has to find a satisfactory error model and also efficient observables to estimate the parameters of the model. In this manuscript, we demonstrate a method to optimize the encoding procedure for a small quantum error correction code in the presence of unknown but constant phase shifts. The method, which we implement here on a small-scale linear ion-trap quantum computer, is readily applicable to other AMO platforms for quantum-information processing.
Detection of Procedural Errors during Root Canal Instrumentation using Cone Beam Computed Tomography
Guedes, Orlando Aguirre; da Costa, Marcus Vinícius Corrêa; Dorilêo, Maura Cristiane Gonçales Orçati; de Oliveira, Helder Fernandes; Pedro, Fábio Luis Miranda; Bandeca, Matheus Coelho; Borges, Álvaro Henrique
2015-01-01
Background: This study investigated procedural errors made during root canal preparation with nickel-titanium (NiTi) instruments, using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging method. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 human mandibular molars were divided into five groups (n = 20) according to the NiTi system used for root canal preparation: Group 1 - BioRaCe, Group 2 - K3, Group 3 - ProTaper, Group 4 - Mtwo and Group 5 - Hero Shaper. CBCT images were obtained to detect procedural errors made during root canal preparation. Two examiners evaluated the presence or absence of fractured instruments, perforations, and canal transportations. Chi-square test was used for statistical analyzes. The significance level was set at a=5%. Results: In a total of 300 prepared root canals, 43 (14.33%) procedural errors were detected. Perforation was the procedural errors most commonly observed (58.14%). Most of the procedural errors were observed in the mesiobuccal root canal (48.84%). In the analysis of procedural errors, there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between the groups of NiTi instruments. The root canals instrumented with BioRaCe had significantly less procedural errors. Conclusions: CBCT permitted the detection of procedural errors during root canal preparation. The frequency of procedural errors was low when root canals preparation was accomplished with BioRaCe system. PMID:25878475
Wavefront measurement of vortex beam using ptychographic phase retrieval
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saito, Takahiro; Takeo, Yoko; Mimura, Hidekazu
2016-09-01
For vortex beams, characterization and optimization of the optical system are important. However, wavefront measurements on focused vortex beams are difficult because they have complex phase and intensity distributions. As a measurement method, we proposed the use of ptychography, in which the intensity and phase of the beams are retrieved using several far-field diffraction patterns. We constructed an optical system with a He-Ne laser light source to clarify the usefulness of ptychography. Test vortex beams were produced by a spatial light modulator (SLM) and focused by a plano-convex lens. A pinhole was scanned on the focal plane for collection of the diffraction intensity profiles. The phase and intensity of the vortex beams on the focal plane were retrieved so that the calculated beams were consistent with the intensity data. The retrieved intensity and phase distributions were compared with distributions predicted using the inputs for the SLM. They agreed well, indicating that the ptychographic phase retrieval method can be used for precise characterization of vortex beams. This method is valuable for improving the performance of applications using vortex beams.
High precision capacitive beam phase probe for KHIMA project
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hwang, Ji-Gwang; Yang, Tae-Keun; Forck, Peter
2016-11-01
In the medium energy beam transport (MEBT) line of KHIMA project, a high precision beam phase probe monitor is required for a precise tuning of RF phase and amplitude of Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator and IH-DTL linac. It is also used for measuring a kinetic energy of ion beam by time-of-flight (TOF) method using two phase probes. The capacitive beam phase probe has been developed. The electromagnetic design of the high precision phase probe was performed to satisfy the phase resolution of 1° (@200 MHz). It was confirmed by the test result using a wire test bench. The measured phase accuracy of the fabricated phase probe is 1.19 ps. The pre-amplifier electronics with the 0.125 ∼ 1.61 GHz broad-band was designed and fabricated for amplifying the signal strength. The results of RF frequency and beam energy measurement using a proton beam from the cyclotron in KIRAMS is presented.
Three beams phase-shifting interferometry by their amplitude variation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meneses-Fabian, Cruz; Rivera-Ortega, Uriel
2011-10-01
A novel phase shifting interferometry method based on the variation of the electric field under the scheme of a three beams interferometer is proposed. One beam contains the object under study, that makes this beam the probe beam; the other two will be consider as the reference beams with a phase difference of p 2 . Due to this, one of the three resulting interference terms will be cancelled and the two remaining will be in quadrature. Applying some trigonometric identities, we show that the resulting interference pattern could become modeled by the interfering of two beams with an additional phase term; we obtain that the tangent function of the additional phase depends on the division of the amplitude of the third field divided by the amplitude of the first, and it is possible to group the sum of the squares of these fields in a square amplitude. To recover the phase by using the phase shifting interferometry techniques it is necessary to keep constant the visibility of the interference pattern, at first sight we can think that this is not possible because the variations of the field amplitude affect the visibility of the patterns. However this problem is solved if the values of the amplitude corresponding to the fields one and three are seen as an ordered pair contained over an arc segment at the first quadrant. We justify the viability of this method by a theoretical analysis and a numerical simulation of the interference of three beams under the conditions mentioned above.
Pixelated mask spatial carrier phase shifting interferometry algorithms and associated errors
Kimbrough, Bradley T
2006-07-01
In both temporal and spatial carrier phase shifting interferometry, the primary source of phase calculation error results from an error in the relative phase shift between sample points. In spatial carrier phase shifting interferometry, this phase shifting error is caused directly by the wave front under test and is unavoidable. In order to minimize the phase shifting error, a pix elated spatial carrier phase shifting technique has been developed by 4D technologies. This new technique allows for the grouping of phase shifted pixels together around a single point in two dimensions,minimizing the phase shift change due to the spatial variation in the test wavefront. A formula for the phase calculation error in spatial carrier phase shifting interferometry is derived. The error associated with the use of linear N-point averaging algorithms is presented and compared with those of the pix elated spatial carrier technique.
Beam Forming HF Radar Beam Pattern Measurements and Phase Offset Calibration Using a UAV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cahl, D.; Voulgaris, G.
2016-12-01
It has been shown that measuring antenna patterns for direction finding radars improves surface current measurements. For beam forming radars, the beam pattern of the receive array is assumed to be similar to that derived using theoretical calculations. However, local environmental conditions may lead to deviations (i.e., larger sidelobes and beamwidth) from this idealized beam pattern. This becomes particularly important for wave measurements that are sensitive to interference from sidelobes. Common techniques for beam forming HF radar phase calibration include "cross calibration", using a secondary beam forming site as the signal source, or calibration using a ship. The former method is limited to only one direction; on straight coastlines this is often at a large angle from the radar bore site where the beam width and uncertainty in phase calibration might be large. The latter technique requires chartering a ship with an appropriate reflector or transmitter, or the identification of ships of opportunity. Recent advances in UAV technology combined with an easement of FAA restrictions (Part 107) allows phase calibrations and beam pattern measurements to be completed on an HF radar site using a small transmitter attached to a UAV. This presentation describes the use of a UAV and the development of a method for beam forming phase calibration and beam pattern measurements. This method uses the UAV as a moving signal source to provide true sidelobe and beamwidth measurements. Results are shown from a calibration carried out at a beam forming (WERA) radar site (8.3 MHz) located in Georgetown, SC and are compared with results from a cross calibration. Phase calibrations acquired by the UAV showed a dependence on azimuthal angle from the radar bore site. Also, the beam patterns obtained were found to be narrower than those derived using the stationary source method. The effect of the new phase values derived using this method on the accuracy of radial velocities will be
Beam-phase monitoring with non-destructive pickup
Bogaty, J.; Clifft, B.E.
1995-08-01
An intensity and phase-sensitive capacitive pickup was installed at the entrance to the PII linac. This device is based on an extension of the design of the Beam Current Monitor developed as part of the ATLAS radiation safety system. The purpose of the pickup is to allow the arrival phase of the beam from the ECR source at the entrance to the PII linac to be set to a standard which reproduces previous tune conditions and establishes a standard. The new pickups and associated electronics demonstrated sensitivity well below 1 electrical nanoamp but can handle beam currents of many electrical microamps as well. In addition to phase information, beam current is also measured by the units thus providing a continuous, non-intercepting current readout as well. From the very first use of PII, we established a few {open_quotes}reference tunes{close_quotes} for the linac and scaled those tunes for any other beam desired. For such scaling to work properly, the velocity and phase of the beam from the ion source must be fixed and reproducible. In last year`s FWP the new ATLAS Master Oscillator System was described. The new system has the ability of easily adjusting the beam arrival phase at the entrance to each of the major sections of the facility - PII, Booster, ATLAS. Our present techniques for establishing the beam arrival phase at the entrance of each of the linac sections are cumbersome and, sometimes, intellectually challenging. The installation of these capacitative pickups at the entrance to each of the linac sections will make the determination and setting of the beam arrival phase direct, simple, and dynamic. This should dramatically shorten our setup time for {open_quotes}old-tune{close_quotes} configurations and increase useful operating hours. Permanent electronics for the PII entrance pickup is under construction.
Soliton-guided phase shifter and beam splitter
Steiglitz, Ken
2010-03-15
We propose, analyze, and study numerically a phase shifter for light wave packets trapped by Kerr solitons in a nonlinear medium. We also study numerically a previously proposed soliton-guided nonpolarizing beam splitter.
Model studies of the beam-filling error for rain-rate retrieval with microwave radiometers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ha, Eunho; North, Gerald R.
1995-01-01
Low-frequency (less than 20 GHz) single-channel microwave retrievals of rain rate encounter the problem of beam-filling error. This error stems from the fact that the relationship between microwave brightness temperature and rain rate is nonlinear, coupled with the fact that the field of view is large or comparable to important scales of variability of the rain field. This means that one may not simply insert the area average of the brightness temperature into the formula for rain rate without incurring both bias and random error. The statistical heterogeneity of the rain-rate field in the footprint of the instrument is key to determining the nature of these errors. This paper makes use of a series of random rain-rate fields to study the size of the bias and random error associated with beam filling. A number of examples are analyzed in detail: the binomially distributed field, the gamma, the Gaussian, the mixed gamma, the lognormal, and the mixed lognormal ('mixed' here means there is a finite probability of no rain rate at a point of space-time). Of particular interest are the applicability of a simple error formula due to Chiu and collaborators and a formula that might hold in the large field of view limit. It is found that the simple formula holds for Gaussian rain-rate fields but begins to fail for highly skewed fields such as the mixed lognormal. While not conclusively demonstrated here, it is suggested that the notionof climatologically adjusting the retrievals to remove the beam-filling bias is a reasonable proposition.
Improved arrayed-waveguide-grating layout avoiding systematic phase errors.
Ismail, Nur; Sun, Fei; Sengo, Gabriel; Wörhoff, Kerstin; Driessen, Alfred; de Ridder, René M; Pollnau, Markus
2011-04-25
We present a detailed description of an improved arrayed-waveguide-grating (AWG) layout for both, low and high diffraction orders. The novel layout presents identical bends across the entire array; in this way systematic phase errors arising from different bends that are inherent to conventional AWG designs are completely eliminated. In addition, for high-order AWGs our design results in more than 50% reduction of the occupied area on the wafer. We present an experimental characterization of a low-order device fabricated according to this geometry. The device has a resolution of 5.5 nm, low intrinsic losses (< 2 dB) in the wavelength region of interest for the application, and is polarization insensitive over a wide spectral range of 215 nm.
Accuracy and Landmark Error Calculation Using Cone-Beam Computed Tomography–Generated Cephalograms
Grauer, Dan; Cevidanes, Lucia S. H.; Styner, Martin A.; Heulfe, Inam; Harmon, Eric T.; Zhu, Hongtu; Proffit, William R.
2010-01-01
Objective To evaluate systematic differences in landmark position between cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT)–generated cephalograms and conventional digital cephalograms and to estimate how much variability should be taken into account when both modalities are used within the same longitudinal study. Materials and Methods Landmarks on homologous cone-beam computed tomographic–generated cephalograms and conventional digital cephalograms of 46 patients were digitized, registered, and compared via the Hotelling T2 test. Results There were no systematic differences between modalities in the position of most landmarks. Three landmarks showed statistically significant differences but did not reach clinical significance. A method for error calculation while combining both modalities in the same individual is presented. Conclusion In a longitudinal follow-up for assessment of treatment outcomes and growth of one individual, the error due to the combination of the two modalities might be larger than previously estimated. PMID:19905853
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Linfield, R. P.; Wilcox, J. Z.
1993-01-01
Two components of the error of a troposphere calibration measurement were quantified by theoretical calculations. The first component is a beam mismatch error, which occurs when the calibration instrument senses a conical volume different from the cylindrical volume sampled by a Deep Space Network (DSN) antenna. The second component is a beam offset error, which occurs if the calibration instrument is not mounted on the axis of the DSN antenna. These two error sources were calculated for both delay (e.g., VLBI) and delay rate (e.g., Doppler) measurements. The beam mismatch error for both delay and delay rate drops rapidly as the beamwidth of the troposphere calibration instrument (e.g., a water vapor radiometer or an infrared Fourier transform spectrometer) is reduced. At a 10-deg elevation angle, the instantaneous beam mismatch error is 1.0 mm for a 6-deg beamwidth and 0.09 mm for a 0.5-deg beam (these are the full angular widths of a circular beam with uniform gain out to a sharp cutoff). Time averaging for 60-100 sec will reduce these errors by factors of 1.2-2.2. At a 20-deg elevation angle, the lower limit for current Doppler observations, the beam-mismatch delay rate error is an Allan standard deviation over 100 sec of 1.1 x 10(exp -14) with a 4-deg beam and 1.3 x 10(exp -l5) for a 0.5-deg beam. A 50-m beam offset would result in a fairly modest (compared to other expected error sources) delay error (less than or equal to 0.3 mm for 60-sec integrations at any elevation angle is greater than or equal to 6 deg). However, the same offset would cause a large error in delay rate measurements (e.g., an Allan standard deviation of 1.2 x 10(exp -14) over 100 sec at a 20-deg elevation angle), which would dominate over other known error sources if the beamwidth is 2 deg or smaller. An on-axis location is essential for accurate troposphere calibration of delay rate measurements. A half-power beamwidth (for a beam with a tapered gain profile) of 1.2 deg or smaller is
Controllable Airy-like beams induced by tunable phase patterns
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, D.; Qian, Y.
2016-01-01
We propose and experimentally observe a novel family of Airy-like beams. First, we theoretically investigate the physical generation of our proposed controllable Airy-like beams by introducing a rotation angle factor into the phase function, which can regulate and flexibly control the beam wavefront. Meanwhile we can also readily control the main lobes of these beams to follow appointed parabolic trajectories using the rotation angle factor. We also demonstrate that the controllable Airy-like beams lack the properties of being diffraction-free and self-healing. The experiments are performed and the results are in accord with the theoretical simulations. We believe that the intriguing characteristics of our proposed Airy-like beams could provide more degrees of freedom, and are likely to give rise to new applications and lend versatility to the emerging field.
Beam-Switch Transient Effects in the RF Path of the ICAPA Receive Phased Array Antenna
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sands, O. Scott
2003-01-01
When the beam of a Phased Array Antenna (PAA) is switched from one pointing direction to another, transient effects in the RF path of the antenna are observed. Testing described in the report has revealed implementation-specific transient effects in the RF channel that are associated with digital clocking pulses that occur with transfer of data from the Beam Steering Controller (BSC) to the digital electronics of the PAA under test. The testing described here provides an initial assessment of the beam-switch phenomena by digitally acquiring time series of the RF communications channel, under CW excitation, during the period of time that the beam switch transient occurs. Effects are analyzed using time-frequency distributions and instantaneous frequency estimation techniques. The results of tests conducted with CW excitation supports further Bit-Error-Rate (BER) testing of the PAA communication channel.
Phase and amplitude stabilization of beam-loaded superconducting resonators
Delayen, J.R.
1992-01-01
A model has been developed to analyze the static and dynamic behavior of superconducting accelerating cavities operated in self-excited loops in the presence of phase and amplitude feedback, ponderomotive effects, and beam loading. This is an extension of an earlier analysis of the stabilization of superconducting cavities which has been the basis of the control system of several superconducting accelerators but did not include beam loading. Conditions have been derived to ensure static and dynamic stability in the presence of ponderomotive effects (coupling between the mechanical and electromagnetic modes of the cavity through the radiation pressure). Expressions for the effect of fluctuations of cavity frequency and beam amplitude and phase on the cavity-field amplitude and phase and beam-energy gain have been obtained.
Phase and amplitude stabilization of beam-loaded superconducting resonators
Delayen, J.R.
1992-10-01
A model has been developed to analyze the static and dynamic behavior of superconducting accelerating cavities operated in self-excited loops in the presence of phase and amplitude feedback, ponderomotive effects, and beam loading. This is an extension of an earlier analysis of the stabilization of superconducting cavities which has been the basis of the control system of several superconducting accelerators but did not include beam loading. Conditions have been derived to ensure static and dynamic stability in the presence of ponderomotive effects (coupling between the mechanical and electromagnetic modes of the cavity through the radiation pressure). Expressions for the effect of fluctuations of cavity frequency and beam amplitude and phase on the cavity-field amplitude and phase and beam-energy gain have been obtained.
The Pancharatnam-Berry phase in polarization singular beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Vijay; Viswanathan, Nirmal K.
2013-04-01
Space-variant inhomogeneously polarized field formed due to superposition of orthogonally polarized Gaussian (LG00) and Laguerre-Gaussian (LG01) beams results in polarization singular beams with different morphology structures such as lemon, star and dipole patterns around the C-point in the beam cross-section. The Pancharatnam-Berry phase plays a critical role in the formation and characteristics of these spatially inhomogeneous fields. We present our experimental results wherein we measure the variable geometric phase by tracking the trajectory of the component vortices in the beam cross-section, by interfering with selective polarization states and by tracking different latitudes on the Poincaré sphere without the effect of a dynamic phase.
Arbitrarily modulated beam for phase-only optical encryption
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong
2014-10-01
Optical encryption has attracted more and more attention recently due to its remarkable advantages, such as parallel processing and multiple-dimensional characteristics. In this paper, we propose to apply an arbitrarily modulated beam for phase-only optical encryption. In optical security systems, the plane wave is commonly used for the illumination, and unauthorized receivers may easily obtain or estimate the information related to the illumination beam. The proposed strategy with an arbitrarily modulated illumination beam can effectively enhance system security, since a beam modulation pattern (such as a pinhole-array pattern or a random phase-only pattern) can be considered an additional security key. The phase-only optical encryption is taken as an example for illustrating the validity of the proposed method; however it could be straightforward to apply the proposed strategy to other optical security systems.
Spatial-phase locking with shaped-beam lithography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hartley, John G.; Groves, Timothy R.; Smith, Henry I.; Mondol, Mark K.; Goodberlet, James G.; Schattenburg, Mark L.; Ferrera, Juan; Bernshteyn, Alexandr
2003-03-01
Spatial-phase-locked electron-beam lithography is a method of precisely locating pattern elements on a substrate by providing real-time feedback of the beam's location by means of a fiducial grid located on the substrate surface. Previously, this technique has been demonstrated in Gaussian-beam systems, in one and two dimensions. In this note we propose a method of extending the spatial-phase-locking concept to a vector shaped-beam architecture. In the proposed method, an image of a screen grid is superimposed on the projected shape, and this grid image is dithered in X and Y to provide a periodic signal whose phase can be interpreted to determine the position of the projected shape relative to the fiducial grid.
Analysis of phase error effects in multishot diffusion-prepared turbo spin echo imaging.
Van, Anh T; Cervantes, Barbara; Kooijman, Hendrik; Karampinos, Dimitrios C
2017-04-01
To characterize the effect of phase errors on the magnitude and the phase of the diffusion-weighted (DW) signal acquired with diffusion-prepared turbo spin echo (dprep-TSE) sequences. Motion and eddy currents were identified as the main sources of phase errors. An analytical expression for the effect of phase errors on the acquired signal was derived and verified using Bloch simulations, phantom, and in vivo experiments. Simulations and experiments showed that phase errors during the diffusion preparation cause both magnitude and phase modulation on the acquired data. When motion-induced phase error (MiPe) is accounted for (e.g., with motion-compensated diffusion encoding), the signal magnitude modulation due to the leftover eddy-current-induced phase error cannot be eliminated by the conventional phase cycling and sum-of-squares (SOS) method. By employing magnitude stabilizers, the phase-error-induced magnitude modulation, regardless of its cause, was removed but the phase modulation remained. The in vivo comparison between pulsed gradient and flow-compensated diffusion preparations showed that MiPe needed to be addressed in multi-shot dprep-TSE acquisitions employing magnitude stabilizers. A comprehensive analysis of phase errors in dprep-TSE sequences showed that magnitude stabilizers are mandatory in removing the phase error induced magnitude modulation. Additionally, when multi-shot dprep-TSE is employed the inconsistent signal phase modulation across shots has to be resolved before shot-combination is performed.
Steady-state phase error for a phase-locked loop subjected to periodic Doppler inputs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, C.-C.; Win, M. Z.
1991-01-01
The performance of a carrier phase locked loop (PLL) driven by a periodic Doppler input is studied. By expanding the Doppler input into a Fourier series and applying the linearized PLL approximations, it is easy to show that, for periodic frequency disturbances, the resulting steady state phase error is also periodic. Compared to the method of expanding frequency excursion into a power series, the Fourier expansion method can be used to predict the maximum phase error excursion for a periodic Doppler input. For systems with a large Doppler rate fluctuation, such as an optical transponder aboard an Earth orbiting spacecraft, the method can be applied to test whether a lower order tracking loop can provide satisfactory tracking and thereby save the effect of a higher order loop design.
Random and systematic beam modulator errors in dynamic intensity modulated radiotherapy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parsai, Homayon; Cho, Paul S.; Phillips, Mark H.; Giansiracusa, Robert S.; Axen, David
2003-05-01
This paper reports on the dosimetric effects of random and systematic modulator errors in delivery of dynamic intensity modulated beams. A sliding-widow type delivery that utilizes a combination of multileaf collimators (MLCs) and backup diaphragms was examined. Gaussian functions with standard deviations ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 mm were used to simulate random positioning errors. A clinical example involving a clival meningioma was chosen with optic chiasm and brain stem as limiting critical structures in the vicinity of the tumour. Dose calculations for different modulator fluctuations were performed, and a quantitative analysis was carried out based on cumulative and differential dose volume histograms for the gross target volume and surrounding critical structures. The study indicated that random modulator errors have a strong tendency to reduce minimum target dose and homogeneity. Furthermore, it was shown that random perturbation of both MLCs and backup diaphragms in the order of σ = 1 mm can lead to 5% errors in prescribed dose. In comparison, when MLCs or backup diaphragms alone was perturbed, the system was more robust and modulator errors of at least σ = 1.5 mm were required to cause dose discrepancies greater than 5%. For systematic perturbation, even errors in the order of +/-0.5 mm were shown to result in significant dosimetric deviations.
Per-beam, planar IMRT QA passing rates do not predict clinically relevant patient dose errors
Nelms, Benjamin E.; Zhen Heming; Tome, Wolfgang A.
2011-02-15
Purpose: The purpose of this work is to determine the statistical correlation between per-beam, planar IMRT QA passing rates and several clinically relevant, anatomy-based dose errors for per-patient IMRT QA. The intent is to assess the predictive power of a common conventional IMRT QA performance metric, the Gamma passing rate per beam. Methods: Ninety-six unique data sets were created by inducing four types of dose errors in 24 clinical head and neck IMRT plans, each planned with 6 MV Varian 120-leaf MLC linear accelerators using a commercial treatment planning system and step-and-shoot delivery. The error-free beams/plans were used as ''simulated measurements'' (for generating the IMRT QA dose planes and the anatomy dose metrics) to compare to the corresponding data calculated by the error-induced plans. The degree of the induced errors was tuned to mimic IMRT QA passing rates that are commonly achieved using conventional methods. Results: Analysis of clinical metrics (parotid mean doses, spinal cord max and D1cc, CTV D95, and larynx mean) vs IMRT QA Gamma analysis (3%/3 mm, 2/2, 1/1) showed that in all cases, there were only weak to moderate correlations (range of Pearson's r-values: -0.295 to 0.653). Moreover, the moderate correlations actually had positive Pearson's r-values (i.e., clinically relevant metric differences increased with increasing IMRT QA passing rate), indicating that some of the largest anatomy-based dose differences occurred in the cases of high IMRT QA passing rates, which may be called ''false negatives.'' The results also show numerous instances of false positives or cases where low IMRT QA passing rates do not imply large errors in anatomy dose metrics. In none of the cases was there correlation consistent with high predictive power of planar IMRT passing rates, i.e., in none of the cases did high IMRT QA Gamma passing rates predict low errors in anatomy dose metrics or vice versa. Conclusions: There is a lack of correlation between
Gouy phase shift for annular beam profiles in attosecond experiments.
Schlaepfer, F; Ludwig, A; Lucchini, M; Kasmi, L; Volkov, M; Gallmann, L; Keller, U
2017-02-20
Attosecond pump-probe measurements are typically performed by combining attosecond pulses with more intense femtosecond, phase-locked infrared (IR) pulses because of the low average photon flux of attosecond light sources based on high-harmonic generation (HHG). Furthermore, the strong absorption of materials at the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) wavelengths of the attosecond pulses typically prevents the use of transmissive optics. As a result, pump and probe beams are typically recombined geometrically with a center-hole mirror that reflects the larger IR beam and transmits the smaller XUV, which leads to an annular beam profile of the IR. This modification of the IR beam can affect the pump-probe measurements because the propagation that follows the reflection on the center-hole mirror can strongly deviate from that of an ideal Gaussian beam. Here we present a detailed experimental study of the Gouy phase of an annular IR beam across the focus using a two-foci attosecond beamline and the RABBITT (reconstruction of attosecond beating by interference of two-photon transitions) technique. Our measurements show a Gouy phase shift of the truncated beam as large as 2π and a corresponding rate of 50 as/mm time delay change across the focus in a RABBITT measurement. These results are essential for attosecond pump-probe experiments that compare measurements of spatially separated targets.
Simple Array Beam-Shaping Using Phase-Only Adjustments.
Doerry, Armin W.
2015-07-01
Conventional beam-shaping for array antennas is accomplished via an amplitude-taper on the elemental radiators. It is well known that proper manipulation of the elemental phases can also shape the antenna far-field pattern. A fairly simple transformation from a desired amplitude-taper to a phase-taper can yield nearly equivalent results.
Generalized phase-space tomography for intense beams
Stratakis, D; Bernal, S; Fiorito, R B; Haber, I; Reiser, M; O'Shea, P G; Tian, K; Thangaraj, J.C.T.
2010-02-01
Tomographic phase-space mapping in an intense particle beam is reviewed. The diagnostic is extended to beams with space-charge by assuming linear forces and is implemented using either solenoidal or quadrupole focusing lattices. The technique is benchmarked against self-consistent simulation and against a direct experimental sampling of phase-space using a pinhole scan. It is demonstrated that tomography can work for time-resolved phase-space mapping and slice emittance measurement. The technique is applied to a series of proof-of-principle tests conducted at the University of Maryland.
ADJUSTMENT ERRORS IN ASCENDING AND DESCENDING PHASES OF TARGET LEVEL IN CONTROLLED FORCE EXERTION.
Kubota, Hiroshi; Demura, Shinichi
2015-10-01
Hand grip force adjustment errors to ascending and descending phases of a sinusoidal target force in a controlled force exertion (CFE) test were measured and the laterality of responses evaluated. 75 men (M age = 19.6 yr., SD = 1.6) performed the CFE test after one practice trial by matching handgrip force to target level (5-25% of maximal grip force). The CFE errors in ascending and descending phases of the target force were calculated as the absolute differences between actual force and target force in each phase. There were significantly smaller CFE errors in the ascending phase for both dominant and non-dominant hands, but CFE error for the dominant hand was significantly smaller in both phases. Therefore, error in force exertion in the ascending and descending phases of the target force differed, and laterality influenced error in both phases.
Beam Combining by Phase Transition Nonlinear Media.
1988-03-04
F hT argon Ar -122 48 * methane CH4 -82.3 45.8 F krypton Kr -63.6 54.3 * tetrafluoromethane 14 CF4 -45.45 37.43 * boron trifluoride BF3 -12.26 49.2 T...From visual observation and heat capacity measurements , it is observed that simple fluids can be superheated more than expected on the basis of...required SBS red shift and beam quality measurements , we obtained a collimated reflection which was threshold sensitive, which occurred with and without
Quantitative cell imaging using single beam phase retrieval method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anand, Arun; Chhaniwal, Vani; Javidi, Bahram
2011-06-01
Quantitative three-dimensional imaging of cells can provide important information about their morphology as well as their dynamics, which will be useful in studying their behavior under various conditions. There are several microscopic techniques to image unstained, semi-transparent specimens, by converting the phase information into intensity information. But most of the quantitative phase contrast imaging techniques is realized either by using interference of the object wavefront with a known reference beam or using phase shifting interferometry. A two-beam interferometric method is challenging to implement especially with low coherent sources and it also requires a fine adjustment of beams to achieve high contrast fringes. In this letter, the development of a single beam phase retrieval microscopy technique for quantitative phase contrast imaging of cells using multiple intensity samplings of a volume speckle field in the axial direction is described. Single beam illumination with multiple intensity samplings provides fast convergence and a unique solution of the object wavefront. Three-dimensional thickness profiles of different cells such as red blood cells and onion skin cells were reconstructed using this technique with an axial resolution of the order of several nanometers.
Phase-circular hologram as a laser beam splitter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Janicijevic, Lj.; Jonoska, M.
1991-10-01
Theoretical study of the general order Hermite-Gaussian beam transformation by a phase circular zone hologram, classifies the phase circular zone hologram as a multiple laser beam splitter, if the incidence is off axial. Each of the split components is of the same mode-order and orientation as the incident beam, but are described by different complex parameters. Their waist locations and magnifications are dictated by the position of the manyfold foci of the zone hologram, and for a given diffracting order, satisfy the Self's relations, typical for the beam transformation by ordinary lens. From the theoretical results the Kogelnik's ABCD rules and ray transfer matrices for the circular hologram are defined.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Downie, John D.; Hine, Butler P.; Reid, Max B.
1992-01-01
The optical phase errors introduced into an optical correlator by the input and filter plane magnetooptic spatial light modulators have been studied. The magnitude of these phase errors is measured and characterized, their effects on the correlation results are evaluated, and a means of correction by a design modification of the binary phase-only optical-filter function is presented. The efficacy of the phase-correction technique is quantified and is found to restore the correlation characteristics to those obtained in the absence of errors, to a high degree. The phase errors of other correlator system elements are also discussed and treated in a similar fashion.
Computed tomography using broadband Bessel THz beams and phase contrast.
Bitman, Assaf; Goldring, Sharone; Moshe, Inon; Zalevsky, Zeev
2014-04-01
We present new results demonstrating the capability of performing computed tomography (CT) using broadband Bessel terahertz (THz) beams. Nondiffractive beams such as these exhibit propagation-invariant lines of focus with an extended depth-of-field compared to conventional Gaussian beams. Using this property, we demonstrate a considerable improvement in the 3D reconstruction image of a synthetic sample through the backprojection algorithm. Only when THz Bessel beams are used, a full reconstruction of the object structure is made. Moreover, we use phase-contrast mechanism which improves the spatial resolution and reconstructed images. Our results highlight the potential in using nondiffractive Bessel beams to significantly improve 3D-image reconstruction of THz CT.
González-Cardel, Mario; Arguijo, Pedro; Díaz-Uribe, Rufino
2013-06-01
A method for approximating the inverse error function involved in the determination of the radius of a Gaussian beam is proposed. It is based on a polynomial inversion that can be developed to any desired degree, according to an a priori defined error budget. Analytic expressions are obtained and used to determine the radius of a TEM(oo) He-Ne laser beam from intensity measurements experimentally obtained by using the knife edge method. The error and the interval of validity of the approximation are determined for polynomials of different degrees. The analysis of the theoretical and experimental errors is also presented.
Direct focusing error correction with ring-wide TBT beam position data
Yang, M.J.; /Fermilab
2011-03-01
Turn-By-Turn (TBT) betatron oscillation data is a very powerful tool in studying machine optics. Hundreds and thousands of turns of free oscillations are taken in just few tens of milliseconds. With beam covering all positions and angles at every location TBT data can be used to diagnose focusing errors almost instantly. This paper describes a new approach that observes focusing error collectively over all available TBT data to find the optimized quadrupole strength, one location at a time. Example will be shown and other issues will be discussed. The procedure presented clearly has helped to reduce overall deviations significantly, with relative ease. Sextupoles, being a permanent feature of the ring, will need to be incorporated into the model. While cumulative effect from all sextupoles around the ring may be negligible on turn-to-turn basis it is not so in this transfer line analysis. It should be noted that this procedure is not limited to looking for quadrupole errors. By modifying the target of minimization it could in principle be used to look for skew quadrupole errors and sextupole errors as well.
Beam Position and Phase Monitor - Wire Mapping System
Watkins, Heath A; Shurter, Robert B.; Gilpatrick, John D.; Kutac, Vincent G.; Martinez, Derwin
2012-04-10
The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) deploys many cylindrical beam position and phase monitors (BPPM) throughout the linac to measure the beam central position, phase and bunched-beam current. Each monitor is calibrated and qualified prior to installation to insure it meets LANSCE requirements. The BPPM wire mapping system is used to map the BPPM electrode offset, sensitivity and higher order coefficients. This system uses a three-axis motion table to position the wire antenna structure within the cavity, simulating the beam excitation of a BPPM at a fundamental frequency of 201.25 MHz. RF signal strength is measured and recorded for the four electrodes as the antenna position is updated. An effort is underway to extend the systems service to the LANSCE facility by replacing obsolete electronic hardware and taking advantage of software enhancements. This paper describes the upgraded wire positioning system's new hardware and software capabilities including its revised antenna structure, motion control interface, RF measurement equipment and Labview software upgrades. The main purpose of the wire mapping system at LANSCE is to characterize the amplitude response versus beam central position of BPPMs before they are installed in the beam line. The wire mapping system is able to simulate a beam using a thin wire and measure the signal response as the wire position is varied within the BPPM aperture.
Reducing registration error in cross-beam vector doppler imaging with position sensor.
Xu, Canxing; Beach, Kirk W; Leotta, Daniel; Stuzman, Edward; Kim, Yongmin
2009-01-01
Various vector Doppler methods have been proposed in the last several decades to overcome the Doppler angle dependency in both conventional spectral Doppler and color Doppler by measuring both the speed and direction of blood flow. However, they have not been adopted for routine use because most of them require specialized hardware, which is not available in commercial ultrasound systems. An alternative approach (cross-beam method) that uses color Doppler images obtained from different steered beam angles is more feasible, but there is error in registering multiple color Doppler images because they are not acquired simultaneously. To alleviate this problem, we have evaluated a cross-beam vector Doppler system that registers spatially with a position sensor two color Doppler images from two different angles and temporally with ECG synchronization. The registration error was reduced to an average of 0.92 mm from 2.49 mm in 9 human subjects. Vector Doppler carotid artery images of a healthy subject and a patient with atherosclerotic plaques are also presented.
Integrated phased array for wide-angle beam steering.
Yaacobi, Ami; Sun, Jie; Moresco, Michele; Leake, Gerald; Coolbaugh, Douglas; Watts, Michael R
2014-08-01
We demonstrate an on-chip optical phased array fabricated in a CMOS compatible process with continuous, fast (100 kHz), wide-angle (51°) beam-steering suitable for applications such as low-cost LIDAR systems. The device demonstrates the largest (51°) beam-steering and beam-spacing to date while providing the ability to steer continuously over the entire range. Continuous steering is enabled by a cascaded phase shifting architecture utilizing, low power and small footprint, thermo-optic phase shifters. We demonstrate these results in the telecom C-band, but the same design can easily be adjusted for any wavelength between 1.2 and 3.5 μm.
Tao, R; Wang, X; Pu Zhou; Lei Si
2016-01-31
A theoretical model of coherent beam combining (CBC) based on a self-imaging waveguide (SIW) is built and the effects of mismatched errors on SIW-based CBC are simulated and analysed numerically. With the combination of the theoretical model and the finite difference beam propagation method, two main categories of errors, assembly and nonassembly errors, are numerically studied to investigate their effect on the beam quality by using the M{sup 2} factor. The optimisation of the SIW and error control principle of the system is briefly discussed. The generalised methodology offers a good reference for investigating waveguide-based high-power coherent combining of fibre lasers in a comprehensive way. (lasers and laser beams)
A Dual Frequency Carrier Phase Error Difference Checking Algorithm for the GNSS Compass.
Liu, Shuo; Zhang, Lei; Li, Jian
2016-11-24
The performance of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) compass is related to the quality of carrier phase measurement. How to process the carrier phase error properly is important to improve the GNSS compass accuracy. In this work, we propose a dual frequency carrier phase error difference checking algorithm for the GNSS compass. The algorithm aims at eliminating large carrier phase error in dual frequency double differenced carrier phase measurement according to the error difference between two frequencies. The advantage of the proposed algorithm is that it does not need additional environment information and has a good performance on multiple large errors compared with previous research. The core of the proposed algorithm is removing the geographical distance from the dual frequency carrier phase measurement, then the carrier phase error is separated and detectable. We generate the Double Differenced Geometry-Free (DDGF) measurement according to the characteristic that the different frequency carrier phase measurements contain the same geometrical distance. Then, we propose the DDGF detection to detect the large carrier phase error difference between two frequencies. The theoretical performance of the proposed DDGF detection is analyzed. An open sky test, a manmade multipath test and an urban vehicle test were carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm. The result shows that the proposed DDGF detection is able to detect large error in dual frequency carrier phase measurement by checking the error difference between two frequencies. After the DDGF detection, the accuracy of the baseline vector is improved in the GNSS compass.
A Dual Frequency Carrier Phase Error Difference Checking Algorithm for the GNSS Compass
Liu, Shuo; Zhang, Lei; Li, Jian
2016-01-01
The performance of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) compass is related to the quality of carrier phase measurement. How to process the carrier phase error properly is important to improve the GNSS compass accuracy. In this work, we propose a dual frequency carrier phase error difference checking algorithm for the GNSS compass. The algorithm aims at eliminating large carrier phase error in dual frequency double differenced carrier phase measurement according to the error difference between two frequencies. The advantage of the proposed algorithm is that it does not need additional environment information and has a good performance on multiple large errors compared with previous research. The core of the proposed algorithm is removing the geographical distance from the dual frequency carrier phase measurement, then the carrier phase error is separated and detectable. We generate the Double Differenced Geometry-Free (DDGF) measurement according to the characteristic that the different frequency carrier phase measurements contain the same geometrical distance. Then, we propose the DDGF detection to detect the large carrier phase error difference between two frequencies. The theoretical performance of the proposed DDGF detection is analyzed. An open sky test, a manmade multipath test and an urban vehicle test were carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm. The result shows that the proposed DDGF detection is able to detect large error in dual frequency carrier phase measurement by checking the error difference between two frequencies. After the DDGF detection, the accuracy of the baseline vector is improved in the GNSS compass. PMID:27886153
Performance of the beam phase measurement system for LEDA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Power, J. F.; Barr, D.; Gilpatrick, J. D.; Kasemir, K.; Shurter, R. B.; Stettler, M.
2000-11-01
The Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) facility diagnostics include beam phase measurements [1]. Beam signals at 350 MHz from capacitive probes are down-converted to 2 MHz for processing. The phase measurement process includes amplitude leveling, digital sampling of the I and Q vectors, DSP filtering and calibration, and serving of the data to the network. All hardware is fielded in the VXI format and controlled with a PC. Running under Windows NT, a LabVIEW® program controls the operation of the system and serves the data, via channel access, to the EPICS control system. The design and operational performance to date of the system is described.
[A phase error correction method for the new Fourier transforms spectrometer].
Wang, Ning; Gong, Tian-Cheng; Chen, Jian-Jun; Li, Yang; Yang, Yi-Ning; Zhu, Yong; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Wei-Min
2014-11-01
To decrease the distortion of the recovered spectrum, improve the quantity of the recovered spectrum and decrease the influence of the phase error of the new spectrum detection system based on MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical systems) micro-mirrors, a new phase error correction method for this system is proposed in the present paper. The source of phase error of the spectrum detection system based on MEMS micro-mirrors is analyzed firstly. The analyzed result indicated that the phase error of the new spectral Fourier transform detection system is the zero drift of the optical path difference, and the phase error can be corrected by Zero-crossing sampling which is realized by improving the structure of the interferometer system and Mertz product The spectrum detection system is set up and the phase error correction method is verified by this system. The experiment result is show that the quantity of the recovered spectrum of the spectrum detection is improved obviously by using the improved interferometer system and Mertz product, and the recovered spectrum has no negative peaks and the side lobes is suppressed markedly. This correction method can reduce the influence caused by phase error to the system performance well and improve the spectral detection performance effectively. In this paper, the origin of the system phase error based on the new MEMS micromirror Fourier transform spectroscopy detection system is analyzed, and the phase error correction method is proposed. This method can improve the performance of the spectrum detection system.
Effect of Field Errors in Muon Collider IR Magnets on Beam Dynamics
Alexahin, Y.; Gianfelice-Wendt, E.; Kapin, V.V.; /Fermilab
2012-05-01
In order to achieve peak luminosity of a Muon Collider (MC) in the 10{sup 35} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} range very small values of beta-function at the interaction point (IP) are necessary ({beta}* {le} 1 cm) while the distance from IP to the first quadrupole can not be made shorter than {approx}6 m as dictated by the necessity of detector protection from backgrounds. In the result the beta-function at the final focus quadrupoles can reach 100 km making beam dynamics very sensitive to all kind of errors. In the present report we consider the effects on momentum acceptance and dynamic aperture of multipole field errors in the body of IR dipoles as well as of fringe-fields in both dipoles and quadrupoles in the ase of 1.5 TeV (c.o.m.) MC. Analysis shows these effects to be strong but correctable with dedicated multipole correctors.
Sparse Auto-Calibration for Radar Coincidence Imaging with Gain-Phase Errors
Zhou, Xiaoli; Wang, Hongqiang; Cheng, Yongqiang; Qin, Yuliang
2015-01-01
Radar coincidence imaging (RCI) is a high-resolution staring imaging technique without the limitation of relative motion between target and radar. The sparsity-driven approaches are commonly used in RCI, while the prior knowledge of imaging models needs to be known accurately. However, as one of the major model errors, the gain-phase error exists generally, and may cause inaccuracies of the model and defocus the image. In the present report, the sparse auto-calibration method is proposed to compensate the gain-phase error in RCI. The method can determine the gain-phase error as part of the imaging process. It uses an iterative algorithm, which cycles through steps of target reconstruction and gain-phase error estimation, where orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) and Newton’s method are used, respectively. Simulation results show that the proposed method can improve the imaging quality significantly and estimate the gain-phase error accurately. PMID:26528981
Generalized phase-shifting algorithms: error analysis and minimization of noise propagation.
Ayubi, Gastón A; Perciante, César D; Di Martino, J Matías; Flores, Jorge L; Ferrari, José A
2016-02-20
Phase shifting is a technique for phase retrieval that requires a series of intensity measurements with certain phase steps. The purpose of the present work is threefold: first we present a new method for generating general phase-shifting algorithms with arbitrarily spaced phase steps. Second, we study the conditions for which the phase-retrieval error due to phase-shift miscalibration can be minimized. Third, we study the phase extraction from interferograms with additive random noise, and deduce the conditions to be satisfied for minimizing the phase-retrieval error. Algorithms with unevenly spaced phase steps are discussed under linear phase-shift errors and additive Gaussian noise, and simulations are presented.
BEAM POSITION AND PHASE MONITORS FOR THE LANSCE LINAC
McCrady, Rodney C.; Gilpatrick, John D.; Watkins, Heath A.
2012-04-11
New beam-position and phase monitors are under development for the linac at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE.) Transducers have been designed and are being installed. We are considering many options for the electronic instrumentation to process the signals and provide position and phase data with the necessary precision and flexibility to serve the various required functions. We'll present the various options under consideration for instrumentation along with the advantages and shortcomings of these options.
Influence of perturbative phase noise on active coherent polarization beam combining system.
Ma, Pengfei; Zhou, Pu; Wang, Xiaolin; Ma, Yanxing; Su, Rongtao; Liu, Zejin
2013-12-02
In this manuscript, the influence of perturbative phase noise on active coherent polarization beam combining (CPBC) system is studied theoretically and experimentally. By employing a photo-detector to obtain phase error signal for feedback loop, actively coherent polarization beam combining of two 20 W-level single mode polarization-maintained (PM) fiber amplifiers are demonstrated with more than 94% combining efficiency. Then the influence of perturbative phase noise on active CPBC system is illustrated by incorporating a simulated phase noise signal in one of the two amplifiers. Experimental results show that the combining efficiency of the CPBC system is susceptible to the frequency or amplitude of the perturbative phase noise. In order to ensure the combining efficiency of the unit of CPBC system higher than 90%, the competence of our active phase control module for high power operation is discussed, which suggests that it could be worked at 100s W power level. The relationship between residual phase noise of the active controller and the normalized voltage signal of the photo-detector is developed and validated experimentally. Experimental results correspond exactly with the theoretically analyzed combining efficiency. Our method offers a useful approach to estimate the influence of phase noise on CPBC system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, Jun; Xiong, Chen; Zhou, Yihao; Miao, Hong; Chen, Jubing
2014-09-01
Fringe projection profilometry (FPP) using a digital video projector is widely used for three-dimensional shape measurement. However, the gamma nonlinearity, system vibration, and noise cause the captured fringe patterns to be nonsinusoidal waveforms and have a grayscale deflection from their true value. This leads to an additional phase measurement error for a general phase-shifting algorithm. Based on the theoretical analysis, we propose a method to eliminate the phase error considering two factors. In this method, four-step phase-shifting is done four times with an initial phase offset of 22.5 deg and the average of these four phase maps precisely results in the real phase. As a result, phase error caused by gamma nonlinearity can be effectively suppressed. In addition, every image in phase shifting is replaced by the average of 20 fringe images continuously captured at the same state to avoid the phase error caused by system vibration and noise. Experimental results show that this method is effective in eliminating the phase error in practical phase-shifting FPP. In general, more than 90% of the phase error can be reduced.
Exploring the Nuclear Phase Diagram with Beam Energy Scans
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horvat, Stephen
2017-04-01
The nuclear phase diagram is mapped using beam energy scans of relativistic heavy-ion collisions. This mapping is possible because different collision energies develop along different trajectories through the phase diagram. High energy collisions will evolve though a crossover phase transition according to lattice QCD, but lower collision energies may traverse a first order phase transition. There are hints for this first order phase transition and its critical endpoint, but further measurements and theoretical guidance is needed. In addition to mapping the phase transition, beam energy scans allow us to see if we can turn off the signatures of deconfinement. If an observable is a real signature for the formation of the deconfined state called quark-gluon plasma, then it should turn off at sufficiently low collision energies. In this summary talk I will show the current state of the field using beam energy scan results from RHIC and SPS, I will show where precise theoretical guidance is needed for understanding recent measurements, and I will motivate the need for more data and new measurements from FAIR, NICA, RHIC, and the SPS.
Design of error-compensating algorithms for sinusoidal phase shifting interferometry
Groot, Peter de
2009-12-10
An improved approach to interferometry using sinusoidal phase shifting balances several harmonic components in the interference signal against each other. The resulting computationally efficient phase-estimation algorithms have low sensitivity to errors such as spurious intensity noise, vibration, and errors in the phase shift pattern. Specific example algorithms employing 8 and 12 camera frames illustrate design principles that are extendable to algorithms of any length for applications that would benefit from a simplified, sinusoidal phase shift.
Gouy phase shift of lens-generated quasi-nondiffractive beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhai, Chunjie; Cao, Zhaolou
2017-08-01
Gouy phase shift (GPS) along geometrical rays of quasi-nondiffractive beam is studied by Fresnel diffraction to understand its phase behavior. Two typical quasi-nondiffractive beams, quasi-Bessel beam generated by axicon and quasi-Airy beam generated by cubic phase mask, were studied. Results show that those two beams have different kinds of GPS. While quasi-Airy beam follows general phenomenon of converging light wave where its phase change across focal line is -π, quasi-Bessel beam has phase change of -π/2 although it is two-dimensional.
Poster — Thur Eve — 08: Rotational errors with on-board cone beam computed tomography
Ali, E. S. M.; Webb, R.; Nyiri, B.
2014-08-15
The focus of this study is on the Elekta XVI on-board cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) system. A rotational mismatch as large as 0.5° is observed between clockwise (CW) and counter-clockwise (CCW) CBCT scans. The error could affect non-isocentric treatments (e.g., lung SBRT and acoustic neuroma), as well as off-axis organs-at-risk. The error is caused by mislabeling of the projections with a lagging gantry angle, which is caused by the finite image acquisition time and delays in the imaging system. A 30 cm diameter cylindrical phantom with 5 mm diameter holes is used for the scanning. CW and CCW scans are acquired for five gantry speeds (360 to 120 deg./min.) on six linacs from three generations (MLCi, MLCi2, and Agility). Additional scans are acquired with different x-ray pulse widths for the same mAs. In the automated CBCT analysis (using ImageJ), the CW/CCW mismatch in a series of line profiles is identified and used to calculate the rotational error. Results are consistent among all linacs and indicate that the error varies linearly with gantry speed. The finite width of the x-ray pulses is a major but predictable contributor to the delay causing the error. For 40 ms pulses, the delay is 34 ± 1 ms. A simple solution applied in our clinic is adjusting the gantry angle offset to make the CCW one-minute scans correct. A more involved approach we are currently investigating includes adjustments of pulse width and mA, resulting in focal spot changes, with potential impact on image quality.
Poludniowski, Gavin G.; Evans, Philip M.; Webb, Steve
2012-09-01
Purpose: The potential of keV cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for guiding adaptive replanning is well-known. There are impediments to this, one being CBCT number accuracy. The purpose of this study was to investigate CBCT number correction methods and the affect of residual inaccuracies on dose deposition. Four different correction strategies were applied to the same patient data to compare performance and the sophistication of correction-method needed for acceptable dose errors. Methods and Materials: Planning CT and CBCT reconstructions were used for 12 patients (6 brain, 3 prostate, and 3 bladder cancer patients). All patients were treated using Elekta linear accelerators and XVI imaging systems. Two of the CBCT number correction methods investigated were based on an algorithm previously proposed by the authors but only previously applied to phantoms. Two further methods, based on an approach previously suggested in the research literature, were also examined. Dose calculations were performed using scans of a 'worst' subset of patients using the Pinnacle{sup 3} version 9.0 treatment planning system and the patients' clinical plans. Results: All mean errors in CBCT number were <50 HU, and all correction methods performed well or adequately in dose calculations. The worst single dose discrepancy identified for any of the examined methods or patients was 3.0%. Mean errors in the doses to treatment volumes or organs at risk were negatively correlated with the mean error in CT number. That is, a mean CT number that was too large, averaged over the entire CBCT volume, implied an underdosing in a volume-of-interest and vice versa. Conclusions: Results suggest that (1) the correction of CBCT numbers to within a mean error of 50 HU in the scan volume provides acceptable discrepancies in dose (<3%) and (2) this is achievable with even quite unsophisticated correction methods.
Hu, Pengcheng; Mao, Shuai; Tan, Jiu-Bin
2015-11-02
A measurement system with three degrees of freedom (3 DOF) that compensates for errors caused by incident beam drift is proposed. The system's measurement model (i.e. its mathematical foundation) is analyzed, and a measurement module (i.e. the designed orientation measurement unit) is developed and adopted to measure simultaneously straightness errors and the incident beam direction; thus, the errors due to incident beam drift can be compensated. The experimental results show that the proposed system has a deviation of 1 μm in the range of 200 mm for distance measurements, and a deviation of 1.3 μm in the range of 2 mm for straightness error measurements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hromada, Ivan, Jr.
Atom interferometers, in which de Broglie waves are coherently split and recombined to make interference fringes, now serve as precision measurement tools for several quantities in physics. Examples include measurements of Newton's constant, the fine structure constant, van der Waals potentials, and atomic polarizabilities. To make next-generation measurements of static electric dipole atomic polarizabilities with an atom beam interferometer, I worked on new methods to precisely measure the velocity distribution for atom beams. I will explain how I developed and used phase choppers to measure lithium, sodium, potassium, and cesium atomic beam velocities with 0.07% accuracy. I also present new measurements of polarizability for these atoms. I classify systematic errors into two broad categories: (1) fractional errors that are similar for all different types of atoms in our experiments, and (2), errors that scale with de Broglie wavelength or inverse atomic momentum in our experiments. This distinction is important for estimating the uncertainty in our measurements of ratios of atomic polarizabilities, e.g., alpha Cs/alphaNa = 2.488(12).
Phase Error Correction for Approximated Observation-Based Compressed Sensing Radar Imaging
Li, Bo; Liu, Falin; Zhou, Chongbin; Lv, Yuanhao; Hu, Jingqiu
2017-01-01
Defocus of the reconstructed image of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) occurs in the presence of the phase error. In this work, a phase error correction method is proposed for compressed sensing (CS) radar imaging based on approximated observation. The proposed method has better image focusing ability with much less memory cost, compared to the conventional approaches, due to the inherent low memory requirement of the approximated observation operator. The one-dimensional (1D) phase error correction for approximated observation-based CS-SAR imaging is first carried out and it can be conveniently applied to the cases of random-frequency waveform and linear frequency modulated (LFM) waveform without any a priori knowledge. The approximated observation operators are obtained by calculating the inverse of Omega-K and chirp scaling algorithms for random-frequency and LFM waveforms, respectively. Furthermore, the 1D phase error model is modified by incorporating a priori knowledge and then a weighted 1D phase error model is proposed, which is capable of correcting two-dimensional (2D) phase error in some cases, where the estimation can be simplified to a 1D problem. Simulation and experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed method in the presence of 1D phase error or weighted 1D phase error. PMID:28304353
Phase Error Correction for Approximated Observation-Based Compressed Sensing Radar Imaging.
Li, Bo; Liu, Falin; Zhou, Chongbin; Lv, Yuanhao; Hu, Jingqiu
2017-03-17
Defocus of the reconstructed image of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) occurs in the presence of the phase error. In this work, a phase error correction method is proposed for compressed sensing (CS) radar imaging based on approximated observation. The proposed method has better image focusing ability with much less memory cost, compared to the conventional approaches, due to the inherent low memory requirement of the approximated observation operator. The one-dimensional (1D) phase error correction for approximated observation-based CS-SAR imaging is first carried out and it can be conveniently applied to the cases of random-frequency waveform and linear frequency modulated (LFM) waveform without any a priori knowledge. The approximated observation operators are obtained by calculating the inverse of Omega-K and chirp scaling algorithms for random-frequency and LFM waveforms, respectively. Furthermore, the 1D phase error model is modified by incorporating a priori knowledge and then a weighted 1D phase error model is proposed, which is capable of correcting two-dimensional (2D) phase error in some cases, where the estimation can be simplified to a 1D problem. Simulation and experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed method in the presence of 1D phase error or weighted 1D phase error.
Investigating treatment dose error due to beam attenuation by a carbon fiber tabletop.
Myint, W Kenji; Niedbala, Malgorzata; Wilkins, David; Gerig, Lee H
2006-08-24
Carbon fiber is commonly used in radiation therapy for treatment tabletops and various immobilization and support devices, partially because it is generally perceived to be almost radiotransparent to high-energy photons. To avoid exposure to normal tissue during modern radiation therapy, one must deliver the radiation from all gantry angles; hence, beams often transit the couch proximal to the patient. The effects of the beam attenuation by the support structure of the couch are often neglected in the planning process. In this study, we investigate the attenuation of 6-MV and 18-MV photon beams by a Medtec (Orange City, IA) carbon fiber couch. We have determined that neglecting the attenuation of oblique treatment fields by the carbon fiber couch can result in localized dose reduction from 4% to 16%, depending on energy, field size, and geometry. Further, we investigate the ability of a commercial treatment-planning system (Theraplan Plus v3.8) to account for the attenuation by the treatment couch. Results show that incorporating the carbon fiber couch in the patient model reduces the dose error to less than 2%. The variation in dose reduction as a function of longitudinal couch position was also measured. In the triangular strut region of the couch, the attenuation varied +/- 0.5% following the periodic nature of the support structure. Based on these findings, we propose the routine incorporation of the treatment tabletop into patient treatment planning dose calculations.
Nanowire growth by an electron beam induced massive phase transformation
Sood, Shantanu; Kisslinger, Kim; Gouma, Perena
2014-11-15
Tungsten trioxide nanowires of a high aspect ratio have been synthesized in-situ in a TEM under an electron beam of current density 14A/cm² due to a massive polymorphic reaction. Sol-gel processed pseudocubic phase nanocrystals of tungsten trioxide were seen to rapidly transform to one dimensional monoclinic phase configurations, and this reaction was independent of the substrate on which the material was deposited. The mechanism of the self-catalyzed polymorphic transition and accompanying radical shape change is a typical characteristic of metastable to stable phase transformations in nanostructured polymorphic metal oxides. A heuristic model is used to confirm the metastable to stable growth mechanism. The findings are important to the control electron beam deposition of nanowires for functional applications starting from colloidal precursors.
Nanowire growth by an electron beam induced massive phase transformation
Sood, Shantanu; Kisslinger, Kim; Gouma, Perena
2014-11-15
Tungsten trioxide nanowires of a high aspect ratio have been synthesized in-situ in a TEM under an electron beam of current density 14A/cm² due to a massive polymorphic reaction. Sol-gel processed pseudocubic phase nanocrystals of tungsten trioxide were seen to rapidly transform to one dimensional monoclinic phase configurations, and this reaction was independent of the substrate on which the material was deposited. The mechanism of the self-catalyzed polymorphic transition and accompanying radical shape change is a typical characteristic of metastable to stable phase transformations in nanostructured polymorphic metal oxides. A heuristic model is used to confirm the metastable to stablemore » growth mechanism. The findings are important to the control electron beam deposition of nanowires for functional applications starting from colloidal precursors.« less
Single beam Fourier transform digital holographic quantitative phase microscopy
Anand, A. Chhaniwal, V. K.; Mahajan, S.; Trivedi, V.; Faridian, A.; Pedrini, G.; Osten, W.; Dubey, S. K.; Javidi, B.
2014-03-10
Quantitative phase contrast microscopy reveals thickness or height information of a biological or technical micro-object under investigation. The information obtained from this process provides a means to study their dynamics. Digital holographic (DH) microscopy is one of the most used, state of the art single-shot quantitative techniques for three dimensional imaging of living cells. Conventional off axis DH microscopy directly provides phase contrast images of the objects. However, this process requires two separate beams and their ratio adjustment for high contrast interference fringes. Also the use of two separate beams may make the system more vulnerable to vibrations. Single beam techniques can overcome these hurdles while remaining compact as well. Here, we describe the development of a single beam DH microscope providing whole field imaging of micro-objects. A hologram of the magnified object projected on to a diffuser co-located with a pinhole is recorded with the use of a commercially available diode laser and an arrayed sensor. A Fourier transform of the recorded hologram directly yields the complex amplitude at the image plane. The method proposed was investigated using various phase objects. It was also used to image the dynamics of human red blood cells in which sub-micrometer level thickness variation were measurable.
Ma, Jing; Jiang, Yijun; Tan, Liying; Yu, Siyuan; Du, Wenhe
2008-11-15
Based on weak fluctuation theory and the beam-wander model, the bit-error rate of a ground-to-satellite laser uplink communication system is analyzed, in comparison with the condition in which beam wander is not taken into account. Considering the combined effect of scintillation and beam wander, optimum divergence angle and transmitter beam radius for a communication system are researched. Numerical results show that both of them increase with the increment of total link margin and transmitted wavelength. This work can benefit the ground-to-satellite laser uplink communication system design.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Downie, John D.; Reid, Max B.; Hine, Butler P.
1991-01-01
We address the problem of optical phase errors in an optical correlator introduced by the input and filter plane spatial light modulators. Specifically, we study a laboratory correlator with magnetooptic spatial light modulator (MOSLM) devices. We measure and characterize the phase errors, analyze their effects on the correlation process, and discuss a means of correction through a design modification of the binary phase-only optical filter function. The phase correction technique is found to produce correlation results close to those of an error-free correlator.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Downie, John D.; Reid, Max B.; Hine, Butler P.
1991-01-01
We address the problem of optical phase errors in an optical correlator introduced by the input and filter plane spatial light modulators. Specifically, we study a laboratory correlator with magnetooptic spatial light modulator (MOSLM) devices. We measure and characterize the phase errors, analyze their effects on the correlation process, and discuss a means of correction through a design modification of the binary phase-only optical filter function. The phase correction technique is found to produce correlation results close to those of an error-free correlator.
Photorefractive phased array antenna beam-forming processor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sarto, Anthony W.; Wagner, Kelvin H.; Weverka, Robert T.; Blair, Steven M.; Weaver, Samuel P.
1996-11-01
A high bandwidth, large degree-of-freedom photorefractive phased-array antenna beam-forming processor which uses 3D dynamic volume holograms in photorefractive crystals to time integrate the adaptive weights to perform beam steering and jammer-cancellation signal-processing tasks is described. The processor calculates the angle-of-arrival of a desired signal of interest and steers the antenna pattern in the direction of this desired signal by forming a dynamic holographic grating proportional to the correlation between the incoming signal of interest from the antenna array and the temporal waveform of the desired signal. Experimental results of main-beam formation and measured array-functions are presented in holographic index grating and the resulting processor output.
Modeling the radiation of ultrasonic phased-array transducers with Gaussian beams.
Huang, Ruiju; Schmerr, Lester W; Sedov, Alexander
2008-12-01
A new transducer beam model, called a multi-Gaussian array beam model, is developed to simulate the wave fields radiated by ultrasonic phased-array transducers. This new model overcomes the restrictions on using ordinary multi-Gaussian beam models developed for large single-element transducers in phased-array applications. It is demonstrated that this new beam model can effectively model the steered and focused beams of a linear phased-array transducer.
Ri, Shien; Muramatsu, Takashi
2012-06-01
Recently, a rapid and accurate single-shot phase measurement technique called the sampling moiré method has been developed for small-displacement distribution measurements. In this study, the theoretical phase error of the sampling moiré method caused by linear intensity interpolation in the case of a mismatch between the sampling pitch and the original grating pitch is analyzed. The periodic phase error is proportional to the square of the spatial angular frequency of the moiré fringe. Moreover, an effective phase compensation methodology is developed to reduce the periodic phase error. Single-shot phase analysis can perform accurately even when the sampling pitch is not matched to the original grating pitch exactly. The primary simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed phase compensation methodology.
Li, Beiwen; Liu, Ziping; Zhang, Song
2016-10-03
We propose a hybrid computational framework to reduce motion-induced measurement error by combining the Fourier transform profilometry (FTP) and phase-shifting profilometry (PSP). The proposed method is composed of three major steps: Step 1 is to extract continuous relative phase maps for each isolated object with single-shot FTP method and spatial phase unwrapping; Step 2 is to obtain an absolute phase map of the entire scene using PSP method, albeit motion-induced errors exist on the extracted absolute phase map; and Step 3 is to shift the continuous relative phase maps from Step 1 to generate final absolute phase maps for each isolated object by referring to the absolute phase map with error from Step 2. Experiments demonstrate the success of the proposed computational framework for measuring multiple isolated rapidly moving objects.
Sorimoto, Keisuke; Tanizawa, Ken; Uetsuka, Hisato; Kawashima, Hitoshi; Mori, Masahiko; Hasama, Toshifumi; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Tsuda, Hiroyuki
2013-07-15
A novel liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS)-based wavelength selective switch (WSS) is proposed, fabricated, and demonstrated. It employs a multilayered arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) as a wavelength multiplex/demultiplexer. The LCOS deflects spectrally decomposed beams channel by channel and switches them to desired waveguide layers of the multilayered AWG. In order to obtain the multilayered AWG with high yield, phase errors of the AWG is externally compensated for by an additional phase modulation with the LCOS. This additional phase modulation is applied to the equivalent image of the facet of the AWG, which is projected by a relay lens. In our previously-reported WSS configuration, somewhat large footprint and increased cost were the drawbacks, since two LCOSs were required: one LCOS was driven for the inter-port switching operation, and the other was for the phase-error compensation. In the newly proposed configuration, on the other hand, both switching and compensation operations are performed using a single LCOS. This reduction of the component count is realized by introducing the folded configuration with a reflector. The volume of the WSS optics is 80 × 100 × 60 mm^{3}, which is approximately 40% smaller than the previous configuration. The polarization-dependent loss and inter-channel crosstalk are less than 1.5 dB and -21.0 dB, respectively. An error-free transmission of 40-Gbit/s NRZ-OOK signal through the WSS is successfully demonstrated.
Coplanar three-beam interference and phase edge dislocations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patorski, Krzysztof; SłuŻewski, Łukasz; Trusiak, Maciej; Pokorski, Krzysztof
2016-12-01
We present a comprehensive analysis of grating three-beam interference to discover a broad range of the ratio of amplitudes A of +/-1 diffraction orders and the zero order amplitude C providing phase edge dislocations. We derive a condition A/C > 0.5 for the occurrence of phase edge dislocations in three-beam interference self-image planes. In the boundary case A/C = 0.5 singularity conditions are met in those planes (once per interference field period), but the zero amplitude condition is not accompanied by an abrupt phase change. For A/C > 0.5 two adjacent singularities in a single field period show opposite sign topological charges. The occurrence of edge dislocations for selected values of A/C was verified by processing fork fringes obtained by introducing the fourth beam in the plane perpendicular to the one containing three coplanar diffraction orders. Two fork pattern processing methods are described, 2D CWT (two-dimensional continuous wavelet transform) and 2D spatial differentiation.
A model to determine the initial phase space of a clinical electron beam from measured beam data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Janssen, J. J.; Korevaar, E. W.; van Battum, L. J.; Storchi, P. R. M.; Huizenga, H.
2001-02-01
Advanced electron beam dose calculation models for radiation oncology require as input an initial phase space (IPS) that describes a clinical electron beam. The IPS is a distribution in position, energy and direction of electrons and photons in a plane in front of the patient. A method is presented to derive the IPS of a clinical electron beam from a limited set of measured beam data. The electron beam is modelled by a sum of four beam components: a main diverging beam, applicator edge scatter, applicator transmission and a second diverging beam. The two diverging beam components are described by weighted sums of monoenergetic diverging electron and photon beams. The weight factors of these monoenergetic beams are determined by the method of simulated annealing such that a best fit is obtained with depth-dose curves measured for several field sizes at two source-surface distances. The resulting IPSs are applied by the phase-space evolution electron beam dose calculation model to calculate absolute 3D dose distributions. The accuracy of the calculated results is in general within 1.5% or 1.5 mm worst cases show differences of up to 3% or 3 mm. The method presented here to describe clinical electron beams yields accurate results, requires only a limited set of measurements and might be considered as an alternative to the use of Monte Carlo methods to generate full initial phase spaces.
Blind phase error suppression for color-encoded digital fringe projection profilometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, S.; Zhu, R.; Quan, C.; Li, B.; Tay, C. J.; Chen, L.
2012-04-01
Color-encoded digital fringe projection profilometry (CDFPP) has the advantage of fast speed, non-contact and full-field testing. It is one of the most important dynamic three-dimensional (3D) profile measurement techniques. However, due to factors such as color cross-talk and gamma distortion of electro-optical devices, phase errors arise when conventional phase-shifting algorithms with fixed phase shift values are utilized to retrieve phases. In this paper, a simple and effective blind phase error suppression approach based on isotropic n-dimensional fringe pattern normalization (INFPN) and carrier squeezing interferometry (CSI) is proposed. It does not require pre-calibration for the gamma and color-coupling coefficients or the phase shift values. Simulation and experimental works show that our proposed approach is able to effectively suppress phase errors and achieve accurate measurement results in CDFPP.
ACTION AND PHASE ANALYSIS TO DETERMINE SEXTUPOLE ERRORS IN RHIC AND THE SPS.
CARDONA,J.PEGGS,S.SATOGATA,T.TOMAS,R.
2003-05-12
Success in the application of the action and phase analysis to find linear errors at RHIC Interaction Regions [1] has encouraged the creation of a technique based on the action and phase analysis to find non linear errors. In this paper we show the first attempt to measure the sextupole components at RHIC interaction regions using the action and phase method. Experiments done by intentionally activating sextupoles in RHIC and in SPS [2] will also be analyzed with this method. First results have given values for the sextupole errors that at least have the same order of magnitude as the values found by an alternate technique during the RHIC 2001 run [3].
Cone beam geometry for small objects in phase contrast tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jonas, P.; Louis, A. K.
2013-09-01
Phase contrast tomography has developed rapidly within the last ten years. The new method enables the reconstruction of the refraction index in addition to the attenuation coefficient and can therefore be very well applied to samples which are only weakly absorbing. First studies in phase contract tomography were done using synchrotron devices which are modeled by the so-called parallel geometry. Samples studied so far are special foams and fiber materials, see Cloetens et al (1999 App. Phys. Lett. 75 2912-4), which give almost no contrast due to absorption but provide excellent images in phase contrast. Recently tubes were successfully applied to a variety of applications. These laboratory devices no longer fulfil the requirement of a parallel geometry but need to be treated as a fan/cone beam geometry. In this paper we derive a mathematical model for cone beam geometry in phase contrast tomography in two and three dimensions for objects small compared to the two distances of object to detector and x-ray source to object. All approximations needed are analyzed and an efficient reconstruction method providing both phase and absorption in a single step is derived, based on the method by Louis and Maaß (1990 Inverse Problems 6 427-39). The reconstruction method is successfully tested using numerical examples with simulated phantom data.
Phase and synchronous detector theory as applied to beam position and intensity measurements
Gilpatrick, J.D.
1995-05-01
A popular signal processing technique for beam position measurements uses the principle of amplitude-to-phase (AM/PM) conversion and phase detection. This technique processes position-sensitive beam-image-current probe-signals into output signals that are proportional to the beam`s position. These same probe signals may be summed and processed in a different fashion to provide output signals that are proportional to the peak beam current which is typically referred to as beam intensity. This paper derives the transfer functions for the AM/PM beam position and peak beam current processors.
Beam Phase Space of an Intense Ion Beam in a Neutralizing Plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seidl, Peter A.; Bazouin, Guillaume; Beneytout, Alice; Lidia, Steven M.; Vay, Jean-Luc; Grote, David P.
2011-10-01
The Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX-I) generates high intensity ion beams to explore warm dense matter physics. Transverse final focusing is accomplished with an 8-Tesla, 10-cm long pulsed solenoid magnet combined with a background neutralizing plasma to effectively cancel the space charge field of the ion beam. We report on phase space measurements of the beam before the neutralization channel and of the focused ion beam at the target plane. These are compared to WARP particle-in-cell simulations of the ion beam propagation through the focusing system and neutralizing plasma. Due to the orientation of the plasma sources with respect to the focusing magnet, the plasma distribution within the final focusing lens is strongly affected by the magnetic field, an effect which can influence the peak intensity at the target and which is included in the model of the experiment. Work performed under auspices of U.S. DoE by LLNL, LBNL under Contracts DE-AC52-07NA27344, DE-AC02-05CH1123.
An Agile Beam Transmit Array Using Coupled Oscillator Phase Control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pogorzelski, Ronald S.; Scaramastra, Rocco P.; Huang, John; Beckon, Robert J.; Petree, Steve M.; Chavez, Cosme
1993-01-01
A few years ago York and colleagues suggested that injection locking of voltage controlled oscillators could be used to implement beam steering in a phased array [I]. The scheme makes use of the fact that when an oscillator is injection locked to an external signal, the phase difference between the output of the oscillator and the injection signal is governed by the difference between the injection frequency and the free running frequency of the oscillator (the frequency to which the oscillator is tuned). Thus, if voltage controlled oscillators (VCOs) are used, this phase difference is controlled by an applied voltage. Now, if a set of such oscillators are coupled to nearest neighbors, they can be made to mutually injection lock and oscillate as an ensemble. If they are all tuned to the same frequency, they will all oscillate in phase. Thus, if the outputs are connected to radiating elements forming a linear array, the antenna will radiate normal to the line of elements. Scanning is accomplished by antisymmetrically detuning the end oscillators in the array by application of a pair of appropriate voltages to their tuning ports. This results in a linear phase progression across the array which is just the phasing required to scan the beam. The scan angle is determined by the degree of detuning. We have constructed a seven element one dimensional agile beam array at S-band based on the above principle. Although, a few such arrays have been built in the past, this array possesses two unique features. First, the VCO MMICs have buffer amplifiers which isolate the output from the tuning circuit, and second, the oscillators are weakly coupled to each other at their resonant circuits rather than their outputs. This results in a convenient isolation between the oscillator array design and the radiating aperture design. An important parameter in the design is the so called coupling phase which determines the phase shift of the signals passing from one oscillator to its
Phase error suppression by low-pass filtering for synthetic aperture imaging ladar
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Zhiwei; Hou, Peipei; Zhi, Ya'nan; Sun, Jianfeng; Zhou, Yu; Xu, Qian; Lu, Zhiyong; Liu, Liren
2014-09-01
Compared to synthetic aperture radar (SAR), synthetic aperture imaging ladar (SAIL) is more sensitive to the phase errors induced by atmospheric turbulence, undesirable line-of-sight translation-vibration and waveform phase error, because the light wavelength is about 3-6 orders of magnitude less than that of the radio frequency. This phase errors will deteriorate the imaging results. In this paper, an algorithm based on low-pass filtering to suppress the phase error is proposed. In this algorithm, the azimuth quadratic phase history with phase error is compensated, then the fast Fourier transform (FFT) is performed in azimuth direction, after the low-pass filtering, the inverse FFT is performed, then the image is reconstructed simultaneously in the range and azimuth direction by the two-dimensional (2D) FFT. The highfrequency phase error can be effectively eliminated hence the imaging results can be optimized by this algorithm. The mathematical analysis by virtue of data-collection equation of side-looking SAIL is presented. The theoretical modeling results are also given. In addition, based on this algorithm, a principle scheme of optical processor is proposed. The verified experiment is performed employing the data obtained from a SAIL demonstrator.
Lee, It Ee; Ghassemlooy, Zabih; Ng, Wai Pang; Khalighi, Mohammad-Ali
2013-02-01
Joint beam width and spatial coherence length optimization is proposed to maximize the average capacity in partially coherent free-space optical links, under the combined effects of atmospheric turbulence and pointing errors. An optimization metric is introduced to enable feasible translation of the joint optimal transmitter beam parameters into an analogous level of divergence of the received optical beam. Results show that near-ideal average capacity is best achieved through the introduction of a larger receiver aperture and the joint optimization technique.
A sparsity-driven approach for joint SAR imaging and phase error correction.
Önhon, N Özben; Cetin, Müjdat
2012-04-01
Image formation algorithms in a variety of applications have explicit or implicit dependence on a mathematical model of the observation process. Inaccuracies in the observation model may cause various degradations and artifacts in the reconstructed images. The application of interest in this paper is synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging, which particularly suffers from motion-induced model errors. These types of errors result in phase errors in SAR data, which cause defocusing of the reconstructed images. Particularly focusing on imaging of fields that admit a sparse representation, we propose a sparsity-driven method for joint SAR imaging and phase error correction. Phase error correction is performed during the image formation process. The problem is set up as an optimization problem in a nonquadratic regularization-based framework. The method involves an iterative algorithm, where each iteration of which consists of consecutive steps of image formation and model error correction. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the approach for various types of phase errors, as well as the improvements that it provides over existing techniques for model error compensation in SAR.
Low-phase-error offset-compensated switched-capacitor integrator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ki, W.-H.; Temes, G. C.
1990-01-01
A modification of the offset-compensated switched-capacitor integrator is described. The resulting circuit has a reduced delay and low gain distortion. It also retains the simplicity and low phase errors of earlier schemes.
Topolnjak, Rajko; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Nijkamp, Jasper; Rasch, Coen; Minkema, Danny; Remeijer, Peter; Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine van
2010-11-15
Purpose: To quantify the differences in setup errors measured with the cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and electronic portal image devices (EPID) in breast cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Repeat CBCT scan were acquired for routine offline setup verification in 20 breast cancer patients. During the CBCT imaging fractions, EPID images of the treatment beams were recorded. Registrations of the bony anatomy for CBCT to planning CT and EPID to digitally reconstructed-radiographs (DRRs) were compared. In addition, similar measurements of an anthropomorphic thorax phantom were acquired. Bland-Altman and linear regression analysis were performed for clinical and phantom registrations. Systematic and random setup errors were quantified for CBCT and EPID-driven correction protocols in the EPID coordinate system (U, V), with V parallel to the cranial-caudal axis and U perpendicular to V and the central beam axis. Results: Bland-Altman analysis of clinical EPID and CBCT registrations yielded 4 to 6-mm limits of agreement, indicating that both methods were not compatible. The EPID-based setup errors were smaller than the CBCT-based setup errors. Phantom measurements showed that CBCT accurately measures setup error whereas EPID underestimates setup errors in the cranial-caudal direction. In the clinical measurements, the residual bony anatomy setup errors after offline CBCT-based corrections were {Sigma}{sub U} = 1.4 mm, {Sigma}{sub V} = 1.7 mm, and {sigma}{sub U} = 2.6 mm, {sigma}{sub V} = 3.1 mm. Residual setup errors of EPID driven corrections corrected for underestimation were estimated at {Sigma}{sub U} = 2.2mm, {Sigma}{sub V} = 3.3 mm, and {sigma}{sub U} = 2.9 mm, {sigma}{sub V} = 2.9 mm. Conclusion: EPID registration underestimated the actual bony anatomy setup error in breast cancer patients by 20% to 50%. Using CBCT decreased setup uncertainties significantly.
Quadratic phase error compensation algorithm based on phase cancellation for ISAIL
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zang, Bo; Li, Qi; Ji, Hong-Bing; Tang, Yu
2013-09-01
As a product combining inverse synthetic aperture technology with coherent laser technology, Inverse Synthetic Aperture Imaging Ladar (ISAIL) overcomes the diffraction limit of the telescope's aperture, while it supplies a much better range resolution which will not get worse at long range when the diameter telescope optics becomes smaller. Compared with traditional microwave imaging radar, SAIL can provide a much higher-resolution image because of shorter wavelength, and its shorter imaging time for coherent integration takes a great part in practical application. The rotational motion of target generates Migration through Range Cells (MTRC) because of the ultra-high resolution of ISAIL. Quadratic Phase Error (QPE) caused by Migration through Range Cells (MTRC) during the imaging time makes ISAIL image smeared. It is difficult to estimate the QPE through traditional motion compensation algorithm. To solve this problem in the case of uniform rotation rate, a novel QPE compensation method, based on Phase Cancellation (PC), is proposed. Firstly, a rough range of QPE coefficient related to the wave-length, length of the target, and the rotating angle is estimated. Then, through 1-D search, the QPE coefficient is obtained exactly. Finally, the QPE compensation is achieved. The ISAIL imaging experiments with numerical data validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
2.75-4.75 GHz QPSK modulator with low amplitude and phase errors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, S.; Wells, G.
1990-07-01
A QPSK modulator with a 2.75-4.75 GHz operating frequency range is presented. The modulator is realized using a broadband power divider, microstrip-slotline-microstrip transitions and Lange couplers. Computer optimized matching circuits are used to maintain a phase error less than 5 deg and an amplitude phase imbalance error across the band of less than 0.5 dB. The modulator is suitable for MMIC implementation.
Telescope birefringence and phase errors in the Gravity instrument at the VLT interferometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lazareff, B.; Blind, N.; Jocou, L.; Eisenhauer, F.; Perraut, K.; Lacour, S.; Delplancke, F.; Schoeller, M.; Amorim, A.; Brandner, W.; Perrin, G.; Straubmeier, C.
2014-07-01
We use a numerical model of the birefringence in the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) and the Gravity instrument to study the astrometric phase errors that arise when two conditions are simultaneously present: differential birefringence between two VLTI arms, and different polarizations of the science and fringe tracker sources. We present measurements of the VLTI birefringence, that are used to validate our model. We show how a suitable alignment of the eigenvectors of the optical train eliminates the phase error.
Chemically Induced Phase Transformation in Austenite by Focused Ion Beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Basa, Adina; Thaulow, Christian; Barnoush, Afrooz
2013-11-01
A highly stable austenite phase in a super duplex stainless steel was subjected to a combination of different gallium ion doses at different acceleration voltages. It was shown that contrary to what is expected, an austenite to ferrite phase transformation occurred within the focused ion beam (FIB) milled regions. Chemical analysis of the FIB milled region proved that the gallium implantation preceded the FIB milling. High resolution electron backscatter diffraction analysis also showed that the phase transformation was not followed by the typical shear and plastic deformation expected from the martensitic transformation. On the basis of these observations, it was concluded that the change in the chemical composition of the austenite and the local increase in gallium, which is a ferrite stabilizer, results in the local selective transformation of austenite to ferrite.
The STAR beam energy scan phase II physics and upgrades
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Videbaek, Flemming; STAR Collaboration
2016-09-01
The second phase of the Beam Energy Scan at RHIC will occur in 2019-2020 and will explore with precision measurements in the part of the QCD phase diagram where baryon densities are high. The program will examine energy regime of interest and turn the trends observed in phase-I into conclusions. This will be discussed in context of some of the key measurements, kurtosis of net-protons that could pinpoint the position of a critical point, measurements of directed flow of baryons vs. energy that might prove a softening of the EOS , and chiral restoration in the di-lepton channel. The measurements will be possible with an order of magnitude better statistics thanks to the electron cooling upgrade of RHIC, and the addition of the iTPC, Event Plane, and endcap TOF upgrades to STAR. Office of Nuclear Physics within the U.S. DOE Office of Science.
Prospects for electron beam aberration correction using sculpted phase masks.
Shiloh, Roy; Remez, Roei; Arie, Ady
2016-04-01
Technological advances in fabrication methods allowed the microscopy community to take incremental steps towards perfecting the electron microscope, and magnetic lens design in particular. Still, state of the art aberration-corrected microscopes are yet 20-30 times shy of the theoretical electron diffraction limit. Moreover, these microscopes consume significant physical space and are very expensive. Here, we show how a thin, sculpted membrane is used as a phase-mask to induce specific aberrations into an electron beam probe in a standard high resolution TEM. In particular, we experimentally demonstrate beam splitting, two-fold astigmatism, three-fold astigmatism, and spherical aberration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lamb, Masen; Correia, Carlos; Sauvage, Jean-François; Véran, Jean-Pierre; Andersen, David; Vigan, Arthur; Wizinowich, Peter; van Dam, Marcos; Mugnier, Laurent; Bond, Charlotte
2016-07-01
We propose and apply two methods for estimating phase discontinuities for two realistic scenarios on VLT and Keck. The methods use both phase diversity and a form of image sharpening. For the case of VLT, we simulate the `low wind effect' (LWE) which is responsible for focal plane errors in low wind and good seeing conditions. We successfully estimate the LWE using both methods, and show that using both methods both independently and together yields promising results. We also show the use of single image phase diversity in the LWE estimation, and show that it too yields promising results. Finally, we simulate segmented piston effects on Keck/NIRC2 images and successfully recover the induced phase errors using single image phase diversity. We also show that on Keck we can estimate both the segmented piston errors and any Zernike modes affiliated with the non-common path.
Read, Randy J.; McCoy, Airlie J.
2016-01-01
The crystallographic diffraction experiment measures Bragg intensities; crystallographic electron-density maps and other crystallographic calculations in phasing require structure-factor amplitudes. If data were measured with no errors, the structure-factor amplitudes would be trivially proportional to the square roots of the intensities. When the experimental errors are large, and especially when random errors yield negative net intensities, the conversion of intensities and their error estimates into amplitudes and associated error estimates becomes nontrivial. Although this problem has been addressed intermittently in the history of crystallographic phasing, current approaches to accounting for experimental errors in macromolecular crystallography have numerous significant defects. These have been addressed with the formulation of LLGI, a log-likelihood-gain function in terms of the Bragg intensities and their associated experimental error estimates. LLGI has the correct asymptotic behaviour for data with large experimental error, appropriately downweighting these reflections without introducing bias. LLGI abrogates the need for the conversion of intensity data to amplitudes, which is usually performed with the French and Wilson method [French & Wilson (1978 ▸), Acta Cryst. A35, 517–525], wherever likelihood target functions are required. It has general applicability for a wide variety of algorithms in macromolecular crystallography, including scaling, characterizing anisotropy and translational noncrystallographic symmetry, detecting outliers, experimental phasing, molecular replacement and refinement. Because it is impossible to reliably recover the original intensity data from amplitudes, it is suggested that crystallographers should always deposit the intensity data in the Protein Data Bank. PMID:26960124
Power Spectrum of Uplink Array Signals with Random Phase and Delay Errors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vilnrotter, Victor A.
2011-01-01
Link Array signals emanating from different antennas must be compensated for Doppler and delay in order to achieve the N(sup 2) array gain predicted by theory. However compensation is never perfect, leaving residual errors that cause losses in array gain and degradation in signal quality. Here we develop a mathematical model for Uplink Array signals in the presence of phase and delay errors, similar to well-known multipath analyses but with features unique to this problem. The resulting losses and distortions are described, and the power spectral density of the array signal derived first conditioned on a given error vector, then averaged over distributions deemed suitable for Uplink Array applications. The impact of phase and delay errors on array gain and signal distortion are addressed, and the maximum data throughput is quantified in terms of the assumed error statistics.
Quantization Error Reduction in the Measurement of Fourier Intensity for Phase Retrieval
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Shiyuan; Takajo, Hiroaki
2004-08-01
The quantization error in the measurement of Fourier intensity for phase retrieval is discussed and a multispectra method is proposed to reduce this error. The Fourier modulus used for phase retrieval is usually obtained by measuring Fourier intensity with a digital device. Therefore, quantization error in the measurement of Fourier intensity leads to an error in the reconstructed object when iterative Fourier transform algorithms are used. The multispectra method uses several Fourier intensity distributions for a number of measurement ranges to generate a Fourier intensity distribution with a low quantization error. Simulations show that the multispectra method is effective in retrieving objects with real or complex distributions when the iterative hybrid input-output algorithm (HIO) is used.
Leung Shingyu; Qian Jianliang
2010-11-20
We propose the backward phase flow method to implement the Fourier-Bros-Iagolnitzer (FBI)-transform-based Eulerian Gaussian beam method for solving the Schroedinger equation in the semi-classical regime. The idea of Eulerian Gaussian beams has been first proposed in . In this paper we aim at two crucial computational issues of the Eulerian Gaussian beam method: how to carry out long-time beam propagation and how to compute beam ingredients rapidly in phase space. By virtue of the FBI transform, we address the first issue by introducing the reinitialization strategy into the Eulerian Gaussian beam framework. Essentially we reinitialize beam propagation by applying the FBI transform to wavefields at intermediate time steps when the beams become too wide. To address the second issue, inspired by the original phase flow method, we propose the backward phase flow method which allows us to compute beam ingredients rapidly. Numerical examples demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed algorithms.
Correction of phase offset errors in main pulmonary artery flow quantification.
Lankhaar, Jan-Willem; Hofman, Mark B M; Marcus, J Tim; Zwanenburg, Jaco J M; Faes, Theo J C; Vonk-Noordegraaf, Anton
2005-07-01
To investigate whether an existing method for correction of phase offset errors in phase-contrast velocity quantification is applicable for assessment of main pulmonary artery flow with an MR scanner equipped with a high-power gradient system. The correction method consists of fitting a surface through the time average of stationary pixels of velocity-encoded phase images, and subtracting this surface from the velocity images. Pixels are regarded as stationary if their time standard deviation falls into the lowest percentile. Flow was measured in the main pulmonary artery of 15 subjects. Each measurement was repeated on a stationary phantom. The phase offset error in the phantom was used as a reference. Correction was applied with varying polynomial surface orders (0-5) and stationarity percentiles (5-50%). The optimal surface order and stationarity percentile were determined by comparing the fitted surface with the phantom. Using a first-order surface and a (noncritical) 25% percentile, the correction method significantly reduced the phase offset error from 1.1 to 0.35 cm/second (RMS), which is equivalent to a reduction from 11% to 3.3% of mean volume flow. Phase error correction strongly affected stroke volume (range -11 to 26%). The method significantly reduces phase offset errors in pulmonary artery flow.
Luo, David; Kudenov, Michael W
2016-05-16
Systematic phase errors in Fourier transform spectroscopy can severely degrade the calculated spectra. Compensation of these errors is typically accomplished using post-processing techniques, such as Fourier deconvolution, linear unmixing, or iterative solvers. This results in increased computational complexity when reconstructing and calibrating many parallel interference patterns. In this paper, we describe a new method of calibrating a Fourier transform spectrometer based on the use of artificial neural networks (ANNs). In this way, it is demonstrated that a simpler and more straightforward reconstruction process can be achieved at the cost of additional calibration equipment. To this end, we provide a theoretical model for general systematic phase errors in a polarization birefringent interferometer. This is followed by a discussion of our experimental setup and a demonstration of our technique, as applied to data with and without phase error. The technique's utility is then supported by comparison to alternative reconstruction techniques using fast Fourier transforms (FFTs) and linear unmixing.
An analysis of the phase dispersion in the symmetric beam combiner
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tang, Hong; Zhao, Feng
2006-01-01
An astronomical beam combiner combines the two beams of starlight to form white-light fringes. It is desirable that the dispersion of the beam combiner be minimized across the observation wavelength range. We present here an analysis of the phase dispersion from coatings for a symmetric beam combiner. The sensitivity of the dispersion to a slight mismatch in beamsplitter coatings is also studied.
An analysis of the phase dispersion in the symmetric beam combiner
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tang, Hong; Zhao, Feng
2006-01-01
An astronomical beam combiner combines the two beams of starlight to form white-light fringes. It is desirable that the dispersion of the beam combiner be minimized across the observation wavelength range. We present here an analysis of the phase dispersion from coatings for a symmetric beam combiner. The sensitivity of the dispersion to a slight mismatch in beamsplitter coatings is also studied.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sigurdardottir, Dorotea H.; Stearns, Jett; Glisic, Branko
2017-07-01
The deformed shape is a consequence of loading the structure and it is defined by the shape of the centroid line of the beam after deformation. The deformed shape is a universal parameter of beam-like structures. It is correlated with the curvature of the cross-section; therefore, any unusual behavior that affects the curvature is reflected through the deformed shape. Excessive deformations cause user discomfort, damage to adjacent structural members, and may ultimately lead to issues in structural safety. However, direct long-term monitoring of the deformed shape in real-life settings is challenging, and an alternative is indirect determination of the deformed shape based on curvature monitoring. The challenge of the latter is an accurate evaluation of error in the deformed shape determination, which is directly correlated with the number of sensors needed to achieve the desired accuracy. The aim of this paper is to study the deformed shape evaluated by numerical double integration of the monitored curvature distribution along the beam, and create a method to predict the associated errors and suggest the number of sensors needed to achieve the desired accuracy. The error due to the accuracy in the curvature measurement is evaluated within the scope of this work. Additionally, the error due to the numerical integration is evaluated. This error depends on the load case (i.e., the shape of the curvature diagram), the magnitude of curvature, and the density of the sensor network. The method is tested on a laboratory specimen and a real structure. In a laboratory setting, the double integration is in excellent agreement with the beam theory solution which was within the predicted error limits of the numerical integration. Consistent results are also achieved on a real structure—Streicker Bridge on Princeton University campus.
Impedance-based analysis and study of phase sensitivity in slow-wave two-beam accelerators
Wurtele, J.S.; Whittum, D.H.; Sessler, A.M.
1992-06-01
This paper presents a new formalism which makes the analysis and understanding of both the relativistic klystron (RK) and the standing-wave free-electron laser (SWFEL) two-beam accelerator (TBA) available to a wide audience of accelerator physicists. A ``coupling impedance`` for both the RK and SWFEWL is introduced, which can include realistic cavity features, such as beam and vacuum ports, in a simple manner. The RK and SWFEL macroparticle equations, which govern the energy and phase evolution of successive bunches in the beam, are of identical form, differing only by multiplicative factors. Expressions are derived for the phase and amplitude sensitivities of the TBA schemes to errors (shot-to-shot jitter) in current and energy. The analysis allows, for the first time, relative comparisons of the RK and the SWFEL TBAs.
Impedance-based analysis and study of phase sensitivity in slow-wave two-beam accelerators
Wurtele, J.S. ); Whittum, D.H. , Tsukuba, Oho, Ibaraki, 305 ); Sessler, A.M. )
1992-07-01
This paper presents a new formalism which makes the analysis and understanding of both the relativistic klystron (RK) and the standing-wave free-electron laser (SWFEL) two-beam accelerator (TBA) available to a wide audience of accelerator physicists. A coupling impedance'' for both the RK and SWFEWL is introduced, which can include realistic cavity features, such as beam and vacuum ports, in a simple manner. The RK and SWFEL macroparticle equations, which govern the energy and phase evolution of successive bunches in the beam, are of identical form, differing only by multiplicative factors. Expressions are derived for the phase and amplitude sensitivities of the TBA schemes to errors (shot-to-shot jitter) in current and energy. The analysis allows, for the first time, relative comparisons of the RK and the SWFEL TBAs.
Vidovic, Luka; Majaron, Boris
2014-02-01
Diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) of biological samples are commonly measured using an integrating sphere (IS). To account for the incident light spectrum, measurement begins by placing a highly reflective white standard against the IS sample opening and collecting the reflected light. After replacing the white standard with the test sample of interest, DRS of the latter is determined as the ratio of the two values at each involved wavelength. However, such a substitution may alter the fluence rate inside the IS. This leads to distortion of measured DRS, which is known as single-beam substitution error (SBSE). Barring the use of more complex experimental setups, the literature states that only approximate corrections of the SBSE are possible, e.g., by using look-up tables generated with calibrated low-reflectivity standards. We present a practical method for elimination of SBSE when using IS equipped with an additional reference port. Two additional measurements performed at this port enable a rigorous elimination of SBSE. Our experimental characterization of SBSE is replicated by theoretical derivation. This offers an alternative possibility of computational removal of SBSE based on advance characterization of a specific DRS setup. The influence of SBSE on quantitative analysis of DRS is illustrated in one application example.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heck, Martijn J. R.
2016-06-01
Technologies for efficient generation and fast scanning of narrow free-space laser beams find major applications in three-dimensional (3D) imaging and mapping, like Lidar for remote sensing and navigation, and secure free-space optical communications. The ultimate goal for such a system is to reduce its size, weight, and power consumption, so that it can be mounted on, e.g. drones and autonomous cars. Moreover, beam scanning should ideally be done at video frame rates, something that is beyond the capabilities of current opto-mechanical systems. Photonic integrated circuit (PIC) technology holds the promise of achieving low-cost, compact, robust and energy-efficient complex optical systems. PICs integrate, for example, lasers, modulators, detectors, and filters on a single piece of semiconductor, typically silicon or indium phosphide, much like electronic integrated circuits. This technology is maturing fast, driven by high-bandwidth communications applications, and mature fabrication facilities. State-of-the-art commercial PICs integrate hundreds of elements, and the integration of thousands of elements has been shown in the laboratory. Over the last few years, there has been a considerable research effort to integrate beam steering systems on a PIC, and various beam steering demonstrators based on optical phased arrays have been realized. Arrays of up to thousands of coherent emitters, including their phase and amplitude control, have been integrated, and various applications have been explored. In this review paper, I will present an overview of the state of the art of this technology and its opportunities, illustrated by recent breakthroughs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heck, Martijn J. R.
2017-01-01
Technologies for efficient generation and fast scanning of narrow free-space laser beams find major applications in three-dimensional (3D) imaging and mapping, like Lidar for remote sensing and navigation, and secure free-space optical communications. The ultimate goal for such a system is to reduce its size, weight, and power consumption, so that it can be mounted on, e.g. drones and autonomous cars. Moreover, beam scanning should ideally be done at video frame rates, something that is beyond the capabilities of current opto-mechanical systems. Photonic integrated circuit (PIC) technology holds the promise of achieving low-cost, compact, robust and energy-efficient complex optical systems. PICs integrate, for example, lasers, modulators, detectors, and filters on a single piece of semiconductor, typically silicon or indium phosphide, much like electronic integrated circuits. This technology is maturing fast, driven by high-bandwidth communications applications, and mature fabrication facilities. State-of-the-art commercial PICs integrate hundreds of elements, and the integration of thousands of elements has been shown in the laboratory. Over the last few years, there has been a considerable research effort to integrate beam steering systems on a PIC, and various beam steering demonstrators based on optical phased arrays have been realized. Arrays of up to thousands of coherent emitters, including their phase and amplitude control, have been integrated, and various applications have been explored. In this review paper, I will present an overview of the state of the art of this technology and its opportunities, illustrated by recent breakthroughs.
Errors and uncertainties in the measurement of ultrasonic wave attenuation and phase velocity.
Kalashnikov, Alexander N; Challis, Richard E
2005-10-01
This paper presents an analysis of the error generation mechanisms that affect the accuracy of measurements of ultrasonic wave attenuation coefficient and phase velocity as functions of frequency. In the first stage of the analysis we show that electronic system noise, expressed in the frequency domain, maps into errors in the attenuation and the phase velocity spectra in a highly nonlinear way; the condition for minimum error is when the total measured attenuation is around 1 Neper. The maximum measurable total attenuation has a practical limit of around 6 Nepers and the minimum measurable value is around 0.1 Neper. In the second part of the paper we consider electronic noise as the primary source of measurement error; errors in attenuation result from additive noise whereas errors in phase velocity result from both additive noise and system timing jitter. Quantization noise can be neglected if the amplitude of the additive noise is comparable with the quantization step, and coherent averaging is employed. Experimental results are presented which confirm the relationship between electronic noise and measurement errors. The analytical technique is applicable to the design of ultrasonic spectrometers, formal assessment of the accuracy of ultrasonic measurements, and the optimization of signal processing procedures to achieve a specified accuracy.
Balancing the Lifetime and Storage Overhead on Error Correction for Phase Change Memory
An, Ning; Wang, Rui; Gao, Yuan; Yang, Hailong; Qian, Depei
2015-01-01
As DRAM is facing the scaling difficulty in terms of energy cost and reliability, some nonvolatile storage materials were proposed to be the substitute or supplement of main memory. Phase Change Memory (PCM) is one of the most promising nonvolatile memory that could be put into use in the near future. However, before becoming a qualified main memory technology, PCM should be designed reliably so that it can ensure the computer system’s stable running even when errors occur. The typical wear-out errors in PCM have been well studied, but the transient errors, that caused by high-energy particles striking on the complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuit of PCM chips or by resistance drifting in multi-level cell PCM, have attracted little focus. In this paper, we propose an innovative mechanism, Local-ECC-Global-ECPs (LEGE), which addresses both soft errors and hard errors (wear-out errors) in PCM memory systems. Our idea is to deploy a local error correction code (ECC) section to every data line, which can detect and correct one-bit errors immediately, and a global error correction pointers (ECPs) buffer for the whole memory chip, which can be reloaded to correct more hard error bits. The local ECC is used to detect and correct the unknown one-bit errors, and the global ECPs buffer is used to store the corrected value of hard errors. In comparison to ECP-6, our method provides almost identical lifetimes, but reduces approximately 50% storage overhead. Moreover, our structure reduces approximately 3.55% access latency overhead by increasing 1.61% storage overhead compared to PAYG, a hard error only solution. PMID:26158524
Balancing the Lifetime and Storage Overhead on Error Correction for Phase Change Memory.
An, Ning; Wang, Rui; Gao, Yuan; Yang, Hailong; Qian, Depei
2015-01-01
As DRAM is facing the scaling difficulty in terms of energy cost and reliability, some nonvolatile storage materials were proposed to be the substitute or supplement of main memory. Phase Change Memory (PCM) is one of the most promising nonvolatile memory that could be put into use in the near future. However, before becoming a qualified main memory technology, PCM should be designed reliably so that it can ensure the computer system's stable running even when errors occur. The typical wear-out errors in PCM have been well studied, but the transient errors, that caused by high-energy particles striking on the complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuit of PCM chips or by resistance drifting in multi-level cell PCM, have attracted little focus. In this paper, we propose an innovative mechanism, Local-ECC-Global-ECPs (LEGE), which addresses both soft errors and hard errors (wear-out errors) in PCM memory systems. Our idea is to deploy a local error correction code (ECC) section to every data line, which can detect and correct one-bit errors immediately, and a global error correction pointers (ECPs) buffer for the whole memory chip, which can be reloaded to correct more hard error bits. The local ECC is used to detect and correct the unknown one-bit errors, and the global ECPs buffer is used to store the corrected value of hard errors. In comparison to ECP-6, our method provides almost identical lifetimes, but reduces approximately 50% storage overhead. Moreover, our structure reduces approximately 3.55% access latency overhead by increasing 1.61% storage overhead compared to PAYG, a hard error only solution.
Effect of the spiral phase element on the radial-polarization (0, 1) ∗ LG beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Machavariani, G.; Lumer, Y.; Moshe, I.; Jackel, S.
2007-03-01
Radially-polarized beams can be strongly amplified without significant birefringent-induced aberrations. However, radially-polarized beam is a high-order beam, and therefore has to be transformed into a fundamental Gaussian beam for reduction the beam-propagation factor M2. In effort to transform the radially-polarized beam to a nearly-Gaussian beam, we consider effect of a spiral phase element (SPE) on the Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) (0, 1)∗ beam with radial polarization, and compare this with the case when the input beam is a LG (0, 1)∗ beam with spiral phase and uniform or random polarization. The LG (0, 1)∗ beam with radial polarization, despite its identity in intensity profile to the beam with spiral phase, has distinctly different properties when interacting with the SPE. With the SPE and spatial filter, we transformed the radially-polarized (0, 1)∗ mode with M2 = 2.8 to a nearly-Gaussian beam with M2 = 1.7. Measured transformation efficiency was 50%, and the beam brightness P/(M2)2 was practically unchanged. The SPE affects polarization state of the radially-polarized beam, leading to appearance of spin angular momentum in the beam center at the far-field.
Liu, Fengwei; Wu, Yongqian; Wu, Fan
2015-04-20
The accuracy of phase-shifting interferometers (PSI) is crippled by nonlinearity of the phase shifter and instability of the environment such as vibration and air turbulence. A general algorithm, utilizing Lissajous figures and ellipse fitting, of correcting the phase extraction error in the phase shifting interferometry is described in this paper. By plotting N against D, where N and D represent the numerator and denominator terms of the phase extraction function (i.e. an arctangent function) respectively, a Lissajous ellipse is created. Once the parameters of the ellipse are determined by ellipse fitting, one can transform the ellipse to a unit circle (ETC). Through this process the phase extraction error caused by random phase shift errors can be corrected successfully. Proposed method is non-iterated, adapts to all phase shifting algorithms (PSAs), and has high accuracy. Some factors that may affect the performance of proposed method are discussed in numerical simulations. Optical experiments are implemented to validate the effectiveness of proposed algorithm.
Interference effects in phased beam tracing using exact half-space solutions.
Boucher, Matthew A; Pluymers, Bert; Desmet, Wim
2016-12-01
Geometrical acoustics provides a correct solution to the wave equation for rectangular rooms with rigid boundaries and is an accurate approximation at high frequencies with nearly hard walls. When interference effects are important, phased geometrical acoustics is employed in order to account for phase shifts due to propagation and reflection. Error increases, however, with more absorption, complex impedance values, grazing incidence, smaller volumes and lower frequencies. Replacing the plane wave reflection coefficient with a spherical one reduces the error but results in slower convergence. Frequency-dependent stopping criteria are then applied to avoid calculating higher order reflections for frequencies that have already converged. Exact half-space solutions are used to derive two additional spherical wave reflection coefficients: (i) the Sommerfeld integral, consisting of a plane wave decomposition of a point source and (ii) a line of image sources located at complex coordinates. Phased beam tracing using exact half-space solutions agrees well with the finite element method for rectangular rooms with absorbing boundaries, at low frequencies and for rooms with different aspect ratios. Results are accurate even for long source-to-receiver distances. Finally, the crossover frequency between the plane and spherical wave reflection coefficients is discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leakeas, Charles L.; Capehart, Shay R.; Bartell, Richard J.; Cusumano, Salvatore J.; Whiteley, Matthew R.
2011-06-01
Laser weapon systems comprised of tiled subapertures are rapidly emerging in importance in the directed energy community. Performance models of these laser weapon systems have been developed from numerical simulations of a high fidelity wave-optics code called WaveTrain which is developed by MZA Associates. System characteristics such as mutual coherence, differential jitter, and beam quality rms wavefront error are defined for a focused beam on the target. Engagement scenarios are defined for various platform and target altitudes, speeds, headings, and slant ranges along with the natural wind speed and heading. Inputs to the performance model include platform and target height and velocities, Fried coherence length, Rytov number, isoplanatic angle, thermal blooming distortion number, Greenwood and Tyler frequencies, and atmospheric transmission. The performance model fit is based on power-in-the-bucket (PIB) values against the PIB from the simulation results for the vacuum diffraction-limited spot size as the bucket. The goal is to develop robust performance models for aperture phase error, turbulence, and thermal blooming effects in tiled subaperture systems.
Silicon ion irradiation effects on the magnetic properties of ion beam synthesized CoPt phase
Balaji, S.; Amirthapandian, S.; Panigrahi, B. K.; Mangamma, G.; Kalavathi, S.; Gupta, Ajay; Nair, K. G. M.
2012-06-05
Ion beam mixing of Pt/Co bilayers using self ion (Pt{sup +}) beam results in formation of CoPt phase. Upon ion beam annealing the ion mixed samples using 4 MeV Si{sup +} ions at 300 deg. C, diffusion of Co towards the Pt/Co interface is observed. The Si{sup +} ion beam rotates the magnetization of the CoPt phase from in plane to out of plane of the film.
Error analysis of cine phase contrast MRI velocity measurements used for strain calculation.
Jensen, Elisabeth R; Morrow, Duane A; Felmlee, Joel P; Odegard, Gregory M; Kaufman, Kenton R
2015-01-02
Cine Phase Contrast (CPC) MRI offers unique insight into localized skeletal muscle behavior by providing the ability to quantify muscle strain distribution during cyclic motion. Muscle strain is obtained by temporally integrating and spatially differentiating CPC-encoded velocity. The aim of this study was to quantify CPC measurement accuracy and precision and to describe error propagation into displacement and strain. Using an MRI-compatible jig to move a B-gel phantom within a 1.5 T MRI bore, CPC-encoded velocities were collected. The three orthogonal encoding gradients (through plane, frequency, and phase) were evaluated independently in post-processing. Two systematic error types were corrected: eddy current-induced bias and calibration-type error. Measurement accuracy and precision were quantified before and after removal of systematic error. Through plane- and frequency-encoded data accuracy were within 0.4 mm/s after removal of systematic error - a 70% improvement over the raw data. Corrected phase-encoded data accuracy was within 1.3 mm/s. Measured random error was between 1 to 1.4 mm/s, which followed the theoretical prediction. Propagation of random measurement error into displacement and strain was found to depend on the number of tracked time segments, time segment duration, mesh size, and dimensional order. To verify this, theoretical predictions were compared to experimentally calculated displacement and strain error. For the parameters tested, experimental and theoretical results aligned well. Random strain error approximately halved with a two-fold mesh size increase, as predicted. Displacement and strain accuracy were within 2.6 mm and 3.3%, respectively. These results can be used to predict the accuracy and precision of displacement and strain in user-specific applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zinchik, Alexander A.; Muzychenko, Yana B.
2015-06-01
This paper discusses theoretical and experimental results of the investigation of light beams that retain their intensity structure during propagation and focusing. Spiral laser beams are a family of laser beams that preserve the structural stability up to scale and rotation with the propagation. Properties of spiral beams are of practical interest for laser technology, medicine and biotechnology. Researchers use a spiral beams for movement and manipulation of microparticles. Functionality laser manipulators can be significantly enhanced by using spiral beams whose intensity remains invariable. It is well known, that these beams has non-zero orbital angular momentum. Spiral beams have a complicated phase distribution in cross section. In this paper we investigate the structural stability of the laser beams having a spiral phase structure by passing them through an inhomogeneous phase medium. Laser beam is passed through a medium is characterized by a random distribution of phase in the range 0..2π. The modeling was performed using VirtualLab 5.0 (manufacturer LightTrans GmbH). Compared the intensity distribution of the spiral and ordinary laser beam after the passage of the inhomogeneous medium. It is shown that the spiral beams exhibit a significantly better structural stability during the passage phase heterogeneous environments than conventional laser beams. The results obtained in the simulation are tested experimentally. Experimental results show good agreement with the theoretical results.
Mirsalehi, M.M.; Guest, C.C.; Gaylord, T.K.
1983-11-15
The use of a holographic content-addressable memory system for parallel truth-table look-up digital data processing is analyzed. For binary-coded residue numbers, the operations of 4-, 8-, 12-, and 16-bit addition and multiplication are treated. The minimum probability of error that can be achieved and the corresponding detector threshold settings are determined in each case allowing for the effects of gaussian distributions in the amplitude and the phase in the recording beams. Resultant probabilities of error for practical conditions are found to be very competitive with those from state-of-the-art nonparallel technologies. 17 references.
MacDonald, M. Ethan; Forkert, Nils D.; Pike, G. Bruce; Frayne, Richard
2016-01-01
Purpose Volume flow rate (VFR) measurements based on phase contrast (PC)-magnetic resonance (MR) imaging datasets have spatially varying bias due to eddy current induced phase errors. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of phase errors in time averaged PC-MR imaging of the cerebral vasculature and explore the effects of three common correction schemes (local bias correction (LBC), local polynomial correction (LPC), and whole brain polynomial correction (WBPC)). Methods Measurements of the eddy current induced phase error from a static phantom were first obtained. In thirty healthy human subjects, the methods were then assessed in background tissue to determine if local phase offsets could be removed. Finally, the techniques were used to correct VFR measurements in cerebral vessels and compared statistically. Results In the phantom, phase error was measured to be <2.1 ml/s per pixel and the bias was reduced with the correction schemes. In background tissue, the bias was significantly reduced, by 65.6% (LBC), 58.4% (LPC) and 47.7% (WBPC) (p < 0.001 across all schemes). Correction did not lead to significantly different VFR measurements in the vessels (p = 0.997). In the vessel measurements, the three correction schemes led to flow measurement differences of -0.04 ± 0.05 ml/s, 0.09 ± 0.16 ml/s, and -0.02 ± 0.06 ml/s. Although there was an improvement in background measurements with correction, there was no statistical difference between the three correction schemes (p = 0.242 in background and p = 0.738 in vessels). Conclusions While eddy current induced phase errors can vary between hardware and sequence configurations, our results showed that the impact is small in a typical brain PC-MR protocol and does not have a significant effect on VFR measurements in cerebral vessels. PMID:26910600
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kurashima, Satoshi; Yuyama, Takahiro; Miyawaki, Nobumasa; Kashiwagi, Hirotsugu; Okumura, Susumu; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro
2010-03-01
We have developed a new technique for analysis and control of the acceleration beam phase in the cyclotron. In this technique, the beam current pattern at a fixed radius r is measured by slightly scanning the acceleration frequency in the cyclotron. The acceleration beam phase is obtained by analyzing symmetry of the current pattern. Simple procedure to control the acceleration beam phase by changing coil currents of a few trim coils was established. The beam phase width is also obtained by analyzing gradient of the decreasing part of the current pattern. We verified reliability of this technique with 260 MeV N20e7+ beams which were accelerated on different tuning condition of the cyclotron. When the acceleration beam phase was around 0°, top of the energy gain of cosine wave, and the beam phase width was about 6° in full width at half maximum, a clear turn pattern of the beam was observed with a differential beam probe in the extraction region. Beam phase widths of ion beams at acceleration harmonics of h =1 and h =2 were estimated without beam cutting by phase-defining slits. We also calculated the beam phase widths roughly from the beam current ratio between the injected beam and the accelerated beam in the cyclotron without operating the beam buncher. Both beam phase widths were almost the same for h =1, while phase compressions by a factor of about 3 were confirmed for h =2.
Kurashima, Satoshi; Yuyama, Takahiro; Miyawaki, Nobumasa; Kashiwagi, Hirotsugu; Okumura, Susumu; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro
2010-03-15
We have developed a new technique for analysis and control of the acceleration beam phase in the cyclotron. In this technique, the beam current pattern at a fixed radius r is measured by slightly scanning the acceleration frequency in the cyclotron. The acceleration beam phase is obtained by analyzing symmetry of the current pattern. Simple procedure to control the acceleration beam phase by changing coil currents of a few trim coils was established. The beam phase width is also obtained by analyzing gradient of the decreasing part of the current pattern. We verified reliability of this technique with 260 MeV {sup 20}Ne{sup 7+} beams which were accelerated on different tuning condition of the cyclotron. When the acceleration beam phase was around 0 deg., top of the energy gain of cosine wave, and the beam phase width was about 6 deg. in full width at half maximum, a clear turn pattern of the beam was observed with a differential beam probe in the extraction region. Beam phase widths of ion beams at acceleration harmonics of h=1 and h=2 were estimated without beam cutting by phase-defining slits. We also calculated the beam phase widths roughly from the beam current ratio between the injected beam and the accelerated beam in the cyclotron without operating the beam buncher. Both beam phase widths were almost the same for h=1, while phase compressions by a factor of about 3 were confirmed for h=2.
Phase Rotation of Muon Beams for Producing Intense Low-Energy Muon Beams
Neuffer, D.; Bao, Y.; Hansen, G.
2016-01-01
Low-energy muon beams are useful for rare decay searches, which provide access to new physics that cannot be addressed at high-energy colliders. However, muons are produced within a broad energy spread unmatched to the low-energy required. In this paper we outline a phase rotation method to significantly increase the intensity of low-energy muons. The muons are produced from a short pulsed proton driver, and develop a time-momentum correlation in a drift space following production. A series of rf cavities is used to bunch the muons and phase-energy rotate the bunches to a momentum of around 100 MeV/c. Then another group of rf cavities is used to decelerate the muon bunches to low-energy. This obtains ~0.1 muon per 8 GeV proton, which is significantly higher than currently planned Mu2e experiments, and would enable a next generation of rare decay searches, and other intense muon beam applications.
Modulation error in active-aperture phased-array radar systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belcher, M. L.; Howard, R. L.; Mitchell, M. A.
Range sidelobe (RSL) suppression is presently treated in the context of active arrays that are defined by a phased-array antenna, which is driven by either distributed solid-state element-level modules or tube-driven subarray-level transmitters and receivers. An account is given of the basic methodology for achievement of low-RSL performance in active arrays, using modulation-error compensation. Attention is given to the performance limits imposed by modulation-error decorrelation and noise-limited error characterization.
Twist phase-induced reduction in scintillation of a partially coherent beam in turbulent atmosphere.
Wang, Fei; Cai, Yangjian; Eyyuboğlu, Halil T; Baykal, Yahya
2012-01-15
The scintillation index of a Gaussian Schell-model beam with twist phase (i.e., twisted GSM beam) in weak turbulent atmosphere is formulated with the help of a tensor method. Variations of the scintillation index of a twisted GSM beam on propagation in turbulent atmosphere are studied in detail. It is interesting to find that the scintillation index of a twisted GSM beam can be smaller than that without twist phase in weak turbulent atmosphere. Thus, modulation of the twist phase of a partially coherent beam provides a new way to reduce turbulence-induced scintillation.
Efficient generation of Hermite-Gauss and Ince-Gauss beams through kinoform phase elements.
Aguirre-Olivas, Dilia; Mellado-Villaseñor, Gabriel; Sánchez-de-la-Llave, David; Arrizón, Victor
2015-10-01
We discuss the generation of Hermite-Gauss and Ince-Gauss beams employing phase elements whose transmittances coincide with the phase modulations of such beams. A scaled version of the desired field appears, distorted by marginal optical noise, at the element's Fourier domain. The motivation to perform this study is that, in the context of the proposed approach, the desired beams are generated with the maximum possible efficiency. A disadvantage of the method is the distortion of the desired beams by the influence of several nondesired beam modes generated by the phase elements. We evaluate such distortion employing the root mean square deviation as a figure of merit.
Phase errors elimination in compact digital holoscope (CDH) based on a reasonable mathematical model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wen, Yongfu; Qu, Weijuan; Cheng, Cheeyuen; Wang, Zhaomin; Asundi, Anand
2015-03-01
In the compact digital holoscope (CDH) measurement process, theoretically, we need to ensure the distances between the reference wave and object wave to the hologram plane exactly match. However, it is not easy to realize in practice due to the human factors. This can lead to a phase error in the reconstruction result. In this paper, the strict theoretical analysis of the wavefront interference is performed to demonstrate the mathematical model of the phase error and then a phase errors elimination method is proposed based on the advanced mathematical model, which has a more explicit physical meaning. Experiments are carried out to verify the performance of the presented method and the results indicate that it is effective and allows the operator can make operation more flexible.
Bidimensional phase-varying metamaterial for steering beam antenna
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ourir, Abdelwaheb; Burokur, Shah Nawaz; de Lustrac, André
2007-05-01
Dielectric substrates supporting planar periodic subwavelength metamaterial-based metallic arrays and presenting frequency dispersive phase characteristics are applied to ultra-compact high-gain and high-directivity planar antennas. In this paper, different models of metamaterial-based surfaces introducing a zero degree reflection phase shift to incident waves are firstly studied numerically using finite-element method analysis where the bandwidth and operation frequency are predicted. These surfaces are then applied in a resonant Fabry-Perot type cavity and a ray optics analysis is used to design different models of ultra-compact high-gain microstrip printed antennas. Firstly, a cavity antenna of thickness λ/60 based on the use of a microstrip patch antenna and two bidimensional metamaterial-based surfaces, the first one acting as a High Impedance Surface (HIS) and the second one acting as a Partially Reflecting Surface (PRS) is designed. This cavity is then optimized for easier fabrication process and loss reduction by the use of only one bidimensionnal composite metamaterial-based surface acting as a PRS. Secondly, another surface presenting a variable phase by the use of a non periodic metamaterial-based metallic strips array is designed for a passive low-profile steering beam antenna application. Finally, a switchable operation frequency cavity by the implementation of varicap diodes is designed and fabricated. All these cavity antennas operate on subwavelength modes, the smallest cavity thickness being of the order of λ/60.
Wolf, Zane Robinson; Hicks, Rodney; Serembus, Joanne Farley
2006-01-01
Faculty concentrate on teaching nursing students about safe medication administration practices and on challenging them to develop skills for calculating drug dose and intravenous flow rate problems. In spite of these efforts, students make medication errors and little is known about the attributes of these errors. Therefore, this descriptive, retrospective, secondary analysis study examined the characteristics of medication errors made by nursing students during the administration phase of the medication use process as reported to the MEDMARX, a database operated by the United States Pharmacopeia through the Patient Safety Program. Fewer than 3% of 1,305 student-made medication errors occurring in the administration process resulted in patient harm. Most were omission errors, followed by errors of giving the wrong dose (amount) of a drug. The most prevalent cause of the errors was students' performance deficits, whereas inexperience and distractions were leading contributing factors. The antimicrobial therapeutic class of drugs and the 10 subcategories within this class were the most commonly reported medications involved. Insulin was the highest-frequency single medication reported. Overall, this study shows that students' administration errors may be more frequent than suspected. Faculty might consider curriculum revisions that incorporate medication use safety throughout each course in nursing major courses.
Digital Mirror Device Application in Reduction of Wave-front Phase Errors
Zhang, Yaping; Liu, Yan; Wang, Shuxue
2009-01-01
In order to correct the image distortion created by the mixing/shear layer, creative and effectual correction methods are necessary. First, a method combining adaptive optics (AO) correction with a digital micro-mirror device (DMD) is presented. Second, performance of an AO system using the Phase Diverse Speckle (PDS) principle is characterized in detail. Through combining the DMD method with PDS, a significant reduction in wavefront phase error is achieved in simulations and experiments. This kind of complex correction principle can be used to recovery the degraded images caused by unforeseen error sources. PMID:22574016
Time-delayed directional beam phased array antenna
Fund, Douglas Eugene; Cable, John William; Cecil, Tony Myron
2004-10-19
An antenna comprising a phased array of quadrifilar helix or other multifilar antenna elements and a time-delaying feed network adapted to feed the elements. The feed network can employ a plurality of coaxial cables that physically bridge a microstrip feed circuitry to feed power signals to the elements. The cables provide an incremental time delay which is related to their physical lengths, such that replacing cables having a first set of lengths with cables having a second set of lengths functions to change the time delay and shift or steer the antenna's main beam. Alternatively, the coaxial cables may be replaced with a programmable signal processor unit adapted to introduce the time delay using signal processing techniques applied to the power signals.
Multiple beam phased array for Space Station Control Zone Communications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Halsema, P. B.
The Space Station Communications Control Zone is a disk shaped region 40 nautical miles in diameter and 10 nautical miles thick centered about the Space Station. It is estimated that 6 simultaneous Multiple Access (MA) channels will be required to satisfy the projected communications needs within this zone. These channels will be used to communicate with MA users located anywhere within the Control Zone. This paper details the tradeoffs and design implementation of a multiple beam integrated phased array to provide antenna coverage of the Control Zone. The array is a compact, modular assembly using Gallium Arsenide circuits, microstrip elements, and advanced packaging techniques. This results in a small, reliable antenna system capable of meeting the projected Space Station requirements and flexible enough to grow and evolve as the Space Station communications needs develop.
Lundquist, J. K.; Churchfield, M. J.; Lee, S.; Clifton, A.
2015-02-23
Wind-profiling lidars are now regularly used in boundary-layer meteorology and in applications such as wind energy and air quality. Lidar wind profilers exploit the Doppler shift of laser light backscattered from particulates carried by the wind to measure a line-of-sight (LOS) velocity. The Doppler beam swinging (DBS) technique, used by many commercial systems, considers measurements of this LOS velocity in multiple radial directions in order to estimate horizontal and vertical winds. The method relies on the assumption of homogeneous flow across the region sampled by the beams. Using such a system in inhomogeneous flow, such as wind turbine wakes or complex terrain, will result in errors.
To quantify the errors expected from such violation of the assumption of horizontal homogeneity, we simulate inhomogeneous flow in the atmospheric boundary layer, notably stably stratified flow past a wind turbine, with a mean wind speed of 6.5 m s^{-1} at the turbine hub-height of 80 m. This slightly stable case results in 15° of wind direction change across the turbine rotor disk. The resulting flow field is sampled in the same fashion that a lidar samples the atmosphere with the DBS approach, including the lidar range weighting function, enabling quantification of the error in the DBS observations. The observations from the instruments located upwind have small errors, which are ameliorated with time averaging. However, the downwind observations, particularly within the first two rotor diameters downwind from the wind turbine, suffer from errors due to the heterogeneity of the wind turbine wake. Errors in the stream-wise component of the flow approach 30% of the hub-height inflow wind speed close to the rotor disk. Errors in the cross-stream and vertical velocity components are also significant: cross-stream component errors are on the order of 15% of the hub-height inflow wind speed (1.0 m s^{−1}) and errors in the vertical velocity measurement
Lundquist, J. K.; Churchfield, M. J.; Lee, S.; ...
2015-02-23
Wind-profiling lidars are now regularly used in boundary-layer meteorology and in applications such as wind energy and air quality. Lidar wind profilers exploit the Doppler shift of laser light backscattered from particulates carried by the wind to measure a line-of-sight (LOS) velocity. The Doppler beam swinging (DBS) technique, used by many commercial systems, considers measurements of this LOS velocity in multiple radial directions in order to estimate horizontal and vertical winds. The method relies on the assumption of homogeneous flow across the region sampled by the beams. Using such a system in inhomogeneous flow, such as wind turbine wakes ormore » complex terrain, will result in errors. To quantify the errors expected from such violation of the assumption of horizontal homogeneity, we simulate inhomogeneous flow in the atmospheric boundary layer, notably stably stratified flow past a wind turbine, with a mean wind speed of 6.5 m s-1 at the turbine hub-height of 80 m. This slightly stable case results in 15° of wind direction change across the turbine rotor disk. The resulting flow field is sampled in the same fashion that a lidar samples the atmosphere with the DBS approach, including the lidar range weighting function, enabling quantification of the error in the DBS observations. The observations from the instruments located upwind have small errors, which are ameliorated with time averaging. However, the downwind observations, particularly within the first two rotor diameters downwind from the wind turbine, suffer from errors due to the heterogeneity of the wind turbine wake. Errors in the stream-wise component of the flow approach 30% of the hub-height inflow wind speed close to the rotor disk. Errors in the cross-stream and vertical velocity components are also significant: cross-stream component errors are on the order of 15% of the hub-height inflow wind speed (1.0 m s−1) and errors in the vertical velocity measurement exceed the actual
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lundquist, J. K.; Churchfield, M. J.; Lee, S.; Clifton, A.
2015-02-01
Wind-profiling lidars are now regularly used in boundary-layer meteorology and in applications such as wind energy and air quality. Lidar wind profilers exploit the Doppler shift of laser light backscattered from particulates carried by the wind to measure a line-of-sight (LOS) velocity. The Doppler beam swinging (DBS) technique, used by many commercial systems, considers measurements of this LOS velocity in multiple radial directions in order to estimate horizontal and vertical winds. The method relies on the assumption of homogeneous flow across the region sampled by the beams. Using such a system in inhomogeneous flow, such as wind turbine wakes or complex terrain, will result in errors. To quantify the errors expected from such violation of the assumption of horizontal homogeneity, we simulate inhomogeneous flow in the atmospheric boundary layer, notably stably stratified flow past a wind turbine, with a mean wind speed of 6.5 m s-1 at the turbine hub-height of 80 m. This slightly stable case results in 15° of wind direction change across the turbine rotor disk. The resulting flow field is sampled in the same fashion that a lidar samples the atmosphere with the DBS approach, including the lidar range weighting function, enabling quantification of the error in the DBS observations. The observations from the instruments located upwind have small errors, which are ameliorated with time averaging. However, the downwind observations, particularly within the first two rotor diameters downwind from the wind turbine, suffer from errors due to the heterogeneity of the wind turbine wake. Errors in the stream-wise component of the flow approach 30% of the hub-height inflow wind speed close to the rotor disk. Errors in the cross-stream and vertical velocity components are also significant: cross-stream component errors are on the order of 15% of the hub-height inflow wind speed (1.0 m s-1) and errors in the vertical velocity measurement exceed the actual vertical velocity
Electromagnetic modeling of beam position and phase monitors for SNS linac
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kurennoy, Sergey S.
2000-11-01
Electromagnetic modeling of the beam position monitors (BPMs) for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) linac has been performed with MAFIA. The signal amplitudes and phases on the BPM electrodes are computed as functions of the beam transverse position using time-domain 3-D simulations with an ultra-relativistic beam. An analytical model is then applied to extrapolate the results to lower beam velocities. It is shown that while the signal phases on the individual electrodes for an off-axis beam can differ from those for a centered beam by a few degrees, the phase of the summed signal from all electrodes is insensitive to the beam transverse position inside the device. Based on the analysis results, an optimal BPM design with 4 one-end-shorted 60-degree electrodes has been chosen. It provides a very good linearity and sufficient signal power for both position and phase measurements, while satisfying the linac geometrical constrains and mechanical requirements.
Kline, J L; Montgomery, D S; Flippo, K A; Johnson, R P; Rose, H A; Shimada, T; Williams, E A
2008-10-01
A short pulse (few picoseconds) laser probe provides high temporal resolution measurements to elucidate details of fast dynamic phenomena not observable with typical longer laser pulse probes and gated diagnostics. Such a short pulse laser probe (SPLP) has been used to measure filamentation of a random phase plate (RPP) smoothed laser beam in a gas-jet plasma. The plasma index of refraction due to driven density and temperature fluctuations by the RPP beam perturbs the phase front of a SPLP propagating at a 90 degree angle with respect to the RPP interaction beam. The density and temperature fluctuations are quasistatic on the time scale of the SPLP (approximately 2 ps). The transmitted near-field intensity distribution from the SPLP provides a measure of the phase front perturbation. At low plasma densities, the transmitted intensity pattern is asymmetric with striations across the entire probe beam in the direction of the RPP smoothed beam. As the plasma density increases, the striations break up into smaller sizes along the direction of the RPP beam propagation. The breakup of the intensity pattern is consistent with self-focusing of the RPP smoothed interaction beam. Simulations of the experiment using the wave propagation code, PF3D, are in qualitative agreement demonstrating that the asymmetric striations can be attributed to the RPP driven density fluctuations. Quantification of the beam breakup measured by the transmitted SPLP could lead to a new method for measuring self-focusing of lasers in underdense plasmas.
Wang, Zhe; Yan, Yan; Arbabi, Amir; Xie, Guodong; Liu, Cong; Zhao, Zhe; Ren, Yongxiong; Li, Long; Ahmed, Nisar; Willner, Asher J; Arbabi, Ehsan; Faraon, Andrei; Bock, Robert; Ashrafi, Solyman; Tur, Moshe; Willner, Alan E
2017-07-15
We demonstrate the generation of orbital angular momentum (OAM) beams using high-efficient polarization-insensitive phase masks. The OAM beams generated by the phase masks are characterized in terms of their tolerance to misalignment (lateral displacement or tilt) between the incident beam and phase mask. For certain scenarios, our results show that (a) when the tilt angle is within the range of -20 to +20 deg, the crosstalk among modes is less than -15 dB; and (b) lateral displacement of 0.3 mm could cause a large amount of power leaked to adjacent modes. Finally, OAM beams generated by the phase masks are demonstrated over a two-channel OAM-multiplexing link, each channel carrying a 40 Gbit/s data stream. An optical signal-to-noise-ratio (OSNR) penalty of ∼1 dB is measured without crosstalk at the bit error rate (BER) of 3.8×10^{-3}. With crosstalk, an OSNR penalty of <1.5 dB is observed at the same BER.
Analysis of wavelength error in spectral phase shifting of digital holographic microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jie; Zhang, Xiangchao; Zhang, Xiaolei; Xiao, Hong; Xu, Min
2016-10-01
Digital holographic microscopy is an attractive technology of precision measurement. Phase shifting is required to correctly reconstruct the measured surfaces from interferograms. Spectral phase shifting scheme, as an alternative approach of phase shifting, has drawn intensive attention in recent years. However, the wavelength modulated by the acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) is not sufficiently precise. As a consequence, severe measurement errors will be caused. In this paper, an iterative calibration algorithm is proposed. It estimates the unknown wavelength errors in the 3-step spectral phase shifting interferometry and then reconstructs the complex object wave. The actual wavelength is obtained by minimizing the difference between the measured and calculated intensities. Numerical examples have demonstrated that this algorithm can achieve very high accuracy over a wide range of wavelengths.
Error Analysis in a Device to Test Optical Systems by Using Ronchi Test and Phase Shifting
Cabrera-Perez, Brasilia; Castro-Ramos, Jorge; Gordiano-Alvarado, Gabriel; Vazquez y Montiel, Sergio
2008-04-15
In optical workshops, Ronchi test is used to determine the optical quality of any concave surface, while it is in the polishing process its quality is verified. The Ronchi test is one of the simplest and most effective methods used for evaluating and measuring aberrations. In this work, we describe a device to test converging mirrors and lenses either with small F/numbers or large F/numbers, using LED (Light-Emitting Diode) that has been adapted in the Ronchi testing as source of illumination. With LED used the radiation angle is bigger than common LED. It uses external power supplies to have well stability intensity to avoid error during the phase shift. The setup also has the advantage to receive automatic input and output data, this is possible because phase shifting interferometry and a square Ronchi ruling with a variable intensity LED were used. Error analysis of the different parameters involved in the test of Ronchi was made. For example, we analyze the error in the shifting of phase, the error introduced by the movement of the motor, misalignments of x-axis, y-axis and z-axis of the surface under test, error in the period of the grid used.
Loran digital phase-locked loop and RF front-end system error analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mccall, D. L.
1979-01-01
An analysis of the system performance of the digital phase locked loops (DPLL) and RF front end that are implemented in the MINI-L4 Loran receiver is presented. Three of the four experiments deal with the performance of the digital phase locked loops. The other experiment deals with the RF front end and DPLL system error which arise in the front end due to poor signal to noise ratios. The ability of the DPLLs to track the offsets is studied.
Creating Ruddlesden-Popper phases by hybrid molecular beam epitaxy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haislmaier, Ryan C.; Stone, Greg; Alem, Nasim; Engel-Herbert, Roman
2016-07-01
The synthesis of a 50 unit cell thick n = 4 Srn+1TinO3n+1 (Sr5Ti4O13) Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) phase film is demonstrated by sequentially depositing SrO and TiO2 layers in an alternating fashion using hybrid molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), where Ti was supplied using titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP). A detailed calibration procedure is outlined for determining the shuttering times to deposit SrO and TiO2 layers with precise monolayer doses using in-situ reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) as feedback. Using optimized Sr and TTIP shuttering times, a fully automated growth of the n = 4 RP phase was carried out over a period of >4.5 h. Very stable RHEED intensity oscillations were observed over the entire growth period. The structural characterization by X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed that a constant periodicity of four SrTiO3 perovskite unit cell blocks separating the double SrO rocksalt layer was maintained throughout the entire film thickness with a very little amount of planar faults oriented perpendicular to the growth front direction. These results illustrate that hybrid MBE is capable of layer-by-layer growth with atomic level precision and excellent flux stability.
Creating Ruddlesden-Popper phases by hybrid molecular beam epitaxy
Haislmaier, Ryan C.; Stone, Greg; Alem, Nasim; Engel-Herbert, Roman
2016-07-25
The synthesis of a 50 unit cell thick n = 4 Sr{sub n+1}Ti{sub n}O{sub 3n+1} (Sr{sub 5}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 13}) Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) phase film is demonstrated by sequentially depositing SrO and TiO{sub 2} layers in an alternating fashion using hybrid molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), where Ti was supplied using titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP). A detailed calibration procedure is outlined for determining the shuttering times to deposit SrO and TiO{sub 2} layers with precise monolayer doses using in-situ reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) as feedback. Using optimized Sr and TTIP shuttering times, a fully automated growth of the n = 4 RP phase was carried out over a period of >4.5 h. Very stable RHEED intensity oscillations were observed over the entire growth period. The structural characterization by X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed that a constant periodicity of four SrTiO{sub 3} perovskite unit cell blocks separating the double SrO rocksalt layer was maintained throughout the entire film thickness with a very little amount of planar faults oriented perpendicular to the growth front direction. These results illustrate that hybrid MBE is capable of layer-by-layer growth with atomic level precision and excellent flux stability.
Combining the switched-beam and beam-steering capabilities in a 2-D phased array antenna system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsai, Yi-Che; Chen, Yin-Bing; Hwang, Ruey-Bing
2016-01-01
This paper presents the development, fabrication, and measurement of a novel beam-forming system consisting of 16 subarray antennas, each containing four aperture-coupled patch antennas, and the application of this system in smart wireless communication systems. The beam patterns of each of the subarray antennas can be switched toward one of nine zones over a half space by adjusting the specific phase delay angles among the four antenna elements. Furthermore, when all subarrays are pointed at the same zone, slightly continuous beam steering in around 1° increments can be achieved by dynamically altering the progressive phase delay angle among the subarrays. Phase angle calibration was implemented by coupling each transmitter output and down converter into the in-phase/quadrature baseband to calculate the correction factor to the weight. In addition, to validate the proposed concepts and the fabricated 2-D phased array antenna system, this study measured the far-field radiation patterns of the aperture-coupled patch array integrated with feeding networks and a phase-calibration system to carefully verify its spatially switched-beam and beam-steering characteristics at a center frequency of 2.4 GHz which can cover the industrial, scientific, and medical band and some long-term evolution applications. In addition, measured results were compared with calculated results, and agreement between them was observed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayasaki, Yoshio
2015-10-01
Some methods for decreasing a measurement error derived from a phase-shifting error for broadband light in phase-shifting low-coherence digital holography are proposed based on theoretical analysis and numerical calculations. It is well-known that an achromatic-phase shifter based on a rotating polarizer drastically decreases the error, but it is found that a small error remains according to the imperfection of the achromatic-phase shifter. It is also found that an ideal achromatic-phase shifter perfectly eliminates the error only when the light source has a symmetrical spectrum. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that a simple linear calibration method decreases the error in a narrow range of optical path differences if a light source with an asymmetrical spectrum is used. Finally, a nonlinear calibration method that can further decrease the error in a wide range of optical path differences is discussed.
Generation of cylindrical vector beams based on common-path interferometer with a vortex phase plate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Yansheng; Yan, Shaohui; Yao, Baoli; Lei, Ming; Min, Junwei; Yu, Xianghua
2016-04-01
Cylindrical vector (CV) beams have found increasing applications in physics, biology, and chemistry. To generate CV beams, interferometric technique is popularly adopted due to its flexibility. However, most interferometric configurations for the generation of CV beams are faced with system instability arising from external disturbance, limiting their practical applications. A common-path interferometer for the generation of radially and azimuthally polarized beams is proposed to improve the system stability. The optical configuration consists of a vortex phase plate acting to tailor the phase profile and a cube nonpolarizing beamsplitter to split the input beam into two components with mirror-like spiral phase distribution. The generated CV beams show a high quality in polarization and exhibit a better stability of beam profile than those obtained by noncommon-path interferometric configurations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ji, X.; Li, X.
2011-07-01
The propagation properties of apertured laser beams with amplitude modulations (AMs) and phase fluctuations (PFs) through atmospheric turbulence are studied in detail both analytically and numerically. The analytical expressions for the average intensity, power in the bucket ( PIB) and Strehl ratio ( S R ) of apertured laser beams with AMs and PFs propagating through atmospheric turbulence are derived. It is found that the worse the phase fluctuation and the higher the amplitude modulation are, the less laser beams are affected by turbulence. Furthermore, apertured Gaussian beams are more sensitive to turbulence than apertured laser beams with AMs and PFs. The average intensity of apertured laser beams with AMs and PFs may be even larger than that of apertured Gaussian beams due to turbulence. In particular, the influence of turbulence on the average maximum intensity of apertured laser beams with PFs and AMs may become serious if an unsuitable truncated parameter is chosen, which should be avoided in practice.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kattawar, G. W.
1980-01-01
The multipole expansion obtained by Morita et al. (1968) of the Gaussian laser beam used to levitate an aerosol particle in order that its complete phase matrix may be measured is compared with that of Tsai and Pogorzelski (1975) in order to demonstrate the effect of the incorrect expansion used by Morita. Errors incurred by the use of an equation in which one side satisfies the scalar wave equation while the other side does not and can be reduced to a plane wave amplitude are calculated as functions of the inverse of the wave number times the beam waist, the wave number times the radial spherical coordinate and the angular spherical coordinate. Errors on the order of a few percent, considered undetectable are obtained in the squared-field amplitudes due to the expansion, however, they are found to become significant (several tens of percent) when the angle is zero. It is concluded that the expansion of Morita should only be used in the regions where the spherical angle is less than 0.01 and its product with the wave number and the radial spherical coordinate is less than unity.
Theoretical modeling on the laser induced effect of liquid crystal optical phased beam steering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Xiaoxian; Wang, Xiangru; Wu, Liang; Tan, Qinggui; Li, Man; Shang, Jiyang; Wu, Shuanghong; Huang, Ziqiang
2017-01-01
Non-mechanical laser beam steering has been reported previously in liquid crystal array devices. To be one of the most promising candidates to be practical non-mechanical laser deflector, its laser induced effect still has few theoretical model. In this paper, we propose a theoretical model to analyze this laser induced effect of LC-OPA to evaluate the deterioration on phased beam steering. The model has three parts: laser induced thermal distribution; temperature dependence of material parameters and beam steering deterioration. After these three steps, the far field of laser beam is obtained to demonstrate the steering performance with the respect to the incident laser beam power and beam waist.
Self-pumped phase conjugation of light beams carrying orbital angular momentum.
Woerdemann, Mike; Alpmann, Christina; Denz, Cornelia
2009-12-07
We investigate the properties of angular momentum carrying vortex beams, reflected by a phase-conjugating mirror. It is shown that a self-pumped photorefractive phase-conjugating mirror is suitable to produce stable, high-fidelity phase conjugation of vortex beams. We prove that the topological charge of the vortex beam is maintained, and thus the angular momentum in the laboratory frame of reference is reversed, as it is expected by the time reversal property of the phase-conjugating mirror. The three dimensional interference pattern in front of the phase-conjugating mirror is studied and applications in optical traps are suggested.
Directional beaming of light from a subwavelength metal slit with phase-gradient metasurfaces.
Zhu, Hua; Yin, Xiang; Chen, Lin; Li, Xun
2017-09-21
In this article, we demonstrate directional beaming of light from a metal nanoslit surrounded with phase-gradient metasurfaces on both sides. Distinct from the grating-based beaming structures, here the momentum mismatch between the surface wave and radiation wave is overcome by the phase-gradient metasurfaces. The deviation angle of the directional beam can be flexibly adjusted by appropriately arranging the phase-gradient of metasurfaces on each side of the nanoslit. The metasurface-based beaming structures also present the ability to operate with high diffraction efficiency and small divergence angle, implying various potential applications in nanophotonics.
Effects on flat-beam generation from space-charge force and beamline errors
Sun, Y.-E.; Kim, K.-J.; Piot, P.; /Fermilab
2005-05-01
The transformation of a round, angular-momentum-dominated electron beam produced in a photoinjector into a flat beam using a transformer composed of three skew-quadrupoles [1] has been developed theoretically [2, 3] and experimentally [4]. In this paper, we present numerical and analytical studies of space-charge forces, and evaluate the corresponding limits on the ratio of vertical-to-horizontal emittances. We also investigate the sensitivities of flat-beam emittances on the quadrupole misalignments in each of the six degrees of freedom.
Method of phase space beam dilution utilizing bounded chaos generated by rf phase modulation
Pham, Alfonse N.; Lee, S. Y.; Ng, K. Y.
2015-12-10
This paper explores the physics of chaos in a localized phase-space region produced by rf phase modulation applied to a double rf system. The study can be exploited to produce rapid particle bunch broadening exhibiting longitudinal particle distribution uniformity. Hamiltonian models and particle-tracking simulations are introduced to understand the mechanism and applicability of controlled particle diffusion. When phase modulation is applied to the double rf system, regions of localized chaos are produced through the disruption and overlapping of parametric resonant islands and configured to be bounded by well-behaved invariant tori to prevent particle loss. The condition of chaoticity and themore » degree of particle dilution can be controlled by the rf parameters. As a result, the method has applications in alleviating adverse space-charge effects in high-intensity beams, particle bunch distribution uniformization, and industrial radiation-effects experiments.« less
The effects of digitizing rate and phase distortion errors on the shock response spectrum
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wise, J. H.
1983-01-01
Some of the methods used for acquisition and digitization of high-frequency transients in the analysis of pyrotechnic events, such as explosive bolts for spacecraft separation, are discussed with respect to the reduction of errors in the computed shock response spectrum. Equations are given for maximum error as a function of the sampling rate, phase distortion, and slew rate, and the effects of the characteristics of the filter used are analyzed. A filter is noted to exhibit good passband amplitude, phase response, and response to a step function is a compromise between the flat passband of the elliptic filter and the phase response of the Bessel filter; it is suggested that it be used with a sampling rate of 10f (5 percent).
Modeling, error analysis, and compensation in phase-shifting surface profilers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Qingying Jim
2011-08-01
Optical metrology techniques have been widely used in geometric dimension and shape measurements due to many features such as non-contact measurement, fast measurement speed, digital data format for computerized analysis and visualization, superior resolution, and high accuracy, etc. Among these techniques, phase-shifting based surface profilers have drawn more and more attention due to its full-field measurement and maturing wrapping/unwrapping analysis characteristics. This paper analyzes the error sources in phase-shifting surface profilers, including phaseshifting generation, non-linearity compensation, phase-shifting algorithms, surface contour extraction, modeling, and calibration, etc. Some methods to improve the measurement accuracy through coordinate error compensation are also proposed including transfer functions and look-up table (LUT) methods.
Efficiency pedestal in quasi-phase-matching devices with random duty-cycle errors.
Pelc, J S; Phillips, C R; Chang, D; Langrock, C; Fejer, M M
2011-03-15
It is shown that random duty-cycle errors in quasi-phase-matching (QPM) nonlinear optical devices enhance the efficiency of processes far from the QPM peak. An analytical theory is shown to agree well with numerical solutions of second-harmonic generation (SHG) in disordered QPM gratings. The measured efficiency of 1550 nm band SHG in a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide away from the QPM peak agrees with observations of domain disorder in a PPLN wafer by Zygo interferometry. If suppression of parasitic nonlinear interactions is important in a specific application of QPM devices, control of random duty-cycle errors is critical.
Environment-assisted error correction of single-qubit phase damping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trendelkamp-Schroer, Benjamin; Helm, Julius; Strunz, Walter T.
2011-12-01
Open quantum system dynamics of random unitary type may in principle be fully undone. Closely following the scheme of environment-assisted error correction proposed by Gregoratti and Werner [J. Mod. Opt.10.1080/09500340308234541 50, 915 (2003)], we explicitly carry out all steps needed to invert a phase-damping error on a single qubit. Furthermore, we extend the scheme to a mixed-state environment. Surprisingly, we find cases for which the uncorrected state is closer to the desired state than any of the corrected ones.
Transmitted wavefront error of a volume phase holographic grating at cryogenic temperature.
Lee, David; Taylor, Gordon D; Baillie, Thomas E C; Montgomery, David
2012-06-01
This paper describes the results of transmitted wavefront error (WFE) measurements on a volume phase holographic (VPH) grating operating at a temperature of 120 K. The VPH grating was mounted in a cryogenically compatible optical mount and tested in situ in a cryostat. The nominal root mean square (RMS) wavefront error at room temperature was 19 nm measured over a 50 mm diameter test aperture. The WFE remained at 18 nm RMS when the grating was cooled. This important result demonstrates that excellent WFE performance can be obtained with cooled VPH gratings, as required for use in future cryogenic infrared astronomical spectrometers planned for the European Extremely Large Telescope.
Optimization of finite-size errors in finite-temperature calculations of unordered phases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iyer, Deepak; Srednicki, Mark; Rigol, Marcos
It is common knowledge that the microcanonical, canonical, and grand canonical ensembles are equivalent in thermodynamically large systems. Here, we study finite-size effects in the latter two ensembles. We show that contrary to naive expectations, finite-size errors are exponentially small in grand canonical ensemble calculations of translationally invariant systems in unordered phases at finite temperature. Open boundary conditions and canonical ensemble calculations suffer from finite-size errors that are only polynomially small in the system size. We further show that finite-size effects are generally smallest in numerical linked cluster expansions. Our conclusions are supported by analytical and numerical analyses of classical and quantum systems.
Optimization of finite-size errors in finite-temperature calculations of unordered phases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iyer, Deepak; Srednicki, Mark; Rigol, Marcos
2015-06-01
It is common knowledge that the microcanonical, canonical, and grand-canonical ensembles are equivalent in thermodynamically large systems. Here, we study finite-size effects in the latter two ensembles. We show that contrary to naive expectations, finite-size errors are exponentially small in grand canonical ensemble calculations of translationally invariant systems in unordered phases at finite temperature. Open boundary conditions and canonical ensemble calculations suffer from finite-size errors that are only polynomially small in the system size. We further show that finite-size effects are generally smallest in numerical linked cluster expansions. Our conclusions are supported by analytical and numerical analyses of classical and quantum systems.
Environment-assisted error correction of single-qubit phase damping
Trendelkamp-Schroer, Benjamin; Helm, Julius; Strunz, Walter T.
2011-12-15
Open quantum system dynamics of random unitary type may in principle be fully undone. Closely following the scheme of environment-assisted error correction proposed by Gregoratti and Werner [J. Mod. Opt. 50, 915 (2003)], we explicitly carry out all steps needed to invert a phase-damping error on a single qubit. Furthermore, we extend the scheme to a mixed-state environment. Surprisingly, we find cases for which the uncorrected state is closer to the desired state than any of the corrected ones.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Camp, Charles H., Jr.; Lee, Young Jong; Cicerone, Marcus T.
2016-04-01
Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microspectroscopy has demonstrated significant potential for biological and materials imaging. To date, however, the primary mechanism of disseminating CARS spectroscopic information is through pseudocolor imagery, which explicitly neglects a vast majority of the hyperspectral data. Furthermore, current paradigms in CARS spectral processing do not lend themselves to quantitative sample-to-sample comparability. The primary limitation stems from the need to accurately measure the so-called nonresonant background (NRB) that is used to extract the chemically-sensitive Raman information from the raw spectra. Measurement of the NRB on a pixel-by-pixel basis is a nontrivial task; thus, reference NRB from glass or water are typically utilized, resulting in error between the actual and estimated amplitude and phase. In this manuscript, we present a new methodology for extracting the Raman spectral features that significantly suppresses these errors through phase detrending and scaling. Classic methods of error-correction, such as baseline detrending, are demonstrated to be inaccurate and to simply mask the underlying errors. The theoretical justification is presented by re-developing the theory of phase retrieval via the Kramers-Kronig relation, and we demonstrate that these results are also applicable to maximum entropy method-based phase retrieval. This new error-correction approach is experimentally applied to glycerol spectra and tissue images, demonstrating marked consistency between spectra obtained using different NRB estimates, and between spectra obtained on different instruments. Additionally, in order to facilitate implementation of these approaches, we have made many of the tools described herein available free for download.
Camp, Charles H.; Lee, Young Jong; Cicerone, Marcus T.
2017-01-01
Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microspectroscopy has demonstrated significant potential for biological and materials imaging. To date, however, the primary mechanism of disseminating CARS spectroscopic information is through pseudocolor imagery, which explicitly neglects a vast majority of the hyperspectral data. Furthermore, current paradigms in CARS spectral processing do not lend themselves to quantitative sample-to-sample comparability. The primary limitation stems from the need to accurately measure the so-called nonresonant background (NRB) that is used to extract the chemically-sensitive Raman information from the raw spectra. Measurement of the NRB on a pixel-by-pixel basis is a nontrivial task; thus, reference NRB from glass or water are typically utilized, resulting in error between the actual and estimated amplitude and phase. In this manuscript, we present a new methodology for extracting the Raman spectral features that significantly suppresses these errors through phase detrending and scaling. Classic methods of error-correction, such as baseline detrending, are demonstrated to be inaccurate and to simply mask the underlying errors. The theoretical justification is presented by re-developing the theory of phase retrieval via the Kramers-Kronig relation, and we demonstrate that these results are also applicable to maximum entropy method-based phase retrieval. This new error-correction approach is experimentally applied to glycerol spectra and tissue images, demonstrating marked consistency between spectra obtained using different NRB estimates, and between spectra obtained on different instruments. Additionally, in order to facilitate implementation of these approaches, we have made many of the tools described herein available free for download. PMID:28819335
Electron Beam Propagation Through a Magnetic Wiggler with Random Field Errors
1989-08-21
Another quantity of interest is the vector potential 6.A,.(:) associated with the field error 6B,,,(:). Defining the normalized vector potentials ba = ebA...then follows that the correlation of the normalized vector potential errors is given by 1 . 12 (-a.(zj)a.,(z2)) = a,k,, dz’ , dz" (bBE(z’)bB , (z")) a2...Throughout the following, terms of order O(z:/z) will be neglected. Similarly, for the y-component of the normalized vector potential errors, one
Compensating algorithm of nonlinear phase errors using scan filter in SAIL
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Nan; Liu, Liren; Lu, Wei
2009-08-01
The phase errors due to the nonlinear chirp of tunable laser reduce the range resolution in synthetic aperture imaging ladar(SAIL). The compensating algorithms establishing matched and nonmatched reference paths were developed, and the phase errors were compensated in the whole echo pulse. In this paper a compensating algorithm by scan filtering is proposed. Compared to the compensation in the whole echo pulse, this compensating algorithm promotes precision and range resolution. Every echo pulse includes different echo components from all target points in footprint. The heterodyne signals of these different echoes are scan filtered from the heterodyne signal of one whole echo pulse in the spectrum. The phase errors of these heterodyne signals are measured by phase shifting algorithm in nonmatched reference path and compensated separately. Then the compensated signals are combined into whole heterodyne pulse and compressed in range. After all echo pulses are compressed in range the azimuth compensation and compression is followed. The mathematical flow of this algorithm is established. The simulation of the airborne SAIL model validates the feasibility, and the BW of range compression decreases obviously. The effects of width of the scan filter and nonlinear chirp are discussed. The conclusion of adequate width of the scan filter is given finally.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lukin, Vladimir P.; Kanev, Fedor Yu; Sennikov, Viktor A.; Makenova, Nailya A.; Tartakovskii, Valerii A.; Konyaev, Petr A.
2004-09-01
Phase and amplitude — phase corrections of laser beam distortions during their propagation in a turbulent atmosphere under conditions of strong intensity fluctuations are compared. The effect of wavefront dislocations and the possibility of controlling the amplitude and phase of an optical wave are studied. Two approaches are analysed: phase correction using amplitude control and two-mirror phase correction. The efficiency of both methods is demonstrated.
Simplified formula for mean cycle-slip time of phase-locked loops with steady-state phase error.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tausworthe, R. C.
1972-01-01
Previous work shows that the mean time from lock to a slipped cycle of a phase-locked loop is given by a certain double integral. Accurate numerical evaluation of this formula for the second-order loop is extremely vexing because the difference between exponentially large quantities is involved. The presented article demonstrates a method in which a much-reduced precision program can be used to obtain the mean first-cycle slip time for a loop of arbitrary degree tracking at a specified SNR and steady-state phase error. It also presents a simple approximate formula that is asymptotically tight at higher loop SNR.
Simplified formula for mean cycle-slip time of phase-locked loops with steady-state phase error.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tausworthe, R. C.
1972-01-01
Previous work shows that the mean time from lock to a slipped cycle of a phase-locked loop is given by a certain double integral. Accurate numerical evaluation of this formula for the second-order loop is extremely vexing because the difference between exponentially large quantities is involved. The presented article demonstrates a method in which a much-reduced precision program can be used to obtain the mean first-cycle slip time for a loop of arbitrary degree tracking at a specified SNR and steady-state phase error. It also presents a simple approximate formula that is asymptotically tight at higher loop SNR.
Error detection and correction for a multiple frequency quaternary phase shift keyed signal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hopkins, Kevin S.
1989-06-01
A multiple frequency quaternary phased shift (MFQPSK) signaling system was developed and experimentally tested in a controlled environment. In order to insure that the quality of the received signal is such that information recovery is possible, error detection/correction (EDC) must be used. Various EDC coding schemes available are reviewed and their application to the MFQPSK signal system is analyzed. Hamming, Golay, Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH), Reed-Solomon (R-S) block codes as well as convolutional codes are presented and analyzed in the context of specific MFQPSK system parameters. A computer program was developed in order to compute bit error probabilities as a function of signal to noise ratio. Results demonstrate that various EDC schemes are suitable for the MFQPSK signal structure, and that significant performance improvements are possible with the use of certain error correction codes.
Guo, Lina; Chen, Yahong; Liu, Xianlong; Liu, Lin; Cai, Yangjian
2016-06-27
Partially coherent radially polarized (PCRP) beam was introduced and generated in recent years. In this paper, we investigate the statistical properties of a PCRP beam embedded with a vortex phase (i.e., PCRP vortex beam). We derive the analytical formula for the cross-spectral density matrix of a PCRP vortex beam propagating through a paraxial ABCD optical system and analyze the statistical properties of a PCRP vortex beam focused by a thin lens. It is found that the statistical properties of a PCRP vortex beam on propagation are much different from those of a PCRP beam. The vortex phase induces not only the rotation of the beam spot, but also the changes of the beam shape, the degree of polarization and the state of polarization. We also find that the vortex phase plays a role of resisting the coherence-induced degradation of the intensity distribution and the coherence-induced depolarization. Furthermore, we report experimental generation of a PCRP vortex beam for the first time. Our results will be useful for trapping and rotating particles, free-space optical communications and detection of phase object.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thelen, Brian J.; Paxman, Richard G.
1994-01-01
The method of phase diversity has been used in the context of incoherent imaging to estimate jointly an object that is being imaged and phase aberrations induced by atmospheric turbulence. The method requires a parametric model for the phase-aberration function. Typically, the parameters are coefficients to a finite set of basis functions. Care must be taken in selecting a parameterization that properly balances accuracy in the representation of the phase-aberration function with stability in the estimates. It is well known that over parameterization can result in unstable estimates. Thus a certain amount of model mismatch is often desirable. We derive expressions that quantify the bias and variance in object and aberration estimates as a function of parameter dimension.
Fundamentals of particle beam dynamics and phase space
Weng, W.T.; Mane, S.R.
1991-09-04
This report discusses the following topics on synchrotron accelerators: Transverse motion---betatron oscillations; machine lattice; representation of a particle beam; and longitudinal motion---synchrotron oscillations.
Propagation of a radial phased-locked Lorentz beam array in turbulent atmosphere.
Zhou, Guoquan
2011-11-21
A radial phased-locked (PL) Lorentz beam array provides an appropriate theoretical model to describe a coherent diode laser array, which is an efficient radiation source for high-power beaming use. The propagation of a radial PL Lorentz beam array in turbulent atmosphere is investigated. Based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel integral and some mathematical techniques, analytical formulae for the average intensity and the effective beam size of a radial PL Lorentz beam array are derived in turbulent atmosphere. The average intensity distribution and the spreading properties of a radial PL Lorentz beam array in turbulent atmosphere are numerically calculated. The influences of the beam parameters and the structure constant of the atmospheric turbulence on the propagation of a radial PL Lorentz beam array in turbulent atmosphere are discussed in detail. © 2011 Optical Society of America
Common phase error estimation in coherent optical OFDM systems using best-fit bounding box.
Bo, Tianwai; Chan, Chun-Kit
2016-10-17
In this paper, we investigate and characterize a new approach of adopting best-fit bounding box method for common phase error estimation in coherent optical OFDM systems. The method is based on the calculation of the 2-D convex hull of the received signal constellation, which is generally adopted in image processing area to correct the skew of images. We further perform detailed characterizations including root mean square error analysis, laser linewidth tolerance, noise tolerance, and computation complexity analysis, via numerical simulations and experiments. The results show the proposed method achieves much improved spectral efficiency and comparable system performance than the pilot-aided method, while it exhibits good estimation accuracy and reduced complexity than the blind phase searching method.
Superconducting switch concept applied to superconducting undulator phase-error correction
Madur, A.; Trillaud, F.; Dietderich, D.; Marks, S.; Prestemon, S.; Schlueter, R.
2010-06-23
Superconducting undulator (SCU) technology has the potential to significantly enhance the performance of synchrotron radiation sources for storage ring and FEL applications. Since 2002, our team at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been performing R and D on superconducting undulators, including the fabrication of three Nb{sub 3}Sn prototypes. We have demonstrated experimentally the possibility to provide the prototype with trim coils that could be used for phase error correction. The research effort that we report here demonstrates the possibility to add degrees of freedom to the field correction provided by these coils in a cryogenic environment. By means of bridge of superconducting switches, we can modify the current direction through a trim coil. Here we describe the design of the experimental bridge we fabricated, the results we obtained and finally the generalized concept one could plan to apply to correct the phase errors with trim coils connected to a network of superconducting bridges.
Error catastrophe and phase transition in the empirical fitness landscape of HIV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hart, Gregory R.; Ferguson, Andrew L.
2015-03-01
We have translated clinical sequence databases of the p6 HIV protein into an empirical fitness landscape quantifying viral replicative capacity as a function of the amino acid sequence. We show that the viral population resides close to a phase transition in sequence space corresponding to an "error catastrophe" beyond which there is lethal accumulation of mutations. Our model predicts that the phase transition may be induced by drug therapies that elevate the mutation rate, or by forcing mutations at particular amino acids. Applying immune pressure to any combination of killer T-cell targets cannot induce the transition, providing a rationale for why the viral protein can exist close to the error catastrophe without sustaining fatal fitness penalties due to adaptive immunity.
Zhang, Yiqi; Belić, Milivoj R; Zhang, Lei; Zhong, Weiping; Zhu, Dayu; Wang, Ruimin; Zhang, Yanpeng
2015-04-20
We study periodic inversion and phase transition of normal, displaced, and chirped finite energy Airy beams propagating in a parabolic potential. This propagation leads to an unusual oscillation: for half of the oscillation period the Airy beam accelerates in one transverse direction, with the main Airy beam lobe leading the train of pulses, whereas in the other half of the period it accelerates in the opposite direction, with the main lobe still leading - but now the whole beam is inverted. The inversion happens at a critical point, at which the beam profile changes from an Airy profile to a Gaussian one. Thus, there are two distinct phases in the propagation of an Airy beam in the parabolic potential - the normal Airy and the single-peak Gaussian phase. The length of the single-peak phase is determined by the size of the decay parameter: the smaller the decay, the smaller the length. A linear chirp introduces a transverse displacement of the beam at the phase transition point, but does not change the location of the point. A quadratic chirp moves the phase transition point, but does not affect the beam profile. The two-dimensional case is discussed briefly, being equivalent to a product of two one-dimensional cases.
Garibaldi, Cristina; Piperno, Gaia; Ferrari, Annamaria; Surgo, Alessia; Muto, Matteo; Ronchi, Sara; Bazani, Alessia; Pansini, Floriana; Cremonesi, Marta; Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara Alicja; Orecchia, Roberto
2016-07-01
Accurate localization is crucial in delivering safe and effective stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). The aim of this study was to analyse the accuracy of image-guidance using the cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) of the VERO system in 57 patients treated for lung SBRT and to calculate the treatment margins. The internal target volume (ITV) was obtained by contouring the tumor on maximum and mean intensity projection CT images reconstructed from a respiration correlated 4D-CT. Translational and rotational tumor localization errors were identified by comparing the manual registration of the ITV to the motion-blurred tumor on the CBCT and they were corrected by means of the robotic couch and the ring rotation. A verification CBCT was acquired after correction in order to evaluate residual errors. The mean 3D vector at initial set-up was 6.6±2.3mm, which was significantly reduced to 1.6±0.8mm after 6D automatic correction. 94% of the rotational errors were within 3°. The PTV margins used to compensate for residual tumor localization errors were 3.1, 3.5 and 3.3mm in the LR, SI and AP directions, respectively. On-line image guidance with the ITV-CBCT matching technique and automatic 6D correction of the VERO system allowed a very accurate tumor localization in lung SBRT. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Beck, S. M.
1975-01-01
A mobile self-contained Faraday cup system for beam current measurments of nominal 600 MeV protons was designed, constructed, and used at the NASA Space Radiation Effects Laboratory. The cup is of reentrant design with a length of 106.7 cm and an outside diameter of 20.32 cm. The inner diameter is 15.24 cm and the base thickness is 30.48 cm. The primary absorber is commercially available lead hermetically sealed in a 0.32-cm-thick copper jacket. Several possible systematic errors in using the cup are evaluated. The largest source of error arises from high-energy electrons which are ejected from the entrance window and enter the cup. A total systematic error of -0.83 percent is calculated to be the decrease from the true current value. From data obtained in calibrating helium-filled ion chambers with the Faraday cup, the mean energy required to produce one ion pair in helium is found to be 30.76 + or - 0.95 eV for nominal 600 MeV protons. This value agrees well, within experimental error, with reported values of 29.9 eV and 30.2 eV.
Simulation research on beam steering technology based on optical phased array
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tian, Junlin; Pan, Xudong
2015-02-01
The principle of beam steering technology based on optical phased array (OPA), which is composed of individual phase-modulating units, is introduced. By use of Fraunhofer diffraction and Fourier transformation, the OPA models are established. The influence of main parameters of OPA on beam steering efficiency, including duty ratio (ratio of effective unit size to total unit size), total unit size, unit number, and steering angle, is simulated and analyzed. It shows that beam steering efficiency of OPA is improved with larger duty ratio, smaller total unit size, and smaller steering angle, while the number of units has a very small impact on beam steering efficiency.
Chosrowjan, Haik; Furuse, Hiroaki; Fujita, Masayuki; Izawa, Yasukazu; Kawanaka, Junji; Miyanaga, Noriaki; Hamamoto, Koichi; Yamada, Takahiro
2013-04-15
We propose a simple coherent beam combining technique for applications in high-power multichannel laser amplifier systems with tiled aperture design. Using a photodiode pair coupled with piezo-actuator mirrors, we demonstrated robust beam combining bandwidth (~1 KHz) and root mean-square deviation (~λ/25) for two beam channels. We estimate that the performance of this technique can be further enhanced in terms of operational bandwidth and phase locking accuracy. It is not limited by single beam power or channel number restrictions, does not require optical phase retrieval algorithms, or calibrations, and can be integrated into various master oscillator power amplifier architectures.
Evolution of phase singularities of vortex beams propagating in atmospheric turbulence.
Ge, Xiao-Lu; Wang, Ben-Yi; Guo, Cheng-Shan
2015-05-01
Optical vortex beams propagating through atmospheric turbulence are studied by numerical modeling, and the phase singularities of the vortices existing in the turbulence-distorted beams are calculated. It is found that the algebraic sum of topological charges (TCs) of all the phase singularities existing in test aperture is approximately equal to the TC of the input vortex beam. This property provides us a possible approach for determining the TC of the vortex beam propagating through the atmospheric turbulence, which could have potential application in optical communication using optical vortices.
Positioning Errors of Pencil-beam Interferometers for Long TraceProfilers
Yashchuk, Valeriy V.
2006-07-12
We analyze the random noise and the systematic errors of the positioning of the interference patterns in the long trace profilers (LTP). The analysis, based on linear regression methods, allows the estimation of the contributions to the positioning error of a number of effects, including non-uniformity of the detector photo-response and pixel pitch, read-out and dark signal noise, ADC resolution, as well as signal shot noise. The dependence of the contributions on pixel size and on total number of pixels involved in positioning is derived analytically. The analysis, when applied to the LTP II available at the ALS optical metrology laboratory, has shown that the main source for the random positioning error of the interference pattern is the read-out noise estimated to be {approx}0.2 rad. The photo-diode-array photo-response and pixel pitch non-uniformity determine the magnitude of the systematic positioning error and are found to be {approx}0.3 rad for each of the effects. Recommendations for an optimal fitting strategy, detector selection and calibration are provided. Following these recommendations will allow the reduction of the error of LTP interference pattern positioning to a level adequate for the slope measurement with 0.1-rad accuracy.
Chanan, G; Troy, M
1999-11-01
We derive the Strehl ratio for a segmented mirror telescope as a function of the rms segment phase error and the observing wavelength, with and without the effects of the atmosphere. A simple analytical expression is given for the atmosphere-free case. Although our specific results are in the context of the Keck telescope, they are presented in a way that should be readily adaptable to other segmented geometries. We also derive the corresponding modulation transfer functions. These results are useful in determining how accurately a segmented mirror telescope needs to be phased for a variety of observing applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chung, Moses; Qin, Hong; Davidson, Ronald C.; Groening, Lars; Xiao, Chen
2016-11-01
In an uncoupled linear lattice system, the Kapchinskij-Vladimirskij (KV) distribution formulated on the basis of the single-particle Courant-Snyder invariants has served as a fundamental theoretical basis for the analyses of the equilibrium, stability, and transport properties of high-intensity beams for the past several decades. Recent applications of high-intensity beams, however, require beam phase-space manipulations by intentionally introducing strong coupling. In this Letter, we report the full generalization of the KV model by including all of the linear (both external and space-charge) coupling forces, beam energy variations, and arbitrary emittance partition, which all form essential elements for phase-space manipulations. The new generalized KV model yields spatially uniform density profiles and corresponding linear self-field forces as desired. The corresponding matrix envelope equations and beam matrix for the generalized KV model provide important new theoretical tools for the detailed design and analysis of high-intensity beam manipulations, for which previous theoretical models are not easily applicable.
Han, Jiho; Sparkes, Martin; O'Neill, William
2015-02-01
A phase hologram was machined on an optical fiber tip using a focused ion beam (FIB) system so that a ring-shaped beam emerges from the fiber tip. The fiber used for this work was a commercial single-mode optical fiber patch cable for a design wavelength of 633 nm with a germanosilicate core. The ring-shaped beam was chosen to ensure a simple geometry in the required phase hologram, though the Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm can be used to calculate a hologram for an arbitrary beam shape. The FIB machining took approximately 45 min at 30 kV and 200 pA. The radius of the resulting ring beam was 0.083 m at 1 m standoff, as compared to 0.1 m as was initially desired. Results suggest that this imaging technique may provide a basis for a beam-shaping method with several advantages over the current commercial solutions, having permanent alignment, compactness, and mechanical robustness. However, it would appear that minimizing the speckle pattern will remain a critical challenge for this technique to become widely implemented.
Real-time measurement of laser beam quality factor by the Fresnel phase-retrieval method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Pao-Keng; Liu, Jian-You; Chen, Yung-Chieh; Hsu, Chia-En
2016-09-01
Conventionally, it is a tedious work to measure the beam quality factor for a laser beam because one needs to move a camera-based beam profiler from one location to another for many times to record intensity profiles at different positions around the beam waist. We present a simple method for determining the laser beam quality factor from only two laser intensity profiles at different cross sections around the waist. We first used an iterative phase-retrieval algorithm, based on the Huygens-Fresnel principle, to reconstruct the phase profiles at the two cross sections where the intensity profiles had been measured. Once the optical field amplitude (the square root of intensity) and phase distribution functions at certain cross section of a laser beam had been determined, we can propagate the light wave at this cross section by using the Fresnel diffraction formula to obtain the intensity profiles at different positions, from which the beam quality factor can be determined. Using a HeNe laser for test, we had experimentally demonstrated the feasibility of our idea by showing that the result from our proposed method is in good agreement with that obtained from the conventional method. Our setup is capable of executing a real-time measurement of the beam quality factor because the two intensity profiles can be simultaneously recorded by using a beam splitter and two beam-profilers controlled by the same computer.
Amplitude and phase beam characterization using a two-dimensional wavefront sensor
Neal, D.R.; Alford, W.J.; Gruetzner, J.K.; Warren, M.E.
1996-09-01
We have developed a two-dimensional Shack-Hartman wavefront sensor that uses binary optic lenslet arrays to directly measure the wavefront slope (phase gradient) and amplitude of the laser beam. This sensor uses an array of lenslets that dissects the beam into a number of samples. The focal spot location of each of these lenslets (measured by a CCD camera) is related to the incoming wavefront slope over the lenslet. By integrating these measurements over the laser aperture, the wavefront or phase distribution can be determined. Since the power focused by each lenslet is also easily determined, this allows a complete measurement of the intensity and phase distribution of the laser beam. Furthermore, all the information is obtained in a single measurement. Knowing the complete scalar field of the beam allows the detailed prediction of the actual beam`s characteristics along its propagation path. In particular, the space- beamwidth product M{sup 2}, can be obtained in a single measurement. The intensity and phase information can be used in concert with information about other elements in the optical train to predict the beam size, shape, phase and other characteristics anywhere in the optical train. We present preliminary measurements of an Ar{sup +} laser beam and associated M{sup 2} calculations.
Phase signal of optical beam deflection from single microparticles: Theory and experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harada, Masaaki; Kitamori, Takehiko; Sawada, Tsuguo
1993-03-01
The optical beam deflection (OBD) signal from a single microparticulate sample was theoretically derived for the photothermal response to an intensity-modulated excitation in the transverse experimental configuration. The dependencies of phase signal on the normal and transverse offsets of the probe beam were calculated and then experimentally verified. The OBD phase signal was chosen as a means of inspecting the particle interior, since it contains information about the heat source depth. The results showed that the phase signal was independent of the excitation beam power and that the surface absorbing layer thickness could be estimated from the phase variation using the modulation frequency. The possibility of correcting beam offsets by the phase signal was also considered.
Hohimer, John P.
1994-01-01
A high-power broad-area semiconductor laser having a intracavity spatial phase controller is disclosed. The integrated intracavity spatial phase controller is easily formed by patterning an electrical contact metallization layer when fabricating the semiconductor laser. This spatial phase controller changes the normally broad far-field emission beam of such a laser into a single-lobed near-diffraction-limited beam at pulsed output powers of over 400 mW. Two operating modes, a thermal and a gain operating mode, exist for the phase controller, allowing for steering and switching the beam as the modes of operation are switched, and the emission beam may be scanned, for example, over a range of 1.4 degrees or switched by 8 degrees. More than one spatial phase controller may be integrated into the laser structure.
Hohimer, J.P.
1994-06-07
A high-power broad-area semiconductor laser having a intracavity spatial phase controller is disclosed. The integrated intracavity spatial phase controller is easily formed by patterning an electrical contact metallization layer when fabricating the semiconductor laser. This spatial phase controller changes the normally broad far-field emission beam of such a laser into a single-lobed near-diffraction-limited beam at pulsed output powers of over 400 mW. Two operating modes, a thermal and a gain operating mode, exist for the phase controller, allowing for steering and switching the beam as the modes of operation are switched, and the emission beam may be scanned, for example, over a range of 1.4 degrees or switched by 8 degrees. More than one spatial phase controller may be integrated into the laser structure. 6 figs.
Oliker, Vladimir
2008-12-01
The problem of design of a two-lens optical system for reshaping the irradiance distribution of a laser beam in a prescribed manner is considered in the geometrical optics approximation. The presented design equations are derived in a rigorous manner and are applicable to free-form two-lens optical systems without any a priori symmetry assumptions on radiance profiles and beam cross sections. The obtained equations are applied to derive an equation defining sensitivity of the output radiation intensity to figure errors. This equation is applied to analyze sensitivity in several cases, including rotationally symmetric reshapers with nonrotationally symmetric figure error. The presented approach shows also that even in the general case two different designs are available for the same data. In one of these designs one lens is always concave or convex and the second is convex or concave, while in the second design the lenses may be neither convex nor concave. Since, in general, the surface lenses are aspherical, the availability of a design with convex/concave lenses is particularly important for fabrication.
Analysis of the setup errors of medical image registration-based cone-beam CT for lung cancer.
Li, Jun; Tang, Xiao-Bin; Zhang, Xi-Zhi; Zhang, Xian-Wen; Ge, Yun; Chen, Da; Chai, Lei
2016-04-07
This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of efficiently using a rigid image registration (RIR) algorithm or a deformable image registration (DIR) algorithm to match medical images and evaluate the impact of setup errors on intensity modulated radiation therapy of lung cancer patients. Ten lung cancer patients were chosen randomly each day and were subjected to image-guided radiotherapy. The clinical registration between cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images and treatment planning system CT images was performed by applying both RIR and DIR; the clinical registration was evaluated on the basis of the contour index, including dice similarity coefficient, sensitivity, and positive predictive value; the optimal scheme of image registration was selected to ensure that the actual irradiation isocenter was consistent with the treatment planning isocenter. In each patient, the translational errors in the right-left (x), superior-inferior (y), and anterior-posterior (z) directions and the rotational errors in the u, υ, and w directions formed by the x, y, and z directions were calculated and analyzed daily in the whole course of treatment; margins were calculated according to this equation: M = 2.5∑+ 0.7δ. The tumors and the surrounding soft tissues of the patients are shown more clearly in the CBCT images than in the CT images. DIR can be applied more efficiently than RIR to determine the morphological and positional changes in the organs shown in the images with the same or different modalities in the different period. The setup errors in translation in the x, y and z axes were 0.05±0.16, 0.09±0.32 and -0.02±0.13 cm, respectively; by contrast, the setup errors in rotation in u, υ and w directions were (0.41±0.64)°, (-0.08±0.57)° and (-0.03±0.62)°, respectively. The setup errors in the x, y and z axes of the patients indicated that the margins expansions were 0.82, 1.15 and 0.72 cm, respectively. CBCT with DIR can measure and correct the
Array designs for amplitude and phase control of millimeter-wave beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sjogren, L. B.; Liu, H.-X. L.; Qin, X.-H.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.
1993-08-01
New array design concepts are described for the phase and amplitude control of millimeter and submillimeter-wave beams. Phase shifter array designs providing increased phase range and wider bandwidth are described. Techniques involving the integration of gain-producing elements as well as tuning elements on a single array are proposed for application to high-performance beam control and beam shaping. These concepts should facilitate the further development of quasi-optical solid state device-based arrays for application to millimeter-wave electronic systems.
Longitudinal phase-space coating of beam in a storage ring
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhat, C. M.
2014-06-01
In this Letter, I report on a novel scheme for beam stacking without any beam emittance dilution using a barrier rf system in synchrotrons. The general principle of the scheme called longitudinal phase-space coating, validation of the concept via multi-particle beam dynamics simulations applied to the Fermilab Recycler, and its experimental demonstration are presented. In addition, it has been shown and illustrated that the rf gymnastics involved in this scheme can be used in measuring the incoherent synchrotron tune spectrum of the beam in barrier buckets and in producing a clean hollow beam in longitudinal phase space. The method of beam stacking in synchrotrons presented here is the first of its kind.
Flat-top temporal and spatial profiles femtosecond pulse beam generated by phase only modulating
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nie, Yong-ming; Liu, Jun-hui; Huang, Pu-hua; Tang, Ji-zhen; Yang, Xuehua; Ma, Hao-tong; Li, Xiu-jian
2013-09-01
The method for generating temporal flat-top waveform and spatial flat-top profile femtosecond pulse beam by phase and polarization controlling is proposed and demonstrated. Based on direct wave front phase modulating, flat-top spatial intensity distribution can be obtained. Combining a folded 4f zero-dispersion system with a polarization controlling setup, the temporal flat-top waveform is generated. Experimental results indicate that for the input both temporal and spatial Gaussian pulse beam with 363 fs temporal width and 1.5 mm beam waist, the temporal width of the output shaped pulse beam is 1.2 ps and 1.9mm beam waist, and the rms variation is about 9.2%, which prove that the temporal flat-top and spatial flat-top femtosecond pulse beam can be generated effectively.
Moosavi, S Hoda; Gohn-Kreuz, Cristian; Rohrbach, Alexander
2013-08-10
Confocal line detection has been shown to improve contrast in light-sheet-based microscopy especially when illuminating the sample by Bessel beams. Besides their self-reconstructing capability, the stability in propagation direction of Bessel beams allows to block the unwanted emission light from the Bessel beam's ring system. However, due to phase aberrations induced especially at the border of the specimen, Bessel beams may not propagate along lines parallel to the slit detector. Here we present a concept of how to correct the phase of each incident Bessel beam such that the efficiency of confocal line detection is improved by up to 200%-300%. The applicability of the method is verified by the results obtained from numerical simulations based on the beam propagation method.
Coexisting ferroelectric and paraelectric phases in electron beam irradiated P(VDF-TrFE) films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Jae Woong; Lee, Tae Kwon; Jung, Jong Hoon; Shin, Sunhyeop; Lee, Byoung Wan; Ko, Jae-Hyeon
2016-12-01
We report on structural, electrical, and Raman investigations of phase changes induced in P(VDF-TrFE) films by electron beam irradiation. With increasing electron beam dose, the ferroelectric β-phase is weakened because of reductions in the coercive field, remnant polarization, and Curie temperature. Finally, highly dosed (9.38 × 1016 cm-2) P(VDF-TrFE) shows a paraelectric α-phase. A Vogel-Folcher type relaxor behavior becomes strong with the decreasing freezing temperature and the increasing activation energy. From the Raman scattering measurement, we observed that both the α- and the β-phases coexist irrespective of the electron beam irradiation and that the temperature dependences of the α- and β-phases are quite different. The ratio of the intensity of the α-phase to that of the β-phase sharply increases at a certain temperature, at which polar nanoregions may disappear.
Effect of pointing errors and range on performance of dual-pencil-beam scatterometers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moore, R. K.
1985-01-01
Short-range FM scatterometers with single antennas are plagued by interference set up by feedthrough and internal reflections. Dual-antenna systems have much lower internal interference, but there are problems associated with pointing the antennas at the same spot. This note quantifies these problems for Gaussian-shaped beams. The use of antennas with beamwidth ratios of up to 5:1 is shown to improve performance significantly over that obtained with identical beamwidths. For an angle between antenna centers (as viewed from the beam intersection) that is three times the beamwidth of the narrower antenna, the usable spread of range for equal beamwidths is only about 1.85:1, while for an angular ratio of 5, the usable spread of range is greater than 20:1.
Vidales, Luz E.; Cárdenas, Lluvia C.; Robleto, Eduardo; Yasbin, Ronald E.; Pedraza-Reyes, Mario
2009-01-01
Previous studies showed that a Bacillus subtilis strain deficient in mismatch repair (MMR; encoded by the mutSL operon) promoted the production of stationary-phase-induced mutations. However, overexpression of the mutSL operon did not completely suppress this process, suggesting that additional DNA repair mechanisms are involved in the generation of stationary-phase-associated mutants in this bacterium. In agreement with this hypothesis, the results presented in this work revealed that starved B. subtilis cells lacking a functional error prevention GO (8-oxo-G) system (composed of YtkD, MutM, and YfhQ) had a dramatic propensity to increase the number of stationary-phase-induced revertants. These results strongly suggest that the occurrence of mutations is exacerbated by reactive oxygen species in nondividing cells of B. subtilis having an inactive GO system. Interestingly, overexpression of the MMR system significantly diminished the accumulation of mutations in cells deficient in the GO repair system during stationary phase. These results suggest that the MMR system plays a general role in correcting base mispairing induced by oxidative stress during stationary phase. Thus, the absence or depression of both the MMR and GO systems contributes to the production of stationary-phase mutants in B. subtilis. In conclusion, our results support the idea that oxidative stress is a mechanism that generates genetic diversity in starved cells of B. subtilis, promoting stationary-phase-induced mutagenesis in this soil microorganism. PMID:19011023
Nonparaxial multi-Gaussian beam models and measurement models for phased array transducers.
Zhao, Xinyu; Gang, Tie
2009-01-01
A nonparaxial multi-Gaussian beam model is proposed in order to overcome the limitation that paraxial Gaussian beam models lose accuracy in simulating the beam steering behavior of phased array transducers. Using this nonparaxial multi-Gaussian beam model, the focusing and steering sound fields generated by an ultrasonic linear phased array transducer are calculated and compared with the corresponding results obtained by paraxial multi-Gaussian beam model and more exact Rayleigh-Sommerfeld integral model. In addition, with help of this novel nonparaxial method, an ultrasonic measurement model is provided to investigate the sensitivity of linear phased array transducers versus steering angles. Also the comparisons of model predictions with experimental results are presented to certify the accuracy of this provided measurement model.
Generation of perfect vortex and vector beams based on Pancharatnam-Berry phase elements.
Liu, Yachao; Ke, Yougang; Zhou, Junxiao; Liu, Yuanyuan; Luo, Hailu; Wen, Shuangchun; Fan, Dianyuan
2017-03-09
Perfect vortex beams are the orbital angular momentum (OAM)-carrying beams with fixed annular intensities, which provide a better source of OAM than traditional Laguerre-Gaussian beams. However, ordinary schemes to obtain the perfect vortex beams are usually bulky and unstable. We demonstrate here a novel generation scheme by designing planar Pancharatnam-Berry (PB) phase elements to replace all the elements required. Different from the conventional approaches based on reflective or refractive elements, PB phase elements can dramatically reduce the occupying volume of system. Moreover, the PB phase element scheme is easily developed to produce the perfect vector beams. Therefore, our scheme may provide prominent vortex and vector sources for integrated optical communication and micromanipulation systems.
Generation of perfect vortex and vector beams based on Pancharatnam-Berry phase elements
Liu, Yachao; Ke, Yougang; Zhou, Junxiao; Liu, Yuanyuan; Luo, Hailu; Wen, Shuangchun; Fan, Dianyuan
2017-01-01
Perfect vortex beams are the orbital angular momentum (OAM)-carrying beams with fixed annular intensities, which provide a better source of OAM than traditional Laguerre-Gaussian beams. However, ordinary schemes to obtain the perfect vortex beams are usually bulky and unstable. We demonstrate here a novel generation scheme by designing planar Pancharatnam-Berry (PB) phase elements to replace all the elements required. Different from the conventional approaches based on reflective or refractive elements, PB phase elements can dramatically reduce the occupying volume of system. Moreover, the PB phase element scheme is easily developed to produce the perfect vector beams. Therefore, our scheme may provide prominent vortex and vector sources for integrated optical communication and micromanipulation systems. PMID:28276524
Generation of perfect vortex and vector beams based on Pancharatnam-Berry phase elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yachao; Ke, Yougang; Zhou, Junxiao; Liu, Yuanyuan; Luo, Hailu; Wen, Shuangchun; Fan, Dianyuan
2017-03-01
Perfect vortex beams are the orbital angular momentum (OAM)-carrying beams with fixed annular intensities, which provide a better source of OAM than traditional Laguerre-Gaussian beams. However, ordinary schemes to obtain the perfect vortex beams are usually bulky and unstable. We demonstrate here a novel generation scheme by designing planar Pancharatnam-Berry (PB) phase elements to replace all the elements required. Different from the conventional approaches based on reflective or refractive elements, PB phase elements can dramatically reduce the occupying volume of system. Moreover, the PB phase element scheme is easily developed to produce the perfect vector beams. Therefore, our scheme may provide prominent vortex and vector sources for integrated optical communication and micromanipulation systems.
Phasing surface emitting diode laser outputs into a coherent laser beam
Holzrichter, John F.
2006-10-10
A system for generating a powerful laser beam includes a first laser element and at least one additional laser element having a rear laser mirror, an output mirror that is 100% reflective at normal incidence and <5% reflective at an input beam angle, and laser material between the rear laser mirror and the output mirror. The system includes an injector, a reference laser beam source, an amplifier and phase conjugater, and a combiner.
Singh, Kunwar Pal; Arya, Rashmi; Malik, Anil K.
2015-09-14
We have investigated the effect of initial phase on error in electron energy obtained using paraxial approximation to study electron acceleration by a focused laser pulse in vacuum using a three dimensional test-particle simulation code. The error is obtained by comparing the energy of the electron for paraxial approximation and seventh-order correction description of the fields of Gaussian laser. The paraxial approximation predicts wrong laser divergence and wrong electron escape time from the pulse which leads to prediction of higher energy. The error shows strong phase dependence for the electrons lying along the axis of the laser for linearly polarized laser pulse. The relative error may be significant for some specific values of initial phase even at moderate values of laser spot sizes. The error does not show initial phase dependence for a circularly laser pulse.
Orbital angular moment of an electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model beam with a twist phase.
Liu, Lin; Huang, Yusheng; Chen, Yahong; Guo, Lina; Cai, Yangjian
2015-11-16
We derive the analytical formula for the orbital angular momentum (OAM) flux of a stochastic electromagnetic beam carrying twist phase [i.e., twisted electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model (TEGSM) beam] in the source plane with the help of the Wigner distribution function. Furthermore, we derive the general expression of the OAM flux of a TEGSM beam on propagation with the help of a tensor method. As numerical examples, we explore the evolution properties of the OAM flux of a TEGSM beam propagating through a cylindrical thin lens or a uniaxial crystal. It is found that the OAM flux of a TEGSM beam closely depends on its twist factors and degree of polarization in the source plane, and one can modulate the OAM flux of a TEGSM beam by a cylindrical thin lens or a uniaxial crystal. Our results may be useful in some applications, such as particle manipulation and free-space optical communications, where light beam with OAM is preferred.
Analysis of counting errors in the phase/Doppler particle analyzer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oldenburg, John R.
1987-01-01
NASA is investigating the application of the Phase Doppler measurement technique to provide improved drop sizing and liquid water content measurements in icing research. The magnitude of counting errors were analyzed because these errors contribute to inaccurate liquid water content measurements. The Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer counting errors due to data transfer losses and coincidence losses were analyzed for data input rates from 10 samples/sec to 70,000 samples/sec. Coincidence losses were calculated by determining the Poisson probability of having more than one event occurring during the droplet signal time. The magnitude of the coincidence loss can be determined, and for less than a 15 percent loss, corrections can be made. The data transfer losses were estimated for representative data transfer rates. With direct memory access enabled, data transfer losses are less than 5 percent for input rates below 2000 samples/sec. With direct memory access disabled losses exceeded 20 percent at a rate of 50 samples/sec preventing accurate number density or mass flux measurements. The data transfer losses of a new signal processor were analyzed and found to be less than 1 percent for rates under 65,000 samples/sec.
Cubillos Mesías, Macarena; Boda-Heggemann, Judit; Thoelking, Johannes; Lohr, Frank; Wenz, Frederik; Wertz, Hansjoerg
2016-01-01
Introduction To quantify interfraction patient setup-errors for radiotherapy based on cone-beam computed tomography and suggest safety margins accordingly. Material and Methods Positioning vectors of pre-treatment cone-beam computed tomography for different treatment sites were collected (n = 9504). For each patient group the total average and standard deviation were calculated and the overall mean, systematic and random errors as well as safety margins were determined. Results The systematic (and random errors) in the superior-inferior, left-right and anterior-posterior directions were: for prostate, 2.5(3.0), 2.6(3.9) and 2.9(3.9)mm; for prostate bed, 1.7(2.0), 2.2(3.6) and 2.6(3.1)mm; for cervix, 2.8(3.4), 2.3(4.6) and 3.2(3.9)mm; for rectum, 1.6(3.1), 2.1(2.9) and 2.5(3.8)mm; for anal, 1.7(3.7), 2.1(5.1) and 2.5(4.8)mm; for head and neck, 1.9(2.3), 1.4(2.0) and 1.7(2.2)mm; for brain, 1.0(1.5), 1.1(1.4) and 1.0(1.1)mm; and for mediastinum, 3.3(4.6), 2.6(3.7) and 3.5(4.0)mm. The CTV-to-PTV margins had the smallest value for brain (3.6, 3.7 and 3.3mm) and the largest for mediastinum (11.5, 9.1 and 11.6mm). For pelvic treatments the means (and standard deviations) were 7.3 (1.6), 8.5 (0.8) and 9.6 (0.8)mm. Conclusions Systematic and random setup-errors were smaller than 5mm. The largest errors were found for organs with higher motion probability. The suggested safety margins were comparable to published values in previous but often smaller studies. PMID:26930196
SITE project. Phase 1: Continuous data bit-error-rate testing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fujikawa, Gene; Kerczewski, Robert J.
1992-01-01
The Systems Integration, Test, and Evaluation (SITE) Project at NASA LeRC encompasses a number of research and technology areas of satellite communications systems. Phase 1 of this project established a complete satellite link simulator system. The evaluation of proof-of-concept microwave devices, radiofrequency (RF) and bit-error-rate (BER) testing of hardware, testing of remote airlinks, and other tests were performed as part of this first testing phase. This final report covers the test results produced in phase 1 of the SITE Project. The data presented include 20-GHz high-power-amplifier testing, 30-GHz low-noise-receiver testing, amplitude equalization, transponder baseline testing, switch matrix tests, and continuous-wave and modulated interference tests. The report also presents the methods used to measure the RF and BER performance of the complete system. Correlations of the RF and BER data are summarized to note the effects of the RF responses on the BER.
Kim, K.-J.; Accelerator Systems Division
2008-01-01
Emittance exchange and flat beam transform are two phase-space converting techniques being developed recently to enhance the performance of electron beams for various applications. We review these applications, the basic principles of the converters, and the status of experimental demonstration of these techniques.
Using Lambert W function and error function to model phase change on microfluidics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bermudez Garcia, Anderson
2014-05-01
Solidification and melting modeling on microfluidics are solved using Lambert W's function and error's functions. Models are formulated using the heat's diffusion equation. The generic posed case is the melting of a slab with time dependent surface temperature, having a micro or nano-fluid liquid phase. At the beginning the solid slab is at melting temperature. A slab's face is put and maintained at temperature greater than the melting limit and varying in time. Lambert W function and error function are applied via Maple to obtain the analytic solution evolution of the front of microfluidic-solid interface, it is analytically computed and slab's corresponding melting time is determined. It is expected to have analytical results to be useful for food engineering, cooking engineering, pharmaceutical engineering, nano-engineering and bio-medical engineering.
Stratakis, D.; Kishek, R. A.; Bernal, S.; Walter, M.; Haber, I.; Fiorito, R.; Thangaraj, J. C. T.; Quinn, B.; Reiser, M.; O'Shea, P. G.; Li, H.
2006-11-27
In order to understand the charged particle dynamics, e.g. the halo formation, emittance growth, x-y energy transfer and coupling, knowledge of the actual phase space is needed. Other the past decade there is an increasing number of articles who use tomography to map the beam phase space and measure the beam emittance. These studies where performed at high energy facilities where the effect of space charge was neglible and therefore not considered in the analysis. This work extends the tomography technique to beams with space charge. In order to simplify the analysis linear forces where assumed. By carefully modeling the tomography process using the particle-in-cell code WARP we test the validity of our assumptions and the accuracy of the reconstructed phase space. Finally, we report experimental results of phase space mapping at the University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER) using tomography.
High speed, high power one-dimensional beam steering from a 6-element optical phased array.
Huang, W Ronny; Montoya, Juan; Kansky, Jan E; Redmond, Shawn M; Turner, George W; Sanchez-Rubio, Antonio
2012-07-30
Beam steering at high speed and high power is demonstrated from a 6-element optical phased array using coherent beam combining (CBC) techniques. The steering speed, defined as the inverse of the time to required to sweep the beam across the steering range, is 40 MHz and the total power is 396 mW. The measured central lobe FWHM width is 565 μrad. High on-axis intensity is maintained periodically by phase-locking the array via a stochastic-parallel-gradient-descent (SPGD) algorithm. A master-oscillator-power-amplifier (MOPA) configuration is used where the amplifier array elements are semiconductor slab-coupled-optical-waveguide-amplifiers (SCOWAs). The beam steering is achieved by LiNbO(3) phase modulators; the phase-locking occurs by current adjustment of the SCOWAs. The system can be readily scaled to GHz steering speed and multiwatt-class output.
Theory of optimal beam splitting by phase gratings. I. One-dimensional gratings.
Romero, Louis A; Dickey, Fred M
2007-08-01
We give an analytical basis for the theory of optimal beam splitting by one-dimensional gratings. In particular, we use methods from the calculus of variations to derive analytical expressions for the optimal phase function.
Kaganovich, Igor D.; Massidda, Scottt; Startsev, Edward A.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Vay, Jean-Luc; Friedman, Alex
2012-06-21
Neutralized drift compression offers an effective means for particle beam pulse compression and current amplification. In neutralized drift compression, a linear longitudinal velocity tilt (head-to-tail gradient) is applied to the non-relativistic beam pulse, so that the beam pulse compresses as it drifts in the focusing section. The beam current can increase by more than a factor of 100 in the longitudinal direction. We have performed an analytical study of how errors in the velocity tilt acquired by the beam in the induction bunching module limit the maximum longitudinal compression. It is found that the compression ratio is determined by the relative errors in the velocity tilt. That is, one-percent errors may limit the compression to a factor of one hundred. However, a part of the beam pulse where the errors are small may compress to much higher values, which are determined by the initial thermal spread of the beam pulse. It is also shown that sharp jumps in the compressed current density profile can be produced due to overlaying of different parts of the pulse near the focal plane. Examples of slowly varying and rapidly varying errors compared to the beam pulse duration are studied. For beam velocity errors given by a cubic function, the compression ratio can be described analytically. In this limit, a significant portion of the beam pulse is located in the broad wings of the pulse and is poorly compressed. The central part of the compressed pulse is determined by the thermal spread. The scaling law for maximum compression ratio is derived. In addition to a smooth variation in the velocity tilt, fast-changing errors during the pulse may appear in the induction bunching module if the voltage pulse is formed by several pulsed elements. Different parts of the pulse compress nearly simultaneously at the target and the compressed profile may have many peaks. The maximum compression is a function of both thermal spread and the velocity errors. The effects of the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kohara, Tatsuya; Noguchi, Toshihiko; Kondo, Seiji
In recent years, parallel-operation of inverters is employed to increase reliability and capacity in an uninterruptible power supply (UPS) system. A phase error in PWM carrier-signals of each inverter causes high frequency loop current between inverters. Therefore, the PWM carrier-signal of each inverter should be adjusted in phase. This paper proposes a detection method of phase error in PWM carrier-signal and its application to synchronization control for parallel-connected inverters. A simple definite-integral circuit achieves the detection of carrier phase error from high frequency loop current using no signal line between inverters. The detected carrier phase error is applied to synchronize the PWM carrier-signal through a PI-compensator, and then the high frequency loop current can be suppressed. Several experimental test-results show the validity of the proposed detection method and synchronization control.
Kiyko, V V; Kislov, V I; Ofitserov, E N
2015-08-31
In the framework of a statistical model of an adaptive optics system (AOS) of phase conjugation, three algorithms based on an integrated mathematical approach are considered, each of them intended for minimisation of one of the following characteristics: the sensor error (in the case of an ideal corrector), the corrector error (in the case of ideal measurements) and the compensation error (with regard to discreteness and measurement noises and to incompleteness of a system of response functions of the corrector actuators). Functional and statistical relationships between the algorithms are studied and a relation is derived to ensure calculation of the mean-square compensation error as a function of the errors of the sensor and corrector with an accuracy better than 10%. Because in adjusting the AOS parameters, it is reasonable to proceed from the equality of the sensor and corrector errors, in the case the Hartmann sensor is used as a wavefront sensor, the required number of actuators in the absence of the noise component in the sensor error turns out 1.5 – 2.5 times less than the number of counts, and that difference grows with increasing measurement noise. (adaptive optics)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiyko, V. V.; Kislov, V. I.; Ofitserov, E. N.
2015-08-01
In the framework of a statistical model of an adaptive optics system (AOS) of phase conjugation, three algorithms based on an integrated mathematical approach are considered, each of them intended for minimisation of one of the following characteristics: the sensor error (in the case of an ideal corrector), the corrector error (in the case of ideal measurements) and the compensation error (with regard to discreteness and measurement noises and to incompleteness of a system of response functions of the corrector actuators). Functional and statistical relationships between the algorithms are studied and a relation is derived to ensure calculation of the mean-square compensation error as a function of the errors of the sensor and corrector with an accuracy better than 10%. Because in adjusting the AOS parameters, it is reasonable to proceed from the equality of the sensor and corrector errors, in the case the Hartmann sensor is used as a wavefront sensor, the required number of actuators in the absence of the noise component in the sensor error turns out 1.5 - 2.5 times less than the number of counts, and that difference grows with increasing measurement noise.
Laser beam collimation using a phase conjugate Twyman-Green interferometer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shukla, R. P.; Dokhanian, M.; George, M. C.; Venkateswarlu, Putcha
1991-01-01
This paper presents an improved technique for testing laser beam collimation using a phase conjugate Twyman-Green interferometer. The technique is useful for measuring laser beam divergence. It is possible using this technique to detect the defocusing of the order of one micrometer for a well corrected collimating lens. A relation is derived for the defocusing that can be detected by the phase conjugate interferometer.
Velec, Michael; Waldron, John N.; O'Sullivan, Brian; Bayley, Andrew; Cummings, Bernard; Kim, John J.; Ringash, Jolie; Breen, Stephen L.; Lockwood, Gina A.; Dawson, Laura A.
2010-03-01
Purpose: To prospectively compare setup error in standard thermoplastic masks and skin-sparing masks (SSMs) modified with low neck cutouts for head-and-neck intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) patients. Methods and Materials: Twenty head-and-neck IMRT patients were randomized to be treated in a standard mask (SM) or SSM. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans, acquired daily after both initial setup and any repositioning, were used for initial and residual interfraction evaluation, respectively. Weekly, post-IMRT CBCT scans were acquired for intrafraction setup evaluation. The population random (sigma) and systematic (SIGMA) errors were compared for SMs and SSMs. Skin toxicity was recorded weekly by use of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria. Results: We evaluated 762 CBCT scans in 11 patients randomized to the SM and 9 to the SSM. Initial interfraction sigma was 1.6 mm or less or 1.1 deg. or less for SM and 2.0 mm or less and 0.8 deg. for SSM. Initial interfraction SIGMA was 1.0 mm or less or 1.4 deg. or less for SM and 1.1 mm or less or 0.9 deg. or less for SSM. These errors were reduced before IMRT with CBCT image guidance with no significant differences in residual interfraction or intrafraction uncertainties between SMs and SSMs. Intrafraction sigma and SIGMA were less than 1 mm and less than 1 deg. for both masks. Less severe skin reactions were observed in the cutout regions of the SSM compared with non-cutout regions. Conclusions: Interfraction and intrafraction setup error is not significantly different for SSMs and conventional masks in head-and-neck radiation therapy. Mask cutouts should be considered for these patients in an effort to reduce skin toxicity.
Propagation properties of the accelerating beams generated by discrete Airy-Vortex phase mask
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Kun; Ji, Kaiwen; Zhang, Guoquan; Qi, Xinyuan
2017-06-01
We present a novel type of accelerating beam generated by a discrete Airy-Vortex phase mask based on the digital holographic technology. The study shows that the main lobe and the side lobes of such beam rotate with different angular momentums and the whole beam evolves into two separated Airy-like beams in the far field. The intensity distribution of the main lobe and the side lobes in the near field can be modulated by tuning the topological gradient ΔL 1 and ΔL independently. The propagation path of the main lobe follows a parabolic trajectory. The experimental results are consistent with the numerical simulations.
Rajesh, K. B.; Mohankumar, R.; Prathibajanet, C. Amala; Pillai, T. V. S.; Jaroszewicz, Z.
2011-10-20
We propose to use pure phase filter in combination with high NA lens axicon to achieve high efficient longitudinally polarized beam with a subwavelength spot size and large depth of focus using hyper geometric Gaussian beam. Using this system, the spot size is reduced to 0.392 {lambda} and the depth of focus is increased to 7 {lambda}. The efficiency of such system is found to be 87%. This high efficient longitudinally polarized beam generated by hyper geometric Gaussian beam is useful for most of the near-field optics applications.
Bit error rate testing of fiber optic data links for MMIC-based phased array antennas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shalkhauser, K. A.; Kunath, R. R.; Daryoush, A. S.
1990-06-01
The measured bit-error-rate (BER) performance of a fiber optic data link to be used in satellite communications systems is presented and discussed. In the testing, the link was measured for its ability to carry high burst rate, serial-minimum shift keyed (SMSK) digital data similar to those used in actual space communications systems. The fiber optic data link, as part of a dual-segment injection-locked RF fiber optic link system, offers a means to distribute these signals to the many radiating elements of a phased array antenna. Test procedures, experimental arrangements, and test results are presented.
Bit error rate testing of fiber optic data links for MMIC-based phased array antennas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shalkhauser, K. A.; Kunath, R. R.; Daryoush, A. S.
1990-01-01
The measured bit-error-rate (BER) performance of a fiber optic data link to be used in satellite communications systems is presented and discussed. In the testing, the link was measured for its ability to carry high burst rate, serial-minimum shift keyed (SMSK) digital data similar to those used in actual space communications systems. The fiber optic data link, as part of a dual-segment injection-locked RF fiber optic link system, offers a means to distribute these signals to the many radiating elements of a phased array antenna. Test procedures, experimental arrangements, and test results are presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1978-01-01
Design concepts of an array for the formation of multiple, simultaneous, independently pointed beams for satellite communication links were investigated through tradeoffs of various approaches which were conceived as possible solutions to the problem. After the preferred approach was selected, a more detailed design was configured and is presented as a candidate system that should be given further consideration for development leading to a preliminary design. This array uses an attenuator and a phase shifter with every element. The aperture excitation necessary to form the four beams is calculated and then placed across the array using these devices. Pattern analysis was performed for two beam and four beam cases with numerous patterns being presented. Parameter evaluation shown includes pointing accuracy and beam shape, sidelobe characteristics, gain control, and beam normalization. It was demonstrated that a 4 bit phase shifter and a 6 bit, 30 dB attenuator were sufficient to achieve adequate pattern performances. The phase amplitude steered multibeam array offers the flexibility of 1 to 4 beams with an increase in gain of 6 dB if only one beam is selected.
Continuous Beam Steering From a Segmented Liquid Crystal Optical Phased Array
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Titus, Charles M.; Pouch, John; Nguyen, Hung; Miranda, Felix; Bos, Philip J.
2002-01-01
Optical communications to and from deep space probes will require beams possessing divergence on the order of a microradian, and must be steered with sub-microradian precision. Segmented liquid crystal spatial phase modulators, a type of optical phased array, are considered for this ultra-high resolution beam steering. It is shown here that in an ideal device of this type, there are ultimately no restrictions on the angular resolution. Computer simulations are used to obtain that result, and to analyze the influence of beam truncation and substrate flatness on the performance of this type of device.
All-fiber phase-control-free coherent-beam combining toward femtosecond-pulse amplification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kambayashi, Yuta; Yoshida, Minoru; Sasaki, Toshiki; Yoshikawa, Masashi
2017-01-01
Our present work is to develop an all-fiber coherent-beam-combining system that achieves a high-energy femtosecond-pulse fiber laser beyond pulse energy limits due to the nonlinear effects in fiber amplifiers. Coherent-beam combining (CBC) using optical fibers is technically difficult because the optical phases and the polarizations in the optical fibers fluctuate due to disturbances. We developed an all-fiber passive CBC system that does not need to control optical phases and polarizations that achieved a beam-combining efficiency of 95.9%. The combined output changes of the passive CBC system are the less than 1.0% in full width.
Continuous Beam Steering From A Segmented Liquid Crystal Optical Phased Array
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pouch, John; Nguyen, Hung; Miranda, Felix; Titus, Charles M.; Bos, Philip J.
2002-01-01
Optical communications to and from deep space probes will require beams possessing divergence on the order of a microradian, and must be steered with sub-microradian precision. Segmented liquid crystal spatial phase modulators, a type of optical phased array, are considered for this ultra-high resolution beam steering. It is shown here that in an ideal device of this type, there are ultimately no restrictions on the angular resolution. Computer simulations are used to obtain that result, and to analyze the influence of beam truncation and substrate flatness on the performance of this type of device.
Condensed-Phase Mass Fraction in a Supersonic Molecular Beam Containing Clusters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knuth, Eldon L.; Toennies, J. Peter
2008-12-01
For a supersonic molecular beam containing clusters, a relatively general and simple conservation-of-energy procedure for deducing from time-of-flight measurements the fraction of the beam in the condensed phase is developed. The procedure is applied to measurements for 4He beams formed by expansions which approach the two-phase region either near the critical point or to the liquid side of the critical point. The deduced values of the mass fraction are correlated using a scaling parameter which was used previously for correlating mean values of cluster sizes formed via fragmentation in free-jet expansions of liquid 4He.
Continuous Beam Steering From A Segmented Liquid Crystal Optical Phased Array
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pouch, John; Nguyen, Hung; Miranda, Felix; Titus, Charles M.; Bos, Philip J.
2002-01-01
Optical communications to and from deep space probes will require beams possessing divergence on the order of a microradian, and must be steered with sub-microradian precision. Segmented liquid crystal spatial phase modulators, a type of optical phased array, are considered for this ultra-high resolution beam steering. It is shown here that in an ideal device of this type, there are ultimately no restrictions on the angular resolution. Computer simulations are used to obtain that result, and to analyze the influence of beam truncation and substrate flatness on the performance of this type of device.
Tight Focusing Properties of Phase Modulated Radially Polarized Laguerre Bessel Gaussian Beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prabakaran, K.; Sangeetha, P.; Karthik, V.; Rajesh, K. B.; Musthafa, A. M.
2017-05-01
We propose a new approach for generating a multiple focal spot segment of subwavelength size, by tight focusing of a phase modulated radially polarized Laguerre Bessel Gaussian beam. The focusing properties are investigated theoretically by vector diffraction theory. We observe that the focal segment with multiple focal structures is separated with different axial distances and a super long dark channel can be generated by properly tuning the phase of the incident radially polarized Laguerre Bessel Gaussian beam. We presume that such multiple focal patterns and high intense beam may find applications in atom optics, optical manipulations and multiple optical trapping.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Chien-Cheng; Liu, Tzu-Ling; Chang, Shao-Wen; Ho, Yen-Cheng; Chen, Chia-Jen; Lin, Chih-Cheng; Lien, Ta-Cheng; Lee, Hsin-Chang; Yen, Anthony
2015-10-01
The authors present a detailed observation of the charge-induced pattern positioning errors (CIPPEs) in a variableshape e-beam writer on an opaque-MoSi-over-glass (OMOG) mask by directly measuring the pattern shifts using a mask registration tool. The CIPPEs are found to have one short-range, that is exponentially decaying in space, and the other constant offset components. The exponential term that decays slowly in time, whereas the constant offset fast diminishes. By applying a charge dissipation layer (CDL), the authors experimentally verify that the exponential component results from the charges in resist. On the other hands, the constant offset that can not be eliminated by the CDL is speculated to be charges in the substrate according to the Monte Carlo simulation.
Phase control and beam steering of semiconductor laser arrays
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Katz, J.
1982-01-01
The operational principles and a possible device configuration of one dimensional monolithically integrated semiconductor laser arrays are described. The output beam of the array can be electronically steered. Devices of the type can find applications in optical communication systems where the power levels needed are above the capability of a single laser device.
Issues with Phase Space Characterization of Laser-plasma Generated Electron Beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cianchi, A.; Alesini, D.; Anania, M. P.; Bellaveglia, M.; Castellano, M.; Chiadroni, E.; Di Giovenale, D.; Ferrario, M.; Mostacci, A.; Musumeci, P.; Pompili, R.; Ronsivalle, C.; Rossi, A. R.; Serafini, L.; Villa, F.
Plasma acceleration is the new frontier in particle beam accelerators. Using the strong electric fields inside a plasma it is possible to achieve accelerating gradients orders of magnitude larger with respect to current technologies. Different schemes, using completely different approaches, have been proposed and several already tested, producing beams of energy up to several GeV. Regardless of the technique used for acceleration a precise determination of the output beam parameters is mandatory for the fine tuning of the process. The measurement of these parameters, in particular the beam distribution in transverse and longitudinal phase space, is not trivial, mainly due to the large energy spread and to the tight focusing of these beams or to the background noise produced in the plasma channel. We illustrate the main problems related to the diagnostic of this kind of beams and some of the proposed or already realized solutions
Thilmann, Christoph; Nill, Simeon; Tücking, Thomas; Höss, Angelika; Hesse, Bernd; Dietrich, Lars; Bendl, Rolf; Rhein, Bernhard; Häring, Peter; Thieke, Christian; Oelfke, Uwe; Debus, Juergen; Huber, Peter
2006-05-24
The purpose of the study was the clinical implementation of a kV cone beam CT (CBCT) for setup correction in radiotherapy. For evaluation of the setup correction workflow, six tumor patients (lung cancer, sacral chordoma, head-and-neck and paraspinal tumor, and two prostate cancer patients) were selected. All patients were treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy, five of them with intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). For patient fixation, a scotch cast body frame or a vacuum pillow, each in combination with a scotch cast head mask, were used. The imaging equipment, consisting of an x-ray tube and a flat panel imager (FPI), was attached to a Siemens linear accelerator according to the in-line approach, i.e. with the imaging beam mounted opposite to the treatment beam sharing the same isocenter. For dose delivery, the treatment beam has to traverse the FPI which is mounted in the accessory tray below the multi-leaf collimator. For each patient, a predefined number of imaging projections over a range of at least 200 degrees were acquired. The fast reconstruction of the 3D-CBCT dataset was done with an implementation of the Feldkamp-David-Kress (FDK) algorithm. For the registration of the treatment planning CT with the acquired CBCT, an automatic mutual information matcher and manual matching was used. Bony landmarks were easily detected and the table shifts for correction of setup deviations could be automatically calculated in all cases. The image quality was sufficient for a visual comparison of the desired target point with the isocenter visible on the CBCT. Soft tissue contrast was problematic for the prostate of an obese patient, but good in the lung tumor case. The detected maximum setup deviation was 3 mm for patients fixated with the body frame, and 6 mm for patients positioned in the vacuum pillow. Using an action level of 2 mm translational error, a target point correction was carried out in 4 cases. The additional workload of the described
Continuous wave stimulated Brillouin scattering phase conjugation and beam cleanup in optical fiber
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Massey, Steven M.; Spring, Justin B.; Russell, Timothy H.
2009-02-01
A review of research into stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugation and beam cleanup conducted at the Air Force Institute of Technology is presented. CW phase conjugation was demonstrated using SBS in short lengths of multi-mode, step-index fiber. A fidelity of 0.8 was achieved using a 0.06-NA fiber of 40 m length and a 0.13-NA fiber at 15 m length. In modeling and experiment, the fidelity declined as fiber length or numerical aperture increased. A relationship was established empirically between step-index fiber parameters and the phase conjugation fidelity. In addition, increased fidelity was related to an increase in the effective Brillouin gain coefficient in step-index fibers. Beam cleanup was observed in both graded-index and step-index fibers. The Stokes beam generated in long, multimode, graded-index fibers was analyzed using spatial and phase methods and found to be a low-order mode of the fiber instead of a phase conjugate of the pump. SBS in long, graded-index fibers was used to combine multiple beams and to improve the beam quality of a single aberrated beam.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, C.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Slater, L. D.; Seleznev, N. V.
2016-12-01
High frequency phase errors that plague spectral induced polarization (SIP) measurements are partly due to the effects of electrode impedance. Others have recently proposed an experimental correction procedure based on a simplified electrical model of the system under test. The application of the method is limited due to the dependence of the correction on the input capacitance (Ci) of SIP instruments. With this study, we evaluated the correction procedure with a new experimental set up, confirming the improved phase accuracy at high frequency. In addition, we propose an experimental method to calculate Ci based on the experimental set up used for each measurement. The method utilizes well characterized fluids, with known electrical properties, for the accurate estimation of Ci. Following this new procedure, Ci of the used set up was determined to be 6.30 ± 0.29 pF. High frequency errors were further suppressed when the calculated, versus the estimated, Ci was used. Correction results suggest that Ci is weakly dependent on sample properties. The correction procedure with the experimental determination of Ci significantly improves the quality of SIP measurements on unconsolidated sediments and rock cores.
Error and repair catastrophes: A two-dimensional phase diagram in the quasispecies model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tannenbaum, Emmanuel; Shakhnovich, Eugene I.
2004-01-01
This paper develops a two-gene, single fitness peak model for determining the equilibrium distribution of genotypes in a unicellular population which is capable of genetic damage repair. The first gene, denoted by σvia, yields a viable organism with first-order growth rate constant k>1 if it is equal to some target “master” sequence σvia,0. The second gene, denoted by σrep, yields an organism capable of genetic repair if it is equal to some target “master” sequence σrep,0. This model is analytically solvable in the limit of infinite sequence length, and gives an equilibrium distribution which depends on μ≡Lɛ, the product of sequence length and per base pair replication error probability, and ɛr, the probability of repair failure per base pair. The equilibrium distribution is shown to exist in one of the three possible “phases.” In the first phase, the population is localized about the viability and repairing master sequences. As ɛr exceeds the fraction of deleterious mutations, the population undergoes a “repair” catastrophe, in which the equilibrium distribution is still localized about the viability master sequence, but is spread ergodically over the sequence subspace defined by the repair gene. Below the repair catastrophe, the distribution undergoes the error catastrophe when μ exceeds ln k/ɛr, while above the repair catastrophe, the distribution undergoes the error catastrophe when μ exceeds ln k/fdel, where fdel denotes the fraction of deleterious mutations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Yeo Hun; Kang, Min Koo; Yoon, Ki Hyuk; Sohn, Kwang Hoon; Kim, Sung Kyu
2017-05-01
In autostereoscopic display using LASER beam scanning type of multiple projectors, accurate projector calibration is essential to alleviate optical distortions such as keystone distortion. However, calibrating hundreds of projectors with high accuracy takes too much time and effort. Moreover, there exist a limited range where viewers can percept correct depth with respect to human visual system (HVS) although the ideal projector calibration is possible. After fine projector calibration, we explored its accuracy with a brute-force technique, and analyzed depth expression ranges (DER) in the given accuracy with respect to HVS. We set five error conditions for projector calibration accuracy. And then we derive correlation between projector calibration error (PCE) and DER, and determine accuracy of projector calibration affect DER. And we determine that there is no problem in that the observer can perceive the depth of 3D object up to a certain accuracy of projector calibration. From this result, we proposed a perceptive threshold for acceptable projector calibration accuracy for whole system's efficiency eventually.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, Weixing; Yu, Yang; Ning, Ruola; Liu, Jiangkun; Conover, David
2012-03-01
Differential phase contrast (DPC) imaging, which utilizes phase shift information of X-ray, has the potential of dramatically increasing the contrast in biological sample imaging compared to attenuation-based method that relies on X-ray absorption information, since the X-ray phase is much more sensitive than the attenuation during transmission. In a DPC imaging system, the phase stepping method is widely used to obtain DPC images: at each angle the phase grating is shifted incrementally to produce a set of images and then the so obtained images are used to retrieve DPC image. However, DPC imaging requires a high mechanical precision to perform phase stepping, which is generally one order higher than the period of phase grating. Given that phase grating period is generally 2-4 um, the requirement of mechanical accuracy and stability are very demanding (<0.5um) and difficult to meet in a system with rotating gantry. In this paper, we present a method that is able to greatly relax the requirement of mechanical accuracy and stability by stepping the source grating rather than the analyzer grating. This method is able to increase the system's mechanical tolerance without compromising image quality and make it feasible to install the system on a rotating gantry to perform differential phase-contrast cone beam CT (DPC-CBCT). It is also able to increase the grating shifting precision and as a result improve the reconstructed image quality. Mechanical tolerance investigation and image quality investigation at different phase stepping schemes and different dose levels will be carried out on both the original modality and the new modality, the results will be evaluated and compared. We will deliberately create random mechanical errors in phase stepping and evaluate the resulting DPC images and DPC-CBCT reconstructions. The contrast, noise level and sharpness will be evaluated to assess the influence of mechanical errors. By stepping the source grating, the system is expected
Beam Line and Associated Work: Operational Phase 1985-1987
1988-08-26
ENEA FEL experiment. F. Cicci, E. Fiorentino. A. Ranieri, E. Sabie. Centro Ricerche Energia Frascati (Italy?. ....................... 169 582.25...C) knife-edge pinhole bracket (cf. Fig. 14); (D) beam stop; (E) calorimeter with an attached Si solar cell detector; (F) paddle with tilted platforms...used for T real-time signal pickup behind the slit was a standard Si solar cell, epoxied to the calorimeter case (detail . in Fig. 5). The experimental
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coleman, J. E.; Seidl, P. A.; Bieniosek, F. M.; Leitner, M. A.; Lidia, S. M.; Vay, J. L.; Waldron, W. L.; Grote, D. P.; Welch, D. R.
2012-07-01
Longitudinal phase space and temperature measurements were conducted on a 2-3μs long, singly charged K+ ion bunch with an ion energy of ˜0.3MeV and current of 30 mA. The principal objective of these experiments was to measure the longitudinal beam dynamics and study the limits of axial compression. The differences between the measured beam energy, longitudinal beam dynamics, and the amplitude and time history of the Marx voltage waveform were all quantified. Longitudinal phase space measurements indicate a slight chromaticity (<1%) in the beam from head to tail. Record low longitudinal temperatures of Tz=2-4×10-2eV were measured for a beam bunch of this intensity with negligible effects from neutralizing the beam space charge with a background plasma. A qualitative comparison of experimental and calculated results are presented, which include time resolved longitudinal distributions, and phase space of the beam at 430 cm.
Evolution of the ring Airy Gaussian beams with a spiral phase in the Kerr medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Bo; Chen, Chidao; Peng, Xi; Peng, Yulian; Zhou, Meiling; Deng, Dongmei; Guo, Hong
2016-05-01
Nonlinear optical phenomena are of great practical interest in optics. The evolution of ring Airy Gaussian beams with a spiral phase in the nonlinear Kerr medium is investigated using the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Numerical simulations indicate that the distribution factor b can influence the formation of the ring Airy Gaussian beams. Results show that the beams can be oscillating, and the light filament can be achieved under appropriate laser input power. On the other hand, the evolution of the ring Airy Gaussian beams with a spiral phase in the nonlinear Kerr medium can be implemented, and the numerical simulations of the holographic generation of the ring Airy Gaussian vortex beams propagated in the medium demonstrate that the vortex can be preserved along the propagation. The Poynting vector shows that the energy flow of the ring Airy Gaussian beams flows in the opposite direction on both sides of the focus plane; however, for beams with a spiral phase, the flow direction remains the same; the energy flow can rotate in opposite directions on both sides of the focal plane.
Beam dynamics in the SLC final focus system
Bambade, P.S.
1987-06-01
The SLC luminosity is reached by colliding beams focused to about 2 ..mu..m transverse sizes. The Final Focus System (FFS) must enable, beyond its basic optical design, the detection and correction of errors accumulated in the system. In this paper, after summarizing the design, we review the sensitivity to such errors and the ability to correct them. The overall tuning strategy involves three phases: single beam spot minimization, steering the beams in collision and luminosity optimization with beam-beam effects.
Tomographic measurement of the phase space distribution of a space-charge-dominated beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stratakis, Diktys
Many applications of accelerators, such as free electron lasers, pulsed neutron sources, and heavy ion fusion, require a good quality beam with high intensity. In practice, the achievable intensity is often limited by the dynamics at the low-energy, space-charge dominated end of the machine. Because low-energy beams can have complex distribution functions, a good understanding of their detailed evolution is needed. To address this issue, we have developed a simple and accurate tomographic method to map the beam phase using quadrupole magnets, which includes the effects from space charge. We extend this technique to use also solenoidal magnets which are commonly used at low energies, especially in photoinjectors, thus making the diagnostic applicable to most machines. We simulate our technique using a particle in cell code (PIC), to ascertain accuracy of the reconstruction. Using this diagnostic we report a number of experiments to study and optimize injection, transport and acceleration of intense space charge dominated beams. We examine phase mixing, by studying the phase-space evolution of an intense beam with a transversely nonuniform initial density distribution. Experimental measurements, theoretical predictions and PIC simulations are in good agreement each other. Finally, we generate a parabolic beam pulse to model those beams from photoinjectors, and combine tomography with fast imaging techniques to investigate the time-sliced parameters of beam current, size, energy spread and transverse emittance. We found significant differences between the slice emittance profiles and slice orientation as the beam propagates downstream. The combined effect of longitudinal nonuniform profiles and fast imaging of the transverse phase space provided us with information about correlations between longitudinal and transverse dynamics that we report within this dissertation.
Electronically controlled optical beam-steering by an active phased array of metallic nanoantennas.
DeRose, C T; Kekatpure, R D; Trotter, D C; Starbuck, A; Wendt, J R; Yaacobi, A; Watts, M R; Chettiar, U; Engheta, N; Davids, P S
2013-02-25
An optical phased array of nanoantenna fabricated in a CMOS compatible silicon photonics process is presented. The optical phased array is fed by low loss silicon waveguides with integrated ohmic thermo-optic phase shifters capable of 2π phase shift with ∼ 15 mW of applied electrical power. By controlling the electrical power to the individual integrated phase shifters fixed wavelength steering of the beam emitted normal to the surface of the wafer of 8° is demonstrated for 1 × 8 phased arrays with periods of both 6 and 9 μm.
Large aperture interferometer with phase-conjugate self-reference beam
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Howes, W. L.
1986-01-01
A large aperture self-referencing interferometer consisting of a Twyman-Green interferometer using a self-pumped phase conjugator in series with test section optics is described and experimentally demonstrated. This interferometer provides twice the fringe shift of a Mach-Zehnder (M-Z) interferometer for a given optical phase change induced within the test section. It also provides greater irradiance in the reference beam than does a similar series setup utilizing a M-Z interferometer incorporating a local reference beam. Whereas the ordinary interferometer records instantaneous conditions, the new one records overage conditions if a BaTiO3 crystal is used as the phase conjugator.
Diffractive-optics-based beam combination of a phase-locked fiber laser array.
Cheung, Eric C; Ho, James G; Goodno, Gregory D; Rice, Robert R; Rothenberg, Josh; Thielen, Peter; Weber, Mark; Wickham, Michael
2008-02-15
A diffractive optical element (DOE) is used as a beam combiner for an actively phase-locked array of fiber lasers. Use of a DOE eliminates the far-field sidelobes and the accompanying loss of beam quality typically observed in tiled coherent laser arrays. Using this technique, we demonstrated coherent combination of five fiber lasers with 91% efficiency and M2=1.04. Combination efficiency and phase locking is robust even with large amplitude and phase fluctuations on the input laser array elements. Calculations and power handling measurements suggest that this approach can scale to both high channel counts and high powers.
A parametric study of ultrasonic beam profiles for a linear phased array transducer.
Lee, J H; Choi, S W
2000-01-01
A numerical simulation model is presented to investigate the influences of design parameters of linear phased array transducers on beam focusing and steering performance. The characteristic of ultrasonic beam profiles has been simulated on the basis of the Huygen's superposition principle. For the simulation, a linear phased array is considered as the composition of finite number of elements separated by equidistance. Individual elements are considered as two-dimensional point sources. The waves generated from piezoelectric elements are considered as simplified transient ultrasonic waves that are constructed with the cosine function enveloped with a Hanning window. The characteristic of ultrasonic wave propagation into a medium from the phased array transducer is described. The effects of the number, the interelement spacing, steering angle, the focal length, and frequency bandwidth of the piezoelectric elements on beam directivity and ultrasonic pressure field in a linear phased array transducer are systematically discussed.
Ramirez-Delreal, Tania A; Mora-Gonzalez, Miguel; Casillas-Rodriguez, Francisco J; Muñoz-Maciel, Jesus; Paz, Marco A
2017-03-20
Phase-shifting is one of the most useful methods of phase recovery in digital interferometry in the estimation of small displacements, but miscalibration errors of the phase shifters are very common. In practice, the main problem associated with such errors is related to the response of the phase shifter devices, since they are dependent on mechanical and/or electrical parts. In this work, a novel technique to detect and measure calibration errors in phase-shifting interferometry, when an unexpected phase shift arises, is proposed. The described method uses the Radon transform, first as an automatic-calibrating technique, and then as a profile measuring procedure when analyzing a specific zone of an interferogram. After, once maximum and minimum value parameters have been registered, these can be used to measure calibration errors. Synthetic and real interferograms are included in the testing, which has thrown good approximations for both cases, notwithstanding the interferogram fringe distribution or its phase-shifting steps. Tests have shown that this algorithm is able to measure the deviations of the steps in phase-shifting interferometry. The developed algorithm can also be used as an alternative in the calibration of phase shifter devices.
1989-03-31
8217 - ".4. QUALC MI InI Fnal ’I, nica•Re ri re the R.e.- Rh ii’ mathematics and Conmputer Sciece II .,u. A , pi i- pr - l ,--I ( pf(6) where Aj is the number...Techna, Re for the Reseaý tn Mathematics and ter Sciec if ((polyp = fopen("polys","r")) == (FILE *) 0) fprintf(stderr,"sorry, error opening polynomials...Technicail Rejm [or the Researh in Madkieatics and Computer Sciec Table 1. Sampled Weight Distributions for 24 Bit CRCs at Block Length n = 32 Weight
Electron-beam synthesis of fuel in the gas phase
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ponomarev, A. V.; Holodkova, E. M.; Ershov, B. G.
2012-09-01
Electron-beam synthesis of liquid fuel from gaseous alkanes was upgraded for formation of conventional and alternative fuel from biomass or pyrolysis oil. Bio-feedstock conversion algorithm includes two consecutive stages: (1) initial macromolecules' transformation to low-molecular-weight intermediates; (2) transformation of these intermediates to stable fuel in gaseous alkanes' atmosphere. Radicals originated from alkanes participate in alkylation/hydrogenation of biomass intermediates. Chemical fixation of gaseous alkanes is amplified in the presence of biomass derivatives due to suppression of gas regeneration reactions, higher molar mass of reagents and lower volatility of radiolytic intermediates.
Influence of the least-squares phase on optical vortices in strongly scintillated beams
Chen Mingzhou; Roux, Filippus S.
2009-07-15
The optical vortices that exist in strongly scintillated beams make it difficult for conventional adaptive optics systems to remove the phase distortions. When the least-squares reconstructed phase is removed, the vortices still remain. However, we found that the removal of the least-squares phase induces a portion of the vortices to be annihilated during subsequent propagation, causing a reduction in the total number of vortices. This can be understood in terms of the restoration of equilibrium between explicit vortices, which are visible in the phase function, and vortex bound states, which are somehow encoded in the continuous phase fluctuations. Numerical simulations are provided to show that the total number of optical vortices in a strongly scintillated beam can be reduced significantly after a few steps of least-squares phase corrections.
Beam hardening effects in grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging
Chabior, Michael; Donath, Tilman; David, Christian; Bunk, Oliver; Schuster, Manfred; Schroer, Christian; Pfeiffer, Franz
2011-03-15
Purpose: In this work, the authors investigate how beam hardening affects the image formation in x-ray phase-contrast imaging and consecutively develop a correction algorithm based on the results of the analysis. Methods: The authors' approach utilizes a recently developed x-ray imaging technique using a grating interferometer capable of visualizing the differential phase shift of a wave front traversing an object. An analytical description of beam hardening is given, highlighting differences between attenuation and phase-contrast imaging. The authors present exemplary beam hardening artifacts for a number of well-defined samples in measurements at a compact laboratory setup using a polychromatic source. Results: Despite the differences in image formation, the authors show that beam hardening leads to a similar reduction of image quality in phase-contrast imaging as in conventional attenuation-contrast imaging. Additionally, the authors demonstrate that for homogeneous objects, beam hardening artifacts can be corrected by a linearization technique, applicable to all kinds of phase-contrast methods using polychromatic sources. Conclusions: The evaluated correction algorithm is shown to yield good results for a number of simple test objects and can thus be advocated in medical imaging and nondestructive testing.
Beam hardening effects in grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging.
Chabior, Michael; Donath, Tilman; David, Christian; Bunk, Oliver; Schuster, Manfred; Schroer, Christian; Pfeiffer, Franz
2011-03-01
In this work, the authors investigate how beam hardening affects the image formation in x-ray phase-contrast imaging and consecutively develop a correction algorithm based on the results of the analysis. The authors' approach utilizes a recently developed x-ray imaging technique using a grating interferometer capable of visualizing the differential phase shift of a wave front traversing an object. An analytical description of beam hardening is given, highlighting differences between attenuation and phase-contrast imaging. The authors present exemplary beam hardening artifacts for a number of well-defined samples in measurements at a compact laboratory setup using a polychromatic source. Despite the differences in image formation, the authors show that beam hardening leads to a similar reduction of image quality in phase-contrast imaging as in conventional attenuation-contrast imaging. Additionally, the authors demonstrate that for homogeneous objects, beam hardening artifacts can be corrected by a linearization technique, applicable to all kinds of phase-contrast methods using polychromatic sources. The evaluated correction algorithm is shown to yield good results for a number of simple test objects and can thus be advocated in medical imaging and nondestructive testing.
Analysis and reduction of errors caused by Poisson noise for phase diversity technique.
Yu, Hongli; Yang, Chengliang; Xu, Zihao; Zhang, Peiguang; Xu, Huanyu; Cao, Zhaoliang; Mu, Quanquan; Xuan, Li
2016-09-19
An effective method for reducing the sensitivity of phase diversity (PD) technique to Poisson noise is proposed. The denoising algorithm based on blocking-matching and 3D filtering is first introduced in the wavefront sensing field as a preprocessing stage. Then, the PD technique is applied to the denoised images. Results of the numerical simulations and experiments demonstrate that our approach is better than the traditional PD technique in terms of both the root-mean-square error (RMSE) of phase estimates and the structural similarity index metrics (SSIM). The RMSEs of phase estimates on synthetic data are decreased by approximately 40% across noise levels within the range of 58.7-18.8 dB in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR). Meanwhile, the overall decline range of SSIM is significantly decreased from 49% to 9%. The experiment and simulation results are in good agreement. The approach may be widely used in various domains, such as the measurements of intrinsic aberrations in optical systems and compensations for atmospheric turbulence.
Modulation of auroral electrojet currents using dual HF beams with ELF phase offset
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Golkowski, M.; Cohen, M.; Moore, R. C.
2012-12-01
The modulation of naturally occuring ionospheric currents with high power radio waves in the high frequency (HF, 3-10 MHz) band is a well known technique for generation of extremely low frequency (ELF, 3-3000 Hz) and very low frequency (VLF, 3-30 kHz) waves. We use the heating facility of the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) to investigate the effect of using dual HF beams with an ELF/VLF phase offset between the modulation waveforms. Experiments with offset HF beams confirm the model of independent ELF/VLF sources. Experiments with co-located HF beams exhibit interaction between the first and second harmonics of the modulated tones when square and sine wave modulation waveforms are employed. Using ELF/VLF phase offsets for co-loacted beams is also shown to be a potential diagnostic for the D-region ionospheric profile.
Power beaming to a micro aerial vehicle using an active phased array
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sawahara, Hironori; Oda, Akinori; Alseny, Diallo; Komurasaki, Kimiya; Arakawa, Yoshihiro
2010-04-01
A power beaming system to a Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) using 5.8GHz microwaves has been developed. The system consists of three sub-systems; a pointing system, a tracking system, and a receiving system. The MAV is tracked using the phase information of pilot signal. Software retro-directive function has been realized through a PC control and a microwave beam is pointed to the MAV using an active phased array. The beam divergence was about 9deg and the beam steering angle was from -9deg to +9deg. Light-weight flexible rectenna array made of cupper tapes and a thin polyimide film was mounted on a wing of the MAV model, and the electric motor was driven by the received power. The weight per unit reception area was 26mg/cm2.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ugarte, Daniel; Ducati, Caterina
2016-05-01
We have theoretically studied how the azimuthal phase structure of an electron vortex beam excites surface plasmons on metal particles of different geometries as observed in electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). We have developed a semiclassical approximation combining a ring-shaped beam and the dielectric formalism. Our results indicate that for the case of total orbital angular momentum transfer, we can manipulate surface plasmon multipole excitation and even attain an enhancement factor of several orders of magnitude. Since electron vortex beams interact with particles mostly through effects due to azimuthal symmetry, i.e., in the plane perpendicular to the electron beam, anisotropy information (longitudinal and transversal) of the sample may be derived in EELS studies by comparing nonvortex and vortex beam measurements.
Rodrigues, Anna; Yin, Fang-Fang; Wu, Qiuwen; Sawkey, Daren
2015-05-15
Purpose: To develop a framework for accurate electron Monte Carlo dose calculation. In this study, comprehensive validations of vendor provided electron beam phase space files for Varian TrueBeam Linacs against measurement data are presented. Methods: In this framework, the Monte Carlo generated phase space files were provided by the vendor and used as input to the downstream plan-specific simulations including jaws, electron applicators, and water phantom computed in the EGSnrc environment. The phase space files were generated based on open field commissioning data. A subset of electron energies of 6, 9, 12, 16, and 20 MeV and open and collimated field sizes 3 × 3, 4 × 4, 5 × 5, 6 × 6, 10 × 10, 15 × 15, 20 × 20, and 25 × 25 cm{sup 2} were evaluated. Measurements acquired with a CC13 cylindrical ionization chamber and electron diode detector and simulations from this framework were compared for a water phantom geometry. The evaluation metrics include percent depth dose, orthogonal and diagonal profiles at depths R{sub 100}, R{sub 50}, R{sub p}, and R{sub p+} for standard and extended source-to-surface distances (SSD), as well as cone and cut-out output factors. Results: Agreement for the percent depth dose and orthogonal profiles between measurement and Monte Carlo was generally within 2% or 1 mm. The largest discrepancies were observed within depths of 5 mm from phantom surface. Differences in field size, penumbra, and flatness for the orthogonal profiles at depths R{sub 100}, R{sub 50}, and R{sub p} were within 1 mm, 1 mm, and 2%, respectively. Orthogonal profiles at SSDs of 100 and 120 cm showed the same level of agreement. Cone and cut-out output factors agreed well with maximum differences within 2.5% for 6 MeV and 1% for all other energies. Cone output factors at extended SSDs of 105, 110, 115, and 120 cm exhibited similar levels of agreement. Conclusions: We have presented a Monte Carlo simulation framework for electron beam dose calculations for
Demonstration Results of the Triband, Multi-Beam Airborne Telemetry Phased Array (AirPA) System
2015-03-01
AirPA Phase 3 test event in September 2014, the element level digital beamforming phased array was successfully demonstrated at Edwards Air Force...Base in L-band, S-band, and C-band at a technology readiness level of 6. The system tracked both ground and air mobile transmitters using ARTM Tier 0...Phased Array, antenna, digital beam-forming, beamforming , DBF, L-band, S-band, C-band, CTEIP, NAVAIR 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF
Compact Simultaneous-beam Optical Strain Measurement System, Phase 5
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lant, Christian T.
1994-01-01
Recent advances on the laser speckle strain measurement system under development at NASA Lewis Research Center have resulted in a compact, easy-to-use measurement package having many performance improvements over previous systems. NASA has developed this high performance optical strain measurement system for high temperature material testing applications. The system is based on I. Yamaguchi's two-beam speckle-shift strain measurement theory, and uses a new optical design that allows simultaneous recording of laser speckle patterns. This design greatly improves system response over previous implementations of the two-beam speckle-shift technique. The degree of immunity to transient rigid body motions is no longer dependent on the data transfer rate. The system automatically calculates surface strains at a frequency of about 5 Hz using a high speed digital signal processor in a personal computer. This system is fully automated, and can be operated remotely. This report describes the designs and methods used by the system, and shows low temperature strain test results obtained from small diameter tungsten-rhenium and palladium-chrome wires.
Experimental research on beam steering characteristics of liquid crystal optical phased array
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Man; Cai, Jun; Xu, Hong; Wang, Xiangru; Wu, Liang
2016-01-01
Beam steering characteristics of transmission liquid crystal optical phased array(LC-OPA) were measured using ultra precision electronic autocollimator. A continuous beam steering with a constant angular resolution in the order of 20 μrad is obtained experimentally from 0° to 6° based on the method of variable period grating (VPG).Meanwhile, the angular repeatability of less than 4 μrad (RMS) has been achieved.
Longitudinal phase space manipulation of an ultrashort electron beam via THz IFEL interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moody, J. T.; Li, R. K.; Musumeci, P.; Scoby, C. M.; To, H.
2012-12-01
A scheme where a laser locked THz source is used to manipulate the longitudinal phase space of an ultrashort electron beam using an IFEL interaction is investigated. The efficiency of THz source based on the pulse front tilt optical rectification scheme is increased by cryogenic cooling to achieve sufficient THz power for compression and synchronization. Start-to-end simulations describing the evolution of the beam from the cathode to the compression point after the undulator are presented.
Tahara, Tatsuki; Ito, Kenichi; Kakue, Takashi; Fujii, Motofumi; Shimozato, Yuki; Awatsuji, Yasuhiro; Nishio, Kenzo; Ura, Shogo; Kubota, Toshihiro; Matoba, Osamu
2011-03-01
We propose an algorithm for compensating the phase-shift error of polarization-based parallel two-step phase-shifting digital holography, which is a technique for recording a spatial two-step phase-shifted hologram. Although a polarization-based system of the technique has been experimentally demonstrated, there had been the problem that the phase difference of two phase-shifted holograms had been changed by the extinction ratio of the micropolarizer array attached to the image sensor used in the system. To improve the performance of the system, we established and formulated an algorithm for compensating the phase-shift error. Accurate spatial phase-shifting interferometry in the system can be conducted by the algorithm regardless of phase-shift error due to the extinction ratio. By the numerical simulation, the proposed algorithm was capable of reducing the root mean square errors of the reconstructed image by 1/4 and 1/5 in amplitude and phase, respectively. Also, the algorithm was experimentally demonstrated, and the experimental results showed that the system employing the proposed algorithm suppressed the conjugate image, which slightly appeared in the image reconstructed by the system not employing the algorithm, even when the extinction ratio was 10:1. Thus, the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm was numerically and experimentally verified. © 2010 Optical Society of America
Generation of equal-intensity coherent optical beams by binary geometrical phase on metasurface
Wang, Zheng-Han; Jiang, Shang-Chi; Xiong, Xiang; Peng, Ru-Wen E-mail: muwang@nju.edu.cn; Wang, Mu E-mail: muwang@nju.edu.cn
2016-06-27
We report here the design and realization of a broadband, equal-intensity optical beam splitter with a dispersion-free binary geometric phase on a metasurface with unit cell consisting of two mirror-symmetric elements. We demonstrate experimentally that two identical beams can be efficiently generated with incidence of any polarization. The efficiency of the device reaches 80% at 1120 nm and keeps larger than 70% in the range of 1000–1400 nm. We suggest that this approach for generating identical, coherent beams have wide applications in diffraction optics and in entangled photon light source for quantum communication.
Phase-space analysis of charged and optical beam transport: Wigner rotation angle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dattoli, G.; Torre, Amalia
1994-01-01
The possibility of using the phase space formalism to establish a correspondence between the dynamical behavior of squeezed states and optical or charged beams, propagating through linear systems, has received a great deal of attention during the last years. In this connection, it has been indicated how optical experiments may be conceived to measure the Wigner rotation angle. In this paper we address the topic within the context of the paraxial propagation of optical or charged beams and suggest a possible experiment for measuring the Wigner angle using an electron beam passing through quadrupoles and drift sections. The analogous optical system is also discussed.
Tian, Yuzhen; Guo, Jin; Wang, Rui; Wang, Tingfeng
2011-09-12
In order to research the statistical properties of Gaussian beam propagation through an arbitrary thickness random phase screen for adaptive optics and laser communication application in the laboratory, we establish mathematic models of statistical quantities, which are based on the Rytov method and the thin phase screen model, involved in the propagation process. And the analytic results are developed for an arbitrary thickness phase screen based on the Kolmogorov power spectrum. The comparison between the arbitrary thickness phase screen and the thin phase screen shows that it is more suitable for our results to describe the generalized case, especially the scintillation index.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Zhenming; Kong, Lingjiang; Xiao, Feng; Chen, Jian
2014-12-01
On the basis of Coherent Beam Combination(CBC) based on Array of Liquid Crystal Optical Phased Arrays(LCOPA array), two major contributions are made in this article. Firstly, grating lobes and side lobes of combined beam are analyzed. Furthermore, according to interference theory the methods to suppress grating lobes and side lobes are put forward. Secondly, a new beam quality factor Q(θ0) is proposed to evaluate the beam quality of combined beam and several influence factors are discussed. These analysis results help to obtain combined beam with better beam quality.
Park, Sangwoo; Cha, Seongwoo; Oh, Jungsuk; Lee, Hwihyeong; Ahn, Heekyung; Churn, Kil Sung; Kong, Hong Jin
2016-04-18
The self-phase locking of a stimulated Brillouin scattering-phase conjugate mirror (SBS-PCM) allows a simple and scalable coherent beam combination of existing lasers. We propose a simple optical system composed of a rotating wedge and a concave mirror to overcome the power limit of the SBS-PCM. Its phase locking ability and the usefulness on the beam-combination laser are demonstrated experimentally. A four-beam combination is demonstrated using this SBS-PCM scheme. The relative phases between the beams were measured to be less than λ/24.7.
Experimental measurement of the 4-d transverse phase space map of a heavy ion beam
Hopkins, H S
1997-12-01
The development and employment of a new diagnostic instrument for characterizing intense, heavy ion beams is reported on. This instrument, the ''Gated Beam Imager'' or ''GBI'' was designed for use on Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Heavy Ion Fusion Project's ''Small Recirculator'', an integrated, scaled physics experiment and engineering development project for studying the transport and control of intense heavy ion beams as inertial fusion drivers in the production of electric power. The GBI allows rapid measurement and calculation of a heavy ion beam's characteristics to include all the first and second moments of the transverse phase space distribution, transverse emittance, envelope parameters and beam centroid. The GBI, with appropriate gating produces a time history of the beam resulting in a 4-D phase-space and time ''map'' of the beam. A unique capability of the GBI over existing diagnostic instruments is its ability to measure the ''cross'' moments between the two transverse orthogonal directions. Non-zero ''cross'' moments in the alternating gradient lattice of the Small Recirculator are indicative of focusing element rotational misalignments contributing to beam emittance growth. This emittance growth, while having the same effect on the ability to focus a beam as emittance growth caused by non-linear effects, is in principle removable by an appropriate number of focusing elements. The instrument uses the pepperpot method of introducing a plate with many pinholes into the beam and observing the images of the resulting beamlets as they interact with a detector after an appropriate drift distance. In order to produce adequate optical signal and repeatability, the detector was chosen to be a microchannel plate (MCP) with a phosphor readout screen. The heavy ions in the pepperpot beamlets are stopped in the MCP's thin front metal anode and the resulting secondary electron signal is amplified and proximity-focused onto the phosphor while maintaining
Experimental measurement of the 4-D transverse phase space map of a heavy ion beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hopkins, Harvey Small
The development and employment of a new diagnostic instrument for characterizing intense, heavy ion beams is reported on. This instrument, the 'Gated Beam Imager' or 'GBI' was designed for use on Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Heavy Ion Fusion Project's 'Small Recirculator', an integrated, scaled physics experiment and engineering development project for studying the transport and control of intense heavy ion beams as inertial fusion drivers in the production of electric power. The GBI allows rapid measurement and calculation of a heavy ion beam's characteristics to include all the first and second moments of the transverse phase space distribution, transverse emittance, envelope parameters and beam centroid. The GBI, with appropriate gating produces a time history of the beam resulting in a 4-D phase-space and time 'map' of the beam. A unique capability of the GBI over existing diagnostic instruments is its ability to measure the 'cross' moments between the two transverse orthogonal directions. Non- zero 'cross' moments in the alternating gradient lattice of the Small Recirculator are indicative of focusing element rotational misalignments contributing to beam emittance growth. This emittance growth, while having the same effect on the ability to focus a beam as emittance growth caused by non-linear effects, is in principle removable by an appropriate number of focusing elements. The instrument uses the pepperpot method of introducing a plate with many pinholes into the beam and observing the images of the resulting beamlets as they interact with a detector after an appropriate drift distance. In order to produce adequate optical signal and repeatability, the detector was chosen to be a microchannel plate (MCP) with a phosphor readout screen. The heavy ions in the pepperpot beamlets are stopped in the MCP's thin front metal anode and the resulting secondary electron signal is amplified and proximity-focused onto the phosphor while maintaining the spatial
Ramsey-type phase control of free-electron beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Echternkamp, Katharina E.; Feist, Armin; Schäfer, Sascha; Ropers, Claus
2016-11-01
Quantum coherent evolution, interference between multiple distinct paths and phase-controlled sequential interactions are the basis for powerful multi-dimensional optical and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies, including Ramsey's method of separated fields. Recent developments in the quantum state preparation of free electrons suggest a transfer of such concepts to ultrafast electron imaging and spectroscopy. Here, we demonstrate the sequential coherent manipulation of free-electron superposition states in an ultrashort electron pulse, using nanostructures featuring two spatially separated near-fields with polarization anisotropy. The incident light polarization controls the relative phase of these near-fields, yielding constructive and destructive quantum interference of the subsequent interactions. Future implementations of such electron-light interferometers may provide access to optically phase-resolved electronic dynamics and dephasing mechanisms with attosecond precision.
Numerical investigation of multichannel laser beam phase locking in turbulent atmosphere
Volkov, V A; Volkov, M V; Garanin, S G; Starikov, F A
2015-12-31
The efficiency of coherent multichannel beam combining under focusing through a turbulent medium on a target in the cases of phase conjugation and target irradiation in the feedback loop is investigated numerically in various approximations. The conditions of efficient focusing of multichannel radiation on the target are found. It is shown that the coherent beam combining with target irradiation in the feedback loop, which does not require a reference beam and wavefront measurements, is as good as the phase conjugation approach in the efficiency of focusing. It is found that the main effect of focusing is provided by properly chosen phase shifts in the channels, whereas taking into account local wavefront tip tilts weakly affects the result. (control of laser radiation parameters)
Numerical investigation of multichannel laser beam phase locking in turbulent atmosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Volkov, V. A.; Volkov, M. V.; Garanin, S. G.; Starikov, F. A.
2015-12-01
The efficiency of coherent multichannel beam combining under focusing through a turbulent medium on a target in the cases of phase conjugation and target irradiation in the feedback loop is investigated numerically in various approximations. The conditions of efficient focusing of multichannel radiation on the target are found. It is shown that the coherent beam combining with target irradiation in the feedback loop, which does not require a reference beam and wavefront measurements, is as good as the phase conjugation approach in the efficiency of focusing. It is found that the main effect of focusing is provided by properly chosen phase shifts in the channels, whereas taking into account local wavefront tip tilts weakly affects the result.
Exploring the QCD Phase Structure with Beam Energy Scan in Heavy-ion Collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Xiaofeng
2016-12-01
Beam energy scan programs in heavy-ion collisions aim to explore the QCD phase structure at high baryon density. Sensitive observables are applied to probe the signatures of the QCD phase transition and critical point in heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and SPS. Intriguing structures, such as dip, peak and oscillation, have been observed in the energy dependence of various observables. In this paper, an overview is given and corresponding physics implications will be discussed for the experimental highlights from the beam energy scan programs at the STAR, PHENIX and NA61/SHINE experiments. Furthermore, the beam energy scan phase II at RHIC (2019-2020) and other future experimental facilities for studying the physics at low energies will be also discussed.
Nie, Yongming; Ma, Haotong; Li, Xiujian; Hu, Wenhua; Yang, Jiankun
2011-07-20
Based on the refractive laser beam shaping system, the dark hollow femtosecond pulse beam shaping technique with a phase-only liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LC-SLM) is demonstrated. The phase distribution of the LC-SLM is derived by the energy conservation and constant optical path principle. The effects of the shaping system on the temporal properties, including spectral phase distribution and bandwidth of the femtosecond pulse, are analyzed in detail. Experimental results show that the hollow intensity distribution of the output pulsed beam can be maintained much at more than 1200 mm. The spectral phase of the pulse is changed, and the pulse width is expanded from 199 to 230 fs, which is caused by the spatial-temporal coupling effect. The coupling effect mainly depends on the phase-only LC-SLM itself, not on its loaded phase distribution. The experimental results indicate that the proposed shaping setup can generate a dark hollow femtosecond pulsed beam effectively, because the temporal Gaussian waveform is unchanged.
Boruah, B R; Neil, M A A
2009-01-01
We describe the design and construction of a laser scanning confocal microscope with programmable beam forming optics. The amplitude, phase, and polarization of the laser beam used in the microscope can be controlled in real time with the help of a liquid crystal spatial light modulator, acting as a computer generated hologram, in conjunction with a polarizing beam splitter and two right angled prisms assembly. Two scan mirrors, comprising an on-axis fast moving scan mirror for line scanning and an off-axis slow moving scan mirror for frame scanning, configured in a way to minimize the movement of the scanned beam over the pupil plane of the microscope objective, form the XY scan unit. The confocal system, that incorporates the programmable beam forming unit and the scan unit, has been implemented to image in both reflected and fluorescence light from the specimen. Efficiency of the system to programmably generate custom defined vector beams has been demonstrated by generating a bottle structured focal volume, which in fact is the overlap of two cross polarized beams, that can simultaneously improve both the lateral and axial resolutions if used as the de-excitation beam in a stimulated emission depletion confocal microscope.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boruah, B. R.; Neil, M. A. A.
2009-01-01
We describe the design and construction of a laser scanning confocal microscope with programmable beam forming optics. The amplitude, phase, and polarization of the laser beam used in the microscope can be controlled in real time with the help of a liquid crystal spatial light modulator, acting as a computer generated hologram, in conjunction with a polarizing beam splitter and two right angled prisms assembly. Two scan mirrors, comprising an on-axis fast moving scan mirror for line scanning and an off-axis slow moving scan mirror for frame scanning, configured in a way to minimize the movement of the scanned beam over the pupil plane of the microscope objective, form the XY scan unit. The confocal system, that incorporates the programmable beam forming unit and the scan unit, has been implemented to image in both reflected and fluorescence light from the specimen. Efficiency of the system to programmably generate custom defined vector beams has been demonstrated by generating a bottle structured focal volume, which in fact is the overlap of two cross polarized beams, that can simultaneously improve both the lateral and axial resolutions if used as the de-excitation beam in a stimulated emission depletion confocal microscope.
Liao, Po-Yu; Liu, Wen-Chung; Cheng, Chih-Hao; Chiu, Yi-Hua; Kung, Ying-Yu; Chang, Shih-Lin
2015-07-01
This paper reports temperature- and energy-dependent phase shifts of resonant multiple-beam X-ray diffraction in germanium crystals, involving forbidden (002) and weak (222) reflections. Phase determination based on multiple-beam diffraction is employed to estimate phase shifts from (002)-based {(002)(375)(373̅)} four-beam cases and (222)-based { (222)(5̅33̅)} three-beam cases in the vicinity of the Ge K edge for temperatures from 20 K up to 300 K. The forbidden/weak reflections enhance the sensitivity of measuring phases at resonance. At room temperature, the resonance triplet phases reach a maximum of 8° for the four-beam cases and -19° for the three-beam cases. It is found that the peak intensities and triplet phases obtained from the (002) four-beam diffraction are related to thermal motion induced anisotropy and anomalous dispersion, while the (222) three-beam diffraction depends on the aspherical covalent electron distribution and anomalous dispersion. However, the electron-phonon interaction usually affects the forbidden reflections with increasing temperatures and seems to have less effect on the resonance triplet phase shifts measured from the (002) four-beam diffraction. The resonance triplet phase shifts of the (222) three-beam diffraction versus temperature are also small.
Stimulated Brillouin Scattering Beam Cleanup and Beam Phasing Through Two Passive Channels
2007-03-01
produced. To clarify the results, a similar experiment performed by Grime is presented in this research. The major di¤erence consists of observing the...observed by Bruesselbach, and demonstrated by Rogers, Grime , and others.8;10;16 It was shown that the SBS phenomenon creates a Stokes beam with an intensity...Applications, Jan 2007. 3. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2003/10/20/tech/main578998.shtml - Laser Weapons In U.S. Sights, CBS News, Jan 2007. 4. http
Tahara, Tatsuki; Shimozato, Yuki; Awatsuji, Yasuhiro; Nishio, Kenzo; Ura, Shogo; Matoba, Osamu; Kubota, Toshihiro
2012-01-15
We propose a single-shot digital holography in which the complex amplitude distribution is obtained by spatial-carrier phase-shifting (SCPS) interferometry and the correction of the inherent phase-shift error occurred in this interferometry. The 0th order diffraction wave and the conjugate image are removed by phase-shifting interferometry and Fourier transform technique, respectively. The inherent error is corrected in the spatial frequency domain. The proposed technique does not require an iteration process to remove the unwanted images and has an advantage in the field of view in comparison to a conventional SCPS technique.
Shirley, Natalie R; Ramirez Montes, Paula Andrea
2015-01-01
The purpose of this study was to assess observer error in phase versus component-based scoring systems used to develop age estimation methods in forensic anthropology. A method preferred by forensic anthropologists in the AAFS was selected for this evaluation (the Suchey-Brooks method for the pubic symphysis). The Suchey-Brooks descriptions were used to develop a corresponding component-based scoring system for comparison. Several commonly used reliability statistics (kappa, weighted kappa, and the intraclass correlation coefficient) were calculated to assess observer agreement between two observers and to evaluate the efficacy of each of these statistics for this study. The linear weighted kappa was determined to be the most suitable measure of observer agreement. The results show that a component-based system offers the possibility for more objective scoring than a phase system as long as the coding possibilities for each trait do not exceed three states of expression, each with as little overlap as possible. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Meyer, Jeff; Bluett, Jaques; Amos, Richard
2010-10-01
Purpose: Conventional proton therapy with passively scattered beams is used to treat a number of tumor sites, including prostate cancer. Spot scanning proton therapy is a treatment delivery means that improves conformal coverage of the clinical target volume (CTV). Placement of individual spots within a target is dependent on traversed tissue density. Errors in patient alignment perturb dose distributions. Moreover, there is a need for a rational planning approach that can mitigate the dosimetric effect of random alignment errors. We propose a treatment planning approach and then analyze the consequences of various simulated alignment errors on prostate treatments. Methods and Materials: Ten control patients with localized prostate cancer underwent treatment planning for spot scanning proton therapy. After delineation of the clinical target volume, a scanning target volume (STV) was created to guide dose coverage. Errors in patient alignment in two axes (rotational and yaw) as well as translational errors in the anteroposterior direction were then simulated, and dose to the CTV and normal tissues were reanalyzed. Results: Coverage of the CTV remained high even in the setting of extreme rotational and yaw misalignments. Changes in the rectum and bladder V45 and V70 were similarly minimal, except in the case of translational errors, where, as a result of opposed lateral beam arrangements, much larger dosimetric perturbations were observed. Conclusions: The concept of the STV as applied to spot scanning radiation therapy and as presented in this report leads to robust coverage of the CTV even in the setting of extreme patient misalignments.
Design of focal beam shaping system through irradiance and phase control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Meijie; Meuret, Youri; Vervaeke, Michael; Thienpont, Hugo; Duerr, Fabian
2016-04-01
Focal beam shaping (FBS), or laser beam shaping at focus, is required in many laser applications. The most common approach is to use a phase element and a Fourier transform lens to generate at the focal plane of the lens the desired irradiance pattern, usually a at-top. The shaping quality depends strongly on a dimensionless parameter β. In case of long focal length and/or small focal spot, the input laser beam should be sufficiently large in order to get a large β value for a satisfying shaping quality. Therefore additional beam expansions might be needed. In this work, we propose a different approach with two plano-aspheric lenses that allows to control both irradiance and phase at focus. The two lenses are designed by an extended ray mapping technique combined with a rigorous backward wave propagation method, so that diffraction effects around laser focus can be implemented in a reliable way. With the developed approach, the shaping quality is guaranteed without the possible need for extra beam expanders, which makes the system more compact. The advantage of our design approach is demonstrated in direct comparison with the conventional Fourier approach for the same design example to transform a Gaussian beam to have a circular flat-top irradiance pattern.
Developing an Error Model for Ionospheric Phase Distortions in L-Band SAR and InSAR Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meyer, F. J.; Agram, P. S.
2014-12-01
Many of the recent and upcoming spaceborne SAR systems are operating in the L-band frequency range. The choice of L-band has a number of advantages especially for InSAR applications. These include deeper penetration into vegetation, higher coherence, and higher sensitivity to soil moisture. While L-band SARs are undoubtedly beneficial for a number of earth science disciplines, their signals are susceptive to path delay effects in the ionosphere. Many recent publications indicate that the ionosphere can have detrimental effects on InSAR coherence and phase. It has also been shown that the magnitude of these effects strongly depends on the time of day and geographic location of the image acquisition as well as on the coincident solar activity. Hence, in order to provide realistic error estimates for geodetic measurements derived from L-band InSAR, an error model needs to be developed that is capable of describing ionospheric noise. With this paper, we present a global ionospheric error model that is currently being developed in support of NASA's future L-band SAR mission NISAR. The system is based on a combination of empirical data analysis and modeling input from the ionospheric model WBMOD, and is capable of predicting ionosphere-induced phase noise as a function of space and time. The error model parameterizes ionospheric noise using a power spectrum model and provides the parameters of this model in a global 1x1 degree raster. From the power law model, ionospheric errors in deformation estimates can be calculated. In Polar Regions, our error model relies on a statistical analysis of ionospheric-phase noise in a large number of SAR data from previous L-band SAR missions such as ALOS PALSAR and JERS-1. The focus on empirical analyses is due to limitations of WBMOD in high latitude areas. Outside of the Polar Regions, the ionospheric model WBMOD is used to derive ionospheric structure parameters for as a function of solar activity. The structure parameters are
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rittersdorf, I. M.; Antonsen, T. M., Jr.; Chernin, D.; Lau, Y. Y.
2011-10-01
Random fabrication errors may have detrimental effects on the performance of traveling-wave tubes (TWTs) of all types. A new scaling law for the modification in the average small signal gain and in the output phase is derived from the third order ordinary differential equation that governs the forward wave interaction in a TWT in the presence of random error that is distributed along the axis of the tube. Analytical results compare favorably with numerical results, in both gain and phase modifications as a result of random error in the phase velocity of the slow wave circuit. Results on the effect of the reverse-propagating circuit mode will be reported. This work supported by AFOSR, ONR, L-3 Communications Electron Devices, and Northrop Grumman Corporation.
Zheng, Dongliang; Da, Feipeng; Kemao, Qian; Seah, Hock Soon
2017-03-06
Phase-shifting profilometry combined with Gray-code patterns projection has been widely used for 3D measurement. In this technique, a phase-shifting algorithm is used to calculate the wrapped phase, and a set of Gray-code binary patterns is used to determine the unwrapped phase. In the real measurement, the captured Gray-code patterns are no longer binary, resulting in phase unwrapping errors at a large number of erroneous pixels. Although this problem has been attended and well resolved by a few methods, it remains challenging when a measured object has step-heights and the captured patterns contain invalid pixels. To effectively remove unwrapping errors and simultaneously preserve step-heights, in this paper, an effective method using an adaptive median filter is proposed. Both simulations and experiments can demonstrate its effectiveness.
Enhanced performance of refractive laser beam shapers through additional phase control at focus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Meijie; Meuret, Youri; Vervaeke, Michael; Thienpont, Hugo; Duerr, Fabian
2016-08-01
Laser beam shaping at focus or focal beam shaping is essential for many applications. The most common approach makes use of the Fourier transforming properties of lenses to generate at their focal planes the desired irradiance patterns, e.g., the flattop. There are two inherent limitations for this approach. First, the shaping quality depends strongly on the dimensionless parameter β. In the case of a long focal length or small beam sizes giving a small β value, additional beam expanders are needed to achieve a satisfying irradiance pattern at the focus. Second, without considering the phase, the irradiance patterns beyond the focal plane are not controlled. We propose a different approach with two plano-aspheric lenses that allow control of both irradiance and phase at focus. The design method comprises an extended ray mapping procedure combined with backward wave propagation from focus. With this design approach, the shaping quality is guaranteed without the possible need for extra beam expanders, offering the potential for a more compact system with fewer elements. Through the additional phase control, the depth of focus is enlarged to a large extent and the designed system becomes more tolerant.
Phase-contrast tomography with low-intensity beams
Rehacek, J.; Hradil, Z.; Zawisky, M.; Dubus, F.; Bonse, U.
2005-02-01
In newly developed neutron phase tomography, wave properties of neutrons are exploited for the nondestructive testing of the internal structure of matter. We show how limitations due to small available intensities of present neutron sources can be overcome by using an advanced maximum-likelihood reconstruction algorithm. Unlike the standard filtered back-projection, the developed procedure gives reasonable results also when used on very noisy data or data consisting of only a few measured projections. This is demonstrated by means of simulations and also experimentally. The proposed method leads to considerably shorter measuring times and/or increased precision.
Determination of absolute interferometric phase using the beam-amplitude ratio technique
Bickel, D.L.; Hensley, W.H.
1996-03-01
Determination of the absolute phase difference (i.e., not modulo 2{pi}) is a key problem in interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IFSAR) for topographic mapping. One way of solving this problem requires use of a technique different from the basic interferometry to resolve a `coarse` angle measurement that lies within the IFSAR ambiguity angle. The method investigated in this paper involves taking advantage of the difference in the amplitude ratio versus elevation angle that occurs when the elevation beams of the two IFSAR antennas are pointed in slightly different directions. The performance of the technique is a function of the angular separation of the two beams, the elevation beamwidth, and the symmetry of the two beam-amplitude patterns. The performance required of the technique is set by the ambiguity angle of the interferometer. This paper presents an analysis of the beam-amplitude ratio technique and shows experimental results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malyutin, A. A.
2006-02-01
The distortion of the distribution of initially pure laser modes caused by the gain saturation is simulated numerically. It is shown that the gain saturation results in a considerable enrichment of the modal spectrum of radiation accompanied by the production and decay of phase dislocations in the far-field domain and at the output of an astigmatic π/2-mode converter.
Metasurfaces-based holography and beam shaping: engineering the phase profile of light
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scheuer, Jacob
2016-08-01
The ability to engineer and shape the phase profile of optical beams is in the heart of any optical element. Be it a simple lens or a sophisticated holographic element, the functionality of such components is dictated by their spatial phase response. In contrast to conventional optical components which rely on thickness variation to induce a phase profile, metasurfaces facilitate the realization of arbitrary phase distributions using large arrays with sub-wavelength and ultrathin (tens of nanometers) features. Such components can be easily realized using a single lithographic step and is highly suited for patterning a variety of substrates, including nonplanar and soft surfaces. In this article, we review the recent developments, potential, and opportunities of metasurfaces applications. We focus primarily on flat optical devices, holography, and beam-shaping applications as these are the key ingredients needed for the development of a new generation of optical devices which could find widespread applications in photonics.
Emittance and Phase Space Exchange for Advanced Beam Manipulation and Diagnostics
Xiang, Dao; Chao, Alex; /SLAC
2012-04-27
Alternative chicane-type beam lines are proposed for exact emittance exchange between transverse phase space (x,x') and longitudinal phase space (z,{delta}), where x is the transverse position, x' is the transverse divergence, and z and {delta} are relative longitudinal position and energy deviation with respect to the reference particle. Methods to achieve exact phase space exchanges, i.e., mapping x to z, x' to {delta}, z to x, and {delta} to x', are suggested. Schemes to mitigate and completely compensate for the thick-lens effect of the transverse cavity on emittance exchange are studied. Some applications of the phase space exchange for advanced beam manipulation and diagnostics are discussed.
Metasurfaces-based holography and beam shaping: engineering the phase profile of light
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scheuer, Jacob
2017-01-01
The ability to engineer and shape the phase profile of optical beams is in the heart of any optical element. Be it a simple lens or a sophisticated holographic element, the functionality of such components is dictated by their spatial phase response. In contrast to conventional optical components which rely on thickness variation to induce a phase profile, metasurfaces facilitate the realization of arbitrary phase distributions using large arrays with sub-wavelength and ultrathin (tens of nanometers) features. Such components can be easily realized using a single lithographic step and is highly suited for patterning a variety of substrates, including nonplanar and soft surfaces. In this article, we review the recent developments, potential, and opportunities of metasurfaces applications. We focus primarily on flat optical devices, holography, and beam-shaping applications as these are the key ingredients needed for the development of a new generation of optical devices which could find widespread applications in photonics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakajima, Nobuharu; Yoshino, Masayuki
2017-01-01
We present a proof-of-principle experiment of an analytic (noniterative) phase-retrieval method for coherent imaging systems under scanning illumination of a probe beam. This method allows to reconstruct the amplitude and phase distribution of a semi-transparent object over a wide area from intensities measured at three points in the Fourier plane of the object under scanning illumination of a known Gaussian-amplitude beam in the object plane. The present measurement system is very simple in contrast to ones of interferometric techniques, and also the speed of the calculation of phase retrieval in this method is faster than that in iterative algorithms since this method is based on an analytic solution to the phase retrieval. The effectiveness of this method is shown in experimental examples of the object reconstructions of a converging lens and a plastic plate for scratch standards.
Two-dimensional beam steering using a thermo-optic silicon photonic optical phased array
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rabinovich, William S.; Goetz, Peter G.; Pruessner, Marcel W.; Mahon, Rita; Ferraro, Mike S.; Park, Doe; Fleet, Erin; DePrenger, Michael J.
2016-11-01
Many components for free-space optical (FSO) communication systems have shrunken in size over the last decade. However, the steering systems have remained large and power hungry. Nonmechanical beam steering offers a path to reducing the size of these systems. Optical phased arrays can allow integrated beam steering elements. One of the most important aspects of an optical phased array technology is its scalability to a large number of elements. Silicon photonics can potentially offer this scalability using CMOS foundry techniques. A phased array that can steer in two dimensions using the thermo-optic effect is demonstrated. No wavelength tuning of the input laser is needed and the design allows a simple control system with only two inputs. A benchtop FSO link with the phased array in both transmit and receive mode is demonstrated.
Phase-preserving beam expander for biomedical X-ray imaging
Martinson, Mercedes; Samadi, Nazanin; Bassey, Bassey; Gomez, Ariel; Chapman, Dean
2015-01-01
The BioMedical Imaging and Therapy beamlines at the Canadian Light Source are used by many researchers to capture phase-based imaging data. These experiments have so far been limited by the small vertical beam size, requiring vertical scanning of biological samples in order to image their full vertical extent. Previous work has been carried out to develop a bent Laue beam-expanding monochromator for use at these beamlines. However, the first attempts exhibited significant distortion in the diffraction plane, increasing the beam divergence and eliminating the usefulness of the monochromator for phase-related imaging techniques. Recent work has been carried out to more carefully match the polychromatic and geometric focal lengths in a so-called ‘magic condition’ that preserves the divergence of the beam and enables full-field phase-based imaging techniques. The new experimental parameters, namely asymmetry and Bragg angles, were evaluated by analysing knife-edge and in-line phase images to determine the effect on beam divergence in both vertical and horizontal directions, using the flat Bragg double-crystal monochromator at the beamline as a baseline. The results show that by using the magic condition, the difference between the two monochromator types is less than 10% in the diffraction plane. Phase fringes visible in test images of a biological sample demonstrate that this difference is small enough to enable in-line phase imaging, despite operating at a sub-optimal energy for the wafer and asymmetry angle that was used. PMID:25931100
Takada, Kazumasa; Satoh, Shin-ichi
2006-02-01
We describe a method for measuring the phase error distribution of an arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) in the frequency domain when the free spectral range (FSR) of the AWG is so wide that it cannot be covered by one tunable laser source. Our method is to sweep the light frequency in the neighborhoods of two successive peaks in the AWG transmission spectrum by using two laser sources with different tuning ranges. The method was confirmed experimentally by applying it to a 160 GHz spaced AWG with a FSR of 11 THz. The variations in the derived phase error data were very small at +/-0.02 rad around the central arrayed waveguides.
On-chip silicon optical phased array for two-dimensional beam steering.
Kwong, David; Hosseini, Amir; Covey, John; Zhang, Yang; Xu, Xiaochuan; Subbaraman, Harish; Chen, Ray T
2014-02-15
A 16-element optical phased array integrated on chip is presented for achieving two-dimensional (2D) optical beam steering. The device is fabricated on the silicon-on-insulator platform with a 250 nm silicon device layer. Steering is achieved via a combination of wavelength tuning and thermo-optic phase shifting with a switching power of P(π)=20 mW per channel. Using a silicon waveguide grating with a polycrystalline silicon overlay enables narrow far field beam widths while mitigating the precise etching needed for conventional shallow etch gratings. Using this system, 2D steering across a 20°×15° field of view is achieved with a sidelobe level better than 10 dB and with beam widths of 1.2°×0.5°.
Mendoza-Hernández, J; Arroyo Carrasco, M L; Méndez Otero, M M; Chávez-Cerda, S; Iturbe Castillo, M D
2014-12-12
In this paper, we demonstrate, numerically and experimentally that using the mask-lens setup used by Durnin to generate Bessel beams Durnin [Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499 (1987)], it is possible to generate different kinds of propagation invariant beams. A modification in the amplitude or phase of the field that illuminates the annular slit is proposed that corresponds to modulation in frequency space. In particular, we characterize the new invariant beams that were obtained by modulating the amplitude of the annular mask and when the incident field was modulated with a one-dimensional quadratic or cubic phase. Experimental results using an amplitude mask are shown in order to corroborate the numerical predictions.
Mendoza-Hernández, J.; Arroyo Carrasco, M.L.; Méndez Otero, M.M.; Chávez-Cerda, S.; Iturbe Castillo, M.D.
2014-01-01
In this paper, we demonstrate, numerically and experimentally that using the mask-lens setup used by Durnin to generate Bessel beams Durnin [Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499 (1987)], it is possible to generate different kinds of propagation invariant beams. A modification in the amplitude or phase of the field that illuminates the annular slit is proposed that corresponds to modulation in frequency space. In particular, we characterize the new invariant beams that were obtained by modulating the amplitude of the annular mask and when the incident field was modulated with a one-dimensional quadratic or cubic phase. Experimental results using an amplitude mask are shown in order to corroborate the numerical predictions. PMID:25705088
Filamentation of an annular laser beam with a vortex phase dislocation in fused silica
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vasil'ev, E. V.; Shlenov, S. A.
2016-11-01
The filamentation of a femtosecond laser pulse in fused silica has been numerically investigated for the case of an annular beam with a phase singularity at a wavelength of 800 {\\text{nm}}. The spatiotemporal propagation dynamics of the pulse and the transformation of its frequency-angular spectra are analysed. It is shown that a tubular structure with a radius of 3 - 4 \\unicode{956}{\\text{m}}, peak intensity of about 2.4 × 1013 {\\text{W cm}}-2, and maximum plasma density on the order of 1020 {\\text{cm}}-3 is formed in the nonlinear focus; the length of this structure significantly exceeds the waist length in the linear case. The results of the analysis are compared with the data obtained for an annular beam free of phase dislocations and for a Gaussian beam.
Ouadghiri-Idrissi, Ismail; Giust, Remo; Froehly, Luc; Jacquot, Maxime; Furfaro, Luca; Dudley, John M; Courvoisier, Francois
2016-05-30
Arbitrary shaping of the on-axis intensity of Bessel beams requires spatial modulation of both amplitude and phase. We develop a non-iterative direct space beam shaping method to generate Bessel beams with high energy throughput from direct space with a single phase-only spatial light modulator. For this purpose, we generalize the approach of Bolduc et al. to non-uniform input beams. We point out the physical limitations imposed on the on-axis intensity profile for unidirectional beams. Analytical, numerical and experimental results are provided.
Topological phase for spin-orbit transformations on a laser beam.
Souza, C E R; Huguenin, J A O; Milman, P; Khoury, A Z
2007-10-19
We investigate the topological phase associated with the double connectedness of the SO(3) representation in terms of maximally entangled states. An experimental demonstration is provided in the context of polarization and spatial mode transformations of a laser beam carrying orbital angular momentum. The topological phase is evidenced through interferometric measurements, and a quantitative relationship between the concurrence and the fringes visibility is derived. Both the quantum and the classical regimes were investigated.
Determination of Longitudinal Phase Space in SLAC Main Accelerator Beams
Barnes, C.; Decker, F.-J.; Emma, P.; Hogan, M.J.; Iverson, R.; Krejcik, P.; O'Connell, C.L.; Siemann, R.; Walz, D.; Clayton, C.E.; Huang, C.; Johnson, D.K.; Joshi, C.; Lu, W.; Marsh, K.A.; Deng, S.; Katsouleas, T.; Muggli, P.; Oz, E.; /Southern California U.
2005-06-07
In the E164 Experiment at that Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), we drive plasma wakes for electron acceleration using 28.5 GeV bunches from the main accelerator. These bunches can now be made with an RMS length of 12 microns, and accurate direct measurement of their lengths is not feasible shot by shot. Instead, we use an indirect technique, measuring the energy spectrum at the end of the linac and comparing with detailed simulations of the entire machine. We simulate with LiTrack, a 2D particle tracking code developed at SLAC. Understanding the longitudinal profile allows a better understanding of acceleration in the plasma wake, as well as investigation of related effects. We discuss the method and validation of our phase space determinations.
Tünnermann, Henrik; Neumann, Jörg; Kracht, Dietmar; Wessels, Peter
2011-02-15
Active phase control in fiber amplifiers is of considerable interest for low-noise single-frequency amplifiers and for coherent beam combining. We demonstrate phase control at 1064 nm by use of an erbium-doped fiber. We investigated the phase shift by guiding the beam through an erbium-doped fiber amplifier in a Mach-Zehnder configuration and applied the results to stabilize the relative phase of two ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of an all-fiber coherent beam combining at 1064 nm employing an erbium-doped fiber as a phase actuator.
Cottrell, Don M; Davis, Jeffrey A; Berg, Cassidy A; Freeman, Christopher Li
2014-04-01
There is great interest in Airy beams because they appear to propagate in a curved path. These beams are usually generated by inserting a cubic phase mask onto the input plane of a Fourier transform system. Here, we utilize a fast Fresnel diffraction algorithm to easily derive both the propagation dynamics and the Gouy phase shift for these beams. The trajectories of these beams can be modified by adding additional linear and quadratic phase terms onto the cubic phase mask. Finally, we have rewritten the equations regarding the propagating Airy beams completely in laboratory coordinates for use by experimentalists. Experimental results are included. We expect that these results will be of great importance in applications of Airy beams.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaufmann, D. C.
1976-01-01
The fine frequency setting of a cesium beam frequency standard is accomplished by adjusting the C field control with the appropriate Zeeman frequency applied to the harmonic generator. A novice operator in the field, even when using the correct Zeeman frequency input, may mistakenly set the C field to any one of seven major Beam I peaks (fingers) represented by the Ramsey curve. This can result in frequency offset errors of as much as 2.5 parts in ten to the tenth. The effects of maladjustment are demonstrated and suggestions are discussed on how to avoid the subtle traps associated with C field adjustments.
Biometrics based key management of double random phase encoding scheme using error control codes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saini, Nirmala; Sinha, Aloka
2013-08-01
In this paper, an optical security system has been proposed in which key of the double random phase encoding technique is linked to the biometrics of the user to make it user specific. The error in recognition due to the biometric variation is corrected by encoding the key using the BCH code. A user specific shuffling key is used to increase the separation between genuine and impostor Hamming distance distribution. This shuffling key is then further secured using the RSA public key encryption to enhance the security of the system. XOR operation is performed between the encoded key and the feature vector obtained from the biometrics. The RSA encoded shuffling key and the data obtained from the XOR operation are stored into a token. The main advantage of the present technique is that the key retrieval is possible only in the simultaneous presence of the token and the biometrics of the user which not only authenticates the presence of the original input but also secures the key of the system. Computational experiments showed the effectiveness of the proposed technique for key retrieval in the decryption process by using the live biometrics of the user.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Massidda, Scott; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Startsev, Edward A.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Lidia, Steven M.; Seidl, Peter; Friedman, Alex
2012-06-01
Neutralized drift compression offers an effective means for particle beam focusing and current amplification with applications to heavy ion fusion. In the Neutralized Drift Compression eXperiment-I (NDCX-I), a non-relativistic ion beam pulse is passed through an inductive bunching module that produces a longitudinal velocity modulation. Due to the applied velocity tilt, the beam pulse compresses during neutralized drift. The ion beam pulse can be compressed by a factor of more than 100; however, errors in the velocity modulation affect the compression ratio in complex ways. We have performed a study of how the longitudinal compression of a typical NDCX-I ion beam pulse is affected by the initial errors in the acquired velocity modulation. Without any voltage errors, an ideal compression is limited only by the initial energy spread of the ion beam, ΔΕb. In the presence of large voltage errors, δU≫ΔEb, the maximum compression ratio is found to be inversely proportional to the geometric mean of the relative error in velocity modulation and the relative intrinsic energy spread of the beam ions. Although small parts of a beam pulse can achieve high local values of compression ratio, the acquired velocity errors cause these parts to compress at different times, limiting the overall compression of the ion beam pulse.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, K. Y.
1981-01-01
Analytical and experimental results are presented of the effects of receiver tracking phase error, caused by weak signal conditions on either the uplink or the downlink or both, on the performance of the concatenated Reed-Solomon (RS) Viterbi channel coding system. The test results were obtained under an emulated S band uplink and X band downlink, two way space communication channel in the telecommunication development laboratory of JPL with data rates ranging from 4 kHz to 20 kHz. It is shown that, with ideal interleaving, the concatenated RS/Viterbi coding system is capable of yielding large coding gains at very low bit error probabilities over the Viterbi decoded convolutional only coding system. Results on the effects of receiver tracking phase errors on the performance of the concatenated coding system with antenna array combining are included.
Thin film phase diagram of iron nitrides grown by molecular beam epitaxy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gölden, D.; Hildebrandt, E.; Alff, L.
2017-01-01
A low-temperature thin film phase diagram of the iron nitride system is established for the case of thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy and nitrided by a nitrogen radical source. A fine-tuning of the nitridation conditions allows for growth of α ‧ -Fe8Nx with increasing c / a -ratio and magnetic anisotropy with increasing x until almost phase pure α ‧ -Fe8N1 thin films are obtained. A further increase of nitrogen content below the phase decomposition temperature of α ‧ -Fe8N (180 °C) leads to a mixture of several phases that is also affected by the choice of substrate material and symmetry. At higher temperatures (350 °C), phase pure γ ‧ -Fe4N is the most stable phase.
Hadjichristov, Georgi B.; Marinov, Yordan G.; Petrov, Alexander G.
2016-03-25
We present a study on electrically- and spatially-controllable laser beam diffraction, electrooptic (EO) phase modulation, as well as amplitude-frequency EO modulation by single-layer microscale polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) phase gratings (PDLC SLPGs) of interest for device applications. PDLC SLPGs were produced from nematic liquid crystal (LC) E7 in photo-curable NOA65 polymer. The wedge-formed PDLC SLPGs have a continuously variable thickness (2–25 µm). They contain LC droplets of diameters twice as the layer thickness, with a linear-gradient size distribution along the wedge. By applying alternating-current (AC) electric field, the PDLC SLPGs produce efficient: (i) diffraction splitting of transmitted laser beams; (ii) spatial redistribution of diffracted light intensity; (iii) optical phase modulation; (iv) amplitude-frequency modulation, all controllable by the driven AC field and the droplet size gradient.
Johnson, K.F.; Garcia, R.C.; Rusthoi, D.P.; Sander, O.R.; Sandoval, D.P.; Shinas, M.A.; Smith, M.; Yuan, V.W.; Connolly, R.C.
1995-05-01
The Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) had the objective Of Producing a high-brightness, high-current H-beam. The major components were a 35 keV injector, a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ), an intertank matching section (IMS), and a drift tube linac (DTL), consisting of 10 modules. A technique for measuring the transverse phase-space of high-power density beams has been developed and tested. This diagnostic has been applied to the GTA H-beam. Experimental results are compared to the slit and collector technique for transverse phase-space measurements and to simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Li; Peng, Qi; Ma, Haotong; Xie, Zongliang; Wang, Zhipeng
2016-10-01
The sparse-optical-synthetic-aperture systems enlarge the aperture and increase the spatial resolution of telescope system via several sub-apertures distributed in specific way. The difficulty of its realization lies in detecting and correcting co-phase errors of the sub-apertures. This paper proposed the method of multi-spectral modulation detection of co-phasing errors for sparse-optical-synthetic-aperture systems. The method can detect the errors via phase modulation on a sub-aperture in the situation of different wavelengths. Firstly, this paper introduced the theory and implementation process of the method in detail. Then the paper analyzed the detection performance of the method and the influence of the sub-apertures structure on detection performance based on a three-sub-aperture system. These results show that the method can accurately detect the sub-apertures' co-phasing errors of the sparse-optical-synthetic-aperture systems. Compared with the current methods, the method proposed in this paper has many advantages, such as faster detection speed and wider detection range.
Evaluation of Beam Loss and Energy Depositions for a Possible Phase II Design for LHC Collimation
Lari, L.; Assmann, R.; Bracco, C.; Brugger, M.; Cerutti, F.; Doyle, E.; Ferrari, A.; Keller, L.; Lundgren, S.; Markiewicz, Thomas W.; Mauri, M.; Redaelli, S.; Sarchiapone, L.; Smith, J.; Vlachoudis, V.; Weiler, T.; /CERN
2011-11-07
The LHC beams are designed to have high stability and to be stored for many hours. The nominal beam intensity lifetime is expected to be of the order of 20h. The Phase II collimation system has to be able to handle particle losses in stable physics conditions at 7 TeV in order to avoid beam aborts and to allow correction of parameters and restoration to nominal conditions. Monte Carlo simulations are needed in order to evaluate the behavior of metallic high-Z collimators during operation scenarios using a realistic distribution of losses, which is a mix of the three limiting halo cases. Moreover, the consequences in the IR7 insertion of the worst (case) abnormal beam loss are evaluated. The case refers to a spontaneous trigger of the horizontal extraction kicker at top energy, when Phase II collimators are used. These studies are an important input for engineering design of the collimation Phase II system and for the evaluation of their effect on adjacent components. The goal is to build collimators that can survive the expected conditions during LHC stable physics runs, in order to avoid quenches of the SC magnets and to protect other LHC equipments.
Evaluation of Beam Losses And Energy Deposition for a Possible Phase II Design for LHC Collimation
Lari, L.; Assmann, R.W.; Bracco, C.; Brugger, M.; Cerutti, F.; Ferrari, A.; Mauri, M.; Redaelli, S.; Sarchiapone, L.; Vlachoudis, Vasilis; Weiler, Th.; Doyle, J.E.; Keller, L.; Lundgren, S.A.; Markiewicz, Thomas W.; Smith, J.C.; Lari, L.; /LPHE, Lausanne
2011-11-01
The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) beams are designed to have high stability and to be stored for many hours. The nominal beam intensity lifetime is expected to be of the order of 20h. The Phase II collimation system has to be able to handle particle losses in stable physics conditions at 7 TeV in order to avoid beam aborts and to allow correction of parameters and restoration to nominal conditions. Monte Carlo simulations are needed in order to evaluate the behavior of metallic high-Z collimators during operation scenarios using a realistic distribution of losses, which is a mix of the three limiting halo cases. Moreover, the consequences in the IR7 insertion of the worst (case) abnormal beam loss are evaluated. The case refers to a spontaneous trigger of the horizontal extraction kicker at top energy, when Phase II collimators are used. These studies are an important input for engineering design of the collimation Phase II system and for the evaluation of their effect on adjacent components. The goal is to build collimators that can survive the expected conditions during LHC stable physics runs, in order to avoid quenches of the SC magnets and to protect other LHC equipments.
Beam-steering and jammer-nulling photorefractive phased-array radar processor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sarto, Anthony W.; Weverka, Robert T.; Wagner, Kelvin H.
1994-06-01
We are developing a class of optical phased-array-radar processors which use the large number of degrees-of-freedom available in 3D photorefractive volume holograms to time integrate the adaptive weights to perform beam-steering and jammer-cancellation signal-processing tasks for very large phased-array antennas. We have experimentally demonstrated independently the two primary subsystems of the beam-steering and jammer-nulling phased-array radar processor, the beam-forming subsystem and the jammer-nulling subsystem, as well as simultaneous main beam formation and jammer suppression in the combined processor. The beam-steering subsystem calculates the angle of arrival of a desired signal of interest and steers the antenna pattern in the direction of this desired signal by forming a dynamic holographic grating proportional to the correlation between the incoming signal of interest from the antenna array and the temporal waveform of the desired signal. This grating is formed by repetitively applying the temporal waveform of the desired signal to a single acousto-optic Bragg cell and allowing the diffracted component from the Bragg cell to interfere with an optical mapping of the received phased-array antenna signal at a photorefractive crystal. The diffracted component from this grating is the antenna output modified by an array function pointed towards the desired signal of interest. This beam-steering task is performed with the only a priori information being that of the knowledge of a temporal waveform that correlates well with the desired signal and that the delay of the desired signal remains within the time aperture of the Bragg cell. The jammer-nulling subsystem computes the angles-of- arrival of multiple interfering narrowband radar jammers and adaptively steers nulls in the antenna pattern in order to extinguish the jammers by implementing a modified LMS algorithm in the optical domain. This task is performed in a second photorefractive crystal where
Gudimetla, V S Rao; Riker, Jim F
2011-03-10
Optical returns from remote resident space-based objects such as satellites suffer from pointing and tracking errors. In a previously reported paper [Appl. Opt.46, 5608 (2007)APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.46.005608], we developed a moment-matching technique that used the statistics of time series of these optical returns to extract information about bore sight and symmetric beam jitter errors (symmetric here implies that the standard deviations of the jitter measured along two orthogonal axes, perpendicular to the line of sight, are equal). In this paper, we extend that method to cover the case of asymmetric beam jitter and bore sight. The asymmetric beam jitter may be due to the combination of symmetric atmospheric turbulence beam jitter and optical beam train jitter. In addition, if a tracking control system is operating, even the residual atmospheric tracking jitter could be asymmetric because the power spectrum is different for the slewing direction compared to the cross-track direction. Analysis of the problem has produced a set of nonlinear equations that can be reduced to a single but much higher-order nonlinear equation in terms of one of the jitter variances. After solving for that jitter, all the equations can be solved to extract all jitter and bore sight errors. The method has been verified by using simulations and then tested on experimental data. In order to develop this method, we derived analytical expressions for the probability density function and the moments of the received total intensity. The results reported here are valid for satellites of small physical cross section, or else those with retroreflectors that dominate the signal return. The results are, in general, applicable to the theory of noncircular Gaussian speckle with a coherent background.
SU-D-19A-04: Parameter Characterization of Electron Beam Monte Carlo Phase Space of TrueBeam Linacs
Rodrigues, A; Yin, F; Wu, Q; Sawkey, D
2014-06-01
Purpose: For TrueBeam Monte Carlo simulations, Varian does not distribute linac head geometry and material compositions, instead providing a phase space file (PSF) for the users. The PSF has a finite number of particle histories and can have very large file size, yet still contains inherent statistical noises. The purpose of this study is to characterize the electron beam PSF with parameters. Methods: The PSF is a snapshot of all particles' information at a given plane above jaws including type, energy, position, and directions. This study utilized a preliminary TrueBeam PSF, of which validation against measurement is presented in another study. To characterize the PSF, distributions of energy, position, and direction of all particles are analyzed as piece-wise parameterized functions of radius and polar angle. Subsequently, a pseudo PSF was generated based on this characterization. Validation was assessed by directly comparing the true and pseudo PSFs, and by using both PSFs in the down-stream MC simulations (BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc) and comparing dose distributions for 3 applicators at 15 MeV. Statistical uncertainty of 4% was limited by the number of histories in the original PSF. Percent depth dose (PDD) and orthogonal (PRF) profiles at various depths were evaluated. Results: Preliminary results showed that this PSF parameterization was accurate, with no visible differences between original and pseudo PSFs except at the edge (6 cm off axis), which did not impact dose distributions in phantom. PDD differences were within 1 mm for R{sub 7} {sub 0}, R{sub 5} {sub 0}, R{sub 3} {sub 0}, and R{sub 1} {sub 0}, and PRF field size and penumbras were within 2 mm. Conclusion: A PSF can be successfully characterized by distributions for energy, position, and direction as parameterized functions of radius and polar angles; this facilitates generating sufficient particles at any statistical precision. Analyses for all other electron energies are under way and results will be
Yan, M.; Lovelock, D.; Hunt, M.; Mechalakos, J.; Hu, Y.; Pham, H.; Jackson, A.
2013-01-01
Purpose: To use Cone Beam CT scans obtained just prior to treatments of head and neck cancer patients to measure the setup error and cumulative dose uncertainty of the cochlea. Methods: Data from 10 head and neck patients with 10 planning CTs and 52 Cone Beam CTs taken at time of treatment were used in this study. Patients were treated with conventional fractionation using an IMRT dose painting technique, most with 33 fractions. Weekly radiographic imaging was used to correct the patient setup. The authors used rigid registration of the planning CT and Cone Beam CT scans to find the translational and rotational setup errors, and the spatial setup errors of the cochlea. The planning CT was rotated and translated such that the cochlea positions match those seen in the cone beam scans, cochlea doses were recalculated and fractional doses accumulated. Uncertainties in the positions and cumulative doses of the cochlea were calculated with and without setup adjustments from radiographic imaging. Results: The mean setup error of the cochlea was 0.04 ± 0.33 or 0.06 ± 0.43 cm for RL, 0.09 ± 0.27 or 0.07 ± 0.48 cm for AP, and 0.00 ± 0.21 or −0.24 ± 0.45 cm for SI with and without radiographic imaging, respectively. Setup with radiographic imaging reduced the standard deviation of the setup error by roughly 1–2 mm. The uncertainty of the cochlea dose depends on the treatment plan and the relative positions of the cochlea and target volumes. Combining results for the left and right cochlea, the authors found the accumulated uncertainty of the cochlea dose per fraction was 4.82 (0.39–16.8) cGy, or 10.1 (0.8–32.4) cGy, with and without radiographic imaging, respectively; the percentage uncertainties relative to the planned doses were 4.32% (0.28%–9.06%) and 10.2% (0.7%–63.6%), respectively. Conclusions: Patient setup error introduces uncertainty in the position of the cochlea during radiation treatment. With the assistance of radiographic imaging during setup
Yan, M.; Lovelock, D.; Hunt, M.; Mechalakos, J.; Hu, Y.; Pham, H.; Jackson, A.
2013-12-15
Purpose: To use Cone Beam CT scans obtained just prior to treatments of head and neck cancer patients to measure the setup error and cumulative dose uncertainty of the cochlea. Methods: Data from 10 head and neck patients with 10 planning CTs and 52 Cone Beam CTs taken at time of treatment were used in this study. Patients were treated with conventional fractionation using an IMRT dose painting technique, most with 33 fractions. Weekly radiographic imaging was used to correct the patient setup. The authors used rigid registration of the planning CT and Cone Beam CT scans to find the translational and rotational setup errors, and the spatial setup errors of the cochlea. The planning CT was rotated and translated such that the cochlea positions match those seen in the cone beam scans, cochlea doses were recalculated and fractional doses accumulated. Uncertainties in the positions and cumulative doses of the cochlea were calculated with and without setup adjustments from radiographic imaging. Results: The mean setup error of the cochlea was 0.04 ± 0.33 or 0.06 ± 0.43 cm for RL, 0.09 ± 0.27 or 0.07 ± 0.48 cm for AP, and 0.00 ± 0.21 or −0.24 ± 0.45 cm for SI with and without radiographic imaging, respectively. Setup with radiographic imaging reduced the standard deviation of the setup error by roughly 1–2 mm. The uncertainty of the cochlea dose depends on the treatment plan and the relative positions of the cochlea and target volumes. Combining results for the left and right cochlea, the authors found the accumulated uncertainty of the cochlea dose per fraction was 4.82 (0.39–16.8) cGy, or 10.1 (0.8–32.4) cGy, with and without radiographic imaging, respectively; the percentage uncertainties relative to the planned doses were 4.32% (0.28%–9.06%) and 10.2% (0.7%–63.6%), respectively. Conclusions: Patient setup error introduces uncertainty in the position of the cochlea during radiation treatment. With the assistance of radiographic imaging during setup
Measuring laser beam quality by use of phase retrieval and Fraunhofer diffraction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Wenbo; Zhang, Zengbao; He, Xin; Liu, Qin; Zhang, Zhiguo; Ma, Yanhua; Jin, Yuqi
2015-02-01
We demonstrate the use of phase retrieval and Fraunhofer diffraction as a method for the measurement of laser beam quality. This technique involves using two CCD cameras to record a pair of conjugated light intensity images in defocus plane and one near field measurement instrument to record the light intensity image in near field. The wavefront is then retrieved using an optimization jointly constrained by them. Thereafter, combining with the known light intensity image in near field, light intensity image in focus plane can be figured out. After that, laser beam quality will be obtained by comparing with ideal light intensity distribution in focus plane. As light intensity images in defocus plane can be measured with higher resolution and lower CCD dynamic range than that in focus plane, this method is expected to give a precise laser beam quality.
Geometrical optics of beams with vortices: Berry phase and orbital angular momentum Hall effect.
Bliokh, Konstantin Yu
2006-07-28
We consider propagation of a paraxial beam carrying the spin angular momentum (polarization) and intrinsic orbital angular momentum (IOAM) in a smoothly inhomogeneous isotropic medium. It is shown that the presence of IOAM can dramatically enhance and rearrange the topological phenomena that previously were considered solely in connection to the polarization of transverse waves. In particular, the appearance of a new type of Berry phase that describes the parallel transport of the beam structure along a curved ray is predicted. We derive the ray equations demonstrating the splitting of beams with different values of IOAM. This is the orbital angular momentum Hall effect, which resembles the Magnus effect for optical vortices. Unlike the spin Hall effect of photons, it can be much larger in magnitude and is inherent to waves of any nature. Experimental means to detect the phenomena are discussed.
Developmental Status of Beam Position and Phase Monitor for PEFP Proton Linac
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Sungju; Park, Jangho; Yu, Inha; Kim, Dotae; Hwang, Jung-Yun; Nam, Sanghoon
2004-11-01
The PEFP (Proton Engineering Frontier Project) at the KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) is building a high-power proton linear accelerator aiming to generate 100-MeV proton beams with 20-mA peak current. (Pulse width and max. repetition rate of 1 ms and 120 Hz respectively.) We have developed the Beam Position and Phase Monitor (BPPM) for the machine that features the button-type PU, the full-analog processing electronics, and the EPICS-based control system. The beam responses of the button-type PU have been obtained using the MAGIC (Particle-In-Cell) code. The processing electronics has been developed in collaboration with Bergoz Instrumentation. In this article, we report the present status of the system developments except the control system.
Geometrical Optics of Beams with Vortices: Berry Phase and Orbital Angular Momentum Hall Effect
Bliokh, Konstantin Yu.
2006-07-28
We consider propagation of a paraxial beam carrying the spin angular momentum (polarization) and intrinsic orbital angular momentum (IOAM) in a smoothly inhomogeneous isotropic medium. It is shown that the presence of IOAM can dramatically enhance and rearrange the topological phenomena that previously were considered solely in connection to the polarization of transverse waves. In particular, the appearance of a new type of Berry phase that describes the parallel transport of the beam structure along a curved ray is predicted. We derive the ray equations demonstrating the splitting of beams with different values of IOAM. This is the orbital angular momentum Hall effect, which resembles the Magnus effect for optical vortices. Unlike the spin Hall effect of photons, it can be much larger in magnitude and is inherent to waves of any nature. Experimental means to detect the phenomena are discussed.
Phase-transition oscillations induced by a strongly focused laser beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Devailly, Clémence; Crauste-Thibierge, Caroline; Petrosyan, Artyom; Ciliberto, Sergio
2015-11-01
We report the observation of a surprising phenomenon consisting in a oscillating phase transition which appears in a binary mixture when this is enlightened by a strongly focused infrared laser beam. The mixture is poly-methyl-meth-acrylate (PMMA)-3-octanone, which has an upper critical solution temperature at Tc=306.6 K and volume fraction ϕc=12.8 % [Crauste et al., arXiv:1310.6720, 2013]. We describe the dynamical properties of the oscillations, which are produced by a competition between various effects: the local accumulation of PMMA produced by the laser beam, thermophoresis, and nonlinear diffusion. We show that the main properties of this kind of oscillations can be reproduced in the Landau theory for a binary mixture in which a local driving mechanism, simulating the laser beam, is introduced.
A non-orthogonal SVD-based decomposition for phase invariant error-related potential estimation.
Phlypo, Ronald; Jrad, Nisrine; Rousseau, Sandra; Congedo, Marco
2011-01-01
The estimation of the Error Related Potential from a set of trials is a challenging problem. Indeed, the Error Related Potential is of low amplitude compared to the ongoing electroencephalographic activity. In addition, simple summing over the different trials is prone to errors, since the waveform does not appear at an exact latency with respect to the trigger. In this work, we propose a method to cope with the discrepancy of these latencies of the Error Related Potential waveform and offer a framework in which the estimation of the Error Related Potential waveform reduces to a simple Singular Value Decomposition of an analytic waveform representation of the observed signal. The followed approach is promising, since we are able to explain a higher portion of the variance of the observed signal with fewer components in the expansion.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Howard, J. C.
1975-01-01
Due to the fact that remotely piloted vehicles (RPV's) are currently being flown from fixed base control centers, kinesthetic and real world peripheral vision cues are absent. The absence of these cues complicates the piloting task, particularly during the final approach and landing phase of a mission. The pilot's task is futher complicated by errors in the displayed altitude information. To determine the influence of these errors on pilot performance during the final approach and landing phase of a mission, an experiment was conducted in which pilot subjects were asked to fly a fixed base simulation of a Piper PA-30 aircraft, using degraded altitude information. For this experiment, the chevron component of the display configuration was driven by a radio altimeter. Four altimeters were used, each with a different error characteristic, but within the range specified for the Sperry series of radio altimeters. Results indicate that for range of errors considered, there is no significant difference in landing performance that can be attributed to errors in altitude information.
Geometric phase and fractional orbital-angular-momentum states in electron vortex beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bandyopadhyay, Pratul; Basu, Banasri; Chowdhury, Debashree
2017-01-01
We study here fractional orbital-angular-momentum (OAM) states in electron vortex beams (EVBs) from the perspective of the geometric phase. We consider the skyrmionic model of an electron, where it is depicted as a scalar electron orbiting around the vortex line, which gives rise to the spin degrees of freedom. The geometric phase acquired by the scalar electron orbiting the vortex line induces the spin-orbit interaction. This leads to the fractional OAM states when we have a nonquantized monopole charge associated with the corresponding geometric phase. This involves a tilted vortex in EVBs. The monopole charge undergoes renormalization-group flow, which incorporates a length scale dependence making the fractional OAM states unstable upon propagation. It is pointed out that when EVBs move in an external magnetic field, the Gouy phase associated with the Laguerre-Gaussian modes modifies the geometric phase factor and a proper choice of the radial index helps to have a stable fractional OAM state.
Ma, Haotong; Zhou, Pu; Wang, Xiaolin; Ma, Yanxing; Xi, Fengjie; Xu, Xiaojun; Liu, Zejin
2010-04-12
We demonstrate the annular flattop beam shaping technique with dual phase only liquid crystal spatial light modulators (LC-SLM) based on the refractive laser beam shaping systems. One LC-SLM redistributes the intensity distribution, and the other restores the initial underlying wave front. Differing from the conventional annular beam shaping technique, the wave front of the output beam can be maintained. The influences of deviations of beam waist and beam shape on the output beam profile are discussed in detail. Experimental results show that approximate 71% of the power is enclosed in a region with less than 7% rms intensity variation. The 4.1mm diameter near-diffraction-limited beam retains an annular flattop intensity distribution without significant diffraction peaks for a working distance of more than 24cm in the near field.
Jiang, Jing; Kokeny, Paul; Ying, Wang; Magnano, Chris; Zivadinov, Robert; Haacke, E. Mark
2014-01-01
Quantifying flow from phase-contrast MRI (PC-MRI) data requires that the vessels of interest be segmented. This estimate of the vessel area will dictate the type and magnitude of the error sources that affect the flow measurement. These sources of errors are well understood and mathematical expressions have been derived for them in previous work. However, these expressions contain many parameters that render them difficult to use for making practical error estimates. In this work, some realistic assumptions were made that allow for the simplification of such expressions in order to make them more useful. These simplified expressions were then used to numerically simulate the effect of segmentation accuracy and provide some criteria that if met, would keep errors in flow quantification below 10% or 5%. Four different segmentation methods were used on simulated and phantom MRA data to verify the theoretical results. Numerical simulations showed that including partial volumed edge pixels in vessel segmentation provides less error than missing them. This was verified with MRA simulations, as the best performing segmentation method generally included such pixels. Further, it was found that to obtain a flow error of less than 10% (5%), the vessel should be at least 4 (5) pixels in diameter, have an SNR of at least 10:1 and a peak velocity to saturation cut-off velocity ratio of at least 5:3. PMID:25460329
Phase-sensitive cascaded four-wave-mixing processes for generating three quantum correlated beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Li; Wang, Hailong; Li, Sijin; Wang, Yaxian; Jing, Jietai
2017-01-01
Theoretical studies and experimental implementations of quantum correlation are the important contents of continuous variables quantum optics and quantum information science. There are various systems for the study of quantum correlation. Here, we study an experimental scheme for generating three quantum correlated beams based on phase-sensitive cascaded four-wave-mixing (FWM) processes in rubidium vapor. Quantum correlation including intensity difference or sum squeezing, two other combinatorial squeezing, and quantum entanglement among the three output light fields are theoretically analyzed in this paper. Also, the comparison of the quantum correlations have been made between the phase-sensitive cascaded FWM processes and the phase-insensitive cascaded FWM processes. By changing the phases and intensities of the input beams, it is interesting to find that the maximum degrees of various combinatorial squeezing are equal when the two FWM processes share a common intensity gain. When the common intensity gain of the two FWM processes changes, the maximum degrees of different combinatorial squeezing will be synchronously controlled. At last we discuss the genuine tripartite entanglement and steering in our phase-sensitive cascaded scheme, and compare them with the cases of the phase-insensitive cascaded scheme.
A 24-GHz portable FMCW radar with continuous beam steering phased array (Conference Presentation)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Zhengyu; Li, Changzhi
2017-05-01
A portable 24-GHz frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) radar with continuous beam steering phased array is presented. This board-level integrated radar system consists of a phased array antenna, a radar transceiver and a baseband. The phased array used by the receiver is a 4-element linear array. The beam of the phased array can be continuously steered with a range of ±30° on the H-plane through an array of vector controllers. The vector controller is based on the concept of vector sum with binary-phase-shift attenuators. Each vector controller is capable of independently controlling the phase and the amplitude of each element of the linear array. The radar transceiver is based on the six-port technique. A free-running voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) is controlled by an analog "sawtooth" voltage generator to produce frequency-modulated chirp signal. This chirp signal is used as the transmitter signal, as well as the local oscillator (LO) signal to drive the six-port circuit. The transmitter antenna is a single patch antenna. In the baseband, the beat signal of the FMCW radar is detected by the six-port circuit and then processed by a laptop in real time. Experiments have been performed to reveal the capabilities of the proposed radar system for applications including indoor inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging, vital sign detection, and short-range navigation, etc. (This abstract is for the profiles session.)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Dajiang; He, Wenqi; Peng, Xiang
2015-09-01
We propose a novel method to achieve the purpose of hierarchical authentication based on two beams interference. In this method, different target images indicating different authentication levels are analytically encoded into corresponding phase-only masks (phase keys) and amplitude-only masks (amplitude keys) with the help of a random phase mask, which is created in advance and acts as the fixed lock of this authentication system. For the authentication process, a legal user can obtain a specified target image at the output plane if his/her phase key, and amplitude key, which should be settled close against the fixed internal phase lock, are respectively illuminated by two coherent beams. By comparing the target image with all the standard certification images in the database, the system can thus verify the user's identity. In simple terms, this system can not only confirm the legality of a user but also distinguish his/her identity level. Moreover, in despite of the internal phase lock of this system being fixed, the crosstalk between different pairs of keys hold by different users is low. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation are both provided to demonstrate the validity of this method.
Zhou, F.; Kabel, A.; Rosenzweig, J.; Agustsson, R.; Andonian, G.; Cline, D.; Murokh, A.; Yakimenko, V.; /UCLA /SLAC /Brookhaven
2007-02-12
Space charge and coherent synchrotron radiation may deteriorate electron beam quality when the beam passes through a magnetic bunch compressor. This paper presents the transverse phase-space tomographic measurements for a compressed beam at 60 MeV, around which energy the first stage of magnetic bunch compression takes place in most advanced linacs. Transverse phase-space bifurcation of a compressed beam is observed at that energy, but the degree of the space charge-induced bifurcation is appreciably lower than the one observed at 12 MeV.
Li, Jing; Sun, Yi; Zhu, Peiping
2013-08-21
Differential phase-contrast computed tomography (DPC-CT) reconstruction problems are usually solved by using parallel-, fan- or cone-beam algorithms. For rod-shaped objects, the x-ray beams cannot recover all the slices of the sample at the same time. Thus, if a rod-shaped sample is required to be reconstructed by the above algorithms, one should alternately perform translation and rotation on this sample, which leads to lower efficiency. The helical cone-beam CT may significantly improve scanning efficiency for rod-shaped objects over other algorithms. In this paper, we propose a theoretically exact filter-backprojection algorithm for helical cone-beam DPC-CT, which can be applied to reconstruct the refractive index decrement distribution of the samples directly from two-dimensional differential phase-contrast images. Numerical simulations are conducted to verify the proposed algorithm. Our work provides a potential solution for inspecting the rod-shaped samples using DPC-CT, which may be applicable with the evolution of DPC-CT equipments.
Beam shaping with satellite phased array antennas: Inmarsat-3 requirements - A case study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rupp, Werner M.
1990-10-01
The performance requirements of the Inmarsat-3 communication satellites regarding the L-band spot coverages can be met optimally with a directly radiating phased array antenna. A novel approach to the synthesis of patterns for planar arrays is used to provide contoured beams which match the required spot coverage areas. The variation in gain over each spot beam coverage area is less than the allowed 5 dB. The required isolation of at least 18 dB regarding unwanted radiation on other coverage areas or land masses can be satisfied. The results are presented in graphical form as contour plots of the beam shapes for various coverage areas. Also shown contour plots of the aperture distribution over the planar array in magnitude and phase. The directivity for the various spot beams is calculated for an array of circular horn antennas as well as circular microstrip patches as radiating elements. Thereby, the array size is kept constant while the number of elements and their spacing is changed.
TIME-DEPENDENT PHASE SPACE MEASUREMENTS OF THE LONGITUDINALLY COMPRESSING BEAM IN NDCX-I
LBNL; Lidia, S.M.; Bazouin, G.; Seidl, P.A.
2011-03-15
The Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCXI) generates high intensity ion beams to explore Warm Dense Matter physics. A {approx}150 kV, {approx}500 ns modulating voltage pulse is applied to a {approx}300 kV, 5-10 {mu}s, 25 mA K+ ion beam across a single induction gap. The velocity modulated beam compresses longitudinally during ballistic transport along a space charge neutralizing plasma transport line, resulting in {approx}3A peak current with {approx}2-3 ns pulse durations (FWHM) at the target plane. Transverse final focusing is accomplished with a {approx}8 T, 10 cm long pulsed solenoid magnet. Time-dependent electrostatic focusing in the induction gap, and chromatic aberrations in the final focus optics limit the peak fluenceat the target plane for the compressed beam pulse. We report on time-dependent phase space measurements of the compressed pulse in the ballistic transport beamline, and measurement of the time-dependent radial impulses derived from the interaction of the beam and the induction gap voltage. We present results of start-to-end simulations to benchmark the experiments. Fast correction strategies are discussed with application to both NDCX-I and the soon to be commissioned NDCX-II accelerators.
Lithium atomic beam spectroscopy and phase sensitive detection using a diode laser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Houlton, Jack; Peplinski, Brandon; Otto, Lauren; Klemme, Daniel; Greenlee, Tom; Hoyt, Chad
2011-04-01
We describe spectroscopy of a collimated lithium atomic beam using a home-built external cavity diode laser (ECDL) at 671 nm. The atomic beam is formed from an effusive oven containing Li at T ~ 450°C and a series of apertures. The ECDL light is split into two beams that counter-propagate at right angles to the atomic beam. Fluorescence spectra from the unresolved 2S1/2 F = 2 --> 2P3/2 D2 line of 7Li were recorded over a large range of saturation parameters (0.1s0 - 50s0, where s0 is the ratio of laser intensity to the saturation intensity). We modeled the effects of transverse atomic velocities (residual Doppler broadening), power broadening, and the saturation feature at high s0. We calibrated the spectra by modulating the laser current at ~ 110 MHz and observing the sideband spectra. We locked the frequency of the ECDL to the transition at low and high values of s0 by phase sensitive detection in the fluorescence. The laser beam was electro-optically modulated at 100 kHz and the fluorescence signal was demodulated with a lock-in amplifier. The locked ECDL will be used for laser cooling and trapping experiments. Funding from MN NASA Space Grant Consortium and CID, Inc.
Single-slice reconstruction method for helical cone-beam differential phase-contrast CT.
Fu, Jian; Chen, Liyuan
2014-01-01
X-ray phase-contrast computed tomography (PC-CT) can provide the internal structure information of biomedical specimens with high-quality cross-section images and has become an invaluable analysis tool. Here a simple and fast reconstruction algorithm is reported for helical cone-beam differential PC-CT (DPC-CT), which is called the DPC-CB-SSRB algorithm. It combines the existing CB-SSRB method of helical cone-beam absorption-contrast CT with the differential nature of DPC imaging. The reconstruction can be performed using 2D fan-beam filtered back projection algorithm with the Hilbert imaginary filter. The quality of the results for large helical pitches is surprisingly good. In particular, with this algorithm comparable quality is obtained using helical cone-beam DPC-CT data with a normalized pitch of 10 to that obtained using the traditional inter-row interpolation reconstruction with a normalized pitch of 2. This method will push the future medical helical cone-beam DPC-CT imaging applications.
Wang, Tiansi; Zhang, Chong; Aleksov, Aleksandar; Salama, Islam; Kar, Aravinda
2017-04-01
Phased array ultrasonic transducers enable modulating the focal position of the acoustic waves, and this capability is utilized in many applications, such as medical imaging and non-destructive testing. This type of transducers also provides a mechanism to generate tilted wavefronts in acousto-optic deflectors to deflect laser beams for high precision advanced laser material processing. In this paper, a theoretical model is presented for the diffraction of ultrasonic waves emitted by several phased array transducers into an acousto-optic medium such as TeO2 crystal. A simple analytic expression is obtained for the distribution of the ultrasonic displacement field in the crystal. The model prediction is found to be in good agreement with the results of a numerical model that is based on a non-paraxial multi-Gaussian beam (NMGB) model. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Plasmonic phased array feeder enabling ultra-fast beam steering at millimeter waves.
Bonjour, R; Burla, M; Abrecht, F C; Welschen, S; Hoessbacher, C; Heni, W; Gebrewold, S A; Baeuerle, B; Josten, A; Salamin, Y; Haffner, C; Johnston, P V; Elder, D L; Leuchtmann, P; Hillerkuss, D; Fedoryshyn, Y; Dalton, L R; Hafner, C; Leuthold, J
2016-10-31
In this paper, we demonstrate an integrated microwave phoneeded for beamtonics phased array antenna feeder at 60 GHz with a record-low footprint. Our design is based on ultra-compact plasmonic phase modulators (active area <2.5µm^{2}) that not only provide small size but also ultra-fast tuning speed. In our design, the integrated circuit footprint is in fact only limited by the contact pads of the electrodes and by the optical feeding waveguides. Using the high speed of the plasmonic modulators, we demonstrate beam steering with less than 1 ns reconfiguration time, i.e. the beam direction is reconfigured in-between 1 GBd transmitted symbols.
Feeding Circuit for Switching Beams in Three Directions Using LC Phase Shifter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsuji, Masatoshi
In order to obtain MMIC of a feed circuit called a HTBM (Hybrid Three Direction Beam Matrix) for making compact phased array antennas, the HTBM that uses LC circuitry as substitute for its transmission line was designed, experimentally fabricated and then evaluated at 1 MHz. In addition, a switch circuit for switching a beam direction was made using FETs and built into the HTBM. Antenna output was evaluated. Its results showed that the output gave close agreement with its simulation value and that the antenna-to-antenna phase difference and the level difference were less more than 7 degrees and 3.3 dB, respectively, in comparison with its ideal value.
Phase-only shaping algorithm for Gaussian-apodized Bessel beams.
Durfee, Charles G; Gemmer, John; Moloney, Jerome V
2013-07-01
Gaussian-apodized Bessel beams can be used to create a Bessel-like axial line focus at a distance from the focusing lens. For many applications it is desirable to create an axial intensity profile that is uniform along the Bessel zone. In this article, we show that this can be accomplished through phase-only shaping of the wavefront in the far field where the beam has an annular ring structure with a Gaussian cross section. We use a one-dimensional transform to map the radial input field to the axial Bessel field and then optimized the axial intensity with a Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm. By separating out the quadratic portion of the shaping phase the algorithm converges more rapidly.
Yu, Juan; Beltran, Chris J. Herman, Michael G.
2014-08-15
Purpose: To quantitatively and systematically assess dosimetric effects induced by spot positioning error as a function of spot spacing (SS) on intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) plan quality and to facilitate evaluation of safety tolerance limits on spot position. Methods: Spot position errors (PE) ranging from 1 to 2 mm were simulated. Simple plans were created on a water phantom, and IMPT plans were calculated on two pediatric patients with a brain tumor of 28 and 3 cc, respectively, using a commercial planning system. For the phantom, a uniform dose was delivered to targets located at different depths from 10 to 20 cm with various field sizes from 2{sup 2} to 15{sup 2} cm{sup 2}. Two nominal spot sizes, 4.0 and 6.6 mm of 1 σ in water at isocenter, were used for treatment planning. The SS ranged from 0.5 σ to 1.5 σ, which is 2–6 mm for the small spot size and 3.3–9.9 mm for the large spot size. Various perturbation scenarios of a single spot error and systematic and random multiple spot errors were studied. To quantify the dosimetric effects, percent dose error (PDE) depth profiles and the value of percent dose error at the maximum dose difference (PDE [ΔDmax]) were used for evaluation. Results: A pair of hot and cold spots was created per spot shift. PDE[ΔDmax] is found to be a complex function of PE, SS, spot size, depth, and global spot distribution that can be well defined in simple models. For volumetric targets, the PDE [ΔDmax] is not noticeably affected by the change of field size or target volume within the studied ranges. In general, reducing SS decreased the dose error. For the facility studied, given a single spot error with a PE of 1.2 mm and for both spot sizes, a SS of 1σ resulted in a 2% maximum dose error; a SS larger than 1.25 σ substantially increased the dose error and its sensitivity to PE. A similar trend was observed in multiple spot errors (both systematic and random errors). Systematic PE can lead to noticeable hot
2005-12-01
light in stimulated Mandel’shtam–Brillouin scattering,” JETP Lett ., 15, 109-112, 1972. 41 . Hellwarth, R. W., “Phase conjugation by stimulated...interferometry with wavefront-reversing mirrors,” Sov . Phys . JETP , 52, 847-851, 1980. 79. Valley, M., G. Lombardi, and R. Aprahamian, “Beam...discharge,” Appl. Phys . Lett ., 86, 111104, 2005. 13. Lange, Mathew A., “Kinetics of the electric discharge pumped oxygen-iodine laser,” Sixth
Refractory phases synthesis at the surface microalloying using a wide aperture electron beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fedorov, S. V.; Htet Swe, Min
2017-05-01
The experimental results prove the ability to realize technology of chemical heat treatment of some materials by surface microalloying using a wide-aperture low-energy high-current electron beam. Such layers were produced due to initiating exothermic chemical self-propagating high-temperature reactions in the thermal explosion mode between the base and the thin film covered on the base. New phase compounds in reaction products were found.
Cámara, Alejandro; Alieva, Tatiana; Rodrigo, José A; Calvo, María L
2009-06-01
We propose a simple approach for the phase space tomography reconstruction of the Wigner distribution of paraxial optical beams separable in Cartesian coordinates. It is based on the measurements of the antisymmetric fractional Fourier transform power spectra, which can be taken using a flexible optical setup consisting of four cylindrical lenses. The numerical simulations and the experimental results clearly demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed scheme.
The backward phase flow and FBI-transform-based Eulerian Gaussian beams for the Schrödinger equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leung, Shingyu; Qian, Jianliang
2010-11-01
We propose the backward phase flow method to implement the Fourier-Bros-Iagolnitzer (FBI)-transform-based Eulerian Gaussian beam method for solving the Schrödinger equation in the semi-classical regime. The idea of Eulerian Gaussian beams has been first proposed in [12]. In this paper we aim at two crucial computational issues of the Eulerian Gaussian beam method: how to carry out long-time beam propagation and how to compute beam ingredients rapidly in phase space. By virtue of the FBI transform, we address the first issue by introducing the reinitialization strategy into the Eulerian Gaussian beam framework. Essentially we reinitialize beam propagation by applying the FBI transform to wavefields at intermediate time steps when the beams become too wide. To address the second issue, inspired by the original phase flow method, we propose the backward phase flow method which allows us to compute beam ingredients rapidly. Numerical examples demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed algorithms.
Truong, Trong-Kha; Guidon, Arnaud
2014-01-01
Purpose To develop and compare three novel reconstruction methods designed to inherently correct for motion-induced phase errors in multi-shot spiral diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) without requiring a variable-density spiral trajectory or a navigator echo. Theory and Methods The first method simply averages magnitude images reconstructed with sensitivity encoding (SENSE) from each shot, whereas the second and third methods rely on SENSE to estimate the motion-induced phase error for each shot, and subsequently use either a direct phase subtraction or an iterative conjugate gradient (CG) algorithm, respectively, to correct for the resulting artifacts. Numerical simulations and in vivo experiments on healthy volunteers were performed to assess the performance of these methods. Results The first two methods suffer from a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) or from residual artifacts in the reconstructed diffusion-weighted images and fractional anisotropy maps. In contrast, the third method provides high-quality, high-resolution DTI results, revealing fine anatomical details such as a radial diffusion anisotropy in cortical gray matter. Conclusion The proposed SENSE+CG method can inherently and effectively correct for phase errors, signal loss, and aliasing artifacts caused by both rigid and nonrigid motion in multi-shot spiral DTI, without increasing the scan time or reducing the SNR. PMID:23450457
Studies of a proton phase beam monitor for range verification in proton therapy
Werner, T.; Golnik, C.; Enghardt, W.; Petzoldt, J.; Kormoll, T.; Pausch, G.; Straessner, A.; Roemer, K.; Dreyer, A.; Hueso-Gonzalez, F.; Enghardt, W.
2015-07-01
A primary subject of the present research in particle therapy is to ensure the precise irradiation of the target volume. The prompt gamma timing (PGT) method provides one possibility for in vivo range verification during the irradiation of patients. Prompt gamma rays with high energies are emitted promptly due to nuclear reactions of protons with tissue. The arrival time of these gammas to the detector reflects the stopping process of the primary protons in tissue and are directly correlated to the range. Due to the time resolution of the detector and the proton bunch time spread, as well as drifts of the bunch phase with respect to the accelerator frequency, timing spectra are smeared out and compromise the accuracy of range information intended for future clinical applications. Nevertheless, counteracting this limitation and recovering range information from the PGT measured spectra, corrections using a phase beam monitor can be performed. A first prototype of phase beam monitor was tested at GSI Darmstadt, where measurements of the energy profile of the ion bunches were performed. At the ELBE accelerator Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), set up to provide bremsstrahlung photons in very short pulses, a constant fraction algorithm for the incoming digital signals was evaluated, which is used for optimizing the time resolution. Studies of scattering experiments with different thin targets and detector positions are accomplished at Oncoray Dresden, where a clinical proton beam is available. These experiments allow a basic characterization of the proton bunch structure and the detection yield. (authors)
Balucani, Nadia; Casavecchia, Piergiorgio
2006-12-01
We have investigated gas-phase reactions of N((2)D) with the most abundant hydrocarbons in the atmosphere of Titan by the crossed molecular beam technique. In all cases, molecular products containing a novel CN bond are formed, thus suggesting possible routes of formation of gas-phase nitriles in the atmosphere of Titan and primordial Earth. The same approach has been recently extended to the study of radical-radical reactions, such as the reaction of atomic oxygen with the CH(3) and C(3)H(5) radicals. Products other than those already considered in the modeling of planetary atmospheres and interstellar medium have been identified.
Tyczkowski, J.; Pietrzyk, B.; Mazurczyk, R.; Polanski, K.; Balcerski, J.; Delamar, M.
1997-11-01
The influence of electron beam irradiation on morphology of plasma deposited amorphous hydrogenated carbon-germanium films produced from tetramethylgermanium in a three-electrode af reactor has been studied. It has been found that the insulating films are insensitive to this treatment, whereas a crystalline phase occurs in the semiconducting films. Although the molar content of germanium in these films amounts only to about 0.2, the crystalline phase is composed of pure germanium nanocrystals which contain about 70{percent} of the whole amount of germanium existing in the films. The nanocrystals are agglomerated in globules of 50{endash}500 nm in diameter. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}
Salditt, T.; Giewekemeyer, K.; Fuhse, C.; Krueger, S. P.; Tucoulou, R.; Cloetens, P.
2009-05-01
We report a projection phase contrast microscopy experiment using hard x-ray pink beam undulator radiation focused by an adaptive mirror system to 100-200 nm spot size. This source is used to illuminate a lithographic test pattern with a well-controlled range of spatial frequencies. The oscillatory nature of the contrast transfer function with source-to-sample distance in this holographic imaging scheme is quantified and the validity of the weak phase object approximation is confirmed for the experimental conditions.
Tomita, Akio; Kizawa, Senji
2007-05-01
The Sampling Conference for the prevention of preanalytical phase errors was first held at Fukushima in 1987. Since then, The Sampling Conference has been held in several areas in Japan. For the same purpose, we started the Tokai Sampling Conference in the Tokai area including Aichi, Shizuoka, Gifu and Mie prefectures in 1990, and discussed clinical errors in laboratory measurements caused by physiological variations in age, sex and the season, influence of food, exercise, posture and medication, effects of anticoagulants, sample storage conditions and so on. We have studied many preanalytical errors at these conferences. Moreover, additional problems have been revealed at the conferences. Safety and risk management to avoid needle sticks and Vacutainer-induced infections have been discussed, and this information is thought to be important not only for laboratory workers but also for patients.
Liang, Jinyang; Wu, Sih-Ying; Fatemi, Fredrik K; Becker, Michael F
2012-06-01
Phase compression is used to suppress the on-axis zero-order diffracted (ZOD) beam from a pixelated phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM) by a simple modification to the computer generated hologram (CGH) loaded onto the SLM. After CGH design, the phase of each SLM element is identically compressed by multiplying by a constant scale factor and rotated on the complex unit-circle to produce a cancellation beam that destructively interferes with the ZOD beam. Experiments achieved a factor of 3 reduction of the ZOD beam using two different liquid-crystal SLMs. Numerical simulation analyzed the reconstructed image quality and diffraction efficiency versus degree of phase compression and showed that phase compression resulted in little image degradation or power loss.
Ptychographic phase microscope based on high-speed modulation on the illumination beam.
Yao, Yudong; Veetil, Suhas P; Liu, Cheng; Zhu, JianQiang
2017-03-01
A type of ptychography-based phase microscope was developed by integrating a spatial light modulator (SLM) into a commercial wide-field light microscope. By displaying a moving pattern on the SLM to change the sample illumination and record the diffraction intensities formed, both the modulus and phase of the transmission function of the sample could be accurately reconstructed with formulas similar to those of common ptychography. Compared with other kinds of phase microscopes, the developed microscope has several advantages, including its simple structure, high immunity to coherent noise, and low requirement for quality optics. In addition, defects in the illumination beam are also removed from the reconstructed image. Further, this microscope’s fast data acquisition ability makes it highly suitable for many applications where highly accurate quantitative phase imaging is important, such as in living cells or other fragile biological samples that cannot sustain continuous imaging over a long period of time.
Yamauchi, Kazuto; Yamamura, Kazuya; Mimura, Hidekazu; Sano, Yasuhisa; Saito, Akira; Endo, Katsuyoshi; Souvorov, Alexei; Yabashi, Makina; Tamasaku, Kenji; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Mori, Yuzo
2005-11-10
The intensity flatness and wavefront shape in a coherent hard-x-ray beam totally reflected by flat mirrors that have surface bumps modeled by Gaussian functions were investigated by use of a wave-optical simulation code. Simulated results revealed the necessity for peak-to-valley height accuracy of better than 1 nm at a lateral resolution near 0.1 mm to remove high-contrast interference fringes and appreciable wavefront phase errors. Three mirrors that had different surface qualities were tested at the 1 km-long beam line at the SPring-8/Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute. Interference fringes faded when the surface figure was corrected below the subnanometer level to a spatial resolution close to 0.1 mm, as indicated by the simulated results.
Zhang, JY; Hong, DL
2016-06-15
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the patient set-up error and interfraction target coverage in cervical cancer using image-guided adaptive radiotherapy (IGART) with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods: Twenty cervical cancer patients undergoing intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) were randomly selected. All patients were matched to the isocenter using laser with the skin markers. Three dimensional CBCT projections were acquired by the Varian Truebeam treatment system. Set-up errors were evaluated by radiation oncologists, after CBCT correction. The clinical target volume (CTV) was delineated on each CBCT, and the planning target volume (PTV) coverage of each CBCT-CTVs was analyzed. Results: A total of 152 CBCT scans were acquired from twenty cervical cancer patients, the mean set-up errors in the longitudinal, vertical, and lateral direction were 3.57, 2.74 and 2.5mm respectively, without CBCT corrections. After corrections, these were decreased to 1.83, 1.44 and 0.97mm. For the target coverage, CBCT-CTV coverage without CBCT correction was 94% (143/152), and 98% (149/152) with correction. Conclusion: Use of CBCT verfication to measure patient setup errors could be applied to improve the treatment accuracy. In addition, the set-up error corrections significantly improve the CTV coverage for cervical cancer patients.
Baey, Charlotte; Le Deley, Marie-Cécile
2011-07-01
Phase-II trials are a key stage in the clinical development of a new treatment. Their main objective is to provide the required information for a go/no-go decision regarding a subsequent phase-III trial. In single arm phase-II trials, widely used in oncology, this decision relies on the comparison of efficacy outcomes observed in the trial to historical controls. The false positive rate generally accepted in phase-II trials, around 10%, contrasts with the very high attrition rate of new compounds tested in phase-III trials, estimated at about 60%. We assumed that this gap could partly be explained by the misspecification of the response rate expected with standard treatment, leading to erroneous hypotheses tested in the phase-II trial. We computed the false positive probability of a defined design under various hypotheses of expected efficacy probability. Similarly we calculated the power of the trial to detect the efficacy of a new compound for different expected efficacy rates. Calculations were done considering a binary outcome, such as the response rate, with a decision rule based on a Simon two-stage design. When analysing a single-arm phase-II trial, based on a design with a pre-specified null hypothesis, a 5% absolute error in the expected response rate leads to a false positive rate of about 30% when it is supposed to be 10%. This inflation of type-I error varies only slightly according to the hypotheses of the initial design. Single-arm phase-II trials poorly control for the false positive rate. Randomised phase-II trials should, therefore, be more often considered.
Radial phased-locked partially coherent flat-topped vortex beam array in non-Kolmogorov medium.
Liu, Huilong; Lü, Yanfei; Xia, Jing; Chen, Dong; He, Wei; Pu, Xiaoyun
2016-08-22
The analytical expressions for the cross-spectral density, the average intensity and the complex degree of spatial coherence of a radial phased-locked partially coherent flat-topped vortex beam array propagating through non-Kolmogorov medium are obtained by using the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle. The evolution behaviors of a radial phased-locked partially coherent flat-topped vortex beam array propagating through non-Kolmogorov medium are studied in detail. It is shown that the evolution behaviors of average intensity depend on beam parameters including the spatial correlation length, the radius of the beam array, as well as the propagation distance. A radial phased-locked partially coherent flat-topped vortex beam array with high coherence evolves more rapidly than that with low coherence.
Structure-phase states evolution in Al-Si alloy under electron-beam treatment and high-cycle fatigue
Konovalov, Sergey Alsaraeva, Krestina Gromov, Victor Semina, Olga; Ivanov, Yurii
2015-10-27
By methods of scanning and transmission electron diffraction microscopy the analysis of structure-phase states and defect substructure of silumin subjected to high-intensity electron beam irradiation in various regimes and subsequent fatigue loading up to failure was carried out. It is revealed that the sources of fatigue microcracks are silicon plates of micron and submicron size are not soluble in electron beam processing. The possible reasons of the silumin fatigue life increase under electron-beam treatment are discussed.
Shrestha, Rojan; Simoncini, David; Zhang, Kam Y J
2012-11-01
Recent advancements in computational methods for protein-structure prediction have made it possible to generate the high-quality de novo models required for ab initio phasing of crystallographic diffraction data using molecular replacement. Despite those encouraging achievements in ab initio phasing using de novo models, its success is limited only to those targets for which high-quality de novo models can be generated. In order to increase the scope of targets to which ab initio phasing with de novo models can be successfully applied, it is necessary to reduce the errors in the de novo models that are used as templates for molecular replacement. Here, an approach is introduced that can identify and rebuild the residues with larger errors, which subsequently reduces the overall C(α) root-mean-square deviation (CA-RMSD) from the native protein structure. The error in a predicted model is estimated from the average pairwise geometric distance per residue computed among selected lowest energy coarse-grained models. This score is subsequently employed to guide a rebuilding process that focuses on more error-prone residues in the coarse-grained models. This rebuilding methodology has been tested on ten protein targets that were unsuccessful using previous methods. The average CA-RMSD of the coarse-grained models was improved from 4.93 to 4.06 Å. For those models with CA-RMSD less than 3.0 Å, the average CA-RMSD was improved from 3.38 to 2.60 Å. These rebuilt coarse-grained models were then converted into all-atom models and refined to produce improved de novo models for molecular replacement. Seven diffraction data sets were successfully phased using rebuilt de novo models, indicating the improved quality of these rebuilt de novo models and the effectiveness of the rebuilding process. Software implementing this method, called MORPHEUS, can be downloaded from http://www.riken.jp/zhangiru/software.html.
Light beams with general direction and polarization: Global description and geometric phase
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nityananda, R.; Sridhar, S.
2014-02-01
We construct the manifold describing the family of plane monochromatic light waves with all directions, polarizations, phases and intensities. A smooth description of polarization, valid over the entire sphere S2 of directions, is given through the construction of an orthogonal basis pair of complex polarization vectors for each direction; any light beam is then uniquely and smoothly specified by giving its direction and two complex amplitudes. This implies that the space of all light beams is the six dimensional manifold S2×C2∖{0}, the (untwisted) Cartesian product of a sphere and a two dimensional complex vector space minus the origin. A Hopf map (i.e. mapping the two complex amplitudes to the Stokes parameters) then leads to the four dimensional manifold S2×S2 which describes beams with all directions and polarization states. This product of two spheres can be viewed as an ordered pair of two points on a single sphere, in contrast to earlier work in which the same system was represented using Majorana's mapping of the states of a spin one quantum system to an unordered pair of points on a sphere. This is a different manifold, CP2, two dimensional complex projective space, which does not faithfully represent the full space of all directions and polarizations. Following the now-standard framework, we exhibit the fibre bundle whose total space is the set of all light beams of non-zero intensity, and base space S2×S2. We give the U(1) connection which determines the geometric phase as the line integral of a one-form along a closed curve in the total space. Bases are classified as globally smooth, global but singular, and local, with the last type of basis being defined only when the curve traversed by the system is given. Existing as well as new formulae for the geometric phase are presented in this overall framework.
A Parameterized Pattern-Error Objective for Large-Scale Phase-Only Array Pattern Design
2016-03-21
array pattern Array synthesis Transmit array pattern Array pattern optimization Phase-only optimization Modern phased-array radar systems increasingly...the most trivial phase-only optimizations are nonconvex and thus may have large numbers of local optima. In most fielded radar systems only the...existing approaches to phase-only array design can be roughly divided into heuristic, nonlocal optimization , and local optimization methods. The first two
Digital phase-lock loop having an estimator and predictor of error
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Statman, Joseph I. (Inventor); Hurd, William J. (Inventor)
1988-01-01
A digital phase-lock loop (DPLL) which generates a signal with a phase that approximates the phase of a received signal with a linear estimator. The effect of a complication associated with non-zero transport delays related to DPLL mechanization is then compensated by a predictor. The estimator provides recursive estimates of phase, frequency, and higher order derivatives, while the predictor compensates for transport lag inherent in the loop.
Thermal-induced phase-shift error of a fiber-optic gyroscope due to fiber tail length asymmetry.
Zhang, Yunhao; Zhang, Yonggang; Gao, Zhongxing
2017-01-10
As a high-precision angular sensor, the fiber-optic gyroscope (FOG) usually shows high sensitivity to disturbances of the environmental temperature. Research on thermal-induced error of the FOG is meaningful to improve its robust performance and reliability in practical applications. In this paper, thermal-induced nonreciprocal phase-shift error of the FOG due to asymmetric fiber tail length is discussed in detail, based on temperature diffusion theory. Theoretical analysis shows that the increase of thermal-induced nonreciprocal phase shift of the FOG is proportional to the asymmetric tail length. Moreover, experiments with temperature ranging from -40°C to 60°C are performed to confirm the analysis. The analysis and experiment results indicate that we may compensate the asymmetry of fiber coil due to imperfect winding and the assembly process by adjusting the fiber tail length, which can reduce the thermal-induced phase-shift error and further improve the adaptability of the FOG in a changing ambient temperature.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Simon, M.; Mileant, A.
1986-01-01
The steady-state behavior of a particular type of digital phase-locked loop (DPLL) with an integrate-and-dump circuit following the phase detector is characterized in terms of the probability density function (pdf) of the phase error in the loop. Although the loop is entirely digital from an implementation standpoint, it operates at two extremely different sampling rates. In particular, the combination of a phase detector and an integrate-and-dump circuit operates at a very high rate whereas the loop update rate is very slow by comparison. Because of this dichotomy, the loop can be analyzed by hybrid analog/digital (s/z domain) techniques. The loop is modeled in such a general fashion that previous analyses of the Real-Time Combiner (RTC), Subcarrier Demodulator Assembly (SDA), and Symbol Synchronization Assembly (SSA) fall out as special cases.
Paz, Juan Pablo; Roncaglia, Augusto Jose; Saraceno, Marcos
2005-07-15
We analyze and further develop a method to represent the quantum state of a system of n qubits in a phase-space grid of NxN points (where N=2{sup n}). The method, which was recently proposed by Wootters and co-workers (Gibbons et al., Phys. Rev. A 70, 062101 (2004).), is based on the use of the elements of the finite field GF(2{sup n}) to label the phase-space axes. We present a self-contained overview of the method, we give insights into some of its features, and we apply it to investigate problems which are of interest for quantum-information theory: We analyze the phase-space representation of stabilizer states and quantum error-correction codes and present a phase-space solution to the so-called mean king problem.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Long, Jiale; Xi, Jiangtao; Zhang, Jianmin; Zhu, Ming; Cheng, Wenqing; Li, Zhongwei; Shi, Yusheng
2016-09-01
In a recent published work, we proposed a technique to recover the absolute phase maps of fringe patterns with two selected fringe wavelengths. To achieve higher anti-error capability, the proposed method requires employing the fringe patterns with longer wavelengths; however, longer wavelength may lead to the degradation of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the surface measurement. In this paper, we propose a new approach to unwrap the phase maps from their wrapped versions based on the use of fringes with three different wavelengths which is characterized by improved anti-error capability and SNR. Therefore, while the previous method works on the two-phase maps obtained from six-step phase-shifting profilometry (PSP) (thus 12 fringe patterns are needed), the proposed technique performs very well on three-phase maps from three steps PSP, requiring only nine fringe patterns and hence more efficient. Moreover, the advantages of the two-wavelength method in simple implementation and flexibility in the use of fringe patterns are also reserved. Theoretical analysis and experiment results are presented to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Taylor, J.; O`Hara, J.; Luckas, W.
1997-02-01
Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) has become an increasingly important tool in the nuclear power industry, both for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the operating utilities. The NRC recently published a final policy statement, SECY-95-126, encouraging the use of PRA in regulatory activities. Human reliability analysis (HRA), while a critical element of PRA, has limitations in the analysis of human actions in PRAs that have long been recognized as a constraint when using PRA. In fact, better integration of HRA into the PRA process has long been a NRC issue. Of particular concern, has been the omission of errors of commission - those errors that are associated with inappropriate interventions by operators with operating systems. To address these concerns, the NRC identified the need to develop an improved HRA method, so that human reliability can be better represented and integrated into PRA modeling and quantification. The purpose of the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) project, entitled `Improved HRA Method Based on Operating Experience` is to develop a new method for HRA which is supported by the analysis of risk-significant operating experience. This approach will allow a more realistic assessment and representation of the human contribution to plant risk, and thereby increase the utility of PRA. The project`s completed, ongoing, and future efforts fall into four phases: (1) Assessment phase (FY 92/93); (2) Analysis and Characterization phase (FY 93/94); (3) Development phase (FY 95/96); and (4) Implementation phase (FY 96/97 ongoing).
Generation of acoustic self-bending and bottle beams by phase engineering.
Zhang, Peng; Li, Tongcang; Zhu, Jie; Zhu, Xuefeng; Yang, Sui; Wang, Yuan; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang
2014-07-03
Directing acoustic waves along curved paths is critical for applications such as ultrasound imaging, surgery and acoustic cloaking. Metamaterials can direct waves by spatially varying the material properties through which the wave propagates. However, this approach is not always feasible, particularly for acoustic applications. Here we demonstrate the generation of acoustic bottle beams in homogeneous space without using metamaterials. Instead, the sound energy flows through a three-dimensional curved shell in air leaving a close-to-zero pressure region in the middle, exhibiting the capability of circumventing obstacles. By designing the initial phase, we develop a general recipe for creating self-bending wave packets, which can set acoustic beams propagating along arbitrary prescribed convex trajectories. The measured acoustic pulling force experienced by a rigid ball placed inside such a beam confirms the pressure field of the bottle. The demonstrated acoustic bottle and self-bending beams have potential applications in medical ultrasound imaging, therapeutic ultrasound, as well as acoustic levitations and isolations.
Generation of acoustic self-bending and bottle beams by phase engineering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Peng; Li, Tongcang; Zhu, Jie; Zhu, Xuefeng; Yang, Sui; Wang, Yuan; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang
2014-07-01
Directing acoustic waves along curved paths is critical for applications such as ultrasound imaging, surgery and acoustic cloaking. Metamaterials can direct waves by spatially varying the material properties through which the wave propagates. However, this approach is not always feasible, particularly for acoustic applications. Here we demonstrate the generation of acoustic bottle beams in homogeneous space without using metamaterials. Instead, the sound energy flows through a three-dimensional curved shell in air leaving a close-to-zero pressure region in the middle, exhibiting the capability of circumventing obstacles. By designing the initial phase, we develop a general recipe for creating self-bending wave packets, which can set acoustic beams propagating along arbitrary prescribed convex trajectories. The measured acoustic pulling force experienced by a rigid ball placed inside such a beam confirms the pressure field of the bottle. The demonstrated acoustic bottle and self-bending beams have potential applications in medical ultrasound imaging, therapeutic ultrasound, as well as acoustic levitations and isolations.
Two dimensional thermo-optic beam steering using a silicon photonic optical phased array
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahon, Rita; Preussner, Marcel W.; Rabinovich, William S.; Goetz, Peter G.; Kozak, Dmitry A.; Ferraro, Mike S.; Murphy, James L.
2016-03-01
Components for free space optical communication terminals such as lasers, amplifiers, and receivers have all seen substantial reduction in both size and power consumption over the past several decades. However, pointing systems, such as fast steering mirrors and gimbals, have remained large, slow and power-hungry. Optical phased arrays provide a possible solution for non-mechanical beam steering devices that can be compact and lower in power. Silicon photonics is a promising technology for phased arrays because it has the potential to scale to many elements and may be compatible with CMOS technology thereby enabling batch fabrication. For most free space optical communication applications, two-dimensional beam steering is needed. To date, silicon photonic phased arrays have achieved two-dimensional steering by combining thermo-optic steering, in-plane, with wavelength tuning by means of an output grating to give angular tuning, out-of-plane. While this architecture might work for certain static communication links, it would be difficult to implement for moving platforms. Other approaches have required N2 controls for an NxN element phased array, which leads to complexity. Hence, in this work we demonstrate steering using the thermo-optic effect for both dimensions with a simplified steering mechanism requiring only two control signals, one for each steering dimension.
Lian, Jie; Zhang, Jiaming; Namavar, Fereydoon; Zhang, Yanwen; Lu, Fengyuan; Haider, Hani; Garvin, Kevin; Weber, William J.; Ewing, Rodney C.
2009-05-26
Nanocrystalline zirconia has recently attracted extensive research interest due to its unique mechanical, thermal and electrical properties as compared to bulk zirconia counterparts, and it is of particular importance to control the phase stability of different polymorphs (amorphous, cubic, tetragonal and monoclinic phases) at different size regimes. In this paper, we performed ion beam bombardments on bilayers (amorphous and cubic) of pure nano-zirconia using 1 MeV Kr2+ irradiation. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis reveals that amorphous zirconia transforms to a tetragonal structure under irradiation at room temperature, suggesting that the tetragonal phase is more energetically favorable under these conditions. The final grain size of the tetragonal zirconia can be controlled by irradiation conditions. The irradiation-induced nanograins of tetragonal ZrO2 are stable at ambient conditions and maintain their physical integrity over a long period of time after irradiation. These results demonstrated that ion-beam modification methods provide the means to control the phase stability and structure of zirconia polymorphs.
Lian, Jie; Zhang, Jiaming; Namavar, Fereydoon; Zhang, Yanwen; Lu, Fengyuan; Haider, Hani; Garvin, Kevin; Weber, W J; Ewing, Rodney C
2009-06-17
Nanocrystalline zirconia has recently attracted extensive research interest due to its unique mechanical, thermal and electrical properties as compared with bulk zirconia counterparts, and it is of particular importance for controlling the phase stability of different polymorphs (amorphous, cubic, tetragonal and monoclinic phases) in different size regimes. In this work, we performed ion beam bombardments on bilayers (amorphous and cubic) of nano-zirconia using 1 MeV Kr2+ irradiation. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis reveals that amorphous zirconia transforms to a tetragonal structure under irradiation at room temperature, suggesting that the tetragonal phase is more energetically favorable under these conditions. The final grain size of the tetragonal zirconia can be controlled by irradiation conditions. A slower kinetics in the grain growth from cubic nanocrystalline zirconia was found as compared with that for the tetragonal grains recrystallized from the amorphous layer. The radiation-induced nanograins of tetragonal ZrO2 are stable at ambient conditions and maintain their physical integrity over a long period of time after irradiation. These results demonstrated that ion beam methods provide the means to control the phase stability and structure of zirconia polymorphs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Yichen; Winiarz, Jeffrey G.
2017-03-01
A photorefractive composite based on a triphenyldiamine (TPD) derivative was used to restore a severely phase-aberrated laser beam to a nearly aberration-free state. Here, a forward degenerate four-wave mixing geometry was employed for the elimination of phase distortions and its practical applicability in the transmission of optically encoded data is demonstrated. In addition, it is demonstrated that the experimental geometry is able to effectively restore dynamically updating images. Conventional two-beam coupling and degenerate four-wave mixing experiments were used to characterize the composite subject to the current experimental setup. The two-beam coupling net gain coefficient was 100 cm-1 with an applied external electric field of 70 V/µm. Internal and external diffraction efficiencies of 10 and 6%, respectively, were observed with a similar external electric field. Due to its superior charge-carrier mobility, the TPD-based composite exhibited a response time of 0.28 s, approximately five times faster than traditional PVK-based composites.
New advancements in focused ion beam repair of alternating phase-shift masks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lessing, Joshua; Robinson, Tod; Brannen, Rey A.; Morrison, Troy B.; Holtermann, Theresa
2003-08-01
As advanced photolithography extends the ability to print feature sizes below the 100 nm technology node, various reticle enhancement techniques (RET) are being employed to improve resolution. An example of RET is the alternating phase shift mask (APSM), which currently challenges the ability of conventional repair techniques to repair even the most basic reticle defect. The phase shifting quartz bump is one defect type critical to the performance of APSM technology masks. These defects on the APSM reticle are caused by imperfections in the resist image during processing, resulting in a localized under or over etch of the quartz substrate. The integrated application of gas assisted etch (GAE), focused ion beam (FIB) reticle repair, and atomic force microscopy (AFM), provide a comprehensive solution for advanced reticle defect repair and characterization. Ion beam repair offers superior accuracy and precision for removal without significant damage to the underlying or adjacent quartz. The AFM technique provides quantitative measurement of 3D structures, including those associated with alternating phase shifters etched into quartz as well as embedded shifters. In the work presented in this paper, quartz bum defects were pre-scanned on an AFM tool and proprietary software algorithms were used to generate defect image and height map files for transfer to the FIB reticle repair tool via a network connection. The FIB tool then used these files to control selectively the ion dose during the corresponding quartz defect repair. A 193 nm APSM phase shift photomask with programmed defects in 400 nm line and space pattern was repaired using an FEI Stylus NanoProfilometer (SNP) and a FEI Accura 850 focus ion beam (FIB) tool. Using the APSM FIB repair method, the transmittance evaluated from 193 nm AIMS at the repair area was more than 90% without post-processing.
Advancements in focused ion beam repair of alternating phase-shift masks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lessing, Joshua; Robinson, Tod; Morrision, Troy; Holtermann, Theresa
2003-12-01
As advanced photolithography extends the ability to print feature sizes below the 100 nm technology node, various reticle enhancement techniques (RET) are being employed to improve resolution. An example of RET is the alternating phase shift mask (APSM), which currently challenges the ability of conventional repair techniques to repair even the most basic reticle defect. The phase shifting quartz bump is one defect type critical to the performance of APSM technology masks. These defects on the APSM reticle are caused by imperfections in the resist image during processing, resulting in a localized under or over etch of the quartz substrate. The integrated application of gas assisted etch (GAE), focused ion beam (FIB) reticle repair, and atomic force microscopy (AFM), provides a comprehensive solution for advanced reticle defect repair and characterization. Ion beam repair offers superior accuracy and precision for removal without significant damage to the underlying or adjacent quartz. The AFM technique provides quantitative measurement of 3D structures, including those associated with alternating phase shifters etched into quartz as well as embedded shifters. In the work presented in this paper, quartz bump defects were pre-scanned on an AFM tool and proprietary software algorithms were used to generate defect image and height map files for transfer to the FIB reticle repair tool via a network connection. The FIB tool then used these files to selectively control the ion dose during the corresponding quartz defect repair. A 193 nm APSM phase shift photomask with programmed defects in 400 nm line and space pattern was repaired using an FEI Stylus NanoProfilometer (SNP) and a FEI Accura 850 focus ion beam (FIB) tool. Using the APSM FIB repair method, the transmittance evaluated from 193 nm AIMS at the repair area was more than 90% without post-processing.
Yousefi, Masoud; Golmohammady, Shole; Mashal, Ahmad; Kashani, Fatemeh Dabbagh
2015-11-01
In this paper, on the basis of the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle, a semianalytical expression for describing on-axis scintillation index of a partially coherent flat-topped (PCFT) laser beam of weak to moderate oceanic turbulence is derived; consequently, by using the log-normal intensity probability density function, the bit error rate (BER) is evaluated. The effects of source factors (such as wavelength, order of flatness, and beam width) and turbulent ocean parameters (such as Kolmogorov microscale, relative strengths of temperature and salinity fluctuations, rate of dissipation of the mean squared temperature, and rate of dissipation of the turbulent kinetic energy per unit mass of fluid) on propagation behavior of scintillation index, and, hence, on BER, are studied in detail. Results indicate that, in comparison with a Gaussian beam, a PCFT laser beam with a higher order of flatness is found to have lower scintillations. In addition, the scintillation index and BER are most affected when salinity fluctuations in the ocean dominate temperature fluctuations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Jianguang; Wang, Yun; Yu, Changqing; Chen, Peng
2017-02-01
An approach for extracting angle-domain common-image gathers (ADCIGs) from anisotropic Gaussian beam prestack depth migration (GB-PSDM) is presented in this paper. The propagation angle is calculated in the process of migration using the real-value traveltime information of Gaussian beam. Based on the above, we further investigate the effects of anisotropy on GB-PSDM, where the corresponding ADCIGs are extracted to assess the quality of migration images. The test results of the VTI syncline model and the TTI thrust sheet model show that anisotropic parameters ɛ, δ, and tilt angle 𝜃, have a great influence on the accuracy of the migrated image in anisotropic media, and ignoring any one of them will cause obvious imaging errors. The anisotropic GB-PSDM with the true anisotropic parameters can obtain more accurate seismic images of subsurface structures in anisotropic media.
Update: Validation, Edits, and Application Processing. Phase II and Error-Prone Model Report.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gray, Susan; And Others
An update to the Validation, Edits, and Application Processing and Error-Prone Model Report (Section 1, July 3, 1980) is presented. The objective is to present the most current data obtained from the June 1980 Basic Educational Opportunity Grant applicant and recipient files and to determine whether the findings reported in Section 1 of the July…
Adamson, Justus; Wu Qiuwen; Yan Di
2011-06-01
Purpose: To quantify the dosimetric effect and margins required to account for prostate intrafractional translation and residual setup error in a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT)-guided hypofractionated radiotherapy protocol. Methods and Materials: Prostate position after online correction was measured during dose delivery using simultaneous kV fluoroscopy and posttreatment CBCT in 572 fractions to 30 patients. We reconstructed the dose distribution to the clinical tumor volume (CTV) using a convolution of the static dose with a probability density function (PDF) based on the kV fluoroscopy, and we calculated the minimum dose received by 99% of the CTV (D{sub 99}). We compared reconstructed doses when the convolution was performed per beam, per patient, and when the PDF was created using posttreatment CBCT. We determined the minimum axis-specific margins to limit CTV D{sub 99} reduction to 1%. Results: For 3-mm margins, D{sub 99} reduction was {<=}5% for 29/30 patients. Using post-CBCT rather than localizations at treatment delivery exaggerated dosimetric effects by {approx}47%, while there was no such bias between the dose convolved with a beam-specific and patient-specific PDF. After eight fractions, final cumulative D{sub 99} could be predicted with a root mean square error of <1%. For 90% of patients, the required margins were {<=}2, 4, and 3 mm, with 70%, 40%, and 33% of patients requiring no right-left (RL), anteroposterior (AP), and superoinferior margins, respectively. Conclusions: For protocols with CBCT guidance, RL, AP, and SI margins of 2, 4, and 3 mm are sufficient to account for translational errors; however, the large variation in patient-specific margins suggests that adaptive management may be beneficial.
Controlling crystal phases in GaAs nanowires grown by Au-assisted molecular beam epitaxy.
Dheeraj, D L; Munshi, A M; Scheffler, M; van Helvoort, A T J; Weman, H; Fimland, B O
2013-01-11
Control of the crystal phases of GaAs nanowires (NWs) is essential to eliminate the formation of stacking faults which deteriorate the optical and electronic properties of the NWs. In addition, the ability to control the crystal phase of NWs provides an opportunity to engineer the band gap without changing the crystal material. We show that the crystal phase of GaAs NWs grown on GaAs(111)B substrates by molecular beam epitaxy using the Au-assisted vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanism can be tuned between wurtzite (WZ) and zinc blende (ZB) by changing the V/III flux ratio. As an example we demonstrate the realization of WZ GaAs NWs with a ZB GaAs insert that has been grown without changing the substrate temperature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Popa, Alexandru; Stancalie, Viorica
2017-06-01
In a series of previous papers we proved an accurate connection between quantum and classical equations in the case of electrodynamic systems. We have used this connection to elaborate simplified models for systems composed of very intense laser beams and electrons or atoms. These models are in good agreement with numerous experimental data from literature. In this paper we develop the above approach for the new field of interactions between ultraintense laser beams, having intensities in the range 1018 - 1022 W/cm2, and electron plasmas. We show that in this case new effects take place, such as the fact that the variation of the phase of the field at the point where the electron is situated, decreases when the intensity of the field increases, due to a strong relativistic behavior. This effect leads to an aperiodic behavior of the radiations generated by above interactions, and to a possible new method for solitary waves generation.
Controllable high-quality electron beam generation by phase slippage effect in layered targets
Yu, Q.; Li, X. F.; Huang, S.; Zhang, F.; Kong, Q.; Gu, Y. J.; Ma, Y. Y.; Kawata, S.
2014-11-15
The bubble structure generated by laser-plasma interactions changes in size depending on the local plasma density. The self-injection electrons' position with respect to wakefield can be controlled by tailoring the longitudinal plasma density. A regime to enhance the energy of the wakefield accelerated electrons and to improve the beam quality is proposed and achieved using layered plasmas with increasing densities. Both the wakefield size and the electron bunch duration are significantly contracted in this regime. The electrons remain in the strong acceleration phase of the wakefield, while their energy spread decreases because of their tight spatial distribution. An electron beam of 0.5 GeV with less than 1% energy spread is obtained through 2.5D particle-in-cell simulations.
Phase-change recording medium that enables ultrahigh-density electron-beam data storage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gibson, G. A.; Chaiken, A.; Nauka, K.; Yang, C. C.; Davidson, R.; Holden, A.; Bicknell, R.; Yeh, B. S.; Chen, J.; Liao, H.; Subramanian, S.; Schut, D.; Jasinski, J.; Liliental-Weber, Z.
2005-01-01
An ultrahigh-density electron-beam-based data storage medium is described that consists of a diode formed by growing an InSe/GaSe phase-change bilayer film epitaxially on silicon. Bits are recorded as amorphous regions in the InSe layer and are detected via the current induced in the diode by a scanned electron beam. This signal current is modulated by differences in the electrical properties of the amorphous and crystalline states. The success of this recording scheme results from the remarkable ability of layered III-VI materials, such as InSe, to maintain useful electrical properties at their surfaces after repeated cycles of amorphization and recrystallization.
Ion beam figuring of continuous phase plates based on the frequency filtering process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Mingjin; Dai, Yifan; Xie, Xuhui; Zhou, Lin; Li, Shengyi; Peng, Wenqiang
2017-03-01
Ion beam figuring (IBF) technology is an effective technique for fabricating continuous phase plates (CPPs) with small feature structures. This study proposes a multi-pass IBF approach with different beam diameters based on the frequency filtering method to improve the machining accuracy and efficiency of CPPs during IBF. We present the selection principle of the frequency filtering method, which incorporates different removal functions that maximize material removal over the topographical frequencies being imprinted. Large removal functions are used early in the fabrication to figure the surface profile with low frequency. Small removal functions are used to perform final topographical correction with higher frequency and larger surface gradient. A high-precision surface can be obtained as long as the filtering frequency is suitably selected. This method maximizes the high removal efficiency of the large removal function and the high corrective capability of the small removal function. Consequently, the fast convergence of the machining accuracy and efficiency can be achieved.
Laser microplasma as a tool to fabricate phase grating applied for laser beam splitting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kostyuk, Galina K.; Zakoldaev, Roman A.; Koval, Vladislav V.; Sergeev, Maksim M.; Rymkevich, Vladimir S.
2017-05-01
In this paper, we present the method of phase gratings (PGs) formation on the fused silica by laser-induced black body heating (LIBBH) technology with irradiation of ytterbium fiber laser (λ=1.064 μm, τ 4-200 ns, ν 10-100 kHz). Formed PGs have sinusoidal profile with possible depth modulation of 0.5-2 μm. The PGs formation time, depending on its size and the period, ranged between 1 and 5 min. The optical characteristics of the PGs are studied and gained results are compared with the diffraction theory. This result shows that it is possible to fabricate different PGs with necessary optical characteristics by LIBBH technology. The potential application of such optical elements is beam splitting. Thus, the experiment with interference of laser beams has also been carried out in this work. The result of metal film processing by interference pattern is presented in the article.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Lei; Yang, Shuaisai; Tang, Zhixiang; Shu, Weixing
2016-10-01
We propose a three-dimensional (3D) phase transformation method by an impedance-matched dielectric slab and apply it to generating hollow beams. We first employ transformation optics to establish a method for the transformation between two arbitrary 3D wavefronts through a flat dielectric and impedance-matched material. Then the method is used to convert a solid beam into a hollow beam with desired wavefront. By tuning the transformation surface, different hollow beams can be produced. The results are further validated by 3D finite-difference time-domain simulations.
Sunderland, Zofia; Patorski, Krzysztof; Trusiak, Maciej
2016-12-26
We present an effective method of testing the surface shape of quasi-parallel plates which requires only two phase-shifted three-beam interferograms. We derive a general formula for difference of two three-beam interferograms as a function of the phase shift value. The phase shift does not have to be precisely determined and uniform in the image domain. We show and compare results of extracting the fringe set and corresponding phase distribution related to the plate front surface shape using the two dimensional continuous wavelet transform, Hilbert-Huang transform and Fourier transform methods. Simulated and experimental data is used to verify the algorithm performance and robustness.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yang; Xi, Jiangtao; Yu, Yanguang; Chicharo, Joe
2010-11-01
Fringe Pattern Profilometry (FPP) is 3D surface measuring technique based on triangulation. The utilization of digital projection in FPP system introduces significant phase distortion for Phase Shifting Profilometry (PSP), because of the nonlinear response of digital video projectors, which is referred as gamma distortion. Considering that the distorted phase has a stable function for a reference plane, this paper proposes an approach based on inverse function shift estimation (IFSE) to detect the spatial shift of the distorted phase caused by object height. This spatial shift is independent of projector's gamma distortion and accurate surface can be reconstructed based it. The simulation results show that the proposed method can almost completely eliminate gamma distortion in reconstructed surface and we obtain more than 5 times improvement in practical experiments.
Shapiro, Elena G; Fedoruk, Mikhail P
2011-06-30
Analytical formulas are derived to approximate the probability density functions of 'zero' and 'one' bits in a linear communication channel with a binary format of optical signal phase modulation. Direct numerical simulation of the propagation of optical pulses in a communication line with optical phase conjugation is performed. The results of the numerical simulation are in good agreement with the analytical approximation. (fibreoptic communication lines)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ménard, S.; Vampouille, M.; Colombeau, B.; Froehly, C.
1996-12-01
Intracavity phase locking and extracavity combination of the two emitted beams generated by a Nd:YAG laser longitudinally pumped by two fiber-coupled diode lasers are investigated. Phase locking is performed by a diffractive component located inside a confocal Fabry-Perot resonator. The coherent addition of the two synchronized beams in a single TEM00 wave is made by a birefringent interferometer, with 96.8% energy yield. 610-mW output power was obtained in a single-lobed beam profile with 30.5% optical-to-optical conversion efficiency in the continuous-wave regime.
Analytical description of photon beam phase spaces in inverse Compton scattering sources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Curatolo, C.; Drebot, I.; Petrillo, V.; Serafini, L.
2017-08-01
We revisit the description of inverse Compton scattering sources and the photon beams generated therein, emphasizing the behavior of their phase space density distributions and how they depend upon those of the two colliding beams of electrons and photons. The main objective is to provide practical formulas for bandwidth, spectral density, brilliance, which are valid in general for any value of the recoil factor, i.e. both in the Thomson regime of negligible electron recoil, and in the deep Compton recoil dominated region, which is of interest for gamma-gamma colliders and Compton sources for the production of multi-GeV photon beams. We adopt a description based on the center of mass reference system of the electron-photon collision, in order to underline the role of the electron recoil and how it controls the relativistic Doppler/boost effect in various regimes. Using the center of mass reference frame greatly simplifies the treatment, allowing us to derive simple formulas expressed in terms of rms momenta of the two colliding beams (emittance, energy spread, etc.) and the collimation angle in the laboratory system. Comparisons with Monte Carlo simulations of inverse Compton scattering in various scenarios are presented, showing very good agreement with the analytical formulas: in particular we find that the bandwidth dependence on the electron beam emittance, of paramount importance in Thomson regime, as it limits the amount of focusing imparted to the electron beam, becomes much less sensitive in deep Compton regime, allowing a stronger focusing of the electron beam to enhance luminosity without loss of mono-chromaticity. A similar effect occurs concerning the bandwidth dependence on the frequency spread of the incident photons: in deep recoil regime the bandwidth comes out to be much less dependent on the frequency spread. The set of formulas here derived are very helpful in designing inverse Compton sources in diverse regimes, giving a quite accurate first
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meyers, Michael; Huang, Chengkun; Albright, B. J.
2013-10-01
The microbunching instability arises when GeV electrons interact with their coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). Accurate particle-in-cell (PIC) modeling of this instability requires a method where the numerical phase velocity of light is very close to its physical value. This is also advantageous for mitigating the effects of Numerical Cherenkov Radiation (NCR), arising when simulating highly relativistic particles in astrophysical and high energy density laboratory settings. It has been shown that the use of a weighted stencil when calculating fields from the Ampere and Faraday laws affords a solver with a tunable phase velocity. A numerical dispersion relation appropriate to the PIC algorithm with the 3D FV24 scheme has been derived. Stencil weights that minimize the phase velocity error for the CSR and NCR problems will be presented along with simulations demonstrating the comparative advantages of this approach. Work performed under the auspices of DOE by LANL and supported by LDRD.
Van, Anh T; Karampinos, Dimitrios C; Georgiadis, John G; Sutton, Bradley P
2009-11-01
Motion during diffusion encodings leads to different phase errors in different shots of multishot diffusion-weighted acquisitions. Phase error incoherence among shots results in undesired signal cancellation when data from all shots are combined. Motion-induced phase error correction for multishot diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has been studied extensively and there exist multiple phase error correction algorithms. A commonly used correction method is the direct phase subtraction (DPS). DPS, however, can suffer from incomplete phase error correction due to the aliasing of the phase errors in the high spatial resolution phases. Furthermore, improper sampling density compensation is also a possible issue of DPS. Recently, motion-induced phase error correction was incorporated in the conjugate gradient (CG) image reconstruction procedure to get a nonlinear phase correction method that is also applicable to parallel DWI. Although the CG method overcomes the issues of DPS, its computational requirement is high. Further, CG restricts to sensitivity encoding (SENSE) for parallel reconstruction. In this paper, a new time-efficient and flexible k-space and image-space combination (KICT) algorithm for rigid body motion-induced phase error correction is introduced. KICT estimates the motion-induced phase errors in image space using the self-navigated capability of the variable density spiral trajectory. The correction is then performed in k -space. The algorithm is shown to overcome the problem of aliased phase errors. Further, the algorithm preserves the phase of the imaging object and receiver coils in the corrected k -space data, which is important for parallel imaging applications. After phase error correction, any parallel reconstruction method can be used. The KICT algorithm is tested with both simulated and in vivo data with both multishot single-coil and multishot multicoil acquisitions. We show that KICT correction results in diffusion-weighted images with higher
Estimation of GRACE K-Band antenna phase center coordinates using an error-in-variables approach.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ellmer, Matthias; Mayer-Gürr, Torsten
2017-04-01
In the course of computing the ITSG-Grace2014 and ITSG-Grace2016 monthly potential time series from L1B data at the range rate level, the K-Band antenna phase center coordinates of both GRACE-A and GRACE-B were co-estimated. In the resulting time series of antenna phase center coordinates, two effects could be observed: 1. The length of the phase center vector shows a large standard deviation of around 15cm to 20cm. This can be adequately explained by the unfavorable measurement configuration, where the opening angle between the respective phase center vectors and the baseline between the satellites' centers of mass is very small, on the order of a few milliradians. 2. The phase center vectors show a strong bias toward zero. Where, by knowledge of the construction of the satellites, it is known that the vector should have a length of approximately 1.5m, the mean of the estimates is approximately 1.2m. This suggests that there must be a systematic effect that is not sufficiently modeled. Where the large standard deviation of the phase center estimate must be accepted, the bias must not. Investigations revealed that this bias is due to non-consideration of the stochastic characteristics of the star camera measurements providing the satellite orientation parameters in our adjustment. In a simulated scenario, proper consideration of both the range rate noise and star camera noise in an error-in-variables adjustment model eliminates this bias. In this contribution, we outline the adjustment approach we followed in our simulations, and give an outlook towards integrating the error-in-variables approach into our real data processing chain.