Science.gov

Sample records for beam transfer lines

  1. Beam instrumentation for the BNL Heavy Ion Transfer Line

    SciTech Connect

    Witkover, R.L.; Buxton, W.; Castillo, V.; Feigenbaum, I.; Lazos, A.; Li, Z.G.; Smith, G.; Stoehr, R.

    1987-01-01

    The Heavy Ion Transfer Line (HITL) was constructed to transport beams from the BNL Tandem Van de Graaff (TVDG) to be injected into the AGS. Because the beam line is approximately 2000 feet long and the particle rigidity is so low, 20 beam monitor boxes were placed along the line. The intensity ranges from 1 to 100 nanoAmps for the dc trace beam used for line set-up, to over 100 ..mu..A for the pulsed beam to be injected into the AGS. Profiles are measured using multiwire arrays (HARPS) while Faraday cups and beam transformers monitor the intensity. The electronics stations are operated through 3 Instrumentation Controllers networked to Apollo workstations in the TVDG and AGS control rooms. Details of the detectors and electronics designs and performance will be given.

  2. Optics Studies of the LHC Beam Transfer Line TI8

    SciTech Connect

    J. Wenninger; G. Arduini; B. Goddard; D. Jacquet; V. Kain; M. Lamont; V. Mertens; J.A. Uythoven; Y.-C. Chao

    2005-05-16

    The optics of the newly commissioned LHC beam transfer line TI 8 was studied with beam trajectories, dispersion and profile measurements. Steering magnet response measurements were used to analyze the quality of the steering magnets and of the beam position monitors. A simultaneous fit of the quadrupole strengths was used to search for setting or calibration errors. Residual coupling between the planes was evaluated using high statistics samples of trajectories. Initial conditions for the optics at the entrance of the transfer line were reconstructed from beam profile measurements with Optical Transition Radiation monitors. The paper presents the various analysis methods and their errors. The expected emittance growth arising from optical mismatch into the LHC is evaluated.

  3. Changes to the Transfer Line Collimation System for the High-Luminosity LHC Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Kain, V.; Aberle, O.; Bracco, C.; Fraser, M.; Galleazzi, F.; Gianfelice-Wendt, E.; Kosmicki, A.; Maciariello, F.; Meddahi, M.; Nuiry, F. X.; Steele, G.; Velotti, F.

    2015-06-01

    The current LHC transfer line collimation system will not be able to provide enough protection for the high brightness beams in the high-luminosity LHC era. The new collimation system will have to attenuate more and be more robust than its predecessor. The active jaw length of the new transfer line collimators will therefore be 2.1 m instead of currently 1.2 m. The transfer line optics will have to be adjusted for the new collimator locations and larger beta functions at the collimators for absorber robustness reasons. In this paper the new design of the transfer line collimation system will be presented with its implications on transfer line optics and powering, maintainability, protection of transfer line magnets in case of beam loss on a collimator and protection of the LHC aperture.

  4. Machine Studies During Beam Commissioning of the SPS-to-LHC Transfer Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Meddahi, M.; Agapov, I.; Fuchsberger, K.; Goddard, B.; Herr, W.; Kain, V.; Mertens, V.; Missiaen, D.; Risselada, T.; Uythoven, J.; Wenninger, J.; /CERN /Fermilab

    2009-07-01

    Through May to September 2008, further beam commissioning of the SPS-to-LHC transfer lines was performed. For the first time, optics and dispersion measurements were also taken in the last part of the lines, and into the LHC. Extensive trajectory and optics studies were conducted, in parallel with hardware checks. In particular dispersion measurements and their comparison with the beam line model were analysed in detail and led to propose the addition of a dispersion-free steering algorithm in the existing trajectory correction program. Its effectiveness was simulated and is briefly discussed.

  5. Beam position monitoring in the AGS Linac to Booster transfer line

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, T.J.; Brodowski, J.; Witkover, R.

    1991-12-31

    A beam position monitor system has been developed and used in the commissioning of Brookhaven`s Linac to Booster transfer line. This line transports a chopped, RF modulated H- beam from the 200 MeV Linac to the AGS Booster. Over a 15dB dynamic range in beam current, the position monitor system provides a real-time, normalized position signal with an analog bandwidth of about 20 MHz. Seven directional coupler style pickups are installed in the line with each pickup sensing both horizontal and vertical position. Analog processing electronics are located in the tunnel and incorporate the amplitude modulation to phase modulation normalization technique. To avoid interference from the 200 MHz linac RF system, processing is performed at 400 MHz. This paper will provide a system overview and report results from the commissioning experience.

  6. Beam position monitoring in the AGS Linac to Booster transfer line

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, T.J.; Brodowski, J.; Witkover, R.

    1991-01-01

    A beam position monitor system has been developed and used in the commissioning of Brookhaven's Linac to Booster transfer line. This line transports a chopped, RF modulated H- beam from the 200 MeV Linac to the AGS Booster. Over a 15dB dynamic range in beam current, the position monitor system provides a real-time, normalized position signal with an analog bandwidth of about 20 MHz. Seven directional coupler style pickups are installed in the line with each pickup sensing both horizontal and vertical position. Analog processing electronics are located in the tunnel and incorporate the amplitude modulation to phase modulation normalization technique. To avoid interference from the 200 MHz linac RF system, processing is performed at 400 MHz. This paper will provide a system overview and report results from the commissioning experience.

  7. High beam current shut-off systems in the APS linac and low energy transfer line

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.; Knott, M.; Lumpkin, A.

    1994-11-01

    Two independent high beam current shut-off current monitoring systems (BESOCM) have been installed in the APS linac and the low energy transport line to provide personnel safety protection in the event of acceleration of excessive beam currents. Beam current is monitored by a fast current transformer (FCT) and fully redundant supervisory circuits connected to the Access Control Interlock System (ACIS) for beam intensity related shutdowns of the linac. One FCT is located at the end of the positron linac and the other in the low energy transport line, which directs beam to the positron accumulator ring (PAR). To ensure a high degree of reliability, both systems employ a continuous self-checking function, which injects a test pulse to a single-turn test winding after each ``real`` beam pulse to verify that the system is fully functional. The system is designed to be fail-safe for all possible system faults, such as loss of power, open or shorted signal or test cables, loss of external trigger, malfunction of gated integrator, etc. The system has been successfully commissioned and is now a reliable part of the total ACIS.

  8. High beam current shut-off systems in the APS linac and low energy transfer line

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.; Knott, M.; Lumpkin, A.

    1995-05-05

    Two independent high beam current shut-off current monitoring systems (BESOCM) have been installed in the APS linac and the low energy transport line to provide personnel safety protection in the event of acceleration of excessive beam currents. Beam current is monitored by a fast current transformer (FCT) and fully redundant supervisory circuits connected to the Access Control Interlock System (ACIS) for beam intensity related shutdowns of the linac. One FCT is located at the end of the positron linac and the other in the low energy transport line, which directs beam to the positron accumulator ring (PAR). To ensure a high degree of reliability, both systems employ a continuous self-checking function, which injects a test pulse to a single-turn test winding after each ``real`` beam pulse to verify that the system is fully functional. The system is designed to be fail-safe for all possible system faults, such as loss of power, open or shorted signal or test cables, loss of external trigger, malfunction of gated integrator, etc. The system has been successfully commissioned and is now a reliable part of the total ACIS. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  9. High energy beam lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetto, M.; Laxdal, R. E.

    2014-01-01

    The ISAC post accelerator comprises an RFQ, DTL and SC-linac. The high energy beam lines connect the linear accelerators as well as deliver the accelerated beams to two different experimental areas. The medium energy beam transport (MEBT) line connects the RFQ to the DTL. The high energy beam transport (HEBT) line connects the DTL to the ISAC-I experimental stations (DRAGON, TUDA-I, GPS). The DTL to superconducting beam (DSB) transport line connects the ISAC-I and ISAC-II linacs. The superconducting energy beam transport (SEBT) line connects the SC linac to the ISAC-II experimental station (TUDA-II, HERACLES, TIGRESS, EMMA and GPS). All these lines have the function of transporting and matching the beams to the downstream sections by manipulating the transverse and longitudinal phase space. They also contain diagnostic devices to measure the beam properties.

  10. Focusing and matching properties of the ATR transfer line

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoupas, N.; Fischer, W.; Kewisch, J.; MacKay, W.W.; Peggs, S.; Pilat, F.; Tepikian, S.; Wei, J.

    1997-07-01

    The AGS to RHIC (AtR) beam transfer line has been constructed and will be used to transfer beam bunches from the AGS machine into the RHIC machine which is presently under construction at BNL. The original design of the AtR line has been modified. This article will present the optics of the various sections of the existing AtR beam line, as well as the matching capabilities of the AtR line to the RHIC machine.

  11. The MICE Muon Beam Line

    SciTech Connect

    Apollonio, Marco

    2011-10-06

    In the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) at RAL, muons are produced and transported in a dedicated beam line connecting the production point (target) to the cooling channel. We discuss the main features of the beamline, meant to provide muons with momenta between 140 MeV/c and 240 MeV/c and emittances up to 10 mm rad, which is accomplished by means of a diffuser. Matching procedures to the MICE cooling channel are also described. In summer 2010 we performed an intense data taking campaign to finalize the calibration of the MICE Particle Identification (PID) detectors and the understanding of the beam line, which completes the STEPI phase of MICE. We highlight the main results from these data.

  12. The MICE Muon Beam Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apollonio, Marco

    2011-10-01

    In the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) at RAL, muons are produced and transported in a dedicated beam line connecting the production point (target) to the cooling channel. We discuss the main features of the beamline, meant to provide muons with momenta between 140 MeV/c and 240 MeV/c and emittances up to 10 mm rad, which is accomplished by means of a diffuser. Matching procedures to the MICE cooling channel are also described. In summer 2010 we performed an intense data taking campaign to finalize the calibration of the MICE Particle Identification (PID) detectors and the understanding of the beam line, which completes the STEPI phase of MICE. We highlight the main results from these data.

  13. The appearance of beam lines

    SciTech Connect

    Carey, D.C.

    1993-05-01

    The combination of an existing graphics package with a large program like TRANSPORT has often resulted in considerable modification to the large program. Use of other graphics package has resulted in essentially having to repeat the work. This difficulty has been avoided in a modification of TRANSPORT which produce layouts of beam lines. Drawings of the reference trajectory and three-dimensional images of all magnets are made by the graphics package TOP DRAWER. Nothing specific to TOP DRAWER or any other graphics has been incorporated into TRANSPORT. If a user is with a different graphics package he or she can then begin usage of this alternate package essentially immediately.

  14. Auroral resonance line radiative transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Gladstone, G.R. )

    1992-02-01

    A model is developed for simulating the two-dimensional radiative transfer of resonance line emissions in auroras. The method of solution utilizes Fourier decomposition of the horizontal dependence in the intensity field so that the two-dimensional problem becomes a set of one-dimensional problems having different horizontal wavenumbers. The individual one-dimensional problems are solved for using a Feautrier-type solution of the differential-integral form of the radiative transfer equation. In the limit as the horizontal wavenumber becomes much larger than the local line-center extinction coefficient, the scattering integral becomes considerably simplified, and the final source function is evaluated in closed form. The two-dimensional aspects of the model are tested against results for nonresonance radiative transfer studies, and the resonance line part of the model is tested against results of existing plane-parallel resonance line radiative transfer codes. Finally, the model is used to simulate the intensity field of O{sub I} 1,304{angstrom} for hard and soft auroras of various Gaussian horizontal widths. The results demonstrate the importance of considering the effects of two-dimensional radiative transfer when analyzing auroral resonance line data.

  15. Physics of the AGS-to-RHIC transfer line commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Satogata, T.; Ahrens, L.; Brennan, M.; Brown, K.; Clifford, T.; Connolly, R.; Dell, F.; Deng, D.P.; Hoff, L.; Kewisch, J.; MacKay, W.W.; Maldonado, G.; Martin, B.; Olsen, R.; Peggs, S.; Pilat, F.; Robinson, T.; Sathe, S.; Shea, D.; Shea, T.J.; Tanaka, M.; Thompson, P.; Tepikian, S.; Trahern, C.G.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Wei, J.; Witkover, R.; Zhou, P.

    1996-07-01

    This paper presents beam physics results from the fall 1995 AGS-to- RHIC (ATR) transfer line commissioning run with fully ionized gold nuclei. We first describe beam position monitors and transverse video profile monitors, instrumentation relevant to measurements performed during this commissioning. Measured and corrected beam trajectories demonstrate agreement with design optics to a few percent, including optical transfer functions and beamline dispersion. Digitized 2- dimensional video profile monitors were used to measure beam emittance, and beamline optics and AGS gold ion beam parameters are shown to be comparable to RHIC design requirements.

  16. BEAM TRANSPORT LINES FOR THE BSNS.

    SciTech Connect

    WEI, J.

    2006-06-26

    This paper presents the design of two beam transport lines at the BSNS: one is the injection line from the Linac to the RCS and the other is the target line from the RCS to the target station. In the injection beam line, space charge effects, transverse halo collimation, momentum tail collimation and debunching are the main concerned topics. A new method of using triplet cells and stripping foils is used to collimate transverse halo. A long straight section is reserved for the future upgrading linac and debuncher. In the target beam line, large halo emittance, beam stability at the target due to kicker failures and beam jitters, shielding of back-scattering neutrons from the target are main concerned topics. Special bi-gap magnets will be used to reduce beam losses in the collimators in front of the target.

  17. Vortex-based line beam optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Shubo; Tao, Shaohua

    2016-10-01

    A vortex-based line beam, which has a straight-line shape of intensity and possesses phase gradient along the line trajectory is developed and applied for optical manipulation in this paper. The intensity and phase distributions of the beam in the imaging plane of the Fourier transform are analytically studied. Simulation results show that the length of the line and phase gradient possessed by a vortex-based line beam are dependent on the topological charge and the azimuthal proportional constant. A superposition of multiple phase-only holograms with elliptical azimuthal phases can be used to generate an array of vortex-based line beams. Optical trapping with the vortex-based line beams has been implemented. Furthermore, the automatic transportation of microparticles along the line trajectory perpendicular to the optical axis is realized with an array of the beams. The generation method for the vortex-based line beam is simple. The beam would have potential applications in fields such as optical trapping, laser machining, and so on.

  18. H line; a beam line for fundamental physics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Naritoshi; Toyoda, Akihisa; Aoki, Masaharu; Shimomura, Koichiro; Mibe, Tsutomu; Nakatsugawa, Yohei; Otani, Masashi; Saito, Naohito; Miyake, Yasuhiro

    2014-12-01

    The muon facility, J-PARC (Muon Science Establishment; MUSE), has been operating since the first beam in 2008. Starting with a 200 kW proton beam, a beam intensity of 3 × 106 muons/s was reached in 2009 which was the most intense pulsed muon beam in the world. From the 2 cm thick graphite target, four secondary muon beam lines are designed to be extracted. Three beam lines currently exist, the first being operational and the other two undergoing commissioning. The fourth and the last beam line, the H line, is planned to be constructed. This new beam line is designed to have a large acceptance, provides the ability to tune the momentum, and use a kicker magnet and/or a Wien filter. The H line is designed to provide an intense beam of 108 surface muons/s for fundamental physics studies to observe new physics beyond the standard model. Such studies require high statistics and they need to occupy the experimental areas for a relatively long period.

  19. FFAG Beam Line for nuPIL - Neutrinos from PIon Beam Line

    SciTech Connect

    Lagrange, Jean-Baptiste; Pasternak, Jaroslaw; Bross, Alan; Liu, Ao; Appleby, Robert; Tygier, Sam

    2016-06-01

    The Long Baseline Neutrino Facilities (LBNF) program aims to deliver a neutrino beam for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE). The current baseline for LBNF is a conventional magnetic horn and decay pipe system. Neutrinos from PIon beam Line (nuPIL) is a part of the optimization effort to optimize the LBNF. It consists of a pion beam line after the horn to clean the beam of high energy protons and wrong-sign pions before transporting them into a decay beam line, where instrumentation could be implemented. This paper focuses on the FFAG solution for this pion beam line. The resulting neutrino flux is also presented.

  20. Schottky Noise and Beam Transfer Functions

    SciTech Connect

    Blaskiewicz, M.

    2016-12-01

    Beam transfer functions (BTF)s encapsulate the stability properties of charged particle beams. In general one excites the beam with a sinusoidal signal and measures the amplitude and phase of the beam response. Most systems are very nearly linear and one can use various Fourier techniques to reduce the number of measurements and/or simulations needed to fully characterize the response. Schottky noise is associated with the finite number of particles in the beam. This signal is always present. Since the Schottky current drives wakefields, the measured Schottky signal is influenced by parasitic impedances.

  1. In-line beam current monitor

    DOEpatents

    Ekdahl, Jr., Carl A.; Frost, Charles A.

    1986-01-01

    An intense relativistic electron beam current monitor for a gas neutralized beam transport line includes a first foil for conducting plasma current to the wall where it is measured as it traverses an inductive loop formed by a cavity in the wall. An insulator foil separates the first foil from a second conducting foil which returns the current to the plasma environment.

  2. In-line beam current monitor

    DOEpatents

    Ekdahl, C.A. Jr.; Frost, C.A.

    1984-11-13

    An intense relativistic electron beam current monitor for a gas neutralized beam transport line includes a first foil for conducting plasma current to the wall where it is measured as it traverses an inductive loop formed by a cavity in the wall. An insulator foil separates the first foil from a second conducting foil which returns the current to the plasma environment.

  3. Low gravity transfer line chilldown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antar, Basil N.; Collins, Frank G.; Kawaji, Masahiro

    1992-01-01

    The progress to date is presented in providing predictive capabilities for the transfer line chilldown problem in low gravity environment. A low gravity experimental set up was designed and flown onboard the NASA/KC-135 airplane. Some results of this experimental effort are presented. The cooling liquid for these experiments was liquid nitrogen. The boiling phenomenon was investigated in this case using flow visualization techniques as well as recording wall temperatures. The flow field was established by injecting cold liquid in a heated tube whose temperature was set above saturation values. The tubes were vertically supported with the liquid injected from the lower end of the tube. The results indicate substantial differences in the flow patterns established during boiling between the ground based, (1-g), experiments and the flight experiments, (low-g). These differences in the flow patterns will be discussed and some explanations will be offered.

  4. PIP-II Transfer Line Design

    SciTech Connect

    Vivoli, A.

    2016-10-15

    The U.S. Particle Physics Project Prioritization Panel (P5) report encouraged the realization of Fermilab's Proton Improvement Plan II (PIP-II) to support future neutrino programs in the United States. PIP-II aims at enhancing the capabilities of the Fermilab existing accelerator complex while simultaneously providing a flexible platform for its future upgrades. The central part of PIP-II project is the construction of a new 800 MeV H- Superconducting (SC) Linac together with upgrades of the Booster and Main Injector synchrotrons. New transfer lines will also be needed to deliver beam to the down-stream accelerators and facilities. In this paper we present the recent development of the design of the transfer lines discussing the principles that guided their design, the constraints and requirements imposed by the existing accelerator complex and the following modifications implemented to comply with a better understanding of the limitations and further requirements that emerged during the development of the project.

  5. Beam manipulation and acceleration with Dielectric-Lined Waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Lemery, Francois

    2015-06-01

    The development of next-generation TeV+ electron accelerators will require either immense footprints based on conventional acceleraton techniques or the development of new higher{gradient acceleration methods. One possible alternative is beam-driven acceleration in a high-impedance medium such as a dielectric-lined-waveguide (DLW), where a highcharge bunch passes through a DLW and can excite gradients on the order of GV/m. An important characteristic of this acceleration class is the transformer ratio which characterizes the energy transfer of the scheme. This dissertation discusses alternative methods to improve the transformer ratio for beam-driven acceleration and also considers the use of DLWs for beam manipulation at low energy.

  6. The Booster to AGS beam transfer fast kicker systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, W.; Bunicci, J.; Soukas, A.V.; Zhang, S.Y.

    1992-08-01

    The Brookhaven AGS Booster has a very successful commissioning period in June 1991. The third phase of that commissioning was a beam extraction test. The Booster extraction fast kicker (F3) deflected a 1.2 GeV proton beam from the Booster circulating orbit into the extraction septum aperture, partially down the extraction line to a temporary beam stop. Now, the Booster is committed to the AGS operations program for both heavy ion and proton beams. Thus, the Booster extraction and the corresponding AGS injection systems must operate routinely up to a pulse repetition frequency of 7.5 Hertz, and up to a beam energy of 1.5 Gev. The injection fast kicker is located in the A5 section of the AGS ring and is used to deflect the proton or heavy ion beam into its final AGS closed orbit. A distinctive feature of the AGS injection fast kicker modulators is the tail-bitting function required for proton beam injection. This enables the system to produce a fast current fall time to go along with the high current pulse amplitude with a fast rise time. The AGS injection fast kicker system has three pulse modulators, and each modulator consists of two thyratrons. The main PFN thyratrons switch on the current, and the tail bitting thyratrons are used to force the magnet current to decrease rapidly. Two digital pulse delay generators are used to align the main thyratrons and the tail bitting thyratrons respectively. The system has been tested and installed. The final commissioning of the Booster to AGS beam transfer line and injection is currently being undertaken. In this article, the system design, realization techniques and performance data will be presented.

  7. Ion optics of the Linac--LEB transfer line

    SciTech Connect

    Bhandari, R.K.; Penner, S.

    1990-12-01

    This report describes the ion optical properties of a proposed transfer line to inject a nominal 25 mA H{sup {minus}} beam at 600 MeV from the Linac into the Low Energy Booster (LEB) synchrotron. Ion optical investigations have been carried out in detail using the TRANSPORT, TURTLE and TRACE 3-D codes. The calculations take account of linear space charge effects of up to 50 mA average beam current. These effects have been found to be quite appreciable, especially on the longitudinal phase space. Procedure for their evaluation and optimization are described. Effects of some imperfections in the beam line magnets have been studied. 6 refs., 19 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. High spin isomer beam line at RIKEN

    SciTech Connect

    Kishida, T.; Ideguchi, E.; Wu, H.Y.

    1996-12-31

    Nuclear high spin states have been the subject of extensive experimental and theoretical studies. For the production of high spin states, fusion reactions are usually used. The orbital angular momentum brought in the reaction is changed into the nuclear spin of the compound nucleus. However, the maximum induced angular momentum is limited in this mechanism by the maximum impact parameter of the fusion reaction and by the competition with fission reactions. It is, therefore, difficult to populate very high spin states, and as a result, large {gamma}-detector arrays have been developed in order to detect subtle signals from such very high spin states. The use of high spin isomers in the fusion reactions can break this limitation because the high spin isomers have their intrinsic angular momentum, which can bring the additional angular momentum without increasing the excitation energy. There are two methods to use the high spin isomers for secondary reactions: the use of the high spin isomers as a target and that as a beam. A high spin isomer target has already been developed and used for several experiments. But this method has an inevitable shortcoming that only {open_quotes}long-lived{close_quotes} isomers can be used for a target: {sup 178}Hf{sup m2} (16{sup +}) with a half-life of 31 years in the present case. By developing a high spin isomer beam, the authors can utilize various short-lived isomers with a short half-life around 1 {mu}s. The high spin isomer beam line of RIKEN Accelerator Facility is a unique apparatus in the world which provides a high spin isomer as a secondary beam. The combination of fusion-evaporation reaction and inverse kinematics are used to produce high spin isomer beams; in particular, the adoption of `inverse kinematics` is essential to use short-lived isomers as a beam.

  9. Multi-transmission-line-beam interactive system

    SciTech Connect

    Figotin, Alexander; Reyes, Guillermo

    2013-11-15

    We construct here a Lagrangian field formulation for a system consisting of an electron beam interacting with a slow-wave structure modeled by a possibly non-uniform multiple transmission line (MTL). In the case of a single line we recover the linear model of a traveling wave tube due to J. R. Pierce. Since a properly chosen MTL can approximate a real waveguide structure with any desired accuracy, the proposed model can be used in particular for design optimization. Furthermore, the Lagrangian formulation provides: (i) a clear identification of the mathematical source of amplification, (ii) exact expressions for the conserved energy and its flux distributions obtained from the Noether theorem. In the case of uniform MTLs we carry out an exhaustive analysis of eigenmodes and find sharp conditions on the parameters of the system to provide for amplifying regimes.

  10. Shielding Analyses for VISION Beam Line at SNS

    SciTech Connect

    Popova, Irina; Gallmeier, Franz X

    2014-01-01

    Full-scale neutron and gamma transport analyses were performed to design shielding around the VISION beam line, instrument shielding enclosure, beam stop, secondary shutter including a temporary beam stop for the still closed neighboring beam line to meet requirement is to achieve dose rates below 0.25 mrem/h at 30 cm from the shielding surface. The beam stop and the temporary beam stop analyses were performed with the discrete ordinate code DORT additionally to Monte Carlo analyses with the MCNPX code. Comparison of the results is presented.

  11. The new bern PET cyclotron, its research beam line, and the development of an innovative beam monitor detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braccini, Saverio

    2013-04-01

    The new Bern cyclotron laboratory aims at industrial radioisotope production for PET diagnostics and multidisciplinary research by means of a specifically conceived beam transfer line, terminated in a separate bunker. In this framework, an innovative beam monitor detector based on doped silica and optical fibres has been designed, constructed, and tested. Scintillation light produced by Ce and Sb doped silica fibres moving across the beam is measured, giving information on beam position, shape, and intensity. The doped fibres are coupled to commercial optical fibres, allowing the read-out of the signal far away from the radiation source. This general-purpose device can be easily adapted for any accelerator used in medical applications and is suitable either for low currents used in hadrontherapy or for currents up to a few μA for radioisotope production, as well as for both pulsed and continuous beams.

  12. Diagnostic beam absorber in Mu2e beam line

    SciTech Connect

    Rakhno, Igor; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    Star density, hadron flux, and residual dose distributions are calculated around the {mu}2e diagnostic beam absorber. Corresponding surface and ground water activation, and air activation are presented as well.

  13. High intensity proton beam transportation through fringe field of 70 MeV compact cyclotron to beam line targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xu; Li, Ming; Wei, Sumin; Xing, Jiansheng; Hu, Yueming; Johnson, Richard R.; Piazza, Leandro; Ryjkov, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    From the stripping points, the high intensity proton beam of a compact cyclotron travels through the fringe field area of the machine to the combination magnet. Starting from there the beams with various energy is transferred to the switching magnet for distribution to the beam line targets. In the design of the extraction and transport system for the compact proton cyclotron facilities, such as the 70 MeV in France and the 100 MeV in China, the space charge effect as the beam crosses the fringe field has not been previously considered; neither has the impact on transverse beam envelope coupled from the longitudinal direction. Those have been concerned much more with the higher beam-power because of the beam loss problem. In this paper, based on the mapping data of 70 MeV cyclotron including the fringe field by BEST Cyclotron Inc (BEST) and combination magnet field by China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), the beam extraction and transport are investigated for the 70 MeV cyclotron used on the SPES project at Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (INFN-LNL). The study includes the space charge effect and longitudinal and transverse coupling mentioned above, as well as the matching of beam optics using the beam line for medical isotope production as an example. In addition, the designs of the ±45° switching magnets and the 60° bending magnet for the extracted beam with the energy from 35 MeV to 70 MeV have been made. Parts of the construction and field measurements of those magnets have been done as well. The current result shows that, the design considers the complexity of the compact cyclotron extraction area and fits the requirements of the extraction and transport for high intensity proton beam, especially at mA intensity levels.

  14. BEAM EXTRACTION FROM THE RECYCLER RING TO P1 LINE AT FERMILAB

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, M.; Capista, D.; Adams, P.; Morris, D.; Yang, M. J.; Hazewood, K.

    2016-10-03

    The transfer line for beam extraction from the Recycler ring to P1 line provides a way to deliver 8 GeV kinetic energy protons from the Booster to the Delivery ring, via the Recycler, using existing beam transport lines, and without the need for new civil construction. It was designed in 2012. The kicker magnets at RR520 and the lambertson magnet at RR522 in the RR were installed in 2014 Summer Shutdown, the elements of RR to P1 Stub (permanent quads, trim quads, correctors, BPMs, the toroid at 703 and vertical bending dipole at V703 (ADCW) were installed in 2015 Summer Shutdown. On Tuesday, June 21, 2016, beam line from the Recycler Ring to P1 line was commissioned. The detailed results will be presented in this report.

  15. Neutrinos from PIon Beam Line, nuPIL

    SciTech Connect

    Lagrange, J. B.; Pasternak, J.; Bross, A.; Liu, A.

    2016-05-05

    LBNF-DUNE (Long Baseline Neutrino Facilities - Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment) is a project based at Fermilab to study neutrino oscillations. The current baseline regarding the neutrino production considers the conventional approach: a high energy proton beam hits a target, producing pions that are collected by a horn and that decay in a decay pipe. An alternative solution, called nuPIL (neutrinos from a Pion beam Line) consists of using a beam line to guide the pions to clean the beam and to put instrumentation to monitor it. This paper presents the concept and the first preliminary results.

  16. Status of the proton and electron transfer lines for the AWAKE Experiment at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, J. S.; Bauche, J.; Biskup, B.; Bracco, C.; Doebert, S.; Goddard, B.; Gschwendtner, E.; Jensen, L. K.; Jones, O. R.; Mazzoni, S.; Meddahi, M.; Pepitone, K.; Petrenko, A.; Velotti, F. M.; Vorozhtsov, A.

    2016-09-01

    The AWAKE project at CERN is planned to study proton driven plasma wakefield acceleration with an externally injected electron beam. Therefore two transfer lines are being designed in order to provide the proton beam from the SPS and the electron beam from an RF gun to the plasma cell. The commissioning of the proton line will take place in 2016 for the first phase of the experiment, which is focused on the self-modulation of a 12 cm long proton bunch in the plasma. The electron line will be added for the second phase of AWAKE in 2017, when the wakefield will be probed with an electron beam of 10-20 MeV/c. The challenge for these transfer lines lies in the parallel operation of the proton, electron and laser beam used to ionize the plasma and seed the self-modulation. These beams, of different characteristics, need to be synchronized and positioned for optimized injection conditions into the wakefield. This task requires great flexibility in the transfer line optics. The status of these designs will be presented in this paper.

  17. Impact of Laser Beam Speckle Structure on Crossed Beam Energy Transfer via Beam Deflections and Ponderomotive Self-Focusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raj, G.; Hüller, S.

    2017-02-01

    The role of laser speckle structure (hot spots) and its ponderomotive self-focusing (PSF), in crossed beam energy transfer (CBET), of smoothed laser beams is investigated in an inhomogeneous expanding plasma. Numerical simulations using the code harmony in two spatial dimensions, demonstrate how self-focusing of laser hot spots in crossed beams can significantly affect the transfer of energy from one beam to the other in addition to the stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) process. It is shown that for sufficiently intense laser beams, when the laser hot spots exceed the criterion for self-focusing in a plasma with flow, the angular spread of transmitted light beams increases considerably with the intensity, which arises in particular, in expanding plasma where significant beam deflection is observed. It is shown for the first time that besides SBS, the contribution of speckle structure, PSF, and deflections of the intense hot spots in multiple speckle beams to CBET, therefore matters.

  18. Beam Losses in the NLC Extraction Line for High Luminosity Beam Parameters (LCC-0049)

    SciTech Connect

    Nosochkov, Y

    2004-03-19

    In this note we present results of beam tracking in the NLC extraction line for the NLC option with high luminosity beam parameters (option H). Particle losses for 0.5 TeV and 1 TeV cms energy beams have been computed and examined as a function of beam offset at the interaction point (IP). Updated tracking results for the NLC option A are presented as well.

  19. Alignment Sensitivity Study of the St. ANA Beam Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gervais, Michelle; Couder, Manoel; Jung, Hyo Soon; Setoodehnia, Kiana

    2014-09-01

    The St. ANA (STable Accelerator for Nuclear Astrophysics) accelerator is being prepared for use with the St. George recoil mass separator. The accelerator is in working condition for use in direct kinematic experiments but the St. George separator works with inverse kinematics and requires a highly controlled beam restricted by severe position and divergence parameters that are not achieved at the present time. A systematic sensitivity study was conducted using a simulation of the beam line in order to assess the impact of a misalignment in each optical element or in the beam itself. Tests were done with the beam to analyze how the beam behaves at various points in the line and to compare this data with simulation results to determine possible causes of misalignment. The results of these tests and simulations are that the beam characteristics are now better understood and the possible causes of the limitations have been narrowed down. The St. ANA (STable Accelerator for Nuclear Astrophysics) accelerator is being prepared for use with the St. George recoil mass separator. The accelerator is in working condition for use in direct kinematic experiments but the St. George separator works with inverse kinematics and requires a highly controlled beam restricted by severe position and divergence parameters that are not achieved at the present time. A systematic sensitivity study was conducted using a simulation of the beam line in order to assess the impact of a misalignment in each optical element or in the beam itself. Tests were done with the beam to analyze how the beam behaves at various points in the line and to compare this data with simulation results to determine possible causes of misalignment. The results of these tests and simulations are that the beam characteristics are now better understood and the possible causes of the limitations have been narrowed down. Project advisor

  20. Materials research and beam line operation utilizing NSLS. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Liedl, G.L.

    1993-06-01

    MATRIX, a participating research team of Midwest x-ray scattering specialists, continues to operate beam line X-18A at NSLS. Operations of this line now provides state-of-the-art capabilities to a wide range of people in the Materials Science and Engineering research community. Improvements of the beam line continue to be a focus of MATRIX. Throughout this past year the emphasis has been shifting towards improvement in ``user friendly`` aspects. Simplified control operations and a shift to single-user personal computer has been a major part of the effort. Over the past year all 232 operational days were fully utilized. Beam line tests coupled with MATRIX members combined to use 284 days. General user demand for use of the beam line continues to be strong and four groups were provided 48 operating days. Research production has been growing as NSLS and the beam line become a more stable type of operation. For 1992 the MATRIX group published six articles. To date, for 1993 the same group has published, submitted, or has in preparation nine articles. Recent research milestones include: the first quantitative structural information on the as-quenched and early stages of decomposition of supersaturated Al-Li alloys; the first quantitative diffuse scattering measurements on a complex system (Co substitute for Cu YBCO superconductor); demonstration of capabilities of a new UHV surface diffraction chamber with in-situ characterization and temperature control (30-1300K); feasibility of phasing structure factors in a quasicrystal using multiple Bragg scattering.

  1. Crossed Beam Energy Transfer in the NIF ICF Target Design

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, E A; Hinkel, D E; Hittinger, J A

    2003-08-27

    In the National Ignition Facility (NIF) ICF point design, the cylindrical hohlraum target is illuminated by multiple laser beams through two laser entrance holes on the ends. According to simulations by LASNEX and HYDRA plasma created inside the hohlraum will stream out of the LEH, accelerate to supersonic speeds and then fan out radially. Inside the hohlraum, flows are subsonic. Forward Brillouin scattering can transfer energy between pairs of laser beams (0 and 1) if the following frequency matching condition is satisfied: {omega}{sub 0} - {omega}{sub 1} = (k{sub 0} - k{sub 1}) {center_dot} V + |k{sub 0} - k{sub 1}| c{sub s} (1) where {omega}{sub 0.1} and k{sub 0.1} are the frequencies and wave-numbers of the two laser beams, V is the plasma flow velocity and c{sub s} is the local ion sound speed. In the nominal case of equal frequency beams, this requires the component of the plasma flow velocity transverse to the bisector of the beam directions to be sonic, with the resulting transfer being to the downstream beam. In the NIF beam geometry, this is from the outer to inner cones of beams. The physics of this transfer is the same as in beam bending; the difference being that in the case of beam bending the effect is to redistribute power to the downstream side of the single beam. Were significant power transfer to occur in the point design, the delicately tuned implosion symmetry would be spoiled. To directly compensate for the transfer, the incident beam powers would have to be adjusted. The greatest vulnerability in the point design thus occurs at 15.2ns, when the inner beams are at their peak power and are at their nominal design power limit. In this situation, some other means of symmetry control would be required, such as re-pointing. At 15.2ns, the envelope focal intensities of the outer and inner beams are approximately 10{sup 15} and 6.7 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2} respectively. There is little absorption or diffractive spreading of the beams in the crossing

  2. Thermohydraulic modelling of a transfer line for continuous flow cryostats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmar, N.; Weisemann, A.; Haberstroh, Ch; Hesse, U.; Krzyzowski, M.

    2017-02-01

    Continuous flow cryostats have to be steadily supplied with the cryogenic cooling agent, e.g. liquid helium (LHe) via a transfer line. The overall setup has to be characterised by a low consumption of the cryogen, determined not only by the cryostat design, but also by the transfer line design. In order to improve the transfer line’s performance, i.e. reducing the evaporation losses a thermohydraulic model has been developed to evaluate different transfer line designs. The presented model is validated by experimental data achieved with a transfer line equipped with built-in pressure sensors. This transfer line has been designed in order to examine the related frictional pressure drop. The developed model allows to examine the impact of the hydraulic and the insulation design on the resulting evaporation losses.

  3. Note: Characteristic beam parameter for the line electron gun

    SciTech Connect

    Iqbal, M.; Islam, G. U.; Zhou, Z.; Chi, Y.

    2013-11-15

    We have optimized the beam parameters of line source electron gun using Stanford Linear Accelerator Centre electron beam trajectory program (EGUN), utilizing electrostatic focusing only. We measured minimum beam diameter as 0.5 mm that corresponds to power density of 68.9 kW/cm{sup 2} at 13.5 mm in the post-anode region which is more than two-fold (33 kW/cm{sup 2}), of the previously reported results. The gun was operated for the validation of the theoretical results and found in good agreement. The gun is now without any magnetic and electrostatic focusing thus much simpler and more powerful.

  4. Laser-accelerated ion beam diagnostics with TOF detectors for the ELIMED beam line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milluzzo, G.; Scuderi, V.; Amico, A. G.; Borghesi, M.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; De Napoli, M.; Doria, D.; Dostal, J.; Larosa, G.; Leanza, R.; Margarone, D.; Petringa, G.; Pipek, J.; Romagnani, L.; Romano, F.; Schillaci, F.; Velyhan, A.

    2017-02-01

    Laser-accelerated ion beams could represent the future of particle acceleration in several multidisciplinary applications, as for instance medical physics, hadrontherapy and imaging field, being a concrete alternative to old paradigm of acceleration, characterized by huge and complex machines. In this framework, following on from the ELIMED collaboration, launched in 2012 between INFN-LNS and ELI-Beamlines, in 2014 a three-years contract has been signed between the two institutions for the design and the development of a complete transport beam-line for high-energy ion beams (up to 60 MeV) coupled with innovative diagnostics and in-air dosimetry devices. The beam-line will be installed at the ELI-Beamlines facility and will be available for users. The measurement of the beam characteristics, such as energy spectra, angular distributions and dose-rate is mandatory to optimize the transport as well as the beam delivery at the irradiation point. In order to achieve this purpose, the development of appropriate on-line diagnostics devices capable to detect high-pulsed beams with high accuracy, represents a crucial point in the ELIMED beamline development. The diagnostics solution, based on the use of silicon carbide (SiC) and diamond detectors using TOF technique, will be presented together with the preliminary results obtained with laser-accelerated proton beams.

  5. Beam Profile Measurement in MTA Beam Line for High Pressure RF Cavity Beam Test

    SciTech Connect

    Jana, M.R.; Bross, A.; Chung, M.; Greer, S.; Johnstone, C.; Kobilarcik, T.; Koizumi, G.; Leonova, M.; Moretti, A.; Popovic, M.; Schwartz, T.; /Fermilab /IIT, Chicago /PDT, Torino

    2012-05-15

    Recent High Pressure RF (HPRF) cavity experiment at MuCool Test Area (MTA) has used 400 MeV Linac proton beam to study the beam loading effect. When the energetic proton beam passes through the cavity, it ionizes the inside gas and produces the electrons. These electrons consume RF power inside the cavity. Number of electrons produced per cm inside the cavity (at 950 psi Hydrogen gas) per incident proton is {approx} 1200. The measurement of beam position and profile are necessary. MTA is flammable gas (Hydrogen) hazard zone so we have developed a passive beam diagnostic instrument using Chromox-6 scintillation screen and CCD camera. This paper presents quantitative information about beam position and beam profile. Neutral density filter was used to avoid saturation of CCD camera. Image data is filtered and fitted with Gaussian function to compute the beam size. The beam profile obtained from scintillation screen shall be compared with multi-wire beam profile.

  6. Nonlinear transmission line based electron beam driver

    SciTech Connect

    French, David M.; Hoff, Brad W.; Tang Wilkin; Heidger, Susan; Shiffler, Don; Allen-Flowers, Jordan

    2012-12-15

    Gated field emission cathodes can provide short electron pulses without the requirement of laser systems or cathode heating required by photoemission or thermionic cathodes. The large electric field requirement for field emission to take place can be achieved by using a high aspect ratio cathode with a large field enhancement factor which reduces the voltage requirement for emission. In this paper, a cathode gate driver based on the output pulse train from a nonlinear transmission line is experimentally demonstrated. The application of the pulse train to a tufted carbon fiber field emission cathode generates short electron pulses. The pulses are approximately 2 ns in duration with emission currents of several mA, and the train contains up to 6 pulses at a frequency of 100 MHz. Particle-in-cell simulation is used to predict the characteristic of the current pulse train generated from a single carbon fiber field emission cathode using the same technique.

  7. Beam Dump Design for the Rare Isotope Accelerator Fragmentation Line

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, W; Ahle, L E; Reyes, S

    2006-05-02

    Beam dumps for the heavy ion beams of the fragmentation line of the Rare Isotope Accelerator have been designed. The most severe operational case involves a continuous U beam impacting the beam dump with a power of 295 kW and a nominal spot diameter size of 5 cm. The dump mechanically consists of two rotating barrels with a water cooled outer wall of 2 mm thick aluminum. The barrels are 70 cm in diameter and axially long enough to intercept a variety of other beams. The aluminum wall absorbs approximately 15% of the U beam power with the rest absorbed in the water downstream of the wall. The water acts as an absorber of the beam and as a coolant for the 2 mm aluminum wall. The barrel rotates at less than 400 RPM, maximum aluminum temperatures are less than 100 C and maximum thermal fatigue stresses are low at 3.5 x 10{sup 7} Pa (5 ksi). Rotation of the dump results in relatively low radiation damage levels with an operating lifetime of years for most beams.

  8. Study of the neutron beam line shield design for JSNS.

    PubMed

    Kawai, M; Saito, K; Sanami, T; Nakao, N; Maekawa, F

    2005-01-01

    The JSNS, a spallation neutron source of J-PARC (JAERI-KEK Joint Project of the High Intensity Proton Accelerator) has 23 neutron beam lines. In the present study, a database was formulated for an optimum shielding design using the MCNP-X code. The calculations involved two steps. In the first step, the neutron distributions were created in the typical neutron beam line with a model that included the spallation neutron source target. The neutron currents evaluated flowed from the duct into the duct wall which was the boundary source for the bulk shield surrounding the beam line. In the second step, bulk-shield calculations were performed for the various shielding materials (iron, concrete, heavy concrete and so on) used and their composites up to thicknesses of 3 m. The results were compared with each other. Composite material shields of iron and such hydrogeneous materials as polyethylene or concrete were more effective. A typical design was prepared for a beam line within 25 m distance from a moderator, as a sample.

  9. Design of the low energy beam transport line between CARIBU and the EBIS charge breeder

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, A.; Ostroumov, P. N.; Barcikowski, A.; Dickerson, C.; Kondrashev, S. A.; Mustapha, B.; Savard, G.

    2015-01-09

    An Electron Beam Ion Source Charge Breeder (EBIS-CB) has been developed to breed radioactive beams from the CAlifornium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) facility at ATLAS. The EBIS-CB will replace the existing ECR charge breeder to increase the intensity and improve the purity of reaccelerated radioactive ion beams. The EBIS-CB is in the final stage of off-line commissioning. Currently, we are developing a low energy beam transport (LEBT) system to transfer CARIBU beams to the EBIS-CB. As was originally planned, an RFQ cooler-buncher will precede the EBIS-CB. Recently, it was decided to include a multi-reflection time-of-flight (MR-TOF) mass-spectrometer following the RFQ. MR-TOF is a relatively new technology used to purify beams with a mass-resolving power up to 3×10{sup 5} as was demonstrated in experiments at CERN/ISOLDE. Very high purity singly-charged radioactive ion beams will be injected into the EBIS for charge breeding and due to its inherent properties, the EBIS-CB will maintain the purity of the charge bred beams. Possible contamination of residual gas ions will be greatly suppressed by achieving ultra-high vacuum in the EBIS trap. This paper will present and discuss the design of the LEBT and the overall integration of the EBIS-CB into ATLAS.

  10. Design of the low energy beam transport line between CARIBU and the EBIS charge breeder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, A.; Ostroumov, P. N.; Barcikowski, A.; Dickerson, C.; Kondrashev, S. A.; Mustapha, B.; Savard, G.

    2015-01-01

    An Electron Beam Ion Source Charge Breeder (EBIS-CB) has been developed to breed radioactive beams from the CAlifornium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) facility at ATLAS. The EBIS-CB will replace the existing ECR charge breeder to increase the intensity and improve the purity of reaccelerated radioactive ion beams. The EBIS-CB is in the final stage of off-line commissioning. Currently, we are developing a low energy beam transport (LEBT) system to transfer CARIBU beams to the EBIS-CB. As was originally planned, an RFQ cooler-buncher will precede the EBIS-CB. Recently, it was decided to include a multi-reflection time-of-flight (MR-TOF) mass-spectrometer following the RFQ. MR-TOF is a relatively new technology used to purify beams with a mass-resolving power up to 3×105 as was demonstrated in experiments at CERN/ISOLDE. Very high purity singly-charged radioactive ion beams will be injected into the EBIS for charge breeding and due to its inherent properties, the EBIS-CB will maintain the purity of the charge bred beams. Possible contamination of residual gas ions will be greatly suppressed by achieving ultra-high vacuum in the EBIS trap. This paper will present and discuss the design of the LEBT and the overall integration of the EBIS-CB into ATLAS.

  11. Preliminary design of electrostatic sensors for MITICA beam line components

    SciTech Connect

    Spagnolo, S. Spolaore, M.; Dalla Palma, M.; Pasqualotto, R.; Sartori, E.; Serianni, G.; Veltri, P.

    2016-02-15

    Megavolt ITER Injector and Concept Advancement, the full-scale prototype of ITER neutral beam injector, is under construction in Italy. The device will generate deuterium negative ions, then accelerated and neutralized. The emerging beam, after removal of residual ions, will be dumped onto a calorimeter. The presence of plasma and its parameters will be monitored in the components of the beam-line, by means of specific electrostatic probes. Double probes, with the possibility to be configured as Langmuir probes and provide local ion density and electron temperature measurements, will be employed in the neutralizer and in the residual ion dump. Biased electrodes collecting secondary emission electrons will be installed in the calorimeter with the aim to provide a horizontal profile of the beam.

  12. Hypervelocity Impact Initiation of Explosive Transfer Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjorkman, Michael D.; Christiansen, Eric L.

    2012-01-01

    The Gemini, Apollo and Space Shuttle spacecraft utilized explosive transfer lines (ETL) in a number of applications. In each case the ETL was located behind substantial structure and the risk of impact initiation by micrometeoroids and orbital debris was negligible. A current NASA program is considering an ETL to synchronize the actuation of pyrobolts to release 12 capture latches in a contingency. The space constraints require placing the ETL 50 mm below the 1 mm thick 2024-T72 Whipple shield. The proximity of the ETL to the thin shield prompted analysts at NASA to perform a scoping analysis with a finite-difference hydrocode to calculate impact parameters that would initiate the ETL. The results suggest testing is required and a 12 shot test program with surplused Shuttle ETL is scheduled for February 2012 at the NASA White Sands Test Facility. Explosive initiation models are essential to the analysis and one exists in the CTH library for HNS I, but not the HNS II used in the Shuttle 2.5 gr/ft rigid shielded mild detonating cord (SMDC). HNS II is less sensitive than HNS I so it is anticipated that these results using the HNS I model are conservative. Until the hypervelocity impact test results are available, the only check on the analysis was comparison with the Shuttle qualification test result that a 22 long bullet would not initiate the SMDC. This result was reproduced by the hydrocode simulation. Simulations of the direct impact of a 7 km/s aluminum ball, impacting at 0 degree angle of incidence, onto the SMDC resulted in a 1.5 mm diameter ball initiating the SMDC and 1.0 mm ball failing to initiate it. Where one 1.0 mm ball could not initiate the SMDC, a cluster of six 1.0 mm diameter aluminum balls striking simultaneously could. Thus the impact parameters that will result in initiating SMDC located behind a Whipple shield will depend on how well the shield fragments the projectile and spreads the fragments. An end-to-end simulation of the impact of an

  13. Error analysis in post linac to driver linac transport beam line of RAON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chanmi; Kim, Eun-San

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the effects of magnet errors in the beam transport line connecting the post linac to the driver linac (P2DT) in the Rare Isotope Accelerator in Korea (RAON). The P2DT beam line is bent by 180-degree to send the radioactive Isotope Separation On-line (ISOL) beams accelerated in Linac-3 to Linac-2. This beam line transports beams with multi-charge state 132Sn45,46,47. The P2DT beam line includes 42 quadrupole, 4 dipole and 10 sextupole magnets. We evaluate the effects of errors on the trajectory of the beam by using the TRACK code, which includes the translational and the rotational errors of the quadrupole, dipole and sextupole magnets in the beam line. The purpose of this error analysis is to reduce the rate of beam loss in the P2DT beam line. The distorted beam trajectories can be corrected by using six correctors and seven monitors.

  14. Converging beams for distortion-free imagery in transfer holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waddell, Peter; Saxby, Graham

    1995-02-01

    In order to obtain a distortion-free image when a transfer hologram is replayed by a diverging beam, the original reference beam must be the precise conjugate of the replay beam, i.e., it must converge towards the future location of the replay source. Off-the-shelf collimating mirrors have too long a focal length to achieve this, and suitable custom-built mirrors are heavy and prohibitively expensive. Several methods are suggested for obtaining a suitable beam, including a new type of varifocal pellicular mirror made by stretching a metallized plastic membrane over a circular drumhead and creating a partial vacuum behind it, producing a concave mirror of high optical quality with adjustable focal length.

  15. Micro-beam friction liner and method of transferring energy

    DOEpatents

    Mentesana, Charles

    2007-07-17

    A micro-beam friction liner adapted to increase performance and efficiency and reduce wear in a piezoelectric motor or actuator or other device using a traveling or standing wave to transfer energy in the form of torque and momentum. The micro-beam friction liner comprises a dense array of micro-beam projections having first ends fixed relative to a rotor and second ends projecting substantially toward a plurality of teeth of a stator, wherein the micro-beam projections are compressed and bent during piezoelectric movement of the stator teeth, thereby storing the energy, and then react against the stator teeth to convert the stored energy stored to rotational energy in the rotor.

  16. Crossed-beam energy transfer in direct-drive implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Seka, W; Edgell, D H; Michel, D T; Froula, D H; Goncharov, V N; Craxton, R S; Divol, L; Epstein, R; Follett, R; Kelly, J H; Kosc, T Z; Maximov, A V; McCrory, R L; Meyerhofer, D D; Michel, P; Myatt, J F; Sangster, T C; Shvydky, A; Skupsky, S; Stoeckl, C

    2012-05-22

    Direct-drive-implosion experiments on the OMEGA laser [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] have showed discrepancies between simulations of the scattered (non-absorbed) light levels and measured ones that indicate the presence of a mechanism that reduces laser coupling efficiency by 10%-20%. This appears to be due to crossed-beam energy transfer (CBET) that involves electromagnetic-seeded, low-gain stimulated Brillouin scattering. CBET scatters energy from the central portion of the incoming light beam to outgoing light, reducing the laser absorption and hydrodynamic efficiency of implosions. One-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations including CBET show good agreement with all observables in implosion experiments on OMEGA. Three strategies to mitigate CBET and improve laser coupling are considered: the use of narrow beams, multicolor lasers, and higher-Z ablators. Experiments on OMEGA using narrow beams have demonstrated improvements in implosion performance.

  17. Laser-driven beam lines for delivering intensity modulated radiation therapy with particle beams

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Kerstin M; Schell, Stefan; Wilkens, Jan J

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Laser-accelerated particles are a promising option for radiation therapy of cancer by potentially combining a compact, cost-efficient treatment unit with the physical advantages of charged particle beams. To design such a treatment unit we consider different dose delivery schemes and analyze the necessary devices in the required particle beam line for each case. Furthermore, we point out that laser-driven treatment units may be ideal tools for motion adaptation during radiotherapy. Reasons for this are the potential of a flexible gantry and the time structure of the beam with high particle numbers in ultrashort bunches. One challenge that needs to be addressed is the secondary radiation produced in several beam line elements. (© 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) PMID:22930653

  18. Laser-driven beam lines for delivering intensity modulated radiation therapy with particle beams.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Kerstin M; Schell, Stefan; Wilkens, Jan J

    2012-11-01

    Laser-accelerated particles are a promising option for radiation therapy of cancer by potentially combining a compact, cost-efficient treatment unit with the physical advantages of charged particle beams. To design such a treatment unit we consider different dose delivery schemes and analyze the necessary devices in the required particle beam line for each case. Furthermore, we point out that laser-driven treatment units may be ideal tools for motion adaptation during radiotherapy. Reasons for this are the potential of a flexible gantry and the time structure of the beam with high particle numbers in ultrashort bunches. One challenge that needs to be addressed is the secondary radiation produced in several beam line elements.

  19. G4beamline Particle Tracking in Matter Dominated Beam Lines

    SciTech Connect

    T.J. Roberts, K.B. Beard, S. Ahmed, D. Huang, D.M. Kaplan

    2011-03-01

    The G4beamline program is a useful and steadily improving tool to quickly and easily model beam lines and experimental equipment without user programming. It has both graphical and command-line user interfaces. Unlike most accelerator physics codes, it easily handles a wide range of materials and fields, being particularly well suited for the study of muon and neutrino facilities. As it is based on the Geant4 toolkit, G4beamline includes most of what is known about the interactions of particles with matter. We are continuing the development of G4beamline to facilitate its use by a larger set of beam line and accelerator developers. A major new feature is the calculation of space-charge effects. G4beamline is open source and freely available at http://g4beamline.muonsinc.com

  20. Laser-driven beam lines for delivering intensity modulated radiation therapy with particle beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, K. M.; Schell, S.; Wilkens, J. J.

    2013-07-01

    Laser-accelerated particles can provide a promising opportunity for radiation therapy of cancer. Potential advantages arise from combining a compact, cost-efficient treatment unit with the physical advantages in dose delivery of charged particle beams. We consider different dose delivery schemes and the required devices to design a possible treatment unit. The secondary radiation produced in several beam line elements remains a challenge to be addressed.

  1. Laser-driven beam lines for delivering intensity modulated radiation therapy with particle beams

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, K. M.; Schell, S.; Wilkens, J. J.

    2013-07-26

    Laser-accelerated particles can provide a promising opportunity for radiation therapy of cancer. Potential advantages arise from combining a compact, cost-efficient treatment unit with the physical advantages in dose delivery of charged particle beams. We consider different dose delivery schemes and the required devices to design a possible treatment unit. The secondary radiation produced in several beam line elements remains a challenge to be addressed.

  2. Neutronics Assessments for a RIA Fragmentation Line Beam Dump Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Boles, J L; Reyes, S; Ahle, L E; Stein, W

    2005-05-13

    Heavy ion and radiation transport calculations are in progress for conceptual beam dump designs for the fragmentation line of the proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA). Using the computer code PHITS, a preliminary design of a motor-driven rotating wheel beam dump and adjacent downstream multipole has been modeled. Selected results of these calculations are given, including neutron and proton flux in the wheel, absorbed dose and displacements per atom in the hub materials, and heating from prompt radiation and from decay heat in the multipole.

  3. Data transfer through beam steering using agile lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshad, Muhammad Assad; Reza, Syed Azer; Muhammad, Ahsan

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a data transfer scheme using multi-focus tunable lenses. The design involves the use of a standard laser source and a variable focus agile lens to steer to the laser beam that passes through the lens. In our proposed system, the beam steer angle depends on an input electrical signal which drives the tunable lens. Therefore the beam steer angle is made to follow the variations in the input electrical drive signal. This is extremely interesting for data transfer applications as the data signal can be used as the input drive signal to the lens. The laser beam is steered according to the input data voltage levels and when the beam is incident on a photo-detector of a finite size, only a fraction of its total incident optical power is received by the photo-detector. This power contribution is proportional to the fraction of the total number of photons per unit area which are incident on the active area of the detector. The remaining photons which are not incident on the photo-detector do not contribute to the received power at the photo-detector. We present the theory of beam steering through a tunable lens and present a theoretical framework which governs data transfer through the proposed method. We also present the transfer function of the proposed system which helps us to calculate its essential theoretical performance parameters such as modulation depth and bit error rates. We also present experimental results to demonstrate efficient data transfer through the proposed method. As tunable lenses are primarily deployed in motion-free multi-focus cameras hence most of the modern portable devices such as cellphones and tablets use these lenses to operate the in-built variable focus cameras that are part of these devices. Because tunable lenses are commonly present in several different portable devices, the proposed method of data transfer between two devices is highly promising as it expands the use of the already deployed tunable lenses with

  4. The Imaging and Medical Beam Line at the Australian Synchrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausermann, Daniel; Hall, Chris; Maksimenko, Anton; Campbell, Colin

    2010-07-01

    As a result of the enthusiastic support from the Australian biomedical, medical and clinical communities, the Australian Synchrotron is constructing a world-class facility for medical research, the `Imaging and Medical Beamline'. The IMBL began phased commissioning in late 2008 and is scheduled to commence the first clinical research programs with patients in 2011. It will provide unrivalled x-ray facilities for imaging and radiotherapy for a wide range of research applications in diseases, treatments and understanding of physiological processes. The main clinical research drivers are currently high resolution and sensitivity cardiac and breast imaging, cell tracking applied to regenerative and stem cell medicine and cancer therapies. The beam line has a maximum source to sample distance of 136 m and will deliver a 60 cm by 4 cm x-ray beam1—monochromatic and white—to a three storey satellite building fully equipped for pre-clinical and clinical research. Currently operating with a 1.4 Tesla multi-pole wiggler, it will upgrade to a 4.2 Tesla device which requires the ability to handle up to 21 kW of x-ray power at any point along the beam line. The applications envisaged for this facility include imaging thick objects encompassing materials, humans and animals. Imaging can be performed in the range 15-150 keV. Radiotherapy research typically requires energies between 30 and 120 keV, for both monochromatic and broad beam.

  5. Beam line design for synchrotron spectroscopy in the VUV

    SciTech Connect

    Howells, M R

    1980-01-01

    The character of the radiation source provided by an electron storage ring is briefly reviewed from the point of view of utilization for VUV spectroscopy. The design of beam line components is then considered with special reference to the problems of contamination of optical surfaces and vacuum protection. The issues involved in designing mirrors for use with storage rings are considered with emphasis on the questions of power dissipation, image quality and materials selection.

  6. Parametric study of transport beam lines for electron beams accelerated by laser-plasma interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scisciò, M.; Lancia, L.; Migliorati, M.; Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L.; Papaphilippou, Y.; Antici, P.

    2016-03-01

    In the last decade, laser-plasma acceleration of high-energy electrons has attracted strong attention in different fields. Electrons with maximum energies in the GeV range can be laser-accelerated within a few cm using multi-hundreds terawatt (TW) lasers, yielding to very high beam currents at the source (electron bunches with up to tens-hundreds of pC in a few fs). While initially the challenge was to increase the maximum achievable electron energy, today strong effort is put in the control and usability of these laser-generated beams that still lack of some features in order to be used for applications where currently conventional, radio-frequency (RF) based, electron beam lines represent the most common and efficient solution. Several improvements have been suggested for this purpose, some of them acting directly on the plasma source, some using beam shaping tools located downstream. Concerning the latter, several studies have suggested the use of conventional accelerator magnetic devices (such as quadrupoles and solenoids) as an easy implementable solution when the laser-plasma accelerated beam requires optimization. In this paper, we report on a parametric study related to the transport of electron beams accelerated by laser-plasma interaction, using conventional accelerator elements and tools. We focus on both, high energy electron beams in the GeV range, as produced on petawatt (PW) class laser systems, and on lower energy electron beams in the hundreds of MeV range, as nowadays routinely obtained on commercially available multi-hundred TW laser systems. For both scenarios, our study allows understanding what are the crucial parameters that enable laser-plasma accelerators to compete with conventional ones and allow for a beam transport. We show that suitable working points require a tradeoff-combination between low beam divergence and narrow energy spread.

  7. Service life evaluation of rigid explosive transfer lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.; Kayser, E. G.; Schimmel, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes a joint Army/NASA-sponsored research program on the service life evaluation of rigid explosive transfer lines. These transfer lines are used to initiate emergency crew escape functions on a wide variety of military and NASA aircraft. The purpose of this program was to determine quantitatively the effects of service, age, and degradation on rigid explosive transfer lines to allow responsible, conservative, service life determination. More than 800 transfer lines were removed from the U.S. Army AH-1G and AH-1S, the U.S. Air Force B-1 and F-111, and the U.S. Navy F-14 aircraft for testing. The results indicated that the lines were not adversely affected by age, service, or a repeat of the thermal qualification tests on full-service lines. Extension of the service life of rigid explosive transfer lines should be considered, since considerable cost savings could be realized with no measurable decrease in system reliability.

  8. Issues for Bringing Electron Beam Irradiators On-Line

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, R.J.; Turman, B.N.

    1999-04-20

    Irradiation of red meat and poultry has been approved by the U.S. FDA, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's rule for processing red meat is out for comment. Looking beyond the current issues of packaging materials, labeling, and consumer acceptance, this paper reviews the next step of implementation and how to remove, or at least reduce, the barriers to utilization. Polls of the user community identified their requirements for electron beam or x-ray processing of meat or poultry and their concerns about implementation for on-line processing. These needs and issues are compared to the capabilities of the accelerator industry. The critical issues of beam utilization and dose uniformity, factors affecting floor space requirements, and treatment costs are examined.

  9. Beam Line VI REC-steel hybrid wiggler for SSRL

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyer, E.; Chan, T.; Chin, J.W.G.; Halbach, K.; Kim, K.J.; Winick, H.; Yang, J.

    1983-03-01

    A wiggler magnet with 27 periods, each 7 cm long which reaches 1.21 T at a 1.2 cm gap and 1.64 T at 0.8 cm gap has been designed and is in fabrication. Installation in SPEAR is scheduled for mid 1983. This new wiggler will be the radiation source for a new high intensity synchrotron radiation beam line at SSRL. The magnet utilizes rare-earth cobalt (REC) material and steel in a hybrid configuration to achieve simultaneously a high magnetic field with a short period. The magnet is external to a thin walled variable gap stainless steel vacuum chamber which is opened to provide beam aperture of 1.8 cm gap at injection and then closed to a smaller aperture (< 1.0 cm). Five independent drive systems are provided to adjust the magnet and chamber gaps and alignment. Magnetic design, construction details and magnetic measurements are presented.

  10. Robust population transfer in atomic beams induced by Doppler shifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unanyan, R. G.

    2016-10-01

    The influence of photon momentum recoil on adiabatic population transfer in an atomic three-level lambda system is studied. It is shown that the Doppler frequency shifts, due to atomic motion, can play an important role in adiabatic population transfer processes of atomic internal states by a pair of laser fields. For the limiting case of slow atoms (Doppler shift much smaller than the photon recoil energy), the atoms occupy the same target state regardless of the order of switching of laser fields, while for the case of fast atoms interacting with the intuitive sequence of pulses, the target state is the intermediate atomic state. Furthermore, it is shown that this novel technique for adiabatic population transfer is related to a level crossing in the bright-intermediate state basis (rather than in the original atomic basis). It is shown that these processes are robust with respect to parameter fluctuations, such as the laser pulse area and the relative spatial offset (delay) of the laser beams. The obtained results can be used for the control of temporal evolution of atomic populations in cold atomic beams by externally adjustable Doppler shifts.

  11. Situ soil sampling probe system with heated transfer line

    DOEpatents

    Robbat, Jr., Albert

    2002-01-01

    The present invention is directed both to an improved in situ penetrometer probe and to a heated, flexible transfer line. The line and probe may be implemented together in a penetrometer system in which the transfer line is used to connect the probe to a collector/analyzer at the surface. The probe comprises a heater that controls a temperature of a geologic medium surrounding the probe. At least one carrier gas port and vapor collection port are located on an external side wall of the probe. The carrier gas port provides a carrier gas into the geologic medium, and the collection port captures vapors from the geologic medium for analysis. In the transfer line, a flexible collection line that conveys a collected fluid, i.e., vapor, sample to a collector/analyzer. A flexible carrier gas line conveys a carrier gas to facilitate the collection of the sample. A system heating the collection line is also provided. Preferably the collection line is electrically conductive so that an electrical power source can generate a current through it so that the internal resistance generates heat.

  12. Evaluation of Hose in Hose transfer line service life

    SciTech Connect

    EAGLE, O.H.

    2003-05-30

    This document presents a determination for the amount of expected service life from Hose-in-Hose Transfer Lines based on vendor information and past HIHTL experience. Based on the information presented in this report and referenced documentation, we conclude the service life of the inner hose establishes the limits of service life for the finished assemblies. Since the process and environmental conditions to which the transfer line is subjected will not adversely affect the hose, the effective service life is that stated by the vendor--three years from the date of initial transfer. Transfer line assemblies have a shelf life of seven years from the date of hose manufacture, if stored in accordance with Section 2.1. This evaluation provides documentation showing that a three year service life has been justified. In the event that transfer lines are to be operated after three years from the date of initial transfer and within the shelf life of seven years, they must be reevaluated for their ability to perform intended functions.

  13. Noninterceptive beam energy measurements in line D of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gilpatrick, J.D.; Carter, H.; Plum, M.; Power, J.F.; Rose, C.R.; Shurter, R.B.

    1995-12-31

    Several members of the Accelerator and Operations Technology (AOT) division beam-diagnostics team performed time-of-flight (TOF) beam-energy measurements in line D of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) using developmental beam time. These measurements provided information for a final design of an on-line beam energy measurement. The following paper discusses these measurements and how they apply to the final beam energy measurement design.

  14. Noninterceptive beam energy measurements in line D of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gilpatrick, J.D.; Carter, H.; Plum, M.; Power, J.F.; Rose, C.R.; Shurter, R.B.

    1995-05-05

    Several members of the Accelerator and Operations Technology (AOT) division beam-diagnostics team performed time-of-flight (TOF) beam-energy measurements in line D of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) using developmental beam time. These measurements provided information for a final design of an on-line beam energy measurement. The following paper discusses these measurements and how they apply to the final beam energy measurement design. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  15. Three-dimensional particle trajectories and waste beam losses in injection dump beam line of SNS accumulator ring

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jian-Guang; Plum, Michael A

    2008-01-01

    The SNS ring injection dump beam line has been suffering high beam losses since its commissioning. In order to understand the mechanisms of the beam losses, we have performed 3D simulation studies of the beam line. The 3D models consist of three injection chicane dipoles and one injection dump septum magnet. 3D particle trajectories in the models are computed. We then extend particle optics calculations to the injection dump. Our studies have clearly shown some design and operation problems, that cause beam losses in the injection dump beam line. These include incorrect chicane dipole settings, incorrect position of a chicane dipole, too small aperture of injection dump septum, and inadequate focusing downstream. This paper reports our findings and the remedies to the injection beam loss problems.

  16. Requirements and guidelines for NSLS experimental beam line vacuum systems: Revision A

    SciTech Connect

    Foerster, C.; Halama, H.; Thomlinson, W.

    1986-10-01

    Requirements are provided for NSLS beam line front ends and vacuum interlocks. Guidelines are provided for UHV beam line vacuum systems, including materials, vacuum hardware (pumps, valves, and flanges), acoustic delay lines and beam line fast valves, instrumentation, fabrication and testing, and the NSLS cleaning facility. Also discussed are the design review for experimenters' equipment that would be connected to the NSLS and acceptance tests for any beam line to be connected with the ring vacuum. Also appended are a description of the acoustic delay line as well as the NSLS vacuum standards and NSLS procedures. (LEW)

  17. Transient analysis of chilldown in a cryogenic transfer line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, T.

    1990-01-01

    A numerical model was developed, with the SINDA'85/FLUINT program, for calculating the thermal and hydrodynamic transients that occur during the chilldown of a cryogenic transfer line, using a well documented test case to validate the modeling process. Using this model, a total of ten cases were analyzed to evaluate the effects of variable inlet valve position, inlet pressures, and the use of an internal flow liner to promote nucleate boiling. It was found that an efficient transfer line cooldown can be achieved if the inlet flow is throttled, to reduce the flow rate and quality, and an internal flow liner such as Teflon is used.

  18. Experimental Investigation of two-phase nitrogen Cryo transfer line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, G. K.; Nimavat, H.; Panchal, R.; Garg, A.; Srikanth, GLN; Patel, K.; Shah, P.; Tanna, V. L.; Pradhan, S.

    2017-02-01

    A 6-m long liquid nitrogen based cryo transfer line has been designed, developed and tested at IPR. The test objectives include the thermo-hydraulic characteristics of Cryo transfer line under single phase as well as two phase flow conditions. It is always easy in experimentation to investigate the thermo-hydraulic parameters in case of single phase flow of cryogen but it is real challenge when one deals with the two phase flow of cryogen due to availibity of mass flow measurements (direct) under two phase flow conditions. Established models have been reported in the literature where one of the well-known model of Lockhart-Martenelli relationship has been used to determine the value of quality at the outlet of Cryo transfer line. Under homogenous flow conditions, by taking the ratio of the single-phase pressure drop and the two-phase pressure drop, we estimated the quality at the outlet. Based on these equations, vapor quality at the outlet of the transfer line was predicted at different heat loads. Experimental rresults shown that from inlet to outlet, there is a considerable increment in the pressure drop and vapour quality of the outlet depending upon heat load and mass flow rate of nitrogen flowing through the line.

  19. The High Resolution Powder Diffraction Beam Line at ESRF

    PubMed Central

    Fitch, A. N.

    2004-01-01

    The optical design and performance of the high-resolution powder diffraction beam line BM16 at ESRF are discussed and illustrated. Some recent studies carried out on BM16 are described, including crystal structure solution and refinement, anomalous scattering, in situ measurements, residual strain in engineering components, investigation of microstructure, and grazing-incidence diffraction from surface layers. The beam line is built on a bending magnet, and operates in the energy range from 5 keV to 40 keV. After the move to an undulator source in 2002, it will benefit from an extented energy range up to 60 keV and increased flux and resolution. It is anticipated that enhancements to the data quality will be achieved, leading to the solution of larger crystal structures, and improvements in the accuracy of refined structures. The systematic exploitation of anisotropic thermal expansion will help reduce the effects of peak overlap in the analysis of powder diffraction data. PMID:27366602

  20. Beam line shielding calculations for an Electron Accelerator Mo-99 production facility

    SciTech Connect

    Mocko, Michal

    2016-05-03

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the photon and neutron fields in and around the latest beam line design for the Mo-99 production facility. The radiation dose to the beam line components (quadrupoles, dipoles, beam stops and the linear accelerator) are calculated in the present report. The beam line design assumes placement of two cameras: infra red (IR) and optical transition radiation (OTR) for continuous monitoring of the beam spot on target during irradiation. The cameras will be placed off the beam axis offset in vertical direction. We explored typical shielding arrangements for the cameras and report the resulting neutron and photon dose fields.

  1. Radiation protection considerations along a radioactive ion beam transport line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarchiapone, Lucia; Zafiropoulos, Demetre

    2016-09-01

    The goal of the SPES project is to produce accelerated radioactive ion beams for Physics studies at “Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro” (INFN, Italy). This accelerator complex is scheduled to be built by 2016 for an effective operation in 2017. Radioactive species are produced in a uranium carbide target, by the interaction of 200 μA of protons at 40 MeV. All of the ionized species in the 1+ state come out of the target (ISOL method), and pass through a Wien filter for a first selection and an HMRS (high mass resolution spectrometer). Then they are transported by an electrostatic beam line toward a charge state breeder (where the 1+ to n+ multi-ionization takes place) before selection and reacceleration at the already existing superconducting linac. The work concerning dose evaluations, activation calculation, and radiation protection constraints related to the transport of the radioactive ion beam (RIB) from the target to the mass separator will be described in this paper. The FLUKA code has been used as tool for those calculations needing Monte Carlo simulations, in particular for the evaluation of the dose rate due to the presence of the radioactive beam in the selection/interaction points. The time evolution of a radionuclide inventory can be computed online with FLUKA for arbitrary irradiation profiles and decay times. The activity evolution is analytically evaluated through the implementation of the Bateman equations. Furthermore, the generation and transport of decay radiation (limited to gamma, beta- and beta+ emissions) is possible, referring to a dedicated database of decay emissions using mostly information obtained from NNDC, sometimes supplemented with other data and checked for consistency. When the use of Monte Carlo simulations was not feasible, the Bateman equations, or possible simplifications, have been used directly.

  2. Construction of Superconducting Magnet System for the J-PARC Neutrino Beam Line

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamoto, T.; Wanderer, P.; Sasaki, K.; Ajima, Y.; Araoka, O.; Fujii, Y.; Hastings, N.; Higashi, N.; Iida, M.; Ishii, T.; Kimura, N.; Kobayashi, T.; Makida, Y.; Nakadaira, T.; Ogitsu, T.; Ohhata, H.; Okamura, T.; Sakashita, K.; Sugawara, S.; Suzuki, S.; Tanaka, K.; Tomaru, T.; Terashima, A.; Yamamoto, A.; Ichikawa, A.; Kakuno, H.; Anerella, M.; Escallier, J.; Ganetis, G.; gupta, R.; Jain, A.; Muratore, J.; Parker, B.; Boussuge, T.; Charrier, J.-P.; Arakawa, M.; Ichihara, T.; Minato, T.; Okada, Y.; Itou, A.; Kumaki, T.; Nagami, M.; Takahashi, T.

    2009-10-18

    Following success of a prototype R&D, construction of a superconducting magnet system for J-PARC neutrino beam line has been carried out since 2005. A new conceptual beam line with the superconducting combined function magnets demonstrated the successful beam transport to the neutrino production target.

  3. Operating instructions for ORELA (Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator) positron beam line

    SciTech Connect

    Donohue, D.L.; Hulett, L.D. Jr.; Lewis, T.A.

    1990-11-01

    This report will contain details of the construction and operation of the positron beam line. Special procedures which are performed on a less frequent basis will also be described. Appendices will contain operating instructions for experiments which make use of the positron beam and are connected to the beam line. Finally, a review of safety-related considerations will be presented.

  4. Application of the spectrally integrated Voigt function to line-by-line radiative transfer modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quine, B. M.; Abrarov, S. M.

    2013-09-01

    We show that a new approach based on the spectrally integrated Voigt function (SIVF) enables the computation of line-by-line (LBL) radiative transfer at reduced spectral resolution without loss of accuracy. The algorithm provides rapid and accurate computation of area under the Voigt function in a way that preserves spectral radiance and, consequently, radiant intensity. The error analysis we provide shows the high-accuracy of the proposed SIVF approximations. A comparison of the performance of the method with that of the traditional LBL approach is presented. Motivations for the use and advantage of the SIVF as a replacement for conventional line function computations in radiative transfer are discussed.

  5. An Energy-Stabilized Varied-Line-Space-Monochromator UndulatorBeam Line for PEEM Illumination and Magnetic Circular Dichroism

    SciTech Connect

    Warwick, Tony; McKinney, Wayne; Domning, Ed; Doran, Andrew; Padmore, Howard

    2006-06-01

    A new undulator beam line has been built and commissioned at the Advanced Light Source for illumination of the PEEM3 microscope. The beam line delivers high flux beams over an energy range from C1s through the transition metals to include the M edges of the magnetic rare earth elements. We present details of the optical design, and data on the performance of the zero-order tracking of the photon energy.

  6. Wireless energy transfer: Dielectric lens antennas for beam shaping in wireless power-transfer applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Ricardo; Carvalho, Nuno B.; Pinho, Pedro

    2017-02-01

    In the current contest of wireless systems, the last frontier remains the cut of the power cord. In that sense, the interest over wireless energy transfer technologies in the past years has grown exponentially. However, there are still many challenges to be overcome in order to enable wireless energy transfer full potential. One of the focus in the development of such systems is the design of very-high-gain, highly efficient, antennas that can compensate for the propagation loss of radio signals over the air. In this paper, we explore the design and manufacturing process of dielectric lenses, fabricated using a professional-grade desktop 3D printer. Lens antennas are used in order to increase beam efficiency and therefore maximize the efficiency of a wireless power-transfer system operating at microwave frequencies in the Ku band. Measurements of two fabricated prototypes showcase a large directivity, as predicted with simulations. xml:lang="fr"

  7. Development of a beam line for radio-isotope production at the KOMAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Han-Sung

    2016-09-01

    A new beam line of the 100-MeV proton linac at the KOMAC (Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex), aiming for RI (radioisotope) production has been constructed reflecting the increasing demands for various RIs (radioisotopes), such as Sr-82 and Cu-67 for medical applications. Proton beam with beam energy of 100 MeV and an average current of 0.6 mA is directed to the 100-mm-diameter production target through a beam window made of aluminum-beryllium alloy. Major components of the newly-installed beam line include electromagnets for bending and focusing, beam diagnostic systems such as a BPM (beam position monitor) and a BCM (beam current monitor), and a vacuum pumping system based on an ion pump. In this paper, the design features and the installation of the RI-production beam line at the KOMAC are given.

  8. Numerical Modelling of Intense Electron Beam Transport in the Spiral Line Induction Accelerator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-28

    arising in the context of the spiral line induction accelerator (SLIA), a device in which the beam is transported along an open-ended beam pipe ...field. Because the field coils are wound directly onto the spiral beam pipe , and because each bend is magnetically shielded from its neighbors, each... Spiral Line Induction Accelerator J. KRALL, S. SLINKER, M. LAMPE AND G. JOYCE Beam Physics Branch Plasma Physics Division August 28, 1992 _pw DTIC U)lz E

  9. Dipole corrector magnets for the LBNE beam line

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, M.; Velev, G.; Harding, D.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    The conceptual design of a new dipole corrector magnet has been thoroughly studied. The planned Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) beam line will require correctors capable of greater range and linearity than existing correctors, so a new design is proposed based on the horizontal trim dipole correctors built for the Main Injector synchrotron at Fermilab. The gap, pole shape, length, and number of conductor turns remain the same. To allow operation over a wider range of excitations without overheating, the conductor size is increased, and to maintain better linearity, the back leg thickness is increased. The magnetic simulation was done using ANSYS to optimize the shape and the size of the yoke. The thermal performance was also modeled and analyzed.

  10. Working group session report: Neutron beam line shielding.

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, G. J.; Ikedo, Y.

    2001-01-01

    We have examined the differences between a 2-D model and a 3-D model for designing the beam-line shield for the HIPPO instrument at the Lujan Center at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. We have calculated the total (neutron and gamma ray) dose equivalent rate coming out of the personal access ports from the HIPPO instrument experiment cave. In order to answer this question, we have investigated two possible worst-case scenarios: (a) failure of the T{sub 0}-chopper and no sample at the sample position; and (b) failure of the T{sub 0}-chopper with a thick sample (a piece of Inconel-718, 10 cm diam by 30 cm long) at the sample position.

  11. Crossed-Beam Energy Transfer in Direct-Drive Implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igumenshchev, I. V.

    2011-10-01

    Direct-drive-implosion experiments on OMEGA have revealed the importance of crossed-beam energy transfer (CBET), which is caused by stimulated Brillouin scattering. The CBET reduces the laser absorption in a target corona by ~10% to 20% and, therefore, decreases the implosion performance. The signature of CBET is observed in time-resolved, reflected-light spectra as a suppression of red-shifted light during the main laser pulse. Simulations without CBET typically predict an earlier bang time and overestimate the laser absorption in high-compression, low-adiabat implosions. Simulations using a CBET model and a nonlocal heat-transport model explain well the scattered-light and bang-timing measurements. This talk will summarize the possible mitigation strategies for CBET required for robust ignition designs. CBET most effectively scatters incoming light that interacts with outgoing light originated from laser beam edges. This makes it possible to mitigate CBET by reducing the beam diameter with respect to the target diameter. Implosion experiments using large 1400- μm-diam plastic shells and in-focus and defocus laser beams have demonstrated the reduction of CBET in implosions with a smaller ratio of the beam-to-target diameters. Simulations predict the optimum range of this ratio to be 0.7 to 0.8. Another mitigation strategy involves splitting the incident light into two or more colors. This reduces CBET by shifting and suppressing the coupling resonances. The reduction in scattered light caused by CBET is predicted to be up to a factor of 2 when incident light colors are separated by δλ > 6 Ã. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC52-08NA28302. In collaboration with W. Seka, D. H. Edgell, D. H. Froula, V. N. Goncharov, R. S. Craxton, R. L. McCrory, A. V. Maximov, D. D. Meyerhofer, J. F. Myatt, T. C. Sangster, A. Shvydky, S. Skupsky, and C. Stoeckl. I. V. Igumenshchevet

  12. A Simple beam line for the MuCool test area

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Ankenbrandt et al.

    2004-05-03

    This note describes a simple beam line to transport H{sup -} beam from the end of the Fermilab 400 MeV Linac to the MuCool Test Area (MTA). The design uses existing dipoles and quadrupoles and other equipment now available at Fermilab. Deflection of single 15 Hz beam pulses from the Linac to the MTA is accomplished using pulsed magnets that are essentially Main Injector trim dipoles with thinner laminations. The beam size is kept small to control beam losses and allow the use of existing surplus or spare equipment. An upgrade of the beam line to illuminate larger objects at high intensity is described.

  13. Neutralized ion beam modification of cellulose membranes for study of ion charge effect on ion-beam-induced DNA transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakrajang, K.; Sangwijit, K.; Anuntalabhochai, S.; Wanichapichart, P.; Yu, L. D.

    2012-02-01

    Low-energy ion beam biotechnology (IBBT) has recently been rapidly developed worldwide. Ion-beam-induced DNA transfer is one of the important applications of IBBT. However, mechanisms involved in this application are not yet well understood. In this study plasma-neutralized ion beam was applied to investigate ion charge effect on induction of DNA transfer. Argon ion beam at 7.5 keV was neutralized by RF-driven plasma in the beam path and then bombarded cellulose membranes which were used as the mimetic plant cell envelope. Electrical properties such as impedance and capacitance of the membranes were measured after the bombardment. An in vitro experiment on plasmid DNA transfer through the cellulose membrane was followed up. The results showed that the ion charge input played an important role in the impedance and capacitance changes which would affect DNA transfer. Generally speaking, neutral particle beam bombardment of biologic cells was more effective in inducing DNA transfer than charged ion beam bombardment.

  14. Beam dynamics and error study of the medium energy beam transport line in the Korea Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chanmi; Kim, Eun-San; Hahn, Garam

    2016-11-01

    The Korea Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator consists of an injector and a synchrotron for an ion medical accelerator that is the first carbon-ion therapy system in Korea. The medium energy beam transport(MEBT) line connects the interdigital H-mode drift tube linac and the synchrotron. We investigated the beam conditions after the charge stripper by using the LISE++ and the SRIM codes. The beam was stripped from C4+ into C6+ by using the charge stripper. We investigated the performance of a de-buncher in optimizing the energy spread and the beam distribution in z-dW/W (direction of beam progress-beam and energy) phase. We obtained the results of the tracking simulation and the error analysis by using the TRACK code. Possible misalignments and rotations of the magnets were considered in the simulations. States of the beam were examined when errors occurred in the magnets by the applying analytic fringe field model in TRACK code. The condition for the beam orbit was optimized by using correctors and profile monitors to correct the orbit. In this paper, we focus on the beam dynamics and the error studies dedicated to the MEBT beam line and show the optimized beam parameters for the MEBT.

  15. Designing of the low energy beam lines with achromatic condition in the RAON accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Hyunchang; Jang, Ji-Ho; Jeon, Dong-O.

    2017-01-01

    The RAON accelerator has been built to create and accelerate stable heavy-ion beams and rare isotope beams. The stable heavy-ion beams are generated by the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source and accelerated by the low energy superconducting linac SCL1. The beams accelerated by the SCL1 are re-accelerated by the high energy superconducting linac SCL2 for the generation of rare isotope beams by using the in-flight fragmentation system or are put to use in the low energy experimental halls, which include the neutron science facility and the KOrea Broad acceptance Recoil spectrometer and Apparatus after having passed through the low energy beam lines which have long deflecting sections. At the end of each beam line in the low energy experimental halls, the beams should meet the targets of the two facilities with the specific requirements satisfied. Namely, if the beam is to be sent safely and accurately to the targets and simultaneously, satisfy the requirements, an achromatic lattice design needs to be applied in each beam line. In this paper, we will present the lattice design of the low energy beam lines and describe the results of the beam dynamics simulations. In addition, the correction of the beam orbit, which is distorted by machine imperfections, will be discussed.

  16. Technologies for Lunar Surface Power Systems Power Beaming and Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzwell, Neville; Pogorzelski, Ronald J.; Chang, Kai; Little, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Wireless power transmission within a given working area is required or enabling for many NASA Exploration Systems. Fields of application include robotics, habitats, autonomous rendezvous and docking, life support, EVA, and many others. In robotics applications, for example, the robots must move in the working area without being hampered by power cables and, meanwhile, obtain a continuous and constant power from a power transmitter. The development of modern technology for transmitting electric power over free space has been studied for several decades, but its use in a system has been mainly limited to low power, 1-2 Vdc output voltage at a transmission distance of few meters for which relatively less than 0.5 mW/cm2 is required (e.g., Radio frequency identification RFID). Most of the rectenna conversion efficiency research to date has concentrated in low GHz frequency range of 2.45 to 10 GHz, with some work at 35 GHz. However, for space application, atmospheric adsorbtion is irrelevant and higher frequency systems with smaller transmit and receive apertures may be appropriate. For high power, most of the work on rectennas has concentrated on optimizing the conversion efficiency of the microwave rectifier element; the highest power demonstrated was 35 kW of power over a distance of 1.5 km. The objective of this paper is to establish the manner in which a very large number of very low power microwave devices can be synchronized to provide a beam of microwaves that can be used to efficiently and safely transport a significant amount of power to a remote location where it can be converted to dc (or ac) power by a ``rectenna.'' The proposed system is based on spatial power combining of the outputs of a large number of devices synchronized by mutual injection locking. We have demonstrated at JPL that such power could be achieved by combining 25 sources in a configuration that allows for convenient steering of the resulting beam of microwaves. Retrodirective beam

  17. The effects of magnetic fringe fields on beam dynamics in a beam transport line of a terahertz FEL source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Han; Xiong, Yongqian; Pei, Yuanji

    2014-11-01

    The transport line used in a terahertz FEL device has to transport electron beam through the entire system efficiently and meet the requirements of the beam parameters at the undulator entrance. Due to space limitations, the size of the magnets (five quadrupoles and two bending magnets) employed in the transport line was limited, and some devices were densely packed. In this paper, analyses of the effect of fringe fields and magnetic interference of magnets are presented. 3D models of these magnets are built and their linear optical properties are compared with those obtained by hard edge models. The results indicated that the effects of these factors are significant and they would cause a mismatch of the beam at the exit of the transport line under the preliminary lattice design. To solve this problem, the beam was re-matched using the particle swarm optimization algorithm.

  18. Differential acceleration in the final beam lines of a Heavy Ion Fusion driver

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Alex

    2013-10-19

    A long-standing challenge in the design of a Heavy Ion Fusion power plant is that the ion beams entering the target chamber, which number of order a hundred, all need to be routed from one or two multi-beam accelerators through a set of transport lines. The beams are divided into groups, which each have unique arrival times and may have unique kinetic energies. It is also necessary to arrange for each beam to enter the target chamber from a prescribed location on the periphery of that chamber. Furthermore, it has generally been assumed that additional constraints must be obeyed: that the path lengths of the beams in a group must be equal, and that any delay of \\main-pulse" beams relative to \\foot-pulse" beams must be provided by the insertion of large delay-arcs in the main beam transport lines. Here we introduce the notion of applying \\di erential acceleration" to individual beams or sets of beam at strategic stages of the transport lines. That is, by accelerating some beams \\sooner" and others \\later," it is possible to simplify the beam line con guration in a number of cases. For example, the time delay between the foot and main pulses can be generated without resorting to large arcs in the main-pulse beam lines. It is also possible to use di erential acceleration to e ect the simultaneous arrival on target of a set of beams ( e.g., for the foot-pulse) without requiring that their path lengths be precisely equal. We illustrate the technique for two model con gurations, one corresponding to a typical indirect-drive scenario requiring distinct foot and main energies, and the other to an ion-driven fast-ignition scenario wherein the foot and main beams share a common energy.

  19. Differential acceleration in the final beam lines of a Heavy Ion Fusion driver

    DOE PAGES

    Friedman, Alex

    2013-10-19

    A long-standing challenge in the design of a Heavy Ion Fusion power plant is that the ion beams entering the target chamber, which number of order a hundred, all need to be routed from one or two multi-beam accelerators through a set of transport lines. The beams are divided into groups, which each have unique arrival times and may have unique kinetic energies. It is also necessary to arrange for each beam to enter the target chamber from a prescribed location on the periphery of that chamber. Furthermore, it has generally been assumed that additional constraints must be obeyed: thatmore » the path lengths of the beams in a group must be equal, and that any delay of \\main-pulse" beams relative to \\foot-pulse" beams must be provided by the insertion of large delay-arcs in the main beam transport lines. Here we introduce the notion of applying \\di erential acceleration" to individual beams or sets of beam at strategic stages of the transport lines. That is, by accelerating some beams \\sooner" and others \\later," it is possible to simplify the beam line con guration in a number of cases. For example, the time delay between the foot and main pulses can be generated without resorting to large arcs in the main-pulse beam lines. It is also possible to use di erential acceleration to e ect the simultaneous arrival on target of a set of beams ( e.g., for the foot-pulse) without requiring that their path lengths be precisely equal. We illustrate the technique for two model con gurations, one corresponding to a typical indirect-drive scenario requiring distinct foot and main energies, and the other to an ion-driven fast-ignition scenario wherein the foot and main beams share a common energy.« less

  20. REQUIREMENTS AND GUIDELINES FOR NSLS EXPERIMENTAL BEAM LINE VACUUM SYSTEMS-REVISION B.

    SciTech Connect

    FOERSTER,C.

    1999-05-01

    Typical beam lines are comprised of an assembly of vacuum valves and shutters referred to as a ''front end'', optical elements to monochromatize, focus and split the photon beam, and an experimental area where a target sample is placed into the photon beam and data from the interaction is detected and recorded. Windows are used to separate sections of beam lines that are not compatible with storage ring ultra high vacuum. Some experimental beam lines share a common vacuum with storage rings. Sections of beam lines are only allowed to vent up to atmospheric pressure using pure nitrogen gas after a vacuum barrier is established to protect ring vacuum. The front end may only be bled up when there is no current in the machine. This is especially true on the VUV storage ring where for most experiments, windows are not used. For the shorter wavelength, more energetic photons of the x-ray ring, beryllium windows are used at various beam line locations so that the monochromator, mirror box or sample chamber may be used in a helium atmosphere or rough vacuum. The window separates ring vacuum from the environment of the downstream beam line components. The stored beam lifetime in the storage rings and the maintenance of desirable reflection properties of optical surfaces depend upon hydrocarbon-free, ultra-high vacuum systems. Storage ring vacuum systems will operate at pressures of {approximately} 1 x 10{sup {minus}10} Torr without beam and {approximately} 1 x 10{sup {minus}9} Torr with beam. Systems are free of hydrocarbons in the sense that no pumps, valves, etc. containing organics are used. Components are all-metal, chemically cleaned and bakeable. To the extent that beam lines share a common vacuum with the storage ring, the same criteria will hold for beam line components. The design philosophy for NSLS beam lines is to use all-metal, hydrocarbon-free front end components and recommend that experimenters use this approach for common vacuum hardware downstream of front

  1. An after-market, five-port vertical beam line extension for the PETtrace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnhart, T. E.; Engle, J. W.; Severin, G. W.; Valdovinos, H. F.; Gagnon, K.; Nickles, R. J.

    2012-12-01

    Most commercial cyclotrons intended for medical isotope production provide a limited number of beam ports crowded into a minimal vault space. Taking advantage of our new lab construction, we planned and installed a beam-line on port ♯2 of our GEMS PETtrace to bring beam to an additional 5 target positions. These are oriented in the vertical plane, with the downward directed beam well suited for molten target substrates.

  2. Operation of the intensity monitors in beam transport lines at Fermilab during Run II¹

    DOE PAGES

    Crisp, J.; Fellenz, B.; Fitzgerald, J.; ...

    2011-10-06

    The intensity of charged particle beams at Fermilab must be kept within pre-determined safety and operational envelopes in part by assuring all beam within a few percent has been transported from any source to destination. Beam instensity monitors with toroidial pickups provide such beam intensity measurements in the transport lines between accelerators at FNAL. With Run II, much effort was made to continually improve the resolution and accuracy of the system.

  3. An after-market, five-port vertical beam line extension for the PETtrace

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhart, T. E.; Engle, J. W.; Severin, G. W.; Valdovinos, H. F.; Gagnon, K.; Nickles, R. J.

    2012-12-19

    Most commercial cyclotrons intended for medical isotope production provide a limited number of beam ports crowded into a minimal vault space. Taking advantage of our new lab construction, we planned and installed a beam-line on port Music-Sharp-Sign 2 of our GEMS PETtrace to bring beam to an additional 5 target positions. These are oriented in the vertical plane, with the downward directed beam well suited for molten target substrates.

  4. Line-by-line radiative transfer model for infrared spectrum of AERI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kwang-Mog; Park, Joong-Hyun; Ahn, Myoung-Hwan; Ou, Mi-Lim; Kim, Yoonjae

    2012-05-01

    Infrared radiance spectra measured in space or on the ground have been used for many applications, such as the retrieval of atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles. The Korean Meteorological Administration (KMA) recently installed an Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) system at the Korea Global Atmosphere Watch Center (36°32'N, 125°19'E) in Anmyondo to measure the downward radiance spectra on the ground. For further utilization of such interferometeric radiance measurements, an accurate line-by-line radiative transfer model is required. This study introduces a line-by-line radiative transfer model developed at Kyungpook National University (KNU_LBL) and presents comparisons of spectra simulated using the KNU_LBL model and measured by the AERI system, that is installed inside a secure container. When compared with the Atmospheric and Environmental Research (AER) radiative transfer codes, the KNU_LBL model provides nearly identical spectra for various model atmospheres. The simulated spectra are also in good agreement with the AERI spectra for clear sky conditions, and a further improvement is made when taking into account of the emissions and absorption by CO2 and H2O for the light path inside the container, even though the path is short.

  5. Chemical and Photographic Evaluation of Rigid Explosive Transfer Lines.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    01 SIAN1ARD 191 NSWC TR 84-66 * 0 CHEMICAL AND PHOTOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF RIGID EXPLOSIVE TRANSFER LINES 0 0 BY ELEONORE G. KAYSER 0 0 RESEARCH AND... Eleonore G. Kayser j 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AN= ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM E-.EMENT. ’RCJECT, TASK AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERSNaval Surface Weapons...J. Trom P.O. Box 5400 Dept. 529-165 Albuquerque, NM 87115 Mail Code AB37 6633 Canoga Ave. Space Ordnance Systems, Inc. Canoga Park , CA 91304 Attn

  6. Fiber Optic Picosecond Laser Pulse Transmission Line for Hydrogen Ion Beam Profile Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yun; Huang, Chunning; Aleksandrov, Alexander V

    2013-01-01

    We present a fiber optic laser pulse transmission line for non-intrusive longitudinal profile measurement of the hydrogen ion (H-) beam at the front-end of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accelerator. The 80.5 MHz, 2.5 ps, multi-killowatt optical pulses are delivered to the accelerator beam line through a large mode area polarization maintaining optical fiber to ensure a high measurement stability. The transmission efficiency, output laser beam quality, pulse jitter and pulse width broadening over a 100-ft fiber line are experimentally investigated. A successful measurement of the H- beam microbunch (~130 ps) profile is obtained. Our experiment is the first demonstration of particle beam profile diagnostics using fiber optic laser pulse transmission line.

  7. Tomography and imaging at the PSICHE beam line of the SOLEIL synchrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, A.; Guignot, N.; Zerbino, P.; Boulard, E.; Desjardins, K.; Bordessoule, M.; Leclerq, N.; Le, S.; Renaud, G.; Cerato, M.; Bornert, M.; Lenoir, N.; Delzon, S.; Perrillat, J.-P.; Legodec, Y.; Itié, J.-P.

    2016-09-01

    PSICHE (Pressure, Structure and Imaging by Contrast at High Energy) is the high-energy beam line of the SOLEIL synchrotron. The beam line is designed to study samples at extreme pressures, using diffraction, and to perform imaging and tomography for materials science and other diverse applications. This paper presents the tomograph and the use of the beam line for imaging, with emphasis on developments made with respect to existing instruments. Of particular note are the high load capacity rotation stage with free central aperture for installing large or complex samples and sample environments, x-ray mirror and filter optics for pink beam imaging, and multiple options for combining imaging and diffraction measurement. We describe how x-ray imaging techniques have been integrated into high-pressure experiments. The design and the specifications of the beam line are described, and several case studies drawn from the first user experiments are presented.

  8. Tomography and imaging at the PSICHE beam line of the SOLEIL synchrotron.

    PubMed

    King, A; Guignot, N; Zerbino, P; Boulard, E; Desjardins, K; Bordessoule, M; Leclerq, N; Le, S; Renaud, G; Cerato, M; Bornert, M; Lenoir, N; Delzon, S; Perrillat, J-P; Legodec, Y; Itié, J-P

    2016-09-01

    PSICHE (Pressure, Structure and Imaging by Contrast at High Energy) is the high-energy beam line of the SOLEIL synchrotron. The beam line is designed to study samples at extreme pressures, using diffraction, and to perform imaging and tomography for materials science and other diverse applications. This paper presents the tomograph and the use of the beam line for imaging, with emphasis on developments made with respect to existing instruments. Of particular note are the high load capacity rotation stage with free central aperture for installing large or complex samples and sample environments, x-ray mirror and filter optics for pink beam imaging, and multiple options for combining imaging and diffraction measurement. We describe how x-ray imaging techniques have been integrated into high-pressure experiments. The design and the specifications of the beam line are described, and several case studies drawn from the first user experiments are presented.

  9. The MICE Muon Beam on ISIS and the beam-line instrumentation of the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Bogomilov, M.; et al.

    2012-05-01

    The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE), which is under construction at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), will demonstrate the principle of ionization cooling as a technique for the reduction of the phase-space volume occupied by a muon beam. Ionization cooling channels are required for the Neutrino Factory and the Muon Collider. MICE will evaluate in detail the performance of a single lattice cell of the Feasibility Study 2 cooling channel. The MICE Muon Beam has been constructed at the ISIS synchrotron at RAL, and in MICE Step I, it has been characterized using the MICE beam-instrumentation system. In this paper, the MICE Muon Beam and beam-line instrumentation are described. The muon rate is presented as a function of the beam loss generated by the MICE target dipping into the ISIS proton beam. For a 1 V signal from the ISIS beam-loss monitors downstream of our target we obtain a 30 KHz instantaneous muon rate, with a neglible pion contamination in the beam.

  10. Upgrade of the beam transport lines and the beam-abort system and development of a tune compensator in KEKB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iida, Naoko; Kikuchi, Mitsuo; Mimashi, Toshihiro; Nakayama, Hisayoshi; Sakamoto, Yutaka; Satoh, Kotaro; Takasaki, Seiji; Tawada, Masafumi

    2013-03-01

    The KEKB collider achieved a maximum peak luminosity of 2.1×1034 cm-2 s-1 and an integrated luminosity of 1 ab-1 in its ten-year operation. Behind these glorious records there have been uncountable improvements in every subsystem. This paper describes the improvements in the beam transport line, injection kickers, septum magnets, the beam-abort system, and a newly developed pulsed-quadrupole system in detail.

  11. Transfer Casting From Ion-Beam-Textured Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, B. A.; Weigand, A. J.; Sovey, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    Textured surfaces created on metals, ceramics, and polymers. Electron-bombardment ion thrustor used as neutralized-ion-beam source. Beam of directed, energetic ions alter surface chemistry and/or morphology of many materials. By adjusting ion energy and ion-beam current density impinging upon target, precise surface modifications obtained without risk of targetmaterial melting or bulk decomposition. Technique developed to generate precise, controllable, surface microstructures on metals, ceramics, and polymers.

  12. Design of the prototype of a beam transport line for handling and selection of low energy laser-driven beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillaci, F.; Maggiore, M.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Pisciotta, P.; Costa, M.; Rifuggiato, D.; Romano, F.; Scuderi, V.

    2016-11-01

    A first prototype of transport beam-line for laser-driven ion beams to be used for the handling of particles accelerated by high-power laser interacting with solid targets has been realized at INFN. The goal is the production of a controlled and stable beam in terms of energy and angular spread. The beam-line consists of two elements: an Energy Selection System (ESS), already realized and characterized with both conventional and laser-accelerated beams, and a Permanent Magnet Quadrupole system (PMQ) designed, in collaboration with SIGMAPHI (Fr), to improve the ESS performances. In this work a description of the ESS system and some results of its characterization with conventional beams are reported, in order to provide a complete explanation of the acceptance calculation. Then, the matching with the PMQ system is presented and, finally, the results of preliminary simulations with a realistic laser-driven energy spectrum are discussed demonstrating the possibility to provide a good quality beam downstream the systems.

  13. Compensation of Beam Line Polarizing Effects at UE112 of BESSY II

    SciTech Connect

    Bahrdt, J.; Follath, R.; Frentrup, W.; Gaupp, A.; Scheer, M.

    2010-06-23

    Reflections in synchrotron radiation beam lines tend to change the state of polarization of the radiation. This effect is more pronounced for steep angle of incidence, i.e. at low photon energy (say below 100 eV) beam lines. The APPLE II undulator UE112 at BESSY has all four magnetic rows shiftable and thus generates any state of polarization. To provide any intended polarization state at the sample we perform polarization measurements based on simple and fast linear polarization analysis that together with calculations of the undulator radiation predicts undulator settings that cancel beam line polarization effects.

  14. Design of soft x-ray varied-line-spacing grating based on electron beam lithography-near field lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Dakui; Chen, Huoyao; Kroker, Stefanie; Käsebier, Thomas; Liu, Zhengkun; Qiu, Keqiang; Liu, Ying; Kley, Ernst-Bernhard; Xu, Xiangdong; Hong, Yilin; Fu, Shaojun

    2016-10-01

    Soft x-ray varied line spacing grating (VLSG), which is a vital optical element for laser plasma diagnosis and spectrometry analysis, is conventionally fabricated by holographic lithography or mechanical ruling. In order to overcome the issues of the above fabrication methods, a method based on electron beam lithography-near field lithography (EBL-NFH) is proposed to make good use of the flexibility of EBL and the high throughput of NFH. In this paper, we showed a newly designed soft x-ray VLSG with a central groove density of 3600 lines/mm, which is to be realized based on EBL-NFH. First, the optimization of the spatial distribution of line density and groove profile of the VLSG was shown. As an important element in NFH, a fused silica mask plays a key role during NFH in order to obtain a required line density of VLSG. Therefore, second, the transfer relationship of spatial distribution of line densities between fused silica mask and resist grating was investigated in different exposure modes during NFH. We proposed a formulation about the transfer of line density to design of the groove density distribution of a fused silica grating mask. Finally, the spatial distribution of line densities between the fused silica mask, which is to be fabrication by using EBL, was demonstrated.

  15. Transfer matrix of a Glaser magnet to study the dynamics of non-axisymmetric beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, A.; Sing Babu, P.; Pandit, V. S.

    2012-06-01

    A Glaser magnet, having bell-shaped distribution of axial field, is often used to focus charged particle beams in the low energy section of accelerators and in many other devices. The transfer matrix of a Glaser magnet available in the literature is only for a rotationally axisymmetric beam. The objective of this paper is to obtain the 4D transfer matrix of a Glaser magnet for a non-axisymmetric beam having different emittances in the two transverse planes. Starting from the Hamiltonian of a single particle motion we have obtained the 4×4 linear transfer matrix of the Glaser magnet in symplectic form. The matrix so derived has been used to estimate the beam envelope through a Glaser magnet using the well known sigma matrix method. We have also studied the emittance growth that results from the coupling between the two transverse planes as the beam passes through the Glaser magnet.

  16. Observation of resonant energy transfer between identical-frequency laser beams

    SciTech Connect

    Afeyan, B. B.; Cohen, B. I.; Estabrook, K. G.; Glenzer, S. H.; Joshi, C.; Kirkwood, R. K.; Moody, J. D.; Wharton, K. B.

    1998-12-09

    Enhanced transmission of a low intensity laser beam is observed when crossed with an identical-frequency beam in a plasma with a flow velocity near the ion sound speed. The time history of the enhancement and the dependence on the flow velocity strongly suggest that this is due to energy transfer between the beams via a resonant ion wave with zero frequency in the laboratory frame. The maximum energy transfer has been observed when the beams cross in a region with Mach 1 flow. The addition of frequency modulation on the crossing beams is seen to reduce the energy transfer by a factor of two. Implications for indirect-drive fusion schemes are discussed.

  17. Design and initial tests of beam current monitoring systems for the APS transport lines

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xucheng

    1992-12-01

    The non-intercepting beam current monitoring systems suitable for a wide, range of beam parameters have been developed for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) low energy transport lines and high energy transport line. The positron or electron beam pulse in the transport lines wig have peak beam currents ranging from 8 mA to 29 A with pulse widths varying from 120 ps to 30 ns and pulse repetition rates from 2 Hz to 60 Hz. The peak beam current or total beam charge is measured with the fast or integrating current transformer, respectively, manufactured by Bergoz. In-house high speed beam signal processing electronics provide a DC level output proportional to the peak current or total charge for the digitizer input. The prototype systems were tested on the linacs which have beam pulse structures similar to that of the APS transport lines. This paper describes the design of beam signal processing electronics and grounding and shielding methods for current transformers. The results of the initial operations are presented. A short introduction on the preliminary design of current monitoring systems for the APS rings is also included.

  18. Design and initial tests of beam current monitoring systems for the APS transport lines

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xucheng.

    1992-01-01

    The non-intercepting beam current monitoring systems suitable for a wide, range of beam parameters have been developed for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) low energy transport lines and high energy transport line. The positron or electron beam pulse in the transport lines wig have peak beam currents ranging from 8 mA to 29 A with pulse widths varying from 120 ps to 30 ns and pulse repetition rates from 2 Hz to 60 Hz. The peak beam current or total beam charge is measured with the fast or integrating current transformer, respectively, manufactured by Bergoz. In-house high speed beam signal processing electronics provide a DC level output proportional to the peak current or total charge for the digitizer input. The prototype systems were tested on the linacs which have beam pulse structures similar to that of the APS transport lines. This paper describes the design of beam signal processing electronics and grounding and shielding methods for current transformers. The results of the initial operations are presented. A short introduction on the preliminary design of current monitoring systems for the APS rings is also included.

  19. Modulation transfer function evaluation of cone beam computed tomography for dental use with the oversampling method

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, H; Honda, E; Kurabayashi, T

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The aim was to investigate the possibility of evaluating the modulation transfer function (MTF) of cone beam CT (CBCT) for dental use using the oversampling method. Methods The CBCT apparatus (3D Accuitomo) with an image intensifier was used with a 100 μm tungsten wire placed inside the scanner at a slight angle to the plane perpendicular to the plane of interest and scanned. 200 contiguous reconstructed images were used to obtain the oversampling line-spread function (LSF). The MTF curve was obtained by computing the Fourier transformation from the oversampled LSF. Line pair tests were also performed using Catphan®. Results The oversampling method provided smooth and reproducible MTF curves. The MTF curves revealed that the spatial resolution in the z-axis direction was significantly higher than that in the axial direction. This result was also confirmed by the line pair test. Conclusions MTF analysis was performed successfully using the oversampling method. In addition, this study clarified that the 3D Accuitomo had high spatial resolution, especially in the z-axis direction. PMID:20089741

  20. Beam Line Design and Beam Physics Study of Energy Recovery Linac Free Electron Laser at Peking University

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Guimei

    2011-12-31

    Energy recovering linac (ERL) offers an attractive alternative for generating intense beams of charged particles by approaching the operational efficiency of a storage ring while maintaining the superior beam quality typical of a linear accelerator. In ERLs, the decelerated beam cancels the beam loading effects of the accelerated beam with high repetition rate. Therefore, ERLs can, in principle, accelerate very high average currents with only modest amounts of RF power. So the efficiency of RF power to beam is much higher. Furthermore, the energy of beam to dump is lower, so it will reduce dump radiation. With the successful experiments in large maximum-to-injection energy ratio up to 51:1 and high power FEL up to 14kW, the use of ERL, especially combining with superconducting RF technology, provides a potentially powerful new paradigm for generation of the charged particle beams used in MW FEL, synchrotron radiation sources, high-energy electron cooling devices and so on. The 3+1/2 DC-SC photo injector and two 9cell TESLA superconducting cavity for IR SASE FEL in PKU provides a good platform to achieve high average FEL with Energy Recovery. The work of this thesis is on Beam line design and Beam dynamics study of Energy Recovery Linac Free Electron Laser for Peking University. It is the upgrade of PKU facility, which is under construction. With ERL, this facility can work in CW mode, so it can operate high average beam current without RF power constraint in main linac and generate high average FEL power. Moreover, it provides a test facility to study the key technology in ERL. System parameters are optimized for PKU ERL-FEL. The oscillation FEL output power is studied with different bunch charge, transverse emittance, bunch length and energy spread. The theory of optimal RF power and Q{sub ext} with ERL and without ERL is analyzed and applied to PKU injector and linac including microphonic effect. pace charge effect in the injector and merger is studied for beam

  1. Beam Loss Studies for the 2-MW LBNE Proton Beam Line

    SciTech Connect

    Drozhdin, A.I.; Childress, S.R.; Mokhov, N.V.; Tropin, I.S.; Zwaska, R.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-01

    Severe limits are put on allowable beam loss during extraction and transport of a 2.3 MW primary proton beam for the Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) at Fermilab. Detailed simulations with the STRUCT and MARS codes have evaluated the impact of beam loss of 1.6 x 10{sup 14} protons per pulse at 120 GeV, ranging from a single pulse full loss to sustained small fractional loss. It is shown that loss of a single beam pulse at 2.3 MW will result in a catastrophic event: beam pipe destruction, damaged magnets and very high levels of residual radiation inside and outside the tunnel. Acceptable beam loss limits have been determined and robust solutions developed to enable efficient proton beam operation under these constraints.

  2. Transport and dosimetric solutions for the ELIMED laser-driven beam line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirrone, G. A. P.; Romano, F.; Scuderi, V.; Amato, A.; Candiano, G.; Cuttone, G.; Giove, D.; Korn, G.; Krasa, J.; Leanza, R.; Manna, R.; Maggiore, M.; Marchese, V.; Margarone, D.; Milluzzo, G.; Petringa, G.; Sabini, M. G.; Schillaci, F.; Tramontana, A.; Valastro, L.; Velyhan, A.

    2015-10-01

    Within 2017, the ELIMED (ELI-Beamlines MEDical applications) transport beam-line and dosimetric systems for laser-generated beams will be installed at the ELI-Beamlines facility in Prague (CZ), inside the ELIMAIA (ELI Multidisciplinary Applications of laser-Ion Acceleration) interaction room. The beam-line will be composed of two sections: one in vacuum, devoted to the collecting, focusing and energy selection of the primary beam and the second in air, where the ELIMED beam-line dosimetric devices will be located. This paper briefly describes the transport solutions that will be adopted together with the main dosimetric approaches. In particular, the description of an innovative Faraday Cup detector with its preliminary experimental tests will be reported.

  3. Status of Superconducting Magnet System for the J-PARC Neutrino Beam Line

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamoto, T.; Wanderer, P.; Sasaki, K.; Araoka, O.; Fugii, Y.; Higashi, N.; Iida, M.; Ishii, T.; Kimura, N.; Kobayashi, T.; Makida, Y.; Nakadaira, T.; Ogitsu, T.; Ohhata, H.; Olamura, T.; Sakashita, K.; Shibata, M.; Suzuki, S.; Yamamoto, A.; Ichikawa, A.; Kakuno, H.; Anerella, M.; Escallier, J.; Ganetis, G.; Ghosh, A.; Muratore, J.; Parker, B.; Wanderer, P.

    2011-08-03

    The superconducting magnet system for the J-PARC neutrino beam line for the T2K experiment has been served for the beam operation without serious disturbance since April 2009. Present most concern of the system is the operational current limit of superconducting corrector magnets for beam steering due to systematic quenches at lower currents. Operational experience of the magnet system and examples of troubleshoot including countermeasures against the corrector magnet quenches are presented.

  4. Precision Control of the Electron Longitudinal Bunch Shape Using an Emittance-Exchange Beam Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, G.; Cho, M. H.; Namkung, W.; Power, J. G.; Doran, D. S.; Wisniewski, E. E.; Conde, M.; Gai, W.; Liu, W.; Whiteford, C.; Gao, Q.; Kim, K.-J.; Zholents, A.; Sun, Y.-E.; Jing, C.; Piot, P.

    2017-03-01

    We report on the experimental generation of relativistic electron bunches with a tunable longitudinal bunch shape. A longitudinal bunch-shaping (LBS) beam line, consisting of a transverse mask followed by a transverse-to-longitudinal emittance exchange (EEX) beam line, is used to tailor the longitudinal bunch shape (or current profile) of the electron bunch. The mask shapes the bunch's horizontal profile, and the EEX beam line converts it to a corresponding longitudinal profile. The Argonne wakefield accelerator rf photoinjector delivers electron bunches into a LBS beam line to generate a variety of longitudinal bunch shapes. The quality of the longitudinal bunch shape is limited by various perturbations in the exchange process. We develop a simple method, based on the incident slope of the bunch, to significantly suppress the perturbations.

  5. Database Applications to Integrate Beam Line Optics Changes with the Engineering Databases

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, A.; Bellomo, P.; Crane, G.R.; Emma, P.; Grunhaus, E.; Luchini, K.; MacGregor, I.A.; Marsh, D.S.; Pope, R.; Prickett, P.; Rago, C.; Ratcliffe, K.; Shab, T.; /SLAC

    2007-07-06

    The LCLS project databases provide key nomenclature information while integrating many engineering and physics processes in the building of an accelerator. Starting with the elements existing in the beam line optics files, the engineers add non-beam-line elements, and controls engineers assign ''Formal Device Names'' to these elements. Inventory, power supplies, racks, crates and cable plants are databases that are being integrated into the project database. This approach replaces individual spreadsheets and/or integrates standalone existing institutional databases.

  6. A new criterion to describe crossed-beam energy transfer in laser-plasma interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trines, R.; Schmitz, H.; Alves, E. P.; Fiuza, F.; Vieira, J.; Silva, L. O.; Bingham, R.

    2016-10-01

    Crossed-beam energy transfer (CBET) between laser beams in underdense plasma is ubiquitous in both direct-drive and indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion. To understand the impact of this process on the final shape of the laser beams involved, as well as their imprint on either hohlraum walls or target surface, a detailed spatial and temporal description of the crossing beams is needed. We have developed an analytical model and derived new criteria describing both the spatial structure and temporal evolution of the beams after crossing. Numerical simulations have been carried out justifying the analytical model and confirming the criteria. The impact of our results on present and future multi-beam experiments in laser fusion and high-energy-density physics, in particular the ``bursty'' nature of beams predicted to occur in NIF experiments, will be discussed.

  7. Transfer reaction experiments with radioactive beams: from halos to the r-process

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K. L.

    2013-01-01

    Transfer reactions are a powerful probe of the properties of atomic nuclei. When used in inverse kinematics with radioactive ion beams they can provide detailed information on the structure of exotic nuclei and can inform nucleosynthesis calculations. There are a number of groups around the world who use these reactions, usually with particle detection in large silicon arrays. Sometimes these arrays are coupled to gamma-ray detectors, and occasionally smaller arrays of silicon detectors are mounted within a solenoid magnet. Modern techniques using transfer reactions in inverse kinematics are covered, with specific examples, many from measurements made with beams from the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  8. Faraday cup: absolute dosimetry for ELIMED beam line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leanza, R.; Romano, F.; Scuderi, V.; Amico, A. G.; Cuttone, G.; Larosa, G.; Margarone, D.; Milluzzo, G.; Petringa, G.; Pipek, J.; Schillaci, F.; Cirrone, G. A. P.

    2017-03-01

    The scientific community has shown a growing interest towards multidisciplinary applications of laser-driven beams. In this framework, the ELIMED (ELI-Beamlines MEDical and multidisciplinary applications) beamline will be the first transport beamline dedicated to the medical and multidisciplinary studies with laser-accelerated ion beams. Detectors for dosimetry represent one of key-element of the ELIMED beamline, allowing a dose delivering with good result as required in the clinical applications. In this contribution, a Faraday Cup for absolute dosimetry, designed and realized at INFN-LNS, is described.

  9. Effects of carbon-ion beams on human pancreatic cancer cell lines that differ in genetic status.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Yoshifumi; Asano, Takehide; Kenmochi, Takashi; Iwakawa, Mayumi; Imai, Takashi; Ochiai, Takenori

    2004-02-01

    The relative biologic effectiveness (RBE) of carbon-ion beams at 3 different linear energy transfer (LET) values (13, 50, and 80 keV/microm) accelerated by the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba on human pancreatic cancer cell lines differing in genetic status was determined. The RBE values were calculated as D10, the dose (Gy) required to reduce the surviving fraction to 10%, relative to X-rays. We also investigated apoptosis and the relationship between D10 and the cell cycle checkpoint using morphologic examination and flow cytometry analysis, respectively. The RBE values calculated by the D10 values ranged from 1.16 to 1.77 for the 13-keV/microm beam and from 1.83 to 2.46 for the 80-keV/microm beam. A correlation between the D10 values of each cell line and intensity of G2/M arrest was observed. In contrast, LET values did not clearly correlate with induction of apoptosis. These results suggest that carbon-ion beam therapy is a promising modality. Elucidation of the mechanisms of G2/M arrest and apoptosis may provide clues to enhancing the effects of radiation on pancreatic cancer.

  10. Status of the PXIE Low Energy Beam Transport Line

    SciTech Connect

    Prost, Lionel; Andrews, Richard; Chen, Alex; Hanna, Bruce; Scarpine, Victor; Shemyakin, Alexander; Steimel, Jim; D'Arcy, Richard

    2014-07-01

    A CW-compatible, pulsed H- superconducting RF linac (a.k.a. PIP-II) is envisaged as a possible path for upgrading Fermilab’s injection complex [1]. To validate the concept of the front-end of such machine, a test accelerator (a.k.a. PXIE) [2] is under construction. The warm part of this accelerator comprises a 10 mA DC, 30 keV H- ion source, a 2m-long LEBT, a 2.1 MeV CW RFQ, and a MEBT that feeds the first cryomodule. In addition to operating in the nominal CW mode, the LEBT should be able to produce a pulsed beam for both PXIE commissioning and modelling of the front-end nominal operation in the pulsed mode. Concurrently, it needs to provide effective means of inhibiting beam as part of the overall machine protection system. A peculiar feature of the present LEBT design is the capability of using the ~1m-long section immediately preceding the RFQ in two regimes of beam transport dynamics: neutralized and space charge dominated. This paper introduces the PXIE LEBT, reports on the status of the ion source and LEBT installation, and presents the first beam measurements.

  11. Image quality improvement in megavoltage cone beam CT using an imaging beam line and a sintered pixelated array system

    SciTech Connect

    Breitbach, Elizabeth K.; Maltz, Jonathan S.; Gangadharan, Bijumon; Bani-Hashemi, Ali; Anderson, Carryn M.; Bhatia, Sudershan K.; Stiles, Jared; Edwards, Drake S.; Flynn, Ryan T.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To quantify the improvement in megavoltage cone beam computed tomography (MVCBCT) image quality enabled by the combination of a 4.2 MV imaging beam line (IBL) with a carbon electron target and a detector system equipped with a novel sintered pixelated array (SPA) of translucent Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S ceramic scintillator. Clinical MVCBCT images are traditionally acquired with the same 6 MV treatment beam line (TBL) that is used for cancer treatment, a standard amorphous Si (a-Si) flat panel imager, and the Kodak Lanex Fast-B (LFB) scintillator. The IBL produces a greater fluence of keV-range photons than the TBL, to which the detector response is more optimal, and the SPA is a more efficient scintillator than the LFB. Methods: A prototype IBL + SPA system was installed on a Siemens Oncor linear accelerator equipped with the MVision{sup TM} image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) system. A SPA strip consisting of four neighboring tiles and measuring 40 cm by 10.96 cm in the crossplane and inplane directions, respectively, was installed in the flat panel imager. Head- and pelvis-sized phantom images were acquired at doses ranging from 3 to 60 cGy with three MVCBCT configurations: TBL + LFB, IBL + LFB, and IBL + SPA. Phantom image quality at each dose was quantified using the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and modulation transfer function (MTF) metrics. Head and neck, thoracic, and pelvic (prostate) cancer patients were imaged with the three imaging system configurations at multiple doses ranging from 3 to 15 cGy. The systems were assessed qualitatively from the patient image data. Results: For head and neck and pelvis-sized phantom images, imaging doses of 3 cGy or greater, and relative electron densities of 1.09 and 1.48, the CNR average improvement factors for imaging system change of TBL + LFB to IBL + LFB, IBL + LFB to IBL + SPA, and TBL + LFB to IBL + SPA were 1.63 (p < 10{sup -8}), 1.64 (p < 10{sup -13}), 2.66 (p < 10{sup -9}), respectively. For all imaging

  12. Status of the ELIMED multidisciplinary and medical beam-line at ELI-Beamlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, F.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V.; Amico, A.; Candiano, G.; Giordanengo, S.; Guarachi, L. F.; Korn, G.; Larosa, G.; Leanza, R.; Manna, R.; Marchese, V.; Marchetto, F.; Margarone, D.; Milluzzo, G.; Petringa, G.; Pipek, J.; Sacchi, R.; Vignati, A.

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, one of the biggest challenges consists in using high intensity laser-target interaction to generate high-energy ions for medical purposes, eventually replacing the old paradigm of acceleration characterized by huge and complex machines. In order to investigate the feasibility of using laser-driven ion beams for multidisciplinary application, a dedicated beam transport line will be installed at the ELI-Beamlines facility in Prague (CZ), as a part of the User-oriented ELIMAIA beam-line dedicated to ion acceleration and their potential applications. The beam-line section dedicated to transport and dosimetric endpoints is called ELIMED (ELI-Beamlines MEDical and multidisciplinary applications) and will be developed by the INFN-LNS.

  13. Examination of the CLIC drive beam pipe design for thermal distortion caused by distributed beam line

    SciTech Connect

    C. Johnson; K. Kloeppel

    1997-01-01

    Beam transport programs are widely used to estimate the distribution of power deposited in accelerator structures by particle beams, either intentionally as for targets or beam dumps or accidentally owing the beam loss incidents. While this is usually adequate for considerations of radiation safety, it does not reveal the expected temperature rise and its effect on structural integrity. To find this, thermal diffusion must be taken into account, requiring another step in the analysis. The method that has been proposed is to use the output of a transport program, perhaps modified, as input for a finite element analysis program that can solve the thermal diffusion equation. At Cern, the design of the CLIC beam pipe has been treated in this fashion. The power distribution produced in the walls by a distributed beam loss was found according to the widely-used electron shower code EGS4. The distribution of power density was then used to form the input for the finite element analysis pro gram ANSYS, which was able to find the expected temperature rise and the resulting thermal distortion. As a result of these studies, the beam pipe design can be modified to include features that will counteract such distortion.

  14. Defocusing beam line design for an irradiation facility at the TAEA SANAEM Proton Accelerator Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gencer, A.; Demirköz, B.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Yiğitoğlu, M.

    2016-07-01

    Electronic components must be tested to ensure reliable performance in high radiation environments such as Hi-Limu LHC and space. We propose a defocusing beam line to perform proton irradiation tests in Turkey. The Turkish Atomic Energy Authority SANAEM Proton Accelerator Facility was inaugurated in May 2012 for radioisotope production. The facility has also an R&D room for research purposes. The accelerator produces protons with 30 MeV kinetic energy and the beam current is variable between 10 μA and 1.2 mA. The beam kinetic energy is suitable for irradiation tests, however the beam current is high and therefore the flux must be lowered. We plan to build a defocusing beam line (DBL) in order to enlarge the beam size, reduce the flux to match the required specifications for the irradiation tests. Current design includes the beam transport and the final focusing magnets to blow up the beam. Scattering foils and a collimator is placed for the reduction of the beam flux. The DBL is designed to provide fluxes between 107 p /cm2 / s and 109 p /cm2 / s for performing irradiation tests in an area of 15.4 cm × 21.5 cm. The facility will be the first irradiation facility of its kind in Turkey.

  15. Beam Line and Associated Work: Operational Phase 1985-1987

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-26

    ENEA FEL experiment. F. Cicci, E. Fiorentino. A. Ranieri, E. Sabie. Centro Ricerche Energia Frascati (Italy?. ....................... 169 582.25...C) knife-edge pinhole bracket (cf. Fig. 14); (D) beam stop; (E) calorimeter with an attached Si solar cell detector; (F) paddle with tilted platforms...used for T real-time signal pickup behind the slit was a standard Si solar cell, epoxied to the calorimeter case (detail . in Fig. 5). The experimental

  16. Further Analysis of Real Beam Line Optics From A Synthetic Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan Bodenstein, Michael Tiefenback, Yves Roblin

    2012-07-01

    Standard closed-orbit techniques for Twiss parameter measurement are not applicable to the open-ended Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at Jefferson Lab. The evolution of selected sets of real orbits in the accelerator models the behavior of a 'synthetic' beam. This process will be validated against beam profile-based Twiss parameter measurements and should provide the distributed optical information needed to optimize beamline tuning for an open-ended system. This work will discuss the current and future states of this technique, as well as an example of its use in the CEBAF machine.

  17. Extension of service life of rigid transfer lines /SMDC/. [explosive components for aircraft escape systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.; Kayser, E. G.; Schimmel, M. L.

    1982-01-01

    The results of a life evaluation program on rigid explosive transfer lines, which are used to initiate aircraft emergency crew escape functions, are presented in order to provide quantitative information on rigid explosive transfer lines which can contribute to responsible, conservative, service life determinations. The program involved the development of a test methodology, testing of the three types of transfer lines in use in the U.S., testing of these lines following a repeat of the thermal test conducted in the original qualification, and conducting a degradation investigation. Results from the testing of more than 800 components showed that rigid explosive transfer lines were not affected by age, service, or a repeat of the thermal qualification tests on full-service lines. The explosive degradation limits were approximated and the mechanisms examined. It is concluded that the service lives of rigid explosive transfer lines should be considered for extension in order to provide cost savings and increased system reliability.

  18. Determining the wavelength spectrum of neutrons on the NG6 beam line at NCNR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Juliet

    2016-09-01

    Historically, in-beam experiments and bottle experiments have been performed to determine the lifetime of a free neutron. However, these two different experimental techniques have provided conflicting results. It is crucial to precisely and accurately elucidate the neutron lifetime for Big Bang Nucleosynthesis calculations and to investigate physics beyond the Standard Model. Therefore, we aimed to understand and minimize systematic errors present in the neutron beam experiment at the NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCNR). In order to reduce the uncertainty related to wavelength dependent corrections present in previous beam experiments, the wavelength spectrum of the NCNR reactor cold neutron beam must be known. We utilized a beam chopper and lithium detector to characterize the wavelength spectrum on the NG6 beam line at the NCNR. The experimental design and techniques employed will be discussed, and our results will be presented. Future plans to utilize our findings to improve the neutron lifetime measurement at NCNR will also be described.

  19. Single step high-speed printing of continuous silver lines by laser-induced forward transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puerto, D.; Biver, E.; Alloncle, A.-P.; Delaporte, Ph.

    2016-06-01

    The development of high-speed ink printing process by Laser-Induced Forward Transfer (LIFT) is of great interest for the printing community. To address the problems and the limitations of this process that have been previously identified, we have performed an experimental study on laser micro-printing of silver nanoparticle inks by LIFT and demonstrated for the first time the printing of continuous conductive lines in a single pass at velocities of 17 m/s using a 1 MHz repetition rate laser. We investigated the printing process by means of a time-resolved imaging technique to visualize the ejection dynamics of single and adjacent jets. The control of the donor film properties is of prime importance to achieve single step printing of continuous lines at high velocities. We use a 30 ps pulse duration laser with a wavelength of 343 nm and a repetition rate from 0.2 to 1 MHz. A galvanometric mirror head controls the distance between two consecutives jets by scanning the focused beam along an ink-coated donor substrate at different velocities. Droplets and lines of silver inks are laser-printed on glass and PET flexible substrates and we characterized their morphological quality by atomic force microscope (AFM) and optical microscope.

  20. Evaluation of Hose in Hose Transfer Line Service Life for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program

    SciTech Connect

    TORRES, T.D.

    2000-08-24

    RPP-6153, Engineering Task Plan for Hose-in-Hose Transfer System for the Interim Stabilization Program, defines the programmatic goals, functional requirements, and technical criteria for the development and subsequent installation of transfer line equipment to support Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program. RPP-6028, Specification for Hose in Hose Transfer Lines for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program, has been issued to define the specific requirements for the design, manufacture, and verification of transfer line assemblies for specific waste transfer applications. Included in RPP-6028 are tables defining the chemical constituents of concern to which transfer lines will be exposed. Current Interim Stabilization Program planning forecasts that the at-grade transfer lines will be required to convey pumpable waste for as much as three years after commissioning. Prudent engineering dictates that the equipment placed in service have a working life in excess of this forecasted time period, with some margin to allow for future adjustments to the planned schedule. This document evaluates the effective service life of the Hose-in-Hose Transfer Lines, based on information submitted by the manufacturer and published literature. The effective service life of transfer line assemblies is a function of several factors. Foremost among these are process fluid characteristics, ambient environmental conditions, and the manufacturer's stated shelf life. This evaluation examines the manufacturer's certification of shelf life, the manufacturer's certifications of chemical compatibility with waste, and published literature on the effects of exposure to ionizing radiation on the mechanical properties of elastomeric materials to evaluate transfer line service life.

  1. ALARA Review of the Spallation Neutron Source Accumulator Ring and Transfer Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Haire, M.J.

    2003-06-30

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is designed to meet the growing need for new tools that will deepen our understanding in materials science, life science, chemistry, fundamental and nuclear physics, earth and environmental sciences, and engineering sciences. The SNS is an accelerator-based neutron-scattering facility that when operational will produce an average beam power of 2 MW at a repetition rate of 60 Hz. The accelerator complex consists of the front-end systems, which will include an ion source; a 1-GeV full-energy linear accelerator; a single accumulator ring and its transfer lines; and a liquid mercury target. This report documents an as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) review of the accumulator ring and transfer lines at their early design stage. An ALARA working group was formed and conducted a review of the SNS ring and transfer lines at the {approx}25% complete design stage to help ensure that ALARA principles are being incorporated into the design. The radiological aspects of the SNS design criteria were reviewed against regulatory requirements and ALARA principles. Proposed features and measures were then reviewed against the SNS design criteria. As part of the overall review, the working group reviewed the design manual; design drawings and process and instrumentation diagrams; the environment, safety, and health manual; and other related reports and literature. The group also talked with SNS design engineers to obtain explanations of pertinent subject matter. The ALARA group found that ALARA principles are indeed being incorporated into the early design stage. Radiation fields have been characterized, and shielding calculations have been performed. Radiological issues are being adequately addressed with regard to equipment selection, access control, confinement structure and ventilation, and contamination control. Radiation monitoring instrumentation for worker and environment protection are also being considered--a good practice at this

  2. Satellite lines at the ionization threshold in charge transfer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardermann, W.; von Niessen, W.

    1992-01-01

    This article deals with the possibility of low-energy ionizations of reduced intensity for larger organic molecules. Possible mechanisms which may lead to this phenomenon are outlined and the necessary structural features are discussed. The lowest ionization energies of some organic unsaturated nitro and nitroso compounds are calculated by the ADC(3) ab initio many-body Green's function method. The π-electron system consists either of fused five- and six-membered rings or of two fused five-membered rings with a variable number of heteroatoms. Some of the molecules contain exocylic double bonds and some are substituted with the donor groups -NH 2, -OH and -NHOH. The strongest many-body effects are found for the nitroso compounds, where in one case the spectral line at the ionization threshold has lost more than 40% of its intensity to satellites. We study the many-body effects at or close to the ionization threshold for these compounds. A particular mechanism which involves the screening of localized valence holes by charge transfer excitations appears to be capable of influencing the profile and intensities of the ionization spectrum already at the ionization threshold. The effect leads to strongly reduced relative intensities of the bands and may cause the appearance of satellite bands nearly at the ionization threshold. The spectral changes in the outermost valence region are discussed by using a simple model calculation in terms of ground-state electronic properties of the molecules.

  3. Modeling of Chill Down in Cryogenic Transfer Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, Matthew F.; Majumdar, Alok K.; Bennett, John C., Jr.; Malla, Ramesh B.; Rodriquez, Pete (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A numerical model to predict chill down in cryogenic transfer lines has been developed. Three chill down cases using hydrogen as the working fluid are solved: 1) a simplified model amenable to analytical solution, 2) a realistic model of superheated vapor flow, and 3) a realistic model of initially subcooled liquid flow. The first case compares a numerical model with an analytical solution with very good agreement between the two. Additionally, the analytical solution provides a convenient way to look at parametric effects on the chill down. The second and third cases are numerical models which provide temperature histories of the fluid and solid tube wall during chill down as well as several other quantities of interest such as pressure and mass flow rate. Of great interest is the ability to predict accurate values of chill down time (the time required to achieve steady-state cryogenic flow). The models predict that a 26 in. long, 3/16 in. ID aluminum tube has a shorter chill down time (approx. equal to 100 sec) and uses less hydrogen with superheated vapor flow than with initially subcooled liquid flow (greater than 200 sec for chill down).

  4. Production of drip-line nuclei at RIKEN RI Beam Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Atsumi

    2014-09-01

    Production cross-sections and secondary-beam yields of very neutron rich nuclei near neutron drip-line at 200--250 MeV/u have been investigated at RIKEN RI Beam Factory (RIBF). RIBF is the next generation RI beam facility, which can produce a variety of exotic nuclei with high intensity. The measurement of production yields of 19B, 22C, which are located on the neutron drip-line, and neighboring isotopes was made on the occasion of the Coulomb and nuclear breakup experiments of these halo nuclei at SAMURAI (Superconducting Analyzer for MUlti-particle from RAdioIsotope beams) facility at RIBF. We used 345 MeV/u 48Ca beam as primary beam, which impinged on 30 mm-thick Be target, to obtain secondary beams by projectile fragmentation. The projectile fragments were then separated through Superconducting RI beam separator BigRIPS, and were identified by measuring time of flight (TOF), energy loss (ΔE), and magnetic rigidity (Bρ) by the standard detectors at 2nd stage of BigRIPS. We thus obtained production cross-sections and yields of carbon and boron isotopes. The production cross-sections and yields extracted were compared with the simulation code LISE using EPAX. We discuss these results and comparisons in this poster presentation.

  5. A new antiproton beam transfer scheme without coalescing

    SciTech Connect

    Weiren Chou et al.

    2003-06-04

    An effective way to increase the luminosity in the Fermilab Tevatron collider program Run2 is to improve the overall antiproton transfer efficiency. During antiproton coalescing in the Main Injector (MI), about 10-15% particles get lost. This loss could be avoided in a new antiproton transfer scheme that removes coalescing from the process. Moreover, this scheme would also eliminate emittance dilution due to coalescing. This scheme uses a 2.5 MHz RF system to transfer antiprotons from the Accumulator to the Main Injector. It is then followed by a bunch rotation in the MI to shorten the bunch length so that it can be captured by a 53 MHz RF bucket. Calculations and ESME simulations show that this scheme works. No new hardware is needed to implement this scheme.

  6. Cross-beam energy transfer to a single f-20 beam: simulations of previous and upcoming experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Thomas; Turnbull, David; Kirkwood, Robert; Michel, Pierre; Wilks, Scott; Berger, Richard; Hinkel, Denise; Moody, John; Langer, Steve; Langdon, Bruce; Strozzi, David

    2016-10-01

    Motivated by materials research applications, cross-beam energy transfer can be used to transfer energy from one or more quads of beamlets at the NIF, which have an effective f-number of 8, to a single f-20 beam. Using plasma comprised of a preheated C5H12 gasbag, a preliminary experiment at the NIF demonstrated amplification of a 750 J f-20 beam by a factor of 2 in both power and energy. A witness plate providing gated x-ray images was used to obtain total energies and transmitted spot intensities for the pump quad, seed beamlet, and a calibration quad. These experimental diagnostics offer the opportunity to perform quantitative comparisons with simulations. We use the laser-plasma interaction code pF3D to simulate the energy transfer process, using plasma conditions obtained from the plasma hydrodynamics code HYDRA. Our simulations of the completed single-pump quad experiment recover the measured seed amplification and transmitted spot power distributions. We also show simulation results for the upcoming two-pump quad experiment.

  7. LIFE ESTIMATION OF TRANSFER LINES FOR TANK FARM CLOSURE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, K

    2007-10-01

    A performance assessment is being performed in support of closure of the F-Tank Farm. The performance assessment includes the life estimation of the transfer lines that are used to transport waste between tanks both within a facility (''intra-area'' transfer) and to other facilities (''inter-area'' transfers). The transfer line materials of construction will initially provide a barrier to contaminant escape. However, the materials will degrade over time, most likely due to corrosion, and will no longer provide a barrier to contaminant escape. The life estimation considered the corrosion of the core pipe under exposure to soil, estimated the thickness loss due to general corrosion, and the percentage of wall area breached due to localized corrosion mechanisms. There are three types of transfer lines that are to be addressed within the performance assessment: Type I, Type II/IIA and Type III. The life of the transfer lines were estimated as exposed to soil. Localized and general corrosion of the transfer lines exposed to soil was estimated to provide input to the fate and transport modeling of the performance assessment. Pitting corrosion was found to be the controlling mechanism for the degradation of the transfer lines and their consequent ability to maintain confinement of contaminants. It is assumed that 75% of the transfer line is needed intact to provide this confinement function, i.e. once 25% of the line wall is breached, the lines are considered incapable of confining contaminants. It is recommended that the percentage breached curves be utilized for each transfer line as shown in Figure 1 for the various stainless steel transfer lines.

  8. Pulse-by-pulse multi-beam-line operation for x-ray free-electron lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, Toru; Fukami, Kenji; Inagaki, Takahiro; Kawaguchi, Hideaki; Kinjo, Ryota; Kondo, Chikara; Otake, Yuji; Tajiri, Yasuyuki; Takebe, Hideki; Togawa, Kazuaki; Yoshino, Tatsuya; Tanaka, Hitoshi; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2016-02-01

    The parallel operation of plural undulator beam lines is an important means of improving the efficiency and usability of x-ray free-electron laser facilities. After the installation of a second undulator beam line (BL2) at SPring-8 Angstrom compact free-electron laser (SACLA), pulse-by-pulse switching between two beam lines was tested using kicker and dc twin-septum magnets. To maintain a compact size, all undulator beam lines at SACLA are designed to be placed within the same undulator hall located downstream of the accelerator. In order to ensure broad tunability of the laser wavelength, the electron bunches are accelerated to different beam energies optimized for the wavelengths of each beam line. In the demonstration, the 30 Hz electron beam was alternately deflected to two beam lines and simultaneous lasing was achieved with 15 Hz at each beam line. Since the electron beam was deflected twice by 3° in a dogleg to BL2, the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) effects became non-negligible. Currently in a wavelength range of 4-10 keV, a laser pulse energy of 100 - 150 μ J can be obtained with a reduced peak current of around 1 kA by alleviating the CSR effects. This paper reports the results and operational issues related to the multi-beam-line operation of SACLA.

  9. Ionisation Chambers and Secondary Emission Monitors at the PROSCAN Beam Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dölling, Rudolf

    2006-11-01

    PROSCAN, the dedicated new medical facility at PSI using proton beams for the treatment of deep seated tumours and eye melanoma, is now in the commissioning phase. Air filled ionisation chambers in several configurations are used as current monitors, profile monitors, halo, position and loss monitors at the PROSCAN beam lines. Similar monitors based on secondary emission are used for profile and current measurements in the regime where saturation deteriorates the accuracy of the ionisation chambers.

  10. The Gas Flow from the Gas Attenuator to the Beam Line

    SciTech Connect

    Ryutov, D.D.

    2010-12-03

    The gas leak from the gas attenuator to the main beam line of the Linac Coherent Light Source has been evaluated, with the effect of the Knudsen molecular beam included. It has been found that the gas leak from the gas attenuator of the present design, with nitrogen as a working gas, does not exceed 10{sup -5} torr x l/s even at the highest pressure in the main attenuation cell (20 torr).

  11. Modulation transfer function determination using the edge technique for cone-beam micro-CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Junyan; Liu, Wenlei; Gao, Peng; Liao, Qimei; Lu, Hongbing

    2016-03-01

    Evaluating spatial resolution is an essential work for cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) manufacturers, prototype designers or equipment users. To investigate the cross-sectional spatial resolution for different transaxial slices with CBCT, the slanted edge technique with a 3D slanted edge phantom are proposed and implemented on a prototype cone-beam micro-CT. Three transaxial slices with different cone angles are under investigation. An over-sampled edge response function (ERF) is firstly generated from the intensity of the slightly tiled air to plastic edge in each row of the transaxial reconstruction image. Then the oversampled ESF is binned and smoothed. The derivative of the binned and smoothed ERF gives the line spread function (LSF). At last the presampled modulation transfer function (MTF) is calculated by taking the modulus of the Fourier transform of the LSF. The spatial resolution is quantified with the spatial frequencies at 10% MTF level and full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) value. The spatial frequencies at 10% of MTFs are 3.1+/-0.08mm-1, 3.0+/-0.05mm-1, and 3.2+/-0.04mm-1 for the three transaxial slices at cone angles of 3.8°, 0°, and -3.8° respectively. The corresponding FWHMs are 252.8μm, 261.7μm and 253.6μm. Results indicate that cross-sectional spatial resolution has no much differences when transaxial slices being 3.8° away from z=0 plane for the prototype conebeam micro-CT.

  12. A telescope proton recoil spectrometer for fast neutron beam-lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazzaniga, C.; Rebai, M.; Tardocchi, M.; Croci, G.; Nocente, M.; Ansell, S.; Frost, C. D.; Gorini, G.

    2015-07-01

    Fast neutron measurements were performed on the VESUVIO beam-line at the ISIS spallation source using a new telescope proton recoil spectrometer. Neutrons interact on a plastic target. Proton production is mainly due to elastic scattering on hydrogen nuclei and secondly due to interaction with carbon nuclei. Recoil protons are measured by a proton spectrometer, which uses in coincidence a 2.54 cm thick YAP scintillator and a 500μm thick silicon detector, measuring the full proton recoil energy and the partial deposited energy in transmission, respectively. Recoil proton spectroscopy measurements (up to Ep = 60MeV) have been interpreted by using Monte Carlo simulations of the beam-line. This instrument is of particular interest for the characterization of the ChipIr beam-line at ISIS, which was designed to feature an atmospheric-like neutron spectrum for the irradiation of micro-electronics.

  13. 1 to 2 GeV/c beam line for hypernuclear and kaon research

    SciTech Connect

    Chrien, R.E.

    1985-02-15

    A kaon beam line operating in the range from 1.0 to 2.0 GeV/c is proposed. The line is meant for kaon and pion research in a region hitherto inaccessible to experimenters. Topics in hypernuclear and kaon physics of high current interest include the investigation of doubly strange nuclear systems with the K/sup -/,K/sup +/ reaction, searching for dibaryon resonances, hyperon-nucleon interactions, hypernuclear ..gamma.. rays, and associated production of excited hypernuclei. The beam line would provide separated beams of momentum analyzed kaons at intensities greater than 10/sup 6/ particles per spill with a momentum determined to one part in a thousand. This intensity is an order of magnitude greater than that currently available. 63 references.

  14. The instrumentation of X-ray beam lines with PIN diode detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jach, Terrence

    1990-12-01

    Much of the X-ray work on synchrotron-radiation beam lines is still done using ion chambers as detectors. Silicon PIN photodiodes offer considerable advantages over ion chambers for many applications. In addition to greater efficiency over a wide energy range (1-20 keV), they possess a flat configuration, large areas, an absence of bias requirements, high dynamic range, and compatability with ultrahigh vacuum. We have characterized the properties of several commercial PIN photodiodes at X-ray energies, have had diodes commercially produced which were specialized for use in synchrotron beam lines, and have produced new photodiode devices for synchrotron-radiation applications. We review the performance of these devices over extended periods of time in beam-line control and as detectors in experiments.

  15. Light-sheet microscopy by confocal line scanning of dual-Bessel beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Pengfei; Phipps, Mary E.; Goodwin, Peter M.; Werner, James H.

    2016-10-01

    We have developed a light-sheet microscope that uses confocal scanning of dual-Bessel beams for illumination. A digital micromirror device (DMD) is placed in the intermediate image plane of the objective used to collect fluorescence and is programmed with two lines of pixels in the "on" state such that the DMD functions as a spatial filter to reject the out-of-focus background generated by the side-lobes of the Bessel beams. The optical sectioning and out-of-focus background rejection capabilities of this microscope were demonstrated by imaging of fluorescently stained actin in human A431 cells. The dual-Bessel beam system enables twice as many photons to be detected per imaging scan, which is useful for low light applications (e.g., single-molecule localization) or imaging at high speed with a superior signal to noise. While demonstrated for two Bessel beams, this approach is scalable to a larger number of beams.

  16. Space-to-Space Power Beaming Enabling High Performance Rapid Geocentric Orbit Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dankanich, John W.; Vassallo, Corinne; Tadge, Megan

    2015-01-01

    The use of electric propulsion is more prevalent than ever, with industry pursuing all electric orbit transfers. Electric propulsion provides high mass utilization through efficient propellant transfer. However, the transfer times become detrimental as the delta V transitions from near-impulsive to low-thrust. Increasing power and therefore thrust has diminishing returns as the increasing mass of the power system limits the potential acceleration of the spacecraft. By using space-to-space power beaming, the power system can be decoupled from the spacecraft and allow significantly higher spacecraft alpha (W/kg) and therefore enable significantly higher accelerations while maintaining high performance. This project assesses the efficacy of space-to-space power beaming to enable rapid orbit transfer while maintaining high mass utilization. Concept assessment requires integrated techniques for low-thrust orbit transfer steering laws, efficient large-scale rectenna systems, and satellite constellation configuration optimization. This project includes the development of an integrated tool with implementation of IPOPT, Q-Law, and power-beaming models. The results highlight the viability of the concept, limits and paths to infusion, and comparison to state-of-the-art capabilities. The results indicate the viability of power beaming for what may be the only approach for achieving the desired transit times with high specific impulse.

  17. Lessons from shielding retrofits at the LAMPF/LANSCE/PSR accelerator, beam lines and target facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Macek, R.J.

    1994-07-01

    The experience in the past 7 years to improve the shielding and radiation control systems at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) and the Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE) provides important lessons for the design of radiation control systems at future, high beam power proton accelerator facilities. Major issues confronted and insight gained in developing shielding criteria and in the use of radiation interlocks are discussed. For accelerators and beam lines requiring hands-on-maintenance, our experience suggests that shielding criteria based on accident scenarios will be more demanding than criteria based on routinely encountered beam losses. Specification and analysis of the appropriate design basis accident become all important. Mitigation by active protection systems of the consequences of potential, but severe, prompt radiation accidents has been advocated as an alternate choice to shielding retrofits for risk management at both facilities. Acceptance of active protection systems has proven elusive primarily because of the difficulty in providing convincing proof that failure of active systems (to mitigate the accident) is incredible. Results from extensive shielding assessment studies are presented including data from experimental beam spill tests, comparisons with model estimates, and evidence bearing on the limitations of line-of-sight attenuation models in complex geometries. The scope and significant characteristics of major shielding retrofit projects at the LAMPF site are illustrated by the project to improve the shielding beneath a road over a multiuse, high-intensity beam line (Line D).

  18. Optical design and performance of the X25 hybrid wiggler beam line at the NSLS

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, L.E.; Hastings, J.B.; Oversluizen, T.; Woodle, M.

    1991-01-01

    The X25 beam line at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) began full-power commissioning in 1990. It extracts radiation from a 27 pole hybrid wiggler, which produces up to 1.8 kW of total power with a peak horizontal density of 450 W/mrad and critical energy of 4.6 keV. The design and performance of the beam line optics are described, in particular the cooling of the first monochromator crystal. 28 refs., 5 figs.

  19. One-dimensional reflective diffuser for line beam shaper with microlens array homogenizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, Yung-Neng; Wu, Hau-Ping; Chen, Cheng-Huan; Lin, Yu-Chung; Lee, Min-Kai; Liu, Sung-Ho

    2014-09-01

    A laser beam shaping architecture based on a microlens array homogenizer has been exploited, in which the interference effect due to the coherency of the laser source deteriorates the uniformity. Moving diffusers have been considered as an effective way of averaging out the interference pattern. Because the uniformity is required in the line direction only, a one-dimensional reflective-type diffuser with a well-controlled diffusion angle has been proposed and prototyped. The diffuser is attached onto a rotating cylinder for movement in operation. The experiment demonstrates the effectiveness of the scheme, and a line beam with a uniformity of up to 92% has been achieved.

  20. Remote Electric Power Transfer Between Spacecrafts by Infrared Beamed Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chertok, Boris E.; Evdokimov, Roman A.; Legostaev, Victor P.; Lopota, Vitaliy A.; Sokolov, Boris A.; Tugaenko, Vjacheslav Yu.

    2011-11-01

    High efficient wireless electric energy transmission (WET) technology between spacecrafts by laser channel is proposed. WET systems could be used for remote power supplying of different consumers in space. First of all, there are autonomous technology modules for microgravity experiments, micro and nano satellites, different equipment for explorations of planetary surfaces, space transport vehicles with electric rocket propulsion systems. The main components of the WET technology consist of radiation sources on the base of semiconductor IR laser diodes; systems for narrow laser beam creation; special photovoltaic receivers for conversion of monochromatic IR radiation with high energy density to electric power. The multistage space experiment for WET technology testing is described. During this experiment energy will be transmitted from International Space Station to another spacecrafts like cargo transport vehicles (Progress or/and ATV) and micro satellites.

  1. Conjugate Heat Transfer and Thermal Mechanical Analysis for Liquid Metal Targets for High Power Electron Beams.

    SciTech Connect

    Olivas, Eric Richard

    2016-02-26

    A conjugate heat transfer and thermal structural analysis was completed, with the objective of determining the following: Lead bismuth eutectic (LBE) peak temperature, free convective velocity patterns in the LBE, peak beam window temperature, and thermal stress/deformation in the window.

  2. Comparing Ray-Based and Wave-Based Models of Cross-Beam Energy Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Follett, R. K.; Edgell, D. H.; Shaw, J. G.; Froula, D. H.; Myatt, J. F.

    2016-10-01

    Ray-based models of cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) are used in radiation-hydrodynamics codes to calculate laser-energy deposition. The accuracy of ray-based CBET models is limited by assumptions about the polarization and phase of the interacting laser beams and by the use of a paraxial Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) approximation. A 3-D wave-based solver (LPSE-CBET) is used to study the nonlinear interaction between overlapping laser beams in underdense plasma. A ray-based CBET model is compared to the wave-based model and shows good agreement in simple geometries where the assumptions of the ray-based model are satisfied. Near caustic surfaces, the assumptions of the ray-based model break down and the calculated energy transfer deviates from wave-based calculations. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  3. In-line e-beam inspection with optimized sampling and newly developed ADC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikota, Masami; Miura, Akihiro; Fukunishi, Munenori; Hiroi, Takashi; Sugimoto, Aritoshi

    2003-07-01

    An electron beam inspection is strongly required for HARI to detect contact and via defects that an optical inspection cannot detect. Conventionally, an e-beam inspection system is used as an analytical tool for checking the process margin. Due to its low throughput speed, it has not been used for in-line QC. Therefore, we optimized the inspection area and developed a new auto defect classification (ADC) to use with e-beam inspection as an in-line inspection tool. A 10% interval scan sampling proved able to estimate defect densities. Inspection could be completed within 1 hour. We specifically adapted the developed ADC for use with e-beam inspection because the voltage contrast images were not sufficiently clear so that classifications could not be made with conventional ADC based on defect geometry. The new ADC used the off-pattern area of the defect to discriminate particles from other voltage contrast defects with an accuracy of greater than 90%. Using sampling optimization and the new ADC, we achieved inspection and auto defect review with throughput of less than 1 and one-half hours. We implemented the system as a procedure for product defect QC and proved its effectiveness for in-line e-beam inspection.

  4. Validation of Monte-Carlo simulations with measurements at the ICON beam-line at SINQ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giller, L.; Filges, U.; Kühne, G.; Wohlmuther, M.; Zanini, L.

    2008-02-01

    ICON is the new cold neutron imaging facility at the neutron spallation source SINQ. The ICON facility is placed at beam-line S52 with direct view to the cold liquid D 2 moderator. The beam-line includes a 4.4 m long collimation section followed by a 11 m long flight path to the imaging system. The essential part of the collimation section is composed of six revolving drums and a variable aperture wheel. Depending on the investigated object, different apertures are used. Measurements have shown that each setup has a different spatial neutron flux distribution and specific beam profiles. Measured beam profiles have been used to validate results of simulations coupling the Monte-Carlo program MCNPX with the neutron ray-tracing program McStas. In a first step, MCNPX was used to calculate neutron spectra closed to the SINQ target, at the entrance of the collimation section. These results served as an input for McStas where the beam-line itself was simulated. In the present paper, experimental and theoretical results will be compared and discussed.

  5. Delayed and In-beam Spectroscopy on Francium and Astatine Nuclei at the Proton Drip Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uusitalo, J.; Jakobsson, U.

    2011-11-01

    Delayed and in-beam spectroscopy on francium and astatine nuclei at and beyond the proton drip line has been performed. In neutron deficient astatine nuclei a shift to deformed shapes as a function of decreasing neutron has been obtained. In neutron deficient francium isotope the same shift is evident.

  6. Delayed and In-beam Spectroscopy on Francium and Astatine Nuclei at the Proton Drip Line

    SciTech Connect

    Uusitalo, J.; Jakobsson, U.; Collaboration: RITU-Gamma Gollaboration

    2011-11-30

    Delayed and in-beam spectroscopy on francium and astatine nuclei at and beyond the proton drip line has been performed. In neutron deficient astatine nuclei a shift to deformed shapes as a function of decreasing neutron has been obtained. In neutron deficient francium isotope the same shift is evident.

  7. In situ baking method for degassing of a kicker magnet in accelerator beam line

    SciTech Connect

    Kamiya, Junichiro Ogiwara, Norio; Yanagibashi, Toru; Kinsho, Michikazu; Yasuda, Yuichi

    2016-03-15

    In this study, the authors propose a new in situ degassing method by which only kicker magnets in the accelerator beam line are baked out without raising the temperature of the vacuum chamber to prevent unwanted thermal expansion of the chamber. By simply installing the heater and thermal radiation shield plates between the kicker magnet and the chamber wall, most of the heat flux from the heater directs toward the kicker magnet. The result of the verification test showed that each part of the kicker magnet was heated to above the target temperature with a small rise in the vacuum chamber temperature. A graphite heater was selected in this application to bake-out the kicker magnet in the beam line to ensure reliability and easy maintainability of the heater. The vacuum characteristics of graphite were suitable for heater operation in the beam line. A preliminary heat-up test conducted in the accelerator beam line also showed that each part of the kicker magnet was successfully heated and that thermal expansion of the chamber was negligibly small.

  8. Design of the e-beam transport line for the AFEL

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, T.F.; Chan, K.C.D.; Sheffield, R.L.; Wilson, W.L.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Free-Electron Laser (AFEL) currently construction at Los Alamos National Laboratory is a compact high-performance free- electron laser (FE). The design of the AFEL integrates our most advanced accelerator and wiggler components. The 1.2-m-long accelerator produces a high-brightness electron-beam (e-beam) of 200- to 300-A peak current with an energy of 20 MeV. The beamline incorporates variable permanent-magnet quadrupoles and dipoles for electron beam transport. The AFEL will ultimately use 10- to 20-cm-long slotted-tube pulsed microwigglers having a period of 3-mm to 1-cm. In this paper, we shall present the design of the e-beam transport line and discuss the various design considerations involved. 7 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Characterization of the laser cleaving on glass sheets with a line-shape laser beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu-Zan; Lin, Jehnming

    2007-07-01

    A CO 2 laser with a line-shape beam was used to cleave a soda-lime glass substrate at various beam-rotation angles to the cutting direction. The stress distribution on the glass substrate cleaved by the laser beam has been analyzed in this study. An uncoupled thermal-elastic analysis was achieved by the ABAQUS software based on the finite element method. The numerical results show that the stress field of the fracture is caused by a complex stress state and the cleavages are significantly affected by the heat diffusion and beam rotation angle. At the rotation angle of zero degree to the cleaving direction, the phenomena of the chip formation have been found due to a large temperature gradient at the cleaving depth of the glass substrate.

  10. Design of a large acceptance, high efficiency energy selection system for the ELIMAIA beam-line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillaci, F.; Maggiore, M.; Andó, L.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Romano, F.; Scuderi, V.; Allegra, L.; Amato, A.; Gallo, G.; Korn, G.; Leanza, R.; Margarone, D.; Milluzzo, G.; Petringa, G.

    2016-08-01

    A magnetic chicane based on four electromagnetic dipoles is going to be realized by INFN-LNS to be used as an Energy Selection System (ESS) for laser driven proton beams up to 300 MeV and C6+ up to 70 MeV/u. The system will provide, as output, ion beams with a contrallable energy spread varying from 5% up to 20% according to the aperture slit size. Moreover, it has a very wide acceptance in order to ensure a very high transmission efficiency and, in principle, it has been designed to be used also as an active energy modulator. This system is the core element of the ELIMED (ELI-Beamlines MEDical and Multidisciplinary applications) beam transport, dosimetry and irradiation line that will be developed by INFN-LNS (It) and installed at the ELI-Beamlines facility in Prague (Cz). ELIMED will be the first user's open transport beam-line where a controlled laser-driven ion beam will be used for multidisciplinary research. The definition of well specified characteristics, both in terms of performance and field quality, of the magnetic chicane is crucial for the system realization, for the accurate study of the beam dynamics and for the proper matching with the Permanent Magnet Quadrupoles (PMQs) used as a collection system already designed. Here, the design of the magnetic chicane is described in details together with the adopted solutions in order to realize a robust system form the magnetic point of view. Moreover, the first preliminary transport simulations are also described showing the good performance of the whole beam line (PMQs+ESS).

  11. Modeling the biophysical effects in a carbon beam delivery line by using Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Ilsung; Yoo, SeungHoon; Cho, Sungho; Kim, Eun Ho; Song, Yongkeun; Shin, Jae-ik; Jung, Won-Gyun

    2016-09-01

    The Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) plays an important role in designing a uniform dose response for ion-beam therapy. In this study, the biological effectiveness of a carbon-ion beam delivery system was investigated using Monte Carlo simulations. A carbon-ion beam delivery line was designed for the Korea Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (KHIMA) project. The GEANT4 simulation tool kit was used to simulate carbon-ion beam transport into media. An incident energy carbon-ion beam with energy in the range between 220 MeV/u and 290 MeV/u was chosen to generate secondary particles. The microdosimetric-kinetic (MK) model was applied to describe the RBE of 10% survival in human salivary-gland (HSG) cells. The RBE weighted dose was estimated as a function of the penetration depth in the water phantom along the incident beam's direction. A biologically photon-equivalent Spread Out Bragg Peak (SOBP) was designed using the RBE-weighted absorbed dose. Finally, the RBE of mixed beams was predicted as a function of the depth in the water phantom.

  12. Mechanical Design of a Heavy Ion Beam Dump for the RIA Fragmentation Line

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, W; Ahle, L E; Conner, D L

    2005-04-28

    The RIA fragmentation line requires a beam stop for the primary beam downstream of the first dipole magnet. The beam may consist of U, Ca, Sn, Kr, or O ions. with a variety of power densities. The configuration with highest power density is for the U beam, with a spot size of 3 cm x 3 cm and a total power of up to 300 kW. The mechanical design of the dump that meets these criteria consists of a 70 cm diameter aluminum wheel with water coolant channels. A hollow drive shaft supplies the coolant water and connects the wheel to an electrical motor located in an adjacent air space. The beam strikes the wheel along the outer perimeter and passes through a thin window of aluminum where 15% of its power is absorbed and the remainder of the beam is absorbed in flowing water behind the window. Rotation of the wheel at 400 RPM results in maximum aluminum temperatures below 100 C and acceptably low thermal stresses of 3 ksi. Rotating the wheel also results in low radiation damage levels by spreading the damage out over the whole perimeter of the wheel. For some of the other beams, a stationary dump consisting of a thin aluminum window with water acting as a coolant and absorber appears to be feasible.

  13. Beam imaging in the injection line of the INFN-LNS superconducting cyclotron

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolosi, Dario Cosentino, Luigi; Mascali, David; Pappalardo, Alfio; Castro, Maurizio; Celona, Luigi; Marchetta, Carmelo; Marletta, Salvatore; Maugeri, Antonio; Rifuggiato, Danilo; Seminara, Angelo; Gammino, Santo

    2016-02-15

    A cheap and efficient diagnostic system for beam monitoring has been recently developed at INFN-LNS in Catania. It consists of a high sensitivity CCD camera detecting the light produced by an ion beam hitting the surface of a scintillating screen and a frame grabber for image acquisition. A scintillating screen, developed at INFN-LNS and consisting of a 2 μm BaF{sub 2} layer evaporated on an aluminium plate, has been tested by using {sup 20}Ne and {sup 40}Ar beams in the keV energy range. The CAESAR ECR ion source has been used for investigating the influence of the frequency and magnetic field tuning effects, the impact of the microwave injected power, and of the focusing solenoids along the low energy beam transport on the beam shape and current. These tests will allow to better understand the interplay between the plasma and beam dynamics and, moreover, to improve the transport efficiency along the low energy beam line and the matching with the superconducting cyclotron, particularly relevant in view of the expected upgrade of the machine.

  14. In vitro study for laser gene transfer in BHK-21 fibroblast cell line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel Aziz, M.; Salem, D. S.; Salama, M. S.; Badr, Y.

    2009-02-01

    Modifications to our previously introduced system for laser microbeam cell surgery were carried out in the present work to match animal cells. These modifications included: 1- Using other laser system that used before, Excimer laser with 193 and 308 nm wavelengths. The used laser here, is He-Cd with low power and 441.5 nm wavelength in the visible region. 2- Instead of using pulsed laser, we used here CW He-Cd chopped by electrical chopper, which is synchronized with the mechanical motion of the mobile stage with step 40 microns, according to cell dimensions to avoid puncturing the same cell twice. The advantages of the modified here laser setup for gene transfer is: it is less damaging to the sensitive animal cell which has thin cell membrane. The present work aimed to: 1- Design a modified laser microbeam cell surgery, applicable to animal cells, such as fibroblast cells 2- To examine the efficiency of such system. 3- To assure gene transfer and its expression in the used cells. 4- To evaluate the ultra damages produced from using the laser beam as a modality for gene transfer. On the other wards, to introduce: safe, efficient and less damaging modality for gene transfer in animal cells. To achieve these goals, we applied the introduced here home-made laser setup with its synchronized parameters to introduce pBK-CMV phagemid, containing LacZ and neomycin resistance (neor )genes into BHK-21 fibroblast cell line. The results of the present work showed that: 1- Our modified laser microbeam cell surgery setup proved to be useful and efficient tool for gene transfer into fibroblast cells. 2- The presence and expression of LacZ gene was achieved using histochemical LacZ assay. 3- Selection of G418 antibiotic sensitivity assay confirmed the presence and expression towards stability of neor gene with time. 4- Presence of LacZ and neor genes in the genomic DNA of transfected fibroblast cells was indicated using PCR analysis. 5- Transmission electron microscopy indicated

  15. Three-Dimensional Modeling of Polarization Effects on Cross-Beam Energy Transfer in OMEGA Implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgell, D. H.; Follett, R. K.; Katz, J.; Myatt, J. F.; Shaw, J.; Froula, D. H.

    2016-10-01

    Beamlet spot images are used to diagnose cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) during OMEGA direct-drive implosions. The spots are, in essence, the end point of beamlets of light originating from different regions of each beam profile and following paths determined by refraction. The intensity of each spot varies because of absorption and CBET along that path. When each beam is linearly polarized, the image is asymmetric in terms of spot intensities. A 3-D CBET postprocessor for hydrodynamics codes is used to model the intensity, wavelength, and polarization of light from each beam. Rotation of polarization caused by CBET is tracked. The model is benchmarked using a 3-D wave-based solver for simplified CBET geometries. For linearly polarized beams in OMEGA implosions, the model predicts that polarization effects will result in asymmetric polarization and unabsorbed light profiles that are different for each beam. An asymmetric beamlet spot image similar to that recorded is predicted by the CBET model for linearly polarized beams. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  16. POLARIZED PARTIAL FREQUENCY REDISTRIBUTION IN SUBORDINATE LINES. II. SOLUTION OF THE TRANSFER EQUATION WITH RAYLEIGH SCATTERING

    SciTech Connect

    Nagendra, K. N.; Sampoorna, M. E-mail: sampoorna@iiap.res.in

    2012-09-20

    It is quite common in line formation theory to treat scattering in subordinate lines under the assumption of complete frequency redistribution (CRD). The partial frequency redistribution (PRD) in subordinate lines cannot always be approximated by CRD, especially when the polarization state of the line radiation is taken into account. Here we investigate the PRD effects in subordinate lines including scattering polarization. The line formation is described by a polarized non-LTE line transfer equation based on a two-level atom model. We use the recently derived subordinate line redistribution matrix. We devise polarized approximate lambda iteration methods to solve the concerned transfer problem. The linear polarization profiles of subordinate lines formed in non-magnetic (Rayleigh) scattering atmospheres are discussed. We consider one-dimensional isothermal planar model atmospheres. We show that in the polarized line transfer calculations of subordinate lines, PRD plays as important of a role as it does in the case of resonance lines. We also study the effect of collisions on linear polarization profiles of subordinate lines.

  17. Line end shortening and application of novel correction algorithms in e-beam direct write

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitag, Martin; Choi, Kang-Hoon; Gutsch, Manuela; Hohle, Christoph

    2011-03-01

    For the manufacturing of semiconductor technologies following the ITRS roadmap, we will face the nodes well below 32nm half pitch in the next 2~3 years. Despite being able to achieve the required resolution, which is now possible with electron beam direct write variable shaped beam (EBDW VSB) equipment and resists, it becomes critical to precisely reproduce dense line space patterns onto a wafer. This exposed pattern must meet the targets from the layout in both dimensions (horizontally and vertically). For instance, the end of a line must be printed in its entire length to allow a later placed contact to be able to land on it. Up to now, the control of printed patterns such as line ends is achieved by a proximity effect correction (PEC) which is mostly based on a dose modulation. This investigation of the line end shortening (LES) includes multiple novel approaches, also containing an additional geometrical correction, to push the limits of the available data preparation algorithms and the measurement. The designed LES test patterns, which aim to characterize the status of LES in a quick and easy way, were exposed and measured at Fraunhofer Center Nanoelectronic Technologies (CNT) using its state of the art electron beam direct writer and CD-SEM. Simulation and exposure results with the novel LES correction algorithms applied to the test pattern and a large production like pattern in the range of our target CDs in dense line space features smaller than 40nm will be shown.

  18. Design and thermodynamic performance analysis of multichannel cryogenic transfer line for XFEL AMTF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duda, P.; Chorowski, M.; Polinski, J.

    2017-02-01

    The XATL1 cryogenic transfer line for XFEL/AMTF is dedicated for transferring cryogenic cooling power from helium refrigerators to a cryogenic test facility by means of the continuous flows of cold helium in supercritical and gaseous state. The external envelope of the transfer line contains 4 cold process lines and a common radiation shield, as well as the system of supports and thermal contraction compensators. The XATL1 was designed and manufactured within the Polish in-kind contribution to the XFEL project. The line has been under operation since year 2012. The paper presents a design, including supporting and thermal compensation systems, of the XATL1 line. The line performance analysis based on the Second Law of Thermodynamics has been done, and the output has been compared with the design assumptions.

  19. Powerloads on the front end components and the duct of the heating and diagnostic neutral beam lines at ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M. J.; Boilson, D.; Hemsworth, R. S.; Geli, F.; Graceffa, J.; Urbani, M.; Schunke, B.; Chareyre, J.; Dlougach, E.; Krylov, A.

    2015-04-08

    The heating and current drive beam lines (HNB) at ITER are expected to deliver ∼16.7 MW power per beam line for H beams at 870 keV and D beams at 1 MeV during the H-He and the DD/DT phases of ITER operation respectively. On the other hand the diagnostic neutral beam (DNB) line shall deliver ∼2 MW power for H beams at 100 keV during both the phases. The path lengths over which the beams from the HNB and DNB beam lines need to be transported are 25.6 m and 20.7 m respectively. The transport of the beams over these path lengths results in beam losses, mainly by the direct interception of the beam with the beam line components and reionisation. The lost power is deposited on the surfaces of the various components of the beam line. In order to ensure the survival of these components over the operational life time of ITER, it is important to determine to the best possible extent the operational power loads and power densities on the various surfaces which are impacted by the beam in one way or the other during its transport. The main factors contributing to these are the divergence of the beamlets and the halo fraction in the beam, the beam aiming, the horizontal and vertical misalignment of the beam, and the gas profile along the beam path, which determines the re-ionisation loss, and the re-ionisation cross sections. The estimations have been made using a combination of the modified version of the Monte Carlo Gas Flow code (MCGF) and the BTR code. The MCGF is used to determine the gas profile in the beam line and takes into account the active gas feed into the ion source and neutraliser, the HNB-DNB cross over, the gas entering the beamline from the ITER machine, the additional gas atoms generated in the beam line due to impacting ions and the pumping speed of the cryopumps. The BTR code has been used to obtain the power loads and the power densities on the various surfaces of the front end components and the duct modules for different scenarios of ITER

  20. Beam line 4: A dedicated surface science facility at Daresbury Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Dhanak, V.R. IRC in Surface Science, Liverpool University, P.O. Box 147, Liverpool L69 3BX ); Robinson, A.W.; van der Laan, G. ); Thornton, G. )

    1992-01-01

    We describe a beam line currently under construction at the Daresbury Laboratory which forms part of a surface science research facility for the Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Surface Science. The beam line has three branches, two of which are described here. The first branch covers the high-energy range 640 eV{le}{ital h}{nu}{le}10 keV, being equipped with a double-crystal monochromator and a novel multicoated premirror system. The second branch line is optimized for the energy range 15{le}{ital h}{nu}{le}250 eV, using cylindrical focusing mirrors, a spherical diffraction grating and an ellipsoidal refocusing mirror to achieve high resolution with a small spot size.

  1. An ion-beam injection line for the ELASR storage ring at KACST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Ghazaly, M. O. A.; Behery, S. A.; Almuqhim, A. A.; Almalki, M. H.; Alshammari, S. M.; Alrashdi, A. O.; Alamer, H. S.; Jabr, A. S.; Lanazi, A. Z.

    2016-01-01

    A versatile ion injector beam-line has been developed for the specific use in the multi-purpose low-energy, storage ring facility at the King Abdulaziz City for Sciences and Technology (KACST) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. It incorporates a purpose-developed, high-resolution mass analyzing magnet and it is thereby dedicated to provide the ELASR storage ring with beams of ions of specific mass. It is also intended to operate independently as a single-pass experiment. This versatile ion-injection line was constructed in a staged approach, in which an axial injection version was built first, commissioned and is currently operating. The injection line in its final design is now being assembled and commissioned at KACST.

  2. Py4CAtS - Python tools for line-by-line modelling of infrared atmospheric radiative transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreier, Franz; García, Sebastián Gimeno

    2013-05-01

    Py4CAtS — Python scripts for Computational ATmospheric Spectroscopy is a Python re-implementation of the Fortran infrared radiative transfer code GARLIC, where compute-intensive code sections utilize the Numeric/Scientific Python modules for highly optimized array-processing. The individual steps of an infrared or microwave radiative transfer computation are implemented in separate scripts to extract lines of relevant molecules in the spectral range of interest, to compute line-by-line cross sections for given pressure(s) and temperature(s), to combine cross sections to absorption coefficients and optical depths, and to integrate along the line-of-sight to transmission and radiance/intensity. The basic design of the package, numerical and computational aspects relevant for optimization, and a sketch of the typical workflow are presented.

  3. Radiative Transfer Effects in He I Emission Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjamin, Robert A.; Skillman, Evan D.; Smits, Derck P.

    2002-04-01

    We consider the effect of optical depth of the 23S level on the nebular recombination spectrum of He I for a spherically symmetric nebula with no systematic velocity gradients. These calculations, using many improvements in atomic data, can be used in place of the earlier calculations of Robbins. We give representative Case B line fluxes for UV, optical, and IR emission lines over a range of physical conditions: T=5000-20,000 K, ne=1-108 cm-3, and τ3889=0-100. A FORTRAN program for calculating emissivities for all lines arising from quantum levels with n<=10 is also available from the authors. We present a special set of fitting formulae for the physical conditions relevant to low-metallicity extragalactic H II regions: T=12,000-20,000 K, ne=1-300 cm-3, and τ3889<2.0). For this range of physical conditions, the Case B line fluxes of the bright optical lines 4471 Å, 5876 Å, and 6678 Å, are changed less than 1%, in agreement with previous studies. However, the 7065 Å corrections are much smaller than those calculated by Izotov & Thuan based on the earlier calculations by Robbins. This means that the 7065 Å line is a better density diagnostic than previously thought. Two corrections to the fitting functions calculated in our previous work are also given.

  4. Design method for a laser line beam shaper of a general 1D angular power distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oved, E.; Oved, A.

    2016-05-01

    Laser line is a beam of laser, spanned in one direction using a beam shaper to form a fan of light. This illumination tool is important in laser aided machine vision, 3D scanners, and remote sensing. For some applications the laser line should have a specific angular power distribution. If the distribution is nonsymmetrical, the beam shaper is required to be nonsymmetrical freeform, and its design process using optical design software is time consuming due to the long optimization process which usually converges to some local minimum. In this paper we introduce a new design method of a single element refractive beam shaper of any predefined general 1D angular power distribution. The method makes use of a notion of "prism space", a geometrical representation of all double refraction prisms, and any 1D beam shaper can be described by a continuous curve in this space. It is shown that infinitely many different designs are possible for any given power distribution, and it is explained how an optimal design is selected among them, based on criteria such as high transmission, low surface slopes, robustness to manufacturing errors etc. The method is non-parametric and hence does not require initial guess of a functional form, and the resultant optical surfaces are described by a sequence of points, rather than by an analytic function.

  5. Beam-Based Alignment, Tuning and Beam Dynamics Studies for the ATF2 Extraction Line and Final Focus System

    SciTech Connect

    White, Glen R.; Molloy, S.; Woodley, M.; /SLAC

    2008-07-25

    Using a new extraction line currently under construction, the ATF2 experiment plans to test the novel compact final focus optics design with local chromaticity correction intended for use in future linear colliders. With a 1.3 GeV design beam of 30nm normalized vertical emittance extracted from the ATF damping ring, the primary goal is to achieve a vertical spot-size at the IP waist of 37nm. We discuss our planned strategy for tuning the ATF2 beam to meet the primary goal. Simulation studies have been performed to asses the effectiveness of the strategy, including 'static' (installation) errors and dynamical effects (ground-motion, mechanical vibration, ring extraction jitter etc.). We have simulated all steps in the tuning procedure, from initial orbit establishment to final IP spot-size tuning. Through a Monte Carlo study of 100's of simulation seeds we find we can achieve a spot-size within {approx}10% of the design optics value in at least 75% of cases. We also ran a simulation to study the long-term performance with the use of beam-based feedbacks.

  6. Diagnosing Cross-Beam Energy Transfer Using Beamlets of Unabsorbed Light from Direct-Drive Implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgell, D. H.; Follett, R. K.; Goncharov, V. N.; Igumenshchev, I. V.; Katz, J.; Myatt, J. F.; Seka, W.; Froula, D. H.

    2015-11-01

    A new diagnostic is now being fielded to record the unabsorbed laser light from implosions on OMEGA. Unabsorbed light from each OMEGA beam is imaged as a distinct ``spot'' in time-integrated images. Each spot is, in essence, the end point of a beamlet of light that originates from a specific region of a beam profile and follows a path determined by refraction. The intensity of light in the beamlet varies along that path because of absorption and cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) with other beamlets. This diagnostic allows for the detailed investigation of the effects of CBET on specific locations of the beam profile. A pinhole can be used to isolate specific spots, allowing the time-resolved spectrum of the beamlet to be measured. A fully 3-D CBET hydrodynamics code postprocessor is used to model the intensity and wavelength of each beamlet as it traverses the coronal plasma to the diagnostic. The model predicts that if a single beam in a symmetric implosion is turned off, the recorded intensity of nearby spots will decrease by ~ 15% as a result of loss of CBET from the dropped beam. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  7. Millimeter-wave Line Ratios and Sub-beam Volume Density Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, Adam K.; Usero, Antonio; Schruba, Andreas; Bigiel, Frank; Kruijssen, J. M. Diederik; Kepley, Amanda; Blanc, Guillermo A.; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Cormier, Diane; Gallagher, Molly; Hughes, Annie; Jiménez-Donaire, Maria J.; Rosolowsky, Erik; Schinnerer, Eva

    2017-02-01

    We explore the use of mm-wave emission line ratios to trace molecular gas density when observations integrate over a wide range of volume densities within a single telescope beam. For observations targeting external galaxies, this case is unavoidable. Using a framework similar to that of Krumholz & Thompson, we model emission for a set of common extragalactic lines from lognormal and power law density distributions. We consider the median density of gas that produces emission and the ability to predict density variations from observed line ratios. We emphasize line ratio variations because these do not require us to know the absolute abundance of our tracers. Patterns of line ratio variations have the potential to illuminate the high-end shape of the density distribution, and to capture changes in the dense gas fraction and median volume density. Our results with and without a high-density power law tail differ appreciably; we highlight better knowledge of the probability density function (PDF) shape as an important area. We also show the implications of sub-beam density distributions for isotopologue studies targeting dense gas tracers. Differential excitation often implies a significant correction to the naive case. We provide tabulated versions of many of our results, which can be used to interpret changes in mm-wave line ratios in terms of adjustments to the underlying density distributions.

  8. Automated defect cross-sectioning with an in-line DualBeam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc-Coquand, Stephanie; Hinschberger, Benoit; Rouchouze, Eric; Sicurani, Emmanuel; Castagna, Marc; Weschler, Matthew; Dworkin, Larry; Renard, Didier; Panyasak, Atsavinn

    2004-05-01

    Shrinking design rules and the introduction of new materials and processes in the formation of Cu interconnects in damascene modules have given rise to new and previously unknown killer defect mechanisms. These failure mechanisms are very challenging to detect, identify, and eliminate. The ability to characterize buried defects, such as defective vias, previous layer defects, or integration issues detected by optical defect inspection tools as well as electron-beam inspection tools has become mandatory. Out of the several cross-section tools available to the lab, the one that best addresses the in-line applications requirements is known as the DualBeam (FIB/SEM). The ion beam allows cross-sectioning while a coincident electron beam allows for high resolution imaging of the cross-section. Using the FEI Defect Analyzer 300 DualBeam system, this process has been automated for in-line usage. Defects can be navigated to using defect files generated by the inspection tools. The wafer production line is now enabled to easily mill cross sections in-line and determine root causes, something that is often not possible from top down information alone. For volume in-line use on defects, additional requirements must also be met: compatibility with clean room environment, navigation on full wafers to relocate the defects detected by the inspection tools, throughput, ease of use, low impact on wafers so that they can be returned to the line. All of this must allow the gathering of data at numerous cross-sections on buried defects in order to perform the same type of Pareto analysis as is traditionally done after defect review of top-down visible defects. Example use cases will be presented to demonstrate how this methodology is being developed in a manufacturing environment to help understand previously unexplained yield losses and to deliver results with a rapid response time. Applications on defects detected with electron beam inspection in copper or tungsten interconnects

  9. Beam Transport of 4 GeV Protons from AGS to the Proton Interrogation Target of the Neutrino Line (Z_line) and Effect of the Air on the Transported Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoupas,N.; Ahrens, L.; Pile, P.; Thieberger, P.; Murray, M.M.

    2008-10-01

    As part of the preparation for the Proton Interrogation Experiment, we have calculated the beam optics for the transport of 4 GeV protons, from the AGS extraction point, to the 'Cross-Section Target Wheel 1' and to the 'Proton Interrogation Target'. In this technical note we present three possible beam-transports each corresponding to a particular Fast Extracted Beam W B setup of the AGS. In addition we present results on the effect of the atmospheric air, (which fills the drift space of the last 100 [m] of the transport line), on the size of the beam, at two locations along the drift space, one location at the middle of the drift space and the other at the end where the 'Proton Interrogation Target' is placed. All the beam transports mentioned above require the removal of the WD1 dipole magnet, which is the first magnet of the W-line, because it acts as a limiting beam aperture, and the magnet is not used in the beam transport. An alternative solution of a beam transport, which does not require the removal of the WD1 magnet, is also presented. In this solution, which models the transport line using the TURTLE computer code[7], the vertical beam sizes at the location of the WD1 magnet is minimized to allow 'lossless' beam transport at the location of the WD1 magnet. A similar solution, but using a MAD model of the line, is also presented.

  10. Transferring Gus gene into intact rice cells by low energy ion beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zengliang, Yu; Jianbo, Yang; Yuejin, Wu; Beijiu, Cheng; Jianjun, He; Yuping, Huo

    1993-06-01

    A new technique of transferring genes by low energy ion beam has been reported in this paper. The Gus and CAT (chloramphenicol acetyltransferase) genes, as "foreign" genetic materials, were introduced into the suspension cells and ripe embryos or rice by implantation of 20-30 keV Ar + at doses ranging from 1 × 10 15 to 4 × 10 15 ions/cm 2. The activities of CAT and Gus were detected in the cells and embryos after several weeks. The results indicate that the transfer was a success.

  11. Temporal evolution of the chemical structure during the pattern transfer by ion-beam sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, N.-B.; Jeong, S.; Yu, S.; Ihm, H.-I.; Kim, J.-S.

    2015-01-01

    Ru films patterned by ion-beam sputtering (IBS) serve as sacrificial masks for the transfer of the patterns to Si(1 0 0) and metallic glass substrates by continued IBS. Under the same sputter condition, however, both bare substrates remain featureless. Chemical analyses of the individual nano structures simultaneously with the investigation of their morphological evolution reveal that the pattern transfer, despite its apparent success, suffers from premature degradation before the mask is fully removed by IBS. Moreover, the residue of the mask or Ru atoms stubbornly remains near the surface, resulting in unintended doping or alloying of both patterned substrates.

  12. Numerical Verification of the Power Transfer and Wakefield Coupling in the Clic Two-Beam Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Candel, Arno; Li, Z.; Ng, C.; Rawat, V.; Schussman, G.; Ko, K.; Syratchev, I.; Grudiev, A.; Wuensch, W.; /CERN

    2011-08-19

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) provides a path to a multi-TeV accelerator to explore the energy frontier of High Energy Physics. Its two-beam accelerator (TBA) concept envisions complex 3D structures, which must be modeled to high accuracy so that simulation results can be directly used to prepare CAD drawings for machining. The required simulations include not only the fundamental mode properties of the accelerating structures but also the Power Extraction and Transfer Structure (PETS), as well as the coupling between the two systems. Time-domain simulations will be performed to understand pulse formation, wakefield damping, fundamental power transfer and wakefield coupling in these structures. Applying SLAC's parallel finite element code suite, these large-scale problems will be solved on some of the largest supercomputers available. The results will help to identify potential issues and provide new insights on the design, leading to further improvements on the novel two-beam accelerator scheme.

  13. Mitigation of cross-beam energy transfer: Implication of two-state focal zooming on OMEGA

    SciTech Connect

    Froula, D. H.; Kessler, T. J.; Igumenshchev, I. V.; Betti, R.; Goncharov, V. N.; Huang, H.; Hu, S. X.; Hill, E.; Kelly, J. H.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Shvydky, A.; Zuegel, J. D.

    2013-08-15

    Cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) during OMEGA low-adiabat cryogenic experiments reduces the hydrodynamic efficiency by ∼35%, which lowers the calculated one-dimensional (1-D) yield by a factor of 7. CBET can be mitigated by reducing the diameter of the laser beams relative to the target diameter. Reducing the diameter of the laser beams by 30%, after a sufficient conduction zone has been generated (two-state zooming), is predicted to maintain low-mode uniformity while recovering 90% of the kinetic energy lost to CBET. A radially varying phase plate is proposed to implement two-state zooming on OMEGA. A beam propagating through the central half-diameter of the phase plate will produce a large spot, while a beam propagating through the outer annular region of the phase plate will produce a narrower spot. To generate the required two-state near-field laser-beam profile, a picket driver with smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD) would pass through an apodizer, forming a beam of half the standard diameter. A second main-pulse driver would co-propagate without SSD through its own apodizer, forming a full-diameter annular beam. Hydrodynamic simulations, using the designed laser spots produced by the proposed zooming scheme on OMEGA, show that implementing zooming will increase the implosion velocity by 25% resulting in a 4.5× increase in the 1-D neutron yield. Demonstrating zooming on OMEGA would validate a viable direct-drive CBET mitigation scheme and help establish a pathway to hydrodynamically equivalent direct-drive–ignition implosions by increasing the ablation pressure (1.6×), which will allow for more stable implosions at ignition-relevant velocities.

  14. The HEB at flat top: Arranging for the HEB to collider beam transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, D.J.

    1994-03-01

    The flat top for the High Energy Booster (HEB) is planned to last for only 6.5 seconds, yet during this time the beam must be made to: (1) have the correct central momentum; (2) have the correct bunch-to-bunch spacing; (3) have the correct central phase; and (4) have the correct momentum spread and longitudinal length. All of these attributes must match what the Collider expects or unwanted emittance growth will occur. This paper outlines the techniques necessary to achieve a proper HEB-to-Collider beam transfer within the 6.5 s time constraint. A novel means for cogging is proposed and evaluated. The hardware necessary to implement the beam manipulation and to achieve the four goals is specified, and tolerances on the hardware are evaluated.

  15. Nonlinear targeted energy transfer of two coupled cantilever beams coupled to a bistable light attachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattei, P.-O.; Ponçot, R.; Pachebat, M.; Côte, R.

    2016-07-01

    In order to control the sound radiation by a structure, one aims to control vibration of radiating modes of vibration using "Energy Pumping" also named "Targeted Energy Transfer". This principle is here applied to a simplified model of a double leaf panel. This model is made of two beams coupled by a spring. One of the beams is connected to a nonlinear absorber. This nonlinear absorber is made of a 3D-printed support on which is clamped a buckled thin small beam with a small mass fixed at its centre having two equilibrium positions. The experiments showed that, once attached onto a vibrating system to be controlled, under forced excitation of the primary system, the light bistable oscillator allows a reduction of structural vibration up to 10 dB for significant amplitude and frequency range around the first two vibration modes of the system.

  16. Digitral Down Conversion Technology for Tevatron Beam Line Tuner at FNAL

    SciTech Connect

    Schappert, W.; Lorman, E.; Scarpine, V.; Ross, M.C.; Sebek, J.; Straumann, T.; /Fermilab /SLAC

    2008-03-17

    Fermilab is presently in Run II collider operations and is developing instrumentation to improve luminosity. Improving the orbit matching between accelerator components using a Beam Line Tuner (BLT) can improve the luminosity. Digital Down Conversion (DDC) has been proposed as a method for making more accurate beam position measurements. Fermilab has implemented a BLT system using a DDC technique to measure orbit oscillations during injections from the Main Injector to the Tevatron. The output of a fast ADC is downconverted and filtered in software. The system measures the x and y positions, the intensity, and the time of arrival for each proton or antiproton bunch, on a turn-by-turn basis, during the first 1024 turns immediately following injection. We present results showing position, intensity, and time of arrival for both injected and coasting beam. Initial results indicate a position resolution of {approx}20 to 40 microns and a phase resolution of {approx}25 ps.

  17. A new medium energy beam transport line for the proton injector of AGS-RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura, M.; Briscoe, B.; Fite, J.; LoDestro, V.; Raparia, D.; Ritter, J.; Hayashizaki, N.

    2010-09-12

    In Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), a 750 keV medium energy beam transport line between the 201 MHz 750 keV proton RFQ and the 200 MeV Alvarez DTL is being modified to get a better transmission of the beam. Within a tight space, high field gradient quadrupoles (65 Tm) and newly designed steering magnets (6.5 mm in length) will be installed considering the cross-talk effects. Also a new half wave length 200 MHz buncher is being prepared. The beam commissioning will be done in this year. To enhance the performance of the proton linacs, the MEBT is being modified. New quadrupole magnets, steering magnets and a half wave length buncher as shown in Figure 7 will be installed and be commissioned soon.

  18. Mechanical characterization and structural analysis of recycled fiber-reinforced-polymer resin-transfer-molded beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Eugene Wie Loon

    1999-09-01

    The present investigation was focussed on the mechanical characterization and structural analysis of resin-transfer-molded beams containing recycled fiber-reinforced polymers. The beams were structurally reinforced with continuous unidirectional glass fibers. The reinforcing filler materials consisted entirely of recycled fiber-reinforced polymer wastes (trim and overspray). The principal resin was a 100-percent dicyclo-pentadiene unsaturated polyester specially formulated with very low viscosity for resin transfer molding. Variations of the resin transfer molding technique were employed to produce specimens for material characterization. The basic materials that constituted the structural beams, continuous-glass-fiber-reinforced, recycled-trim-filled and recycled-overspray-filled unsaturated polyesters, were fully characterized in axial and transverse compression and tension, and inplane and interlaminar shear, to ascertain their strengths, ultimate strains, elastic moduli and Poisson's ratios. Experimentally determined mechanical properties of the recycled-trim-filled and recycled-overspray-filled materials from the present investigation were superior to those of unsaturated polyester polymer concretes and Portland cement concretes. Mechanical testing and finite element analyses of flexure (1 x 1 x 20 in) and beam (2 x 4 x 40 in) specimens were conducted. These structurally-reinforced specimens were tested and analyzed in four-point, third-point flexure to determine their ultimate loads, maximum fiber stresses and mid-span deflections. The experimentally determined load capacities of these specimens were compared to those of equivalent steel-reinforced Portland cement concrete beams computed using reinforced concrete theory. Mechanics of materials beam theory was utilized to predict the ultimate loads and mid-span deflections of the flexure and beam specimens. However, these predictions proved to be severely inadequate. Finite element (fracture propagation

  19. Transfer reactions using a low-energy {sup 11}Be beam

    SciTech Connect

    Johansen, Jacob

    2011-10-28

    A series of experiments have been performed to investigate neutron rich beryllium isotopes. Scattering as well as one neutron transfer reactions have been studied using a {sup 11}Be beam on deuteron targets. Bound states of {sup 10,11,12}Be have been studied and reaction cross sections have been calculated. The elastic scattering cross section has shown remarkable structure due to the halo structure of {sup 11}Be.

  20. The new vertical neutron beam line at the CERN n_TOF facility design and outlook on the performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiß, C.; Chiaveri, E.; Girod, S.; Vlachoudis, V.; Aberle, O.; Barros, S.; Bergström, I.; Berthoumieux, E.; Calviani, M.; Guerrero, C.; Sabaté-Gilarte, M.; Tsinganis, A.; Andrzejewski, J.; Audouin, L.; Bacak, M.; Balibrea-Correa, J.; Barbagallo, M.; Bécares, V.; Beinrucker, C.; Belloni, F.; Bečvář, F.; Billowes, J.; Bosnar, D.; Brugger, M.; Caamaño, M.; Calviño, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Cerutti, F.; Colonna, N.; Cortés, G.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Cosentino, L.; Damone, L.; Deo, K.; Diakaki, M.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dupont, E.; Durán, I.; Dressler, R.; Fernández-Domínguez, B.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira, P.; Finocchiaro, P.; Frost, R.; Furman, V.; Ganesan, S.; Gheorghe, A.; Glodariu, T.; Göbel, K.; Gonçalves, I. F.; González-Romero, E.; Goverdovski, A.; Griesmayer, E.; Gunsing, F.; Harada, H.; Heftrich, T.; Heinitz, S.; Hernández-Prieto, A.; Heyse, J.; Jenkins, D. G.; Jericha, E.; Kadi, Y.; Käppeler, F.; Katabuchi, T.; Kavrigin, P.; Ketlerov, V.; Khryachkov, V.; Kimura, A.; Kivel, N.; Kokkoris, M.; Krtička, M.; Leal-Cidoncha, E.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Lerendegui, J.; Licata, M.; Lo Meo, S.; López, D.; Losito, R.; Macina, D.; Marganiec, J.; Martínez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P. F.; Mastromarco, M.; Matteucci, F.; Mendoza, E.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P. M.; Mingrone, F.; Mirea, M.; Montesano, S.; Musumarra, A.; Nolte, R.; Palomo Pinto, R.; Paradela, C.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Porras, I.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J. M.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Riego-Perez, A.; Robles, M. S.; Rubbia, C.; Ryan, J.; Saxena, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schmidt, S.; Schumann, D.; Sedyshev, P.; Smith, G.; Stamatopoulos, A.; Steinegger, P.; Suryanarayana, S. V.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tarifeño-Saldivia, A.; Tassan-Got, L.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Vlastou, R.; Wallner, A.; Warren, S.; Weigand, M.; Wright, T.; Žugec, P.

    2015-11-01

    At the neutron time-of-flight facility n_TOF at CERN a new vertical beam line was constructed in 2014, in order to extend the experimental possibilities at this facility to an even wider range of challenging cross-section measurements of interest in astrophysics, nuclear technology and medical physics. The design of the beam line and the experimental hall was based on FLUKA Monte Carlo simulations, aiming at maximizing the neutron flux, reducing the beam halo and minimizing the background from neutrons interacting with the collimator or back-scattered in the beam dump. The present paper gives an overview on the design of the beam line and the relevant elements and provides an outlook on the expected performance regarding the neutron beam intensity, shape and energy resolution, as well as the neutron and photon backgrounds.

  1. Effects of Cross-Beam Transfer on the Competition between Stimulated Brillouin and Raman Scatter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Richard; Moody, J.; Michel, P.; Town, R.; Thomas, C.; Divol, L.; Callahan, D.; Meezan, N.; Glenzer, S.; Williams, E.; Strozzi, D.; Kline, J.

    2011-10-01

    Stimulated Brillouin backcatter (SBS) measurements in NIF hohlraum targets are shown to scale with the calculated SBS gain with a threshold for significant SBS from the 30° beam for a gain of about 20 or a laser intensity of 6-7 x1014 W/cm2 for the simulated plasma conditions. This SBS gain threshold is consistent with previous measurements of SBS from laser beams that had polarization smoothing and SSD. The SBS measurements are interpreted as scatter from the slow ion-acoustic mode in the CH-capsule-ablator plasma. Previous experiments with similar laser intensity and plasma parameters but lower ion temperature generated SBS from the fast ion-acoustic mode. (Froula PRL 101, 115002 (2008), Neumayer PRL 100 105001 (2008)). We will review and interpret the dependence of SBS on gas-fill density, air condensation on the laser entrance hole, peak laser power, and cross-beam power transfer. This last process (Michel, PRL 102, 025004 (2009)) causes the power at focus to have large scale nonuniformity that favors stimulated Raman scatter over SBS. F3D simulations will be presented with models of cross beam power transfer that affect the relative amounts of SRS and SBS.

  2. The Advanced Light Source U8 beam line, 20--300 eV

    SciTech Connect

    Heimann, P.; Warwick, T.; Howells, M.; McKinney, W.; Digennaro, D.; Gee, B.; Yee, D.; Kincaid, B.

    1991-10-01

    The U8 is a beam line under construction at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). The beam line will be described along with calculations of its performance and its current status. An 8 cm period undulator is followed by two spherical collecting mirrors, an entrance slit, spherical gratings having a 15{degree} deviation angle, a moveable exit slit, and refocusing and branching mirrors. Internal water cooling is provided to the metal M1 and M2 mirrors as well as to the gratings. Calculations have been made of both the flux output and the resolution over its photon energy range of 20--300 eV. The design goal was to achieve high intensity, 10{sup 12} photons/sec, at a high resolving power of 10,000. The U8 Participating Research Team (PRT) is planning experiments involving the photoelectron spectroscopy of gaseous atoms and molecules, the spectroscopy of ions and actinide spectroscopy.

  3. Applications to cultural heritage diagnostics at the new nuclear microprobe beam line at CEDAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calcagnile, L.; Quarta, G.; Demortier, G.; Maruccio, L.; D'Elia, M.

    2009-06-01

    A nuclear microprobe beam line has been installed at CEDAD (Centre for Dating and Diagnostics), University of Salento, Lecce, Italy. The beam line is connected to the -30° port of the high energy switching magnet of a 3 MV HVEE 4130HC Tandetron accelerator. It is based on an Oxford Microbeam magnetic quadrupole triplet and its general features are presented. The results of functional tests are presented showing how a lateral spatial resolution as low as ˜2 μm has been achieved in vacuum by analysing standard reference material. The results obtained in the analysis of ancient radiocarbon dated biological tissues are presented for the identification and distribution of toxic elements such as Pb.

  4. XAFS beam lines at Aichi Synchrotron Radiation Center dedicated to industrial use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Yoshikazu

    2016-05-01

    Aichi Synchrotron Radiation Center was designed for industrial use following five years of discussion among academia, industry and local government in the Aichi area. Among the six beam lines constructed, those that facilitated X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analysis were given first priority. In addition to the hardware, attention was given to the development of operating procedures that were quick and user-friendly. The facility entered public service in March 2013. In the year 2013, 55% of the experiments involved XAFS analysis (hard X-ray, soft X-ray and vacuum ultraviolet regions) and in 2014 it was 57%. The range of research fields is very broad, emphasizing the importance of the XAFS beam lines.

  5. National Synchrotron Light Source users manual: Guide to the VUV and x-ray beam lines

    SciTech Connect

    Gmuer, N.F.; White-DePace, S.M.

    1987-08-01

    The success of the National Synchrotron Light Source in the years to come will be based, in large part, on the size of the users community and the diversity of the scientific disciplines represented by these users. In order to promote this philosophy, this National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) Users Manual: Guide to the VUV and X-Ray Beam Lines, has been published. This manual serves a number of purposes. In an effort to attract new research, it will present to the scientific community-at-large the current and projected architecture and capabilities of the various VUV and x-ray beam lines and storage rings. We anticipate that this publication will be updated periodically in order to keep pace with the constant changes at the NSLS.

  6. The Beam Line X NdFe-steel hybrid wiggler for SSRL

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyer, E.; Halbach, K.; Humphries, D.; Marks, S.; Plate, D.; Shuman, D.; Karpenko, V.P.; Kulkarni, S.; Tirsell, K.G.

    1987-03-10

    A wiggler magnet with 15 periods, each 12.85 cm long, which achieves 1.40 T at a 2.1 cm gap (2.26T at 0.8 cm) has been designed and is now in fabrication at LBL. This wiggler will be the radiation source of the high intensity synchrotron radiation beam line for the Beam Line X PRT facility at SSRL. The magnet utilizes Neodymium-Iron (NdFe) material and Vanadium Permendur (steel) in the hybrid configuration to achieve simultaneously a high magnetic field and short period. Magnetic field adjustment is with a driven chain and ball screw drive system. The magnetic structure is external to an s.s. vacuum chamber which has thin walls, 0.76 mm thickness, at each pole tip for higher field operation. Magnetic design, construction details and magnetic measurements are presented.

  7. Slope and Line of Best Fit: A Transfer of Knowledge Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagle, Courtney; Casey, Stephanie; Moore-Russo, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    This paper brings together research on slope from mathematics education and research on line of best fit from statistics education by considering what knowledge of slope students transfer to a novel task involving determining the placement of an informal line of best fit. This study focuses on two students who transitioned from placing inaccurate…

  8. 47 CFR 54.902 - Calculation of Interstate Common Line Support for transferred exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calculation of Interstate Common Line Support for transferred exchanges. 54.902 Section 54.902 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Interstate Common Line Support...

  9. The Application of the Principal Curve Analysis Technique to Smooth Beam Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Friedsam, H.; Oren, W.; /SLAC

    2005-08-12

    The smoothness of a beam line refers to the quality of the relative positioning of a number of adjacent beam guiding components. The fact that smoothness is of highest priority when positioning magnets can be seen in the local tolerances imposed by the beam optics. In the past, smoothing has been done by separating horizontal and vertical misalignments and then applying some sort of analytical or manual ''feathering'' technique. The Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) did not easily lend itself to this sort of smoothing because of the highly coupled nature of its pitched and rolled beam line. This paper will discuss an attempt to develop a repeatable method which is independent of the inconsistencies of human judgment and can simultaneously smooth in two or more dimensions. Four major goals were defined for the smoothing algorithm used on the SLC alignment. The first, was to simultaneously model errors for both horizontal and vertical directions. Secondly, a smooth curve whose shape was suggested by the data and not by a predetermined model was implied by the fact that unknown systematic errors were being eliminated. Thirdly, this curve must be a reproducibly fit, independent of the inconsistent nature of human judgment. Fourth, the result of the procedure was to minimize the number and size of magnet movements to reach the final alignment criteria.

  10. No Vent Tank Fill and Transfer Line Chilldown Analysis by Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majumdar, Alok

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to present the analytical capability developed to model no vent chill and fill of cryogenic tank to support CPST (Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer) program. Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) was adapted to simulate charge-holdvent method of Tank Chilldown. GFSSP models were developed to simulate chilldown of LH2 tank in K-site Test Facility and numerical predictions were compared with test data. The report also describes the modeling technique of simulating the chilldown of a cryogenic transfer line and GFSSP models were developed to simulate the chilldown of a long transfer line and compared with test data.

  11. Use of object-oriented techniques in a beam-line control system

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D.R.; Rueden, W. von; Butler, H.; Yang, J.

    1994-12-31

    The authors describe the use of object-oriented programming in the control and data-acquisition system for the upgraded CERN neutrino beam-line. C++ in conjunction with Posix threads running under Lynx-OS have been used in several front-end PCs. These communicate using Remote Procedure Calls over ethernet with a workstation running the commercial supervisory package, FactoryLink.

  12. Submicron Co(TaC) line array produced by electron-beam direct writing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Zhou, T. J.; Wang, J. P.; Thong, J. T. L.; Yao, X. F.; Chong, T. C.

    2003-05-01

    (Co60C40)97Ta3 and Co60C40 films with thickness 30 nm were prepared by cosputtering Co, Ta, and C onto C-buffered glass substrates. The as-deposited (Co60C40)97Ta3 and Co60C40 films were amorphous and nonferromagnetic. These films became magnetic upon annealing and the magnetic performance of annealed (Co60C40)97Ta3 films are better than that of annealed Co60C40 films at the same annealing condition. Magnetic patterning (line array) of the as-deposited (Co60C40)97Ta3 films was realized by subjecting it to electron-beam radiation using a focused 30 keV beam with a current of 7.1 nA and a dwell time per line of 0.75 s and longer. By increasing the dwell time, the whole region where an electron beam was scanned became magnetic with clear domain structures because of thermally activated diffusion. The required dwell time of magnetically patterning nonmagnetic (Co60C40)97Ta3 thin films (0.75 s) is much shorter than that of Co60C40 films (3.8 s). The magnetic measurements show that the lines [(Co60C40)97Ta3] and dots (Co60C40) are magnetically soft. The present method of magnetically patterning a nonmagnetic film has potential application for nanoscale solid magnetic devices.

  13. Improved design of proton source and low energy beam transport line for European Spallation Source

    SciTech Connect

    Neri, L. Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Mascali, D.; Castro, G.; Ciavola, G.; Torrisi, G.; Cheymol, B.; Ponton, A.; Galatà, A.; Patti, G.; Gozzo, A.; Lega, L.

    2014-02-15

    The design update of the European Spallation Source (ESS) accelerator is almost complete and the construction of the prototype of the microwave discharge ion source able to provide a proton beam current larger than 70 mA to the 3.6 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) started. The source named PS-ESS (Proton Source for ESS) was designed with a flexible magnetic system and an extraction system able to merge conservative solutions with significant advances. The ESS injector has taken advantage of recent theoretical updates and new plasma diagnostics tools developed at INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare). The design strategy considers the PS-ESS and the low energy beam transport line as a whole, where the proton beam behaves like an almost neutralized non-thermalized plasma. Innovative solutions have been used as hereinafter described. Thermo-mechanical optimization has been performed to withstand the chopped beam and the misaligned focused beam over the RFQ input collimator; the results are reported here.

  14. Design of x-ray diagnostic beam line for a synchrotron radiation source and measurement results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, Akash Deep; Karnewar, A. K.; Ojha, A.; Shrivastava, B. B.; Holikatti, A. C.; Puntambekar, T. A.; Navathe, C. P.

    2014-08-01

    Indus-2 is a 2.5 GeV synchrotron radiation source (SRS) operational at the Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT) in India. We have designed, developed and commissioned x-ray diagnostic beam line (X-DBL) at the Indus-2. It is based on pinhole array imaging (8-18 keV). We have derived new equations for online measurements of source position and emission angle with pinhole array optics. Measured values are compared with the measurements at an independent x-ray beam position monitor (staggered pair blade monitor) installed in the X-DBL. The measured values are close to the theoretical expected values within ±12 μm (or ±1.5 μrad) for sufficiently wide range of the beam movements. So, beside the beam size and the beam emittance, online information for the vertical position and angle is also used in the orbit steering. In this paper, the various design considerations of the X-DBL and online measurement results are presented.

  15. Improved design of proton source and low energy beam transport line for European Spallation Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neri, L.; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Mascali, D.; Castro, G.; Torrisi, G.; Cheymol, B.; Ponton, A.; Galatà, A.; Patti, G.; Gozzo, A.; Lega, L.; Ciavola, G.

    2014-02-01

    The design update of the European Spallation Source (ESS) accelerator is almost complete and the construction of the prototype of the microwave discharge ion source able to provide a proton beam current larger than 70 mA to the 3.6 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) started. The source named PS-ESS (Proton Source for ESS) was designed with a flexible magnetic system and an extraction system able to merge conservative solutions with significant advances. The ESS injector has taken advantage of recent theoretical updates and new plasma diagnostics tools developed at INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare). The design strategy considers the PS-ESS and the low energy beam transport line as a whole, where the proton beam behaves like an almost neutralized non-thermalized plasma. Innovative solutions have been used as hereinafter described. Thermo-mechanical optimization has been performed to withstand the chopped beam and the misaligned focused beam over the RFQ input collimator; the results are reported here.

  16. Development of an Energy Efficient Cryogenic Transfer Line with Magnetic Suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Quan-Sheng; Cheng, Guangfeng; Susta, Joseph T.; Hull, John R.; Demko, Jonathan A.; Britcher, Colin P.; Fesmire, James E.; Augustynowicz, Stan D.; Werfel, Frank; Bonnema, Edward C.

    2006-04-01

    In a conventional vacuum-jacketed cryogen transfer line, the major heat transfer is dominated by two modes: i) radiation between the warm outer pipe and the cold inner pipe and ii) thermal conduction through support members and penetrations. Magnetic levitation makes it possible to eliminate the conduction portion by use of non-contact support, consisting of high temperature superconductor (HTS) and permanent magnet (PM). Several transfer line prototypes (including a 6-meter prototype) have been designed and constructed to optimized the levitation and thermal performance. This paper reviews the key design/fabrication issues, such as levitation configuration, levitation force measurement, warm-support design using smart materials, fabrication process, and technical milestones throughout a 3-year period. This novel transfer line offers the potential of significant savings of cryogens and hence reduces the cost of crygon use.

  17. Dynamic Response of Acoustic Delay Line for Beam Lines of Synchrotron Radiation Lithography System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyota, Eijiro

    1998-12-01

    Protecting against the sudden rupture of a beryllium window foilhas been a concern in synchrotron radiation lithography. This paperpresents a design study of a new acoustic delay line (ADL) for beamline protection. The ADL consists of a stationary outer tube and amovable inner tube. Between the outer tube and the inner tube, aseries of partitions consisting of stationary and floating platesfunctions as a buffer against invading gas. The inner tube connectsthe floating plates and the beryllium window and maintains aninternal narrow light path by moving synchronously with the scanningmirror.BLVAC, a computer program, has been developed to assist in the design and to simulate the dynamic response. The calculation results provide us with satisfactory design parameters to ensure that the closing time of the shut-off valve is within 30 milliseconds.

  18. An automated system to mount cryo-cooled protein crystals on a synchrotron beam line, using compact sample cassettes and a small-scale robot

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Aina E.; Ellis, Paul J.; Miller, Mitchell D.; Deacon, Ashley M.; Phizackerley, R. Paul

    2014-01-01

    An automated system for mounting and dismounting pre-frozen crystals has been implemented at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL). It is based on a small industrial robot and compact cylindrical cassettes, each holding up to 96 crystals mounted on Hampton Research sample pins. For easy shipping and storage, the cassette fits inside several popular dry-shippers and long-term storage Dewars. A dispensing Dewar holds up to three cassettes in liquid nitrogen adjacent to the beam line goniometer. The robot uses a permanent magnet tool to extract samples from, and insert samples into a cassette, and a cryo-tong tool to transfer them to and from the beam line goniometer. The system is simple, with few moving parts, reliable in operation and convenient to use. PMID:24899734

  19. R_transport_matrices of the Fast Extraction Beam (FEB) of the AGS, and Beam Parameters at the Starting point of the AtR Line

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoupas,N.; MacKay, W.W.; Satogata, T.; Glenn, W.; Ahrens, L.; Brown, K.; Gardner, C.; Tanaka, S.

    2008-01-01

    As part of the task to improve and further automate the 'AtR BPM Application' we provide the theoretically calculated R-transport-matrices for the following beam line sections, which are shown schematically in Figure 1: (a) the Fast Extraction Beam section (FEB) of the AGS synchrotron. The FEB section starts at the middle of the GlO-kicker and ends at the middle of the H1 0{_}septum. (b) the Drift Extraction Channel (DEC) section of the AGS synchrotron. The DEC section starts at the middle of the H10{_}septum, continues along the fringe field region of the H11,H12, and H13 AGS main magnets, and ends at the starting point of the AtR line. The knowledge of these R-transport-matrices are needed in order to calculate the beam parameters at the beginning of the AtR line, which in turn, are required to calculate the magnet settings of the U{_}line, that match the U{_}line into the W{_}line. Also by incorporating these R{_}matrices into the model of the AtR line, the G10 kicker and the H10 septum are included in the AtR model therefore one can investigate any 'jitter' of either the GlO{_}kicker or HlO{_}septum by looking at the trajectory of the beam in the AtR line.

  20. In-beam PET imaging for on-line adaptive proton therapy: an initial phantom study.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yiping; Sun, Xishan; Lou, Kai; Zhu, Xiaorong R; Mirkovic, Dragon; Poenisch, Falk; Grosshans, David

    2014-07-07

    We developed and investigated a positron emission tomography (PET) system for use with on-line (both in-beam and intra-fraction) image-guided adaptive proton therapy applications. The PET has dual rotating depth-of-interaction measurable detector panels by using solid-state photomultiplier (SSPM) arrays and LYSO scintillators. It has a 44 mm diameter trans-axial and 30 mm axial field-of-view (FOV). A 38 mm diameter polymethyl methacrylate phantom was placed inside the FOV. Both PET and phantom axes were aligned with a collimated 179.2 MeV beam. Each beam delivered ∼50 spills (0.5 s spill and 1.5 s inter-spill time, 3.8 Gy at Bragg peak). Data from each beam were acquired with detectors at a given angle. Nine datasets for nine beams with detectors at nine different angles over 180° were acquired for full-tomographic imaging. Each dataset included data both during and 5 min after irradiations. The positron activity-range was measured from the PET image reconstructed from all nine datasets and compared to the results from simulated images. A (22)Na disc-source was also imaged after each beam to monitor the PET system's performance. PET performed well except for slight shifts of energy photo-peak positions (<1%) after each beam, due mainly to the neutron exposure of SSPM that increased the dark-count noise. This minor effect was corrected offline with a shifting 350-650 keV energy window for each dataset. The results show a fast converging of activity-ranges measured by the prototype PET with high sensitivity and uniform resolution. Sub-mm activity-ranges were achieved with minimal 6 s acquisition time and three spill irradiations. These results indicate the feasibility of PET for intra-fraction beam-range verification. Further studies are needed to develop and apply a novel clinical PET system for on-line image-guided adaptive proton therapy.

  1. In-beam PET imaging for on-line adaptive proton therapy: an initial phantom study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Yiping; Sun, Xishan; Lou, Kai; Zhu, Xiaorong R.; Mirkovic, Dragon; Poenisch, Falk; Grosshans, David

    2014-07-01

    We developed and investigated a positron emission tomography (PET) system for use with on-line (both in-beam and intra-fraction) image-guided adaptive proton therapy applications. The PET has dual rotating depth-of-interaction measurable detector panels by using solid-state photomultiplier (SSPM) arrays and LYSO scintillators. It has a 44 mm diameter trans-axial and 30 mm axial field-of-view (FOV). A 38 mm diameter polymethyl methacrylate phantom was placed inside the FOV. Both PET and phantom axes were aligned with a collimated 179.2 MeV beam. Each beam delivered ˜50 spills (0.5 s spill and 1.5 s inter-spill time, 3.8 Gy at Bragg peak). Data from each beam were acquired with detectors at a given angle. Nine datasets for nine beams with detectors at nine different angles over 180° were acquired for full-tomographic imaging. Each dataset included data both during and 5 min after irradiations. The positron activity-range was measured from the PET image reconstructed from all nine datasets and compared to the results from simulated images. A 22Na disc-source was also imaged after each beam to monitor the PET system's performance. PET performed well except for slight shifts of energy photo-peak positions (<1%) after each beam, due mainly to the neutron exposure of SSPM that increased the dark-count noise. This minor effect was corrected offline with a shifting 350-650 keV energy window for each dataset. The results show a fast converging of activity-ranges measured by the prototype PET with high sensitivity and uniform resolution. Sub-mm activity-ranges were achieved with minimal 6 s acquisition time and three spill irradiations. These results indicate the feasibility of PET for intra-fraction beam-range verification. Further studies are needed to develop and apply a novel clinical PET system for on-line image-guided adaptive proton therapy.

  2. The energy transfer in the TEMP-4M pulsed ion beam accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Isakova, Y. I.; Pushkarev, A. I.; Khaylov, I. P.

    2013-07-15

    The results of a study of the energy transfer in the TEMP-4M pulsed ion beam accelerator are presented. The energy transfer efficiency in the Blumlein and a self-magnetically insulated ion diode was analyzed. Optimization of the design of the accelerator allows for 85% of energy transferred from Blumlein to the diode (including after-pulses), which indicates that the energy loss in Blumlein and spark gaps is insignificant and not exceeds 10%–12%. Most losses occur in the diode. The efficiency of energy supplied to the diode to the energy of accelerated ions is 8%–9% for a planar strip self-magnetic MID, 12%–15% for focusing diode and 20% for a spiral self-magnetic MID.

  3. Silica-gold bilayer-based transfer of focused ion beam-fabricated nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaofei; Geisler, Peter; Krauss, Enno; Kullock, René; Hecht, Bert

    2015-10-21

    The demand for using nanostructures fabricated by focused ion beam (FIB) on delicate substrates or as building blocks for complex devices motivates the development of protocols that allow FIB-fabricated nanostructures to be transferred from the original substrate to the desired target. However, transfer of FIB-fabricated nanostructures is severely hindered by FIB-induced welding of structure and substrate. Here we present two (ex and in situ) transfer methods for FIB-fabricated nanostructures based on a silica-gold bilayer evaporated onto a bulk substrate. Utilizing the poor adhesion between silica and gold, the nanostructures can be mechanically separated from the bulk substrate. For the ex situ transfer, a spin-coated poly(methyl methacrylate) film is used to carry the nanostructures so that the bilayer can be etched away after being peeled off. For the in situ transfer, using a micro-manipulator inside the FIB machine, a cut-out piece of silica on which a nanostructure has been fabricated is peeled off from the bulk substrate and thus carries the nanostructure to a target substrate. We demonstrate the performance of both methods by transferring plasmonic nano-antennas fabricated from single-crystalline gold flakes by FIB milling to a silicon wafer and to a scanning probe tip.

  4. Low Thermal Loss Cryogenic Transfer Line with Magnetic Suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Quan-Sheng; Cheng, Guangfeng; Yu, Kun; Hull, John R.; Demko, Jonathan A.; Britcher, Colin P.; Fesmire, James E.; Augustynowicz, Stan D.

    2004-06-01

    An energy efficient, cost effective cryogenic distribution system (up to several miles) is crucial for spaceport and in-space cryogenic systems. The conduction heat loss from the supports that connect the cold inner lines to the warm support structure is ultimately the most serious heat leak after thermal radiation has been minimized. The use of magnetic levitation by permanent magnets and high temperature superconductors provides support without mechanical contact and thus, the conduction part of the heat leak can be reduced to zero. A stop structure is carefully designed to hold the center tube when the system is warm. The novel design will provide the potential of extending many missions by saving cryogens, or reducing the overall launch mass.

  5. Energy Efficient Cryogenic Transfer Line with Magnetic Suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Quan-Sheng; Cheng, Guangfeng; Yu, Kun; Hull, John R.; Demko, Jonathan A.; Britcher, Colin P.; Fesmire, James E.; Augustynowicz, Stan D.

    2003-07-01

    An energy efficient, cost effective cryogenic distribution system (up to several miles) has been identified as important for spaceport and in-space cryogenic systems. The conduction heat loss from the supports that connect the lines cold mass to the warm support structure is ultimately the most serious heat leak after thermal radiation has been minimized. The use of magnetic levitation by permanent magnets and high temperature superconductors provides support without mechanical contact and thus, the conduction part of the heat leak can be reduced to zero. A stop structure is carefully designed to hold the center tube when the system is warm. The novel design will provide the potential of extending many missions by saving cryogens, or reducing the overall launch mass to accomplish a given mission.

  6. Mathematical modeling of moving contact lines in heat transfer applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajaev, Vladimir S.; Klentzman, J.; Sodtke, C.; Stephan, P.

    2007-10-01

    We provide an overview of research on the mathematical modeling of apparent contact lines in non-isothermal systems conducted over the past several decades and report a number of recent developments in the field. The latter involve developing mathematical models of evaporating liquid droplets that account not only for liquid flow and evaporation, but also for unsteady heat conduction in the substrate. The droplet is placed on a flat heated solid substrate and is assumed to be in contact with a saturated vapor. Furthermore, we discuss a careful comparison between mathematical models and experimental work that involves simultaneous measurement of shapes of evaporating droplets and temperature profiles in the solid substrate. The latter is accomplished using thermochromic liquid crystals. Applications to new research areas, such as studies of the effect of evaporation on fingering instabilities in gravity-driven liquid films, are also discussed.

  7. Beam transport radiation shielding for branch lines 2-ID-B and 2-ID-C

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Y.P.; Lai, B.; McNulty, I.; Dejus, R.J.; Randall, K.J.; Yun, W.

    1995-08-01

    The x-ray radiation shielding requirements beyond the first optics enclosure have been considered for the beam transport of the 2-ID-B and 2-ID-C branch lines of Sector 2 (SRI-CAT) of the APS. The first three optical components (mirrors) of the 2-ID-B branch are contained within the shielded first optics enclosure. Calculations indicate that scattering of the primary synchrotron beam by beamline components outside the enclosure, such as apertures and monochromators, or by gas particles in case of vacuum failure is within safe limits for this branch. A standard 2.5-inch-diameter stainless steel pipe with 1/16-inch-thick walls provides adequate shielding to reduce the radiation dose equivalent rate to human tissue to below the maximum permissible limit of 0.25 mrem/hr. The 2-ID-C branch requires, between the first optics enclosure where only two mirrors are used and the housing for the third mirror, additional lead shielding (0.75 mm) and a minimum approach distance of 2.6 cm. A direct beam stop consisting of at least 4.5 mm of lead is also required immediately downstream of the third mirror for 2-ID-C. Finally, to stop the direct beam from escaping the experimental station, a beam stop consisting of at least 4-mm or 2.5-mm steel is required for the 2-ID-B or 2-ID-C branches, respectively. This final requirement can be met by the vacuum chambers used to house the experiments for both branch lines.

  8. Push beam spot-size dependence of atom transfer in a double magneto-optical trap setup.

    PubMed

    Ram, S P; Tiwari, S K; Mishra, S R; Rawat, H S

    2013-07-01

    We have studied the dependence of atom transfer between two magneto-optical traps (MOTs) on the spot-size of a push laser beam in a double magneto-optical trap setup. It was observed that the spot-size of the push beam at vapor-chamber MOT (VC-MOT) affects significantly the transfer of atoms from the VC-MOT to an ultrahigh vacuum MOT (UHV-MOT). The number of atoms accumulated in the UHV-MOT first increases with the push beam spot-size and then decreases with it after attaining a maximum value, for a given power of the push beam. Our results show that the number of atoms accumulated in the UHV-MOT is dependent on the push beam spot-size, push beam power, and capture speed of the UHV-MOT.

  9. Note: Investigation of atom transfer using a red-detuned push beam in a double magneto-optical trap setup.

    PubMed

    Ram, S P; Mishra, S R; Tiwari, S K; Mehendale, S C

    2011-12-01

    We present our results on transfer of cold (87)Rb atoms from a vapor cell magneto-optical trap to ultrahigh vacuum magneto-optical trap (UHV-MOT) using a red-detuned continuous wave push beam in a double-magneto-optical trap setup. We find that use of retro-reflected red-detuned push laser beam results in higher number in UHV-MOT than the number obtained without retro-reflection of push beam.

  10. Intercomparison of three microwave/infrared high resolution line-by-line radiative transfer codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreier, F.; Garcia, S. Gimeno; Milz, M.; Kottayil, A.; Höpfner, M.; von Clarmann, T.; Stiller, G.

    2013-05-01

    An intercomparison of three line-by-line (lbl) codes developed independently for atmospheric sounding - ARTS, GARLIC, and KOPRA - has been performed for a thermal infrared nadir sounding application assuming a HIRS-like (High resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder) setup. Radiances for the HIRS infrared channels and a set of 42 atmospheric profiles from the "Garand dataset" have been computed. Results of this intercomparison and a discussion of reasons of the observed differences are presented.

  11. GARLIC - A general purpose atmospheric radiative transfer line-by-line infrared-microwave code: Implementation and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreier, Franz; Gimeno García, Sebastián; Hedelt, Pascal; Hess, Michael; Mendrok, Jana; Vasquez, Mayte; Xu, Jian

    2014-04-01

    A suite of programs for high resolution infrared-microwave atmospheric radiative transfer modeling has been developed with emphasis on efficient and reliable numerical algorithms and a modular approach appropriate for simulation and/or retrieval in a variety of applications. The Generic Atmospheric Radiation Line-by-line Infrared Code - GARLIC - is suitable for arbitrary observation geometry, instrumental field-of-view, and line shape. The core of GARLIC's subroutines constitutes the basis of forward models used to implement inversion codes to retrieve atmospheric state parameters from limb and nadir sounding instruments. This paper briefly introduces the physical and mathematical basics of GARLIC and its descendants and continues with an in-depth presentation of various implementation aspects: An optimized Voigt function algorithm combined with a two-grid approach is used to accelerate the line-by-line modeling of molecular cross sections; various quadrature methods are implemented to evaluate the Schwarzschild and Beer integrals; and Jacobians, i.e. derivatives with respect to the unknowns of the atmospheric inverse problem, are implemented by means of automatic differentiation. For an assessment of GARLIC's performance, a comparison of the quadrature methods for solution of the path integral is provided. Verification and validation are demonstrated using intercomparisons with other line-by-line codes and comparisons of synthetic spectra with spectra observed on Earth and from Venus.

  12. Portable reconfigurable line sensor (PRLS) and technology transfer

    SciTech Connect

    MacKenzie, D.P.; Buckle, T.H.; Blattman, D.A.

    1993-12-31

    The Portable Reconfigurable Line Sensor (PRLS) is a bistatic, pulsed-Doppler, microwave intrusion detection system developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the US Air Force. The PRLS is rapidly and easily deployed, and can detect intruders ranging from a slow creeping intruder to a high speed vehicle. The system has a sharply defined detection zone and will not falsely alarm on nearby traffic. Unlike most microwave sensors, the PRLS requires no alignment or calibration. Its portability, battery operation, ease of setup, and RF alarm reporting capability make it an excellent choice for perimeter, portal, and gap-filler applications in the important new field of rapidly-deployable sensor systems. In October 1992, the US Air Force and Racon, Inc., entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to commercialize the PRLS, jointly sharing government and industry resources. The Air Force brings the user`s perspective and requirements to the cooperative effort. Sandia, serving as the technical arm of the Air Force, adds the actual PRLS technology to the joint effort, and provides security systems and radar development expertise. Racon puts the Air Force requirements and Sandia technology together into a commercial product, making the system meet important commercial manufacturing constraints. The result is a true ``win-win`` situation, with reduced government investment during the commercial development of the PRLS, and industry access to technology not otherwise available.

  13. PERFORMING DIAGNOSTICS ON THE SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE VISION BEAM LINE TO ELIMINATE HIGH VIBRATION LEVELS AND PROVIDE A SUSTAINABLE OPERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Van Hoy, Blake W

    2014-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides variable energy neutrons for a variety of experiments. The neutrons proceed down beam lines to the experiment hall, which houses a variety of experiments and test articles. Each beam line has one or more neutron choppers which filter the neutron beam based on the neutron energy by using a rotating neutron absorbing material passing through the neutron beam. Excessive vibration of the Vision beam line, believed to be caused by the T0 chopper, prevented the Vision beam line from operating at full capacity. This problem had been addressed several times by rebalancing/reworking the T0 beam chopper but the problem stubbornly persisted. To determine the cause of the high vibration, dynamic testing was performed. Twenty-seven accelerometer and motor current channels of data were collected during drive up, drive down, coast down, and steady-state conditions; resonance testing and motor current signature analysis were also performed. The data was analyzed for traditional mechanical/machinery issues such as misalignment and imbalance using time series analysis, frequency domain analysis, and operating deflection shape analysis. The analysis showed that the chopper base plate was experiencing an amplified response to the excitation provided by the T0 beam chopper. The amplified response was diagnosed to be caused by higher than expected base plate flexibility, possibly due to improper grouting or loose floor anchors. Based on this diagnosis, a decision was made to dismantle the beam line chopper and remount the base plate. Neutron activation of the beam line components make modifications to the beam line especially expensive and time consuming due to the radiation handling requirements, so this decision had significant financial and schedule implications. It was found that the base plate was indeed loose because of improper grouting during its initial installation. The base plate was

  14. Orbit error correction on the high energy beam transport line at the KHIMA accelerator system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Chawon; Yim, Heejoong; Hahn, Garam; An, Dong Hyun

    2016-09-01

    For the purpose of treatment of various cancers and medical research, a synchrotron based medical machine has been developed under the Korea Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (KHIMA) project and is scheduled for use to treat patient at the beginning of 2018. The KHIMA synchrotron is designed to accelerate and extract carbon ion (proton) beams with various energies from 110 to 430 MeV/u (60 to 230 MeV). Studies on the lattice design and beam optics for the High Energy Beam Transport (HEBT) line at the KHIMA accelerator system have been carried out using the WinAgile and the MAD-X codes. Because magnetic field errors and misalignments introduce deviations from the design parameters, these error sources should be treated explicitly, and the sensitivity of the machine's lattice to different individual error sources should be considered. Various types of errors, both static and dynamic, have been taken into account and have been consequentially corrected with a dedicated correction algorithm by using the MAD-X program. Based on the error analysis, the optimized correction setup is decided, and the specifications for the correcting magnets of the HEBT lines are determined.

  15. Expanded beam spectro-ellipsometry for big area on-line monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, M.; Major, C.; Juhasz, G.; Petrik, P.; Horvath, Z.

    2015-05-01

    Non-destructive analysing tools are needed at all stages of thin film process-development, especially photovoltaic (PV) development, and on production lines. In the case of thin films, layer thicknesses, micro-structure, composition, layer optical properties, and their uniformity are important parameters. An important focus is to express the dielectric functions of each component material in terms of a handful of wavelength independent parameters whose variation can cover all process variants of that material. With the resulting database, spectroscopic ellipsometry coupled with multilayer analysis can be developed for on-line point-by-point mapping and on-line line-by-line imaging. Off-line point-by-point mapping can be effective for characterization of non-uniformities in full scale PV panels or big area (even 450 mm diameter) Si-wafers in developing labs but it is slow in the on-line mode when only 15 points can be obtained (within 1 min) as a 120 cm long panel moves by the mapping station. Last years [M. Fried et al, Thin Solid Films 519, 2730 (2011)], a new instrumentation was developed that provides a line image of spectroscopic ellipsometry (wl=350- 1000 nm) data. Earlier a single 30 point line image could be collected in 10 s over a 15 cm width of PV material. Recent years we have built a 30, a 45 and a 60 cm width expanded beam ellipsometer which speed is increased by 10x. Now, 1800 points can be mapped in a 1 min traverse of a 60*120 cm PV panel or flexible roll-to-roll substrate.

  16. Dose-volume delivery guided proton therapy using beam on-line PET system

    SciTech Connect

    Nishio, Teiji; Ogino, Takashi; Nomura, Kazuhiro; Uchida, Hiroshi

    2006-11-15

    Proton therapy is one form of radiotherapy in which the irradiation can be concentrated on a tumor using a scanned or modulated Bragg peak. Therefore, it is very important to evaluate the proton-irradiated volume accurately. The proton-irradiated volume can be confirmed by detection of pair annihilation gamma rays from positron emitter nuclei generated by the target nuclear fragment reaction of irradiated proton nuclei and nuclei in the irradiation target using a positron emission tomography (PET) apparatus, and dose-volume delivery guided proton therapy (DGPT) can thereby be achieved using PET images. In the proton treatment room, a beam ON-LINE PET system (BOLPs) was constructed so that a PET apparatus of the planar-type with a high spatial resolution of about 2 mm was mounted with the field of view covering the isocenter of the beam irradiation system. The position and intensity of activity were measured using the BOLPs immediately after the proton irradiation of a gelatinous water target containing {sup 16}O nuclei at different proton irradiation energy levels. The change of the activity-distribution range against the change of the physical range was observed within 2 mm. The experiments of proton irradiation to a rabbit and the imaging of the activity were performed. In addition, the proton beam energy used to irradiate the rabbit was changed. When the beam condition was changed, the difference between the two images acquired from the measurement of the BOLPs was confirmed to clearly identify the proton-irradiated volume.

  17. Optimization of Extinction Efficiency in the 8-GeV Mu2e Beam Line

    SciTech Connect

    Rakhno, I.L.; Drozhdin, A.I.; Johnstone, C.; Mokhov, N.V.; Prebys, E.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-11

    A muon-to-electron conversion experiment at Fermilab, Mu2e, is being designed to probe for new physics beyond the standard model at mass scales up to 10{sup 4} TeV. For this experiment, the advance in experimental sensitivity will be four orders of magnitude when compared to existing data on charged lepton flavor violation. The muon beam will be produced by delivering a proton beam contained in short 100-ns bunches onto a muon production target, with an inter-bunch separation of about 1700 ns. A critical requirement of the experiment is to ensure a low level of background at the muon detector consistent with the required sensitivity. To meet the sensitivity requirement, protons that reach the target between bunches must be suppressed by an enormous factor, so that an extinction factor, defined as a number of background protons between main bunches per proton in such a bunch, should not exceed 10{sup -9}. This paper describes the advanced beam optics and results of numerical modeling with STRUCT and MARS codes for a beam line with a collimation system that allows us to achieve the experimental extinction factor of one per billion.

  18. Los Alamos Neutron Science Center Area-A beam window heat transfer alalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, D.

    1997-07-01

    Several analyses that investigate heat transfer in the Area-A beam window were conducted. It was found that the Area-A window should be able to withstand the 1-mA, 3-cm beam of the accelerator production of tritium materials test, but that the margins to failure are small. It was also determined that when the window is subjected to the 1-mA, 3-cm beam, the inner window thermocouples should read higher than the current temperature limit of 900{degrees}C, although it is possible that the thermocouples may fail before they reach these temperatures. Another finding of this study was that the actual beam width before April 1997 was 20 to 25% greater than the harp-wire printout indicated. Finally, the effect of a copper-oxide layer on the window coolant passage was studied. The results did not indicate the presence of a large copper-oxide layer; however, the results were not conclusive.

  19. Simulating Time-Dependent Energy Transfer Between Crossed Laser Beams in an Expanding Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Hittinger, J F; Dorr, M R; Berger, R L; Williams, E A

    2004-10-11

    A coupled mode system is derived to investigate a three-wave parametric instability leading to energy transfer between co-propagating laser beams crossing in a plasma flow. The model includes beams of finite width refracting in a prescribed transverse plasma flow with spatial and temporal gradients in velocity and density. The resulting paraxial light equations are discretized spatially with a Crank-Nicholson-type scheme, and these algebraic constraints are nonlinearly coupled with ordinary differential equations in time that describe the ion acoustic response. The entire nonlinear differential-algebraic system is solved using an adaptive, backward-differencing method coupled with Newton's method. A numerical study is conducted in two dimensions that compares the intensity gain of the fully time-dependent coupled mode system with the gain computed under the further assumption of a strongly-damped ion acoustic response. The results demonstrate a time-dependent gain suppression when the beam diameter is commensurate with the velocity gradient scale length. The gain suppression is shown to depend on time-dependent beam refraction and is interpreted as a time-dependent frequency shift.

  20. Analysis of dewar and transfer line cooldown in Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer Flight Experiment (SHOOT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Y. S.; Lee, J. H.

    1989-01-01

    The Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer Flight Experiment (SHOOT) is designed to demonstrate the techniques and components required for orbital superfluid (He II) replenishment of observatories and satellites. One of the tasks planned in the experiment is to cool a warm cryogen tank and a warm transfer line to liquid helium temperature. A math model, based on single-phase vapor flow heat transfer, has been developed to predict the cooldown time, component temperature histories, and helium consumption rate, for various initial conditions of the components and for the thermomechanical pump heater powers of 2 W and 0.5 W. This paper discusses the model and the analytical results, which can be used for planning the experiment operations and determining the pump heater power required for the cooldown operation.

  1. Absolute x-ray dosimetry on a synchrotron medical beam line with a graphite calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Harty, P. D. Ramanathan, G.; Butler, D. J.; Johnston, P. N.; Lye, J. E.; Hall, C. J.; Stevenson, A. W.

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: The absolute dose rate of the Imaging and Medical Beamline (IMBL) on the Australian Synchrotron was measured with a graphite calorimeter. The calorimetry results were compared to measurements from the existing free-air chamber, to provide a robust determination of the absolute dose in the synchrotron beam and provide confidence in the first implementation of a graphite calorimeter on a synchrotron medical beam line. Methods: The graphite calorimeter has a core which rises in temperature when irradiated by the beam. A collimated x-ray beam from the synchrotron with well-defined edges was used to partially irradiate the core. Two filtration sets were used, one corresponding to an average beam energy of about 80 keV, with dose rate about 50 Gy/s, and the second filtration set corresponding to average beam energy of 90 keV, with dose rate about 20 Gy/s. The temperature rise from this beam was measured by a calibrated thermistor embedded in the core which was then converted to absorbed dose to graphite by multiplying the rise in temperature by the specific heat capacity for graphite and the ratio of cross-sectional areas of the core and beam. Conversion of the measured absorbed dose to graphite to absorbed dose to water was achieved using Monte Carlo calculations with the EGSnrc code. The air kerma measurements from the free-air chamber were converted to absorbed dose to water using the AAPM TG-61 protocol. Results: Absolute measurements of the IMBL dose rate were made using the graphite calorimeter and compared to measurements with the free-air chamber. The measurements were at three different depths in graphite and two different filtrations. The calorimetry measurements at depths in graphite show agreement within 1% with free-air chamber measurements, when converted to absorbed dose to water. The calorimetry at the surface and free-air chamber results show agreement of order 3% when converted to absorbed dose to water. The combined standard uncertainty is 3

  2. Target and orbit feedback simulations of a muSR beam line at BNL

    SciTech Connect

    MacKay, W.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Fischer, W.; Pile, P.

    2015-07-28

    Well-polarized positive surface muons are a tool to measure the magnetic properties of materials since the precession rate of the spin can be determined from the observation of the positron directions when the muons decay. For a dc beam an ideal µSR flux for surface µ+ should be about 40 kHz/mm2. In this report we show how this flux could be achieved in a beam line using the AGS complex at BNL for a source of protons. We also determined that an orbit feedback system with a pair of thin silicon position monitors and kickers would miss the desired flux by at least an order of magnitude, even with perfect time resolution and no multiple scattering.

  3. Scientific potential and design considerations for an undulator beam line on Aladdin storage ring

    SciTech Connect

    Arko, A. J.; Bader, S. D.; Dehmer, Joseph L.; Kim, S. H.; Knapp, G. S.; Shenoy, G. K.; Veal, B. W.; Young, C. E.; Brown, F. C.; Weaver, J. W.

    1985-04-08

    The unique features of undulator radiation, i.e., high photon flux and brightness, partial coherence, small beam divergence, spectral tunability, etc., mandate that undulators be included in the future plans for Aladdin. This will make it possible to perform the next generation of experiments in photon-stimulated spectroscopies. A team of scientists (see Appendix) has now been assembled to build an insertion device (ID) and the associated beam line at Aladdin. In considering the specifications for the ID, it was assumed that the ID beamline will be an SRC user facility. Consequently, design parameters were chosen with the intent of maximizing experimental flexibility consistent with a conservative design approach. A tunable ''clamshell'' undulator device was Chosen with a first harmonic tunable from 35 to 110 eV to operate on a 1 GeV storage ring. Higher harmonics will be utilized for experiments needing higher photon energies.

  4. The high altitude SSMIS channels: Validation of fast radiative transfer simulations by comparison with line-by-line simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, Richard; Rayer, Peter; Saunders, Roger; Bell, William; Booton, Anna; Buehler, Stefan A.; Eriksson, Patrick; John, Viju

    2015-04-01

    Channels 19-22 of the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) on the DMSP satellite are simulated using a diverse atmospheric temperature profile dataset. These channels all measure the absorption spectra of the main isotope of molecular oxygen, and have pass-bands that are close in frequency to the center frequencies of four of the spectral lines. As a consequence, the channels measure high up in the atmosphere. The sensitivity of some channels even peak above the present upper levels of numerical weather prediction models at 80 km. The high altitude of the measurements in turn means that the molecular oxygen spectroscopy is noticeably affected by the Zeeman effect; this splits a line into frequency-separated polarized components as a function of the external magnetic field. The simulations have been performed using both ARTS and RTTOV as forward radiative transfer simulators. ARTS uses a line-by-line approach to radiative transfer. For the Zeeman effect calculations, ARTS can read line data and 3D magnetism directly from databases and then performs the splitting and polarization for each finite layer to calculate polarized absorption that is input to the radiative transfer equation. RTTOV uses a fast approach to radiative transfer, pre-calculating scalar effective transmission predictors for a set of atmospheric scenarios for each channel. For the Zeeman effect calculations, an altitude independent magnetic field is required as input for the layered transmission for the radiative transfer equation. Our results show that the differences between the models are small compared to sensor noise for all channels. The mean difference between models is larger for the lower altitude channels 21 and 22, but the standard deviation is small between the models. The mean simulated brightness temperatures of ARTS are closer to SSMIS than the RTTOV values, but it is not possible to tell which model is more accurate as temperature errors in the profiles are expected to be

  5. Production of neutron deficient rare isotope beams at IGISOL; on-line and off-line studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huikari, J.; Dendooven, P.; Jokinen, A.; Nieminen, A.; Penttilä, H.; Peräjärvi, K.; Popov, A.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Äystö, J.

    2004-08-01

    This article reports on recent on-line yield measurements employing the light-ion and heavy-ion reaction-based ion guide systems and new results on α-recoil ion transport properties in ion guides with and without electric fields. In addition, the presently used ion guide designs for fusion evaporation reactions are introduced. The present study investigated different schemes for ion extraction from the gas cell. The addition of an extra ring electrode between the traditional skimmer electrode and the exit hole led to transmission independent of the primary beam intensity as opposed to strong intensity dependence observed earlier with the plain skimmer only. Furthermore, the mass resolving power of the IGISOL mass separator was increased to 1100 as compared to 250 with the skimmer system when using the RF-sextupole for the extraction from the heavy-ion ion guide. As a new method, the possibility to increase the ion guide efficiency by injecting electrons into the stopping volume is introduced. The efficiency of the electron emitter ion guide was a factor of ten higher in off-line conditions. Also, the influence of the buffer gas purity on the ion survival is discussed.

  6. Line-by-line transport calculations for Jupiter entry probes. [of radiative transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, J. O.; Cooper, D. M.; Park, C.; Prakash, S. G.

    1979-01-01

    Line-by-line calculations of the radiative transport for a condition near peak heating for entry of the Galileo probe into the Jovian atmosphere are described. The discussion includes a thorough specification of the atomic and molecular input data used in the calculations that could be useful to others working in the field. The results show that the use of spectrally averaged cross sections for diatomic absorbers such as CO and C2 in the boundary layer can lead to an underestimation (by as much as 29%) of the spectral flux at the stagnation point. On the other hand, for the turbulent region near the cone frustum on the probe, the flow tends to be optically thin, and the spectrally averaged results commonly used in coupled radiative transport-flow field calculations are in good agreement with the present line-by-line results. It is recommended that these results be taken into account in sizing the final thickness of the Galileo's heat shield.

  7. Line edge roughness frequency analysis during pattern transfer in semiconductor fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Lei; Wang, Wenhui; Beique, Genevieve; Sung, Min Gyu; Wood, Obert R.; Kim, Ryoung-Han

    2015-07-01

    Line edge roughness (LER) and line width roughness (LWR) are analyzed based on the frequency domain 3σ LER characterization methodology during pattern transfer in a self-aligned double patterning (SADP) process. The power spectrum of the LER/LWR is divided into three regions: low frequency, middle frequency, and high frequency regions. Three standard deviation numbers are used to characterize the LER/LWR in the three frequency regions. Pattern wiggling is also detected quantitatively during LER/LWR transfer in the SADP process.

  8. Development and construction of a neutron beam line for accelerator-based boron neutron capture synovectomy.

    PubMed

    Gierga, D P; Yanch, J C; Shefer, R E

    2000-01-01

    A potential application of the 10B(n, alpha)7Li nuclear reaction for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, termed Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy (BNCS), is under investigation. In an arthritic joint, the synovial lining becomes inflamed and is a source of great pain and discomfort for the afflicted patient. The goal of BNCS is to ablate the synovium, thereby eliminating the symptoms of the arthritis. A BNCS treatment would consist of an intra-articular injection of boron followed by neutron irradiation of the joint. Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations have been used to develop an accelerator-based epithermal neutron beam line for BNCS treatments. The model includes a moderator/reflector assembly, neutron producing target, target cooling system, and arthritic joint phantom. Single and parallel opposed beam irradiations have been modeled for the human knee, human finger, and rabbit knee joints. Additional reflectors, placed to the side and back of the joint, have been added to the model and have been shown to improve treatment times and skin doses by about a factor of 2. Several neutron-producing charged particle reactions have been examined for BNCS, including the 9Be(p,n) reaction at proton energies of 4 and 3.7 MeV, the 9Be(d,n) reaction at deuteron energies of 1.5 and 2.6 MeV, and the 7Li(p,n) reaction at a proton energy of 2.5 MeV. For an accelerator beam current of 1 mA and synovial boron uptake of 1000 ppm, the time to deliver a therapy dose of 10,000 RBEcGy ranges from 3 to 48 min, depending on the treated joint and the neutron producing charged particle reaction. The whole-body effective dose that a human would incur during a knee treatment has been estimated to be 3.6 rem or 0.75 rem, for 1000 ppm or 19,000 ppm synovial boron uptake, respectively, although the shielding configuration has not yet been optimized. The Monte Carlo design process culminated in the construction, installation, and testing of a dedicated BNCS beam line on the high

  9. Modeling of the cross-beam energy transfer with realistic inertial-confinement-fusion beams in a large-scale hydrocode.

    PubMed

    Colaïtis, A; Duchateau, G; Ribeyre, X; Tikhonchuk, V

    2015-01-01

    A method for modeling realistic laser beams smoothed by kinoform phase plates is presented. The ray-based paraxial complex geometrical optics (PCGO) model with Gaussian thick rays allows one to create intensity variations, or pseudospeckles, that reproduce the beam envelope, contrast, and high-intensity statistics predicted by paraxial laser propagation codes. A steady-state cross-beam energy-transfer (CBET) model is implemented in a large-scale radiative hydrocode based on the PCGO model. It is used in conjunction with the realistic beam modeling technique to study the effects of CBET between coplanar laser beams on the target implosion. The pseudospeckle pattern imposed by PCGO produces modulations in the irradiation field and the shell implosion pressure. Cross-beam energy transfer between beams at 20(∘) and 40(∘) significantly degrades the irradiation symmetry by amplifying low-frequency modes and reducing the laser-capsule coupling efficiency, ultimately leading to large modulations of the shell areal density and lower convergence ratios. These results highlight the role of laser-plasma interaction and its influence on the implosion dynamics.

  10. Projection phase contrast microscopy with a hard x-ray nanofocused beam: Defocus and contrast transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Salditt, T.; Giewekemeyer, K.; Fuhse, C.; Krueger, S. P.; Tucoulou, R.; Cloetens, P.

    2009-05-01

    We report a projection phase contrast microscopy experiment using hard x-ray pink beam undulator radiation focused by an adaptive mirror system to 100-200 nm spot size. This source is used to illuminate a lithographic test pattern with a well-controlled range of spatial frequencies. The oscillatory nature of the contrast transfer function with source-to-sample distance in this holographic imaging scheme is quantified and the validity of the weak phase object approximation is confirmed for the experimental conditions.

  11. Silica-gold bilayer-based transfer of focused ion beam-fabricated nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaofei; Geisler, Peter; Krauss, Enno; Kullock, René; Hecht, Bert

    2015-10-01

    The demand for using nanostructures fabricated by focused ion beam (FIB) on delicate substrates or as building blocks for complex devices motivates the development of protocols that allow FIB-fabricated nanostructures to be transferred from the original substrate to the desired target. However, transfer of FIB-fabricated nanostructures is severely hindered by FIB-induced welding of structure and substrate. Here we present two (ex and in situ) transfer methods for FIB-fabricated nanostructures based on a silica-gold bilayer evaporated onto a bulk substrate. Utilizing the poor adhesion between silica and gold, the nanostructures can be mechanically separated from the bulk substrate. For the ex situ transfer, a spin-coated poly(methyl methacrylate) film is used to carry the nanostructures so that the bilayer can be etched away after being peeled off. For the in situ transfer, using a micro-manipulator inside the FIB machine, a cut-out piece of silica on which a nanostructure has been fabricated is peeled off from the bulk substrate and thus carries the nanostructure to a target substrate. We demonstrate the performance of both methods by transferring plasmonic nano-antennas fabricated from single-crystalline gold flakes by FIB milling to a silicon wafer and to a scanning probe tip.The demand for using nanostructures fabricated by focused ion beam (FIB) on delicate substrates or as building blocks for complex devices motivates the development of protocols that allow FIB-fabricated nanostructures to be transferred from the original substrate to the desired target. However, transfer of FIB-fabricated nanostructures is severely hindered by FIB-induced welding of structure and substrate. Here we present two (ex and in situ) transfer methods for FIB-fabricated nanostructures based on a silica-gold bilayer evaporated onto a bulk substrate. Utilizing the poor adhesion between silica and gold, the nanostructures can be mechanically separated from the bulk substrate. For the ex

  12. Wireless power transfer and fault diagnosis of high-voltage power line via robotic bird

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chunhua; Chau, K. T.; Zhang, Zhen; Qiu, Chun; Li, Wenlong; Ching, T. W.

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a new idea of wireless power transfer (WPT) and fault diagnosis (FD) of high-voltage power line via robotic bird. The key is to present the conceptual robotic bird with WPT coupling coil for detecting and capturing the energy from the high-voltage power line. If the power line works in normal condition, the robotic bird is able to stand on the power line and extract energy from it. If fault occurs on the power line, the corresponding magnetic field distribution will become different from that in the normal situation. By analyzing the magnetic field distribution of the power line, the WPT to the robotic bird and the FD by the robotic bird are performed and verified.

  13. W-320 waste retrieval sluicing system transfer line flushing volume and frequency calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, J.W.

    1997-11-05

    The calculations contained in this analysis document establish the technical basis for the volume, frequency, and flushing fluid to be utilized for routine Waste Retrieval Sluicing System (WRSS) process line flushes. The WRSS was installed by Project W-320, Tank 24 I-C-106 Sluicing. The double contained pipelines being flushed have 4 inch stainless steel primary pipes. The flushes are intended to prevent hydrogen build up in the transfer lines and to provide ALARA conditions for maintenance personnel.

  14. Low-energy ion beam bombardment effect on the plant-cell-envelope mimetic membrane for DNA transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakrajang, K.; Sangwijit, K.; Anuntalabhochai, S.; Wanichapichart, P.; Yu, L. D.

    2012-09-01

    This study is a systematic analysis of the mechanisms involved in ion-beam induced DNA transfer, an important application of ion beam biotechnology. Cellulose membranes were used to mimic the plant cell envelope. Ion beams of argon (Ar) or nitrogen (N) at an energy of 25 keV bombarded the cellulose membranes at fluences ranging from 1015 to 1016 ions/cm2. The damage to the ion-beam-bombarded membranes was characterized using infrared spectroscopy, a micro tensile test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Chain scission was the dominant radiation damage type in the membrane. DNA diffusion across the membrane was significantly increased after ion beam bombardment. The increase in DNA transfer is therefore attributed to chain scission, which increases the permeability by increasing the number of pores in the membrane.

  15. 100 years of Elementary Particles [Beam Line, vol. 27, issue 1, Spring 1997

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Pais, Abraham; Weinberg, Steven; Quigg, Chris; Riordan, Michael; Panofsky, Wolfgang K. H.; Trimble, Virginia

    1997-04-01

    This issue of Beam Line commemorates the 100th anniversary of the April 30, 1897 report of the discovery of the electron by J.J. Thomson and the ensuing discovery of other subatomic particles. In the first three articles, theorists Abraham Pais, Steven Weinberg, and Chris Quigg provide their perspectives on the discoveries of elementary particles as well as the implications and future directions resulting from these discoveries. In the following three articles, Michael Riordan, Wolfgang Panofsky, and Virginia Trimble apply our knowledge about elementary particles to high-energy research, electronics technology, and understanding the origin and evolution of our Universe.

  16. 100 years of elementary particles [Beam Line, vol. 27, issue 1, Spring 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Pais, Abraham; Weinberg, Steven; Quigg, Chris; Riordan, Michael; Panofsky, Wolfgang K.H.; Trimble, Virginia

    1997-04-01

    This issue of Beam Line commemorates the 100th anniversary of the April 30, 1897 report of the discovery of the electron by J.J. Thomson and the ensuing discovery of other subatomic particles. In the first three articles, theorists Abraham Pais, Steven Weinberg, and Chris Quigg provide their perspectives on the discoveries of elementary particles as well as the implications and future directions resulting from these discoveries. In the following three articles, Michael Riordan, Wolfgang Panofsky, and Virginia Trimble apply our knowledge about elementary particles to high-energy research, electronics technology, and understanding the origin and evolution of our Universe.

  17. Thermal performance of the SSRL beam line 6-2 upstream beryllium window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youngman, B. P.; Arthur, J.

    1988-09-01

    This paper describes results of an infra-red measurement of the temperature distribution on the upstream, 0.254 millimeter thick beryllium window on SSRL Beam Line 6-2, illuminated by a 1.89 meter long 54 pole wiggler. The temperature field observed in the test was analyzed using finite element analysis and the total absorbed power determined. The analysis technique was verified by calculating the temperature field produced by a known heat load in a test conducted at the Lawerence Livermore National Laboratory.

  18. Evaluation of Hose in Hose Transfer Line Service Life for Hanfords Interim Stabilization Program

    SciTech Connect

    TORRES, T.D.

    2001-03-23

    RPP-6153, Engineering Task Plan for Hose-in-Hose Transfer System for the Interim Stabilization Program (Torres, 2000a), defines the programmatic goals, functional requirements, and technical criteria for the development and subsequent installation of waste transfer line equipment to support Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program. RPP-6028, Specification for Hose in Hose Transfer Lines for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program (Torres, 2000b), has been issued to define the specific requirements for the design, manufacture, and verification of transfer line assemblies for specific waste transfer applications associated with Interim Stabilization. Included in RPP-6028 are tables defining the chemical constituents of concern to which transfer lines will be exposed. Current Interim Stabilization Program planning forecasts that the at-grade transfer lines will be required to convey pumpable waste for as much as three years after commissioning, RPP-6028 Section 3.2.7. Performance Incentive Number ORP-05 requires that all the Single Shell Tanks be Interim Stabilized by September 30, 2003. The Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) milestone M-41-00, enforced by a federal consent decree, requires all the Single Shell Tanks to be Interim stabilized by September 30, 2004. By meeting the Performance Incentive the TPA milestone is met. Prudent engineering dictates that the equipment used to transfer waste have a life in excess of the forecasted operational time period, with some margin to allow for future adjustments to the planned schedule. This document evaluates the effective service life of the Hose-in-Hose Transfer Lines, based on information submitted by the manufacturer, published literature and calculations. The effective service life of transfer line assemblies is a function of several factors. Foremost among these are the hose material's resistance to the harmful effects of process fluid characteristics, ambient environmental conditions, exposure to ionizing radiation and the

  19. The charge breeder beam line for the selective production of exotic species project at INFN-Legnaro National Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galatà, A.; Comunian, M.; Maggiore, M.; Manzolaro, M.; Angot, J.; Lamy, T.

    2014-02-01

    SPES (Selective Production of Exotic Species) is an INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare) project with the aim at producing and post-accelerating exotic beams to perform forefront research in nuclear physics. To allow post-acceleration of the radioactive ions, an ECR-based Charge Breeder (CB) developed on the basis of the Phoenix booster was chosen. The design of the complete beam line for the SPES-CB will be described: a system for stable 1+ beams production was included; special attention was paid to the medium resolution mass spectrometer after the CB to limit possible superposition of the exotic beams with the impurities present in the ECR plasma.

  20. EVALUATION OF FROST HEAVE ON WASTE TRANSFER LINES WITH SHALLOW DEPTHS IN DST (DOUBLE SHELL TANK) FARMS

    SciTech Connect

    HAQ MA

    2009-05-12

    The purpose of this document is to evaluate the effect of frost heave on waste transfer lines with shallow depths in DST farms. Because of the insulation, well compacted sandy material around waste transfer lines, the type of sandy and gravel soil, and relatively low precipitation at Hanford site, it is concluded that waste transfer lines with one foot of soil covers (sandy cushion material and insulation) are not expected to undergo frost heave damaging effects.

  1. DESIGN AND SHIELDING OF A BEAM LINE FROM ELENA TO ATRAP USING ELECTROSTATIC QUADRUPOLE LENSES AND BENDS

    SciTech Connect

    Yuri, Yosuke; Lee, Edward P.

    2010-09-01

    The construction of the Extra Low ENergy Antiprotons (ELENA) upgrade to the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) ring has been proposed at CERN to produce a greatly increased current of low-energy antiprotons for various experiments including anti-hydrogen studies. This upgrade involves the addition of a small storage ring and electrostatic beam lines. The 5.3-MeV antiproton beams from AD are decelerated down to 100 keV in the compact ring and transported to each experimental apparatus. In this paper, we describe an electrostatic beam line from the ELENA ring to the ATRAP experimental apparatus and magnetic shielding of the low-energy beam line against the ATRAP superconducting solenoid magnet. A possible rough conceptual design of this system is displayed.

  2. Theoretical evaluation of thermal imaging for detection of erosive wear of internally refractory-lined transfer lines

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, C. K.; Ellingson, W. A.; Su, K. C.

    1980-05-01

    Infrared scanning has potential use in detecting erosive wear (thickness change) of the refractory surface of large-diameter steel pipes internally lined with refractory concrete, which are typical of those used in coal-conversion processes. An analytical study was conducted to determine the viability of this method. Heat-transfer models were developed to predict surface-temperature distributions on the outer metal surface for various erosive-wear conditions on the inner surface, assuming uniform inner-surface temperature. Variables investigated included thermal conductivity of the refractory concrete, thermal contact resistance between the steel shell and the refractory, outer-surface convective coefficient, outer-surface radiative properties, and refractory-lining thickness and composition. The study used two- and three-dimensional heat-transfer models and various well-defined rectangular cavities on the inner surface. Temperature resolution, and thus calculation of cavity sizes from surface-temperature profiles, is better when the convective coefficient is small and the interfacial contact resistance is uniformly low. The presence of dual refractory-concrete liners using a layer of insulating concrete between the hot-face lining and the steel shell, together with thick steel (t > 25 mm), tends to smear temperature patterns and reduce the temperature gradient so that calculation of cavity shapes becomes impractical. 44 figures, 15 tables.

  3. Multiple Scattering in Beam-line Detectors of the MUSE Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garland, Heather; Robinette, Clay; Strauch, Steffen; MUon Scattering Experiment (MUSE) Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The charge radius of the proton has been obtained precisely from elastic electron-scattering data and spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen. However, a recent experiment using muonic hydrogen, designed for high-precision, presented a charge radius significantly smaller than the accepted value. This discrepancy certainly prompts a discussion of topics ranging from experimental methods to physics beyond the Standard Model. The MUon Scattering Experiment (MUSE) collaboration at the Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland, is planning an experiment to measure the charge radius of the proton in elastic scattering of electrons and muons of positive and negative charge off protons. In the layout for the proposed experiment, detectors will be placed in the beam line upstream of a hydrogen target. Using Geant4 simulations, we studied the effect of multiple scattering due to these detectors and determined the fraction of primary particles that hit the target for a muon beam at each beam momentum. Of the studied detectors, a quartz Cherenkov detector caused the largest multiple scattering. Our results will guide further optimization of the detector setup. Supported in parts by the U.S. National Science Foundation: NSF PHY-1205782.

  4. Range-dependent geoacoustic inversion of vertical line array data using matched beam processing.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyungseop; Seong, Woojae; Lee, Keunhwa; Kim, Seongil; Shim, Taebo

    2009-02-01

    This paper describes the results of range-dependent geoacoustic inversion using vertical line array data obtained from the 4th Matched Acoustic Properties and Localization Experiment conducted in the East Sea of Korea. The narrowband multitone continuous-wave signal from the towed source was analyzed to estimate the range-dependent geoacoustic properties along the radial track. The primary approach is based on the sectorwise inversion scheme. The inversion region up to 7.5 km from the vertical line array was divided into several segments, and the subinversions for each segment were performed sequentially. To reduce the dominance of low-angle arrivals, which bears little information for the bottom segment in question, matched beam processing with beam filtering was used for the cost function. The performance of proposed algorithm was tested using simulated data for an environment representative of the experimental site. The inversion results for the experimental data were consistent with the geophysical database and were validated from matched-field source localization using frequencies different from those used in the inversion.

  5. Calculating the Loss factor of the LCLS Beam Line Elements for Ultra-Shrot Bunches

    SciTech Connect

    Novokhatski, A.; /SLAC

    2009-10-17

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is a SASE 1.5-15 {angstrom} x-ray Free-Electron Laser (FEL) facility. Since an ultra-short intense bunch is used in the LCLS operation one might suggest that wake fields, generated in the vacuum chamber, may have an effect on the x-ray production because these fields can change the beam particle energies thereby increasing the energy spread in a bunch. At LCLS a feedback system precisely controls the bunch energy before it enters a beam transport line after the linac. However, in the transport line and later in the undulator section the bunch energy and energy spread are not under feedback control and may change due to wake field radiation, which depends upon the bunch current or on a bunch length. The linear part of the energy spread can be compensated in the upstream linac; the energy loss in the undulator section can be compensated by varying the K-parameter of the undulators, however we need a precise knowledge of the wake fields in this part of the machine. Resistive wake fields are known and well calculated. We discuss an additional part of the wake fields, which comes from the different vacuum elements like bellows, BPMs, transitions, vacuum ports, vacuum valves and others. We use the code 'NOVO' together with analytical estimations for the wake potential calculations.

  6. Multiobjective optimizations of a novel cryocooled dc gun based ultrafast electron diffraction beam line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulliford, Colwyn; Bartnik, Adam; Bazarov, Ivan

    2016-09-01

    We present the results of multiobjective genetic algorithm optimizations of a single-shot ultrafast electron diffraction beam line utilizing a 225 kV dc gun with a novel cryocooled photocathode system and buncher cavity. Optimizations of the transverse projected emittance as a function of bunch charge are presented and discussed in terms of the scaling laws derived in the charge saturation limit. Additionally, optimization of the transverse coherence length as a function of final rms bunch length at the sample location have been performed for three different sample radii: 50, 100, and 200 μ m , for two final bunch charges: 1 05 electrons (16 fC) and 1 06 electrons (160 fC). Example optimal solutions are analyzed, and the effects of disordered induced heating estimated. In particular, a relative coherence length of Lc ,x/σx=0.27 nm /μ m was obtained for a final bunch charge of 1 05 electrons and final bunch length of σt≈100 fs . For a final charge of 1 06 electrons the cryogun produces Lc ,x/σx≈0.1 nm /μ m for σt≈100 - 200 fs and σx≥50 μ m . These results demonstrate the viability of using genetic algorithms in the design and operation of ultrafast electron diffraction beam lines.

  7. The GEANT4 toolkit capability in the hadron therapy field: simulation of a transport beam line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Di Rosa, F.; Raffaele, L.; Russo, G.; Guatelli, S.; Pia, M. G.

    2006-01-01

    At Laboratori Nazionali del Sud of the Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare of Catania (Sicily, Italy), the first Italian hadron therapy facility named CATANA (Centro di AdroTerapia ed Applicazioni Nucleari Avanzate) has been realized. Inside CATANA 62 MeV proton beams, accelerated by a superconducting cyclotron, are used for the radiotherapeutic treatments of some types of ocular tumours. Therapy with hadron beams still represents a pioneer technique, and only a few centers worldwide can provide this advanced specialized cancer treatment. On the basis of the experience so far gained, and considering the future hadron-therapy facilities to be developed (Rinecker, Munich Germany, Heidelberg/GSI, Darmstadt, Germany, PSI Villigen, Switzerland, CNAO, Pavia, Italy, Centro di Adroterapia, Catania, Italy) we decided to develop a Monte Carlo application based on the GEANT4 toolkit, for the design, the realization and the optimization of a proton-therapy beam line. Another feature of our project is to provide a general tool able to study the interactions of hadrons with the human tissue and to test the analytical-based treatment planning systems actually used in the routine practice. All the typical elements of a hadron-therapy line, such as diffusers, range shifters, collimators and detectors were modelled. In particular, we simulated the Markus type ionization chamber and a Gaf Chromic film as dosimeters to reconstruct the depth (Bragg peak and Spread Out Bragg Peak) and lateral dose distributions, respectively. We validated our simulated detectors comparing the results with the experimental data available in our facility.

  8. Characterisation and optimisation of flexible transfer lines for liquid helium. Part II: Thermohydraulic modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmar, N.; Haberstroh, Ch.; Hesse, U.; Krzyzowski, M.

    2016-10-01

    In part one of this publication experimental results for a single-channel transfer line used at liquid helium (LHe) decant stations are presented. The transfer of LHe into mobile dewars is an unavoidable process since the places of storage and usage are generally located apart from each other. The experimental results have shown that reasonable amounts of LHe evaporate due to heat leak and pressure drop. Thus, generated helium cold gas has to be collected and reliquefied, demanding a huge amount of electrical energy. Although this transfer process is common in cryogenic laboratories, no existing code could be found to model it. Therefore, a thermohydraulic model has been developed to model the LHe flow at operating conditions using published heat transfer and pressure drop correlations. This paper covers the basic equations used to calculate heat transfer and pressure drop, as well as the validation of the thermohydraulic code, and its application within the optimisation process. The final transfer line design features reduced heat leak and pressure drop values based on a combined measurement and modelling campaign in the range of 0.112 < pin < 0.148 MPa, 190 < G < 450 kg/(m2 s), and 0.04 < xout < 0.12.

  9. Space-charge compensation measurements in electron cyclotron resonance ion source low energy beam transport lines with a retarding field analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Winklehner, D.; Leitner, D. Cole, D.; Machicoane, G.; Tobos, L.

    2014-02-15

    In this paper we describe the first systematic measurement of beam neutralization (space charge compensation) in the ECR low energy transport line with a retarding field analyzer, which can be used to measure the potential of the beam. Expected trends for the space charge compensation levels such as increase with residual gas pressure, beam current, and beam density could be observed. However, the overall levels of neutralization are consistently low (<60%). The results and the processes involved for neutralizing ion beams are discussed for conditions typical for ECR injector beam lines. The results are compared to a simple theoretical beam plasma model as well as simulations.

  10. Line width roughness accuracy analysis during pattern transfer in self-aligned quadruple patterning process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorusso, Gian Francesco; Inoue, Osamu; Ohashi, Takeyoshi; Altamirano Sanchez, Efrain; Constantoudis, Vassilios; Koshihara, Shunsuke

    2016-03-01

    Line edge roughness (LER) and line width roughness (LWR) are analyzed during pattern transfer in a self-aligned quadruple patterning (SAQP) process. This patterning process leads to a final pitch of 22.5nm, relevant for N7/N5 technologies. Measurements performed by CD SEM (Critical Dimension Scanning Electron Microscope) using different settings in terms of averaging, field of view, and pixel size are compared with reference metrology performed by planar TEM and three-Dimensional Atomic Force Microscope (3D AFM) for each patterning process step in order to investigate the optimal condition for an in-line LWR characterization. Pattern wiggling is als0 quantitatively analyzed during LER/LWR transfer in the SAQP process.

  11. An effusive molecular beam technique for studies of polyatomic gas-surface reactivity and energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Cushing, G W; Navin, J K; Valadez, L; Johánek, V; Harrison, I

    2011-04-01

    An effusive molecular beam technique is described to measure alkane dissociative sticking coefficients, S(T(g), T(s); ϑ), on metal surfaces for which the impinging gas temperature, T(g), and surface temperature, T(s), can be independently varied, along with the angle of incidence, ϑ, of the impinging gas. Effusive beam experiments with T(g) = T(s) = T allow for determination of angle-resolved dissociative sticking coefficients, S(T; ϑ), which when averaged over the cos (ϑ)/π angular distribution appropriate to the impinging flux from a thermal ambient gas yield the thermal dissociative sticking coefficient, S(T). Nonequilibrium S(T(g), T(s); ϑ) measurements for which T(g) ≠ T(s) provide additional opportunities to characterize the transition state and gas-surface energy transfer at reactive energies. A resistively heated effusive molecular beam doser controls the T(g) of the impinging gas striking the surface. The flux of molecules striking the surface from the effusive beam is determined from knowledge of the dosing geometry, chamber pressure, and pumping speed. Separate experiments with a calibrated leak serve to fix the chamber pumping speed. Postdosing Auger electron spectroscopy is used to measure the carbon of the alkyl radical reaction product that is deposited on the surface as a result of alkane dissociative sticking. As implemented in a typical ultrahigh vacuum chamber for surface analysis, the technique has provided access to a dynamic range of roughly 6 orders of magnitude in the initial dissociative sticking coefficient for small alkanes on Pt(111).

  12. Heat transfer from protein crystals: implications for flash-cooling and X-ray beam heating.

    PubMed

    Kriminski, S; Kazmierczak, M; Thorne, R E

    2003-04-01

    Three problems involving heat transfer from a protein crystal to a cooling agent are analyzed: flash-cooling in a cold nitrogen- or helium-gas stream, plunge-cooling into liquid nitrogen, propane or ethane and crystal heating in a cold gas stream owing to X-ray absorption. Heat transfer occurs by conduction inside the crystal and by convection from the crystal's outer surface to the cooling fluid. For flash-cooling in cold gas streams, heat transfer is limited by the rate of external convection; internal temperature gradients and crystal strains during cooling are very small. Helium gas provides only a threefold improvement in cooling rates relative to nitrogen because its much larger thermal conductivity is offset by its larger kinematic viscosity. Characteristic cooling times vary with crystal size L as L(3/2) and theoretical estimates of these times are consistent with experiments. Plunge-cooling into liquid cryogens, which can give much smaller convective thermal resistances provided that surface boiling is eliminated, can increase cooling rates by more than an order of magnitude. However, the internal conduction resistance is no longer negligible, producing much larger internal temperature gradients and strains that may damage larger crystals. Based on this analysis, factors affecting the success of flash-cooling experiments can be ordered from most to least important as follows: (1) crystal solvent content and solvent composition, (2) crystal size and shape, (3) amount of residual liquid around the crystal, (4) cooling method (liquid plunge versus gas stream), (5) choice of gas/liquid and (6) relative speed between cooling fluid and crystal. Crystal heating by X-ray absorption on present high-flux beamlines should be small. For a fixed flux and illuminated area, heating can be reduced by using crystals with areas normal to the beam that are much larger than the beam area.

  13. Design of a synchrotron radiation detector for the test beam lines at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Hutton, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    As part of the particle- and momentum-tagging instrumentation required for the test beam lines of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC), the synchrotron radiation detector (SRD) was designed to provide electron tagging at momentum above 75 GeV. In a parallel effort to the three test beam lines at the SSC, schedule demands required testing and calibration operations to be initiated at Fermilab. Synchrotron radiation detectors also were to be installed in the NM and MW beam lines at Femilab before the test beam lines at the SSC would become operational. The SRD is the last instrument in a series of three used in the SSC test beam fines. It follows a 20-m drift section of beam tube downstream of the last silicon strip detector. A bending dipole just in of the last silicon strip detector produces the synchrotron radiation that is detected in a 50-mm-square cross section NaI crystal. A secondary scintillator made of Bicron BC-400 plastic is used to discriminate whether it is synchrotron radiation or a stray particle that causes the triggering of the NaI crystal`s photo multiplier tube (PMT).

  14. Design of an ultrahigh vacuum transfer mechanism to interconnect an oxide molecular beam epitaxy growth chamber and an x-ray photoemission spectroscopy analysis system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutkowski, M. M.; McNicholas, K. M.; Zeng, Zhaoquan; Brillson, L. J.

    2013-06-01

    We designed a mechanism and the accompanying sample holders to transfer between a VEECO 930 oxide molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and a PHI Versa Probe X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) chamber within a multiple station growth, processing, and analysis system through ultrahigh vacuum (UHV). The mechanism consists of four parts: (1) a platen compatible with the MBE growth stage, (2) a platen compatible with the XPS analysis stage, (3) a sample coupon that is transferred between the two platens, and (4) the accompanying UHV transfer line. The mechanism offers a robust design that enables transfer back and forth between the growth chamber and the analysis chamber, and yet is flexible enough to allow transfer between standard sample holders for thin film growth and masked sample holders for making electrical contacts and Schottky junctions, all without breaking vacuum. We used this mechanism to transfer a barium strontium titanate thin film into the XPS analysis chamber and performed XPS measurements before and after exposing the sample to the air. After air exposure, a thin overlayer of carbon was found to form and a significant shift (˜1 eV) in the core level binding energies was observed.

  15. Design of an ultrahigh vacuum transfer mechanism to interconnect an oxide molecular beam epitaxy growth chamber and an x-ray photoemission spectroscopy analysis system.

    PubMed

    Rutkowski, M M; McNicholas, K M; Zeng, Zhaoquan; Brillson, L J

    2013-06-01

    We designed a mechanism and the accompanying sample holders to transfer between a VEECO 930 oxide molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and a PHI Versa Probe X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) chamber within a multiple station growth, processing, and analysis system through ultrahigh vacuum (UHV). The mechanism consists of four parts: (1) a platen compatible with the MBE growth stage, (2) a platen compatible with the XPS analysis stage, (3) a sample coupon that is transferred between the two platens, and (4) the accompanying UHV transfer line. The mechanism offers a robust design that enables transfer back and forth between the growth chamber and the analysis chamber, and yet is flexible enough to allow transfer between standard sample holders for thin film growth and masked sample holders for making electrical contacts and Schottky junctions, all without breaking vacuum. We used this mechanism to transfer a barium strontium titanate thin film into the XPS analysis chamber and performed XPS measurements before and after exposing the sample to the air. After air exposure, a thin overlayer of carbon was found to form and a significant shift (~1 eV) in the core level binding energies was observed.

  16. In vacuum diamond sensor scanner for beam halo measurements in the beam line at the KEK Accelerator Test Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S.; Bogard, F.; Cornebise, P.; Faus-Golfe, A.; Fuster-Martínez, N.; Griesmayer, E.; Guler, H.; Kubytskyi, V.; Sylvia, C.; Tauchi, T.; Terunuma, N.; Bambade, P.

    2016-10-01

    The investigation of beam halo transverse distributions is important for the understanding of beam losses and the control of backgrounds in Future Linear Colliders (FLC). A novel in vacuum diamond sensor (DSv) scanner with four strips has been designed and developed for the investigation of the beam halo transverse distributions and also for the diagnostics of Compton recoil electrons after the interaction point (IP) of ATF2, a low energy (1.3 GeV) prototype of the final focus system for the ILC and CLIC linear collider projects. Using the DSv, a dynamic range of ∼106 has been successfully demonstrated and confirmed for the first time in simultaneous beam core (∼109 electrons) and beam halo (∼103 electrons) measurements at ATF2. This report presents the characterization, performance studies and tests of diamond sensors using an α source, as well as using the electron beams at PHIL, a low energy < 5 MeV photo-injector at LAL, and at ATF2. First beam halo measurement results using the DSv at ATF2 with different beam intensities and vacuum levels are also presented. Such measurements not only allow one to evaluate the different sources of beam halo generation but also to define the requirements for a suitable collimation system to be installed at ATF2, as well as to optimize its performance during future operation.

  17. Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale (IAS) 0.1- to 15-keV Synchrotron Radiation Facility beam lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhez, Pierre; Jourdain, Erick; Hainaut, Olivier; Hochedez, Jean-Francois E.; Labeque, Alain; Salvetat, Philippe; Song, Xue Yan

    1997-10-01

    Two beam lines have been built at the Institute d'Astrophysique Spatiale (IAS) d'Orsay to perform absolute calibration of the EPIC (European photon imaging camera). EPIC consists of three x-ray charge coupled device (CCD) cameras having imaging and spectroscopic performances set at the Wolter telescope focal planes on board the x-ray multi mirror mission (XMM) planned to be launched by ESA in August 1999. To cover the desired 0.1 - 15 keV range a dedicated beam line has been built on each synchrotron sources of the Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation du Rayonnement Synchrotron (LURE): SACO (0.8 GeV) and DCI (1.5 GeV). Both beam lines are merging in a clean 23 m(superscript 3) vacuum tank containing the camera to calibrate. (1) The SACO windowless beam line is equipped with a grating monochromator. Four plane VLS gratings are used to cover the low energy range (0.1 - 1.2 keV). A triple grazing incidence mirror system set in front of the entrance slit removes the overlapping orders. (2) The high energy beam line on DCI has a 50 micrometer beryllium window and a double flat crystals monochromator equipped with four different crystal pairs. A double grazing incidence mirror system set close to the source absorbs the high energy photon spectra. CCD calibrations will be performed during 1997 second semester and years 1998.

  18. Study of condensation heat transfer following a main steam line break inside containment

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, J.H.; Elia, F.A. Jr.; Lischer, D.J.

    1995-09-01

    An alternative model for calculating condensation heat transfer following a main stream line break (MSLB) accident is proposed. The proposed model predictions and the current regulatory model predictions are compared to the results of the Carolinas Virginia Tube Reactor (CVTR) test. The very conservative results predicted by the current regulatory model result from: (1) low estimate of the condensation heat transfer coefficient by the Uchida correlation and (2) neglecting the convective contribution to the overall heat transfer. Neglecting the convection overestimates the mass of steam being condensed and does not permit the calculation of additional convective heat transfer resulting from superheated conditions. In this study, the Uchida correlation is used, but correction factors for the effects of convection an superheat are derived. The proposed model uses heat and mass transfer analogy methods to estimate to convective fraction of the total heat transfer and bases the steam removal rate on the condensation heat transfer portion only. The results predicted by the proposed model are shown to be conservative and more accurate than those predicted by the current regulatory model when compared with the results of the CVTR test. Results for typical pressurized water reactors indicate that the proposed model provides a basis for lowering the equipment qualification temperature envelope, particularly at later times following the accident.

  19. Gene transfer in hepatocarcinoma cell lines: in vitro optimization of a virus-free system.

    PubMed

    Ghoumari, A M; Rixe, O; Yarovoi, S V; Zerrouqi, A; Mouawad, R; Poynard, T; Opolon, P; Khayat, D; Soubrane, C

    1996-06-01

    Many approaches exist for hepatic gene delivery, including viral vectors and non-viral vectors. In this study, we tested a panel of liposomes to transfer pAGO, a plasmid containing one copy of herpes simplex virus (HSVtk) gene, and pYED11, a plasmid containing two copies of the HSVtk gene, into a murine hepatocarcinoma cell line (Hepa 1-6) and a human hepatocarcinoma cell line (Hep-G2). The efficiency of gene delivery and expression was characterized by beta-galactosidase staining, flow cytometric analysis and quantitative lacZ activity. Different combinations of liposomes and DNA and the ratio of the concentration of liposome to DNA were tested. The efficient transfer was shown with DOTAP followed by transfectam and lipofectamine. Under these conditions, we tested the cytotoxicity of ganciclovir (GCV) exposure on Hepa 1-6 and Hep-G2 transfected separately with liposome-pAGO and liposome-pYED11 complexes. This study demonstrates the in vitro efficacy of each liposome tested to transduce the HSVtk gene into hepatocarcinoma cell lines. The transfer of two copies of the HSVtk gene rendered cells 1.5 times more sensitive to GCV than cells transduced by pAGO as compared to controls. This was achieved most efficiently by the DOTAP-pYED11 complex. Thus, pYED11 may be considered as an alternative to pAGO as a gene transfer vector.

  20. Radiative transfer of emission lines with non-Maxwellian velocity distribution function: Application to Mercury D2 sodium lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaufray, J.-Y.; Leblanc, F.

    2013-04-01

    We describe the theory and the numerical model used to simulate Doppler-broadened resonant emission lines for any type of velocity function distribution. The field of application of this theoretical model of radiative transfer is particularly well suited for the study of weakly dense atmospheres which are far from local thermodynamic equilibrium (as is the case for most planetary upper atmospheres/exospheres). This model is applied to study the potential effects of radiative transfer and non-Maxwellian distributions on the spectral shape of the D2 sodium emission line in Mercury's exosphere. The small (but not negligible) optical thickness of the D2 sodium emission of an exosphere like Mercury's (with a peak optical thickness of ˜2) can result in an increase of the observed spectral width by up to a few tens of percent. Combined with the non-Maxwellian nature of the exospheric velocity distribution, it may lead to an increase in the spectral width by a factor of up to 2 with respect to the width of an optically thin emission and a Maxwellian distribution. This model has been used to analyze new THEMIS observations of Mercury's exosphere obtained at very high spectral resolution in a companion paper (Leblanc, F., Chaufray, J.-Y., Doressoundiram, A., Berthelier, J.-J., Mangano, V., Lopez-Ariste, A., Borin, P. [2013]).

  1. A Study of Spectral Lines in Plasmas Heated by Neutral Beam Injection in the TJ-II Stellarator

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, Kieran J.; Carmona, J. M.; Balbin, R.

    2008-10-22

    We summarize the TJ-II stellarator device give an outline of a vacuum ultraviolet spectrometer used for performing spectral surveys specialized plasma studies. Next, we report the main impurities observed in hot plasmas created maintained by electron cyclotron resonance neutral beam injection heating with lithium coated wall conditioning. Finally, we report broad emission structures that have been observed close to strong oxygen emission lines during neutral beam injection heating phases we elucidate their possible origin.

  2. Multiobjective optimization design of an rf gun based electron diffraction beam line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulliford, Colwyn; Bartnik, Adam; Bazarov, Ivan; Maxson, Jared

    2017-03-01

    Multiobjective genetic algorithm optimizations of a single-shot ultrafast electron diffraction beam line comprised of a 100 MV /m 1.6-cell normal conducting rf (NCRF) gun, as well as a nine-cell 2 π /3 bunching cavity placed between two solenoids, have been performed. These include optimization of the normalized transverse emittance as a function of bunch charge, as well as optimization of the transverse coherence length as a function of the rms bunch length of the beam at the sample location for a fixed charge of 1 06 electrons. Analysis of the resulting solutions is discussed in terms of the relevant scaling laws, and a detailed description of one of the resulting solutions from the coherence length optimizations is given. For a charge of 1 06 electrons and final beam sizes of σx≥25 μ m and σt≈5 fs , we found a relative coherence length of Lc ,x/σx≈0.07 using direct optimization of the coherence length. Additionally, based on optimizations of the emittance as a function of final bunch length, we estimate the relative coherence length for bunch lengths of 30 and 100 fs to be roughly 0.1 and 0.2 nm /μ m , respectively. Finally, using the scaling of the optimal emittance with bunch charge, for a charge of 1 05 electrons, we estimate relative coherence lengths of 0.3, 0.5, and 0.92 nm /μ m for final bunch lengths of 5, 30 and 100 fs, respectively.

  3. Small-angle approximation to the transfer of narrow laser beams in anisotropic scattering media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Box, M. A.; Deepak, A.

    1981-01-01

    The broadening and the signal power detected of a laser beam traversing an anisotropic scattering medium were examined using the small-angle approximation to the radiative transfer equation in which photons suffering large-angle deflections are neglected. To obtain tractable answers, simple Gaussian and non-Gaussian functions for the scattering phase functions are assumed. Two other approximate approaches employed in the field to further simplify the small-angle approximation solutions are described, and the results obtained by one of them are compared with those obtained using small-angle approximation. An exact method for obtaining the contribution of each higher order scattering to the radiance field is examined but no results are presented.

  4. Compact intra-cavity frequency doubled line beam green laser by a laser diode array pumped

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Boxia; Qi, Yan; Wang, Yanwei

    2016-10-01

    Compact, high power, and low-cost green laser light sources are needed in projection-related applications such as digital cinema, rear-projection television, simulators, and command and control stations. We report a LD array directly pumped intracavity SHG Nd:YVO4/PPMgLN laser without lens or waveguide in this letter. A compact 3.12 W green laser was demonstrated by intra-cavity frequency doubled using a PPMgLN bulk crystal by a 19-emitter LD array pumped(single bar), the conversion efficiency from input LD array was 9.2%. A line-beam output suitable for laser projectors was generated, which has the potential to be scalable to small volumes and low costs for laser projection displays.

  5. Aberrations of varied line-space grazing incidence gratings in converging light beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hettrick, M. C.

    1984-01-01

    Analyses of the imaging properties of several designs for varied-line space gratings in converging beams of light in grazing-incidence spectrometers are presented. An explicit model is defined for the case of a plane-reflection grating intercepting light that converges and is reflected to a stigmatic point associated with the zero-order image of the grating. Smooth spatial variation of the grating constant then permits aberration correction. The aberrations are expressed as polynomials in the grating lens coordinates using power series expansions. Application of the model is illustrated in terms of aberrations experienced with the short wavelength spectrometer on the EUVE satellite. Attention is given to straight and parallel in-plane grooves, curved groove in-plane designs and off-plane grooves. Aberrations due to dispersions and misalignment are also considered.

  6. Digital in-line holography on amplitude and phase objects prepared with electron beam lithography.

    PubMed

    Schwenke, J; Lorek, E; Rakowski, R; He, X; Kvennefors, A; Mikkelsen, A; Rudawski, P; Heyl, C M; Maximov, I; Pettersson, S-G; Persson, A; L'Huillier, A

    2012-08-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of amplitude and phase samples consisting of well defined Au or Al features formed on ultrathin silicon nitride membranes. The samples were manufactured using electron beam lithography, metallization and a lift-off technique, which allow precise lateral control and thickness of the metal features. The fabricated specimens were evaluated by conventional microscopy, atomic force microscopy and with the digital in-line holography set-up at the Lund Laser Centre. The latter uses high-order harmonic generation as a light source, and is capable of recovering both the shape and phase shifting properties of the samples. We report on the details of the sample production and on the imaging tests with the holography set-up.

  7. On line Release Simulator of Radioactive Beams produced by ISOL technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turrión, Manuela; Tengblad, Olof; Borge, María J. G.; Reillo, Eva; Morrissey, Edward R.; Santana, Mario

    2007-02-01

    Target and ion source constitute the heart for the production of radioactive ion beams, RIBs. The goal of this work is to help in the development of reliable and efficient target and ion source systems for production of short-lived isotopes of a wide range of elements by the ISOL method. With this aim an oracle database of diffusion and desorption parameters with more than 10.000 entries has been built. The database is accessible on line and a web application has been developed allowing the retrieval of information from the database in order to assist in the configuration of the input parameters for a Monte Carlo code, RIBO, for the simulation of target-ion source systems.

  8. Development of a polarized neutron beam line at Algerian research reactors using McStas software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhloufi, M.; Salah, H.

    2017-02-01

    Unpolarized instrumentation has long been studied and designed using McStas simulation tool. But, only recently new models were developed for McStas to simulate polarized neutron scattering instruments. In the present contribution, we used McStas software to design a polarized neutron beam line, taking advantage of the available spectrometers reflectometer and diffractometer in Algeria. Both thermal and cold neutron was considered. The polarization was made by two types of supermirrors polarizers FeSi and CoCu provided by the HZB institute. For sake of performance and comparison, the polarizers were characterized and their characteristics reproduced. The simulated instruments are reported. Flipper and electromagnets for guide field are developed. Further developments including analyzers and upgrading of the existing spectrometers are underway.

  9. Radiative Transfer Modeling of the Enigmatic Scattering Polarization in the Solar Na I D1 Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belluzzi, Luca; Trujillo Bueno, Javier; Landi Degl'Innocenti, Egidio

    2015-12-01

    The modeling of the peculiar scattering polarization signals observed in some diagnostically important solar resonance lines requires the consideration of the detailed spectral structure of the incident radiation field as well as the possibility of ground level polarization, along with the atom's hyperfine structure and quantum interference between hyperfine F-levels pertaining either to the same fine structure J-level, or to different J-levels of the same term. Here we present a theoretical and numerical approach suitable for solving this complex non-LTE radiative transfer problem. This approach is based on the density-matrix metalevel theory (where each level is viewed as a continuous distribution of sublevels) and on accurate formal solvers of the transfer equations and efficient iterative methods. We show an application to the D-lines of Na i, with emphasis on the enigmatic D1 line, pointing out the observable signatures of the various physical mechanisms considered. We demonstrate that the linear polarization observed in the core of the D1 line may be explained by the effect that one gets when the detailed spectral structure of the anisotropic radiation responsible for the optical pumping is taken into account. This physical ingredient is capable of introducing significant scattering polarization in the core of the Na i D1 line without the need for ground-level polarization.

  10. A SEMI-ANALYTICAL LINE TRANSFER MODEL TO INTERPRET THE SPECTRA OF GALAXY OUTFLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Scarlata, C.; Panagia, N.

    2015-03-01

    We present a semi-analytical line transfer model, (SALT), to study the absorption and re-emission line profiles from expanding galactic envelopes. The envelopes are described as a superposition of shells with density and velocity varying with the distance from the center. We adopt the Sobolev approximation to describe the interaction between the photons escaping from each shell and the remainder of the envelope. We include the effect of multiple scatterings within each shell, properly accounting for the atomic structure of the scattering ions. We also account for the effect of a finite circular aperture on actual observations. For equal geometries and density distributions, our models reproduce the main features of the profiles generated with more complicated transfer codes. Also, our SALT line profiles nicely reproduce the typical asymmetric resonant absorption line profiles observed in starforming/starburst galaxies whereas these absorption profiles cannot be reproduced with thin shells moving at a fixed outflow velocity. We show that scattered resonant emission fills in the resonant absorption profiles, with a strength that is different for each transition. Observationally, the effect of resonant filling depends on both the outflow geometry and the size of the outflow relative to the spectroscopic aperture. Neglecting these effects will lead to incorrect values of gas covering fraction and column density. When a fluorescent channel is available, the resonant profiles alone cannot be used to infer the presence of scattered re-emission. Conversely, the presence of emission lines of fluorescent transitions reveals that emission filling cannot be neglected.

  11. An x-ray microprobe beam line for trace element analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, B.M.; Hanson, A.L.; Jones, K.W.; Kwiatek, W.M.; Long, G.J.; Pounds, J.G.; Schidlovsky, G.; Spanne, P.; Rivers, M.L.; Sutton, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    The application of synchrotron radiation to an x-ray microprobe for trace element analysis is a complementary and natural extension of existing microprobe techniques using electrons, protons, and heavier ions as excitation sources for x-ray fluorescence. The ability to focus charged particles leads to electron microprobes with spatial resolutions in the sub-micrometer range and down to 100 ppM detection limits and proton microprobes with micrometer resolution and ppM detection limits. The characteristics of synchrotron radiation that prove useful for microprobe analysis include a broad and continuous energy spectrum, a relatively small amount of radiation damage compared to that deposited by charged particles, a highly polarized source which reduces background scattered radiation in an appropriate counting geometry, and a small vertical divergence angle of approx.0.2 mrad which allows for focussing of the light beam into a small spot with high flux. The features of a dedicated x-ray microprobe beam line developed at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) are described. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Artificial intelligence research in particle accelerator control systems for beam line tuning

    SciTech Connect

    Pieck, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Tuning particle accelerators is time consuming and expensive, with a number of inherently non-linear interactions between system components. Conventional control methods have not been successful in this domain and the result is constant and expensive monitoring of the systems by human operators. This is particularly true for the start-up and conditioning phase after a maintenance period or an unexpected fault. In turn, this often requires a step-by-step restart of the accelerator. Surprisingly few attempts have been made to apply intelligent accelerator control techniques to help with beam tuning, fault detection, and fault recovery problems. The reason for that might be that accelerator facilities are rare and difficult to understand systems that require detailed expert knowledge about the underlying physics as well as months if not years of experience to understand the relationship between individual components, particularly if they are geographically disjoint. This paper will give an overview about the research effort in the accelerator community that has been dedicated to the use of artificial intelligence methods for accelerator beam line tuning.

  13. Spatial distribution of radiation from the Beam Line VIII-W 15-period wiggler

    SciTech Connect

    Lent, E.M.; Dickinson, W.C.

    1985-05-13

    We have written a computer program to calculate the spatial distribution of the radiation from insertion devices operating in nominal wiggler mode (K = 15.6), for which the incoherent emission dominates, and our assumption of negligible coherent emission is valid. This program has been applied to the 15-period wiggler now being designed by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for Beam Line VIII-W on the Stanford Positron-Electron Accumulation Ring (SPEAR). An approximate spreading function has been applied at each photon energy to account for the intrinsic photon divergence. The effects of the finite wiggler length and the spatial and angular spread of the electron beam have been included. Graphical plots are provided for three different electron energies, 1.8 GeV, 3.0 GeV, and 3.4 GeV, and for a range of photon energies. Separate plots are provided for total radiation, parallel polarization component, and perpendicular polarization component. 3 refs., 71 figs., 63 tabs.

  14. High power microwave beam steering based on gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Romanchenko, I. V. Rostov, V. V.; Gunin, A. V.; Konev, V. Yu.

    2015-06-07

    We demonstrate electronically controlled beam steering by high power RF pulses produced by two gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission lines (NLTLs) connected to a one high voltage driver. Each NLTL is capable of producing several ns RF pulses with peak power from 50 to 700 MW (6% standard deviation) at frequencies from 0.5 to 1.7 GHz (1% standard deviation) with 100 Hz repetition rate. Using a helix antenna allows irradiating of RF pulses with almost circular polarization and 350 MW maximum peak power, which corresponds to 350 kV effective potential of radiation. At the installation of two identical channels, we demonstrate the possibility of beam steering within ±15° in the horizontal plane by coherent RF pulses with circular polarization at 1.0 GHz center frequency. Fourfold increase in the power flux density for in-phase irradiation of RF pulses is confirmed by comparison with one-channel operation.

  15. RAPD and SSR Polymorphisms in Mutant Lines of Transgenic Wheat Mediated by Low Energy Ion Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tiegu; Huang, Qunce; Feng, Weisen

    2007-10-01

    Two types of markers-random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and simple sequence repeat DNA (SSR)-have been used to characterize the genetic diversity among nine mutant lines of transgenic wheat intermediated by low energy ion beam and their four receptor cultivars. The objectives of this study were to analyze RAPD-based and SSR-based genetic variance among transgenic wheat lines and with their receptors, and to find specific genetic markers of special traits of transgenic wheat lines. 170 RAPD primers were amplified to 733 fragments in all the experimental materials. There were 121 polymorphic fragments out of the 733 fragments with a ratio of polymorphic fragments of 16.5%. 29 SSR primer pairs were amplified to 83 fragments in all the experiment materials. There were 57 polymorphic fragments out of the 83 fragments with a ratio of polymorphic fragments of 68.7%. The dendrograms were prepared based on a genetic distance matrix using the UPGMA (Unweighted Pair-group Method with Arithmetic averaging) algorithm, which corresponded well to the results of the wheat pedigree analysis and separated the 13 genotypes into four groups. Association analysis between RAPD and SSR markers with the special traits of transgenic wheat mutant lines discovered that three RAPD markers, s1, opt-16, and f14, were significantly associated with the muticate trait, while three SSR markers, Rht8 (Xgwm261), Rht-B1b, and Rht-D1b, highly associated with the dwarf trait. These markers will be useful for marker-assistant breeding and can be used as candidate markers for further gene mapping and cloning.

  16. Synchrotron radiation beam line for photons in the 700 eV - 7000 eV energy range

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, P.J.; Anderson, C.J.

    1985-04-01

    The design of a beam line for synchrotron radiation research is described. The 700 to 7000 eV energy range to be covered is determined at low energy by the 2d spacing of easily obtainable diffraction crystals and at high energy by the cutoff of specular reflection of a Pt mirror. Two mirrors are used, the first to collimate the x-ray beam through a double crystal monochromator and the second to focus the collimated monochromatic beam on target. In this way, high monochromatic x-ray throughput is achieved with energy resolution limited by crystal diffraction properties.

  17. Model of convection mass transfer in titanium alloy at low energy high current electron beam action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarychev, V. D.; Granovskii, A. Yu; Nevskii, S. A.; Konovalov, S. V.; Gromov, V. E.

    2017-01-01

    The convection mixing model is proposed for low-energy high-current electron beam treatment of titanium alloys, pre-processed by heterogeneous plasma flows generated via explosion of carbon tape and powder TiB2. The model is based on the assumption vortices in the molten layer are formed due to the treatment by concentrated energy flows. These vortices evolve as the result of thermocapillary convection, arising because of the temperature gradient. The calculation of temperature gradient and penetration depth required solution of the heat problem with taking into account the surface evaporation. However, instead of the direct heat source the boundary conditions in phase transitions were changed in the thermal conductivity equation, assuming the evaporated material takes part in the heat exchange. The data on the penetration depth and temperature distribution are used for the thermocapillary model. The thermocapillary model embraces Navier-Stocks and convection heat transfer equations, as well as the boundary conditions with the outflow of evaporated material included. The solution of these equations by finite elements methods pointed at formation of a multi-vortices structure when electron-beam treatment and its expansion over new zones of material. As the result, strengthening particles are found at the depth exceeding manifold their penetration depth in terms of the diffusion mechanism.

  18. Wavelength Detuning Cross-Beam Energy Transfer Mitigation for Polar Direct Drive and Symmetric Direct Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marozas, J. A.; Collins, T. J. B.; McKenty, P. W.; Radha, P. B.; Hohenberger, M.; Rosenberg, M. J.

    2016-10-01

    Cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) results from two-beam energy exchange via stimulated Brillouin scattering, which reduces absorbed light and implosion velocity, alters time-resolved scattered-light spectra, and redistributes absorbed and scattered light. These effects reduce target performance in polar direct drive (PDD) and symmetric direct drive (SDD) at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and on the OMEGA Laser System. The CBET package (Adaawam) incorporated into the 2-D hydrodynamics code DRACO is an integral part of the 3-D ray-trace package (Mazinisin). Detuning the initial laser wavelength (dλ0) reduces the CBET interaction volume, which can be combined with other mitigation domains (e.g., spatial and temporal). Recent PDD experiments on the NIF explored this option using a cone-swapping technique with dλ0 = +/- 2.34 Å UV, which are compared with DRACO simulations. DRACO simulations of wavelength detuning in SDD on OMEGA predict the expected mitigation using OMEGA's three main amplifier chains in both near-term dλ0 = { - 3 , 0 , + 3 } -Å and long-term dλ0 = { - 6 , 0 , + 6 } -Å UV configurations. The detuning simulations predict improved performance and changes in 2-D and 3-D morphology in both PDD and SDD. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  19. Composite modulation transfer function evaluation of a cone beam computed tomography breast imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betancourt-Benítez, Ricardo; Ning, Ruola; Liu, Shaohua

    2009-11-01

    Several factors during the scanning process, image reconstruction and geometry of an imaging system, influence the spatial resolution of a computed tomography imaging system. In this work, the spatial resolution of a state of the art flat panel detector-based cone beam computed tomography breast imaging system is evaluated. First, scattering, exposure level, voltage, voxel size, pixel size, back-projection filter, reconstruction algorithm, and number of projections are varied to evaluate their effect on spatial resolution. Second, its uniformity throughout the whole field of view is evaluated as a function of radius along the x-y plane and as a function of z at the center of rotation. The results of the study suggest that the modulation transfer function is mainly influenced by the pixel, back-projection filter, and number of projections used. The evaluation of spatial resolution throughout the field of view also suggests that this imaging system does have a 3-D quasi-isotropic spatial resolution in a cylindrical region of radius equal to 40 mm centered at the axis of rotation. Overall, this study provides a useful tool to determine the optimal parameters for the best possible use of this cone beam computed tomography breast imaging system.

  20. Generation of cloned mice and nuclear transfer embryonic stem cell lines from urine-derived cells

    PubMed Central

    Mizutani, Eiji; Torikai, Kohei; Wakayama, Sayaka; Nagatomo, Hiroaki; Ohinata, Yasuhide; Kishigami, Satoshi; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2016-01-01

    Cloning animals by nuclear transfer provides the opportunity to preserve endangered mammalian species. However, there are risks associated with the collection of donor cells from the body such as accidental injury to or death of the animal. Here, we report the production of cloned mice from urine-derived cells collected noninvasively. Most of the urine-derived cells survived and were available as donors for nuclear transfer without any pretreatment. After nuclear transfer, 38–77% of the reconstructed embryos developed to the morula/blastocyst, in which the cell numbers in the inner cell mass and trophectoderm were similar to those of controls. Male and female cloned mice were delivered from cloned embryos transferred to recipient females, and these cloned animals grew to adulthood and delivered pups naturally when mated with each other. The results suggest that these cloned mice had normal fertility. In additional experiments, 26 nuclear transfer embryonic stem cell lines were established from 108 cloned blastocysts derived from four mouse strains including inbreds and F1 hybrids with relatively high success rates. Thus, cells derived from urine, which can be collected noninvasively, may be used in the rescue of endangered mammalian species by using nuclear transfer without causing injury to the animal. PMID:27033801

  1. Magnet power supply control of the NSLS VUV and x-ray storage rings transfer lines

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J.D.; Ramamoorthy, S.; Singh, O.; Smith, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    The transfer lines for NSLS VUV and x-ray storage rings have been split. New power supplies have been incorporated with existing ones. The existing microprocessor system has been upgraded in order to control the additional functions. This system expands the input/output port of the microprocessor to an addressable serial/parallel link to each magnet power supply. The implementation of this system will be discussed.

  2. Heat transfer resistances in the measurements of cold helium vapour temperature in a subatmospheric process line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczyk, A.; Pietrowicz, S.; Fydrych, J.

    2017-02-01

    The superfluid helium technology, which is essentially used in particle accelerators, requires complex cryogenic systems that include long lines transferring cold helium vapours at a subathmospheric pressure below 50 mbar. Usually in large systems the subatmospheric pressure is generated by a set of warm and cold compressors. In consequence, the heat loads to the line and especially the helium temperature in the inlet to the cold compressors are crucial parameters. In order to measure the helium temperature the temperature sensors are usually fixed to the external surface of the process lines. However, this technique can lead to unwanted measurement errors and affect the temperature measurement dynamics mainly due to low thermal conductivity of the pipe wall material, large pipe diameters and low helium density. Assembling a temperature sensor in a well (cold finger) reaching the centerline of the flowing helium is a technique that can improve the measurement quality and dynamics (response time). The paper presents the numerical simulations of heat transfers occurring in the both measurement techniques and discusses the impacts of the heat transfer resistances on the temperature measurement dynamics.

  3. Microcontact patterning of conductive silver lines by contact inking and its layer-transfer mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusaka, Yasuyuki; Nomura, Ken-ichi; Fukuda, Nobuko; Ushijima, Hirobumi

    2015-05-01

    We developed a contact inking technique for microcontact printing aiming at the fabrication of conductive silver-nanoparticle (Ag NP) lines with rectangular cross section and constant layer thickness, irrespective of pattern size and shape. In the proposed process, Ag NP ink was first coated on a blanket and then inking was carried out by a contact with a microcontact stamp. The ink transferred onto the top of the stamp was finally settled on a workpiece by pressing to complete the printing process. To achieve robust inking to the stamp, the peel strengths between the Ag NP layer and the blankets and between the Ag NP layer and the stamp were investigated using poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) materials with different surface energies. Interestingly, it was revealed that the transferability of Ag NP from the blanket toward the stamp was not solely determined by the surface energy difference but also by the extent of solvent uptake by the PDMS blanket during inking. The solvent-containing PDMS significantly lowered its adhesion strength against adjacent ink layers and, as a consequence, the ink transfer was successfully achieved even if the ink passed from a higher to a lower energy surface. Furthermore, by the solvent-vapour annealing of contact-inked semi-dried patterns, arbitrarily iterated transfers between PDMS surfaces became possible. With the contact-inking process developed here, we demonstrate a finely defined printed structure of Ag NP conductive lines with widths of up to 1 μm.

  4. A Positional X-ray Instrumentation Test Stand For Beam-Line Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikoleyczik, Jonathan; Prieskorn, Z.; Burrows, D. N.; Falcone, A.

    2014-01-01

    A multi-axis, motion controlled test stand has been built in the PSU 47 m X-ray beam-line for the purpose of testing X-ray instrumentation and mirrors using parallel rays. The test stand is capable of translation along two axes and rotation about two axes with motorized fine position control. The translation stages have a range of motion of 200 mm with a movement accuracy of ± 2.5 microns. Rotation is accomplished with a two-axis gimbal which can rotate 360° about one axis and 240° about another; movement with ± 35 arcsecond accuracy are achieved in both axes. The position and status are monitored using a LabView program. An XCalibr source with multiple target materials is used as an X-ray source and can produce multiple lines between 0.8 and 8 keV. Some sample spectra are shown from a Si-PIN diode detector. This system is well suited for testing X-ray mirror segments which are currently being developed.

  5. Fraction transfer process in on-line comprehensive two-dimensional liquid-phase separations.

    PubMed

    Česla, Petr; Křenková, Jana

    2017-01-01

    Two-dimensional liquid-phase separations have gained increasing attention for their ability to separate complex sample mixtures. Among the experimental setups used, an on-line approach is preferred to reduce the probability of sample contamination, for easier automation and high-sample throughput. The interfacing of the separation techniques in the on-line mode brings additional demands on proper optimization of the two-dimensional system. In this review, the possibilities of the on-line coupling of liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography with capillary electrophoresis in two-dimensional systems are discussed. Special attention is paid to the fraction transfer process, which includes an overview of interfaces and experimental setups applied, the compatibility issues of separation systems, and instrumental parameters. The benefits and drawbacks of using electromigration separations in combination with liquid chromatography are presented as well.

  6. Broadening of fast-beam spectral lines due to diffraction at the entrance slit of a spectrometer.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leavitt, J. A.; Stoner, J. O., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical demonstration of the necessity to take into account the effects of diffraction at a spectrometer's entrance slit in adjusting the spectrometer for observation of fast-beam spectral lines under conditions of minimum linewidth. An approximate expression is obtained for the optimum entrance slit width to be used in order to avoid the pronounced broadening of the spectral lines that occurs for very narrow entrance slits.

  7. Electron stripping processes of H- ion beam in the 80 kV high voltage extraction column and low energy beam transport line at LANSCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draganic, I. N.

    2016-02-01

    Basic vacuum calculations were performed for various operating conditions of the Los Alamos National Neutron Science H- Cockcroft-Walton (CW) injector and the Ion Source Test Stand (ISTS). The vacuum pressure was estimated for both the CW and ISTS at five different points: (1) inside the H- ion source, (2) in front of the Pierce electrode, (3) at the extraction electrode, (4) at the column electrode, and (5) at the ground electrode. A static vacuum analysis of residual gases and the working hydrogen gas was completed for the normal ion source working regime. Gas density and partial pressure were estimated for the injected hydrogen gas. The attenuation of H- beam current and generation of electron current in the high voltage acceleration columns and low energy beam transport lines were calculated. The interaction of H- ions on molecular hydrogen (H2) is discussed as a dominant collision process in describing electron stripping rates. These results are used to estimate the observed increase in the ratio of electrons to H- ion beam in the ISTS beam transport line.

  8. Electron stripping processes of H{sup −} ion beam in the 80 kV high voltage extraction column and low energy beam transport line at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    Draganic, I. N.

    2016-02-15

    Basic vacuum calculations were performed for various operating conditions of the Los Alamos National Neutron Science H{sup −} Cockcroft-Walton (CW) injector and the Ion Source Test Stand (ISTS). The vacuum pressure was estimated for both the CW and ISTS at five different points: (1) inside the H{sup −} ion source, (2) in front of the Pierce electrode, (3) at the extraction electrode, (4) at the column electrode, and (5) at the ground electrode. A static vacuum analysis of residual gases and the working hydrogen gas was completed for the normal ion source working regime. Gas density and partial pressure were estimated for the injected hydrogen gas. The attenuation of H{sup −} beam current and generation of electron current in the high voltage acceleration columns and low energy beam transport lines were calculated. The interaction of H{sup −} ions on molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) is discussed as a dominant collision process in describing electron stripping rates. These results are used to estimate the observed increase in the ratio of electrons to H{sup −} ion beam in the ISTS beam transport line.

  9. Commissioning of a compact laser-based proton beam line for high intensity bunches around 10Â MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busold, S.; Schumacher, D.; Deppert, O.; Brabetz, C.; Kroll, F.; Blažević, A.; Bagnoud, V.; Roth, M.

    2014-03-01

    We report on the first results of experiments with a new laser-based proton beam line at the GSI accelerator facility in Darmstadt. It delivers high current bunches at proton energies around 9.6 MeV, containing more than 109 particles in less than 10 ns and with tunable energy spread down to 2.7% (ΔE/E0 at FWHM). A target normal sheath acceleration stage serves as a proton source and a pulsed solenoid provides for beam collimation and energy selection. Finally a synchronous radio frequency (rf) field is applied via a rf cavity for energy compression at a synchronous phase of -90 deg. The proton bunch is characterized at the end of the very compact beam line, only 3 m behind the laser matter interaction point, which defines the particle source.

  10. Theoretical study on production of heavy neutron-rich isotopes around the N = 126 shell closure in radioactive beam induced transfer reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Long; Su, Jun; Xie, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Feng-Shou

    2017-04-01

    In order to produce more unknown neutron-rich nuclei around N = 126, the transfer reactions 136Xe + 198Pt, 136-144Xe + 208Pb, and 132Sn + 208Pb are investigated within the framework of the dinuclear system (DNS) model. The influence of neutron excess of projectile on production cross sections of target-like products is studied through the reactions 136,144Xe + 208Pb. We find that the radioactive projectile 144Xe with much larger neutron excess is favorable to produce neutron-rich nuclei with charge number less than the target rather than produce transtarget nuclei. The incident energy dependence of yield distributions of fragments in the reaction 132Sn + 208Pb are also studied. The production cross sections of neutron-rich nuclei with Z = 72- 77 are predicted in the reactions 136-144Xe + 208Pb and 132Sn + 208Pb. It is noticed that the production cross sections of unknown neutron-rich nuclei in the reaction 144Xe + 208Pb are at least two orders of magnitude larger than those in the reaction 136Xe + 208Pb. The radioactive beam induced transfer reactions 139,144Xe + 208Pb, considering beam intensities proposed in SPIRAL2 (Production System of Radioactive Ion and Acceleration On-Line) project as well, for production of neutron-rich nuclei around the N = 126 shell closure are investigated for the first time. It is found that, in comparison to the stable beam 136Xe, the radioactive beam 144Xe shows great advantages for producing neutron-rich nuclei with N = 126 and the advantages get more obvious for producing nuclei with less charge number.

  11. Analysis of the eigenvalue equation of the FEL amplifier with axisymmetric electron beam and diaphragm focusing line

    SciTech Connect

    Saldin, E.L.; Schneidmiller, E.A.; Ulyanov, Yu.N.

    1995-12-31

    The paper presents analysis of the eigenvalue problem of the FEL amplifier with axisymmetric electron beam and diaphragm focusing line. An FEL model is discussed wherein diffraction effects, space charge fields and energy spread of electrons in the beam are taken into account. To take into account diffraction effects at the diaphragms we apply the rigorous impedance boundary conditions proposed by Veinstein. The rigorous solutions of the eigenvalue problem leave been found for the stepped and bounded parabolic electron beam profiles. Analytical expressions for eigenfunctions of active open waveguide and formulae of their expansion in eigenfunctions of passive open waveguide, are derived, too. Asymptotic behaviour of the obtained solutions is studied in details. The multilayer approximation method has been used to solve the eigenvalue problem for the beams with an arbitrary gradient profile of current density. This novel type of an FEL amplifier has perspective to be used for applications where high average and peak radiation power is required.

  12. Image quality & dosimetric property of an investigational imaging beam line MV-CBCT.

    PubMed

    Beltran, Chris; Lukose, Renin; Gangadharan, B; Bani-Hashemi, A; Faddegon, Bruce A

    2009-06-17

    To measure and compare the contrast to noise ratio (CNR) as a function of dose for the CBCTs produced by the mega-voltage (MV) imaging beam line (IBL) and the treatment beam line (TBL), and to compare the dose to target and various critical structures of pediatric patients for the IBL CBCT versus standard TBL orthogonal port films. Two Siemens Oncor linear accelerators were modified at our institution such that the MV-CBCT would operate under an investigational IBL rather than the standard 6MV TBL. Prior to the modification, several CBCTs of an electron density phantom were acquired with the TBL at various dose values. After the modification, another set of CBCTs of the electron density phantom were acquired for various doses using the IBL. The Contrast to Noise Ratio (CNR) for each tissue equivalent insert was calculated. In addition, a dosimetric study of pediatric patients was conducted comparing the 1 cGy IBL CBCT and conventional TBL orthogonal pair port films. The CNR for eight tissue equivalent inserts at five different dose settings for each type of CBCT was measured. The CNR of the muscle insert was 0.8 for a 5 cGy TBL CBCT, 1.1 for a 1.5 cGy IBL CBCT and 2.8 for a conventional CT. The CNR of the trabecular bone insert was 2.9 for a 5 cGy TBL CBCT, 5.5 for a 1.5 cGy IBL CBCT and 14.8 for a conventional CT. The IBL CBCT delivered approximately one-fourth the dose to the target and critical structures of the patients as compared to the TBL orthogonal pair port films. The IBL CBCT improves image quality while simultaneously reducing the dose to the patient as compared to the TBL CBCT. A 1 cGy IBL CBCT, which is used for boney anatomy localization, delivers one-fourth the dose as compared to conventional ortho-pair films.

  13. Application of Direct Assessment Approaches and Methodologies to Cathodically Protected Nuclear Waste Transfer Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, Megan M.; Pikas, Joseph; Edgemon, Glenn L.; Philo, Sarah

    2013-01-22

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site is responsible for the safe storage, retrieval, treatment, and disposal of approximately 54 million gallons (204 million liters) of radioactive waste generated since the site's inception in 1943. Today, the major structures involved in waste management at Hanford include 149 carbon steel single-shell tanks, 28 carbon-steel double-shell tanks, plus a network of buried metallic transfer lines and ancillary systems (pits, vaults, catch tanks, etc.) required to store, retrieve, and transfer waste within the tank farm system. Many of the waste management systems at Hanford are still in use today. In response to uncertainties regarding the structural integrity of these systems,' an independent, comprehensive integrity assessment of the Hanford Site piping system was performed. It was found that regulators do not require the cathodically protected pipelines located within the Hanford Site to be assessed by External Corrosion Direct Assessment (ECDA) or any other method used to ensure integrity. However, a case study is presented discussing the application of the direct assessment process on pipelines in such a nuclear environment. Assessment methodology and assessment results are contained herein. An approach is described for the monitoring, integration of outside data, and analysis of this information in order to identify whether coating deterioration accompanied by external corrosion is a threat for these waste transfer lines.

  14. Numerical Modeling of the Transient Chilldown Process of a Cryogenic Propellant Transfer Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartwig, Jason; Vera, Jerry

    2015-01-01

    Before cryogenic fuel depots can be fully realized, efficient methods with which to chill down the spacecraft transfer line and receiver tank are required. This paper presents numerical modeling of the chilldown of a liquid hydrogen tank-to-tank propellant transfer line using the Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP). To compare with data from recently concluded turbulent LH2 chill down experiments, seven different cases were run across a range of inlet liquid temperatures and mass flow rates. Both trickle and pulse chill down methods were simulated. The GFSSP model qualitatively matches external skin mounted temperature readings, but large differences are shown between measured and predicted internal stream temperatures. Discrepancies are attributed to the simplified model correlation used to compute two-phase flow boiling heat transfer. Flow visualization from testing shows that the initial bottoming out of skin mounted sensors corresponds to annular flow, but that considerable time is required for the stream sensor to achieve steady state as the system moves through annular, churn, and bubbly flow. The GFSSP model does adequately well in tracking trends in the data but further work is needed to refine the two-phase flow modeling to better match observed test data.

  15. Radiative transfer in CO2-rich atmospheres: 1. Collisional line mixing implies a colder early Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozak, N.; Aharonson, O.; Halevy, I.

    2016-06-01

    Fast and accurate radiative transfer methods are essential for modeling CO2-rich atmospheres, relevant to the climate of early Earth and Mars, present-day Venus, and some exoplanets. Although such models already exist, their accuracy may be improved as better theoretical and experimental constraints become available. Here we develop a unidimensional radiative transfer code for CO2-rich atmospheres, using the correlated k approach and with a focus on modeling early Mars. Our model differs from existing models in that it includes the effects of CO2 collisional line mixing in the calculation of the line-by-line absorption coefficients. Inclusion of these effects results in model atmospheres that are more transparent to infrared radiation and, therefore, in colder surface temperatures at radiative-convective equilibrium, compared with results of previous studies. Inclusion of water vapor in the model atmosphere results in negligible warming due to the low atmospheric temperatures under a weaker early Sun, which translate into climatically unimportant concentrations of water vapor. Overall, the results imply that sustained warmth on early Mars would not have been possible with an atmosphere containing only CO2 and water vapor, suggesting that other components of the early Martian climate system are missing from current models or that warm conditions were not long lived.

  16. Optical pumping spectroscopy of Rb vapour with co-propagating laser beams: line identification by a simple theoretical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krmpot, Aleksandar J.; Rabasović, Mihailo D.; Jelenković, Branislav M.

    2010-07-01

    In this paper the saturation spectra of rubidium vapour at room temperature, obtained with overlapped co-propagating laser beams, were examined. Unlike the standard saturation spectroscopy, here the transmission of the pump laser beam was detected. The pump laser was locked to an atomic transition of the D2 line, while the probe laser frequency was scanned in a wide frequency range. The pump and probe beams had approximately the same intensities; thus the probe laser can saturate transitions and contribute to optical pumping. This, together with Doppler broadening, leads to rich pump transmission spectra, with many lines appearing due to the interaction of lasers with atoms in different velocity groups. The advantages of this method are well-resolved structures and appearance of spectral lines on a flat, Doppler-free background. Agreement between experimental and theoretical results shows the usefulness of this simple model, based on the rate equations, for identification of lines and determination of relative contribution to the observed line intensity from atoms with different velocities. Theoretical spectra are a useful tool for the calibration of experimental spectra obtained by a nonlinear dependence of the laser frequency on the voltage applied to the piezo used for the laser diode frequency scanning.

  17. Fast characterization of line-end shortening and application of novel correction algorithms in e-beam direct write

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitag, Martin; Choi, Kang-Hoon; Gutsch, Manuela; Hohle, Christoph; Galler, Reinhard; Krüger, Michael; Weidenmueller, Ulf

    2011-04-01

    For the manufacturing of semiconductor technologies following the ITRS roadmap, we will face the nodes well below 32nm half pitch in the next 2~3 years. Despite being able to achieve the required resolution, which is now possible with electron beam direct write variable shaped beam (EBDW VSB) equipment and resists, it becomes critical to precisely reproduce dense line space patterns onto a wafer. This exposed pattern must meet the targets from the layout in both dimensions (horizontally and vertically). For instance, the end of a line must be printed in its entire length to allow a later placed contact to be able to land on it. Up to now, the control of printed patterns such as line ends is achieved by a proximity effect correction (PEC) which is mostly based on a dose modulation. This investigation of the line end shortening (LES) includes multiple novel approaches, also containing an additional geometrical correction, to push the limits of the available data preparation algorithms and the measurement. The designed LES test patterns, which aim to characterize the status of LES in a quick and easy way, were exposed and measured at Fraunhofer Center Nanoelectronic Technologies (CNT) using its state of the art electron beam direct writer and CD-SEM. Simulation and exposure results with the novel LES correction algorithms applied to the test pattern and a large production like pattern in the range of our target CDs in dense line space features smaller than 40nm will be shown.

  18. A transverse emittance and acceptance measurement system in a low-energy beam transport line

    SciTech Connect

    Kashiwagi, H. Miyawaki, N.; Kurashima, S.; Okumura, S.

    2014-02-15

    A transverse beam emittance and acceptance measurement system has been developed to visualize the relationship between the injected beam emittance and the acceptance of a cyclotron. The system is composed of a steering magnet, two pairs of slits to limit the horizontal and vertical phase-space, a beam intensity detector just behind the slits for the emittance measurement, and a beam intensity detector in the cyclotron for the acceptance measurement. The emittance is obtained by scanning the slits and measuring the beam intensity distribution. The acceptance is obtained by measuring the distribution of relative beam transmission by injecting small emittance beams at various positions in a transverse phase-space using the slits. In the acceptance measurement, the beam from an ion source is deflected to the defined region by the slits using the steering magnet so that measurable acceptance area covers a region outside the injection beam emittance. Measurement tests were carried out under the condition of accelerating a beam of {sup 16}O{sup 6+} from 50.2 keV to 160 MeV. The emittance of the injected beam and the acceptance for accelerating and transporting the beam to the entrance of the extraction deflector were successfully measured. The relationship between the emittance and acceptance is visualized by displaying the results in the same phase-plane.

  19. Proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry: on-line trace gas analysis at the ppb level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansel, A.; Jordan, A.; Holzinger, R.; Prazeller, P.; Vogel, W.; Lindinger, W.

    1995-11-01

    A system for trace gas analysis using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) has been developed which allows for on-line measurements of components with concentrations as low as 1 ppb. The method is based on reactions of H3O+ ions, which perform non-dissociative proton transfer to most of the common organic trace constituents but do not react with any of the components present in clean air. Examples of analysis of breath taken from smokers and non-smokers as well as from patients suffering from cirrhosis of the liver, and of air in buildings as well as of ambient air taken at a road crossing demonstrate the wide range of applicability of this method. An enhanced level of acetonitrile in the breath is a most suitable indicator that a person is a smoker. Enhanced levels of propanol strongly indicate that a person has a severe liver deficiency.

  20. Coupled bending-torsion steady-state response of pretwisted, nonuniform rotating beams using a transfer-matrix method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, Carl E., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Using the Newtonian method, the equations of motion are developed for the coupled bending-torsion steady-state response of beams rotating at constant angular velocity in a fixed plane. The resulting equations are valid to first order strain-displacement relationships for a long beam with all other nonlinear terms retained. In addition, the equations are valid for beams with the mass centroidal axis offset (eccentric) from the elastic axis, nonuniform mass and section properties, and variable twist. The solution of these coupled, nonlinear, nonhomogeneous, differential equations is obtained by modifying a Hunter linear second-order transfer-matrix solution procedure to solve the nonlinear differential equations and programming the solution for a desk-top personal computer. The modified transfer-matrix method was verified by comparing the solution for a rotating beam with a geometric, nonlinear, finite-element computer code solution; and for a simple rotating beam problem, the modified method demonstrated a significant advantage over the finite-element solution in accuracy, ease of solution, and actual computer processing time required to effect a solution.

  1. Deformable motion reconstruction for scanned proton beam therapy using on-line x-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ye; Knopf, A.; Tanner, C.; Boye, D.; Lomax, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    Organ motion is a major problem for any dynamic radiotherapy delivery technique, and is particularly so for spot scanned proton therapy. On the other hand, the use of narrow, magnetically deflected proton pencil beams is potentially an ideal delivery technique for tracking tumour motion on-line. At PSI, our new Gantry is equipped with a Beams Eye View (BEV) imaging system which will be able to acquire 2D x-ray images in fluoroscopy mode during treatment delivery. However, besides precisely tracking motion from BEVs, it is also essential to obtain information on the 3D motion vector throughout the whole region of interest, and any sparsely acquired surrogate motion is generally not sufficient to describe the deformable behaviour of the whole volume in three dimensions. In this study, we propose a method by which 3D deformable motions can be estimated from surrogate motions obtained using this monoscopic imaging system. The method assumes that example motions over a number of breathing cycles can be acquired before treatment for each patient using 4DMRI. In this study, for each of 11 different subjects, 100 continuous breathing cycles have been extracted from extended 4DMRI studies in the liver and then subject specific motion models have been built using principle component analysis (PCA). To simulate treatment conditions, a different set of 30 continuous breathing cycles from the same subjects have then been used to generate a set of simulated 4DCT data sets (so-called 4DCT(MRI) data sets), from which time-resolved digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) were calculated using the BEV geometry for three treatment fields respectively. From these DRRs, surrogate motions from fiducial markers or the diaphragm have been used as a predictor to estimate 3D motions in the liver region for each subject. The prediction results have been directly compared to the ‘ground truth’ motions extracted from the same 30 breath cycles of the originating 4DMRI data set. Averaged

  2. Discrimination of charged particles in a neutral beam line by using a solid scintillation detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Jong-Kwan; Ko, Jewou; Liu, Dong

    2017-01-01

    In the past several decades, many studies have been conducted to search for non-baryonic dark matter, such as weakly interactive massive particles (WIMPs). In the search for WIMPs, charged particles incident on the detector are background particles because WIMPs are neutral. Charged particles originate from various sources, such as cosmic rays and laboratory materials surrounding the main detector. Therefore, a veto that discriminates charged particles can improve the particle-detection efficiency of the entire experiment for detecting WIMPs. Here, we investigate in the thickness range of 1 mm to 5 mm, the optimal thickness of a polystyrene scintillator as a chargedparticle veto detector. We found that 3-mm-thick polystyrene provides the best performance to veto charged particles and the charged-particle background in the search for the WIMP signal. Furthermore, we fabricated 3-mm-thick and 5-mm-thick polystyrene charged particle veto detectors that will be used in an underground laboratory in the search for WIMP dark matter. After exposing those detectors are the actual beam line, we compared the rate of charged particles measured using those detectors and the rate simulated through a Monte Carlo simulation.

  3. Optimizing A Lipocomplex-Based Gene Transfer Method into HeLa Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Asgharian, Alimohammad; Banan, Mehdi; Najmabadi, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    One of the most significant steps in gene expression studies is transferring genes into cell cultures. Despite there are different methods for gene delivery such as viral and non-viral producers, some cationic lipid reagents have recently developed to transfect into mam- malian cell lines. The main aim of this study was optimizing and improving lipocomplex based transient transfection procedures into HeLa cell line which is being used widely as a typical cell in biological studies. This study was an experimental research. In this work, pCMV β-Gal DNA plasmid was used as a reporter DNA for determining the rate of gene transfection into HeLa cells. To accomplish the highest gene delivery into HeLa cells, optimizing experiments were carried out in different volumes of FuGENE-HD, LipofectamineTM2000 and X-tremeGENE. Also, we investigated tranasfection efficiency in presence of various cell densities of HeLa cells. Then, transfection efficiency and cell toxicity were measured by beta gal staining and trypan blue methods, respectively. Using FuGENE-HD in volume of 4µl along with 105 HeLa cells, transfection efficiency was higher (43.66 ± 1.52%) in comparison with the cationic lipids LipofectamineTM2000 and X-tremeGENE. In addition, the rate of cell toxicity in presence of FuGENE-HD was less than 5%. In summary, the cationic lipid FuGENE-HD indicates a suitable potential to transfer DNA into HeLa cells and it can be an efficient reagent for gene delivery for HeLa cells in vitro. Moreover, it is worth designing and optimizing gene transfer experiments for other cell lines with FuGENE-HD due to its low toxicity and high efficiency. PMID:24381863

  4. Optimizing A Lipocomplex-Based Gene Transfer Method into HeLa Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Asgharian, Alimohammad; Banan, Mehdi; Najmabadi, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    One of the most significant steps in gene expression studies is transferring genes into cell cultures. Despite there are different methods for gene delivery such as viral and non-viral producers, some cationic lipid reagents have recently developed to transfect into mam- malian cell lines. The main aim of this study was optimizing and improving lipocomplex based transient transfection procedures into HeLa cell line which is being used widely as a typical cell in biological studies. This study was an experimental research. In this work, pCMV β-Gal DNA plasmid was used as a reporter DNA for determining the rate of gene transfection into HeLa cells. To accomplish the highest gene delivery into HeLa cells, optimizing experiments were car- ried out in different volumes of FuGENE-HD, Lipofectamine(TM)2000 and X-tremeGENE. Also, we investigated tranasfection efficiency in presence of various cell densities of HeLa cells. Then, transfection efficiency and cell toxicity were measured by beta gal staining and trypan blue methods, respectively. Using FuGENE-HD in volume of 4µl along with 10(5) HeLa cells, transfection efficiency was higher (43.66 ± 1.52%) in comparison with the cationic lipids Lipofectamine(TM)2000 and X-tremeGENE. In addition, the rate of cell toxicity in presence of FuGENE-HD was less than 5%. In summary, the cationic lipid FuGENE-HD indicates a suitable potential to transfer DNA into HeLa cells and it can be an efficient reagent for gene delivery for HeLa cells in vitro. Moreover, it is worth designing and optimizing gene transfer experiments for other cell lines with FuGENE-HD due to its low toxicity and high efficiency.

  5. Customized atomic force microscopy probe by focused-ion-beam-assisted tip transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Andrew; Butte, Manish J.

    2014-08-04

    We present a technique for transferring separately fabricated tips onto tipless atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilevers, performed using focused ion beam-assisted nanomanipulation. This method addresses the need in scanning probe microscopy for certain tip geometries that cannot be achieved by conventional lithography. For example, in probing complex layered materials or tall biological cells using AFM, a tall tip with a high-aspect-ratio is required to avoid artifacts caused by collisions of the tip's sides with the material being probed. We show experimentally that tall (18 μm) cantilever tips fabricated by this approach reduce squeeze-film damping, which fits predictions from hydrodynamic theory, and results in an increased quality factor (Q) of the fundamental flexural mode. We demonstrate that a customized tip's well-defined geometry, tall tip height, and aspect ratio enable improved measurement of elastic moduli by allowing access to low-laying portions of tall cells (T lymphocytes). This technique can be generally used to attach tips to any micromechanical device when conventional lithography of tips cannot be accomplished.

  6. Customized atomic force microscopy probe by focused-ion-beam-assisted tip transfer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Andrew; Butte, Manish J.

    2014-01-01

    We present a technique for transferring separately fabricated tips onto tipless atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilevers, performed using focused ion beam-assisted nanomanipulation. This method addresses the need in scanning probe microscopy for certain tip geometries that cannot be achieved by conventional lithography. For example, in probing complex layered materials or tall biological cells using AFM, a tall tip with a high-aspect-ratio is required to avoid artifacts caused by collisions of the tip's sides with the material being probed. We show experimentally that tall (18 μm) cantilever tips fabricated by this approach reduce squeeze-film damping, which fits predictions from hydrodynamic theory, and results in an increased quality factor (Q) of the fundamental flexural mode. We demonstrate that a customized tip's well-defined geometry, tall tip height, and aspect ratio enable improved measurement of elastic moduli by allowing access to low-laying portions of tall cells (T lymphocytes). This technique can be generally used to attach tips to any micromechanical device when conventional lithography of tips cannot be accomplished. PMID:25161320

  7. Security camera resolution measurements: Horizontal TV lines versus modulation transfer function measurements.

    SciTech Connect

    Birch, Gabriel Carisle; Griffin, John Clark

    2015-01-01

    The horizontal television lines (HTVL) metric has been the primary quantity used by division 6000 related to camera resolution for high consequence security systems. This document shows HTVL measurements are fundamen- tally insufficient as a metric to determine camera resolution, and propose a quantitative, standards based methodology by measuring the camera system modulation transfer function (MTF), the most common and accepted metric of res- olution in the optical science community. Because HTVL calculations are easily misinterpreted or poorly defined, we present several scenarios in which HTVL is frequently reported, and discuss their problems. The MTF metric is discussed, and scenarios are presented with calculations showing the application of such a metric.

  8. Dynamics of Rovibrational Energy Transfer from Excited Molecular - Crossed Beam Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Hong

    1990-01-01

    Rovibrational inelastic scattering has been studied for the collisions between helium and excited molecular iodine (I_2) in a crossed beam apparatus. I _2 was initially prepared in two vibrational states, upsilon' = 15 and 35, in the B O_{rm u }^ + electronic state. Dispersed single vibrational level fluorescence spectra revealed the vibrational inelastic scattering. The collision energy (Ecm) was varied from 35meV to 190meV. Vibrational state changes up to | Deltaupsilon| = 6 in upsilon' = 35 and | Deltaupsilon| = 3 in upsilon' = 15 were observed. Nearly 200 relative vibrational state-to-state inelastic scattering cross sections were measured. At each Ecm, all the cross sections for both upsilon' = 15 and 35 can be fitted by a single exponential function sigma ~ exp(-| Delta rm E|/beta). At high Ecm, beta_{rm Vto T} is equal to beta_{rm Tto V}. At low ECM, beta _{rm Vto T} is larger than beta_{rm Tto V}. However, all beta's are linear functions of Ecm. Also the cross sections for the Deltaupsilon = +/-1 scattering are nearly independent of Ecm. Considering that the collisions are not adiabatic, these results are not consistent with the well-known Landau-Teller theory. Using the empirical dependence of the cross sections on Ecm, we calculated the thermal rate constants. The calculation at 300K agrees with the bulb experiment for V to T but not for T to V transitions. The calculation also shows that the bulb energy transfer is mainly induced by collisions with velocities ~2 times larger than the most probable velocity. From the cross sections, mean energy transfer per vibrationally inelastic collision, < Deltarm E>, was also obtained. The results show that < Deltarm E> increases linearly with Ecm and levels off to near-zero at high collision energy. At low Ecm, < Deltarm E> in upsilon' = 15 is larger than that in upsilon' = 35. The average rotational energy transfered increases almost linearly with Ecm but is small, only ~ 2% of the Ecm. This is a direct result of

  9. Space charge compensation in the Linac4 low energy beam transport line with negative hydrogen ions.

    PubMed

    Valerio-Lizarraga, Cristhian A; Lallement, Jean-Baptiste; Leon-Monzon, Ildefonso; Lettry, Jacques; Midttun, Øystein; Scrivens, Richard

    2014-02-01

    The space charge effect of low energy, unbunched ion beams can be compensated by the trapping of ions or electrons into the beam potential. This has been studied for the 45 keV negative hydrogen ion beam in the CERN Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport using the package IBSimu [T. Kalvas et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 02B703 (2010)], which allows the space charge calculation of the particle trajectories. The results of the beam simulations will be compared to emittance measurements of an H(-) beam at the CERN Linac4 3 MeV test stand, where the injection of hydrogen gas directly into the beam transport region has been used to modify the space charge compensation degree.

  10. Line-Mixing Relaxation Matrix model for spectroscopic and radiative transfer studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendaza, Teresa; Martin-Torres, Javier

    2016-04-01

    We present a generic model to compute the Relaxation Matrix easily adaptable to any molecule and type of spectroscopic lines or bands in non-reactive molecule collisions regimes. It also provides the dipole moment of every transition and level population of the selected molecule. The model is based on the Energy-Corrected Sudden (ECS) approximation/theory introduced by DePristo (1980), and on previous Relaxation Matrix studies for the interaction between molecular ro-vibrational levels (Ben-Rueven, 1966), atoms (Rosenkranz, 1975), linear molecules (Strow and Reuter, 1994; Niro, Boulet and Hartmann, 2004), and symmetric but not linear molecules (Tran et al., 2006). The model is open source, and it is user-friendly. To the point that the user only has to select the wished molecule and vibrational band to perform the calculations. It reads the needed spectroscopic data from the HIgh-resolution TRANsmission molecular absorption (HITRAN) (Rothman et al., 2013) and ExoMol (Tennyson and Yurchenko, 2012). In this work we present an example of the calculations with our model for the case of the 2ν3 band of methane (CH4), and a comparison with a previous work (Tran et al., 2010). The data produced by our model can be used to characterise the line-mixing effects on ro-vibrational lines of the infrared emitters of any atmosphere, to calculate accurate absorption spectra, that are needed in the interpretation of atmospheric spectra, radiative transfer modelling and General Circulation Models (GCM). References [1] A.E. DePristo, Collisional influence on vibration-rotation spectral line shapes: A scaling theoretical analysis and simplification, J. Chem. Phys. 73(5), 1980. [2] A. Ben-Reuven, Impact broadening of microwave spectra, Phys. Rev. 145(1), 7-22, 1966. [3] P.W. Rosenkranz, Shape of the 5 mm Oxygen Band in the Atmosphere, IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. AP-23, no. 4, pp. 498-506, 1975. [4] Strow, L.L., D.D. Tobin, and S.E. Hannon, A compilation of

  11. Status of the SPES-charge breeder (SPES-CB) and its beam line at INFN-LNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galatá, Àlessio; Comunian, M.; Bellan, L.; Maggiore, M.; Patti, G.; Roncolato, C.; Bisoffi, G.; Russo, A. D.; Calabretta, L.; Angot, J.; Lamy, T.

    2016-06-01

    The Selective Production of Exotic Species (SPES) facility is under construction at INFN-LNL: aim of this project is the production, ionization and post-acceleration of radioactive ions to perform forefront research in nuclear physics. Radioactive species will be produced by fissions induced by a proton beam impinging on an UCx target: the proton beam will be delivered by a room temperature cyclotron (built by the Best Company) with a maximum energy of 40 MeV and 0.25 mA of maximum current. The radioactive species produced in the Target-Ion-Source system, extracted as a 1+ beam, cooled in a RFQ-cooler and purified from the isobars contaminants through a High Resolution Mass Spectrometer (HRMS). In order to allow post acceleration with the superconducting linac ALPI at INFN-LNL (up to 10 MeV/A for A/q = 7), an ECR-based charge breeding technique (ECR-CB) was chosen: in particular the SPES-CB was developed by the LPSC Grenoble on the basis of the Phoenix booster. The SPES-CB will be equipped with a complete test bench, totally integrated with the SPES beam line: in particular, in order to avoid beam contaminations induced by the impurities present inside the SPES-CB, and to have high transmission for a beam of very low intensity, special attention was paid not only to the transport efficiency but also to the resolution of the spectrometer downstream the charge breeder, with the design of a Medium Resolution Mass Spectrometer (MRMS). In the following paper the technical aspects connected with SPES-CB, its beam line and the transport of highly charged radioactive ions will be described.

  12. Single molecule studies of a ladder type conjugated polymer: vibronic spectra, line widths, and energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Zickler, Martin F; Feist, Florian A; Jacob, Josemon; Müllen, Klaus; Basché, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Confocal fluorescence microscopy and spectroscopy are employed to investigate single poly(ladder-type pentaphenylene) (LPPentP) molecules dispersed in thin poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films at 1.2 K. Emission spectra of single chains show single as well as multi-chromophore emission indicating variegated communication along the chains. The vibronic structure in the emission spectra resembles the one found for other ladder-type polymers. Purely electronic zero-phonon lines in emission are substantially broadened, most probably due to fast spectral diffusion. By surmounting the limitations of emission spectroscopy, nonemitting donor chromophores, which transfer their excitation energy in a radiationless manner to emitting chromophores, are accessed by excitation spectroscopy. Remarkably, by comparing the data of emitting and nonemitting chromophores a contribution to the zero-phonon excitation line width has to be considered which places a lower limit on the estimated energy transfer time of several picoseconds between adjacent chromophores. Finally, the data indicate qualitatively a restricted flexibility of LPPentP compared to poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV).

  13. Radiative transfer and spectroscopic databases: A line-sampling Monte Carlo approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galtier, Mathieu; Blanco, Stéphane; Dauchet, Jérémi; El Hafi, Mouna; Eymet, Vincent; Fournier, Richard; Roger, Maxime; Spiesser, Christophe; Terrée, Guillaume

    2016-03-01

    Dealing with molecular-state transitions for radiative transfer purposes involves two successive steps that both reach the complexity level at which physicists start thinking about statistical approaches: (1) constructing line-shaped absorption spectra as the result of very numerous state-transitions, (2) integrating over optical-path domains. For the first time, we show here how these steps can be addressed simultaneously using the null-collision concept. This opens the door to the design of Monte Carlo codes directly estimating radiative transfer observables from spectroscopic databases. The intermediate step of producing accurate high-resolution absorption spectra is no longer required. A Monte Carlo algorithm is proposed and applied to six one-dimensional test cases. It allows the computation of spectrally integrated intensities (over 25 cm-1 bands or the full IR range) in a few seconds, regardless of the retained database and line model. But free parameters need to be selected and they impact the convergence. A first possible selection is provided in full detail. We observe that this selection is highly satisfactory for quite distinct atmospheric and combustion configurations, but a more systematic exploration is still in progress.

  14. Analytical linear energy transfer model including secondary particles: calculations along the central axis of the proton pencil beam.

    PubMed

    Marsolat, F; De Marzi, L; Pouzoulet, F; Mazal, A

    2016-01-21

    In proton therapy, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) depends on various types of parameters such as linear energy transfer (LET). An analytical model for LET calculation exists (Wilkens' model), but secondary particles are not included in this model. In the present study, we propose a correction factor, L sec, for Wilkens' model in order to take into account the LET contributions of certain secondary particles. This study includes secondary protons and deuterons, since the effects of these two types of particles can be described by the same RBE-LET relationship. L sec was evaluated by Monte Carlo (MC) simulations using the GATE/GEANT4 platform and was defined by the ratio of the LET d distributions of all protons and deuterons and only primary protons. This method was applied to the innovative Pencil Beam Scanning (PBS) delivery systems and L sec was evaluated along the beam axis. This correction factor indicates the high contribution of secondary particles in the entrance region, with L sec values higher than 1.6 for a 220 MeV clinical pencil beam. MC simulations showed the impact of pencil beam parameters, such as mean initial energy, spot size, and depth in water, on L sec. The variation of L sec with these different parameters was integrated in a polynomial function of the L sec factor in order to obtain a model universally applicable to all PBS delivery systems. The validity of this correction factor applied to Wilkens' model was verified along the beam axis of various pencil beams in comparison with MC simulations. A good agreement was obtained between the corrected analytical model and the MC calculations, with mean-LET deviations along the beam axis less than 0.05 keV μm(-1). These results demonstrate the efficacy of our new correction of the existing LET model in order to take into account secondary protons and deuterons along the pencil beam axis.

  15. Simulation and beam line experiments for the superconducting ECRion source VENUS

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, Damon S.; Leitner, Daniela; Grote, David P.; Lyneis, ClaudeM.

    2007-09-10

    The particle-in-cell code Warp has been enhanced toincorporate both two- and three-dimensional sheath extraction modelsgiving Warp the capability of simulating entire ion beam transportsystems including the extraction of beams from plasma sources. In thisarticle we describe a method of producing initial ion distributions forplasma extraction simulations in electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ionsources based on experimentally measured sputtering on the source biaseddisc. Using this initialization method, we present preliminary resultsfor extraction and transport simulations of an oxygen beam and comparethem with experimental beam imaging on a quartz viewing plate for thesuperconducting ECR ion source VENUS.

  16. SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNET SYSTEM AT THE 50 GEV PROTON BEAM LINE FOR THE J-PARC NEUTRINO EXPERIMENT.

    SciTech Connect

    WANDERER,P.; ET AL.

    2003-06-15

    A neutrino oscillation experiment using the J-PARC SO GeV 0.75 MW proton beam is planned as a successor to the K2K project currently being operated at KEK. A superconducting magnet system is required for the arc section of the primary proton beam line to be within the space available at the site. A system with 28 combined function magnets is proposed to simplify the system and optimize the cost. The required fields for the magnets are 2.6 T dipole and 19 T/m quadrupole. The magnets are also required to have a large aperture, 173.4 mm diameter, to accommodate the large beam emittance. The magnets will be protected by cold diodes and cooled by forced flow supercritical helium produced by a 4.5 K, 2 {approx} 2.5 kW refrigerator. This paper reports the system overview and the design status.

  17. Absolute line strengths in nu(4), (12)CH(4): a dual-beam diode laser spectrometer with sweep integration.

    PubMed

    Jennings, D E

    1980-08-15

    A tunable diode laser spectrometer with several unique features has been developed for use in the middle IR. The all-reflective optical system has a dual-beam configuration before the dispersive mode selector to eliminate transit-angle errors at the calibration etalon. By maintaining separated beams through the mode selector, beam combiner losses are avoided. Averaging successive sweeps of the current-modulated laser permits stable reproducible spectral integrations, eliminating etalon thermal errors and producing high photometric sensitivity. Line strengths have been measured using this instrument for eleven transitions in nu(4) of (12)CH(4). These include R0 and R1 and nine P-branch transitions in the 1202-1263-cm(-1) range. Techniques for measuring strengths with a diode laser are discussed.

  18. Experimental and analytical studies on a foam insulated rigid type transfer line for use with liquid nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patidar, Jyotish; Sumanth, R. A.; Behera, Upendra; Kasthurirengan, Srinivasan

    2017-02-01

    The transfer line is one of the important components of any cryogenic system needed to transport the cryogenic fluid from one location to another. Towards our efforts to develop a long rigid-type transfer line for liquid nitrogen (LN2) to transfer this fluid from a 5000 litre capacity vertical storage tank to the Helium liquefier (Linde Model 1610) located at a distance of nearly 50 m, we designed and fabricated several units of straight section transfer lines of length ≈ 6.5 m and they were integrated to make the long length transfer line. Each unit was fabricated with 0.5 inch dia. copper inner tube supported by spacers within 2 inch dia. PVC outer tube. Each section was foam insulated after the necessary instrumentation for temperature measurements. The individual sub units were integrated together with a small bellow section in between to take care of thermal contraction during use. We present here the analytical and experimental studies of the cool down and mass flow characteristics of a single foam insulated unit. These experimental studies are representative results of the performances of the long length rigid foam insulated transfer line.

  19. Design study of the ESS-Bilbao 50 MeV proton beam line for radiobiological studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerta-Parajon, M.; Martinez-Ballarin, R.; Abad, E.

    2015-02-01

    The ESS-Bilbao proton accelerator facility has been designed fulfilling the European Spallation Source (ESS) specifications to serve as the Spanish contribution to the ESS construction. Furthermore, several applications of the ESS-Bilbao proton beam are being considered in order to contribute to the knowledge in the field of radiobiology, materials and aerospace components. Understanding of the interaction of radiation with biological systems is of vital importance as it affects important applications such as cancer treatment with ion beam therapy among others. ESS-Bilbao plans to house a facility exclusively dedicated to radiobiological experiments with protons up to 50 MeV. Beam line design, optimisation and initial calculations of flux densities and absorbed doses were undertaken using the Monte Carlo simulation package FLUKA. A proton beam with a flux density of about 106 protons/cm2 s reaches the water sample with a flat lateral distribution of the dose. The absorbed dose at the pristine Bragg peak calculated with FLUKA is 2.4 ± 0.1 Gy in 1 min of irradiation time. This value agrees with the clinically meaningful dose rates, i.e. around 2 Gy/min, used in hadrontherapy. Optimisation and validation studies in the ESS-Bilbao line for radiobiological experiments are detailed in this article.

  20. An improved pulse-line accelerator-driven, intense current-density, and high-brightness pseudospark electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, J.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, L.; Wang, M.

    1996-02-01

    A high-voltage (200 kV), high current-density, low-emittance (23 {pi}{center_dot}mm mrd), high-brightness (8 {times} 10{sup 10} A/(mrd){sup 2}) electron beam was generated in a pseudospark chamber filled with 15 Pa nitrogen and driven by a modified pulse line accelerator. The beam ejected with {le}1-mm diameter, 2.2-kA beam current, 400-ns pulse length, and about 20 cm propagation distance. Exposure of 10 shots on the same film produced a hole of 1.6-mm diameter at 7 cm downstream of the anode, and showed its good reproducibility. After 60 shots, it was observed that almost no destructive damage traces were left on the surfaces of the various electrodes and insulators of the pseudospark discharge chamber. It was experimentally found that the quality of the pseudospark electron beam remains very high, even at high voltages (of several hundred kilovolts), similar to low voltages, and is much better than the quality of the cold-cathode electron beams.

  1. Development of R. I. Soloukhin's scientific line of investigations at the heat and mass transfer institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanok, S. A.; Penyazkov, O. G.; Fomin, N. A.

    2010-12-01

    The history of development of works on physical gasdynamics and high-temperature thermal physics that were initiated by the outstanding scientist, Corresponding Member of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Academician of the BSSR Academy of Sciences, Lenin Prize Winner Rem Ivanovich Soloukhin at the A. V. Luikov Heat and Mass Transfer Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus is described. Particular emphasis is placed on investigations into physicochemical kinetics under nonequilibrium conditions, combustion, detonation, and the gasdynamics of explosions and reactive systems; these investigations have been carried out at the Institute during the last three decades. Also, R. I. Soloukhin's works at the Siberian Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences, where the foundations of this scientific line of investigations were laid, are briefly described.

  2. BEAM INSTRUMENTATION FOR THE SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE RING.

    SciTech Connect

    WITKOVER,R.L.; CAMERON,P.R.; SHEA,T.J.; CONNOLLY,R.C.; KESSELMAN,M.

    1999-03-29

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) will be constructed by a multi-laboratory collaboration with BNL responsible for the transfer lines and ring. [1] The 1 MW beam power necessitates careful monitoring to minimize un-controlled loss. This high beam power will influence the design of the monitors in the high energy beam transport line (HEBT) from linac to ring, in the ring, and in the ring-to-target transfer line (RTBT). The ring instrumentation must cover a 3-decade range of beam intensity during accumulation. Beam loss monitoring will be especially critical since un-controlled beam loss must be kept below 10{sup -4}. A Beam-In-Gap (BIG) monitor is being designed to assure out-of-bucket beam will not be lost in the ring.

  3. Theoretical study of fabrication of line-and-space patterns with 7 nm quarter-pitch using electron beam lithography with chemically amplified resist process: V. Optimum beam size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozawa, Takahiro

    2016-10-01

    The high-volume production of semiconductor devices with sub-10 nm critical dimensions is challenging. We have investigated the feasibility of the fabrication of line-and-space patterns with a 7 nm quarter-pitch (7 nm space width and 21 nm line width) by electron beam (EB) lithography. In this study, the optimum beam size for the fabrication of line-and-space patterns with a 7 nm quarter-pitch was investigated from the viewpoint of the trade-off relationship between line edge roughness (LER) and sensitivity. When the peak charge was constant, the optimum beam size depended on the required sensitivity. When the total charge was constant, the beam size was required to be less than 1.6 nm for minimizing LER.

  4. Very Efficient Methods for Multilevel Radiative Transfer in Atomic and Molecular Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asensio Ramos, A.; Trujillo Bueno, J.

    The development of fast numerical methods for multilevel radiative transfer (RT) applications often leads to important breakthroughs in astrophysics, because they allow the investigation of problems that could not be properly tackled using the methods previously available. Probably, the most familiar example is the so-called Multilevel Accelerated Λ-Iteration (MALI) technique of Rybicki & Hummer for the case of a local approximate operator, which is based on Jacobi iteration. However, there are superior operator-splitting methods, based on Gauss-Seidel (GS) and Successive Overrelaxation (SOR) iteration, which provide a dramatic increase in the speed with which non-LTE multilevel transfer problems can be solved in one, two and three-dimensional geometries. Such RT methods, which were introduced by Trujillo Bueno & Fabiani Bendicho ten years ago, are the main subject of the first part of this paper. We show in some detail how they can be applied for solving multilevel RT problems in spherical geometry, for both atomic and molecular line transitions. The second part of the article addresses the issue of the calculation of the molecular number densities when the approximation of instantaneous chemical equilibrium turns out to be inadequate, which happens to be the case whenever the dynamical time scales of the astrophysical plasma under consideration are much shorter than the time needed by the molecules to form.

  5. Rabbit embryonic stem cell lines derived from fertilized, parthenogenetic or somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Zhen F.; Gai, Hui; Huang, You Z.; Li, Shan G.; Chen, Xue J.; Shi, Jian J.; Wu, Li; Liu, Ailian; Xu, Ping; Sheng, Hui Z. . E-mail: hzsheng2003@yahoo.com

    2006-11-01

    Embryonic stem cells were isolated from rabbit blastocysts derived from fertilization (conventional rbES cells), parthenogenesis (pES cells) and nuclear transfer (ntES cells), and propagated in a serum-free culture system. Rabbit ES (rbES) cells proliferated for a prolonged time in an undifferentiated state and maintained a normal karyotype. These cells grew in a monolayer with a high nuclear/cytoplasm ratio and contained a high level of alkaline phosphate activity. In addition, rbES cells expressed the pluripotent marker Oct-4, as well as EBAF2, FGF4, TDGF1, but not antigens recognized by antibodies against SSEA-1, SSEA-3, SSEA-4, TRA-1-10 and TRA-1-81. All 3 types of ES cells formed embryoid bodies and generated teratoma that contained tissue types of all three germ layers. rbES cells exhibited a high cloning efficiency, were genetically modified readily and were used as nuclear donors to generate a viable rabbit through somatic cell nuclear transfer. In combination with genetic engineering, the ES cell technology should facilitate the creation of new rabbit lines.

  6. Commissioning of BL 7.2, the new diagnostic beam line at the ALS

    SciTech Connect

    Sannibale, Fernando; Baum, Dennis; Biocca, Alan; Kelez, Nicholas; Nishimura, Toshiro; Scarvie, Tom; Williams, Eric; Holldack, Karsten

    2004-06-29

    BL 7.2 is a new beamline at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) dedicated to electron beam diagnostics. The system, which is basically a hard x-ray pinhole camera, was installed in the storage ring in August 2003 and commissioning with the ALS electron beam followed immediately after. In this paper the commissioning results are presented together with the description of the relevant measurements performed for the beamline characterization.

  7. Gas Transport and Density Control in the HYLIFE Heavy-Ion Beam Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Debonnel, Christophe S.; Welch, Dale R.; Rose, David V.; Lawrence, Simon S.Yu; Peterson, Per F

    2003-05-15

    The effective propagation and focusing of heavy-ion beams in the final-focus magnet region of inertial fusion target chambers require controlling the background gas density and pressure in the beam tubes. Liquid vortexes will coat the inside of the tubes next to the beam ports and will help eliminate the need for mechanical shutters to mitigate the venting of target chamber background gas into the final-focus magnet region. Before the neutralizing region, the beam space charge is high, and ablation and target debris deposition in the final-focus magnet region may cause voltage breakdown. Previous studies focused on evaluating the amount of target chamber debris reaching the entrance of the beam ports. The TSUNAMI code has now been used to assess the density, temperature, and velocity of the vortex debris transported {approx}3 m up the beam tubes and reaching the final-focus magnet region, assuming that the liquid vortexes are perfectly absorbing surfaces. To further mitigate debris deposition in the final-focus magnet region, and prevent voltage breakdown, a 'magnetic shutter' has been envisaged to divert the debris out of the final-focus region. This shutter will prevent the hot ablation debris from reaching the magnet region and, coupled to some ionizing scheme, will conveniently suppress early ingression of debris into the final-focus magnet region.

  8. Upgrade to a programmable timing system for the KOMAC proton linac and multi-purpose beam lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Young-Gi

    2016-09-01

    The KOMAC facility consists of low-energy components, including a 50-keV ion source, a lowenergy beam transport (LEBT), a 3-MeV radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ), and a 20-MeV drift tube linac (DTL), as well as high-energy components, including seven DTL tanks for the 100-MeV proton beam. The KOMAC includes ten beam lines, five for 20-MeV beams and five for 100-MeV beams. The peak beam current and the maximum beam duty are 20 mA and 24% for the 20-MeV linac and 20 mA and 8% for the 100-MeV linac, respectively. Four high-voltage convertor modulators are used. Each modulator drives two or three klystrons. The peak output power is 5.8 MW, and the average power is 520 kW with a duty of 9%. The pulse width and repetition rate are 1.5 ms and 60 Hz, respectively. Each component of the pulsed operation mode has a timing trigger signal with precision synchronization. A timing system for beam extraction and for diagnostic components is required to provide precise pulse signals synchronized with a 300-MHz RF reference frequency. In addition, the timing parameters should be capable of real-time changes in accordance with the beam power. The KOMAC timing system has been upgraded to a programmable Micro Research Finland (MRF) event timing system that is synchronized with the RF, AC main frequency and with the global positioning system (GPS) 1-PPS signal. The event timing system consists of an event generator (EVG) and an event receiver (EVR). The event timing system is integrated with the KOMAC control system by using experimental physics and industrial control system (EPICS) software. For preliminary hardware and software testing, a long operation test with a synchronization of 300-MHz RF reference and 60-Hz AC has been completed successfully. In this paper, we will describe the software implementation, the testing, and the installation of the new timing system.

  9. High Transferability of Homoeolog-Specific Markers between Bread Wheat and Newly Synthesized Hexaploid Wheat Lines

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Deying; Luo, Jiangtao; Li, Zenglin; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Lianquan; Ning, Shunzong; Yuan, Zhongwei; Zheng, Youliang; Hao, Ming; Liu, Dengcai

    2016-01-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, 2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD) has a complex allohexaploid genome, which makes it difficult to differentiate between the homoeologous sequences and assign them to the chromosome A, B, or D subgenomes. The chromosome-based draft genome sequence of the ‘Chinese Spring’ common wheat cultivar enables the large-scale development of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based markers specific for homoeologs. Based on high-confidence ‘Chinese Spring’ genes with known functions, we developed 183 putative homoeolog-specific markers for chromosomes 4B and 7B. These markers were used in PCR assays for the 4B and 7B nullisomes and their euploid synthetic hexaploid wheat (SHW) line that was newly generated from a hybridization between Triticum turgidum (AABB) and the wild diploid species Aegilops tauschii (DD). Up to 64% of the markers for chromosomes 4B or 7B in the SHW background were confirmed to be homoeolog-specific. Thus, these markers were highly transferable between the ‘Chinese Spring’ bread wheat and SHW lines. Homoeolog-specific markers designed using genes with known functions may be useful for genetic investigations involving homoeologous chromosome tracking and homoeolog expression and interaction analyses. PMID:27611704

  10. Laser-induced forward transfer for improving fine-line metallization in photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Aniorte, M. I.; Mouhamadou, B.; Alloncle, A. P.; Sarnet, T.; Delaporte, P.

    2016-06-01

    Grand challenges to create new front metallization techniques in photovoltaic focus considerable attention on laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) approach. This alternative method aims to overcome the limitations of the well-established and mature screen-printing (SP) technique. Such limitations are for instance restrictions in the grid pattern design, high-temperature steps, and limited aspect ratio of the line contact (Poulain et al. in Appl Surf Sci 257:5241-5244, 2011). Although different new front contact metallization concepts have been studied, most of them require a second print step to increase the volume of the contact (Gao et al. in Proceedings of 25th EU PVSEC conference, 2010; Beaucarne and Schubert in Energy Proc 67:2-12, 2015; Lossen and Matusovsky in Energy Proc 67:156-162, 2015; Green in Phys E 14:65-70, 2002; Lennon et al. in Prog Photovolt Res Appl V21:1454-1468, 2012). As a result, it is desirable to find innovative metallization techniques to improve the cell efficiency without significantly increasing the cost. Although many challenges remain before to obtain high-quality, robust, and high-performance LIFT contact formation, it required a fully theoretical and experimental assessment. This paper presents the results of a study of the LIFT technique in picosecond regime and thick silver pastes to create high-quality conductive lines for photovoltaic applications.

  11. Deposition and characterization of lines printed through laser-induced forward transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palla-Papavlu, A.; Córdoba, C.; Patrascioiu, A.; Fernández-Pradas, J. M.; Morenza, J. L.; Serra, P.

    2013-03-01

    The possibility of printing two-dimensional micropatterns of biomolecule solutions is of great interest in many fields of research in biomedicine, from cell-growth and development studies to the investigation of the mechanisms of communication between cells. Although laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) has been extensively used to print micrometric droplets of biological solutions, the fabrication of complex patterns depends on the feasibility of the technique to print micron-sized lines of aqueous solutions. In this study we investigate such a possibility through the analysis of the influence of droplet spacing of a water and glycerol solution on the morphology of the features printed by LIFT. We prove that it is indeed possible to print long and uniform continuous lines by controlling the overlap between adjacent droplets. We show how, depending on droplet spacing, several printed morphologies are generated, and we offer, in addition, a simple explanation of the observed behavior based on the jetting dynamics characteristic of the LIFT of liquids.

  12. On-line measurements of proton beam current from a PET cyclotron using a thin aluminum foil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghithan, S.; do Carmo, S. J. C.; Ferreira Marques, R.; Fraga, F. A. F.; Simões, H.; Alves, F.; Crespo, P.

    2013-07-01

    The number of cyclotrons capable of accelerating protons to about 20 MeV is increasing throughout the world. Originally aiming at the production of positron emission tomography (PET) radionuclides, some of these facilities are equipped with several beam lines suitable for scientific research. Radiobiology, radiophysiology, and other dosimetric studies can be performed using these beam lines. In this work, we measured the Bragg peak of the protons from a PET cyclotron using a stacked target consisting of several aluminum foils interleaved with polyethylene sheets, readout by in-house made transimpedance electronics. The measured Bragg peak is consistent with simulations performed using the SRIM/TRIM simulation toolkit. Furthermore, we report on experimental results aiming at measuring proton beam currents down to 10 pA using a thin aluminum foil (20-μm-thick). The aluminum was chosen for this task because it is radiation hard, it has low density and low radiation activity, and finally because it is easily available at negligible cost. This method allows for calculating the dose delivered to a target during an irradiation with high efficiency, and with minimal proton energy loss and scattering.

  13. Overview of the Conceptual Design of the Future VENUS Neutron Imaging Beam Line at the Spallation Neutron Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilheux, Hassina; Herwig, Ken; Keener, Scott; Davis, Larry

    VENUS (Versatile Neutron Imaging Beam line at the Spallation Neutron Source) will be a world-class neutron-imaging instrument that will uniquely utilize the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) time-of-flight (TOF) capabilities to measure and characterize objects across several length scales (mm to μm). When completed, VENUS will provide academia, industry and government laboratories with the opportunity to advance scientific research in areas such as energy, materials, additive manufacturing, geosciences, transportation, engineering, plant physiology, biology, etc. It is anticipated that a good portion of the VENUS user community will have a strong engineering/industrial research focus. Installed at Beam line 10 (BL10), VENUS will be a 25-m neutron imaging facility with the capability to fully illuminate (i.e., umbra illumination) a 20 cm x 20 cm detector area. The design allows for a 28 cm x 28 cm field of view when using the penumbra to 80% of the full illumination flux. A sample position at 20 m will be implemented for magnification measurements. The optical components are comprised of a series of selected apertures, T0 and bandwidth choppers, beam scrapers, a fast shutter to limit sample activation, and flight tubes filled with Helium. Techniques such as energy selective, Bragg edge and epithermal imaging will be available at VENUS.

  14. MO-F-CAMPUS-J-03: Development of a Human Brain PET for On-Line Proton Beam-Range Verification

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Yiping

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a prototype PET for verifying proton beam-range before each fractionated therapy that will enable on-line re-planning proton therapy. Methods: Latest “edge-less” silicon photomultiplier arrays and customized ASIC readout electronics were used to develop PET detectors with depth-of-interaction (DOI) measurement capability. Each detector consists of one LYSO array with each end coupled to a SiPM array. Multiple detectors can be seamlessly tiled together to form a large detector panel. Detectors with 1.5×1.5 and 2.0×2.0 mm crystals at 20 or 30 mm lengths were studied. Readout of individual SiPM or signal multiplexing was used to transfer 3D interaction position-coded analog signals through flexible-print-circuit cables or PCB board to dedicated ASIC front-end electronics to output digital timing pulses that encode interaction information. These digital pulses can be transferred to, through standard LVDS cables, and decoded by a FPGA-based data acquisition of coincidence events and data transfer. The modular detector and scalable electronics/data acquisition will enable flexible PET system configuration for different imaging geometry. Results: Initial detector performance measurement shows excellent crystal identification even with 30 mm long crystals, ∼18% and 2.8 ns energy and timing resolutions, and around 2–3 mm DOI resolution. A small prototype PET scanner with one detector ring has been built and evaluated, validating the technology and design. A large size detector panel has been fabricated by scaling up from modular detectors. Different designs of resistor and capacitor based signal multiplexing boards were tested and selected based on optimal crystal identification and timing performance. Stackable readout electronics boards and FPGA-based data acquisition boards were developed and tested. A brain PET is under construction. Conclusion: Technology of large-size DOI detector based on SiPM array and advanced readout has been

  15. High flux photon beam monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Mortazavi, P.; Woodle, M.; Rarback, H.; Shu, D.; Howells, M.

    1985-01-01

    We have designed two photon beam position monitors for use on our x-ray storage ring beam lines. In both designs, a pair of tungsten blades, separated by a pre-determined gap, intercepts a small fraction of the incoming beam. Due to photoemission, an electrical signal is generated which is proportional to the amount of beam intercepted. The thermal load deposited in the blade is transferred by a heat pipe to a heat exchanger outside the vacuum chamber. A prototype monitor with gap adjustment capability was fabricated and tested at a uv beam line. The results show that the generated electrical signal is a good measurement of the photon beam position. In the following sections, design features and test results are discussed.

  16. Matrix:. AN Innovative Pixel Ionization Chamber for On-Line Beam Monitoring in Hadrontherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braccini, S.; Pitta', G.; Donetti, M.; Cirio, R.; La Rosa, A.; Garella, M. A.; Giordanengo, S.; Marchetto, F.; Peroni, C.

    2006-04-01

    The control of intensity, position and shape of clinical beams are key issues in the treatment of tumours using hadron beams, especially in the case of active dose distribution systems. For this purpose an innovative pixel ionization chamber, named MATRIX, has been designed, constructed and tested. The chamber is conceived to be located very near the patient to precisely monitor the beam parameters used to verify the treatment planning specifications. MATRIX operates in air and is characterized by a 21 × 21 cm2 sensitive area subdivided in 1024 pixels of 6.5 × 6.5 mm2. To minimize the amount of material crossed by the beam, the anode is made of a 50 μm kapton foil, with a deposit of 17 μm copper on each side. A very sensitive electronics is used for the readout, based on a dedicated chip. In this paper the construction of the chamber and the very positive results of the first beam tests are described.

  17. {gamma}-ray Spectroscopy of Proton Drip-Line Nuclei in the A{approx}130 Region using SPIRAL beams

    SciTech Connect

    Stezowski, O.; Guinet, D.; Lautesse, Ph.; Meyer, M.; Redon, N.; Rosse, B.; Schmitt, Ch.; De France, G.; Bhattachasyya, S.; Mukherjee, G.

    2008-11-11

    A fusion-evaporation experiment has been performed with a SPIRAL {sup 76}Kr radioactive beam in order to study the deformation of rare-earth nuclei near the proton drip-line. The experimental setup consisted in the EXOGAM {gamma}-array, coupled to the light-charged particles (LCP) DIAMANT detector and to the VAMOS heavy-ion spectrometer. The difficulties inherent to such measurements are enlightened. The coupling between EXOGAM and DIAMANT has been used to decrease the huge background caused by the radioactivity of the beam. It further permits assigning new {gamma}-ray transitions to specific residual nuclei. A {gamma}-ray belonging to the {sup 130}Pm level scheme has thus been observed for the first time.

  18. Demonstration of Current Profile Shaping using Double Dog-Leg Emittance Exchange Beam Line at Argonne Wakefield Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, Gwanghui; Cho, Moo-Hyun; Conde, Manoel; Doran, Darrell; Gai, Wei; Jing, Chunguang; Kim, Kwang-Je; Liu, Wanming; Namkung, Won; Piot, Philippe; Power, John; Sun, Yin-E; Whiteford, Charles; Wisniewski, Eric; Zholents, Alexander

    2016-06-01

    Emittance exchange (EEX) based longitudinal current profile shaping is the one of the promising current profile shaping technique. This method can generate high quality arbitrary current profiles under the ideal conditions. The double dog-leg EEX beam line was recently installed at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) to explore the shaping capability and confirm the quality of this method. To demonstrate the arbitrary current profile generation, several different transverse masks are applied to generate different final current profiles. The phase space slopes and the charge of incoming beam are varied to observe and suppress the aberrations on the ideal profile. We present current profile shaping results, aberrations on the shaped profile, and its suppression.

  19. Development of a mono-energetic positron beam line at the Kyoto University Research Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, K.; Xu, Q.; Yoshiie, T.; Sano, T.; Kawabe, H.; Nagai, Y.; Nagumo, K.; Inoue, K.; Toyama, T.; Oshima, N.; Kinomura, A.; Shirai, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Positron beam facilities are widely used for solid state physics and material science studies. A positron beam facility has been constructed at the Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR) in order to expand its application range. The KUR is a light-water-moderated tank-type reactor operated at a rated thermal power of 5 MW. A positron beam has been transported successfully from the reactor to the irradiation chamber. The total moderated positron rate was greater than 1.4 × 106/s while the reactor operated at a reduced power of 1 MW. Special attention was paid for the design of the in-pile position source to prevent possible damage of the reactor in case of severe earthquakes.

  20. MULTI-DIMENSIONAL RADIATIVE TRANSFER TO ANALYZE HANLE EFFECT IN Ca II K LINE AT 3933 A

    SciTech Connect

    Anusha, L. S.; Nagendra, K. N. E-mail: knn@iiap.res.in

    2013-04-20

    Radiative transfer (RT) studies of the linearly polarized spectrum of the Sun (the second solar spectrum) have generally focused on line formation, with an aim to understand the vertical structure of the solar atmosphere using one-dimensional (1D) model atmospheres. Modeling spatial structuring in the observations of the linearly polarized line profiles requires the solution of multi-dimensional (multi-D) polarized RT equation and a model solar atmosphere obtained by magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulations of the solar atmosphere. Our aim in this paper is to analyze the chromospheric resonance line Ca II K at 3933 A using multi-D polarized RT with the Hanle effect and partial frequency redistribution (PRD) in line scattering. We use an atmosphere that is constructed by a two-dimensional snapshot of the three-dimensional MHD simulations of the solar photosphere, combined with columns of a 1D atmosphere in the chromosphere. This paper represents the first application of polarized multi-D RT to explore the chromospheric lines using multi-D MHD atmospheres, with PRD as the line scattering mechanism. We find that the horizontal inhomogeneities caused by MHD in the lower layers of the atmosphere are responsible for strong spatial inhomogeneities in the wings of the linear polarization profiles, while the use of horizontally homogeneous chromosphere (FALC) produces spatially homogeneous linear polarization in the line core. The introduction of different magnetic field configurations modifies the line core polarization through the Hanle effect and can cause spatial inhomogeneities in the line core. A comparison of our theoretical profiles with the observations of this line shows that the MHD structuring in the photosphere is sufficient to reproduce the line wings and in the line core, but only line center polarization can be reproduced using the Hanle effect. For a simultaneous modeling of the line wings and the line core (including the line center), MHD atmospheres with

  1. Progress in computer-assisted diagnosis and control of neutral beam lines

    SciTech Connect

    Theil, E.; Elischer, V.; Fiddler, J.; Jacobs, N.J.D.; Jacobson, V.; Lawhorn, R.; Uber, D.; Wilner, D.

    1980-09-01

    This paper discusses the principles that have guided the development of a computerized diagnostic and control system for both the Neutral Beam Systems Test Facility at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and the Doublet III neutral beams at the General Atomic Company. The emphasis is not on the particular details of the implementation, but on general considerations which have influenced the design criteria for the system. Foremost among these are the requirements of an appropriate human interface to the system, and effective use of a relational data base. Examples are used to illustrate how these principles are carried out in practice. A systems view of diagnostic programs is suggested in the light of our experience.

  2. A case of horizontal gene transfer from Wolbachia to Aedes albopictus C6/36 cell line

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Qing; He, Ji; Yu, Jing; Ye, Yuting; Zhou, Dan; Sun, Yan; Zhang, Donghui; Ma, Lei; Shen, Bo; Zhu, Changliang

    2014-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer plays an essential role in evolution and ecological adaptation, yet this phenomenon has remained controversial, particularly where it occurs between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. There are a handful of reported examples of horizontal gene transfer occurring between prokaryotes and eukaryotes in the literature, with most of these documented cases pertaining to invertebrates and endosymbionts. However, the vast majority of these horizontally transferred genes were either eventually excluded or rapidly became nonfunctional in the recipient genome. In this study, we report the discovery of a horizontal gene transfer from the endosymbiont Wolbachia in the C6/36 cell line derived from the mosquito Aedes albopictus. Moreover, we report that this horizontally transferred gene displayed high transcription level. This finding and the results of further experimentation strongly suggest this gene is functional and has been expressed and translated into a protein in the mosquito host cells. PMID:24812591

  3. Production of neutron-rich Ca, Sn, and Xe isotopes in transfer-type reactions with radioactive beams

    SciTech Connect

    Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Lacroix, D.

    2010-12-15

    The production cross sections of neutron-rich isotopes {sup 52,54,56,58,60}Ca, {sup 136,138,140,142}Sn, and {sup 146,148,150,152}Xe are predicted for future experiments in the diffusive multinucleon transfer reactions {sup 86,90,92,94}Kr, {sup 124,130,132,134}Sn, {sup 136,140,142,146}Xe, and {sup 138,144,146}Ba+{sup 48}Ca with stable and radioactive beams at incident energies close to the Coulomb barrier. Because of the small cross sections, the production of neutron-rich isotopes requires the optimal choice of projectile-target combinations and bombarding energies.

  4. First results of the INSIDE in-beam PET scanner for the on-line monitoring of particle therapy treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piliero, M. A.; Belcari, N.; Bisogni, M. G.; Camarlinghi, N.; Cerello, P.; Coli, S.; Del Guerra, A.; Ferrero, V.; Fiorina, E.; Giraudo, G.; Kostara, E.; Morrocchi, M.; Pennazio, F.; Peroni, C.; Pirrone, G.; Rivetti, A.; Rolo, M. D.; Rosso, V.; Sportelli, G.; Wheadon, R.

    2016-12-01

    Quality assessment of particle therapy treatments by means of PET systems has been carried out since late `90 and it is one of the most promising in-vivo non invasive monitoring techniques employed clinically. It can be performed with a diagnostic PET scanners installed outside the treatment room (off-line monitoring) or inside the treatment room (in-room monitoring). However the most efficient way is by integrating a PET scanner with the treatment delivery system (on-line monitoring) so that the biological wash out and the patient repositioning errors are minimized. In this work we present the performance of the in-beam PET scanner developed within the INSIDE project. The INSIDE PET scanner is made of two planar heads, 10 cm wide (transaxially) and 25 cm long (axially), composed of pixellated LFS crystals coupled to Hamamatsu MPPCs. Custom designed Front-End Electronics (FE) and Data AcQuisition (DAQ) systems allow an on-line reconstruction of PET images from separated in-spill and inter-spill data sets. The INSIDE PET scanner has been recently delivered at the CNAO (Pavia, Italy) hadrontherapy facility and the first experimental measurements have been carried out. Homogeneous PMMA phantoms and PMMA phantoms with small air and bone inserts were irradiated with monoenergetic clinical proton beams. The activity range was evaluated at various benchmark positions within the field of view to assess the homogeneity of response of the PET system. Repeated irradiations of PMMA phantoms with clinical spread out Bragg peak proton beams were performed to evaluate the reproducibility of the PET signal. The results found in this work show that the response of the INSIDE PET scanner is independent of the position within the radiation field. Results also show the capability of the INSIDE PET scanner to distinguish variations of the activity range due to small tissue inhomogeneities. Finally, the reproducibility of the activity range measurement was within 1 mm.

  5. Space transfer concepts and analyses for exploration missions. Technical directive 12: Beamed power systems study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eder, D.

    1992-01-01

    Parametric models were constructed for Earth-based laser powered electric orbit transfer from low Earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit. These models were used to carry out performance, cost/benefit, and sensitivity analyses of laser-powered transfer systems including end-to-end life cycle cost analyses for complete systems. Comparisons with conventional orbit transfer systems were made indicating large potential cost savings for laser-powered transfer. Approximate optimization was done to determine best parameter values for the systems. Orbit transfer flights simulations were conducted to explore effects of parameters not practical to model with a spreadsheet. The simulations considered view factors that determine when power can be transferred from ground stations to an orbit transfer vehicle and conducted sensitivity analyses for numbers of ground stations, Isp including dual-Isp transfers, and plane change profiles. Optimal steering laws were used for simultaneous altitude and plane change. Viewing geometry and low-thrust orbit raising were simultaneously simulated. A very preliminary investigation of relay mirrors was made.

  6. Population of isomeric states in fusion and transfer reactions in beams of loosely bound nuclei near the Coulomb barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skobelev, N. K.

    2015-07-01

    The influence of the mechanisms of nuclear reactions on the population of 195 m Hg and 197 m Hg(7/2-), 198 m Tl and 196 m Tl(7+), and 196 m Au and 198 m Au(12-) isomeric nuclear states obtained in reactions induced by beams of 3He, 6Li, and 6He weakly bound nuclei is studied. The behavior of excitation functions and high values of isomeric ratios ( δ m/ δ g) for products of nuclear reactions proceeding through a compound nucleus and involving neutron evaporation are explained within statistical models. Reactions in which the emission of charged particles occurs have various isomeric ratios depending on the reaction type. The isomeric ratio is lower in direct transfer reactions involving charged-particle emission than in reactions where the evaporation of charged particles occurs. Reactions accompanied by neutron transfer usually have a lower isomeric ratio, which behaves differently for different direct-reaction types (stripping versus pickup reactions).

  7. DESIGN OF SUPERCONDUCTING COMBINED FUNCTION MAGNETS FOR THE 50 GEV PROTON BEAM LINE FOR THE J-PARC NEUTRINO EXPERIMENT.

    SciTech Connect

    WANDERER,P.; ET AL.

    2003-06-15

    Superconducting combined function magnets will be utilized for the 50GeV-750kW proton beam line for the J-PARC neutrino experiment and an R and D program has been launched at KEK. The magnet is designed to provide a combined function with a dipole field of 2.59 T and a quadrupole field of 18.7 T/m in a coil aperture of 173.4 mm. A single layer coil is proposed to reduce the fabrication cost and the coil arrangement in the 2-D cross-section results in left-right asymmetry. This paper reports the design study of the magnet.

  8. Perturbation-minimized triangular bunch for high-transformer ratio using a double dogleg emittance exchange beam line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, G.; Cho, M. H.; Gai, W.; Kim, K.-J.; Namkung, W.; Power, J. G.

    2016-12-01

    The longitudinal shape, i.e., the current profile, of an electron bunch determines the transformer ratio in a collinear wakefield accelerator and thus methods are sought to control the longitudinal bunch shape. The emittance exchange (EEX) appears to be promising for creating a precisely controlled longitudinal bunch shapes. The longitudinal shape is perturbed by two sources: higher-order terms in the beam line optics and collective effects and these perturbations can lead to a significant drop of the transformer ratio. In this paper, we analytically and numerically investigate the perturbation to an ideal triangular longitudinal bunch shape and propose methods to minimize it.

  9. Pronounced segregation of donor mitochondria introduced by bovine ooplasmic transfer to the female germ-line.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Christina Ramires; Burgstaller, Jörg Patrick; Perecin, Felipe; Garcia, Joaquim Mansano; Chiaratti, Marcos Roberto; Méo, Simone Cristina; Müller, Mathias; Smith, Lawrence Charles; Meirelles, Flávio Vieira; Steinborn, Ralf

    2010-03-01

    Ooplasmic transfer (OT) has been used in basic mouse research for studying the segregation of mtDNA, as well as in human assisted reproduction for improving embryo development in cases of persistent developmental failure. Using cattle as a large-animal model, we demonstrate that the moderate amount of mitochondria introduced by OT is transmitted to the offspring's oocytes; e.g., modifies the germ line. The donor mtDNA was detectable in 25% and 65% of oocytes collected from two females. Its high variation in heteroplasmic oocytes, ranging from 1.1% to 33.5% and from 0.4% to 15.5%, can be explained by random genetic drift in the female germ line. Centrifugation-mediated enrichment of mitochondria in the pole zone of the recipient zygote's ooplasm and its substitution by donor ooplasm led to elevated proportions of donor mtDNA in reconstructed zygotes compared with zygotes produced by standard OT (23.6% +/- 9.6% versus 12.1% +/- 4.5%; P < 0.0001). We also characterized the proliferation of mitochondria from the OT parents-the recipient zygote (Bos primigenius taurus type) and the donor ooplasm (B. primigenius indicus type). Regression analysis performed for 57 tissue samples collected from the seven OT fetuses at different points during fetal development found a decreasing proportion of donor mtDNA (r(2) = 0.78). This indicates a preferred proliferation of recipient taurine mitochondria in the context of the nuclear genotype of the OT recipient expressing a B. primigenius indicus phenotype.

  10. Evaluation of gas radiation heat transfer in a 2D axisymmetric geometry using the line-by-line integration and WSGG models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Centeno, Felipe Roman; Brittes, Rogério; França, Francis. H. R.; Ezekoye, Ofodike A.

    2015-05-01

    The weighted-sum-of-gray-gases (WSGG) model is widely used in engineering computations of radiative heat transfer due to its relative simplicity, robustness and flexibility. This paper presents the computation of radiative heat transfer in a 2D axisymmetric chamber using two WSGG models to compute radiation in H2O and CO2 mixtures. The first model considers a fixed ratio between the molar concentrations of H2O and CO2, while the second allows the solution for arbitrary ratios. The correlations for both models are based on the HITEMP2010 database. The test case considers typical conditions found in turbulent methane flames, with steep variations in the temperature field as well as in the molar concentrations of the participating species. To assess the accuracy of the WSGG model, the results are compared with a solution obtained by line-by-line integration (LBL) of the spectrum.

  11. High Precision Tune and Coupling Feedback and Beam Transfer Function Measurements in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Minty, M.; Curcio, A.; Dawson, C.; Degen, C.; Luo, Y.; Marr, G.; Martin, B.; Marusic, A.; Mernick, K.; Oddo, P.; Russo, T.; Schoefer, V.; Schroeder, R.; Schultheiss, C.; Wilinski, M.

    2010-05-23

    Precision measurement and control of the betatron tunes and betatron coupling in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are required for establishing and maintaining both good operating conditions and, particularly during the ramp to high beam energies, high proton beam polarization. While the proof-of-principle for simultaneous tune and coupling feedback was successfully demonstrated earlier, routine application of these systems has only become possible recently. Following numerous modifications for improved measurement resolution and feedback control, the time required to establish full-energy beams with the betatron tunes and coupling regulated by feedback was reduced from several weeks to a few hours. A summary of these improvements, select measurements benefitting from the improved resolution and a review of system performance are the subject of this report.

  12. High-power, high-brightness pseudospark-produced electron beam driven by improved pulse line accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Junbino Zhu; Mingchang Wang; Zhijiang Wang

    1995-12-31

    A high power (200KV), intense current density, low emittance (71mmmrad), high brightness (8x10{sup 10}A/m rad) electron beam was generated in the 10cm long, high-voltage-resistive multi-gap hollow cathode pseudospark chamber filled with 15pa nitrogen and driven by an improved pulse line accelerator. The beam was ejected with the 1mm diameter, the 2.2KA beam current, and the 400ns pulse length, and could propagated 20cm in the drift tube. At a distance of 5cm from the anode it penetrated consecutively an acid-sensitive discoloring film and a 0.05mm-thick copper foil both stuck closely, left 0.6mm and 0.3mm holes on them, respectively. That 10 shots on an acid-sensitive film produced a hole of 1.6mm at 7cm downstream of anode showed its good repeatability. After 60 shots the pseudospark discharge chamber was disassembled and observed that almost no destructive damage traces left on the surfaces of its various electrodes and insulators. But on almost all the surfaces of changeable central hole parts installed on intermediate electrodes there are traces of electron emission from the sides facing the anode and of bombardment on the sides facing the cathode, in contrast with which on the front- and back-surfaces of hollow cathode no visible traces of electron emission from then was observed. In addition, there were different tints, strip-like regions on the side of anode facing the cathode. Another interesting phenomenon was that there were a set of concentric circular or elliptical ring pattern on the acid-sensitive discoloring film got at 5cm from the anode and observed tinder a metallograph. It seems that the pseudospark electron beam is Laminar beam i.e, being possessed of a multi-layer structure, at least in the case of multi-gap pseudospark discharge chamber. It was found experimentally that the quality of pseudospark electron beam is much better than that of the cold-cathode electron beam.

  13. Establishment and characterization of fetal fibroblast cell lines for generating human lysozyme transgenic goats by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Luo, Yan; Zheng, Liming; Liu, Qingqing; Yang, Zhongcai; Wang, Yongsheng; Su, Jianmin; Quan, Fusheng; Zhang, Yong

    2013-10-01

    This study was performed to qualify goat fetal fibroblast (GFF) cell lines for genetic modification and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) to produce human lysozyme (hLYZ) transgenic goats. Nine GFF cell lines were established from different fetuses, and the proliferative lifespan and chromosomal stability were analyzed. The results suggested that cell lines with a longer lifespan had stable chromosomes compared with those of cells lines with a shorter lifespan. According to the proliferative lifespan, we divided GFF cell lines into two groups: cell lines with a long lifespan (GFF1/2/7/8/9; group L) and cell lines with a short lifespan (GFF3/4/5/6; group S). Next, a hLYZ expression vector was introduced into these cell lines by electroporation. The efficiencies of colony formation, expansion in culture, and the quality of transgenic clonal cell lines were significant higher in group L than those in group S. The mean fusion rate and blastocyst rate in group L were higher than those in group S (80.3 ± 1.7 vs. 65.1 ± 4.2 % and 19.5 ± 0.6 vs. 15.1 ± 1.1 %, respectively, P < 0.05). After transferring cloned embryos into the oviducts of recipient goats, three live kids were born. PCR and Southern blot analyses confirmed integration of the transgene in cloned goats. In conclusion, the lifespan of GFF cell lines has a major effect on the efficiency to produce transgenic cloned goats. Therefore, the proliferative lifespan of primary cells may be used as a criterion to characterize the quality of cell lines for genetic modification and SCNT.

  14. Equations for nickel-chromium wire heaters of column transfer lines in gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD).

    PubMed

    Byers, John A

    2004-05-30

    Heating of chromatographic columns, transfer lines, and other devices is often required in neuroscience research. For example, volatile compounds passing through a capillary column of a gas chromatograph (GC) can be split, with half exiting the instrument through a heated transfer line to an insect antenna or olfactory sensillum for electroantennographic detector (GC-EAD) recordings. The heated transfer line is used to prevent condensation of various chemicals in the capillary that would otherwise occur at room temperature. Construction of such a transfer line heater is described using (80/20%) nickel-chromium heating wire wrapped in a helical coil and powered by a 120/220 V ac rheostat. Algorithms were developed in a computer program to estimate the voltage at which a rheostat should be set to obtain the desired heater temperature for a specific coil. The coil attributes (radius, width, number of loops, or length of each loop) are input by the user, as well as AWG size of heating wire and desired heater temperature. The program calculates total length of wire in the helix, resistance of the wire, amperage used, and the voltage to set the rheostat. A discussion of semiochemical isolation methods using the GC-EAD and bioassays is presented.

  15. Design of a high-current low-energy beam transport line for an intense D-T/D-D neutron generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiaolong; Wang, Junrun; Zhang, Yu; Li, Jianyi; Xia, Li; Zhang, Jie; Ding, Yanyan; Jiang, Bing; Huang, Zhiwu; Ma, Zhanwen; Wei, Zheng; Qian, Xiangping; Xu, Dapeng; Lan, Changlin; Yao, Zeen

    2016-03-01

    An intense D-T/D-D neutron generator is currently being developed at the Lanzhou University. The Cockcroft-Walton accelerator, as a part of the neutron generator, will be used to accelerate and transport the high-current low-energy beam from the duoplasmatron ion source to the rotating target. The design of a high-current low-energy beam transport (LEBT) line and the dynamics simulations of the mixed beam were carried out using the TRACK code. The results illustrate that the designed beam line facilitates smooth transportation of a deuteron beam of 40 mA, and the number of undesired ions can be reduced effectively using two apertures.

  16. Solution of mixed convection heat transfer from isothermal in-line fins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khalilollahi, Amir

    1993-01-01

    Transient and steady state combined natural and forced convective flows over two in-line finite thickness fins (louvers) in a vertical channel are numerically solved using two methods. The first method of solution is based on the 'Simple Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian' (SALE) technique which incorporates mainly two computational phases: (1) a Lagrangian phase in which the velocity field is updated by the effects of all forces, and (2) an Eulerian phase that executes all advective fluxes of mass, momentum and energy. The second method of solution uses the finite element code entitled FIDAP. In the first part, comparison of the results by FIDAP, SALE, and available experimental work were done and discussed for steady state forced convection over louvered fins. Good agreements were deduced between the three sets of results especially for the flow over a single fin. In the second part and in the absence of experimental literature, the numerical predictions were extended to the transient transports and to the opposing flow where pressure drop is reversed. Results are presented and discussed for heat transfer and pressure drop in assisting and opposing mixed convection flows.

  17. Scattering in infrared radiative transfer: A comparison between the spectrally averaging model JURASSIC and the line-by-line model KOPRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griessbach, Sabine; Hoffmann, Lars; Höpfner, Michael; Riese, Martin; Spang, Reinhold

    2013-09-01

    The viability of a spectrally averaging model to perform radiative transfer calculations in the infrared including scattering by atmospheric particles is examined for the application of infrared limb remote sensing measurements. Here we focus on the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) aboard the European Space Agency's Envisat. Various spectra for clear air and cloudy conditions were simulated with a spectrally averaging radiative transfer model and a line-by-line radiative transfer model for three atmospheric window regions (825-830, 946-951, 1224-1228 cm-1) and compared to each other. The results are rated in terms of the MIPAS noise equivalent spectral radiance (NESR). The clear air simulations generally agree within one NESR. The cloud simulations neglecting the scattering source term agree within two NESR. The differences between the cloud simulations including the scattering source term are generally below three and always below four NESR. We conclude that the spectrally averaging approach is well suited for fast and accurate infrared radiative transfer simulations including scattering by clouds. We found that the main source for the differences between the cloud simulations of both models is the cloud edge sampling. Furthermore we reasoned that this model comparison for clouds is also valid for atmospheric aerosol in general.

  18. New beam line for time-of-flight medium energy ion scattering with large area position sensitive detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linnarsson, M. K.; Hallén, A.; Åström, J.; Primetzhofer, D.; Legendre, S.; Possnert, G.

    2012-09-01

    A new beam line for medium energy ion mass scattering (MEIS) has been designed and set up at the Ångström laboratory, Uppsala University, Sweden. This MEIS system is based on a time-of-flight (ToF) concept and the electronics for beam chopping relies on a 4 MHz function generator. Repetition rates can be varied between 1 MHz and 63 kHz and pulse widths below 1 ns are typically obtained by including beam bunching. A 6-axis goniometer is used at the target station. Scattering angle and energy of backscattered ions are extracted from a time-resolved and position-sensitive detector. Examples of the performance are given for three kinds of probing ions, 1H+, 4He+, and 11B+. Depth resolution is in the nanometer range and 1 and 2 nm thick Pt layers can easily be resolved. Mass resolution between nearby isotopes can be obtained as illustrated by Ga isotopes in GaAs. Taking advantage of the large size detector, a direct imaging (blocking pattern) of crystal channels are shown for hexagonal, 4H-SiC. The ToF-MEIS system described in this paper is intended for use in semiconductor and thin film areas. For example, depth profiling in the sub nanometer range for device development of contacts and dielectric interfaces. In addition to applied projects, fundamental studies of stopping cross sections in this medium energy range will also be conducted.

  19. Directed Energy Beam Jitter Mitigation Using the Line-of-Sight Reference Frame

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-10

    frame . Small angular differences in the reference frames would indicate coupled rotational motion in one reference frame while another may indicate a...not available outside of the laboratory environment. Therefore, on -platform sensors, such as accelerometers and angular rate sensors, must be used to...Systems.” Second IEEE Conference on Control Applications, Sep 1993. 25 frame can be determined. Therefore, the expected position of the beam at

  20. Design of large vacuum chamber for VEC superconducting cyclotron beam line switching magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Sumantra; Nandi, Chinmoy; Gayen, Subhasis; Roy, Suvadeep; Mishra, Santosh Kumar; Ramrao Bajirao, Sanjay; Pal, Gautam; Mallik, C.

    2012-11-01

    VEC K500 superconducting cyclotron will be used to accelerate heavy ion. The accelerated beam will be transported to different beam halls by using large switching magnets. The vacuum chamber for the switching magnet is around 1000 mm long. It has a height of 85 mm and width varying from 100 mm to 360 mm. The material for the chamber has been chosen as SS304.The material for the vacuum chamber for the switching magnet has been chosen as SS304. Design of the vessel was done as per ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Division 1. It was observed that primary stress values exceed the allowable limit. Since, the magnet was already designed with a fixed pole gap; increase of the vacuum chamber plate thickness restricts the space for beam transport. Design was optimized using stress analysis software ANSYS. Analysis was started using plate thickness of 4 mm. The stress was found higher than the allowable level. The analysis was repeated by increasing plate thickness to 6 mm, resulting in the reduction of stress level below the allowable level. In order to reduce the stress concentration due to sharp bend, chamfering was done at the corner, where the stress level was higher. The thickness of the plate at the corner was increased from 6 mm to 10 mm. These measures resulted in reduction of localized stress.

  1. Spectroscopic study of promethiumlike bismuth with an electron-beam ion trap: Search for alkali-metal-like resonance lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Yusuke; Kato, Daiji; Sakaue, Hiroyuki A.; Murakami, Izumi; Nakamura, Nobuyuki

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally settle the three-decades-old question of whether or not promethiumlike heavy ions have strong resonance lines in hot plasmas. In 1980, Curtis and Ellis [Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 2099 (1980), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.45.2099] predicted that promethiumlike heavy ions should have an alkali-metal structure with a ground-state configuration of 4f145s, and should exhibit strong 5s-5p resonance lines in hot plasmas. However, after many experimental efforts, no clear indication of the predicted resonance lines was found. The work presented herein resolves this question by clearly showing that the predicted resonance lines for bismuth are negligibly weak because of the presence of the [4f135s2]7/2 metastable state, even though the ground-state configuration is 4f145s, as predicted. To obtain these results, we used an electron-beam ion trap that made it possible to exploit a fine-tuned charge-state distribution, and analyzed the experimental spectra with collisional-radiative model calculations.

  2. Energy Spread of the Proton Beam in the Fermilab Booster at its Injection Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, C. M.; Chase, B. E.; Chaurize, S. J.; Garcia, F. G.; Seiya, K.; Pellico, W. A.; Sullivan, T. M.; Triplett, A. K.

    2015-04-27

    We have measured the energy spread of the Booster beam at its injection energy of 400 MeV by three different methods: (1) creating a notch of about 40 nsec wide in the beam immediately after multiple turn injection and measuring the slippage time required for high and low momentum particles for a grazing touch in line-charge distribution, (2) injecting partial turn beam and letting it to debunch, and (3) comparing the beam profile monitor data with predictions from MAD simulations for the 400 MeV injection beam line. The measurements are repeated under varieties of conditions of rf systems in the ring and in the beam transfer line.

  3. A Wave-Based Model for Cross-Beam Energy Transfer in Direct-Drive Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myatt, J. F.

    2016-10-01

    Cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) is thought to be responsible for an 30 % reduction in hydrodynamic coupling efficiency on OMEGA and up to 50% at the ignition scale for direct-drive (DD) implosions. These numbers are determined by ray-based models that have been developed and integrated within the radiation-hydrodynamics codes LILAC (1-D) and DRACO (2-D). However, ray-based modeling of CBET in an inhomogeneous plasma assumes a steady-state plasma response, does not include the effects of beam speckle, and ray caustics are treated in an ad hoc manner. Nevertheless, simulation results are in good qualitative agreement with implosion experiments on OMEGA (when combined with a model for nonlocal heat transport). The validity of the modeling for ignition-scale implosions has not yet been determined. To address the physics shortcomings, which have important implications for DD inertial confinement fusion, a new wave-based model has been constructed. It solves the time-enveloped Maxwell equations in three-dimensions, including polarization effects, plasma inhomogeneity, and open-boundary conditions with the ability to prescribe beams incident at arbitrary angles. Beams can be made realistic with respect to laser speckle, polarization smoothing, and laser bandwidth. This, coupled to a linearized low-frequency plasma response that does not assume a steady state, represents the most-complete model of CBET to date. New results will be presented and the implications for CBET modeling and mitigation will be described. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DENA0001944, in collaboration with J. G. Shaw, R. K. Follett, and D. H. Edgell (LLE).

  4. Linear Energy Transfer-Dependent Change in Rice Gene Expression Profile after Heavy-Ion Beam Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Kotaro; Kazama, Yusuke; Morita, Ryouhei; Hirano, Tomonari; Ikeda, Tokihiro; Usuda, Sachiko; Hayashi, Yoriko; Ohbu, Sumie; Motoyama, Ritsuko; Nagamura, Yoshiaki; Abe, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    A heavy-ion beam has been recognized as an effective mutagen for plant breeding and applied to the many kinds of crops including rice. In contrast with X-ray or γ-ray, the heavy-ion beam is characterized by a high linear energy transfer (LET). LET is an important factor affecting several aspects of the irradiation effect, e.g. cell survival and mutation frequency, making the heavy-ion beam an effective mutagen. To study the mechanisms behind LET-dependent effects, expression profiling was performed after heavy-ion beam irradiation of imbibed rice seeds. Array-based experiments at three time points (0.5, 1, 2 h after the irradiation) revealed that the number of up- or down-regulated genes was highest 2 h after irradiation. Array-based experiments with four different LETs at 2 h after irradiation identified LET-independent regulated genes that were up/down-regulated regardless of the value of LET; LET–dependent regulated genes, whose expression level increased with the rise of LET value, were also identified. Gene ontology (GO) analysis of LET-independent up-regulated genes showed that some GO terms were commonly enriched, both 2 hours and 3 weeks after irradiation. GO terms enriched in LET-dependent regulated genes implied that some factor regulates genes that have kinase activity or DNA-binding activity in cooperation with the ATM gene. Of the LET-dependent up-regulated genes, OsPARP3 and OsPCNA were identified, which are involved in DNA repair pathways. This indicates that the Ku-independent alternative non-homologous end-joining pathway may contribute to repairing complex DNA legions induced by high-LET irradiation. These findings may clarify various LET-dependent responses in rice. PMID:27462908

  5. Longitudinal beam-transfer-function measurements at the SLC damping rings

    SciTech Connect

    Minty, M.G.; Zimmermann, F.

    1997-05-01

    A longitudinal single-bunch instability in the damping rings at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) is thought to contribute to pulse-to-pulse orbit variations in downstream accelerator sections. To better understand this instability, the authors measured the beam phase and bunch length under harmonic modulations of the rf phase and rf voltage. For small phase-modulations the measured response can be explained by interaction of the beam with the cavity fundamental mode. For larger excitations, they observed bifurcation and hysteresis effects. The response to an rf voltage modulation revealed two peaks near the quadrupole-mode frequency, one of which appears to be related to the longitudinal instability. In this paper they present the experimental results.

  6. Electron motion analysis of a radial-radiated electron beam in a radial-line drift tube with finite magnetic field conducted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Fangchao; Zhang, Xiaoping; Zhong, Huihuang

    2017-02-01

    Radial-radiated electron beam is widely employed in radial-line structure microwave devices. The quality of the electron beam has a crucial effect on the operating performance of these devices. This paper analyzes theoretically this electron motion in a radial-line drift tube with finite magnetic field conducted. The beam width, spatial period, and fluctuation amplitude are quantitatively analyzed with different beam current parameters. By the particle-in-cell simulation, we examine the theoretical analysis under the condition of a designed realistic coil configuration. It indicates that the derived beam envelope function is capable of predicting the radial-radiated beam trajectory approximately. Meanwhile, it is found that the off-axial z-direction magnetic field, in spite of its greatly slight amplitude, is also one necessary consideration for the propagation characteristic of the radial-radiated electron beam. Furthermore, the presented electron motion analysis may be instructive for the design of the electronic optical system of the radial-line structure microwave devices.

  7. Increasing beam power and energy with the SBS forward energy transfer instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkwood, R. K.; London, R. A.; Dunlop, W. H.; Michel, P. A.; Williams, E. A.; Fournier, K. B.; Landen, O. L.; MacGowan, B. J.

    2012-10-01

    The understanding of the exchange of forward going power and energy between two crossing beams in a plasma [1] is now sufficiently developed that it can be used to enable access to new experimental configurations. The existing models of the process allow the design of beam combiners that will produce higher energy in individual beams for new applications in ignition and HED physics. For example the Energy Partitioning and Energy Coupling (EPEC) [2] program is simulating nuclear events in various environments by delivering energy to the center of a chamber through a narrow tube that allows minimal perturbation of the surrounding region. We will describe the design of gas filled targets that will allow a 2x to 5x increase in the energy in a single NIF quad to enable higher yield events to be simulated in EPEC. These designs as well as advanced ignition target designs will require models with improved precision to predict their performance accurately. We will also compare the predictions of existing and emerging models of wave saturation [3] with the existing experimental data to determine the uncertainty in the models.[4pt] [1] P. Michel Physics of Plasmas 2010.[0pt] [2] K. Fournier, these proceedings[0pt] [3] P. Michel, E. Williams, these proceedings.

  8. Evaluation of thermal helium beam and line-ratio fast diagnostic on the National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Munoz Burgos, Jorge M.; Agostini, Matteo; Scarin, Paolo; Stotler, Daren P.; Unterberg, Ezekial A.; Loch, Stuart D.; Schmitz, Oliver; Tritz, Kevin; Stutman, Dan

    2015-05-06

    A 1-D kinetic collisional radiative model (CRM) with state-of-the-art atomic data is developed and employed to simulate line emission to evaluate the Thermal Helium Beam (THB) diagnostic on NSTX-U. This diagnostic is currently in operation on RFX-mod, and it is proposed to be installed on NSTX-U. The THB system uses the intensity ratios of neutral helium lines 667.8, 706.5, and 728.1 nm to derive electron temperature (eV ) and density (cm–3) profiles. The purpose of the present analysis is to evaluate the applications of this diagnostic for determining fast (~4 μs) electron temperature and density radial profiles on the scrape-off layer (SOL) and edge regions of NSTX-U that are needed in turbulence studies. The diagnostic is limited by the level of detection of the 728.1 nm line, which is the weakest of the three. In conclusion, this study will also aid in future design of a similar 2-D diagnostic systems on the divertor.

  9. Evaluation of thermal helium beam and line-ratio fast diagnostic on the National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade

    DOE PAGES

    Munoz Burgos, Jorge M.; Agostini, Matteo; Scarin, Paolo; ...

    2015-05-06

    A 1-D kinetic collisional radiative model (CRM) with state-of-the-art atomic data is developed and employed to simulate line emission to evaluate the Thermal Helium Beam (THB) diagnostic on NSTX-U. This diagnostic is currently in operation on RFX-mod, and it is proposed to be installed on NSTX-U. The THB system uses the intensity ratios of neutral helium lines 667.8, 706.5, and 728.1 nm to derive electron temperature (eV ) and density (cm–3) profiles. The purpose of the present analysis is to evaluate the applications of this diagnostic for determining fast (~4 μs) electron temperature and density radial profiles on the scrape-offmore » layer (SOL) and edge regions of NSTX-U that are needed in turbulence studies. The diagnostic is limited by the level of detection of the 728.1 nm line, which is the weakest of the three. In conclusion, this study will also aid in future design of a similar 2-D diagnostic systems on the divertor.« less

  10. Evaluation of thermal helium beam and line-ratio fast diagnostic on the National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz Burgos, J. M.; Agostini, M.; Scarin, P.; Stotler, D. P.; Unterberg, E. A.; Loch, S. D.; Schmitz, O.; Tritz, K.; Stutman, D.

    2016-05-01

    A 1-D kinetic collisional radiative model with state-of-the-art atomic data is developed and employed to simulate line emission to evaluate the Thermal Helium Beam (THB) diagnostic on NSTX-U. This diagnostic is currently in operation on RFX-mod, and it is proposed to be installed on NSTX-U. The THB system uses the intensity ratios of neutral helium lines 667.8, 706.5, and 728.1 nm to derive electron temperature (eV) and density (cm-3) profiles. The purpose of the present analysis is to evaluate the applications of this diagnostic for determining fast ( ∽ 4 μs ) electron temperature and density radial profiles on the scrape-off layer and edge regions of NSTX-U that are needed in turbulence studies. The diagnostic is limited by the level of detection of the 728.1 nm line, which is the weakest of the three. This study will also aid in future design of a similar 2-D diagnostic system on the divertor.

  11. Minimum detection windows, PI-line existence and uniqueness for helical cone-beam scanning of variable pitch.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yangbo; Zhu, Jiehua; Wang, Ge

    2004-03-01

    The goal of this paper is to study Cone-beam CT scanning along a helix of variable pitch. First the rationale and applications in medical imaging of variable pitch CT reconstruction are explained. Then formulas for the minimum detection window are derived. The main part of the paper proves a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence and uniqueness of PI-lines inside this variable pitch helix. These results are necessary steps toward an exact reconstruction algorithm for helix scanning of variable pitch, generalizing Katsevich's formula on constant pitch exact reconstruction. It is shown through an example that, when the derivative of the pitch function is not convex, or when the pitch function passes a inflection point and begins to slow down, PI-lines may be not unique near the rim of the helix cylinder. The conclusion is that the restriction on the pitch function is weaker, if the object is placed well within the helix cylinder and far from its rim, in order to preserve the uniqueness of PI-lines. If the object is near the rim, the restriction condition on the allowable pitch functions becomes stronger.

  12. RADIATIVE TRANSFER MODELING OF THE ENIGMATIC SCATTERING POLARIZATION IN THE SOLAR Na i D{sub 1} LINE

    SciTech Connect

    Belluzzi, Luca; Bueno, Javier Trujillo; Degl’Innocenti, Egidio Landi

    2015-12-01

    The modeling of the peculiar scattering polarization signals observed in some diagnostically important solar resonance lines requires the consideration of the detailed spectral structure of the incident radiation field as well as the possibility of ground level polarization, along with the atom's hyperfine structure and quantum interference between hyperfine F-levels pertaining either to the same fine structure J-level, or to different J-levels of the same term. Here we present a theoretical and numerical approach suitable for solving this complex non-LTE radiative transfer problem. This approach is based on the density-matrix metalevel theory (where each level is viewed as a continuous distribution of sublevels) and on accurate formal solvers of the transfer equations and efficient iterative methods. We show an application to the D-lines of Na i, with emphasis on the enigmatic D{sub 1} line, pointing out the observable signatures of the various physical mechanisms considered. We demonstrate that the linear polarization observed in the core of the D{sub 1} line may be explained by the effect that one gets when the detailed spectral structure of the anisotropic radiation responsible for the optical pumping is taken into account. This physical ingredient is capable of introducing significant scattering polarization in the core of the Na i D{sub 1} line without the need for ground-level polarization.

  13. Spectral analysis of the line-width and line-edge roughness transfer during self-aligned double patterning approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuy, E.; Pargon, E.; Fouchier, M.; Grampeix, H.; Pradelles, J.; Darnon, M.; Pimenta-Barros, P.; Barnola, S.; Joubert, O.

    2015-03-01

    We report a 20 nm half-pitch self-aligned double patterning (SADPP) process based on a resist-core approach. Line/space 20/20 nm features in silicon are successfully obtained with CDvariation, LWR and LER of 0.7 nm, 2.4 nm and 2.3 nm respectively. The LWR and LER are characterized at each technological step of the process using a power spectral density fitting method, which allows a spectral analysis of the roughness and the determination of unbiased roughness values. Although the SADP concept generates two asymmetric populations of lines, the final LLWR and LER are similar. We show that this SADP process allows to decrease significantly the LWR and the LER of about 62% and 48% compared to the initial photoresist patterns. This study also demonstrates that SADP is a very powerful concept to decrease CD uniformity and LWR especially in its low-frequency components to reach sub-20 nm node requirements. However, LER low-frequency components are still high and remain a key issue tot address for an optimized integration.

  14. A directly cooled grating substrate for ALS (Advanced Light Source) undulator beam lines

    SciTech Connect

    DiGennaro, R.; Swain, T.

    1989-08-01

    Design analyses using finite element methods are presented for thermal distortion of water-cooled diffraction grating substrates for a potential application at the LBL Advanced Light Source, demonstrating that refinements in cooling channel configuration and heat flux distribution can significantly reduce optical surface distortion with high heat loads. Using an existing grating substrate design, sensitivity of tangential slope errors due to thermal distortion is evaluated for a variety of thermal boundary conditions, including coolant flow rate and heat transfer film coefficients, surface illumination area and heat distribution profile, and location of the convection cooling surfaces adjacent to the heated region. 1 ref., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Design of a Millimeter-Wave Concentrator for Beam Reception in High-Power Wireless Power Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukunari, Masafumi; Wongsuryrat, Nat; Yamaguchi, Toshikazu; Nakamura, Yusuke; Komurasaki, Kimiya; Koizumi, Hiroyuki

    2017-02-01

    This study examined the performance of a developed taper-tube concentrator for 94-GHz millimeter-wave beam reception during wireless power transfer. The received energy is converted into kinetic energy of a working gas in the tube to drive an engine or thruster. The concentrator, which is assumed to have mirror reflection of millimeter waves in it, is designed to be shorter than conventional tapered waveguides of millimeter waves. A dimensionless design law of a concentrator is proposed based on geometric optics theory. Because the applicability of geometric optics theory is unclear, the ratio of its bore diameter to its wavelength was set as small compared to those in other possible applications. Then, the discrepancy between the designed and measured power reception was examined. Results show that the maximum discrepancy was as low as 7 % for the bore-to-wavelength ratio of 20 at the narrow end of the concentrator.

  16. Evaluation of the Effects of Cross-Beam Energy Transfer in NIF Polar-Drive Exploding-Pusher Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenty, P. W.; Marshall, F. J.; Hohenberger, M.; Craxton, R. S.; Marozas, J. A.; Delettrez, J. A.; Shvydky, A.; Froula, D. H.; Michel, D. T.; Edgell, D. H.; Seka, W.; Olson, P. A.; To, S.; Cao, D.; Moses, G.; Le Pape, S.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Ma, T.

    2013-10-01

    Polar-drive (PD) target implosions have been designed and fielded for neutron diagnostic development on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Experimental results evaluating the overall hydrodynamic assembly have previously indicated a significant discrepancy with DRACO predictions of the in-flight shell evolution. New physics models, addressing nonlocal electron thermal transport and cross-beam energy transfer within the incoming laser light, have been implemented into DRACO. Results detailing comparisons of experiments with simulations using these models will be presented that indicate significantly better agreement and may provide insight into the application of these models in other inertial confinement fusion experiments. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944. A. M. Cok, R. S. Craxton, and P. W. McKenty, Phys. Plasmas 15, 082705 (2008).

  17. Heat transfer issues in high-heat-load synchrotron x-ray beams

    SciTech Connect

    Khounsary, A.M.; Mills, D.M.

    1994-09-01

    In this paper, a short description of the synchrotron radiation x-ray sources and the associated power loads is given, followed by a brief description of typical synchrotron components and their heat load. It is emphasized that the design goals for most of these components is to limit (a) temperature, (b) stresses, or (c) strains in the system. Each design calls for a different geometry, material selection, and cooling scheme. Cooling schemes that have been utilized so far are primarily single phase and include simple macrochannel cooling, microchannel cooling, contact cooling, pin-post cooling, porous-flow cooling, jet cooling, etc. Water, liquid metals, and various cryogenic coolants have been used. Because the trend in x-ray beam development is towards brighter (i.e., more powerful) beams and assuming that no radical changes in the design of x-ray generating machines occurs in the next few years, it is fair to state that the utilization of various effective cooling schemes and, in particular, two-phase flow (e.g., subcooled boiling) warrants further investigation. This, however, requires a thorough examination of stability and reliability of two-phase flows for high-heat-flux components operating in ultrahigh vacuum with stringent reliability requirements.

  18. Pattern transfer from the e-beam resist, over the nanoimprint resist and to the final silicon substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jian; Howitz, S.; Richter, K.; Bartha, J. W.; Moench, J. I.

    2012-03-01

    We developed Fluor-based RIE processes to fabricate nanoimprint template in silicon and to transfer patterns from the imprint resist to the silicon substrate. The etched silicon patterns have slightly tapered and smooth sidewalls. The sidewall angle can be controlled between 85° and 90° by varying the ratio of the used gas. The dimension of the etched structures is identical with the patterns in the resist. We demonstrated line structures in silicon substrate down to 50 nm. The etching rate is over 100 nm per minute and the maximal achieved aspect ratio is more than 10.

  19. Research and Design of a Sample Heater for Beam Line 6-2c Transmission X-ray Microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Policht, Veronica; /Loyola U., Chicago /SLAC

    2012-08-27

    There exists a need for environmental control of samples to be imaged by the Transmission X-Ray Microscope (TXM) at the SSRLs Beam Line 6-2c. In order to observe heat-driven chemical or morphological changes that normally occur in situ, microscopes require an additional component that effectively heats a given sample without heating any of the microscope elements. The confinement of the heat and other concerns about the heaters integrity limit which type of heater is appropriate for the TXM. The bulk of this research project entails researching different heating methods used previously in microscopes, but also in other industrial applications, with the goal of determining the best-fitting method, and finally in designing a preliminary sample heater.

  20. Secondary Electron Yield Measurements and Groove Chambers Tests in the PEP-II Beam Line Straights Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Pivi, M.T.F.; King, F.; Kirby, R.E.; Markiewicz, T; Raubenheimer, T.O.; Seeman, J.; Wang, L.; /SLAC

    2008-07-03

    Beam instability caused by the electron cloud has been observed in positron and proton storage rings and it is expected to be a limiting factor in the performance of the positron Damping Ring (DR) of future Linear Colliders such as ILC and CLIC [1, 2]. In the Positron Low Energy Ring (LER) of the PEP-II accelerator, we have installed vacuum chambers with rectangular grooves in a straight magnetic-free section to test this promising possible electron cloud mitigation technique. We have also installed a special chamber to monitor the secondary electron yield of TiN and TiZrV (NEG) coating, Copper, Stainless Steel and Aluminum under the effect of electron and photon conditioning in situ in the beam line. In this paper, we describe the ongoing R&D effort to mitigate the electron cloud effect for the ILC damping ring, the latest results on in situ secondary electron yield conditioning and recent update on the groove tests in PEP-II.

  1. A new scheme for multidimensional line transfer. II - ETLA method in one dimension with application to iron K-alpha lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castor, John I.; Dykema, Pieter G.; Klein, Richard I.

    1992-01-01

    The 1D version of the radiation hydrodynamics computer code ALTAIR is discribed. It is an implementation of the equivalent two-level atom method, and also incorporates a variety of other iterative techniques to achieve a fast, accurate solution of the problem of coupled atomic kinetics and radiative transfer. All the techniques are described in sufficient detail to enable their use by others. The application of the program is illustrated by a set of calculations of the iron X-ray emission spectrum from intercloud hot gas that may exist in the broad-line region of active galactic nuclei. These calculations demonstrate that such spectra may be a rich load to mine for information about the hot gas in AGNs, and also that the concept of 'the iron K-alpha line' inadequately depicts the spectrum.

  2. Prior knowledge transfer across transcriptional data sets and technologies using compositional statistics yields new mislabelled ovarian cell line

    PubMed Central

    Blayney, Jaine K.; Davison, Timothy; McCabe, Nuala; Walker, Steven; Keating, Karen; Delaney, Thomas; Greenan, Caroline; Williams, Alistair R.; McCluggage, W. Glenn; Capes-Davis, Amanda; Harkin, D. Paul; Gourley, Charlie; Kennedy, Richard D.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we describe gene expression compositional assignment (GECA), a powerful, yet simple method based on compositional statistics that can validate the transfer of prior knowledge, such as gene lists, into independent data sets, platforms and technologies. Transcriptional profiling has been used to derive gene lists that stratify patients into prognostic molecular subgroups and assess biomarker performance in the pre-clinical setting. Archived public data sets are an invaluable resource for subsequent in silico validation, though their use can lead to data integration issues. We show that GECA can be used without the need for normalising expression levels between data sets and can outperform rank-based correlation methods. To validate GECA, we demonstrate its success in the cross-platform transfer of gene lists in different domains including: bladder cancer staging, tumour site of origin and mislabelled cell lines. We also show its effectiveness in transferring an epithelial ovarian cancer prognostic gene signature across technologies, from a microarray to a next-generation sequencing setting. In a final case study, we predict the tumour site of origin and histopathology of epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines. In particular, we identify and validate the commonly-used cell line OVCAR-5 as non-ovarian, being gastrointestinal in origin. GECA is available as an open-source R package. PMID:27353327

  3. Accelerated line-by-line calculations for the radiative transfer of trace gases related to climate studies. Progress report No. 1, 15 September 1993--14 September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Clough, S.A.

    1993-11-15

    In the present study we are studying the effects of including carbon dioxide, ozone, methane, and the halocarbons in addition to water vapor in the radiating atmosphere. The study has focused on two principal issues: the effect on the spectral fluxes and cooling rates of carbon dioxide, ozone and the halocarbons at 1990 concentration levels and the change in fluxes and cooling rates as a consequence of the anticipated ten year change in the profiles of these species. For the latter study the water vapor profiles have been taken as invariant in time. The radiative line-by-line calculations using LBLRTM (Line-By-Line Radiative Transfer Model) have been performed for tropical (TRP), mid-latitude winter (MLW) and mid-latitude summer (MLS) model atmospheres. The halocarbons considered in the present study are CCl{sub 4}, CFC-11, CFC-12 and CFC-22. In addition to considering the radiative effects of carbon dioxide at 355 ppM, the assumed current level, we have also obtained results for doubled carbon dioxide at 710 ppM. An important focus of the current research effort is the effect of the ozone depletion profile on atmospheric radiative effects.

  4. The National Ignition Facility: Laser System, Beam Line Design and Construction

    SciTech Connect

    Sawicki, R H

    2004-01-05

    The construction of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) building and laser beampaths at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has been completed. This 8-year design/construction effort has successfully erected a 450,000 sq ft building and filled its interior with a complex of large-scale optical benches. These benches support all of the large-aperture optic elements of the NIF and the environmentally controlled enclosures that protect each of the 192 laser beamlines as they propagate from the injection laser system, through large aperture amplification stages, and into the target chamber. Even though this facility is very large, nearly 200 m long, 100 m wide, and 30 m tall, stringent mechanical performance requirements have been achieved throughout including temperature control <0.3 C, laser-beam pointing stability on target < 50 {micro}rms, and level 100 surface cleanliness on internal components. This presentation will provide an historical perspective explaining the basis of the design, technical details describing the techniques of construction and a chronological progression of the construction activities from ground breaking to beampath completion.

  5. Pulse compression below 40fs at 1μm: The first step towards a short-pulse, high-energy beam line at LULI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaowei; Zou, Jiping; Martin, Luc; Simon, Francois; Lopez-Martens, Rodrigo; Audebert, Patrick

    2010-08-01

    We present the upgrading project ELFIE (Equipement Laser de Forte Intensité et Energie) based on the "100TW" mixed Nd:glass CPA laser system at 1μm at LULI, which includes an energy enhancement and the development of a short-pulse, high-energy, good temporal contrast beam line (50fs/5J). We report the first experimental step towards the short-pulse, high-energy beam line: spectral broadening above 60nm from 7nm and temporal pulse compression below 40fs from 300fs at 1μm through a Krypton-filled hollow fiber compressor.

  6. Population of isomeric states in fusion and transfer reactions in beams of loosely bound nuclei near the Coulomb barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Skobelev, N. K.

    2015-07-15

    The influence of the mechanisms of nuclear reactions on the population of {sup 195m}Hg and {sup 197m}Hg(7/2{sup −}), {sup 198m}Tl and {sup 196m}Tl(7{sup +}), and {sup 196m}Au and {sub 198m}Au(12{sup −}) isomeric nuclear states obtained in reactions induced by beams of {sup 3}He, {sup 6}Li, and {sup 6}He weakly bound nuclei is studied. The behavior of excitation functions and high values of isomeric ratios (δ{sub m}/δ{sub g}) for products of nuclear reactions proceeding through a compound nucleus and involving neutron evaporation are explained within statistical models. Reactions in which the emission of charged particles occurs have various isomeric ratios depending on the reaction type. The isomeric ratio is lower in direct transfer reactions involving charged-particle emission than in reactions where the evaporation of charged particles occurs. Reactions accompanied by neutron transfer usually have a lower isomeric ratio, which behaves differently for different direct-reaction types (stripping versus pickup reactions)

  7. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for proton beam therapy. Variations as a function of biological endpoint, dose, and linear energy transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paganetti, Harald

    2014-11-01

    Proton therapy treatments are based on a proton RBE (relative biological effectiveness) relative to high-energy photons of 1.1. The use of this generic, spatially invariant RBE within tumors and normal tissues disregards the evidence that proton RBE varies with linear energy transfer (LET), physiological and biological factors, and clinical endpoint. Based on the available experimental data from published literature, this review analyzes relationships of RBE with dose, biological endpoint and physical properties of proton beams. The review distinguishes between endpoints relevant for tumor control probability and those potentially relevant for normal tissue complication. Numerous endpoints and experiments on sub-cellular damage and repair effects are discussed. Despite the large amount of data, considerable uncertainties in proton RBE values remain. As an average RBE for cell survival in the center of a typical spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP), the data support a value of ~1.15 at 2 Gy/fraction. The proton RBE increases with increasing LETd and thus with depth in an SOBP from ~1.1 in the entrance region, to ~1.15 in the center, ~1.35 at the distal edge and ~1.7 in the distal fall-off (when averaged over all cell lines, which may not be clinically representative). For small modulation widths the values could be increased. Furthermore, there is a trend of an increase in RBE as (α/β)x decreases. In most cases the RBE also increases with decreasing dose, specifically for systems with low (α/β)x. Data on RBE for endpoints other than clonogenic cell survival are too diverse to allow general statements other than that the RBE is, on average, in line with a value of ~1.1. This review can serve as a source for defining input parameters for applying or refining biophysical models and to identify endpoints where additional radiobiological data are needed in order to reduce the uncertainties to clinically acceptable levels.

  8. Application of convection heat transfer in near-wall jets to electron-beam-pumped gas lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Bo

    Heating of the transmission foil separating the vacuum diodes from the laser gas in electron-beam-pumped gas lasers due to high-energy electron beam attenuation necessitates an external cooling scheme to prevent its failure under repetitively pulsed operating conditions. Attenuation of the electron beam (typically 500 kV, 100 kA and 100 ns pulse duration) produces a strong and pulsed volumetric heat source in the relatively thin stainless-steel foil (thickness of ˜25 mum) causing it to fail. An experimental and numerical investigation has been conducted to study the cooling effectiveness of near-wall high-speed jets for a single stainless-steel foil strip that simulates the actual foil geometry between two neighboring support ribs in the Electra KrF gas laser developed by the Naval Research Laboratory. The foil is placed inside a rectangular channel with continuous gas flow to simulate the circulating laser gas. The foil is electrically heated with the heating power input adjusted to achieve the same foil temperatures observed in Electra when no active cooling is applied. Detailed studies include two jet geometries (planar and circular) and two injection methods (tangential/parallel or obliquely impinging jets) for two hibachi foil structure designs (flat and scalloped). The planar jet of ˜1mm thickness flows parallel to the circulating laser gas across the entire foil span. The other configuration uses circular jets of small diameters (0.8 mm, 1.2 mm and 1.6 mm) positioned in two staggered rows located on the foil's two vertical edges with a pitch of 1.25 cm over the entire height of the foil. For both configurations, experiments have been conducted at various jet velocities (or jet Reynolds numbers), impingement angles and jet-foil spacing with an aim to identify the optimal operating parameters for the actual hibachi foil cooling. Numerous investigations have been performed that covered a wide range of operating parameters. Local and average heat transfer

  9. Acceptance testing of the Lasentec focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) monitor for slurry transfer applications at Hanford and Oak Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daymo, Eric A.; Hylton, Tom D.; May, Thomas H.

    1999-01-01

    The Lasentec M600F FBRM particle size and population monitor (Lasentec, Redmond, WA) was selected for deployment on radioactive slurry transfer systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Hanford after extensive testing with `physical simulants.' These tests indicated that the monitor is able to measure the change in particle size distribution of concentrated (up to 35 vol.%) slurries at flow rates greater than 2 m/sec. As well, the monitor provided relatively stable mean particle size values when air bubbles were introduced to the slurry pipe test loop and when the color of the slurry was altered. Slurry samples taken during each test were analyzed with a laboratory particle size monitor. For kaolin slurry samples (length-cubed weighted mean of around 55 micrometers ), the Lasentec M600F FBRM in-line monitor measured length-cubed weighted mean particle sizes within 25% of those measured by a laboratory Lasentec M500LF monitor. This difference is thought primarily to be the result of sample handling issues. Regardless, this accuracy is acceptable for radioactive slurry transfer applications. Once deployed, the in-line Lasentec monitor is expected to yield significant cost savings at Hanford and Oak Ridge through the possible reduction in risk of pipeline blockage. In addition, fewer samples of radioactive slurries will need to be measured in the laboratory, further reducing costs and increasing safety.

  10. Line-driven disk winds in active galactic nuclei: The critical importance of ionization and radiative transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Higginbottom, Nick; Knigge, Christian; Matthews, James H.; Proga, Daniel; Long, Knox S.; Sim, Stuart A.

    2014-07-01

    Accretion disk winds are thought to produce many of the characteristic features seen in the spectra of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and quasi-stellar objects (QSOs). These outflows also represent a natural form of feedback between the central supermassive black hole and its host galaxy. The mechanism for driving this mass loss remains unknown, although radiation pressure mediated by spectral lines is a leading candidate. Here, we calculate the ionization state of, and emergent spectra for, the hydrodynamic simulation of a line-driven disk wind previously presented by Proga and Kallman. To achieve this, we carry out a comprehensive Monte Carlo simulation of the radiative transfer through, and energy exchange within, the predicted outflow. We find that the wind is much more ionized than originally estimated. This is in part because it is much more difficult to shield any wind regions effectively when the outflow itself is allowed to reprocess and redirect ionizing photons. As a result, the calculated spectrum that would be observed from this particular outflow solution would not contain the ultraviolet spectral lines that are observed in many AGN/QSOs. Furthermore, the wind is so highly ionized that line driving would not actually be efficient. This does not necessarily mean that line-driven winds are not viable. However, our work does illustrate that in order to arrive at a self-consistent model of line-driven disk winds in AGN/QSO, it will be critical to include a more detailed treatment of radiative transfer and ionization in the next generation of hydrodynamic simulations.

  11. Mitigated Transfer Line Leaks that Result in Surface Pools and Spray Leaks into Pits

    SciTech Connect

    HEY, B.E.

    1999-12-07

    This analysis provides radiological and toxicological consequence calculations for postulated mitigated leaks during transfers of six waste compositions. Leaks in Cleanout Boxes equipped with supplemental covers and leaks in pits are analyzed.

  12. Increased pattern transfer fidelity ZEP 520A during reactive ion etching through chemical modifications by additional dosing of the electron beam resist.

    SciTech Connect

    Czaplewski, D. A.; Ocola, L. E.

    2011-03-01

    This article describes a postdevelopment, additional electron exposure to enhance the etch selectivity and improve pattern transfer fidelity of an electron beam resist, ZEP 520A, through chemical changes of the resist. After the critical features were patterned and developed, the resist was exposed at 5 kV accelerating voltage to a second dose of electrons ranging from 300 to 300,000 {micro}C/cm{sup 2}. The etch rate of the resist decreased by approximately 25% in a CHF{sub 3} and O{sub 2} plasma. More critically, the fidelity of the pattern transfer was improved. Infrared and Raman spectroscopies were used to characterize the resist before and after electron beam exposure for doses up to 3000 {micro}C/cm{sup 2}. The carbonyl bonding in the polymer showed significant changes after electron beam exposure that can be associated with improvement in the etch performance of this resist.

  13. Flexture plate motion-transfer mechanism, beam-splitter assembly, and interferometer incorporating the same

    DOEpatents

    Carangelo, Robert M.; Dettori, Mark D.; Grigely, Lawrence J.; Murray, Terence C.; Solomon, Peter R.; Van Dine, C. Peter; Wright, David D.

    1996-01-01

    A multiplicity of one-piece flexure plates are assembled in pairs to provide a support system on which a retroreflector may be mounted for reciprocal motion. Combined with balance bodies, the flexure plates provide a support system having portions that are dynamically and statically balanced with one another, irrespective of orientation, so as to thereby immunize the unit against extraneous forces. The motion transfer assembly is especially adapted for use to support a moving retroreflector in a two-arm interferometer that may further include a beamsplitter assembly constructed from a one-piece, integrally formed body, the body having convergent, optically flat planar surfaces of specular reflectance, and means for adjustably mounting a beamsplitter therein. The spectrometer is of modular construction, and employs an integrated clocking sub-assembly as well as a light-weight voice-coil motor.

  14. Flexture plate motion-transfer mechanism, beam-splitter assembly, and interferometer incorporating the same

    DOEpatents

    Carangelo, R.M.; Dettori, M.D.; Grigely, L.J.; Murray, T.C.; Solomon, P.R.; Dine, C.P. Van; Wright, D.D.

    1996-01-23

    A multiplicity of one-piece flexure plates are assembled in pairs to provide a support system on which a retroreflector may be mounted for reciprocal motion. Combined with balance bodies, the flexure plates provide a support system having portions that are dynamically and statically balanced with one another, irrespective of orientation, so as to thereby immunize the unit against extraneous forces. The motion transfer assembly is especially adapted for use to support a moving retroreflector in a two-arm interferometer that may further include a beamsplitter assembly constructed from a one-piece, integrally formed body, the body having convergent, optically flat planar surfaces of specular reflectance, and means for adjustably mounting a beamsplitter therein. The spectrometer is of modular construction, and employs an integrated clocking sub-assembly as well as a light-weight voice-coil motor. 15 figs.

  15. The transfer of resonance-line radiation in static astrophysical media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neufeld, David A.

    1990-01-01

    An analytic solution is derived for the mean intensity of resonance-line radiation within an absorbing medium of large scattering optical depth but low density. The line profile, the mean number of scatterings before absorption or escape, the mean path length traveled, and the fraction of the photons which escape the medium are derived. Approximate methods are also developed which permit the treatment of media of intermediate optical depth, where scattering takes place in the Doppler core. Astrophysical applications include the absorption of H Ly-alpha radiation by stellar dust, the pumping of H2 Lyman band lines by H Ly-alpha and the Bowen fluorescence.

  16. From colour photographs to black-and-white line drawings: an assessment of chimpanzees' (Pan troglodytes') transfer behaviour.

    PubMed

    Close, James; Call, Josep

    2015-03-01

    Over two experiments, we investigated the ability of two adolescent and two adult chimpanzees to generalise a learnt, pictorial categorisation to increasingly degraded and abstract stimuli. In Experiment 2, we further assessed the ability of the adolescent chimpanzees to engage in open-ended categorisation of black-and-white line drawings. The current results confirmed and extended previous findings, showing that sub-adult chimpanzees outperform adult chimpanzees in the categorisation of pictorial stimuli, particularly when the stimuli are more degraded and abstract in nature. However, none of the four chimpanzees showed positive transfer of their category learning to a set of black-and-white line drawings, and neither of the adolescent chimpanzees evidenced reliable open-ended categorisation of the black-and-white line drawings. The latter findings suggest that both sub-adult and adult chimpanzees find it difficult to recognise black-and-white line drawings, and that open-ended categorisation of black-and-white line drawings is challenging for chimpanzees.

  17. UOK 268 Cell Line for Hereditary Leiomyomatosis and Renal Cell Carcinoma | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute’s Urologic Oncology Branch seeks parties to co-develop the UOK 262 immortalized cell line as research tool to study aggressive hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC)-associated recurring kidney cancer.

  18. SU-E-J-92: On-Line Cone Beam CT Based Planning for Emergency and Palliative Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Held, M; Morin, O; Pouliot, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate and develop the feasibility of on-line cone beam CT based planning for emergency and palliative radiotherapy treatments. Methods: Subsequent to phantom studies, a case library of 28 clinical megavoltage cone beam CT (MVCBCT) was built to assess dose-planning accuracies on MVCBCT for all anatomical sites. A simple emergency treatment plan was created on the MVCBCT and copied to its reference CT. The agreement between the dose distributions of each image pair was evaluated by the mean dose difference of the dose volume and the gamma index of the central 2D axial plane. An array of popular urgent and palliative cases was also evaluated for imaging component clearance and field-of-view. Results: The treatment cases were categorized into four groups (head and neck, thorax/spine, pelvis and extremities). Dose distributions for head and neck treatments were predicted accurately in all cases with a gamma index of >95% for 2% and 2 mm criteria. Thoracic spine treatments had a gamma index as low as 60% indicating a need for better uniformity correction and tissue density calibration. Small anatomy changes between CT and MVCBCT could contribute to local errors. Pelvis and sacral spine treatment cases had a gamma index between 90% and 98% for 3%/3 mm criteria. The limited FOV became an issue for large pelvis patients. Imaging clearance was difficult for cases where the tumor was positioned far off midline. Conclusion: The MVCBCT based dose planning and delivery approach is feasible in many treatment cases. Dose distributions for head and neck patients are unrestrictedly predictable. Some FOV restrictions apply to other treatment sites. Lung tissue is most challenging for accurate dose calculations given the current imaging filters and corrections. Additional clinical cases for extremities need to be included in the study to assess the full range of site-specific planning accuracies. This work is supported by Siemens.

  19. Virus-Free Human Placental Cell Lines To Study Genetic Functions | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Cancer.gov

    The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Section on Cellular Differentiation is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to further develop, evaluate, or commercialize immortalized virus-free human placental cell lines.The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Section on Cellular Differentiation is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to further develop, evaluate, or commercialize immortalized virus-free human placental cell lines.

  20. Isolating and quantifying cross-beam energy transfer in direct-drive implosions on OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, A. K.; Cao, D.; Michel, D. T.; Hohenberger, M.; Edgell, D. H.; Epstein, R.; Goncharov, V. N.; Hu, S. X.; Igumenshchev, I. V.; Marozas, J. A.; Maximov, A. V.; Myatt, J. F.; Radha, P. B.; Regan, S. P.; Sangster, T. C.; Froula, D. H.

    2016-04-20

    The angularly-resolved mass ablation rates and ablation front trajectories for Si-coated CH targets were measured in direct-drive inertial confinement fusion experiments to quantify crossbeam energy transfer (CBET) while constraining the hydrodynamic coupling. A polar-direct-drive laser configuration was used, where the equatorial laser beams were dropped from a symmetric direct-drive configuration to suppress CBET at the pole, while allowing it to persist at the equator. The combination of low- and high-CBET conditions in the same implosion allowed the effects of CBET on the ablation rate and ablation pressure to be decoupled from the other physics effects that influence laser-coupling. Hydrodynamic simulations performed without CBET reproduced the measured ablation rate and ablation front trajectory at the pole of the target, verifying that the other laser-coupling physics effects are well-modeled when CBET effects are negligible. The simulated mass ablation rates and ablation front trajectories were in excellent agreement with the measurements at all angles when a CBET model based on Randall’s equations [C. J. Randall et al., Phys. Fluids 24, 1474 (1981)] was included into the simulations with an optimized multiplier on the CBET gain factor. These measurements were performed on both OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility to access a wide range of plasma conditions, laser intensities, and laser beam geometries. Furthermore, the presence of the CBET gain multiplier required to match the data in all of the configurations tested suggests that additional physics effects, such as intensity variations due to diffraction, shortcomings of extending the 1-D Randall model to 3-D, or polarization effects, should be explored to explain the differences in observed and predicted drive.

  1. Isolating and quantifying cross-beam energy transfer in direct-drive implosions on OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility

    DOE PAGES

    Davis, A. K.; Cao, D.; Michel, D. T.; ...

    2016-04-20

    The angularly-resolved mass ablation rates and ablation front trajectories for Si-coated CH targets were measured in direct-drive inertial confinement fusion experiments to quantify crossbeam energy transfer (CBET) while constraining the hydrodynamic coupling. A polar-direct-drive laser configuration was used, where the equatorial laser beams were dropped from a symmetric direct-drive configuration to suppress CBET at the pole, while allowing it to persist at the equator. The combination of low- and high-CBET conditions in the same implosion allowed the effects of CBET on the ablation rate and ablation pressure to be decoupled from the other physics effects that influence laser-coupling. Hydrodynamic simulationsmore » performed without CBET reproduced the measured ablation rate and ablation front trajectory at the pole of the target, verifying that the other laser-coupling physics effects are well-modeled when CBET effects are negligible. The simulated mass ablation rates and ablation front trajectories were in excellent agreement with the measurements at all angles when a CBET model based on Randall’s equations [C. J. Randall et al., Phys. Fluids 24, 1474 (1981)] was included into the simulations with an optimized multiplier on the CBET gain factor. These measurements were performed on both OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility to access a wide range of plasma conditions, laser intensities, and laser beam geometries. Furthermore, the presence of the CBET gain multiplier required to match the data in all of the configurations tested suggests that additional physics effects, such as intensity variations due to diffraction, shortcomings of extending the 1-D Randall model to 3-D, or polarization effects, should be explored to explain the differences in observed and predicted drive.« less

  2. Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mires, Peter B.

    2006-01-01

    National Geography Standards for the middle school years generally stress the teaching of latitude and longitude. There are many creative ways to explain the great grid that encircles our planet, but the author has found that students in his college-level geography courses especially enjoy human-interest stories associated with lines of latitude…

  3. A study of LC-39 cryogenic systems. Part 1: A study of the vacuum insulated transfer lines at Kennedy Space Center. Part 2: Cooldown pressure surges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludtke, P. R.; Voth, R. O.

    1971-01-01

    The vacuum liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen transfer lines at Kennedy Space Center were studied to evaluate the feasibility of using a condensing gas such as CO2 inside the vacuum spaces to achieve a condensing-vacuum. The study indicates that at ambient temperature, a maximum vacuum hyphen space pressure of 4000 microns is acceptable for the LH2 transfer lines. In addition, the cooldown procedures for the 14-inch cross-country liquid oxygen line was studied using a simplified mathematical model. Preliminary cooldown times are presented for various heat leak rates to the line and for two vent configurations.

  4. Five beam holographic lithography for simultaneous fabrication of three dimensional photonic crystal templates and line defects using phase tunable diffractive optical element.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuankun; Harb, Ahmad; Lozano, Karen; Xu, Di; Chen, K P

    2009-09-14

    This paper demonstrates an approach for laser holographic patterning of three-dimensional photonic lattice structures using a single diffractive optical element. The diffractive optical element is fabricated by recording gratings in a photosensitive polymer using a two-beam interference method and has four diffraction gratings oriented with four-fold symmetry around a central opening. Four first-order diffracted beams from the gratings and one non-diffracted central beam overlap and form a three-dimensional interference pattern. The phase of one side beam is delayed by inserting a thin piece of microscope glass slide into the beam. By rotating the glass slide, thus tuning the phase of the side beam, the five beam interference pattern changes from face-center tetragonal symmetry into diamond-like lattice symmetry with an optimal bandgap. Three-dimensional photonic crystal templates are produced in a photoresist and show the phase tuning effect for bandgap optimization. Furthermore, by integrating an amplitude mask in the central opening, line defects are produced within the photonic crystal template. This paper presents the first experimental demonstration on the holographic fabrication approach of three-dimensional photonic crystal templates with functional defects by a single laser exposure using a single optical element.

  5. Lines of evidence for horizontal gene transfer of a phenazine producing operon into multiple bacterial species.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, David A

    2009-02-01

    Phenazines are secondary metabolites with broad-spectrum antibiotic activity against bacteria, fungi, and eukaryotes. In pseudomonad species, a conserved seven-gene phenazine operon (phzABCDEFG) is required for the conversion of chorismic acid to the broad-spectrum antibiotic phenazine-1-carboxylate. Previous analyses of genes involved in phenazine production from nonpseudomonad species uncovered a high degree of sequence similarity to pseudomonad homologues. The analyses undertaken in this study wished to eluciadate the evolutionary history of genes involved in the production of phenazines. Furthermore, I wanted to determine if the phenazine operon has been transferred through horizontal gene transfer. Analyses of GC content, codon usage patterns, frequency of 3:1 dinucleotides, sequence similarities, and phylogenetic reconstructions were undertaken to map the evolutionary history of phenazine genes from multiple bacterial species. Patchy phyletic distribution, high sequence similarities, and phylogenetic evidence infer that pseudomonad, Streptomyces cinnamonensis, Pantoea agglomerans, Burkholderia cepacia, Pectobacterium atrosepticum, Brevibacterium linens, and Mycobacterium abscessus species all contain a phenazine operon which has most likely been transferred among these species through horizontal gene transfer. The acquisition of an antibiotic-associated operon is significant, as it may increase the relative fitness of the recipient species.

  6. Engineering Task Plan for Hose In Hose Transfer Lines for the Interim Stabilization Program

    SciTech Connect

    RUNG, M.P.

    2000-06-20

    This document is the Engineering Task Plan for the engineering, design services, planning, project integration and management support for the design, modification, installation and testing of an over ground transfer (OGT) system to support the interim stabilization of nine tanks in the 241-S/SX Tank Farms.

  7. Engineering Task Plan for Hose In Hose Transfer Lines for the Interim Stabilization Program

    SciTech Connect

    TORRES, T.D.

    2000-08-16

    The document is the Engineering Task Plan for the engineering, design services, planning, project integration and management support for the design, modification, installation and testing of an over ground transfer (OGT) system to support the interim stabilization of S/SX and U Tank Farms.

  8. Cascaded systems analysis of the 3D noise transfer characteristics of flat-panel cone-beam CT.

    PubMed

    Tward, Daniel J; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H

    2008-12-01

    The physical factors that govern 2D and 3D imaging performance may be understood from quantitative analysis of the spatial-frequency-dependent signal and noise transfer characteristics [e.g., modulation transfer function (MTF), noise-power spectrum (NPS), detective quantum efficiency (DQE), and noise-equivalent quanta (NEQ)] along with a task-based assessment of performance (e.g., detectability index). This paper advances a theoretical framework based on cascaded systems analysis for calculation of such metrics in cone-beam CT (CBCT). The model considers the 2D projection NPS propagated through a series of reconstruction stages to yield the 3D NPS and allows quantitative investigation of tradeoffs in image quality associated with acquisition and reconstruction techniques. While the mathematical process of 3D image reconstruction is deterministic, it is shown that the process is irreversible, the associated reconstruction parameters significantly affect the 3D DQE and NEQ, and system optimization should consider the full 3D imaging chain. Factors considered in the cascade include: system geometry; number of projection views; logarithmic scaling; ramp, apodization, and interpolation filters; 3D back-projection; and 3D sampling (noise aliasing). The model is validated in comparison to experiment across a broad range of dose, reconstruction filters, and voxel sizes, and the effects of 3D noise correlation on detectability are explored. The work presents a model for the 3D NPS, DQE, and NEQ of CBCT that reduces to conventional descriptions of axial CT as a special case and provides a fairly general framework that can be applied to the design and optimization of CBCT systems for various applications.

  9. Irradiation With Carbon Ion Beams Induces Apoptosis, Autophagy, and Cellular Senescence in a Human Glioma-Derived Cell Line

    SciTech Connect

    Jinno-Oue, Atsushi; Shimizu, Nobuaki; Hamada, Nobuyuki; Wada, Seiichi; Tanaka, Atsushi; Shinagawa, Masahiko; Ohtsuki, Takahiro; Mori, Takahisa; Saha, Manujendra N.; Hoque, Ariful S.; Islam, Salequl; Kogure, Kimitaka; Funayama, Tomoo; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: We examined biological responses of human glioma cells to irradiation with carbon ion beams (C-ions). Methods and Materials: A human glioma-derived cell line, NP-2, was irradiated with C-ions. Apoptotic cell nuclei were stained with Hoechst 33342. Induction of autophagy was examined either by staining cells with monodansylcadaverine (MDC) or by Western blotting to detect conversion of microtuble-associated protein light chain 3 (MAP-LC3) (LC3-I) to the membrane-bound form (LC3-II). Cellular senescence markers including induction of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-beta-gal) were examined. The mean telomere length of irradiated cells was determined by Southern blot hybridization. Expression of tumor suppressor p53 and cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} in the irradiated cells was analyzed by Western blotting. Results: When NP-2 cells were irradiated with C-ions at 6 Gy, the major population of the cells died of apoptosis and autophagy. The residual fraction of attached cells (<1% of initially irradiated cells) could not form a colony: however, they showed a morphological phenotype consistent with cellular senescence, that is, enlarged and flattened appearance. The senescent nature of these attached cells was further indicated by staining for SA-beta-gal. The mean telomere length was not changed after irradiation with C-ions. Phosphorylation of p53 at serine 15 as well as the expression of p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} was induced in NP-2 cells after irradiation. Furthermore, we found that irradiation with C-ions induced cellular senescence in a human glioma cell line lacking functional p53. Conclusions: Irradiation with C-ions induced apoptosis, autophagy, and cellular senescence in human glioma cells.

  10. FABRICATION AND REPAIR OF ION SOURCE COMPONENTS IN THE 80 keV NEUTRAL BEAM LINES FOR DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    GRUNLOH,H.J; BUSATH,J.L; CALLIS,R.W; CHIU,H.K; DiMARTINO,M; HONG,R; KLASEN,R; MOELLER,C.P; ROBINSON,J.I; STRECKERT,H.H; TAO,R; TRESTER,P.W

    2003-10-01

    OAK-B135 After 8 years of operation, leaks began to develop in critical components of the ion sources of the 80 keV neutral beam lines in DIII-D. Operational adjustments were made that seemed to remedy the problems, but five years later leaks began occurring again, this time with greater frequency. Failures occurred in the stainless steel bellows and molybdenum rails of the grid rail modules as well as in the Langmuir probes. Failure analyses identified several root causes of the leaks and operational adjustments were again made to mitigate the problems, but the rash of failures depleted the program's supply of spare grid rail modules and probes and removed one of the ion sources from regular operation. Fifteen years after their original fabrication, the ion source components were no longer commercially available. In 2001, a program was initiated to fabricate new grid rail modules, including new molybdenum grid rails, bellows, and stainless steel grid rail holders, as well as new Langmuir probes. In parallel, components removed from service due to leaks were to be repaired with new rails and bellows and returned to service. An overview of the root causes of the service failures is offered, details of the repair processes are described, and a summary and evaluation of the fabrication procedures for the new molybdenum rails, grid modules, and Langmuir probes are given.

  11. Focused beam reflectance method as an innovative (PAT) tool to monitor in-line granulation process in fluidized bed.

    PubMed

    Alshihabi, Firas; Vandamme, Thierry; Betz, Gabriele

    2013-02-01

    Fluidized bed granulation is a commonly used unit operation in the pharmaceutical industry. But still to obtain and control the desired granule size is challenging due to many process variables affecting the final product. Focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM, Mettler-Toledo, Switzerland) is an increasingly popular particle growth analysis technique. FBRM tool was installed in two different locations inside a fluidized bed granulator (GPCG2, Glatt, Binzen) in order to monitor the granulation growth kinetics. An experimental design was created to study the effect of process variables using FBRM probe and comparing the results with the one's measured by sieve analysis. The probe location is of major importance to get smooth and robust curves. The excess feeding of binder solution might lead to agglomeration and thus to process collapse, however this phenomenon was clearly detected with FBRM method. On the other hand, the process variables at certain levels might affect the FBRM efficiency by blocking the probe window with sticky particles. A good correlation was obtained (R(2) = 0.95) between FBRM and sieve analysis mean particle size. The proposed in-line monitoring tool enables the operator to select appropriate process parameters and control the wet granulation process more efficiently.

  12. The Transfer of Resonance Line Polarization with Partial Frequency Redistribution in the General Hanle–Zeeman Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsina Ballester, E.; Belluzzi, L.; Trujillo Bueno, J.

    2017-02-01

    The spectral line polarization encodes a wealth of information about the thermal and magnetic properties of the solar atmosphere. Modeling the Stokes profiles of strong resonance lines is, however, a complex problem both from a theoretical and computational point of view, especially when partial frequency redistribution (PRD) effects need to be taken into account. In this work, we consider a two-level atom in the presence of magnetic fields of arbitrary intensity (Hanle–Zeeman regime) and orientation, both deterministic and micro-structured. Working within the framework of a rigorous PRD theoretical approach, we have developed a numerical code that solves the full non-LTE radiative transfer problem for polarized radiation, in one-dimensional models of the solar atmosphere, accounting for the combined action of the Hanle and Zeeman effects, as well as for PRD phenomena. After briefly discussing the relevant equations, we describe the iterative method of solution of the problem and the numerical tools that we have developed and implemented. We finally present some illustrative applications to two resonance lines that form at different heights in the solar atmosphere, and provide a detailed physical interpretation of the calculated Stokes profiles. We find that magneto-optical effects have a strong impact on the linear polarization signals that PRD effects produce in the wings of strong resonance lines. We also show that the weak-field approximation has to be used with caution when PRD effects are considered.

  13. Improved Wavelength Detuning Cross-Beam Energy Transfer Mitigation Strategy for Polar Direct Drive at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marozas, J. A.; Collins, T. J. B.; McKenty, P. W.; Zuegel, J. D.

    2015-11-01

    Cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) reduces absorbed light and implosion velocity, alters time-resolved scattered-light spectra, and redistributes absorbed and scattered light. These effects reduce target performance in both symmetric direct-drive and polar-direct-drive (PDD) experiments on the OMEGA Laser System and the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The CBET package (Adaawam) incorporated into the 2-D hydrodynamics code DRACO is an integral part of the 3-D ray-trace package (Mazinisin). The CBET exchange occurs primarily over the equatorial region in PDD, where successful mitigation strategies concentrate. Detuning the initial laser wavelength (dλ0) reduces the CBET interaction volume, which can be combined with other mitigation domains (e.g., spatial and temporal). By judiciously selecting the ring and/or port +/-dλ0 in each hemisphere, using new DRACO diagnostic abilities, improved wavelength detuning strategies trade-off overall energy absorption for improved hemispherical energy balance control. These balanced-wavelength detuning strategies improve performance for high-convergence implosions. Simulations (2-D DRACO) predict improved implosion performance and control in both the shell trajectory and morphology for planned intermediate PDD experiments on the NIF. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  14. The Effect of Cross-Beam Energy Transfer on Two-Plasmon Decay in Direct-Drive Implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froula, D. H.; Follett, R. K.; Henchen, R. J.; Davis, A. K.; Goncharov, V. N.; Edgell, D. H.; Solodov, A. A.; Michel, D. T.; Myatt, J. F.; Shaw, J. G.; Stoeckl, C.

    2016-10-01

    Mitigation of cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) in direct-drive implosions was shown to increase the hot electrons generated by two-plasmon decay. Reducing the diameter of the laser spots by 30% significantly reduces CBET and the laser absorption was measured to increase from 75% to nearly 90%. The reduced CBET leads to higher intensity at the quarter-critical density surface, increasing the hot-electron production by a factor of 7 . Adding a thin layer (0.6 to 1.1 μm) of Si to the target ablator reduced the hot-electron fraction by a factor of 2 . Spatially resolved Thomson-scattering measurements show an 15 % increase in the electron temperature and an increase in the Si fraction at the quarter-critical surface when the Si layer is added. Three-dimensional laser-plasma interaction simulations of hot-electron production using the code LPSE show that in addition to the reduced gain (smaller ILn Te), the observed reduction in hot electrons results from increased electron-ion collision frequencies and reduced Landau damping of ion-acoustic waves. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  15. Parametic Study of the current limit within a single driver-scaletransport beam line of an induction Linac for Heavy Ion Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Prost, Lionel Robert

    2004-01-01

    The High Current Experiment (HCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is part of the US program that explores heavy-ion beam as the driver option for fusion energy production in an Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) plant. The HCX is a beam transport experiment at a scale representative of the low-energy end of an induction linear accelerator driver. The primary mission of this experiment is to investigate aperture fill factors acceptable for the transport of space-charge-dominated heavy-ion beams at high intensity (line charge density ~0.2 μC/m) over long pulse durations (4 μs) in alternating gradient focusing lattices of electrostatic or magnetic quadrupoles. This experiment is testing transport issues resulting from nonlinear space-charge effects and collective modes, beam centroid alignment and steering, envelope matching, image charges and focusing field nonlinearities, halo and, electron and gas cloud effects. We present the results for a coasting 1 MeV K+ ion beam transported through ten electrostatic quadrupoles. The measurements cover two different fill factor studies (60% and 80% of the clear aperture radius) for which the transverse phase-space of the beam was characterized in detail, along with beam energy measurements and the first halo measurements. Electrostatic quadrupole transport at high beam fill factor (~80%) is achieved with acceptable emittance growth and beam loss. We achieved good envelope control, and re-matching may only be needed every ten lattice periods (at 80% fill factor) in a longer lattice of similar design. We also show that understanding and controlling the time dependence of the envelope parameters is critical to achieving high fill factors, notably because of the injector and matching section dynamics.

  16. Natural Killer Cell Adoptive Transfer Therapy: Exploiting the First Line of Defense Against Cancer.

    PubMed

    Davis, Zachary B; Felices, Martin; Verneris, Michael R; Miller, Jeffrey S

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells constitute an important component of the initial immunological response against transformed cells. However, chronic exposure to the tumor microenvironment can fundamentally alter the ability of NK cells to sufficiently control tumor progression. Thus, the adoptive transfer of healthy, functional NK cells as an interventional therapy has been an area of great interest for improving patient outcomes. Recent developments in the field have provided a better understanding of what makes the NK compartment effective against malignant cells. Moreover, there are now multiple potential sources of NK cell products for infusion as well as techniques to manipulate these cells to enhance their antitumor functions. This review explores the advantages and disadvantages of various sources of NK cells as well as prospective therapeutic enhancements to adoptively transferred NK cells.

  17. Mars Observer data production, transfer, and archival: The data production assembly line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, David B.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the data production, transfer, and archival process designed for the Mars Observer Flight Project. It addresses the developmental and operational aspects of the archive collection production process. The developmental aspects cover the design and packaging of data products for archival and distribution to the planetary community. Also discussed is the design and development of a data transfer and volume production process capable of handling the large throughput and complexity of the Mars Observer data products. The operational aspects cover the main functions of the process: creating data and engineering products, collecting the data products and ancillary products in a central repository, producing archive volumes, validating volumes, archiving, and distributing the data to the planetary community.

  18. A study of the effect of in-line and perpendicular magnetic fields on beam characteristics of electron guns in medical linear accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Constantin, Dragos E.; Fahrig, Rebecca; Keall, Paul J.

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for real-time guidance during radiotherapy is an active area of research and development. One aspect of the problem is the influence of the MRI scanner, modeled here as an external magnetic field, on the medical linear accelerator (linac) components. The present work characterizes the behavior of two medical linac electron guns with external magnetic fields for in-line and perpendicular orientations of the linac with respect to the MRI scanner. Methods: Two electron guns, Litton L-2087 and Varian VTC6364, are considered as representative models for this study. Emphasis was placed on the in-line design approach in which case the MRI scanner and the linac axes of symmetry coincide and assumes no magnetic shielding of the linac. For the in-line case, the magnetic field from a 0.5 T open MRI (GE Signa SP) magnet with a 60 cm gap between its poles was computed and used in full three dimensional (3D) space charge simulations, whereas for the perpendicular case the magnetic field was constant. Results: For the in-line configuration, it is shown that the electron beam is not deflected from the axis of symmetry of the gun and the primary beam current does not vanish even at very high values of the magnetic field, e.g., 0.16 T. As the field strength increases, the primary beam current has an initial plateau of constant value after which its value decreases to a minimum corresponding to a field strength of approximately 0.06 T. After the minimum is reached, the current starts to increase slowly. For the case when the beam current computation is performed at the beam waist position the initial plateau ends at 0.016 T for Litton L-2087 and at 0.012 T for Varian VTC6364. The minimum value of the primary beam current is 27.5% of the initial value for Litton L-2087 and 22.9% of the initial value for Varian VTC6364. The minimum current is reached at 0.06 and 0.062 T for Litton L-2087 and Varian VTC6364, respectively. At 0.16 T the

  19. Measurements of the Downward Longwave Radiation Spectrum over the Antarctic Plateau and Comparisons with a Line-by-Line Radiative Transfer Model for Clear Skies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walden, Von P.; Warren, Stephen G.; Murcray, Frank J.

    1998-01-01

    A 1-year field program was conducted at South Pole Station in 1992 to measure the downward infrared radiance spectrum at a resolution of 1/ cm over the spectral range 550-1667 cm-'. The atmosphere over the Antarctic Plateau is the coldest and driest on Earth, where in winter, surface temperatures average about -60 C, the total column water vapor is as low as 300 pm of precipitable water, and the clear-sky downward longwave flux is usually less than 80 W/sq m. Three clear-sky test cases are selected, one each for summer, winter, and spring, for which high- quality radiance data are available.as well as ancillary data to construct model atmospheres from radiosondes, ozonesondes, and other measurements. The model atmospheres are used in conjunction with the line-by-line radiative transfer model (LBLRTM) to compare model calculations with the spectral radiance measurements. The high-resolution calculations of LBLRTM (approx. = 0.001/ cm) are matched to the lower-resolution measurements (1/ cm) by adjusting their spectral resolution and by applying a correction for the finite field of view of the interferometer. In summer the uncertainties in temperature and water vapor profiles dominate the radiance error in the LBLRTM calculations. In winter the uncertainty in viewing zenith angle becomes important as well as the choice of atmospheric levels in the strong near-surface temperature inversion. The spectral radiance calculated for each of the three test cases generally agrees with that measured, to within twice the total estimated radiance error, thus validating LBLRTM to this level of accuracy for Antarctic conditions. However, the discrepancy exceeds twice the estimated error in the gaps between spectral lines in the region 1250-1500/ cm, where emission is dominated by the foreign-broadened water vapor continuum.

  20. SU-E-T-794: Validation of the MCNPX Monte Carlo Model of the Ocular Beam Line at the Proton Therapy Center Houston

    SciTech Connect

    Titt, U; Suzuki, K

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The PTCH is preparing the ocular proton beam nozzle for clinical use. Currently commissioning measurements are being performed using films, diodes and ionization chambers. In parallel, a Monte Carlo model of the beam line was created for integration into the automated Monte Carlo treatment plan computation system, MC{sup 2}. This work aims to compare Monte Carlo predictions to measured proton doses in order to validate the Monte Carlo model. Methods: A complete model of the double scattering ocular beam line has been created and is capable of simulating proton beams with a comprehensive set of beam modifying devices, including eleven different range modulator wheels. Simulations of doses in water were scored and compare to ion chamber measurements of depth doses, lateral dose profiles extracted from half beam block exposures of films, and diode measurements of lateral penumbrae at various depths. Results: All comparison resulted in an average relative entrance dose difference of less than 3% and peak dose difference of less than 2%. All range differences were smaller than 0.2 mm. The differences in the lateral beam profiles were smaller than 0.2 mm, and the differences in the penumbrae were all smaller than 0.4%. Conclusion: All available data shows excellent agreement of simulations and measurements. More measurements will have to be performed in order to completely and systematically validate the model. Besides simulating and measuring PDDs and lateral profiles of all remaining range modulator wheels, the absolute dosimetry factors in terms of number of source protons per monitor unit have to be determined.

  1. Measurements of Radiation Near An Atomic Spectral Line From the Interaction of a 30-GeV Electron Beam And a Long Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Catravas, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W.P.; Assmann, R.; Decker, F.J.; Hogan, M.J.; Iverson, R.; Siemann, R.H.; Walz, D.; Whittum, D.; Blue, B.; Clayton, C.; Joshi, C.; Marsh, K.A.; Mori, W.B.; Wang, S.; Katsouleas, T.; Lee, S.; Muggli, P.; /Southern California U.

    2005-09-12

    Emissions produced or initiated by a 30 GeV electron beam propagating through a {approx}1 m long heat pipe oven containing neutral and partially ionized vapor have been measured near atomic spectral lines in a beam-plasma wakefield experiment. The Cerenkov spatial profile has been studied as a function of oven temperature and pressure, observation wavelength, and ionizing laser intensity and delay. The Cerenkov peak angle is affected by the creation of plasma; estimates of plasma and neutral density have been extracted. Increases in visible background radiation consistent with increased plasma recombination emissions due to dissipation of wakefields were simultaneously measured.

  2. Measurements of radiation near an atomic spectral line from the interaction of a 30 GeV electron beam and a long plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Catravas, P.E.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W.P.; Assmann, R.; Decker, F.-J.; Hogan, M.J.; Iverson, R.; Siemann, R.H.; Walz, D.; Whittum, D.; Blue, B.; Clayton, C; Joshi, C.; Marsh, K.A.; Mori, W.B.; Wang, S.; Katsouleas, T.; Lee, S.; Muggli, P.

    2000-10-31

    Emissions produced or initiated by a 30 GeV electron beam propagating through a {approx} 1 m long heat pipe oven containing neutral and partially ionized vapor have been measured near atomic spectral lines in a beam-plasma wakefield experiment. The Cerenkov spatial profile has been studied as a function of oven temperature and pressure, observation wavelength, and ionizing laser intensity and delay. The Cerenkov peak angle is affected by the creating of plasma, and estimates of neutral and plasma density have been extracted. Increases in visible background radiation, consistent with increased plasma recombination emissions due to dissipation of wakefields, were simultaneously measured.

  3. Heat Transfer Modeling of an Annular On-Line Spray Water Cooling Process for Electric-Resistance-Welded Steel Pipe.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zejun; Han, Huiquan; Ren, Wei; Huang, Guangjie

    2015-01-01

    On-line spray water cooling (OSWC) of electric-resistance-welded (ERW) steel pipes can replace the conventional off-line heat treatment process and become an important and critical procedure. The OSWC process improves production efficiency, decreases costs, and enhances the mechanical properties of ERW steel pipe, especially the impact properties of the weld joint. In this paper, an annular OSWC process is investigated based on an experimental simulation platform that can obtain precise real-time measurements of the temperature of the pipe, the water pressure and flux, etc. The effects of the modes of annular spray water cooling and related cooling parameters on the mechanical properties of the pipe are investigated. The temperature evolutions of the inner and outer walls of the pipe are measured during the spray water cooling process, and the uniformity of mechanical properties along the circumferential and longitudinal directions is investigated. A heat transfer coefficient model of spray water cooling is developed based on measured temperature data in conjunction with simulation using the finite element method. Industrial tests prove the validity of the heat transfer model of a steel pipe undergoing spray water cooling. The research results can provide a basis for the industrial application of the OSWC process in the production of ERW steel pipes.

  4. Heat Transfer Modeling of an Annular On-Line Spray Water Cooling Process for Electric-Resistance-Welded Steel Pipe

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zejun; Han, Huiquan; Ren, Wei; Huang, Guangjie

    2015-01-01

    On-line spray water cooling (OSWC) of electric-resistance-welded (ERW) steel pipes can replace the conventional off-line heat treatment process and become an important and critical procedure. The OSWC process improves production efficiency, decreases costs, and enhances the mechanical properties of ERW steel pipe, especially the impact properties of the weld joint. In this paper, an annular OSWC process is investigated based on an experimental simulation platform that can obtain precise real-time measurements of the temperature of the pipe, the water pressure and flux, etc. The effects of the modes of annular spray water cooling and related cooling parameters on the mechanical properties of the pipe are investigated. The temperature evolutions of the inner and outer walls of the pipe are measured during the spray water cooling process, and the uniformity of mechanical properties along the circumferential and longitudinal directions is investigated. A heat transfer coefficient model of spray water cooling is developed based on measured temperature data in conjunction with simulation using the finite element method. Industrial tests prove the validity of the heat transfer model of a steel pipe undergoing spray water cooling. The research results can provide a basis for the industrial application of the OSWC process in the production of ERW steel pipes. PMID:26201073

  5. Somatic cell nuclear transfer-derived embryonic stem cell lines in humans: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Langerova, Alena; Fulka, Helena; Fulka, Josef

    2013-12-01

    The recent paper, published by Mitalipov's group in Cell (Tachibana et al., 2013 ), reporting the production of human somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryonic stem cells (ESCs), opens again the debate if, in the era of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), the production of these cells is indeed necessary and, if so, whether they are different from ESCs produced from spare embryos and iPSCs. It is our opinion that these questions are very difficult to answer because it is still unclear whether and how normal ESCs differ from iPSCs.

  6. Heisenberg spin bus as a robust transmission line for quantum-state transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Sangchul; Hu Xuedong; Wu Lianao; Shim, Yun-Pil; Fei, Jianjia; Friesen, Mark

    2011-08-15

    We study quantum-state transfer (QST) through a strongly coupled antiferromagnetic spin chain (acting as a spin bus), between weakly coupled external qubits. By treating the weak coupling as a perturbation, we find that QST is enabled specifically by the second-order terms in the perturbative expansion. We show that QST is robust against disorder in the couplings, either within the bus or to the external qubits. We find that the protocol works when the qubits are attached to any node on an even-size bus or to the antiferromagnetic nodes on an odd-size bus. The optimal time for QST is found to depend nonmonotonically on qubit separation.

  7. Improved numerical calculation of the generation of a neutral beam by charge transfer between chlorine ions/neutrals and a graphite surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Naoki; Ohtsuka, Shingo; Iwasaki, Takuya; Ono, Kohei; Iriye, Yasuroh; Samukawa, Seiji

    2014-11-01

    The charge transfer process between chlorine particles (ions or neutrals) and a graphite surface on collision was investigated by using a highly stable numerical simulator based on time-dependent density functional theory to understand the generation mechanism of a high-efficiency neutral beam developed by Samukawa et al (2001 Japan. J. Appl. Phys. 40 L779). A straightforward calculation was achieved by adopting a large enough unit cell. The dependence of the neutralization efficiency on the incident energy of the particle was investigated, and the trend of the experimental result was reproduced. It was also found that doping the electrons and holes into graphite could change the charge transfer process and neutralization probability. This result suggests that it is possible to develop a neutral beam source that has high neutralization efficiency for both positive and negative ions.

  8. Automated 2D-3D registration of a radiograph and a cone beam CT using line-segment enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Munbodh, Reshma; Jaffray, David A.; Moseley, Douglas J.; Chen Zhe; Knisely, Jonathan P.S.; Cathier, Pascal; Duncan, James S.

    2006-05-15

    The objective of this study was to develop a fully automated two-dimensional (2D)-three-dimensional (3D) registration framework to quantify setup deviations in prostate radiation therapy from cone beam CT (CBCT) data and a single AP radiograph. A kilovoltage CBCT image and kilovoltage AP radiograph of an anthropomorphic phantom of the pelvis were acquired at 14 accurately known positions. The shifts in the phantom position were subsequently estimated by registering digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) from the 3D CBCT scan to the AP radiographs through the correlation of enhanced linear image features mainly representing bony ridges. Linear features were enhanced by filtering the images with ''sticks,'' short line segments which are varied in orientation to achieve the maximum projection value at every pixel in the image. The mean (and standard deviations) of the absolute errors in estimating translations along the three orthogonal axes in millimeters were 0.134 (0.096) AP(out-of-plane), 0.021 (0.023) ML and 0.020 (0.020) SI. The corresponding errors for rotations in degrees were 0.011 (0.009) AP, 0.029 (0.016) ML (out-of-plane), and 0.030 (0.028) SI (out-of-plane). Preliminary results with megavoltage patient data have also been reported. The results suggest that it may be possible to enhance anatomic features that are common to DRRs from a CBCT image and a single AP radiography of the pelvis for use in a completely automated and accurate 2D-3D registration framework for setup verification in prostate radiotherapy. This technique is theoretically applicable to other rigid bony structures such as the cranial vault or skull base and piecewise rigid structures such as the spine.

  9. Efficient energy transfer through a bifilar metamaterial line connecting microwave waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaccia, D.; Barbuto, M.; Tobia, A.; Bilotti, F.; Toscano, A.

    2017-02-01

    Microwave waveguides allow an effective transfer of electromagnetic energy through straight connection or well-rounded curves, but become rather inefficient in case of sharp bends or squeezed waveguide cross-sections. Here, we discuss the possibility to funnel the electromagnetic energy propagating in a waveguide through arbitrarily curved narrow channels hosting a metamaterial-inspired structure able to convert the propagating mode of the waveguide in an electric signal, and vice versa. We show experimentally how sharp bends can be inserted within these propagation channels of arbitrary lengths without introducing significant insertion losses. In particular, efficient energy funneling in 90°-, 180°-, and "S"-shaped bends are numerically and experimentally verified. The proposed reflectionless waveguide bends may find applications in modern radar and antenna systems, where the demand for space and weight reduction of the electromagnetic circuitry is ever growing.

  10. Interhemispheric transfer of kinesthetic information and line bisection task performance in patient with callosal agenesis.

    PubMed

    Makashvili, M; Chichinadze, K; Domianidze, T

    2009-09-01

    Patient G.J., male, 7 yrs, with callosal agenesis, was found perfectly able to cross-replicate hand postures in right-to left and left-to-right directions. Bimanual coordination as well as touch localization and intermanual matching were performed without errors. He failed to name 2 out of 8 objects, palpated with the left hand. At the age of 13 patient performed like normal controls in line bisection task, was successful in intermanual replication of hand postures and intermanual matching while failed to name 8 out of 12 familiar objects palpated with the left hand. G.J.'s case does not support idea about bilateral presentation of language centers and development of compensatory ipsilateral afferents in patients with callosal agenesis. Presence of anterior and interictal commissures in G.J. did not contribute to the exchange of information between sensory areas of the right hemisphere and language centers of the left half brain. However, normal intermanual matching and replication of hand postures, as well as high level of line bisection task performance suggests, that anterior and/or intertectal commissure could contribute to the functional integration of sensory areas of the two hemispheres.

  11. Mutation of rice ( Oryza sativa L.) LOX-1/2 near-isogenic lines with ion beam implantation and study of their storability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Mei; Wu, Yuejin; Zhang, Ying; Liu, B. M.; Jiang, J. Y.; Xu, X.; Yu, Z. L.

    2007-12-01

    In this paper, Wanjian 2090 without LOX-1 and LOX-2, a rice variety, was irradiated by ion beam to screen LOX-1/2 near-isogenic lines, which had the similar genetic background while the enzyme activities of either LOX-1 or LOX-2 were different. When these rice seeds were stored under both the accelerated ageing conditions for 12 days and the natural ageing conditions for 18 months, our results showed that the germination percentages of lines lacking both LOX-1 and LOX-2 were always higher than those either with LOX-1 or with LOX-2. In addition, rice lines with the presence of both LOX-1 and LOX-2 have the lowest germination percentages. The germination percentages of all genotype near-isogenic lines under two ageing conditions were correlated positively and significantly.

  12. Implementation and workflow for PET monitoring of therapeutic ion irradiation: a comparison of in-beam, in-room, and off-line techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakirin, Georgy; Braess, Henning; Fiedler, Fine; Kunath, Daniela; Laube, Kristin; Parodi, Katia; Priegnitz, Marlen; Enghardt, Wolfgang

    2011-03-01

    An independent assessment of the dose delivery in ion therapy can be performed using positron emission tomography (PET). For that a distribution of positron emitters which appear as the result of interaction between ions of the therapeutic beam and the irradiated tissue is measured during or after the irradiation. Three concepts for PET monitoring implemented in various therapy facilities are considered in this paper. The in-beam PET concept relies on the PET measurement performed simultaneously to the irradiation by means of a PET scanner which is completely integrated into the irradiation site. The in-room PET concept allows measurement immediately after irradiation by a standalone PET scanner which is installed very close to the irradiation site. In the off-line PET scenario the measurement is performed by means of a standalone PET/CT scanner 10-30 min after the irradiation. These three concepts were evaluated according to image quality criteria, integration costs, and their influence onto the workflow of radiotherapy. In-beam PET showed the best performance. However, the integration costs were estimated as very high for this modality. Moreover, the performance of in-beam PET depends heavily on type and duty cycle of the accelerator. The in-room PET is proposed for planned therapy facilities as a good compromise between the quality of measured data and integration efforts. For facilities which are close to the nuclear medicine departments off-line PET can be suggested under several circumstances.

  13. Implementation and workflow for PET monitoring of therapeutic ion irradiation: a comparison of in-beam, in-room, and off-line techniques.

    PubMed

    Shakirin, Georgy; Braess, Henning; Fiedler, Fine; Kunath, Daniela; Laube, Kristin; Parodi, Katia; Priegnitz, Marlen; Enghardt, Wolfgang

    2011-03-07

    An independent assessment of the dose delivery in ion therapy can be performed using positron emission tomography (PET). For that a distribution of positron emitters which appear as the result of interaction between ions of the therapeutic beam and the irradiated tissue is measured during or after the irradiation. Three concepts for PET monitoring implemented in various therapy facilities are considered in this paper. The in-beam PET concept relies on the PET measurement performed simultaneously to the irradiation by means of a PET scanner which is completely integrated into the irradiation site. The in-room PET concept allows measurement immediately after irradiation by a standalone PET scanner which is installed very close to the irradiation site. In the off-line PET scenario the measurement is performed by means of a standalone PET/CT scanner 10-30 min after the irradiation. These three concepts were evaluated according to image quality criteria, integration costs, and their influence onto the workflow of radiotherapy. In-beam PET showed the best performance. However, the integration costs were estimated as very high for this modality. Moreover, the performance of in-beam PET depends heavily on type and duty cycle of the accelerator. The in-room PET is proposed for planned therapy facilities as a good compromise between the quality of measured data and integration efforts. For facilities which are close to the nuclear medicine departments off-line PET can be suggested under several circumstances.

  14. Jet outflow and open field line measurements on the C-2U advanced beam-driven field-reversed configuration plasma experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheftman, D.; Gupta, D.; Roche, T.; Thompson, M. C.; Giammanco, F.; Conti, F.; Marsili, P.; Moreno, C. D.

    2016-11-01

    Knowledge and control of the axial outflow of plasma particles and energy along open-magnetic-field lines are of crucial importance to the stability and longevity of the advanced beam-driven field-reversed configuration plasma. An overview of the diagnostic methods used to perform measurements on the open field line plasma on C-2U is presented, including passive Doppler impurity spectroscopy, microwave interferometry, and triple Langmuir probe measurements. Results of these measurements provide the jet ion temperature and axial velocity, electron density, and high frequency density fluctuations.

  15. A gas-jet transport and catcher technique for on-line production of radioactive ion beams using an electron cyclotron resonance ion-source.

    PubMed

    Naik, V; Chakrabarti, A; Bhattacharjee, M; Karmakar, P; Bandyopadhyay, A; Bhattacharjee, S; Dechoudhury, S; Mondal, M; Pandey, H K; Lavanyakumar, D; Mandi, T K; Dutta, D P; Kundu Roy, T; Bhowmick, D; Sanyal, D; Srivastava, S C L; Ray, A; Ali, Md S

    2013-03-01

    Radioactive ion beams (RIB) have been produced on-line, using a gas-jet recoil transport coupled Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion-source at the VECC-RIB facility. Radioactive atoms∕molecules carried through the gas-jet were stopped in a catcher placed inside the ECR plasma chamber. A skimmer has been used to remove bulk of the carrier gas at the ECR entrance. The diffusion of atoms∕molecules through the catcher has been verified off-line using stable isotopes and on-line through transmission of radioactive reaction products. Beams of (14)O (71 s), (42)K (12.4 h), (43)K (22.2 h), and (41)Ar (1.8 h) have been produced by bombarding nitrogen and argon gas targets with proton and alpha particle beams from the K130 cyclotron at VECC. Typical measured intensity of RIB at the separator focal plane is found to be a few times 10(3) particles per second (pps). About 3.2 × 10(3) pps of 1.4 MeV (14)O RIB has been measured after acceleration through a radiofrequency quadrupole linac. The details of the gas-jet coupled ECR ion-source and RIB production experiments are presented along with the plans for the future.

  16. H2O heating in molecular clouds - Line transfer and thermal balance in a warm dusty medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, T.; Silk, J.; Hollenbach, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    An investigation is undertaken into the possibility of the heating of molecular gas through collisions with radiatively pumped H2O, in the context of the overall thermal balance of optically thick molecular clouds with embedded sources. In order to solve the line transfer equation, which includes warm dust grains, an extended method of escape probability approximation is developed in which the equilibrium gas temperature arises from the balance of heating by cosmic ray ionization of H2, and by collisions with warm dust grains and radiatively pumped H2O molecules against cooling by collisions with CO and C I. The equilibrium gas temperature for a given dust temperature strongly depends on the efficiency of the cooling species, and is therefore most sensitive to the cloud optical depth. It is less dependent, in decreasing order, on H2O abundance, gas density, and velocity dispersion.

  17. An immortalized goat mammary epithelial cell line induced with human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene transfer.

    PubMed

    He, Y L; Wu, Y H; He, X N; Liu, F J; He, X Y; Zhang, Y

    2009-06-01

    Although mammary epithelial cell lines can provide a rapid and reliable indicator of gene expression efficiency of transgenic animals, their short lifespan greatly limits this application. To provide stable and long lifespan cells, goat mammary epithelial cells (GMECs) were transduced with pLNCX2-hTERT by retrovirus-mediated gene transfer. Transduced GMECs were evaluated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), proliferation assays, karyotype analysis, telomerase activity assay, western blotting, soft agar assay, and injection into nude mice. Non-transduced GMECs were used as a control. The hTERT-GMECs had higher telomerase activity and extended proliferative lifespan compared to non-transfected GMECs; even after Passage 50, hTERT-GMECs had a near diploid complement of chromosomes. Furthermore, they did not gain the anchorage-independent growth property and were not associated with a malignant phenotype in vitro or in vivo.

  18. Resonance-line transfer with partial redistribution. VIII - Solution in the comoving frame for moving atmospheres. [stellar chromosphere model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mihalas, D.; Shine, R. A.; Kunasz, P. B.; Hummer, D. G.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of partial frequency redistribution in the scattering process for lines formed in moving atmospheres are analyzed using a general method that allows the transfer equation to be solved in the comoving frame of the gas. The same chromospheric and atomic model studied by Cannon and Vardavas (1974) is employed in the calculations, but a depth scale with logarithmically spaced points is adopted. It is found that in both static and moving atmospheres, the profiles obtained with complete and partial frequency redistribution are virtually identical. The large differences in profiles obtained by Cannon and Vardavas when they used complete and partial redistribution are shown to be spurious (and physically unreal) effects resulting from angle averaging in the observer's frame instead of the comoving frame.

  19. EVALUATION OF THE FAILURE OF A RADIOACTIVE WASTE TRANSFER LINE JACKET

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B; Alan03 Plummer, A; Karthik Subramanian, K; Charles Jenkins, C; William Hinz, W; A Fellinger, A

    2007-04-06

    Radioactive wastes are confined in 49 underground storage tanks at the Savannah River Site. The waste is transported between tanks primarily via an underground transfer piping system. Due to the hazardous nature of the waste, the inner core stainless steel pipe is typically surrounded by a carbon steel pipe jacket, which provides secondary containment. Recently several through-wall penetrations were discovered on a segment of one of the jackets. An evaluation was performed to verify the failure mechanism and to estimate the degree of damage that occurred to the pipe segment. Failure analysis of a section of the jacket confirmed that pitting corrosion on the exterior of the pipe led to the through-wall penetration. Ultrasonic measurements on sections of the pipe were utilized to determine the remaining wall thickness in adjacent areas of the pipe. Based on these measurements, the degree of pitting and general corrosion was determined. Pit growth rate models were then developed to estimate the life expectancy of sections of the pipe that had not been excavated. The calculations estimated that the occurrence of through-wall failures in this jacket will begin to increase substantially in 12 years. Given that this pipe segment will be utilized beyond this time, short-term and long-term solutions to this failure were proposed. The short-term solutions focused on the repair or replace decisions that must be made to return the jacket to service as soon as practical. The long-term solutions focused on a broader strategy to address jacket integrity issues in the entire tank farm facility. These solutions included the evaluation of innovative remote inspection and repair techniques.

  20. The US radiation dosimetry standards for 60Co therapy level beams, and the transfer to the AAPM accredited dosimetry calibration laboratories.

    PubMed

    Minniti, R; Chen-Mayer, H; Seltzer, S M; Huq, M Saiful; Bryson, L; Slowey, T; Micka, J A; DeWerd, L A; Wells, N; Hanson, W F; Ibbott, G S

    2006-04-01

    This work reports the transfer of the primary standard for air kerma from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to the secondary laboratories accredited by the American Association of Physics in Medicine (AAPM). This transfer, performed in August of 2003, was motivated by the recent revision of the NIST air-kerma standards for 60Co gamma-ray beams implemented on July 1, 2003. The revision involved a complete recharacterization of the two NIST therapy-level 60Co gamma-ray beam facilities, resulting in new values for the air-kerma rates disseminated by the NIST. Some of the experimental aspects of the determination of the new air-kerma rates are briefly summarized here; the theoretical aspects have been described in detail by Seltzer and Bergstrom ["Changes in the U.S. primary standards for the air-kerma from gamma-ray beams," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 108, 359-381 (2003)]. The standard was transferred to reference-class chambers submitted by each of the AAPM Accredited Dosimetry Calibration Laboratories (ADCLs). These secondary-standard instruments were then used to characterize the 60Co gamma-ray beams at the ADCLs. The values of the response (calibration coefficient) of the ADCL secondary-standard ionization chambers are reported and compared to values obtained prior to the change in the NIST air-kerma standards announced on July 1, 2003. The relative change is about 1.1% for all of these chambers, and this value agrees well with the expected change in chambers calibrated at the NIST or at any secondary-standard laboratory traceable to the new NIST standard.

  1. Beam diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Bogaty, J.; Clifft, B.E.; Zinkann, G.P.; Pardo, R.C.

    1995-08-01

    The ECR-PII injector beam line is operated at a fixed ion velocity. The platform high voltage is chosen so that all ions have a velocity of 0.0085c at the PII entrance. If a previous tune configuration for the linac is to be used, the beam arrival time must be matched to the previous tune as well. A nondestructive beam-phase pickup detector was developed and installed at the entrance to the PII linac. This device provides continuous phase and beam current information and allows quick optimization of the beam injected into PII. Bunches traverse a short tubular electrode thereby inducing displacement currents. These currents are brought outside the vacuum interface where a lumped inductance resonates electrode capacitance at one of the bunching harmonic frequencies. This configuration yields a basic sensitivity of a few hundred millivolts signal per microampere of beam current. Beam-induced radiofrequency signals are summed against an offset frequency generated by our master oscillator. The resulting kilohertz difference frequency conveys beam intensity and bunch phase information which is sent to separate processing channels. One channel utilizes a phase locked loop which stabilizes phase readings if beam is unstable. The other channel uses a linear full wave active rectifier circuit which converts kilohertz sine wave signal amplitude to a D.C. voltage representing beam current. A prototype set of electronics is now in use with the detector and we began to use the system in operation to set the arrival beam phase. A permanent version of the electronics system for the phase detector is now under construction. Additional nondestructive beam intensity and phase monitors at the {open_quotes}Booster{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}ATLAS{close_quotes} linac sections are planned as well as on some of the high-energy beam lines. Such a monitor will be particularly useful for FMA experiments where the primary beam hits one of the electric deflector plates.

  2. a Study of the Role of Large-Amplitude Motions in Unimolecular Energy Transfer Using Molecular Beam Optothermal Spectroscopy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Carl Cameron

    1995-01-01

    The role of molecular structure in energy transfer reactions in the ground and excited electronic states was explored using optothermal spectroscopy. In the ground state, the relationship between intramolecular van der Waals interactions and vibrational mode coupling was explored in a homologous series of disubstituted ethanes, including Gg^' -2-fluoroethanol, g-1,2-difluoroethane, g-1-chloro-2-fluoroethane, t-1-chloro-2-fluoroethane, and 1,1,2-trifluoroethane. This series of substituted ethanes varies in degree of van der Waals interactions that hinder internal rotation about the C-C bond. High resolution infrared molecular beam spectroscopy was used to determine the extent of vibrational mode coupling. Perturbations in the rotational structure of these molecules provided a measure of vibrational mode coupling. We have observed that the degree of intramolecular interaction, which is dependent on the van der Waals separation of the substituents and the shape of the potential well, correlates with the extent of vibrational mode coupling. The extent of vibrational mode coupling in this series of molecules did not correlate with the density of states available for coupling. Therefore, density of states alone is insufficient to explain the observed trend. In the excited electronic state, optothermal detection has been used to observe non-radiative relaxation channels in aniline, p-bromoaniline and trans-stilbene. p-Bromoaniline has no detectable fluorescence due to a heavy atom effect which increases the rate of intersystem crossing to the triplet state. An optothermal spectrum of p-bromoaniline was observed with the origin at 32625 cm^ {-1}. For trans-stilbene the differences between the laser excitation spectrum and the optothermal spectrum of the S_1 state clearly show the onset of isomerization at ~1250 cm^{-1} above the origin. Absolute quantum yields of fluorescence, Frank-Condon factors, non -radiative rates, and radiative rates have been obtained for a series

  3. PI-line-based image reconstruction in helical cone-beam computed tomography with a variable pitch

    SciTech Connect

    Zou Yu; Pan Xiaochuan; Xia Dan; Wang Ge

    2005-08-15

    Current applications of helical cone-beam computed tomography (CT) involve primarily a constant pitch where the translating speed of the table and the rotation speed of the source-detector remain constant. However, situations do exist where it may be more desirable to use a helical scan with a variable translating speed of the table, leading a variable pitch. One of such applications could arise in helical cone-beam CT fluoroscopy for the determination of vascular structures through real-time imaging of contrast bolus arrival. Most of the existing reconstruction algorithms have been developed only for helical cone-beam CT with constant pitch, including the backprojection-filtration (BPF) and filtered-backprojection (FBP) algorithms that we proposed previously. It is possible to generalize some of these algorithms to reconstruct images exactly for helical cone-beam CT with a variable pitch. In this work, we generalize our BPF and FBP algorithms to reconstruct images directly from data acquired in helical cone-beam CT with a variable pitch. We have also performed a preliminary numerical study to demonstrate and verify the generalization of the two algorithms. The results of the study confirm that our generalized BPF and FBP algorithms can yield exact reconstruction in helical cone-beam CT with a variable pitch. It should be pointed out that our generalized BPF algorithm is the only algorithm that is capable of reconstructing exactly region-of-interest image from data containing transverse truncations.

  4. SU-E-T-508: Internal Organ Motion Effect On Radiation Dose to a Point Under Half-Beam Block Match Line

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, S; Zhu, X; Zhang, M; Zheng, D; Lei, Y; Zhang, Q; Li, S; Driewer, J; Wang, S; Enke, C

    2015-06-15

    Purpose Half-beam block is a field matching technique frequently used in radiotherapy. With no setup error, a well calibrated linac, and no internal organ motion, two photon fields can be matched seamlessly dosimetry-wise with their central axes passing the match line. However, in actual clinical situations, internal organ motion is often inevitable. This study was conducted to investigate its influence on radiation dose to patient internal points directly under the matching line. Methods A clinical setting is modeled as two half-space (x<0 and x<0) radiation fields that are turned on sequentially with a time gap of integer times of the patient internal organ motion period (T{sub 0}). Our point of interest moves with patient internal organs periodically and evenly in and out of the radiation fields, resulting in an average location at x=0. When the fields are delivered without any motion management, the initial phase of the point’s movement is unknown. Statistical methods are used to compute the expected value () and variance (σ) of the point dose given the uncertainty. Results Analytical solutions are obtained for and s of dose received by a point directly under the match line. is proportional to the total beam-on time (T1), and σ demonstrates previously unknown periodic behavior. /beam block match line. Our results help us to better understand this phenomenon and facilitate the reduction of point dosimetric uncertainties in our clinical practice.

  5. Experimental Investigation of Cross-Beam Energy Transfer Mitigation via Wavelength Detuning in Directly Driven Implosions at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohenberger, M.; Marozas, J. A.; McKenty, P. W.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Radha, P. B.; Cao, D.; Knauer, J. P.; Regan, S. P.

    2016-10-01

    Cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) affects directly driven, inertial confinement fusion implosions by reducing the absorbed light and the coupling of driver energy to the target. A mitigation strategy is to detune the laser wavelength of interacting beams (Δλ ≠ 0 ) to reduce the CBET interaction volume. In polar-direct-drive (PDD) experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) the CBET-imposed energy losses occur predominantly in the equatorial region. The NIF does not support a hemispheric wavelength detuning but does have Δλ capabilities between inner and outer quads. Using a north-south asymmetric beam pointing, it is therefore possible to introduce a hemispheric wavelength difference of up to Δλ = 4.6 Å in the UV. We report on experiments to test this CBET mitigation scheme in PDD experiments on the NIF. Using this asymmetric beam pointing, we have completed experiments with both Δλ = 0 and 4.6 Å. The effect of CBET on the driver-target coupling is diagnosed via implosion velocities, implosion shape, and scattered-light spectra and by comparing experimental data to 2-D DRACO simulations. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  6. NLC extraction line studies

    SciTech Connect

    Nosochkov, Y.

    1999-12-09

    In this note, the authors briefly review the current lattice of the NLC extraction line which was designed for the nominal NLC beam parameters. Then the authors describe the beam parameters for the high luminosity option with larger beam disruption parameter and discuss its effect on beam loss in the extraction line. Finally, the authors present a summary of the optics study aimed at minimizing the beam loss with high disruption beams.

  7. Measurement of the restricted linear energy transfer of stray radiation close to the treatment volume of 12 and 18 MeV clinical photon beams.

    PubMed

    Makrigiorgos, G; Antonadou, D; Proukakis, C; Throuvalas, N

    1989-01-01

    The restricted dose mean linear energy transfer (LET) (L500,D) of the stray radiation field a few centimeters outside the treatment volume has been measured for 12 and 18 MV photons produced by a clinical Therac-20 (AECL) accelerator. The measurements were performed as a function of field size and distance from the edge of the treatment volume, using the method of the high-pressure ionization chamber. Contrary to what was found in a previous investigation for a clinical Co-60 unit and despite the presence of photoneutrons (in the case of 18 MV photons), the L500,D outside the beam does not increase significantly relative to the L500,D of the primary beam.

  8. Measurement of the restricted linear energy transfer of stray radiation close to the treatment volume of 12 and 18 MeV clinical photon beams

    SciTech Connect

    Makrigiorgos, G.; Antonadou, D.; Proukakis, C.; Throuvalas, N.

    1989-03-01

    The restricted dose mean linear energy transfer (LET) (L-bar/sub 500,//sub D/ ) of the stray radiation field a few centimeters outside the treatment volume has been measured for 12 and 18 MV photons produced by a clinical Therac-20 (AECL) accelerator. The measurements were performed as a function of field size and distance from the edge of the treatment volume, using the method of the high-pressure ionization chamber. Contrary to what was found in a previous investigation for a clinical Co-60 unit and despite the presence of photoneutrons (in the case of 18 MV photons), the L-bar/sub 500,//sub D/ outside the beam does not increase significantly relative to the L-bar/sub 500,//sub D/ of the primary beam.

  9. In-beam gamma-ray spectroscopy of {sup 248,250,252}Cf by neutron-transfer reactions using a Cf target

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, R.; Ishii, T.; Asai, M.; Nagae, D.; Makii, H.; Tsukada, K.; Toyoshima, A.; Ishii, Y.; Matsuda, M.; Makishima, A.; Shizuma, T.; Kohno, T.; Ogawa, M.

    2010-05-15

    The ground-state bands of {sup 248,250,252}Cf have been established up to the 10{sup +}, 12{sup +}, and 10{sup +} states, respectively, by in-beam gamma-ray spectroscopy using neutron-transfer reactions with a 153-MeV {sup 18}O beam and a highly radioactive Cf target. The deexcitation gamma rays in {sup 248,250,252}Cf were identified by taking coincidences with outgoing particles of {sup 16-19}O measured with Si DELTAE-E detectors, and by selecting their kinetic energies. Moments of inertia of {sup 248,250,252}Cf were discussed in terms of the N=152 deformed shell gap.

  10. GAUSSIAN BEAM LASER RESONATOR PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, P. L.

    1994-01-01

    In designing a laser cavity, the laser engineer is frequently concerned with more than the stability of the resonator. Other considerations include the size of the beam at various optical surfaces within the resonator or the performance of intracavity line-narrowing or other optical elements. Laser resonators obey the laws of Gaussian beam propagation, not geometric optics. The Gaussian Beam Laser Resonator Program models laser resonators using Gaussian ray trace techniques. It can be used to determine the propagation of radiation through laser resonators. The algorithm used in the Gaussian Beam Resonator program has three major components. First, the ray transfer matrix for the laser resonator must be calculated. Next calculations of the initial beam parameters, specifically, the beam stability, the beam waist size and location for the resonator input element, and the wavefront curvature and beam radius at the input surface to the first resonator element are performed. Finally the propagation of the beam through the optical elements is computed. The optical elements can be modeled as parallel plates, lenses, mirrors, dummy surfaces, or Gradient Index (GRIN) lenses. A Gradient Index lens is a good approximation of a laser rod operating under a thermal load. The optical system may contain up to 50 elements. In addition to the internal beam elements the optical system may contain elements external to the resonator. The Gaussian Beam Resonator program was written in Microsoft FORTRAN (Version 4.01). It was developed for the IBM PS/2 80-071 microcomputer and has been implemented on an IBM PC compatible under MS DOS 3.21. The program was developed in 1988 and requires approximately 95K bytes to operate.

  11. Status of Beam Line Detectors for the BigRIPS Fragment Separator at RIKEN RI Beam Factory: Issues on High Rates and Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Yuki; Fukuda, Naoki; Takeda, Hiroyuki; Kameda, Daisuke; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Yohei; Ahn, DeukSoon; Murai, Daichi; Inabe, Naohito; Shimaoka, Takehiro; Tsubota, Masakatsu; Kaneko, Junichi H.; Chayahara, Akiyoshi; Umezawa, Hitoshi; Shikata, Shinichi; Kumagai, Hidekazu; Murakami, Hiroyuki; Sato, Hiromi; Yoshida, Koichi; Kubo, Toshiyuki

    A multiple sampling ionization chamber (MUSIC) and parallel-plate avalanche counters (PPACs) were installed within the superconducting in-flight separator, named BigRIPS, at the RIKEN Nishina Center for particle identification of RI beams. The MUSIC detector showed negligible charge collection inefficiency from recombination of electrons and ions, up to a 99-kcps incidence rate for high-energy heavy ions. For the PPAC detectors, the electrical discharge durability for incident heavy ions was improved by changing the electrode material. Finally, we designed a single crystal diamond detector, which is under development for TOF measurements of high-energy heavy ions, that has a very fast response time (pulse width <1 ns).

  12. Modelling and optimization of transient processes in line focusing power plants with single-phase heat transfer medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noureldin, K.; González-Escalada, L. M.; Hirsch, T.; Nouri, B.; Pitz-Paal, R.

    2016-05-01

    A large number of commercial and research line focusing solar power plants are in operation and under development. Such plants include parabolic trough collectors (PTC) or linear Fresnel using thermal oil or molten salt as the heat transfer medium (HTM). However, the continuously varying and dynamic solar condition represent a big challenge for the plant control in order to optimize its power production and to keep the operation safe. A better understanding of the behaviour of such power plants under transient conditions will help reduce defocusing instances, improve field control, and hence, increase the energy yield and confidence in this new technology. Computational methods are very powerful and cost-effective tools to gain such understanding. However, most simulation models described in literature assume equal mass flow distributions among the parallel loops in the field or totally decouple the flow and thermal conditions. In this paper, a new numerical model to simulate a whole solar field with single-phase HTM is described. The proposed model consists of a hydraulic part and a thermal part that are coupled to account for the effect of the thermal condition of the field on the flow distribution among the parallel loops. The model is specifically designed for large line-focusing solar fields offering a high degree of flexibility in terms of layout, condition of the mirrors, and spatially resolved DNI data. Moreover, the model results have been compared to other simulation tools, as well as experimental and plant data, and the results show very good agreement. The model can provide more precise data to the control algorithms to improve the plant control. In addition, short-term and accurate spatially discretized DNI forecasts can be used as input to predict the field behaviour in-advance. In this paper, the hydraulic and thermal parts, as well as the coupling procedure, are described and some validation results and results of simulating an example field are

  13. Programmed temperature vaporizing injector to filter off disturbing high boiling and involatile material for on-line high performance liquid chromatography gas chromatography with on-column transfer.

    PubMed

    Biedermann, Maurus; Grob, Koni

    2013-03-15

    Insertion of a programmed temperature vaporizing (PTV) injector under conditions of concurrent solvent recondensation (CSR) into the on-line HPLC-GC interface for on-column transfer (such as the retention gap technique with partially concurrent eluent evaporation) enables filtering off high boiling or involatile sample constituents by a desorption temperature adjusted to the required cut-off. Details of this technique were investigated and optimized. Memory effects, observed when transferred liquid was sucked backwards between the transfer line and the wall of the injector liner, can be kept low by a small purge flow rate through the transfer line at the end of the transfer and the release of the liquid through a narrow bore capillary kept away from the liner wall. The column entrance should be within the well heated zone of the injector to prevent losses of solute material retained on the liner wall during the splitless period. The desorption temperature must be maintained until an elevated oven temperature is reached to prevent peak broadening resulting of a cool inlet section in the bottom part of the injector.

  14. Linear Collider Test Facility: Twiss Parameter Analysis at the IP/Post-IP Location of the ATF2 Beam Line

    SciTech Connect

    Bolzon, Benoit; Jeremie, Andrea; Bai, Sha; Bambade, Philip; White, Glen; /SLAC

    2012-07-02

    At the first stage of the ATF2 beam tuning, vertical beam size is usually bigger than 3 {micro}m at the IP. Beam waist measurements using wire scanners and a laser wire are usually performed to check the initial matching of the beam through to the IP. These measurements are described in this paper for the optics currently used ({beta}{sub x} = 4cm and {beta}{sub y} = 1mm). Software implemented in the control room to automate these measurements with integrated analysis is also described. Measurements showed that {beta} functions and emittances were within errors of measurements when no rematching and coupling corrections were done. However, it was observed that the waist in the horizontal (X) and vertical (Y) plane was abnormally shifted and simulations were performed to try to understand these shifts. They also showed that multiknobs are needed in the current optics to correct simultaneously {alpha}{sub x}, {alpha}{sub y} and the horizontal dispersion (D{sub x}). Such multiknobs were found and their linearity and orthogonality were successfully checked using MAD optics code. The software for these multiknobs was implemented in the control room and waist scan measurements using the {alpha}{sub y} knob were successfully performed.

  15. Modeling of fluorescence line-narrowed spectra in weakly coupled dimers in the presence of excitation energy transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Chen; Reppert, Mike; Feng, Ximao; Jankowiak, Ryszard

    2014-07-21

    This work describes simple analytical formulas to describe the fluorescence line-narrowed (FLN) spectra of weakly coupled chromophores in the presence of excitation energy transfer (EET). Modeling studies for dimer systems (assuming low fluence and weak coupling) show that the FLN spectra (including absorption and emission spectra) calculated for various dimers using our model are in good agreement with spectra calculated by: (i) the simple convolution method and (ii) the more rigorous treatment using the Redfield approach [T. Renger and R. A. Marcus, J. Chem. Phys. 116, 9997 (2002)]. The calculated FLN spectra in the presence of EET of all three approaches are very similar. We argue that our approach provides a simplified and computationally more efficient description of FLN spectra in the presence of EET. This method also has been applied to FLN spectra obtained for the CP47 antenna complex of Photosystem II reported by Neupane et al. [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 4214 (2010)], which indicated the presence of uncorrelated EET between pigments contributing to the two lowest energy (overlapping) exciton states, each mostly localized on a single chromophore. Calculated and experimental FLN spectra for CP47 complex show very good qualitative agreement.

  16. Attosecond transient absorption of argon atoms in the vacuum ultraviolet region: line energy shifts versus coherent population transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Wei; Warrick, Erika R.; Neumark, Daniel M.; Leone, Stephen R.

    2016-01-01

    Using attosecond transient absorption, the dipole response of an argon atom in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) region is studied when an external electromagnetic field is present. An isolated attosecond VUV pulse populates Rydberg states lying 15 eV above the argon ground state. A synchronized few-cycle near infrared (NIR) pulse modifies the oscillating dipoles of argon impulsively, leading to alterations in the VUV absorption spectra. As the NIR pulse is delayed with respect to the VUV pulse, multiple features in the absorption profile emerge simultaneously including line broadening, sideband structure, sub-cycle fast modulations, and 5-10 fs slow modulations. These features indicate the coexistence of two general processes of the light-matter interaction: the energy shift of individual atomic levels and coherent population transfer between atomic eigenstates, revealing coherent superpositions. An intuitive formula is derived to treat both effects in a unifying framework, allowing one to identify and quantify the two processes in a single absorption spectrogram.

  17. Theoretical study on effects of photodecomposable quenchers in line-and-space pattern fabrication with 7 nm quarter-pitch using chemically amplified electron beam resist process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozawa, Takahiro

    2017-04-01

    The line width roughness (LWR) is a significant issue in the development of chemically amplified resists. The increase in sensitizer concentration is inevitable for the suppression of LWR in the sub-10 nm fabrication. In this study, we investigated the effects of photodecomposable quenchers from the viewpoint of the excluded volume effect, assuming line-and-space patterns with 7 nm quarter-pitch (7 nm space width and 28 nm pitch). The pattern formation of chemically amplified electron beam resists with photodecomposable quenchers was calculated and compared with those with conventional quenchers. It was found that the sum of the concentrations of acid generators and quenchers (photodecomposable or conventional quenchers) can be reduced without decreasing the chemical gradient (an indicator of LWR) by using the photodecomposable quenchers. The photodecomposable quenchers are considered essential in the high-resolution fabrication.

  18. Numerical modeling of heat-transfer and the influence of process parameters on tailoring the grain morphology of IN718 in electron beam additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Raghavan, Narendran; Dehoff, Ryan; Pannala, Sreekanth; Simunovic, Srdjan; Kirka, Michael; Turner, John; Carlson, Neil; Babu, Sudarsanam S.

    2016-04-26

    The fabrication of 3-D parts from CAD models by additive manufacturing (AM) is a disruptive technology that is transforming the metal manufacturing industry. The correlation between solidification microstructure and mechanical properties has been well understood in the casting and welding processes over the years. This paper focuses on extending these principles to additive manufacturing to understand the transient phenomena of repeated melting and solidification during electron beam powder melting process to achieve site-specific microstructure control within a fabricated component. In this paper, we have developed a novel melt scan strategy for electron beam melting of nickel-base superalloy (Inconel 718) and also analyzed 3-D heat transfer conditions using a parallel numerical solidification code (Truchas) developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The spatial and temporal variations of temperature gradient (G) and growth velocity (R) at the liquid-solid interface of the melt pool were calculated as a function of electron beam parameters. By manipulating the relative number of voxels that lie in the columnar or equiaxed region, the crystallographic texture of the components can be controlled to an extent. The analysis of the parameters provided optimum processing conditions that will result in columnar to equiaxed transition (CET) during the solidification. Furthermore, the results from the numerical simulations were validated by experimental processing and characterization thereby proving the potential of additive manufacturing process to achieve site-specific crystallographic texture control within a fabricated component.

  19. Numerical modeling of heat-transfer and the influence of process parameters on tailoring the grain morphology of IN718 in electron beam additive manufacturing

    DOE PAGES

    Raghavan, Narendran; Dehoff, Ryan; Pannala, Sreekanth; ...

    2016-04-26

    The fabrication of 3-D parts from CAD models by additive manufacturing (AM) is a disruptive technology that is transforming the metal manufacturing industry. The correlation between solidification microstructure and mechanical properties has been well understood in the casting and welding processes over the years. This paper focuses on extending these principles to additive manufacturing to understand the transient phenomena of repeated melting and solidification during electron beam powder melting process to achieve site-specific microstructure control within a fabricated component. In this paper, we have developed a novel melt scan strategy for electron beam melting of nickel-base superalloy (Inconel 718) andmore » also analyzed 3-D heat transfer conditions using a parallel numerical solidification code (Truchas) developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The spatial and temporal variations of temperature gradient (G) and growth velocity (R) at the liquid-solid interface of the melt pool were calculated as a function of electron beam parameters. By manipulating the relative number of voxels that lie in the columnar or equiaxed region, the crystallographic texture of the components can be controlled to an extent. The analysis of the parameters provided optimum processing conditions that will result in columnar to equiaxed transition (CET) during the solidification. Furthermore, the results from the numerical simulations were validated by experimental processing and characterization thereby proving the potential of additive manufacturing process to achieve site-specific crystallographic texture control within a fabricated component.« less

  20. Storage Stability in Reversion Mutation of a Rice Line Devoid of LOX-1, 2 Acquired by Ion Beam Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jiayue; Wu, Jinhua; Wu, Yuejin; Song, Mei; Wang, Xiangqin; Liu, Binmei; Yu, Zengliang

    2009-02-01

    The effect of absence of lipoxygenase isoenzyme (LOX) on storage stability was investigated. Rice mutant 1297 without lipoxygenase isoenzyme-1 LOX-1 or lipoxygenase isoenzyme-2 (LOX-2) generated by ion beam irradiation from Wanjian2090 and reversion mutant RM1297 with LOX-1 and LOX-2 were subjected to an accelerated-aging experiment. Shanyou63 (with LOX-1 and LOX-2) served as control. Results showed that the germination and dehydrogenase activity decreased while the electrical conductivity and free fatty acid content increased in all varieties with accelerated aging. In 1297 that lacked LOX-1 and 2, there were slight changes in germination, dehydrogenase activity, membrane permeability and free fatty acid content during the thirty-day accelerated-aging experiment. But in varieties with LOX-1 and LOX-2, significant changes were observed, suggesting that LOX-1, 2 might be a definite factor which influenced seed lifespan. This study also indicates that ion beam irradiation may be used as mutagen to generate mutant and reversion mutants for biological study and could become a new direction in ion beam application.

  1. Advanced Learners' Comprehension of Discourse Connectives: The Role of L1 Transfer across On-Line and Off-Line Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zufferey, Sandrine; Mak, Willem; Degand, Liesbeth; Sanders, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Discourse connectives are important indicators of textual coherence, and mastering them is an essential part of acquiring a language. In this article, we compare advanced learners' sensitivity to the meaning conveyed by connectives in an off-line grammaticality judgment task and an on-line reading experiment using eye-tracking. We also assess the…

  2. FT-IR method to determine Dill's C parameter for DNQ/novolac resists with e-beam and i-line exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedynyshyn, Theodore H.; Doran, Scott P.; Mack, Chris A.

    1999-06-01

    Typically, the Dill ABC parameters for optical resist are determined by coating a resist on a nonreflecting substrate and then measuring the change in the intensity of transmitted light at the wavelength of interest as a function of incident energy. Resists absorbance may not be selective in isolating and measuring only the photoactive species, and in some cases changes in absorbance can not be directly correlated to changes in the concentration of the photoactive species. FTIR spectroscopy can directly measure changes in the photoactive species by isolating and measuring absorbance peaks unique to the photoactive species by isolating and measuring absorbance peaks unique to the photoactive species. FTIR, employed in reflectance mode, is not constrained to transparent substrates, but can instead be used with silicon wafers or chrome coated quartz plates. The ability to use these substrates, but can instead be used with silicon wafers or chrome coated quartz plates. The ability to use these substrates is important when determining Dill's C parameter under e-beam exposure where the degree of back-scattered electrons is dependent on the underlying substrate, and the use of quartz is prohibited due to charging considerations. Dill's C parameter is determined for a variety of commercial i-line resist under both e-beam and i-line exposure. The ProABC software, a lithography simulator that extracts ABC parameters through a best fit of model to data, is employed to extract Dill's C parameter. This software has been specially modified to allow FTIR absorbance input.

  3. Theoretical study of fabrication of line-and-space patterns with 7 nm quarter-pitch using electron beam lithography with chemically amplified resist processes: II. Stochastic effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozawa, Takahiro

    2015-09-01

    Electron beam (EB) lithography is a core technology for nanofabrication. Owing to the increasing demand for high-resolution semiconductor lithography, the requirements for the resist processes of EB lithography for the photomasks used in ArF immersion and extreme ultraviolet lithographies and the mold fabrication of nanoimprints have also become stricter. In this study, the feasibility of single nano patterning by EB lithography with a chemically amplified resist process was investigated from the viewpoint of stochastic effects. The latent images of line-and-space patterns with a 7 nm quarter-pitch (7 nm space width and 21 nm line width) were calculated using a Monte Carlo method on the basis of the sensitization and reaction mechanisms of chemically amplified EB resists. Compared with the line-and-space pattern with a 7 nm half-pitch, line edge roughness (LER) and the stochastic pinching generation are considered to be significantly improved by increasing the pitch. It was found that the suppression of the stochastic generation of bridges is the critical issue in 7 nm quarter-pitch fabrication.

  4. Study of endothelial cell apoptosis using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) biosensor cell line with hemodynamic microfluidic chip system.

    PubMed

    Yu, J Q; Liu, X F; Chin, L K; Liu, A Q; Luo, K Q

    2013-07-21

    To better understand how hyperglycemia induces endothelial cell dysfunction under the diabetic conditions, a hemodynamic microfluidic chip system was developed. The system combines a caspase-3-based fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) biosensor cell line which can detect endothelial cell apoptosis in real-time, post-treatment effect and with a limited cell sample, by using a microfluidic chip which can mimic the physiological pulsatile flow profile in the blood vessel. The caspase-3-based FRET biosensor endothelial cell line (HUVEC-C3) can produce a FRET-based sensor protein capable of probing caspase-3 activation. When the endothelial cells undergo apoptosis, the color of the sensor cells changes from green to blue, thus sensing apoptosis. A double-labeling fluorescent technique (yo pro-1 and propidium iodide) was used to validate the findings revealed by the FRET-based caspase sensor. The results show high rates of apoptosis and necrosis of endothelial cells when high glucose concentration was applied in our hemodynamic microfluidic chip combined with an exhaustive pulsatile flow profile. The two apoptosis detection techniques (fluorescent method and FRET biosensor) are comparable; but FRET biosensor offers more advantages such as real-time observation and a convenient operating process to generate more accurate and reliable data. Furthermore, the activation of the FRET biosensor also confirms the endothelial cell apoptosis induced by the abnormal pulsatile shear stress and high glucose concentration is through caspase-3 pathway. A 12% apoptotic rate (nearly a 4-fold increase compared to the static condition) was observed when the endothelial cells were exposed to a high glucose concentration of 20 mM under 2 h exhaustive pulsatile shear stress of 30 dyne cm(-2) and followed with another 10 h normal pulsatile shear stress of 15 dyne cm(-2). Therefore, the most important finding of this study is to develop a novel endothelial cell apoptosis detection

  5. PORTA: A three-dimensional multilevel radiative transfer code for modeling the intensity and polarization of spectral lines with massively parallel computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štěpán, Jiří; Trujillo Bueno, Javier

    2013-09-01

    The interpretation of the intensity and polarization of the spectral line radiation produced in the atmosphere of the Sun and of other stars requires solving a radiative transfer problem that can be very complex, especially when the main interest lies in modeling the spectral line polarization produced by scattering processes and the Hanle and Zeeman effects. One of the difficulties is that the plasma of a stellar atmosphere can be highly inhomogeneous and dynamic, which implies the need to solve the non-equilibrium problem of the generation and transfer of polarized radiation in realistic three-dimensional (3D) stellar atmospheric models. Here we present PORTA, an efficient multilevel radiative transfer code we have developed for the simulation of the spectral line polarization caused by scattering processes and the Hanle and Zeeman effects in 3D models of stellar atmospheres. The numerical method of solution is based on the non-linear multigrid iterative method and on a novel short-characteristics formal solver of the Stokes-vector transfer equation which uses monotonic Bézier interpolation. Therefore, with PORTA the computing time needed to obtain at each spatial grid point the self-consistent values of the atomic density matrix (which quantifies the excitation state of the atomic system) scales linearly with the total number of grid points. Another crucial feature of PORTA is its parallelization strategy, which allows us to speed up the numerical solution of complicated 3D problems by several orders of magnitude with respect to sequential radiative transfer approaches, given its excellent linear scaling with the number of available processors. The PORTA code can also be conveniently applied to solve the simpler 3D radiative transfer problem of unpolarized radiation in multilevel systems.

  6. Opportunities using gamma-ray arrays with radioactive beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catford, Wilton N.

    1998-08-01

    The design of a gamma-ray array suitable for use with radioactive beams must take into account criteria additional to those which have previously defined large arrays, which were developed for fusion-evaporation high-spin experiments with stable beams. The radioactive decay of beam particles imposes a new set of constraints, and the relatively low intensity demands an exceptionally high efficiency. Beyond this the kinematics of, for example, nucleon transfer reactions performed in inverse kinematics can require coincident gamma-ray detection in order to achieve good energy resolution and hence Doppler broadening imposes extra constraints. A wide variety of physics is made available with radioactive beams, including fusion-evaporation studies along the N = Z line, Coulomb excitation on both sides of stability, transfer reactions on light nuclei on both sides of stability, deep inelastic studies of heavier neutron-rich nuclei and scattering experiments with isomeric beams.

  7. Monitoring tumor motion with on-line mega-voltage cone-beam computed tomography imaging in a cine mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitz, Bodo; Gayou, Olivier; Parda, David S.; Miften, Moyed

    2008-02-01

    Accurate daily patient localization is becoming increasingly important in external-beam radiotherapy (RT). Mega-voltage cone-beam computed tomography (MV-CBCT) utilizing a therapy beam and an on-board electronic portal imager can be used to localize tumor volumes and verify the patient's position prior to treatment. MV-CBCT produces a static volumetric image and therefore can only account for inter-fractional changes. In this work, the feasibility of using the MV-CBCT raw data as a fluoroscopic series of portal images to monitor tumor changes due to e.g. respiratory motion was investigated. A method was developed to read and convert the CB raw data into a cine. To improve the contrast-to-noise ratio on the MV-CB projection data, image post-processing with filtering techniques was investigated. Volumes of interest from the planning CT were projected onto the MV-cine. Because of the small exposure and the varying thickness of the patient depending on the projection angle, soft-tissue contrast was limited. Tumor visibility as a function of tumor size and projection angle was studied. The method was well suited in the upper chest, where motion of the tumor as well as of the diaphragm could be clearly seen. In the cases of patients with non-small cell lung cancer with medium or large tumor masses, we verified that the tumor mass was always located within the PTV despite respiratory motion. However for small tumors the method is less applicable, because the visibility of those targets becomes marginal. Evaluation of motion in non-superior-inferior directions might also be limited for small tumor masses. Viewing MV-CBCT data in a cine mode adds to the utility of MV-CBCT for verification of tumor motion and for deriving individualized treatment margins.

  8. The interaction of flow, heat transfer, and free interfaces in an electron-beam vaporization system for metals

    SciTech Connect

    Westerberg, K.W.; McClelland, M.A.; Finlayson, B.A.

    1994-11-01

    A numerical analysis is made of the liquid flow and energy transport in a system to vaporize metals. The energy from an electron beam heats metal confined in a water-cooled crucible. Metal vaporizes from a hot pool of circulating liquid which is surrounded by a shell of its own solid. Flow in the pool is strongly driven by temperature-induced buoyancy and capillary forces and is located in the transition region between laminar and turbulent flow. At high vaporization rates, the thrust of the departing vapor forms a trench at the beam impact site. A modified finite element method is used to calculate the flow and temperature fields coupled with the interface locations. The mesh is structured with spines that stretch and pivot as the interfaces move. The discretized equations are arranged in an {open_quotes}arrow{close_quotes} matrix and solved using the Newton-Raphson method. The electron-beam power and width are varied for cases involving the high-rate vaporization of aluminum. Attention is focused on the interaction of vaporization, liquid flow, and heat transport in the trench area.

  9. The accuracy of using the spectral width boundary measured in off-meridional SuperDARN HF radar beams as a proxy for the open-closed field line boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chisham, G.; Freeman, M. P.; Sotirelis, T.; Greenwald, R. A.

    2005-10-01

    Determining reliable proxies for the ionospheric signature of the open-closed field line boundary (OCB) is crucial for making accurate measurements of magnetic reconnection. This study compares the latitudes of spectral width boundaries (SWBs) measured by different beams of the Goose Bay radar of the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN), with the latitudes of OCBs determined using the low-altitude Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) spacecraft, in order to determine whether the accuracy of the SWB as a proxy for the ionospheric projection of the OCB depends on the line-of-sight direction of the radar beam. The latitudes of SWBs and OCBs were identified using automated algorithms applied to 5 years (1997 2001) of data measured in the 1000 1400 magnetic local time (MLT) range. Six different Goose Bay radar beams were used, ranging from those aligned in the geomagnetic meridional direction to those aligned in an almost zonal direction. The results show that the SWB is a good proxy for the OCB in near-meridionally-aligned beams but becomes progressively more unreliable for beams greater than 4 beams away from the meridional direction. We propose that SWBs are identified at latitudes lower than the OCB in the off-meridional beams due to the presence of high spectral width values that result from changes in the orientation of the beams with respect to the gradient in the large-scale ionospheric convection pattern. Keywords. Ionosphere (Instruments and techniques; Plasma convection) Magnetospheric physics (Magnetopause, cusp and boundary layers)

  10. Electrostatic solitary structures in presence of non-thermal electrons and a warm electron beam on the auroral field lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. V.; Lakhina, G. S.; Bharuthram, R.; Pillay, S. R.

    2011-12-01

    Electrostatic solitary waves (ESWs) have been observed by satellites in the auroral region of the Earth's magnetosphere. These ESWs are found to be having both positive and negative electrostatic potentials. Using the Sagdeeev psuedo-potential technique, arbitrary amplitude electron-acoustic solitary waves/double layers are studied in an unmagnetized plasma consisting of non-thermally distributed hot electrons, fluid cold electrons, a warm electron beam, and ions. The inertia of the warm electrons, and not the beam speed, is essential for the existence of positive potential solitary structures. Existence domains for positive as well as negative potential electrostatic solitons/double layers are obtained. For the typical auroral region parameters, the electric field amplitude of the negative potential solitons is found to be in the range ˜(3-30) mV/m and ˜(5-80) mV/m for the positive potential solitons. For the negative potential solitons/double layers, the amplitudes are higher when their widths are smaller. On the other hand, the amplitude of the positive potential structures increase with their widths.

  11. Electron-beam lithography with character projection exposure for throughput enhancement with line-edge quality optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeno, Rimon; Maruyama, Satoshi; Mita, Yoshio; Ikeda, Makoto; Asada, Kunihiro

    2016-03-01

    Among various electron-beam lithography (EBL) techniques, variable-shaped beam (VSB) and character projection (CP) methods have attracted many EBL users for their high-throughput feature, but they are considered to be more suited to small-featured VLSI fabrication with regularly-arranged layouts like standard-cell logics and memory arrays. On the other hand, non-VLSI applications like photonics, MEMS, MOEMS, and so on, have not been fully utilized the benefit of CP method due to their wide variety of layout patterns. In addition, the stepwise edge shapes by VSB method often causes intolerable edge roughness to degrade device characteristics from its intended performance with smooth edges. We proposed an overall EBL methodology applicable to wade-variety of EBL applications utilizing VSB and CP methods. Its key idea is in our layout data conversion algorithm that decomposes curved or oblique edges of arbitrary layout patterns into CP shots. We expect significant reduction in EB shot count with a CP-bordered exposure data compared to the corresponding VSB-alone conversion result. Several CP conversion parameters are used to optimize EB exposure throughput, edge quality, and resultant device characteristics. We demonstrated out methodology using the leading-edge VSB/CP EBL tool, ADVANTEST F7000S-VD02, with high resolution Hydrogen Silsesquioxane (HSQ) resist. Through our experiments of curved and oblique edge lithography under various data conversion conditions, we learned correspondence of the conversion parameters to the resultant edge roughness and other conditions. They will be utilized as the fundamental data for further enhancement of our EBL strategy for optimized EB exposure.

  12. Evaluating the potential of 'on-line' constructed wetlands for mitigating pesticide transfers from agricultural land to surface waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whelan, Michael; Ramos, Andre; Guymer, Ian; Villa, Raffaella; Jefferson, Bruce

    2016-04-01

    Pesticides make important contributions to modern agriculture but losses from land to water can present problems for environmental management, particularly in catchments where surface waters are abstracted for drinking water. Where artificial field drains represent a dominant pathway for pesticide transfers, buffer zones provide little mitigation potential. Instead, "on-line" constructed wetlands have been proposed as a potential means of reducing pesticide fluxes in drainage ditches and headwater streams. Here, we evaluate the potential of small free-surface wetlands to reduce pesticide concentrations in surface waters using a combination of field monitoring and numerical modelling. Two small constructed wetland systems in a first order catchment in Cambridgeshire, UK, were monitored over the 2014-2015 winter season. Discharge was measured at several flow control structures and samples were collected every eight hours and analysed for metaldehyde, a commonly-used molluscicide. Metaldehyde is moderately mobile and, like many other compounds, it has been regularly detected at high concentrations in surface water samples in a number of drinking water supply catchments in the UK over the past few years. However, it is unusually difficult to remove via conventional drinking water treatment which makes it particularly problematical for water companies. Metaldehyde losses from the upstream catchment were significant with peak concentrations occurring in the first storm events in early autumn, soon after application. Concentrations and loads appeared to be unaffected by transit through the wetland over a range of flow conditions - probably due to short solute residence times (quantified via several tracing experiments employing rhodamine WT - a fluorescent dye). A dynamic model, based on fugacity concepts, was constructed to describe chemical fate in the wetland system. The model was used to evaluate mitigation potential and management options under field conditions and

  13. Design of flattening filters for the fast-neutron beam at TAMVEC by use of decrement lines.

    PubMed

    Otte, V A; Smathers, J B; Wright, R E

    1976-01-01

    Isodose distributions in a tissue-equivalent phantom produced by fast neutrons from 50-MeV deuterons incident on a thick beryllium target exhibit strong forward peaking, particularly for large fields. The design by use of decrement lines and the construction of polyethylene filters used to "flatten" those distributions are discussed and the results are illustrated. Also, the compromises of central-axis attenuation versus effective filter width and of off-axis peaking versus depth of "flattening" are discussed.

  14. Project W-314 specific test and evaluation plan for transfer line SN-633 (241-AX-B to 241-AY-02A)

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, W.H.

    1998-03-20

    The purpose of this Specific Test and Evaluation Plan (STEP) is to provide a detailed written plan for the systematic testing of modifications made by the addition of the SN-633 transfer line by the W-314 Project. The STEP develops the outline for test procedures that verify the system`s performance to the established Project design criteria. The STEP is a lower tier document based on the W-314 Test and Evaluation Plan (TEP). This STEP encompasses all testing activities required to demonstrate compliance to the project design criteria as it relates to the addition of transfer line SN-633. The Project Design Specifications (PDS) identify the specific testing activities required for the Project. Testing includes Validations and Verifications (e.g., Commercial Grade Item Dedication activities), Factory Acceptance Tests (FATs), installation tests and inspections, Construction Acceptance Tests (CATs), Acceptance Test Procedures (ATPs), Pre-Operational Test Procedures (POTPs), and Operational Test Procedures (OTPs). It should be noted that POTPs are not required for testing of the transfer line addition. The STEP will be utilized in conjunction with the TEP for verification and validation.

  15. Measurements of the intercombination and forbidden lines from helium-like ions in Tokamaks and Electron Beam Ion Traps

    SciTech Connect

    Bitter, M; Hill, K W; von Goeler, S; Stodiek, W; Beiersdorfer, P; Rice, J E; Ince-Cushman, A

    2007-08-22

    The paper reviews the results from tokamak experiments for the line ratios x/w, y/w, and z/w from helium-like ions with Z in the range from 14 to 28. With exception of the DITE experiments, where these line ratios were found to be in agreement with theoretical predictions, all other tokamak experiments yielded values that were significantly larger than predicted. The reasons for these discrepancies are not yet understood. It is possible that radial profile effects were not properly taken into account in the majority of the tokamak experiments. The paper also gives a short historical review of the X-ray diagnostic developments and also presents very recent data from a new type of X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer, which records spatially resolved spectra with a spatial resolution of about 1 cm in the plasma. These new data can be Abel inverted, so that it will be possible to determine line ratios at each radial position in the plasma. Effects of radial profiles, which may have affected the chord-integrated measurements of the past, will thus be eliminated in the future.

  16. Assessment of the accuracy of snow surface direct beam spectral albedo under a variety of overcast skies derived by a reciprocal approach through radiative transfer simulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Shusun; Zhou, Xiaobing

    2003-09-20

    With radiative transfer simulations it is suggested that stable estimates of the highly anisotropic direct beam spectral albedo of snow surface can be derived reciprocally under a variety of overcast skies. An accuracy of +/- 0.008 is achieved over a solar zenith angle range of theta0 < or = 74 degrees for visible wavelengths and up to theta0 < or = 63 degrees at the near-infrared wavelength lambda = 862 nm. This new method helps expand the database of snow surface albedo for the polar regions where direct measurement of clear-sky surface albedo is limited to large theta0's only. The enhancement will assist in the validation of snow surface albedo models and improve the representation of polar surface albedo in global circulation models.

  17. Early-Time Symmetry Tuning in the Presence of Cross-Beam Energy Transfer in ICF Experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Dewald, E. L.; Milovich, J. L.; Michel, P.; Landen, O. L.; Kline, J. L.; Glenn, S.; Jones, O.; Kalantar, D. H.; Pak, A.; Robey, H. F.; Kyrala, G. A.; Divol, L.; Benedetti, L. R.; Holder, J.; Widmann, K.; Moore, A.; Schneider, M. B.; Döppner, T.; Tommasini, R.; Bradley, D. K.; Bell, P.; Ehrlich, B.; Thomas, C. A.; Shaw, M.; Widmayer, C.; Callahan, D. A.; Meezan, N. B.; Town, R. P. J.; Hamza, A.; Dzenitis, B.; Nikroo, A.; Moreno, K.; Van Wonterghem, B.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Glenzer, S. H.; MacGowan, B. J.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Edwards, M. J.; Atherton, L. J.; Moses, E. I.

    2013-12-01

    At the National Ignition Facility (NIF) we have successfully tuned the early time (~2 ns) lowest order Legendre mode (P2) of the incoming radiation drive asymmetry of indirectly driven ignition capsule implosions by varying the inner power cone fraction. The measured P2/P0 sensitivity vs come fraction is similar to calculations, but a significant -15 to -20% P2/P0 offset was observed. This can be explained by a considerable early time laser energy transfer from the outer to the inner beams during the laser burn-through of the Laser Entrance Hole (LEH) windows and hohlraum fill gas when the LEH plasma is still dense and relatively cold.

  18. Early-Time Symmetry Tuning in the Presence of Cross-Beam Energy Transfer in ICF Experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    DOE PAGES

    Dewald, E. L.; Milovich, J. L.; Michel, P.; ...

    2013-12-01

    At the National Ignition Facility (NIF) we have successfully tuned the early time (~2 ns) lowest order Legendre mode (P2) of the incoming radiation drive asymmetry of indirectly driven ignition capsule implosions by varying the inner power cone fraction. The measured P2/P0 sensitivity vs come fraction is similar to calculations, but a significant -15 to -20% P2/P0 offset was observed. This can be explained by a considerable early time laser energy transfer from the outer to the inner beams during the laser burn-through of the Laser Entrance Hole (LEH) windows and hohlraum fill gas when the LEH plasma is stillmore » dense and relatively cold.« less

  19. LANSCE beam current limiter

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, F.R.

    1996-06-01

    The Radiation Security System (RSS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) provides personnel protection from prompt radiation due to accelerated beam. Active instrumentation, such as the Beam Current Limiter, is a component of the RSS. The current limiter is designed to limit the average current in a beam line below a specific level, thus minimizing the maximum current available for a beam spill accident. The beam current limiter is a self-contained, electrically isolated toroidal beam transformer which continuously monitors beam current. It is designed as fail-safe instrumentation. The design philosophy, hardware design, operation, and limitations of the device are described.

  20. Operation of beam line facilities for real-time x-ray studies at Sector 7 of the advanced photon source. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, Roy

    2003-09-10

    This Final Report documents the research accomplishments achieved in the first phase of operations of a new Advanced Photon Source beam line (7-ID MHATT-CAT) dedicated to real-time x-ray studies. The period covered by this report covers the establishment of a world-class facility for time-dependent x-ray studies of materials. During this period many new and innovative research programs were initiated at Sector 7 with support of this grant, most notably using a combination of ultrafast lasers and pulsed synchrotron radiation. This work initiated a new frontier of materials research: namely, the study of the dynamics of materials under extreme conditions of high intensity impulsive laser irradiation.