Science.gov

Sample records for beams generating high-energy-density

  1. Large Hadron Collider at CERN: Beams generating high-energy-density matter.

    PubMed

    Tahir, N A; Schmidt, R; Shutov, A; Lomonosov, I V; Piriz, A R; Hoffmann, D H H; Deutsch, C; Fortov, V E

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents numerical simulations that have been carried out to study the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic responses of a solid copper cylindrical target that is facially irradiated along the axis by one of the two Large Hadron Collider (LHC) 7 TeV/ c proton beams. The energy deposition by protons in solid copper has been calculated using an established particle interaction and Monte Carlo code, FLUKA, which is capable of simulating all components of the particle cascades in matter, up to multi-TeV energies. These data have been used as input to a sophisticated two-dimensional hydrodynamic computer code BIG2 that has been employed to study this problem. The prime purpose of these investigations was to assess the damage caused to the equipment if the entire LHC beam is lost at a single place. The FLUKA calculations show that the energy of protons will be deposited in solid copper within about 1 m assuming constant material parameters. Nevertheless, our hydrodynamic simulations have shown that the energy deposition region will extend to a length of about 35 m over the beam duration. This is due to the fact that first few tens of bunches deposit sufficient energy that leads to high pressure that generates an outgoing radial shock wave. Shock propagation leads to continuous reduction in the density at the target center that allows the protons delivered in subsequent bunches to penetrate deeper and deeper into the target. This phenomenon has also been seen in case of heavy-ion heated targets [N. A. Tahir, A. Kozyreva, P. Spiller, D. H. H. Hoffmann, and A. Shutov, Phys. Rev. E 63, 036407 (2001)]. This effect needs to be considered in the design of a sacrificial beam stopper. These simulations have also shown that the target is severely damaged and is converted into a huge sample of high-energy density (HED) matter. In fact, the inner part of the target is transformed into a strongly coupled plasma with fairly uniform physical conditions. This work, therefore, has

  2. Diagnostics for ion beam driven high energy density physics experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Bieniosek, F. M.; Henestroza, E.; Lidia, S.; Ni, P. A.

    2010-10-15

    Intense beams of heavy ions are capable of heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density. Experiments are performed on the resulting warm dense matter (WDM) at the NDCX-I ion beam accelerator. The 0.3 MeV, 30 mA K{sup +} beam from NDCX-I heats foil targets by combined longitudinal and transverse neutralized drift compression of the ion beam. Both the compressed and uncompressed parts of the NDCX-I beam heat targets. The exotic state of matter (WDM) in these experiments requires specialized diagnostic techniques. We have developed a target chamber and fielded target diagnostics including a fast multichannel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, laser Doppler-shift interferometer (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector), beam transmission diagnostics, and high-speed gated cameras. We also present plans and opportunities for diagnostic development and a new target chamber for NDCX-II.

  3. Diagnostics for ion beam driven high energy density physics experiments.

    PubMed

    Bieniosek, F M; Henestroza, E; Lidia, S; Ni, P A

    2010-10-01

    Intense beams of heavy ions are capable of heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density. Experiments are performed on the resulting warm dense matter (WDM) at the NDCX-I ion beam accelerator. The 0.3 MeV, 30 mA K(+) beam from NDCX-I heats foil targets by combined longitudinal and transverse neutralized drift compression of the ion beam. Both the compressed and uncompressed parts of the NDCX-I beam heat targets. The exotic state of matter (WDM) in these experiments requires specialized diagnostic techniques. We have developed a target chamber and fielded target diagnostics including a fast multichannel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, laser Doppler-shift interferometer (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector), beam transmission diagnostics, and high-speed gated cameras. We also present plans and opportunities for diagnostic development and a new target chamber for NDCX-II.

  4. Diagnostics for ion beam driven high energy density physics experiments.

    PubMed

    Bieniosek, F M; Henestroza, E; Lidia, S; Ni, P A

    2010-10-01

    Intense beams of heavy ions are capable of heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density. Experiments are performed on the resulting warm dense matter (WDM) at the NDCX-I ion beam accelerator. The 0.3 MeV, 30 mA K(+) beam from NDCX-I heats foil targets by combined longitudinal and transverse neutralized drift compression of the ion beam. Both the compressed and uncompressed parts of the NDCX-I beam heat targets. The exotic state of matter (WDM) in these experiments requires specialized diagnostic techniques. We have developed a target chamber and fielded target diagnostics including a fast multichannel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, laser Doppler-shift interferometer (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector), beam transmission diagnostics, and high-speed gated cameras. We also present plans and opportunities for diagnostic development and a new target chamber for NDCX-II. PMID:21033977

  5. DIAGNOSTICS FOR ION BEAM DRIVEN HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Lidia, S.; Ni, P.A.

    2010-01-04

    Intense beams of heavy ions are capable of heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density. Experiments are performed on the resulting warm dense matter (WDM) at the NDCX-I ion beam accelerator. The 0.3 MeV, 30-mA K{sup +} beam from NDCX-I heats foil targets by combined longitudinal and transverse neutralized drift compression of the ion beam. Both the compressed and uncompressed parts of the NDCX-I beam heat targets. The exotic state of matter (WDM) in these experiments requires specialized diagnostic techniques. We have developed a target chamber and fielded target diagnostics including a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, laser Doppler-shift interferometer (VISAR), beam transmission diagnostics, and high-speed gated cameras. We also present plans and opportunities for diagnostic development and a new target chamber for NDCX-II.

  6. HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS WITH INTENSE HEAVY ION BEAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; More, R.M.; Roy, P.K.; Ni, P.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L.; Barnard, J.J.

    2008-08-01

    The US heavy ion fusion science program has developed techniques for heating ion-beam-driven warm dense matter (WDM) targets. The WDM conditions are to be achieved by combined longitudinal and transverse space-charge neutralized drift compression of the ion beam to provide a hot spot on the target with a beam spot size of about 1 mm, and pulse length about 1-2 ns. As a technique for heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density, intense beams of heavy ions are capable of delivering precise and uniform beam energy deposition dE/dx, in a relatively large sample size, and the ability to heat any solid-phase target material. Initial experiments use a 0.3 MeV K+ beam (below the Bragg peak) from the NDCX-I accelerator. Future plans include target experiments using the NDCX-II accelerator, which is designed to heat targets at the Bragg peak using a 3-6 MeV lithium ion beam. The range of the beams in solid matter targets is about 1 micron, which can be lengthened by using porous targets at reduced density. We have completed the fabrication of a new experimental target chamber facility for WDM experiments, and implemented initial target diagnostics to be used for the first target experiments in NDCX-1. The target chamber has been installed on the NDCX-I beamline. The target diagnostics include a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, VISAR, and high-speed gated cameras. Initial WDM experiments will heat targets by compressed NDCX-I beams and will explore measurement of temperature and other target parameters. Experiments are planned in areas such as dense electronegative targets, porous target homogenization and two-phase equation of state.

  7. HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS WITH INTENSE HEAVY ION BEAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; More, R.M.; Roy, P.K.; Ni, P.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L.; Barnard, J.J.

    2010-03-16

    The US heavy ion fusion science program has developed techniques for heating ion-beam-driven warm dense matter (WDM) targets. The WDM conditions are to be achieved by combined longitudinal and transverse space-charge neutralized drift compression of the ion beam to provide a hot spot on the target with a beam spot size of about 1 mm, and pulse length about 1-2 ns. As a technique for heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density, intense beams of heavy ions are capable of delivering precise and uniform beam energy deposition dE/dx, in a relatively large sample size, and the ability to heat any solid-phase target material. Initial experiments use a 0.3 MeV K+ beam (below the Bragg peak) from the NDCX-I accelerator. Future plans include target experiments using the NDCX-II accelerator, which is designed to heat targets at the Bragg peak using a 3-6 MeV lithium ion beam. The range of the beams in solid matter targets is about 1 micron, which can be lengthened by using porous targets at reduced density. We have completed the fabrication of a new experimental target chamber facility for WDM experiments, and implemented initial target diagnostics to be used for the first target experiments in NDCX-1. The target chamber has been installed on the NDCX-I beamline. The target diagnostics include a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, VISAR, and high-speed gated cameras. Initial WDM experiments will heat targets by compressed NDCX-I beams and will explore measurement of temperature and other target parameters. Experiments are planned in areas such as dense electronegative targets, porous target homogenization and two-phase equation of state.

  8. US Heavy Ion Beam Research for High Energy Density Physics Applications and Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, R.C.; Logan, B.G.; Barnard, J.J.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Briggs, R.J.; et al.

    2005-09-19

    Key scientific results from recent experiments, modeling tools, and heavy ion accelerator research are summarized that explore ways to investigate the properties of high energy density matter in heavy-ion-driven targets, in particular, strongly-coupled plasmas at 0.01 to 0.1 times solid density for studies of warm dense matter, which is a frontier area in high energy density physics. Pursuit of these near-term objectives has resulted in many innovations that will ultimately benefit heavy ion inertial fusion energy. These include: neutralized ion beam compression and focusing, which hold the promise of greatly improving the stage between the accelerator and the target chamber in a fusion power plant; and the Pulse Line Ion Accelerator (PLIA), which may lead to compact, low-cost modular linac drivers.

  9. Focusing dynamics of high-energy density, laser-driven ion beams.

    PubMed

    Chen, S N; d'Humières, E; Lefebvre, E; Romagnani, L; Toncian, T; Antici, P; Audebert, P; Brambrink, E; Cecchetti, C A; Kudyakov, T; Pipahl, A; Sentoku, Y; Borghesi, M; Willi, O; Fuchs, J

    2012-02-01

    The dynamics of the focusing of laser-driven ion beams produced from concave solid targets was studied. Most of the ion beam energy is observed to converge at the center of the cylindrical targets with a spot diameter of 30  μm, which can be very beneficial for applications requiring high beam energy densities. Also, unbalanced laser irradiation does not compromise the focusability of the beam. However, significant filamentation occurs during the focusing, potentially limiting the localization of the energy deposition region by these beams at focus. These effects could impact the applicability of such high-energy density beams for applications, e.g., in proton-driven fast ignition. PMID:22400936

  10. Options for integrated beam experiments for inertial fusion energy and high-energy density physics research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitner, M. A.; Celata, C. M.; Lee, E. P.; Logan, B. G.; Waldron, W. L.; Yu, S. S.; Barnard, J. J.

    2005-05-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory (HIF-VNL), a collaboration among LBNL, LLNL, and PPPL, is presently focused on separate smaller-scale scientific experiments addressing key issues of future Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) and High-Energy-Density-Physics (HEDP) drivers: the injection, transport, and focusing of intense heavy ion beams at currents from 25 to 600 mA. As a next major step in the HIF-VNL program, we aim for a fully integrated beam physics experiment, which allows integrated source-to-target physics research with a high-current heavy ion beam of IFE-relevant brightness with the goal of optimizing target focusing. This paper describes two rather different options for such an integrated experiment, the Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX) and the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX). Both proposals put emphasis on the unique capability for integrated injection, acceleration, compression, and focusing of a high-current, space-charge-dominated heavy ion beam.

  11. Collective Focusing of Intense Ion Beam Pulses for High-energy Density Physics Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Dorf, Mikhail A.; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Startsev, Edward A.; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2011-04-27

    The collective focusing concept in which a weak magnetic lens provides strong focusing of an intense ion beam pulse carrying a neutralizing electron background is investigated by making use of advanced particle-in-cell simulations and reduced analytical models. The original analysis by Robertson Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 149 (1982) is extended to the parameter regimes of particular importance for several high-energy density physics applications. The present paper investigates (1) the effects of non-neutral collective focusing in a moderately strong magnetic field; (2) the diamagnetic effects leading to suppression of the applied magnetic field due to the presence of the beam pulse; and (3) the influence of a finite-radius conducting wall surrounding the beam cross-section on beam neutralization. In addition, it is demonstrated that the use of the collective focusing lens can significantly simplify the technical realization of the final focusing of ion beam pulses in the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment-I (NDCX-I) , and the conceptual designs of possible experiments on NDCX-I are investigated by making use of advanced numerical simulations. 2011 American Institute of Physics

  12. Collective focusing of intense ion beam pulses for high-energy density physics applications

    SciTech Connect

    Dorf, Mikhail A.; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Startsev, Edward A.; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2011-03-15

    The collective focusing concept in which a weak magnetic lens provides strong focusing of an intense ion beam pulse carrying a neutralizing electron background is investigated by making use of advanced particle-in-cell simulations and reduced analytical models. The original analysis by Robertson [Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 149 (1982)] is extended to the parameter regimes of particular importance for several high-energy density physics applications. The present paper investigates (1) the effects of non-neutral collective focusing in a moderately strong magnetic field; (2) the diamagnetic effects leading to suppression of the applied magnetic field due to the presence of the beam pulse; and (3) the influence of a finite-radius conducting wall surrounding the beam cross-section on beam neutralization. In addition, it is demonstrated that the use of the collective focusing lens can significantly simplify the technical realization of the final focusing of ion beam pulses in the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment-I (NDCX-I), and the conceptual designs of possible experiments on NDCX-I are investigated by making use of advanced numerical simulations.

  13. Activities on heavy ion inertial fusion and beam-driven high energy density science in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horioka, K.; Kawamura, T.; Nakajima, M.; Kondo, K.; Ogawa, M.; Oguri, Y.; Hasegawa, J.; Kawata, S.; Kikuchi, T.; Sasaki, T.; Murakami, M.; Takayama, K.

    2009-07-01

    Recent research activities in Japan relevant to heavy ion fusion (HIF) are presented. During the past two years, significant progress in HIF and high energy density (HED) physics research has been made by a number of research groups in universities and accelerator facilities. Evolutions in phase space during the longitudinal compression of intense beams were investigated at UU-NUT-TIT. Beam-plasma interaction experiments and related theoretical studies are in progress at RLNR-TIT. In the study, shock-heated hydrogen was used for the interaction experiments as a well-defined non-ideal-plasma target. In the beam-plasma interaction experiments, a special emphasis is placed on an evaluation of non-linear effects on the stopping power in a beam-heated plasma target. A direct-indirect hybrid scheme of a beam-driven ICF target has been proposed and discussed at UU. In the same group, a method for controlling the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in imploding fuel target has been proposed using oscillating heavy ion beams (HIBs). Core dynamics of the impact ignition has been investigated both experimentally and numerically at ILE—Osaka. Dense plasmas driven by intense ion beams and/or a pulse powered device, were evaluated by a group of DES-TIT, concerning the researches on HED and warm dense matter (WDM) physics. A quasi-statically tamped target was proposed to make a well-defined, warm dense state for equation-of-state (EOS) studies based on ion accelerators. The potentiality of the new facility planned at KEK was evaluated by a collaborating group of TIT-UU-KEK, which can extend the parameter regime for laboratory experiments to study the properties of matter under extreme conditions. A possible method to make a high-pressure condition for study of the planetary science was discussed as a short-term subject of intense HIBs.

  14. Monochromatic radiography of high energy density physics experiments on the MAGPIE generator

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, G. N. Burdiak, G. C.; Suttle, L.; Stuart, N. H.; Swadling, G. F.; Lebedev, S. V.; Smith, R. A.; Patankar, S.; Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Grouchy, P. de; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Bennett, M.; Bland, S. N.; Pickworth, L.; Skidmore, J.

    2014-11-15

    A monochromatic X-ray backlighter based on Bragg reflection from a spherically bent quartz crystal has been developed for the MAGPIE pulsed power generator at Imperial College (1.4 MA, 240 ns) [I. H. Mitchell et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1533 (2005)]. This instrument has been used to diagnose high energy density physics experiments with 1.865 keV radiation (Silicon He-α) from a laser plasma source driven by a ∼7 J, 1 ns pulse from the Cerberus laser. The design of the diagnostic, its characterisation and performance, and initial results in which the instrument was used to radiograph a shock physics experiment on MAGPIE are discussed.

  15. Monochromatic radiography of high energy density physics experiments on the MAGPIE generator.

    PubMed

    Hall, G N; Burdiak, G C; Suttle, L; Stuart, N H; Swadling, G F; Lebedev, S V; Smith, R A; Patankar, S; Suzuki-Vidal, F; de Grouchy, P; Harvey-Thompson, A J; Bennett, M; Bland, S N; Pickworth, L; Skidmore, J

    2014-11-01

    A monochromatic X-ray backlighter based on Bragg reflection from a spherically bent quartz crystal has been developed for the MAGPIE pulsed power generator at Imperial College (1.4 MA, 240 ns) [I. H. Mitchell et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1533 (2005)]. This instrument has been used to diagnose high energy density physics experiments with 1.865 keV radiation (Silicon He-α) from a laser plasma source driven by a ∼7 J, 1 ns pulse from the Cerberus laser. The design of the diagnostic, its characterisation and performance, and initial results in which the instrument was used to radiograph a shock physics experiment on MAGPIE are discussed.

  16. Megagauss field generation for high-energy-density plasma science experiments.

    SciTech Connect

    Rovang, Dean Curtis; Struve, Kenneth William; Porter, John Larry Jr.

    2008-10-01

    There is a need to generate magnetic fields both above and below 1 megagauss (100 T) with compact generators for laser-plasma experiments in the Beamlet and Petawatt test chambers for focused research on fundamental properties of high energy density magnetic plasmas. Some of the important topics that could be addressed with such a capability are magnetic field diffusion, particle confinement, plasma instabilities, spectroscopic diagnostic development, material properties, flux compression, and alternate confinement schemes, all of which could directly support experiments on Z. This report summarizes a two-month study to develop preliminary designs of magnetic field generators for three design regimes. These are, (1) a design for a relatively low-field (10 to 50 T), compact generator for modest volumes (1 to 10 cm3), (2) a high-field (50 to 200 T) design for smaller volumes (10 to 100 mm3), and (3) an extreme field (greater than 600 T) design that uses flux compression. These designs rely on existing Sandia pulsed-power expertise and equipment, and address issues of magnetic field scaling with capacitor bank design and field inductance, vacuum interface, and trade-offs between inductance and coil designs.

  17. Magnetic field generation and evolution in high-energy-density plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moissard, C.; Deng, W.; Fox, W.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2014-10-01

    Magnetic reconnection has been proposed to account for many astrophysical phenomena and is inferred to play an important role in fusion. Recent experiments have studied magnetic reconnection in high-energy-density (HED) plasmas at the Vulcan, Omega and Shenguang laser facilities. Plasma bubbles are created by laser irradiation of solid targets. These bubbles self-generate MG-scale magnetic fields, and the collision of pairs of bubbles drives reconnection of this magnetic field. 2D first principles particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations with a collision operator have been used to study the evolution of the magnetic field in these experiments. The ablation of the target is modeled by a Gaussian heating function acting on an initially cold, high density plasma. It is shown that the Biermann battery effect (∇T × ∇n in generalized Ohm's law) can account quantitatively for the magnetic field produced. However, special attention must be given to the temperature, which can no longer be considered as a scalar in the regime of the experiments. In simulations with a collision operator, the evolution of the magnetic field is compared to Braginskii's transport theory. Results of 3D simulations of magnetic reconnection with the self-consistent Biermann effect will be reported.

  18. Beamed-Energy Propulsion (BEP): Considerations for Beaming High Energy-Density Electromagnetic Waves Through the Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    A study to determine the feasibility of employing beamed electromagnetic energy for vehicle propulsion within and outside the Earth's atmosphere was co-funded by NASA and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency that began in June 2010 and culminated in a Summary Presentation in April 2011. A detailed report entitled "Beamed-Energy Propulsion (BEP) Study" appeared in February 2012 as NASA/TM-2012-217014. Of the very many nuances of this subject that were addressed in this report, the effects of transferring the required high energy-density electromagnetic fields through the atmosphere were discussed. However, due to the limitations of the length of the report, only a summary of the results of the detailed analyses were able to be included. It is the intent of the present work to make available the complete analytical modeling work that was done for the BEP project with regard to electromagnetic wave propagation issues. In particular, the present technical memorandum contains two documents that were prepared in 2011. The first one, entitled "Effects of Beaming Energy Through the Atmosphere" contains an overview of the analysis of the nonlinear problem inherent with the transfer of large amounts of energy through the atmosphere that gives rise to thermally-induced changes in the refractive index; application is then made to specific beamed propulsion scenarios. A brief portion of this report appeared as Appendix G of the 2012 Technical Memorandum. The second report, entitled "An Analytical Assessment of the Thermal Blooming Effects on the Propagation of Optical and Millimeter- Wave Focused Beam Waves For Power Beaming Applications" was written in October 2010 (not previously published), provides a more detailed treatment of the propagation problem and its effect on the overall characteristics of the beam such as its deflection as well as its radius. Comparisons are then made for power beaming using the disparate electromagnetic wavelengths of 1.06 microns and 2

  19. High Energy Density Physics Research Using Intense Heavy Ion Beam at FAIR: The HEDgeHOB Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, N. A.; Shutov, A.; Piriz, A. R.; Deutsch, C.; Stöhlker, Th.

    2016-03-01

    International project, Facility for Antiprotons and Ion Research (FAIR), has entered in its construction phase at Darmstadt. It is expected that the new powerful heavy ion synchrotron, SIS100 will deliver a strongly bunched intense beam of energetic uranium ions that will provide the scientists with an efficient and novel tool to research High Energy Density (HED) Physics in the laboratory. Over the past 15 years, substantial theoretical work has been done to design numerous experiments that can be done at this facility in this field. This work has resulted in an extensive scientific proposal named HEDgeHOB, that includes experiment proposals addressing various aspects of HED matter, for example, planetary physics, equation of state, hydrodynamic instabilities and others. In this paper we present a summary of this work.

  20. Numerical Modeling of Complex Targets for High-Energy- Density Experiments with Ion Beams and other Drivers

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Koniges, Alice; Liu, Wangyi; Lidia, Steven; Schenkel, Thomas; Barnard, John; Friedman, Alex; Eder, David; Fisher, Aaron; Masters, Nathan

    2016-03-01

    We explore the simulation challenges and requirements for experiments planned on facilities such as the NDCX-II ion accelerator at LBNL, currently undergoing commissioning. Hydrodynamic modeling of NDCX-II experiments include certain lower temperature effects, e.g., surface tension and target fragmentation, that are not generally present in extreme high-energy laser facility experiments, where targets are completely vaporized in an extremely short period of time. Target designs proposed for NDCX-II range from metal foils of order one micron thick (thin targets) to metallic foam targets several tens of microns thick (thick targets). These high-energy-density experiments allow for the study of fracture as wellmore » as the process of bubble and droplet formation. We incorporate these physics effects into a code called ALE-AMR that uses a combination of Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian hydrodynamics and Adaptive Mesh Refinement. Inclusion of certain effects becomes tricky as we must deal with non-orthogonal meshes of various levels of refinement in three dimensions. A surface tension model used for droplet dynamics is implemented in ALE-AMR using curvature calculated from volume fractions. Thick foam target experiments provide information on how ion beam induced shock waves couple into kinetic energy of fluid flow. Although NDCX-II is not fully commissioned, experiments are being conducted that explore material defect production and dynamics.« less

  1. Numerical Modeling of Complex Targets for High-Energy- Density Experiments with Ion Beams and other Drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koniges, Alice; Liu, Wangyi; Lidia, Steven; Schenkel, Thomas; Barnard, John; Friedman, Alex; Eder, David; Fisher, Aaron; Masters, Nathan

    2016-03-01

    We explore the simulation challenges and requirements for experiments planned on facilities such as the NDCX-II ion accelerator at LBNL, currently undergoing commissioning. Hydrodynamic modeling of NDCX-II experiments include certain lower temperature effects, e.g., surface tension and target fragmentation, that are not generally present in extreme high-energy laser facility experiments, where targets are completely vaporized in an extremely short period of time. Target designs proposed for NDCX-II range from metal foils of order one micron thick (thin targets) to metallic foam targets several tens of microns thick (thick targets). These high-energy-density experiments allow for the study of fracture as well as the process of bubble and droplet formation. We incorporate these physics effects into a code called ALE-AMR that uses a combination of Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian hydrodynamics and Adaptive Mesh Refinement. Inclusion of certain effects becomes tricky as we must deal with non-orthogonal meshes of various levels of refinement in three dimensions. A surface tension model used for droplet dynamics is implemented in ALE-AMR using curvature calculated from volume fractions. Thick foam target experiments provide information on how ion beam induced shock waves couple into kinetic energy of fluid flow. Although NDCX-II is not fully commissioned, experiments are being conducted that explore material defect production and dynamics.

  2. High-energy-density electron beam from interaction of two successive laser pulses with subcritical-density plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. W.; Yu, W.; Yu, M. Y.; Xu, H.; Ju, J. J.; Luan, S. X.; Murakami, M.; Zepf, M.; Rykovanov, S.

    2016-02-01

    It is shown by particle-in-cell simulations that a narrow electron beam with high energy and charge density can be generated in a subcritical-density plasma by two consecutive laser pulses. Although the first laser pulse dissipates rapidly, the second pulse can propagate for a long distance in the thin wake channel created by the first pulse and can further accelerate the preaccelerated electrons therein. Given that the second pulse also self-focuses, the resulting electron beam has a narrow waist and high charge and energy densities. Such beams are useful for enhancing the target-back space-charge field in target normal sheath acceleration of ions and bremsstrahlung sources, among others.

  3. High-energy-density electron jet generation from an opening gold cone filled with near-critical-density plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, T. P. Shao, F. Q.; Zou, D. B.; Ge, Z. Y.; Zhang, G. B.; Wang, W. Q.; Li, X. H.; Liu, J. X.; Ouyang, J. M.; Yu, W.; Luan, S. X.; Wang, J. W.; Wong, A. Y.

    2015-01-14

    By using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, we propose a scheme for strong coupling of a petawatt laser with an opening gold cone filled with near-critical-density plasmas. When relevant parameters are properly chosen, most laser energy can be fully deposited inside the cone with only 10% leaving the tip opening. Due to the asymmetric ponderomotive acceleration by the strongly decayed laser pulse, high-energy-density electrons with net laser energy gain are accumulated inside the cone, which then stream out of the tip opening continuously, like a jet. The jet electrons are fully relativistic, with speeds around 0.98−0.998 c and densities at 10{sup 20}/cm{sup 3} level. The jet can keep for a long time over 200 fs, which may have diverse applications in practice.

  4. High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Remington, B A

    2004-11-11

    High-energy-density (HED) physics refers broadly to the study of macroscopic collections of matter under extreme conditions of temperature and density. The experimental facilities most widely used for these studies are high-power lasers and magnetic-pinch generators. The HED physics pursued on these facilities is still in its infancy, yet new regimes of experimental science are emerging. Examples from astrophysics include work relevant to planetary interiors, supernovae, astrophysical jets, and accreting compact objects (such as neutron stars and black holes). In this paper, we will review a selection of recent results in this new field of HED laboratory astrophysics and provide a brief look ahead to the coming decade.

  5. Frontiers for discovery in high energy density physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Ronald C.

    2005-07-01

    Recent advances in extending the energy, power, and brightness of lasers, particle beams, and Z-pinch generators make it possible to create matter with extremely high energy density in the laboratory. The collective interaction of this matter, often in the plasma state, with itself, intense particle beams, and radiation fields, is a rapidly growing field of research called high energy density physics. It is a field characterized by extreme states of matter, previously unattainable in laboratory experiments, and not unlike the conditions occurring in many astrophysical systems. It is also a field rich in opportunities for scientific discovery and compelling applications, propelled by advances in high-performance computing and advanced instrumentation and measuring techniques. This plenary presentation will summarize the results of two recent national studies of high energy density physics commissioned by the National Academies -- National Research Council, and the Office of Science and Technology Policy's Interagency Working Group on the Physics of the Universe. It will also provide an overview of the exciting research opportunities of high intellectual value in this highly interdisciplinary field, with examples ranging from fast ignition in inertial confinement fusion, to the creation of quark-gluon plasmas characteristic of the very early Universe using heavy ion accelerators. For purposes of this presentation, the working definition of high energy density refers to energy densities exceeding 100 kilojoules per cubic centimeter, or equivalently, pressures exceeding one megabar. For reference, the bulk moduli of solid materials under standard conditions are about 100 kilojoules per cubic centimeter.

  6. Simulations of beam-matter interaction experiments at the CERN HiRadMat facility and prospects of high-energy-density physics research.

    PubMed

    Tahir, N A; Burkart, F; Shutov, A; Schmidt, R; Wollmann, D; Piriz, A R

    2014-12-01

    In a recent publication [Schmidt et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 080701 (2014)], we reported results on beam-target interaction experiments that have been carried out at the CERN HiRadMat (High Radiation to Materials) facility using extended solid copper cylindrical targets that were irradiated with a 440-GeV proton beam delivered by the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). On the one hand, these experiments confirmed the existence of hydrodynamic tunneling of the protons that leads to substantial increase in the range of the protons and the corresponding hadron shower in the target, a phenomenon predicted by our previous theoretical investigations [Tahir et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 25, 051003 (2012)]. On the other hand, these experiments demonstrated that the beam heated part of the target is severely damaged and is converted into different phases of high energy density (HED) matter, as suggested by our previous theoretical studies [Tahir et al., Phys. Rev. E 79, 046410 (2009)]. The latter confirms that the HiRadMat facility can be used to study HED physics. In the present paper, we give details of the numerical simulations carried out to understand the experimental measurements. These include the evolution of the physical parameters, for example, density, temperature, pressure, and the internal energy in the target, during and after the irradiation. This information is important in order to determine the region of the HED phase diagram that can be accessed in such experiments. These simulations have been done using the energy deposition code fluka and a two-dimensional hydrodynamic code, big2, iteratively.

  7. Simulations of beam-matter interaction experiments at the CERN HiRadMat facility and prospects of high-energy-density physics research.

    PubMed

    Tahir, N A; Burkart, F; Shutov, A; Schmidt, R; Wollmann, D; Piriz, A R

    2014-12-01

    In a recent publication [Schmidt et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 080701 (2014)], we reported results on beam-target interaction experiments that have been carried out at the CERN HiRadMat (High Radiation to Materials) facility using extended solid copper cylindrical targets that were irradiated with a 440-GeV proton beam delivered by the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). On the one hand, these experiments confirmed the existence of hydrodynamic tunneling of the protons that leads to substantial increase in the range of the protons and the corresponding hadron shower in the target, a phenomenon predicted by our previous theoretical investigations [Tahir et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 25, 051003 (2012)]. On the other hand, these experiments demonstrated that the beam heated part of the target is severely damaged and is converted into different phases of high energy density (HED) matter, as suggested by our previous theoretical studies [Tahir et al., Phys. Rev. E 79, 046410 (2009)]. The latter confirms that the HiRadMat facility can be used to study HED physics. In the present paper, we give details of the numerical simulations carried out to understand the experimental measurements. These include the evolution of the physical parameters, for example, density, temperature, pressure, and the internal energy in the target, during and after the irradiation. This information is important in order to determine the region of the HED phase diagram that can be accessed in such experiments. These simulations have been done using the energy deposition code fluka and a two-dimensional hydrodynamic code, big2, iteratively. PMID:25615210

  8. FY96-98 Summary Report Mercury: Next Generation Laser for High Energy Density Physics SI-014

    SciTech Connect

    Bayramian, A; Beach, R; Bibeau, C; Chanteloup, J; Ebbers, C; Emanuel, M; Freitas, B; Fulkerson, S; Kanz, K; Hinz, A; Marshall, C; Mills, S; Nakano, H; Orth, C; Rothenberg, J; Schaffers, K; Seppala, L; Skidmore, I; Smith, L; Sutton, S; Telford, S; Zapata, L

    2000-05-23

    The scope of the Mercury Laser project encompasses the research, development, and engineering required to build a new generation of diode-pumped solid-state lasers for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). The Mercury Laser will be the first integrated demonstration of laser diodes, crystals, and gas cooling within a scalable laser architecture. This report is intended to summarize the progress accomplished during the first three years of the project. Due to the technological challenges associated with production of 900 nm diode-bars, heatsinks, and high optical-quality Yb:S-FAP crystals, the initial focus of the project was primarily centered on the R&D in these three areas. During the third year of the project, the R&D continued in parallel with the development of computer codes, partial activation of the laser, component testing, and code validation where appropriate.

  9. FY96-98 Summary Report Mercury: Next Generation Laser for High Energy Density Physics SI-014

    SciTech Connect

    Bayramian, A.; Beach, R.; Bibeau, C.; Chanteloup, J.-C.; Ebbers, C.; Emanuel, M.; Freitas, B.; Fulkerson, S.; Kanz, K.; Hinz, A.; Marshall, C.; Mills, S.; Nakano, H.; Orth, C.; Rothenberg, J.; Schaffers, K.; Seppala, L.; Skidmore, J.; Smith, L.; Sutton, S.; Telford, S.; Zapata, L.

    2000-05-25

    The scope of the Mercury Laser project encompasses the research, development, and engineering required to build a new generation of diode-pumped solid-state lasers for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). The Mercury Laser will be the first integrated demonstration of laser diodes, crystals, and gas cooling within a scalable laser architecture. This report is intended to summarize the progress accomplished during the first three years of the project. Due to the technological challenges associated with production of 900 nm diode-bars, heatsinks, and high optical-quality Yb:S-FAP crystals, the initial focus of the project was primarily centered on the R&D in these three areas. During the third year of the project, the R&D continued in parallel with the development of computer codes, partial activation of the laser, component testing, and code validation where appropriate.

  10. Perspectives on High-Energy-Density Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, R. Paul

    2008-11-01

    Much of 21st century plasma physics will involve work to produce, understand, control, and exploit very non-traditional plasmas. High-energy density (HED) plasmas are often examples, variously involving strong Coulomb interactions and few particles per Debeye sphere, dominant radiation effects, strongly relativistic effects, or strongly quantum-mechanical behavior. Indeed, these and other modern plasma systems often fall outside the early standard theoretical definitions of ``plasma''. This presentation will focus on two types of HED plasmas that exhibit non-traditional behavior. Our first example will be the plasmas produced by extremely strong shock waves. Shock waves are present across the entire realm of plasma densities, often in space or astrophysical contexts. HED shock waves (at pressures > 1 Mbar) enable studies in many areas, from equations of state to hydrodynamics to radiation hydrodynamics. We will specifically consider strongly radiative shocks, in which the radiative energy fluxes are comparable to the mechanical energy fluxes that drive the shocks. Modern HED facilities can produce such shocks, which are also present in dense, energetic, astrophysical systems such as supernovae. These shocks are also excellent targets for advanced simulations due to their range of spatial scales and complex radiation transport. Our second example will be relativistic plasmas. In general, these vary from plasmas containing relativistic particle beams, produced for some decades in the laboratory, to the relativistic thermal plasmas present for example in pulsar winds. Laboratory HED relativistic plasmas to date have been those produced by laser beams of irradiance ˜ 10^18 to 10^22 W/cm^2 or by accelerator-produced HED electron beams. These have applications ranging from generation of intense x-rays to production of proton beams for radiation therapy to acceleration of electrons. Here we will focus on electron acceleration, a spectacular recent success and a rare

  11. High energy density aluminum battery

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Gilbert M.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Dai, Sheng; Dudney, Nancy J.; Manthiram, Arumugan; McIntyre, Timothy J.; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Hansan

    2016-10-11

    Compositions and methods of making are provided for a high energy density aluminum battery. The battery comprises an anode comprising aluminum metal. The battery further comprises a cathode comprising a material capable of intercalating aluminum or lithium ions during a discharge cycle and deintercalating the aluminum or lithium ions during a charge cycle. The battery further comprises an electrolyte capable of supporting reversible deposition and stripping of aluminum at the anode, and reversible intercalation and deintercalation of aluminum or lithium at the cathode.

  12. Material Release at High-Energy Densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilson, P. M.; Betti, R.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Shvydky, A.; Solodov, A. A.; Jaanimagi, P. A.; Froula, D. H.

    2013-10-01

    High-energy-density matter releases after an inertial time, creating nonideal plasmas with unique thermodynamic properties. Picosecond-resolution x-ray radiography and flash (100-ps) x-ray penumbral imaging were used to measure the release of metal targets heated by a powerful flux of energetic electrons or protons generated by the OMEGA EP Laser System. The data show target decompression over a nanosecond period after the initial target-heating phase. The measured plasma density profiles and target-release speeds were used to infer the pressure-density release isentropes. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  13. High-Energy-Density Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slenes, Kirk

    2003-01-01

    Capacitors capable of storing energy at high densities are being developed for use in pulse-power circuits in such diverse systems as defibrillators, particle- beam accelerators, microwave sources, and weapons. Like typical previously developed energy-storage capacitors, these capacitors are made from pairs of metal/solid-dielectric laminated sheets that are wound and pressed into compact shapes to fit into cans, which are then filled with dielectric fluids. Indeed, these capacitors can be fabricated largely by conventional fabrication techniques. The main features that distinguish these capacitors from previously developed ones are improvements in (1) the selection of laminate materials, (2) the fabrication of the laminated sheets from these materials, and (3) the selection of dielectric fluids. In simplest terms, a high-performance laminated sheet of the type used in these capacitors is made by casting a dielectric polymer onto a sheet of aluminized kraft paper. The dielectric polymer is a siloxane polymer that has been modified with polar pendant groups to increase its permittivity and dielectric strength. Potentially, this polymer is capable of withstanding an energy density of 7.5 J/cm3, which is four times that of the previous state-of-the-art-capacitor dielectric film material. However, the full potential of this polymer cannot be realized at present because (1) at thicknesses needed for optimum performance (.8.0 m), the mechanical strength of a film of this polymer is insufficient for incorporation into a wound capacitor and (2) at greater thickness, the achievable energy density decreases because of a logarithmic decrease in dielectric strength with increasing thickness. The aluminized kraft paper provides the mechanical strength needed for processing of the laminate and fabrication of the capacitor, and the aluminum film serves as an electrode layer. Because part of the thickness of the dielectric is not occupied by the modified siloxane polymer, the

  14. Spectroscopy of compressed high energy density matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolsey, N. C.; Asfaw, A.; Hammel, B.; Keane, C.; Back, C. A.; Calisti, A.; Mossé, C.; Stamm, R.; Talin, B.; Wark, J. S.; Lee, R. W.; Klein, L.

    1996-06-01

    A theoretical and experimental time-resolved spectroscopic investigation of indirectly driven microsphere implosions is described. The plasma dynamics is studied for several fill gases with a trace amount of argon. Through an analysis of the line profile of Ar XVII 1s2-1s3p 1P, with a line center position at Eυ=3684 eV, the evolution of the plasma density and temperature as a function of fill gas is examined. The theoretical calculations are performed with a fast computer code, which has been previously benchmarked through the analysis of specific complex ionic spectra in hot dense plasmas. The experimental aspect of the work utilizes the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Nova 10 beam laser facility to indirectly drive the implosion of a gas filled plastic microsphere contained in a gold Holhraum target. The dynamical density measurement is derived from a streak camera linewidth measurement and a comparison with the computed profile. Calculations demonstrate that in certain cases there can be a substantial ion dynamics effect on the line shape. The frequency fluctuation model is used to compute the effect on the line profile and a comparison with the experimental spectra provides evidence that ion dynamics may be affecting the line shape. This study provides a method for obtaining an improved understanding of the basic processes dominating the underlying plasma physics of matter compressed to a state of high energy density.

  15. Frontiers for Discovery in High Energy Density Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, R. C.; Katsouleas, T.; Arons, J.; Baring, M.; Deeney, C.; Di Mauro, L.; Ditmire, T.; Falcone, R.; Hammer, D.; Hill, W.; Jacak, B.; Joshi, C.; Lamb, F.; Lee, R.; Logan, B. G.; Melissinos, A.; Meyerhofer, D.; Mori, W.; Murnane, M.; Remington, B.; Rosner, R.; Schneider, D.; Silvera, I.; Stone, J.; Wilde, B.; Zajc. W.

    2004-07-20

    The report is intended to identify the compelling research opportunities of high intellectual value in high energy density physics. The opportunities for discovery include the broad scope of this highly interdisciplinary field that spans a wide range of physics areas including plasma physics, laser and particle beam physics, nuclear physics, astrophysics, atomic and molecular physics, materials science and condensed matter physics, intense radiation-matter interaction physics, fluid dynamics, and magnetohydrodynamics

  16. Lithium-Based High Energy Density Flow Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); West, William C. (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention implement a lithium-based high energy density flow battery. In one embodiment, a lithium-based high energy density flow battery includes a first anodic conductive solution that includes a lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex dissolved in a solvent, a second cathodic conductive solution that includes a cathodic complex dissolved in a solvent, a solid lithium ion conductor disposed so as to separate the first solution from the second solution, such that the first conductive solution, the second conductive solution, and the solid lithium ionic conductor define a circuit, where when the circuit is closed, lithium from the lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex in the first conductive solution dissociates from the lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex, migrates through the solid lithium ionic conductor, and associates with the cathodic complex of the second conductive solution, and a current is generated.

  17. Surprises in High Energy Density Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, S. J.

    2010-01-01

    Edward Teller's work on what is now called High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) is not so well known as some of his work in other areas of physics. Yet he made substantial contributions since the 1940s and the models that he developed and the problems that he worked on are still relevant today. In this talk we shall look at two major areas in HEDP with the first treated more historically and the second more with a view to recent work that the author and others have undertaken which perhaps indicates future directions.

  18. Pulsed power drivers for ICF and high energy density physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, Juan J.; Matzen, M. Keith; McDaniel, Dillon H.

    Nanosecond Pulsed Power Science and Technology has its origins in the 1960s and over the past decade has matured into a flexible and robust discipline capable of addressing key physics issues of importance to Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and high Energy Density Physics. The major leverage provided by pulsed power is its ability to generate and deliver high energy and high power at low cost and high efficiency. A low-cost, high-efficiency driver is important because of the very large capital investment required for multi-megajoule ignition-class systems. High efficiency is of additional importance for a commercially viable inertial fusion energy option. Nanosecond pulsed power has been aggressively and successfully developed at Sandia over the past twenty years. This effort has led to the development of unique multi-purpose facilities supported by highly capable diagnostic, calculational and analytic capabilities. The Sandia Particle-beam Fusion Program has evolved as part of an integrated national ICF Program. It applies the low-cost, high-efficiency leverage provided by nanosecond pulsed power systems to the longer-term goals of the national program, i.e., the Laboratory Microfusion Facility and Inertial Fusion Energy. A separate effort has led to the application of nanosecond pulsed power to the generation of intense, high-energy laboratory x-ray sources for application to x-ray laser and radiation effects science research. Saturn is the most powerful of these sources to date. It generates (approximately) 500 kilojoules of x-rays from a magnetically driven implosion (Z-pinch). This paper describes results of x-ray physics experiments performed on Saturn, plans for a new Z-pinch drive capability for PBFA-2, and a design concept for the proposed (approximately) 15 MJ Jupiter facility. The opportunities for ICF-relevant research using these facilities will also be discussed.

  19. Results from the SLAC High Energy Density Plasma Lens Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Johnny S. T.

    2000-04-01

    The plasma lens was proposed(P. Chen, Part. Acc. 20), 171 (1987). as a final focusing mechanism to achieve high luminosity for future high energy linear colliders. Previous experiments(See, for example, R. Govil et al.), Phys. Rev. Lett, 86, No. 16, 3202 (1999), and references therein. to test this concept were carried out at low energy densities. In this talk, results from the SLAC E-150 experiment(P. Chen et al.), Proposal for a Plasma Lens Experiment at the Final Focus Test Beam, SLAC Expt. Prop. E-150, April 1997. on plasma lens focusing of a high energy density beam with parameters relevant to linear colliders are presented and compared with theoretical expectations. The experiment was carried out at the SLAC Final Focus Test Beam, with nominal parameters of 30 GeV beam energy, 1.5× 10^10 electrons per bunch, bunch length σz = 0.7 mm and beam cross-section σ_x^* × σ_y^* = 7 μm × 3 μm. The plasma lens was produced by a fast pulsing gas-jet providing a neutral Nitrogen gas column with density up to 5× 10^18 / cm^3. The gas was then ionized by the leading portion of the incident high energy density electron beam, while the rest of the electrons in the same bunch were focused by the strong plasma pinching force and a reduction in the beam size of up to 40% was measured. The beam waist was also measured and compared with detailed numerical calculations with a particles-in-cell code. The reduction in focal length indicated a focusing strength approximately 100 times that of the FFTB final focus magnets. The synchrotron radiation with critical energy in the 1-10 MeV range due to the strong bending of beam particles inside the plasma lens was observed for the first time.

  20. High energy density redox flow device

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Carter, W. Craig; Ho, Bryan Y; Duduta, Mihai; Limthongkul, Pimpa

    2014-05-13

    Redox flow devices are described in which at least one of the positive electrode or negative electrode-active materials is a semi-solid or is a condensed ion-storing electroactive material, and in which at least one of the electrode-active materials is transported to and from an assembly at which the electrochemical reaction occurs, producing electrical energy. The electronic conductivity of the semi-solid is increased by the addition of conductive particles to suspensions and/or via the surface modification of the solid in semi-solids (e.g., by coating the solid with a more electron conductive coating material to increase the power of the device). High energy density and high power redox flow devices are disclosed. The redox flow devices described herein can also include one or more inventive design features. In addition, inventive chemistries for use in redox flow devices are also described.

  1. Strongly Interacting Matter at High Energy Density

    SciTech Connect

    McLerran,L.

    2008-09-07

    This lecture concerns the properties of strongly interacting matter (which is described by Quantum Chromodynamics) at very high energy density. I review the properties of matter at high temperature, discussing the deconfinement phase transition. At high baryon density and low temperature, large N{sub c} arguments are developed which suggest that high baryonic density matter is a third form of matter, Quarkyonic Matter, that is distinct from confined hadronic matter and deconfined matter. I finally discuss the Color Glass Condensate which controls the high energy limit of QCD, and forms the low x part of a hadron wavefunction. The Glasma is introduced as matter formed by the Color Glass Condensate which eventually thermalizes into a Quark Gluon Plasma.

  2. High energy density in multisoliton collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadatmand, Danial; Dmitriev, Sergey V.; Kevrekidis, Panayotis G.

    2015-09-01

    Solitons are very effective in transporting energy over great distances and collisions between them can produce high energy density spots of relevance to phase transformations, energy localization and defect formation among others. It is then important to study how energy density accumulation scales in multisoliton collisions. In this study, we demonstrate that the maximal energy density that can be achieved in collision of N slowly moving kinks and antikinks in the integrable sine-Gordon field, remarkably, is proportional to N2, while the total energy of the system is proportional to N . This maximal energy density can be achieved only if the difference between the number of colliding kinks and antikinks is minimal, i.e., is equal to 0 for even N and 1 for odd N and if the pattern involves an alternating array of kinks and antikinks. Interestingly, for odd (even) N the maximal energy density appears in the form of potential (kinetic) energy, while kinetic (potential) energy is equal to zero. The results of the present study rely on the analysis of the exact multisoliton solutions for N =1 ,2 , and 3 and on the numerical simulation results for N =4 ,5 ,6 , and 7. The effect of weak Hamiltonian and non-Hamiltonian perturbations on the maximal energy density in multikink collisions is also discussed as well as that of the collision relative phase. Based on these results one can speculate that the soliton collisions in the sine-Gordon field can, in principle, controllably produce very high energy density. This can have important consequences for many physical phenomena described by the Klein-Gordon equations.

  3. Collapsing Bubble in Metal for High Energy Density Physics Study

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, S F; Barnard, J J; Leung, P T; Yu, S S

    2011-04-13

    This paper presents a new idea to produce matter in the high energy density physics (HEDP) regime in the laboratory using an intense ion beam. A gas bubble created inside a solid metal may collapse by driving it with an intense ion beam. The melted metal will compress the gas bubble and supply extra energy to it. Simulations show that the spherical implosion ratio can be about 5 and at the stagnation point, the maximum density, temperature and pressure inside the gas bubble can go up to nearly 2 times solid density, 10 eV and a few megabar (Mbar) respectively. The proposed experiment is the first to permit access into the Mbar regime with existing or near-term ion facilities, and opens up possibilities for new physics gained through careful comparisons of simulations with measurements of quantities like stagnation radius, peak temperature and peak pressure at the metal wall.

  4. Alternative Approaches to High Energy Density Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, J.

    2016-10-01

    This paper explores selected approaches to High Energy Density (HED) fusion, beginning with discussion of ignition requirements at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The needed improvements to achieve ignition are closely tied to the ability to concentrate energy in the implosion, manifested in the stagnation pressure, Pstag. The energy that must be assembled in the imploded state to ignite varies roughly as Pstag-2, so among other requirements, there is a premium on reaching higher Pstag to achieve ignition with the available laser energy. The U.S. inertial confinement fusion program (ICF) is pursuing higher Pstag on NIF through improvements to capsule stability and symmetry. One can argue that recent experiments place an approximate upper bound on the ultimate ignition energy requirement. Scaling the implosions consistently in spatial, temporal and energy scales shows that implosions of the demonstrated quality ignite robustly at 9-15 times the current energy of NIF. While lasers are unlikely to reach that bounding energy, it appears that pulsed-power sources could plausibly do so, giving a range of paths forward for ICF depending on success in improving energy concentration. In this paper, I show the scaling arguments then discuss topics from my own involvement in HED fusion. The recent Viewfactor experiments at NIF have shed light on both the observed capsule drive deficit and errors in the detailed modelling of hohlraums. The latter could be important factors in the inability to achieve the needed symmetry and energy concentration. The paper then recounts earlier work in Fast Ignition and the uses of pulsed-power for HED and fusion applications. It concludes with a description of a method for improving pulsed-power driven hohlraums that could potentially provide a factor of 10 in energy at NTF-like drive conditions and reach the energy bound for indirect drive ICF.

  5. Alternative Approaches to High Energy Density Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, J.

    2016-03-01

    This paper explores selected approaches to High Energy Density (HED) fusion, beginning with discussion of ignition requirements at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The needed improvements to achieve ignition are closely tied to the ability to concentrate energy in the implosion, manifested in the stagnation pressure, Pstag . The energy that must be assembled in the imploded state to ignite varies roughly as Pstag -2, so among other requirements, there is a premium on reaching higher Pstag to achieve ignition with the available laser energy. The U.S. inertial confinement fusion program (ICF) is pursuing higher Pstag on NIF through improvements to capsule stability and symmetry. One can argue that recent experiments place an approximate upper bound on the ultimate ignition energy requirement. Scaling the implosions consistently in spatial, temporal and energy scales shows that implosions of the demonstrated quality ignite robustly at 9-15 times the current energy of NIF. While lasers are unlikely to reach that bounding energy, it appears that pulsed-power sources could plausibly do so, giving a range of paths forward for ICF depending on success in improving energy concentration. In this paper, I show the scaling arguments then discuss topics from my own involvement in HED fusion. The recent Viewfactor experiments at NIF have shed light on both the observed capsule drive deficit and errors in the detailed modelling of hohlraums. The latter could be important factors in the inability to achieve the needed symmetry and energy concentration. The paper then recounts earlier work in Fast Ignition and the uses of pulsed- power for HED and fusion applications. It concludes with a description of a method for improving pulsed-power driven hohlraums that could potentially provide a factor of 10 in energy at NIF-like drive conditions and reach the energy bound for indirect drive ICF.

  6. High Energy Density Matter for Rocket Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrick, Patrick G.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the High Energy Density Matter (HEDM) program is to identify, develop, and exploit high energy atomic and molecular systems as energetic sources for rocket propulsion applications. It is a high risk, high payoff program that incorporates both basic and applied research, experimental and theoretical efforts, and science and engineering efforts. The HEDM program is co-sponsored by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) and the Phillips Laboratory (PURKS). It includes both in-house and contracted University/Industry efforts. Technology developed by the HEDM program offers the opportunity for significant breakthroughs in propulsion system capabilities over the current state-of-the-art. One area of great interest is the use of cryogenic solids to increase the density of the propellant and to act as a stable matrix for storage of energetic materials. No cryogenic solid propellant has ever been used in a rocket, and there remain engineering challenges to such a propellant. However, these solids would enable a wide class of highly energetic materials by providing an environment that is at very low temperatures and is a physical barrier to recombination or energy loss reactions. Previous to our experiments only hydrogen atoms had been isolated in solid hydrogen. To date we have succeeded in trapping B, Al, Li, N, and Mg atoms in solid H2. Small molecules, such as B2 and LiB, are also of interest. Current efforts involve the search for new energetic small molecules, increasing free radical concentrations up to 5 mole percent, and scale-up for propulsion testing.

  7. TRIDENT high-energy-density facility experimental capabilities and diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Batha, S H; Aragonez, R; Archuleta, F L; Archuleta, T N; Benage, J F; Cobble, J A; Cowan, J S; Fatherley, V E; Flippo, K A; Gautier, D C; Gonzales, R P; Greenfield, S R; Hegelich, B M; Hurry, T R; Johnson, R P; Kline, J L; Letzring, S A; Loomis, E N; Lopez, F E; Luo, S N; Montgomery, D S; Oertel, J A; Paisley, D L; Reid, S M; Sanchez, P G; Seifter, A; Shimada, T; Workman, J B

    2008-10-01

    The newly upgraded TRIDENT high-energy-density (HED) facility provides high-energy short-pulse laser-matter interactions with powers in excess of 200 TW and energies greater than 120 J. In addition, TRIDENT retains two long-pulse (nanoseconds to microseconds) beams that are available for simultaneous use in either the same experiment or a separate one. The facility's flexibility is enhanced by the presence of two separate target chambers with a third undergoing commissioning. This capability allows the experimental configuration to be optimized by choosing the chamber with the most advantageous geometry and features. The TRIDENT facility also provides a wide range of standard instruments including optical, x-ray, and particle diagnostics. In addition, one chamber has a 10 in. manipulator allowing OMEGA and National Ignition Facility (NIF) diagnostics to be prototyped and calibrated.

  8. TRIDENT high-energy-density facility experimental capabilities and diagnosticsa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batha, S. H.; Aragonez, R.; Archuleta, F. L.; Archuleta, T. N.; Benage, J. F.; Cobble, J. A.; Cowan, J. S.; Fatherley, V. E.; Flippo, K. A.; Gautier, D. C.; Gonzales, R. P.; Greenfield, S. R.; Hegelich, B. M.; Hurry, T. R.; Johnson, R. P.; Kline, J. L.; Letzring, S. A.; Loomis, E. N.; Lopez, F. E.; Luo, S. N.; Montgomery, D. S.; Oertel, J. A.; Paisley, D. L.; Reid, S. M.; Sanchez, P. G.; Seifter, A.; Shimada, T.; Workman, J. B.

    2008-10-01

    The newly upgraded TRIDENT high-energy-density (HED) facility provides high-energy short-pulse laser-matter interactions with powers in excess of 200TW and energies greater than 120J. In addition, TRIDENT retains two long-pulse (nanoseconds to microseconds) beams that are available for simultaneous use in either the same experiment or a separate one. The facility's flexibility is enhanced by the presence of two separate target chambers with a third undergoing commissioning. This capability allows the experimental configuration to be optimized by choosing the chamber with the most advantageous geometry and features. The TRIDENT facility also provides a wide range of standard instruments including optical, x-ray, and particle diagnostics. In addition, one chamber has a 10in. manipulator allowing OMEGA and National Ignition Facility (NIF) diagnostics to be prototyped and calibrated.

  9. Optimizing liner implosions for high energy density physics experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ekdahl, C.; Humphries, S. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    Cylindrical metal shells imploded by magnetic fields - liners - are used as kinetic energy drivers for high energy density physics experiments in hydrodynamics and dynamic material property measurements. There are at least three ways in which liners have been, or are expected to be, used to produce high energy density, i.e., high pressure, in target materials. A common approach uses the liner as a convergent flyer plate, which impacts a material target cylinder after having been shocklessly accelerated across an intervening gap. The resultant shock and piston hydrodynamic flow in the target are used in exploration of a wide variety of phenomena and material properties. Another common method is to slowly compress a liner containing a material sample in a such fashion that little heating occurs. This technique is most useful for investigated physical properties at low temperature and extreme density. Finally, one can use a hybrid approach to shock heat with an impacting liner followed by slower adiabatic, if not isentropic, compression to explore material properties in extrema. The magnetic fields for driving these liners may be produced by either high explosive pulsed power generators or by capacitor banks. Here we will consider only capacitor banks.

  10. Strongly Interacting Matter at Very High Energy Density

    SciTech Connect

    McLerran, L.

    2011-06-05

    The authors discuss the study of matter at very high energy density. In particular: what are the scientific questions; what are the opportunities to makes significant progress in the study of such matter and what facilities are now or might be available in the future to answer the scientific questions? The theoretical and experimental study of new forms of high energy density matter is still very much a 'wild west' field. There is much freedom for developing new concepts which can have order one effects on the way we think about such matter. It is also a largely 'lawless' field, in that concepts and methods are being developed as new information is generated. There is also great possibility for new experimental discovery. Most of the exciting results from RHIC experiments were unanticipated. The methods used for studying various effects like flow, jet quenching, the ridge, two particle correlations etc. were developed as experiments evolved. I believe this will continue to be the case at LHC and as we use existing and proposed accelerators to turn theoretical conjecture into tangible reality. At some point this will no doubt evolve into a precision science, and that will make the field more respectable, but for my taste, the 'wild west' times are the most fun.

  11. Studies of high energy density physics and laboratory astrophysics driven by intense lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Li, Y. T.; Chen, L. M.; Dong, Q. L.; Zhong, J. Y.; Wang, W. M.; Sheng, Z. M.; Zhao, G.

    2016-05-01

    Laser plasmas are capable of creating unique physical conditions with extreme high energy density, which are not only closely relevant to inertial fusion energy studies, but also to laboratory simulation of some astrophysical processes. In this paper, we highlight some recent progress made by our research teams. The first part is about directional hot electron beam generation and transport for fast ignition of inertial confinement fusion, as well as a new scheme of fast ignition by use of a strong external DC magnetic field. The second part concerns laboratory modeling of some astrophysical phenomena, including 1) studies of the topological structure of magnetic reconnection/annihilation that relates closely to geomagnetic substorms, loop-top X-ray source and mass ejection in solar flares, and 2) magnetic field generation and evolution in collisionless shock formation.

  12. Studies of high energy density physics and laboratory astrophysics driven by intense lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.

    2016-10-01

    Laser plasmas are capable of creating unique physical conditions with extreme high energy density, which are not only closely relevant to inertial fusion energy studies, but also to laboratory simulation of some astrophysical processes. In this paper, we highlight some recent progress made by our research teams. The first part is about directional hot electron beam generation and transport for fast ignition of inertial confinement fusion, as well as a new scheme of fast ignition by use of a strong external DC magnetic field. The second part concerns laboratory modeling of some astrophysical phenomena, including 1) studies of the topological structure of magnetic reconnection/annihilation that relates closely to geomagnetic substorms, loop-top X-ray source and mass ejection in solar flares, and 2) magnetic field generation and evolution in collisionless shock formation.

  13. Electrode/Dielectric Strip For High-Energy-Density Capacitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S.

    1994-01-01

    Improved unitary electrode/dielectric strip serves as winding in high-energy-density capacitor in pulsed power supply. Offers combination of qualities essential for high energy density: high permittivity of dielectric layers, thinness, and high resistance to breakdown of dielectric at high electric fields. Capacitors with strip material not impregnated with liquid.

  14. High Energy Density Science at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R W

    2007-10-19

    more detailed plans for experiments (Ch. VI), highlighting the uniqueness the HEDS endstation will play in providing mission-relevant HED data and in the development of the field. One of the more exciting aspects of NNSA-relevant experiments on LCLS is that, given the extraordinary investment and consequent advances in accurate atomic-scale simulations of matter (to a large extent via the Accelerated Scientific Computing program sponsored by NNSA), the facility will provide a platform that, for the first time, will permit experiments in the regimes of interest at the time and spatial scales of the simulations. In Chapter III, the report places the potential of LCLS with an HED science endstation in the context of science required by NNSA, as well as explicating the relationship of NNSA and HED science in general. Chapter IV discusses 4th-generation light sources, like LCLS, in the context of other laboratory technologies presently utilized by NNSA. The report concludes, noting that an HED endstation on LCLS can provide access to data in regimes that are relevant to NNSA needs but no mechanism exists for providing such data. The endstation will also serve to build a broad-based community in the 'X-Games' of physics. The science generated by the facility will be a collaboration of NNSA-based laboratory scientists and university-based researchers. The LCLS endstation fulfills the need for an intermediate-scale facility capable of delivering fundamental advances and mission-relevant research in high energy density science.

  15. High energy density capacitors fabricated by thin film technology

    SciTech Connect

    Barbee, T W; Johnson, G W; Wagner, A V

    1999-03-30

    Low energy density in conventional capacitors severely limits efforts to miniaturize power electronics and imposes design limitations on electronics in general. We have successfully applied physical vapor deposition technology to greatly increase capacitor energy density. The high dielectric breakdown strength we have achieved in alumina thin films allows high energy density to be achieved with this moderately low dielectric constant material. The small temperature dependence of the dielectric constant, and the high reliability, high resistivity, and low dielectric loss of Al 2 O 3 , make it even more appealing. We have constructed single dielectric layer thin film capacitors and shown that they can be stacked to form multilayered structures with no loss in yield for a given capacitance. Control of film growth morphology is critical for achieving the smooth, high quality interfaces between metal and dielectric necessary for device operation at high electric fields. Most importantly, high rate deposition with extremely low particle generation is essential for achieving high energy storage at a reasonable cost. This has been achieved by reactive magnetron sputtering in which the reaction to form the dielectric oxide has been confined to the deposition surface. By this technique we have achieved a yield of over 50% for 1 cm 2 devices with an energy density of 14 J per cubic centimeter of Al 2 O 3 dielectric material in 1.2 kV, 4 nF devices. By further reducing defect density and increasing the dielectric constant of the material, we will be able to increase capacitance and construct high energy density devices to meet the requirements of applications in power electronics.

  16. The CERN Large Hadron Collider as a tool to study high-energy density matter.

    PubMed

    Tahir, N A; Kain, V; Schmidt, R; Shutov, A; Lomonosov, I V; Gryaznov, V; Piriz, A R; Temporal, M; Hoffmann, D H H; Fortov, V E

    2005-04-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will generate two extremely powerful 7 TeV proton beams. Each beam will consist of 2808 bunches with an intensity per bunch of 1.15x10(11) protons so that the total number of protons in one beam will be about 3x10(14) and the total energy will be 362 MJ. Each bunch will have a duration of 0.5 ns and two successive bunches will be separated by 25 ns, while the power distribution in the radial direction will be Gaussian with a standard deviation, sigma=0.2 mm. The total duration of the beam will be about 89 mus. Using a 2D hydrodynamic code, we have carried out numerical simulations of the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic response of a solid copper target that is irradiated with one of the LHC beams. These calculations show that only the first few hundred proton bunches will deposit a high specific energy of 400 kJ/g that will induce exotic states of high energy density in matter.

  17. Studies on heavy ion fusion and high energy density physics in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, S.; Horioka, K.; Murakami, M.; Oguri, Y.; Hasegawa, J.; Takayama, K.; Yoneda, H.; Miyazawa, K.; Someya, T.; Ogoyski, A. I.; Seino, M.; Kikuchi, T.; Kawamura, T.; Ogawa, M.

    2007-07-01

    In this paper, significant progresses of Japanese research activities are presented in heavy ion fusion (HIF) and high energy density physics (HEDP). Heavy ion beam (HIB) is a prominent tool to study HEDP and HIF, and HIBs may be a promising inertial fusion driver. HIB accelerators have been studied intensively for a long time; HIB pulse profile, a particle energy and a HIB quality are controllable. A HIB energy deposition profile is also well defined, and HIB energy is deposited inside a material. By focusing and using the HIB excellent properties, Japanese HIF and HEDP activities have covered a wide variety of subjects ranging from new accelerators to future HIF studies: ion source, new inductive accelerator, beam physics, beam bunching, beam instabilities, HIB interactions with gas or materials, laser ion acceleration, HIB transport, HIB-based warm dense (WD) state generation, new measurement of HED or WD matters, HIB stopping power, atomic physics, multi-HIBs illumination on a target, HIF target implosion, impact ignition scheme, HIB-radiation conversion, radiation confinement and transport in HED matter or in HIF, and so on.

  18. Relativistic electron beam generator

    DOEpatents

    Mooney, L.J.; Hyatt, H.M.

    1975-11-11

    A relativistic electron beam generator for laser media excitation is described. The device employs a diode type relativistic electron beam source having a cathode shape which provides a rectangular output beam with uniform current density.

  19. Frontiers in plasma science: a high energy density perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remington, Bruce

    2015-11-01

    The potential for ground-breaking research in plasma physics in high energy density (HED) regimes is compelling. The combination of HED facilities around the world spanning microjoules to megajoules, with time scales ranging from femtoseconds to microseconds enables new regimes of plasma science to be experimentally probed. The ability to shock and ramp compress samples and simultaneously probe them allows dense, strongly coupled, Fermi degenerate plasmas relevant to planetary interiors to be studied. Shock driven hydrodynamic instabilities evolving into turbulent flows relevant to the dynamics of exploding stars are being probed. The physics and dynamics of magnetized plasmas relevant to astrophysics and inertial confinement fusion are also starting to be studied. High temperature, high velocity interacting flows are being probed for evidence of astrophysical collisionless shock formation. Turbulent, high magnetic Reynolds number flows are being experimentally generated to look for evidence of the turbulent magnetic dynamo effect. And new results from thermonuclear reactions in dense hot plasmas relevant to stellar interiors are starting to emerge. A selection of examples providing a compelling vision for frontier plasma science in the coming decade will be presented. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  20. High energy density propulsion systems and small engine dynamometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hays, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    Scope and Method of Study. This study investigates all possible methods of powering small unmanned vehicles, provides reasoning for the propulsion system down select, and covers in detail the design and production of a dynamometer to confirm theoretical energy density calculations for small engines. Initial energy density calculations are based upon manufacturer data, pressure vessel theory, and ideal thermodynamic cycle efficiencies. Engine tests are conducted with a braking type dynamometer for constant load energy density tests, and show true energy densities in excess of 1400 WH/lb of fuel. Findings and Conclusions. Theory predicts lithium polymer, the present unmanned system energy storage device of choice, to have much lower energy densities than other conversion energy sources. Small engines designed for efficiency, instead of maximum power, would provide the most advantageous method for powering small unmanned vehicles because these engines have widely variable power output, loss of mass during flight, and generate rotational power directly. Theoretical predictions for the energy density of small engines has been verified through testing. Tested values up to 1400 WH/lb can be seen under proper operating conditions. The implementation of such a high energy density system will require a significant amount of follow-on design work to enable the engines to tolerate the higher temperatures of lean operation. Suggestions are proposed to enable a reliable, small-engine propulsion system in future work. Performance calculations show that a mature system is capable of month long flight times, and unrefueled circumnavigation of the globe.

  1. Research Opportunities in High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas on the NDCX-II Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, John; Cohen, Ron; Friedman, Alex; Grote, Dave; Lund, Steven; Sharp, Bill; Bieniosek, Frank; Ni, Pavel; Roy, Prabir; Henestroza, Enrique; Jung, Jin-Young; Kwan, Joe; Lee, Ed; Leitner, Matthaeus; Lidia, Steven; Logan, Grant; Seidl, Peter; Vay, Jean-Luc; Waldron, Will

    2009-03-23

    Intense beams of heavy ions offer a very attractive tool for fundamental research in high energy density physics and inertial fusion energy science. These applications build on the significant recent advances in the generation, compression and focusing of intense heavy ion beams in the presence of a neutralizing background plasma. Such beams can provide uniform volumetric heating of the target during a time-scale shorter than the hydrodynamic response time, thereby enabling a significant suite of experiments that will elucidate the underlying physics of dense, strongly-coupled plasma states, which have been heretofore poorly understood and inadequately diagnosed, particularly in the warm dense matter regime. The innovations, fundamental knowledge, and experimental capabilities developed in this basic research program is also expected to provide new research opportunities to study the physics of directly-driven ion targets, which can dramatically reduce the size of heavy ion beam drivers for inertial fusion energy applications. Experiments examining the behavior of thin target foils heated to the warm dense matter regime began at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in 2008, using the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment - I (NDCX-I) facility, and its associated target chamber and diagnostics. The upgrade of this facility, called NDCX-II, will enable an exciting set of scientific experiments that require highly uniform heating of the target, using Li{sup +} ions which enter the target with kinetic energy in the range of 3 MeV, slightly above the Bragg peak for energy deposition, and exit with energies slightly below the Bragg peak. This document briefly summarizes the wide range of fundamental scientific experiments that can be carried out on the NDCX-II facility, pertaining to the two charges presented to the 2008 Fusion Energy Science Advisory Committee (FESAC) panel on High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas (HEDLP). These charges include: (1) Identify

  2. Fourth International Conference on High Energy Density Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Beg, Farhat

    2014-06-30

    The Fourth International Conference on High Energy Density Physics (ICHED 2013) was held in Saint Malo, France, at the Palais du Grand Large on 25-28 June 2013 (http://web.luli.polytechnique.fr/ICHED2013/). This meeting was the fourth in a series which was first held in 2008. This conference covered all the important aspects of High Energy Density Physics including fundamental topics from strong-field physics to creating new states of matter (including radiation-dominated, high-pressure quantum and relativistic plasmas) and ultra-fast lattice dynamics on the timescale of atomic transitions.

  3. Design for a High Energy Density Kelvin-Helmholtz Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Hurricane, O A

    2007-10-29

    While many high energy density physics (HEDP) Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instability experiments have been fielded as part of basic HEDP and astrophysics studies, not one HEDP Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) experiment has been successfully performed. Herein, a design for a novel HEDP x-ray driven KH experiment is presented along with supporting radiation-hydrodynamic simulation and theory.

  4. Zinc-oxygen primary cell yields high energy density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, C. B.

    1968-01-01

    Zinc-oxygen primary cell yields high energy density for battery used as an auxiliary power source in space vehicle systems. Maximum reliability and minimum battery weight is achieved by using a stacking configuration of 23 series-connected modules with 6 parallel-connected cells per module.

  5. Hybrid system for rechargeable magnesium battery with high energy density

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Zheng; Yang, Yaqiong; Wang, Xiaowei; Li, Minxia; Fu, Zhengwen; Wu, Yuping; Holze, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    One of the main challenges of electrical energy storage (EES) is the development of environmentally friendly battery systems with high safety and high energy density. Rechargeable Mg batteries have been long considered as one highly promising system due to the use of low cost and dendrite-free magnesium metal. The bottleneck for traditional Mg batteries is to achieve high energy density since their output voltage is below 2.0 V. Here, we report a magnesium battery using Mg in Grignard reagent-based electrolyte as the negative electrode, a lithium intercalation compound in aqueous solution as the positive electrode, and a solid electrolyte as a separator. Its average discharge voltage is 2.1 V with stable discharge platform and good cycling life. The calculated energy density based on the two electrodes is high. These findings open another door to rechargeable magnesium batteries. PMID:26173624

  6. High energy-density science on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, E.M.; Cauble, R.; Remington, B.A.

    1997-08-01

    The National Ignition Facility, as well as its French counterpart Le Laser Megajoule, have been designed to confront one of the most difficult and compelling problem in shock physics - the creation of a hot, compassed DT plasma surrounded and confined by cold, nearly degenerate DT fuel. At the same time, these laser facilities will present the shock physics community with unique tools for the study of high energy density matter at states unreachable by any other laboratory technique. Here we describe how these lasers can contribute to investigations of high energy density in the area of material properties and equations of state, extend present laboratory shock techniques such as high-speed jets to new regimes, and allow study of extreme conditions found in astrophysical phenomena.

  7. High-Energy Density science with an ultra-bright x-ray laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenzer, Siegfried

    2015-11-01

    This talk will review recent progress in high-energy density physics using the world's brightest x-ray source, the Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC's free electron x-ray laser. These experiments investigate laser-driven matter in extreme conditions where powerful x-ray scattering and imaging techniques have been applied to resolve ionic interactions at atomic (Ångstrom) scale lengths and to visualize the formation of dense plasma states. Major research areas include dynamic compression experiments of solid targets to determine structural properties and to discover and characterize phase transitions at mega-bar pressures. A second area studies extreme fields produced by high-intensity radiation where fundamental questions of laboratory plasmas can be related to cosmological phenomena. Each of these areas takes advantage of the unique properties of the LCLS x-ray beam. They include small foci for achieving high intensity or high spatial resolution, high photon flux for dynamic structure factor measurements in single shots, and high spectral bandwidth to resolve plasmon (Langmuir) waves or ion acoustic waves in dense plasmas. We will further describe new developments of ultrafast pump-probe technique at high repetition rates. These include studies on dense cryogenic hydrogen that have begun providing fundamental insights into the physical properties of matter in extreme conditions that are important for astrophysics, fusion experiments and generation of radiation sources. This work was supported by DOE Office of Science, Fusion Energy Science under FWP 100182.

  8. High Energy Density Sciences with High Power Lasers at SACLA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, Ryosuke

    2013-10-01

    One of the interesting topics on high energy density sciences with high power lasers is creation of extremely high pressures in material. The pressures of more than 0.1 TPa are the energy density corresponding to the chemical bonding energy, resulting in expectation of dramatic changes in the chemical reactions. At pressures of more than TPa, most of material would be melted on the shock Hugoniot curve. However, if the temperature is less than 1eV or lower than a melting point at pressures of more than TPa, novel solid states of matter must be created through a pressured phase transition. One of the interesting materials must be carbon. At pressures of more than TPa, the diamond structure changes to BC and cubic at more than 3TPa. To create such novel states of matter, several kinds of isentropic-like compression techniques are being developed with high power lasers. To explore the ``Tera-Pascal Science,'' now we have a new tool which is an x-ray free electron laser as well as high power lasers. The XFEL will clear the details of the HED states and also efficiently create hot dense matter. We have started a new project on high energy density sciences using an XFEL (SACLA) in Japan, which is a HERMES (High Energy density Revolution of Matter in Extreme States) project.

  9. High energy-density physics: From nuclear testing to the superlasers

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, E.M.; Holmes, N.C.; Libby, S.B.; Remington, B.A.; Teller, E.

    1995-10-20

    We describe the role for the next-generation ``superlasers`` in the study of matter under extremely high energy density conditions, in comparison to previous uses of nuclear explosives for this purpose. As examples, we focus on three important areas of physics that have unresolved issues which must be addressed by experiment: Equations of state, hydrodynamic mixing, and the transport of radiation. We will describe the advantages the large lasers will have in a comprehensive experimental program.

  10. High energy-density physics: From nuclear testing to the superlasers

    SciTech Connect

    Teller, E.; Campbell, E.M.; Holmes, N.C.; Libby, S.B.; Remington, B.A.

    1995-08-14

    The authors describe the role for the next-generation ``superlasers`` in the study of matter under extremely high energy density conditions, in comparison to previous uses of nuclear explosives for this purpose. As examples, the authors focus on three important areas of physics that have unresolved issues which must be addressed by experiment: equations of state, turbulent hydrodynamics, and the transport of radiation. They describe the advantages the large lasers will have in a comprehensive experimental program.

  11. High-Energy-Density Cost-Effective Graphene Supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuilov, Vladimir; Ying Mu, Ying; Hedayat, Nader; Solovyov, Vyacheslav; Sensor CAT at Stony Brook Team

    We introduce a cost-effective graphene platelet composite material as a replacement of an expensive reduced graphene oxide for electrodes in high energy density supercapacitors. We have tested a low size supercapacitor prototypes with the graphene platelets electrodes and newly developed polymer-gel Li + ion electrolyte. We discuss the ways how to increase the capacitance and the energy densities of the supercapacitor significantly. A working prototype for testing the concept of the high voltage supercapacitor has been developed as well. The first test done up to 10 V showed excellent performance of the multy-cell multi-layer high voltage test assembly.

  12. Edge-enriched, porous carbon-based, high energy density supercapacitors for hybrid electric vehicles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Jung; Yang, Cheol-Min; Park, Ki Chul; Kaneko, Katsumi; Kim, Yoong Ahm; Noguchi, Minoru; Fujino, Takeshi; Oyama, Shigeki; Endo, Morinobu

    2012-03-12

    Supercapacitors can store and deliver energy by a simple charge separation, and thus they could be an attractive option to meet transient high energy density in operating fuel cells and in electric and hybrid electric vehicles. To achieve such requirements, intensive studies have been carried out to improve the volumetric capacitance in supercapacitors using various types and forms of carbons including carbon nanotubes and graphenes. However, conventional porous carbons are not suitable for use as electrode material in supercapacitors for such high energy density applications. Here, we show that edge-enriched porous carbons are the best electrode material for high energy density supercapacitors to be used in vehicles as an auxiliary powertrain. Molten potassium hydroxide penetrates well-aligned graphene layers vertically and consequently generates both suitable pores that are easily accessible to the electrolyte and a large fraction of electrochemically active edge sites. We expect that our findings will motivate further research related to energy storage devices and also environmentally friendly electric vehicles. PMID:22378623

  13. Edge-enriched, porous carbon-based, high energy density supercapacitors for hybrid electric vehicles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Jung; Yang, Cheol-Min; Park, Ki Chul; Kaneko, Katsumi; Kim, Yoong Ahm; Noguchi, Minoru; Fujino, Takeshi; Oyama, Shigeki; Endo, Morinobu

    2012-03-12

    Supercapacitors can store and deliver energy by a simple charge separation, and thus they could be an attractive option to meet transient high energy density in operating fuel cells and in electric and hybrid electric vehicles. To achieve such requirements, intensive studies have been carried out to improve the volumetric capacitance in supercapacitors using various types and forms of carbons including carbon nanotubes and graphenes. However, conventional porous carbons are not suitable for use as electrode material in supercapacitors for such high energy density applications. Here, we show that edge-enriched porous carbons are the best electrode material for high energy density supercapacitors to be used in vehicles as an auxiliary powertrain. Molten potassium hydroxide penetrates well-aligned graphene layers vertically and consequently generates both suitable pores that are easily accessible to the electrolyte and a large fraction of electrochemically active edge sites. We expect that our findings will motivate further research related to energy storage devices and also environmentally friendly electric vehicles.

  14. The Early Years of Indirect Drive Development for High Energy Density Physics Experiments at AWE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Brian

    2016-10-01

    The importance of laser driven indirect drive for high energy density physics experiments was recognised at A WE in 1971. The two beam 1TW HELEN laser was procured to work in this area and experiments with this system began in 1980. Early experiments in hohlraum coupling and performance scaling with both l.06μm and 0.53μm will be described together with experiments specifically designed to confirm the understanding of radiation wave propagation, hohlraum heating and hohlraum plasma filling. The use of indirect drive for early experiments to study spherical and cylindrical implosions, opacity, EOS, mix and planar radiation hydrodynamics experiments will also be described.

  15. The National Ignition Facility and the Golden Age of High Energy Density Science

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W; Moses, E I; Newton, M

    2007-09-27

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a 192-beam Nd:glass laser facility being constructed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to conduct research in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and high energy density (HED) science. When completed, NIF will produce 1.8 MJ, 500 TW of ultraviolet light, making it the world's largest and highest-energy laser system. The NIF is poised to become the world's preeminent facility for conducting ICF and fusion energy research and for studying matter at extreme densities and temperatures.

  16. CENTER FOR PULSED POWER DRIVEN HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PLASMA STUDIES

    SciTech Connect

    Professor Bruce R. Kusse; Professor David A. Hammer

    2007-04-18

    This annual report summarizes the activities of the Cornell Center for Pulsed-Power-Driven High-Energy-Density Plasma Studies, for the 12-month period October 1, 2005-September 30, 2006. This period corresponds to the first year of the two-year extension (awarded in October, 2005) to the original 3-year NNSA/DOE Cooperative Agreement with Cornell, DE-FC03-02NA00057. As such, the period covered in this report also corresponds to the fourth year of the (now) 5-year term of the Cooperative Agreement. The participants, in addition to Cornell University, include Imperial College, London (IC), the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR), the University of Rochester (UR), the Weizmann Institute of Science (WSI), and the P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute (LPI), Moscow. A listing of all faculty, technical staff and students, both graduate and undergraduate, who participated in Center research activities during the year in question is given in Appendix A.

  17. Theoretically predicted Fox-7 based new high energy density molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanta, Susanta

    2016-08-01

    Computational investigation of CHNO based high energy density molecules (HEDM) are designed with FOX-7 (1, 1-dinitro 2, 2-diamino ethylene) skeleton. We report structures, stability and detonation properties of these new molecules. A systematic analysis is presented for the crystal density, activation energy for nitro to nitrite isomerisation and the C-NO2 bond dissociation energy of these molecules. The Atoms in molecules (AIM) calculations have been performed to interpret the intra-molecular weak H-bonding interactions and the stability of C-NO2 bonds. The structure optimization, frequency and bond dissociation energy calculations have been performed at B3LYP level of theory by using G03 quantum chemistry package. Some of the designed molecules are found to be more promising HEDM than FOX-7 molecule, and are proposed to be candidate for synthetic purpose.

  18. L. V. Al'tshuler, and High Energy Density Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Carl H.; Krikorian, Nerses H.; Keeler, R. Norris

    2012-03-01

    Knowledge of high energy densities critical to cosmology and astrophysics was achieved and exchanged among a very few scientists at a time when science was even more constrained by political considerations that it is today. Resources for the early studies necessarily involved atomic weaponry. A history of L. V. Al'tshuler and some others in his science is given in cosmological context. In the beginning of cosmology and the Universe, negative Fortov-Planck1 pressures c7h-1G-2 of 4.6 10115 Pa are overcome by inertial-vortex anti-gravity (dark energy) pressures to achieve a turbulent big bang and the first turbulent combustion with power 1066 watts at the Kolmogorov-Planck scale 10-35 meters. The big bang event ceased when negative- pressure gluon-viscous-forces extracted 10100 kg of mass-energy from the vacuum to produce the observed fossil vorticity turbulence Universe and its inflation with power 10145 watts.

  19. Local thermodynamic equilibrium in rapidly heated high energy density plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Aslanyan, V.; Tallents, G. J.

    2014-06-15

    Emission spectra and the dynamics of high energy density plasmas created by optical and Free Electron Lasers (FELs) depend on the populations of atomic levels. Calculations of plasma emission and ionization may be simplified by assuming Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE), where populations are given by the Saha-Boltzmann equation. LTE can be achieved at high densities when collisional processes are much more significant than radiative processes, but may not be valid if plasma conditions change rapidly. A collisional-radiative model has been used to calculate the times taken by carbon and iron plasmas to reach LTE at varying densities and heating rates. The effect of different energy deposition methods, as well as Ionization Potential Depression are explored. This work shows regimes in rapidly changing plasmas, such as those created by optical lasers and FELs, where the use of LTE is justified, because timescales for plasma changes are significantly longer than the times needed to achieve an LTE ionization balance.

  20. The Atlas High-Energy Density Physics Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Harold A.; Keinigs, Rhon K.; Anderson, Wallace E.; Atchison, Walter L.; Bartsch, R. Richard; Benage, John F.; Ballard, Evan O.; Bowman, David W.; Cochrane, James C.; Ekdahl, Carl A.; Elizondo, Juan M.; Faehl, Rickey J.; Fulton, Robert D.; Gribble, Robert F.; Guzik, Joyce A.; Kyrala, George A.; Miller, R. Bruce; Nielsen, Kurt E.; Parker, Jerald V.; Parsons, W. Mark; Munson, Carter P.; Oro, David M.; Rodriguez, George E.; Rogers, Harold H.; Scudder, David W.; Shlachter, Jack S.; Stokes, John L.; Taylor, Antoinette J.; Trainor, R. James; Turchi, Peter J.; Wood, Blake P.

    2001-02-01

    Atlas is a pulsed-power facility under development at Los Alamos National Laboratory to drive high-energy density experiments. Atlas will be operational in the summer of 2000 and is optimized for the study of dynamic material properties, hydrodynamics, and dense plasmas under extreme conditions. Atlas is designed to implode heavy-liner loads in a z-pinch configuration. The peak current of 30 MA is delivered in 4 μs. A typical Atlas liner is a 47-gram-aluminum cylinder with ˜4-cm radius and 4-cm length. Three to five MJ of kinetic energy will be delivered to the load. Using composite layers and a variety of interior target designs, a wide variety of experiments in ˜cm3 volumes will be performed. Atlas applications, machine design, and the status of the project are reviewed.

  1. High energy density Z-pinch plasmas using flow stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Shumlak, U. Golingo, R. P. Nelson, B. A. Bowers, C. A. Doty, S. A. Forbes, E. G. Hughes, M. C. Kim, B. Knecht, S. D. Lambert, K. K. Lowrie, W. Ross, M. P. Weed, J. R.

    2014-12-15

    The ZaP Flow Z-Pinch research project[1] at the University of Washington investigates the effect of sheared flows on MHD instabilities. Axially flowing Z-pinch plasmas are produced that are 100 cm long with a 1 cm radius. The plasma remains quiescent for many radial Alfvén times and axial flow times. The quiescent periods are characterized by low magnetic mode activity measured at several locations along the plasma column and by stationary visible plasma emission. Plasma evolution is modeled with high-resolution simulation codes – Mach2, WARPX, NIMROD, and HiFi. Plasma flow profiles are experimentally measured with a multi-chord ion Doppler spectrometer. A sheared flow profile is observed to be coincident with the quiescent period, and is consistent with classical plasma viscosity. Equilibrium is determined by diagnostic measurements: interferometry for density; spectroscopy for ion temperature, plasma flow, and density[2]; Thomson scattering for electron temperature; Zeeman splitting for internal magnetic field measurements[3]; and fast framing photography for global structure. Wall stabilization has been investigated computationally and experimentally by removing 70% of the surrounding conducting wall to demonstrate no change in stability behavior.[4] Experimental evidence suggests that the plasma lifetime is only limited by plasma supply and current waveform. The flow Z-pinch concept provides an approach to achieve high energy density plasmas,[5] which are large, easy to diagnose, and persist for extended durations. A new experiment, ZaP-HD, has been built to investigate this approach by separating the flow Z-pinch formation from the radial compression using a triaxial-electrode configuration. This innovation allows more detailed investigations of the sheared flow stabilizing effect, and it allows compression to much higher densities than previously achieved on ZaP by reducing the linear density and increasing the pinch current. Experimental results and

  2. Upgrading of biorenewables to high energy density fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, John C; Batista, Enrique R; Chen, Weizhong; Currier, Robert P; Dirmyer, Matthew R; John, Kevin D; Kim, Jin K; Keith, Jason; Martin, Richard L; Pierpont, Aaron W; Silks Ill, L. A. "" Pete; Smythe, Mathan C; Sutton, Andrew D; Taw, Felicia L; Trovitch, Ryan J; Vasudevan, Kalyan V; Waidmann, Christopher R; Wu, Ruilian; Baker, R. Thomas; Schlaf, Marcel

    2010-12-07

    According to a recent report, lignocellulose is the most abundant renewable biological resource on earth, with an annual production of {approx} 200 x 10{sup 9} tons. Conversion of lignocellulosics derived from wood, agricultural wastes, and woody grasses into liquid fuels and value-added chemical feedstocks is an active area of research that has seen an explosion of effort due to the need to replace petroleum based sources. The carbohydrates D-glucose (C{sub 6}), L-arabinose (C{sub 5}), and D-xylose (C{sub 5}) are readily obtained from the hydrolysis of lignocellulose and constitute the most abundant renewable organic carbon source on the planet. Because they are naturally produced on such a large scale, these sugars have the greatest potential to displace petrochemical derived transportation fuel. Recent efforts in our laboratories aimed towards the production of high energy density transportation fuels from carbohydrates have been structured around the parameters of selective carbohydrate carbon chain extension chemistries, low reaction temperatures, and the desired use of water or neat substrate as the solvent. Some of our efforts in this regard will be presented.

  3. Plasma polymerized high energy density dielectric films for capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamagishi, F. G.

    1983-01-01

    High energy density polymeric dielectric films were prepared by plasma polymerization of a variety of gaseous monomers. This technique gives thin, reproducible, pinhole free, conformable, adherent, and insoluble coatings and overcomes the processing problems found in the preparation of thin films with bulk polymers. Thus, devices are prepared completely in a vacuum environment. The plasma polymerized films prepared all showed dielectric strengths of greater than 1000 kV/cm and in some cases values of greater than 4000 kV/cm were observed. The dielectric loss of all films was generally less than 1% at frequencies below 10 kHz, but this value increased at higher frequencies. All films were self healing. The dielectric strength was a function of the polymerization technique, whereas the dielectric constant varied with the structure of the starting material. Because of the thin films used (thickness in the submicron range) surface smoothness of the metal electrodes was found to be critical in obtaining high dielectric strengths. High dielectric strength graft copolymers were also prepared. Plasma polymerized ethane was found to be thermally stable up to 150 C in the presence of air and 250 C in the absence of air. No glass transitions were observed for this material.

  4. Characterizing high-energy-density propellants for space propulsion applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokan, Timothy S.; Olds, John R.; Seitzman, Jerry M.; Ludovice, Peter J.

    2009-10-01

    A technique for computationally determining the thermophysical properties of high-energy-density matter (HEDM) propellants is presented. HEDM compounds are of interest in the liquid rocket engine industry due to their high density and high energy content relative to existing industry-standard propellants. In order to accurately model rocket engine performance, cost and weight in a conceptual design environment, several thermodynamic and physical properties are required over a range of temperatures and pressures. The approach presented here combines quantum mechanical and molecular dynamic (MD) calculations and group additivity methods. A method for improving the force field model coefficients used in the MD is included. This approach is used to determine thermophysical properties for two HEDM compounds of interest: quadricyclane and 2-azido-N,N-dimethylethanamine (DMAZ). The modified force field approach provides results that more accurately match experimental data than the unmodified approach. Launch vehicle and Lunar lander case studies are presented to quantify the system level impact of employing quadricyclane and DMAZ rather than industry standard propellants. In both cases, the use of HEDM propellants provides reductions in vehicle mass compared to industry standard propellants. The results demonstrate that HEDM propellants can be an attractive technology for future launch vehicle and Lunar lander applications.

  5. Rationally designed polyimides for high-energy density capacitor applications.

    PubMed

    Ma, Rui; Baldwin, Aaron F; Wang, Chenchen; Offenbach, Ido; Cakmak, Mukerrem; Ramprasad, Rampi; Sotzing, Gregory A

    2014-07-01

    Development of new dielectric materials is of great importance for a wide range of applications for modern electronics and electrical power systems. The state-of-the-art polymer dielectric is a biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) film having a maximal energy density of 5 J/cm(3) and a high breakdown field of 700 MV/m, but with a limited dielectric constant (∼2.2) and a reduced breakdown strength above 85 °C. Great effort has been put into exploring other materials to fulfill the demand of continuous miniaturization and improved functionality. In this work, a series of polyimides were investigated as potential polymer materials for this application. Polyimide with high dielectric constants of up to 7.8 that exhibits low dissipation factors (<1%) and high energy density around 15 J/cm(3), which is 3 times that of BOPP, was prepared. Our syntheses were guided by high-throughput density functional theory calculations for rational design in terms of a high dielectric constant and band gap. Correlations of experimental and theoretical results through judicious variations of polyimide structures allowed for a clear demonstration of the relationship between chemical functionalities and dielectric properties.

  6. THE IRON OPACITY PROJECT: High-Energy-Density Plasma Opacities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palay, E.; Orban, C.; Nahar, S.; Pradhan, A.; Pinnsonoault, M.; Bailey, J.

    2013-05-01

    Opacity governs radiation flow in plasma sources. Accurate opacities are needed to model unobservable laboratory and astrophysical conditions. High-energy-density (HED) plasma conditions prevalent in stellar interiors can now be recreated in the laboratory. The Z-pinch fusion device at the Sandia National Lab can reproduce temperatures and densities near the boundary where radiation transport changes from diffusion to convection inside the Sun. To benchmark theoretical opacities experiments are essential to resolve the outstanding discrepancy in solar abundances. The most common volatile elements C, N, O, Ne, etc. have been spectroscopically measured to be up to 50% lower than the standard abundances. This introduces conflict in the derived values of basic solar parameters such as the radiation/convection boundary, sound speed, and the primordial He abundance with precisely measured oscillations of the Sun through Helioseismology. A potential solution is increment of stellar opacities, which has inverse but complex relation with abundacnes, at least 30%. New iron opacity calculations include hitherto neglected atomic physics of fine structure and resonances which are largely treated as lines in existing opacities calculations. Preliminary results on radiative transitions in Ne Partial support: DOE,NSF.

  7. Metrology Challenges for High Energy Density Science Target Manufacture

    SciTech Connect

    Seugling, R M; Bono, M J; Davis, P

    2009-02-19

    Currently, High Energy Density Science (HEDS) experiments are used to support and qualify predictive physics models. These models assume ideal conditions such as energy (input) and device (target) geometry. The experiments rely on precision targets constructed from components with dimensions in the millimeter range, while having micrometer-scale, functional features, including planar steps, sine waves, and step-joint geometry on hemispherical targets. Future target designs will likely have features and forms that rival or surpass current manufacturing and characterization capability. The dimensional metrology of these features is important for a number of reasons, including qualification of sub-components prior to assembly, quantification of critical features on the as-built assemblies and as a feedback mechanism for fabrication process development. Variations in geometry from part to part can lead to functional limitations, such as unpredictable instabilities during an experiment and the inability to assemble a target from poorly matched sub-components. Adding to the complexity are the large number and variety of materials, components, and shapes that render any single metrology technique difficult to use with low uncertainty. Common materials include metal and glass foams, doped transparent and opaque plastics and a variety of deposited and wrought metals. A suite of metrology tools and techniques developed to address the many critical issues relevant to the manufacture of HEDS targets including interferometry, x-ray radiography and contact metrology are presented including two sided interferometry for absolute thickness metrology and low force probe technology for micrometer feature coordinate metrology.

  8. High Energy Density Regenerative Fuel Cell Systems for Terrestrial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Kenneth A.

    1999-01-01

    Regenerative Fuel Cell System (RFCS) technology for energy storage has been a NASA power system concept for many years. Compared to battery-based energy storage systems, RFCS has received relatively little attention or resources for development because the energy density and electrical efficiency were not sufficiently attractive relative to advanced battery systems. Even today, RFCS remains at a very low technology readiness level (TRL of about 2 indicating feasibility has been demonstrated). Commercial development of the Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells for automobiles and other terrestrial applications and improvements in lightweight pressure vessel design to reduce weight and improve performance make possible a high energy density RFCS energy storage system. The results from this study of a lightweight RFCS energy storage system for a remotely piloted, solar-powered, high altitude aircraft indicate an energy density up to 790 w-h/kg with electrical efficiency of 53.4% is attainable. Such an energy storage system would allow a solar-powered aircraft to carry hundreds of kilograms of payload and remain in flight indefinitely for use in atmospheric research, earth observation, resource mapping. and telecommunications. Future developments in the areas of hydrogen and oxygen storage, pressure vessel design, higher temperature and higher- pressure fuel cell operation, unitized regenerative fuel cells, and commercial development of fuel cell technology will improve both the energy density and electrical efficiency of the RFCS.

  9. Nuclear isomers as ultra-high-energy-density materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppe, C. H.; Weiss, M. S.; Anderson, J. D.

    1992-04-01

    Nuclear isomers are metastable states of atomic nuclei which release their energy in a prompt burst of electromagnetic radiation. Two kinds of nuclear isomers are known to exist: spin isomers and shape isomers. There is evidence for at least 27 different fissionless shape isomers in isotopes of mercury, lead, and thallium, in agreement with theoretical predictions. Three potential mechanisms for releasing the stored isomeric energy are neutron catalysis, laser-electron-nuclear coupling, and Stark-shift-induced mixing. While shape isomers are believed to hold the most promise for radioactivity-free, ultra-high-energy-density materials, spin isomers can be used as surrogates for developing the release mechanisms. It is proposed to undertake shell-model calculations for the nuclear levels in vicinity of the (sup 178)Hf spin isomer, in order to estimate the efficacy of neutron catalysis. It is also proposed to use the toroidal electron spectrometer to measure the conversion electrons from laser-induced transitions in (sup 229)Th. The final mechanism, Stark-shift-induced mixing of atomic and nuclear levels, would also be studied theoretically. Finally, isomer production is considered briefly, including the possibility of shape isomers in fission products from radwaste or nuclear explosions.

  10. Simulations of high energy density plasma physics and laboratory astrophysics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chittenden, J. P.; Marocchino, A.; Lebedev, S. V.; Smith, R. A.; Ciardi, A.; Jennings, C. A.

    2008-04-01

    We show how 3D resistive MHD simulations can be used in the design and interpretation of Laboratory Astrophysics and High Energy Density Plasma Physics experiments at Imperial College, Sandia National Laboratory and Centre d'Etudes de Gramat. Using pulsed power generators to drive conical wire arrays, provides a mechanism of generating radiatively cooled hypersonic jets which model the interaction of jets from young stellar objects with the ISM and the deflection of these jets by side-winds. Radial wire arrays can be used to study magnetically launched jets, the effects of field topology on jet stability and episodic jets. Radial arrays also represent a high intensity compact radiation source, with potential applications to inertial confinement fusion. The collision of a magnetically accelerated foil with a gaseous target can be used to study of shock waves with strong radiative cooling. The interaction of a short pulse laser with cluster media can generate expanding blast waves in high energy density plasmas. Simulations of experiments with two cylindrical expanding blast waves, show the evolution of a complex 3D Mach stem, which can be compared to tomographic experimental data.

  11. Ion beam generating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Brown, I.G.; Galvin, J.

    1987-12-22

    An ion generating apparatus utilizing a vacuum chamber, a cathode and an anode in the chamber. A source of electrical power produces an arc or discharge between the cathode and anode. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma is directed to an extractor which separates the electrons from the plasma, and accelerates the ions to produce an ion beam. 10 figs.

  12. High energy density capacitors using nano-structure multilayer technology

    SciTech Connect

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Johnson, G.W.; O`Brien, D.W.

    1992-08-01

    Today, many pulse power and industrial applications are limited by capacitor performance. While incremental improvements are anticipated from existing capacitor technologies, significant advances are needed in energy density to enable these applications for both the military and for American economic competitiveness. We propose a program to research and develop a novel technology for making high voltage, high energy density capacitors. Nano-structure multilayer technologies developed at LLNL may well provide a breakthrough in capacitor performance. Our controlled sputtering techniques are capable of laying down extraordinarily smooth sub-micron layers of dielectric and conductor materials. With this technology, high voltage capacitors with an order of magnitude improvement in energy density may be achievable. Well-understood dielectrics and new materials will be investigated for use with this technology. Capacitors developed by nano-structure multilayer technology are inherently solid state, exhibiting extraordinary mechanical and thermal properties. The conceptual design of a Notepad capacitor is discussed to illustrate capacitor and capacitor bank design and performance with this technology. We propose a two phase R&D program to address DNA`s capacitor needs for electro-thermal propulsion and similar pulse power programs. Phase 1 will prove the concept and further our understanding of dielectric materials and design tradeoffs with multilayers. Nano-structure multilayer capacitors will be developed and characterized. As our materials research and modeling prove successful, technology insertion in our capacitor designs will improve the possibility for dramatic performance improvements. In Phase 2, we will make Notepad capacitors, construct a capacitor bank and demonstrate its performance in a meaningful pulse power application. We will work with industrial partners to design full scale manufacturing and move this technology to industry for volume production.

  13. High Energy Density Studies at the OMEGA laser facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehly, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    The primary emphasis of the scientific program at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics is laser-driven inertial confinement fusion. We report on high-energy-density (HED) experiments that use the OMEGA laser to produce multi-megabar shocks in materials of interest to the national fusion effort and the associated HED sciences. We present measurements of the behavior of shocked diamond, in both the single-crystal and ultranano-crystalline forms used as an ablator material in fusion capsules. Using the impedance-matching technique both the Hugoniot and release behaviors are measured with respect to multiple reference materials. The release of shocked diamond into liquid deuterium is also measured. We present the results of sound-speed measurements in shocked quartz which is also used as a reference for sound speed measurements in CH and fused silica. This is done using an unsteady wave analysis that tracks the propagation of small perturbations in shock pressure as they traverse the shocked material from `piston' to shock front. The arrival times of these perturbations, as compared to the same in a reference material, provides the sound speed in the shock material. We also present results of optical and x-ray probing of shock waves in foam targets and solid targets, as well as the release plumes of shock material after shock breakout. The import of these measurements to the fusion program and basic HED science will be discussed and plans for future work presented. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC52-08NA28302.

  14. Creating High Energy Density Jets in Laboratory Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coker, Robert

    2005-04-01

    A new experimental platform for the investigation of high Mach-number, high energy-density jets has been developed at the University of Rochester's Omega laser facility. Assuming the scalability of the Euler equations, the resulting mm-sized jets should scale to astrophysical objects such as Herbig-Haro objects and jet-driven supernovae that may involve jets with similar internal Mach numbers. This scalability still holds in the presence of radiation as long as the relative importance of radiative cooling is similar. In these experiments, either direct or indirect laser drive is used to launch a strong shock into a 125 micron thick titanium foil target that caps a 700 micron thick titanium washer. After the shock breaks out into the 300 micron diameter cylindrical hole in the washer, a dense, well-collimated jet with an energy density of more than 0.1 MJ per cc is formed. The jet is then imaged as it propagates for 100s of ns down a cylinder of low-density polymer foam. The experiments are diagnosed by point-projection with a micro-dot vanadium backligher. The field of view is several mm and the resolution is 15 microns. The X-ray radiographs show the hydrodynamically unstable jet and the bow shock driving into the surrounding foam. Such complex experimental data provide a challenge to hydrocodes and so are being used to test the hydrodynamic simulations of these types of flows. Initial comparisons between the data and LANL and AWE simulations will be shown. However, the high Reynolds numbers of both the laboratory and astrophysical jets suggest that, given sufficient time and shear, turbulence should develop; this cannot be reliably modeled by present, resolution-limited simulations. Future work concerning the applicability of the Omega experiments to astrophysical objects and the quantitative study of turbulent mixing via subgrid-scale models will be discussed.

  15. Characterizing high-energy-density propellants for space propulsion applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokan, Timothy

    There exists wide ranging research interest in high-energy-density matter (HEDM) propellants as a potential replacement for existing industry standard fuels for liquid rocket engines. The U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army Research Lab, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, and the NASA Glenn Research Center each either recently concluded or currently has ongoing programs in the synthesis and development of these potential new propellants. In order to perform conceptual designs using these new propellants, most conceptual rocket engine powerhead design tools (e.g. NPSS, ROCETS, and REDTOP-2) require several thermophysical properties of a given propellant over a wide range of temperature and pressure. These properties include enthalpy, entropy, density, viscosity, and thermal conductivity. Very little thermophysical property data exists for most of these potential new HEDM propellants. Experimental testing of these properties is both expensive and time consuming and is impractical in a conceptual vehicle design environment. A new technique for determining these thermophysical properties of potential new rocket engine propellants is presented. The technique uses a combination of three different computational methods to determine these properties. Quantum mechanics and molecular dynamics are used to model new propellants at a molecular level in order to calculate density, enthalpy, and entropy. Additivity methods are used to calculate the kinematic viscosity and thermal conductivity of new propellants. This new technique is validated via a series of verification experiments of HEDM compounds. Results are provided for two HEDM propellants: quadricyclane and 2-azido-N,N-dimethylethanamine (DMAZ). In each case, the new technique does a better job than the best current computational methods at accurately matching the experimental data of the HEDM compounds of interest. A case study is provided to help quantify the vehicle level impacts of using HEDM

  16. Light beam frequency comb generator

    DOEpatents

    Priatko, G.J.; Kaskey, J.A.

    1992-11-24

    A light beam frequency comb generator uses an acousto-optic modulator to generate a plurality of light beams with frequencies which are uniformly separated and possess common noise and drift characteristics. A well collimated monochromatic input light beam is passed through this modulator to produce a set of both frequency shifted and unshifted optical beams. An optical system directs one or more frequency shifted beams along a path which is parallel to the path of the input light beam such that the frequency shifted beams are made incident on the modulator proximate to but separated from the point of incidence of the input light beam. After the beam is thus returned to and passed through the modulator repeatedly, a plurality of mutually parallel beams are generated which are frequency-shifted different numbers of times and possess common noise and drift characteristics. 2 figs.

  17. Light beam frequency comb generator

    DOEpatents

    Priatko, Gordon J.; Kaskey, Jeffrey A.

    1992-01-01

    A light beam frequency comb generator uses an acousto-optic modulator to generate a plurality of light beams with frequencies which are uniformly separated and possess common noise and drift characteristics. A well collimated monochromatic input light beam is passed through this modulator to produce a set of both frequency shifted and unshifted optical beams. An optical system directs one or more frequency shifted beams along a path which is parallel to the path of the input light beam such that the frequency shifted beams are made incident on the modulator proximate to but separated from the point of incidence of the input light beam. After the beam is thus returned to and passed through the modulator repeatedly, a plurality of mutually parallel beams are generated which are frequency-shifted different numbers of times and possess common noise and drift characteristics.

  18. TEMPO-based catholyte for high-energy density nonaqueous redox flow batteries.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaoliang; Xu, Wu; Vijayakumar, Murugesan; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Liu, Tianbiao; Sprenkle, Vincent; Wang, Wei

    2014-12-01

    A TEMPO-based non-aqueous electrolyte with the TEMPO concentration as high as 2.0 m is demonstrated as a high-energy-density catholyte for redox flow battery applications. With a hybrid anode, Li|TEMPO flow cells using this electrolyte deliver an energy efficiency of ca. 70% and an impressively high energy density of 126 W h L(-1) .

  19. Characterization of magnetic reconnection in the high-energy-density regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Z.; Qiao, B.; Chang, H. X.; Yao, W. P.; Wu, S. Z.; Yan, X. Q.; Zhou, C. T.; Wang, X. G.; He, X. T.

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of magnetic reconnection (MR) in the high-energy-density (HED) regime, where the plasma inflow is strongly driven and the thermal pressure is larger than the magnetic pressure (β >1 ), is reexamined theoretically and by particle-in-cell simulations. Interactions of two colliding laser-produced plasma bubbles with self-generated poloidal magnetic fields of, respectively, antiparallel and parallel field lines are considered. Through comparison, it is found that the quadrupole magnetic field, bipolar poloidal electric field, plasma heating, and even the out-of-plane electric field can appear in both cases due to the mere plasma bubble collision, which may not be individually recognized as evidences of MR in the HED regime separately. The Lorentz-invariant scalar quantity De≃γej .(E +ve×B ) {γe=[1-(ve/c) 2]-1/2 }in the electron dissipation region is proposed as the key sign of MR occurrence in this regime.

  20. Note: Experimental platform for magnetized high-energy-density plasma studies at the omega laser facility

    SciTech Connect

    Fiksel, G.; Agliata, A.; Barnak, D.; Brent, G.; Chang, P. -Y.; Folnsbee, L.; Gates, G.; Hasset, D.; Lonobile, D.; Magoon, J.; Mastrosimone, D.; Shoup, III, M. J.; Betti, R.

    2015-01-12

    Here, an upgrade of the pulsed magnetic field generator magneto-inertial fusion electrical discharge system [O. Gotchev et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 043504 (2009)] is described. The device is used to study magnetized high-energy-density plasma and is capable of producing a pulsed magnetic field of tens of tesla in a volume of a few cubic centimeters. The magnetic field is created by discharging a high-voltage capacitor through a small wire-wound coil. The coil current pulse has a duration of about 1 μs and a peak value of 40 kA. Compared to the original, the updated version has a larger energy storage and improved switching system. In addition, magnetic coils are fabricated using 3-D printing technology which allows for a greater variety of the magnetic field topology.

  1. Note: Experimental platform for magnetized high-energy-density plasma studies at the omega laser facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiksel, G.; Agliata, A.; Barnak, D.; Brent, G.; Chang, P.-Y.; Folnsbee, L.; Gates, G.; Hasset, D.; Lonobile, D.; Magoon, J.; Mastrosimone, D.; Shoup, M. J.; Betti, R.

    2015-01-01

    An upgrade of the pulsed magnetic field generator magneto-inertial fusion electrical discharge system [O. Gotchev et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 043504 (2009)] is described. The device is used to study magnetized high-energy-density plasma and is capable of producing a pulsed magnetic field of tens of tesla in a volume of a few cubic centimeters. The magnetic field is created by discharging a high-voltage capacitor through a small wire-wound coil. The coil current pulse has a duration of about 1 μs and a peak value of 40 kA. Compared to the original, the updated version has a larger energy storage and improved switching system. In addition, magnetic coils are fabricated using 3-D printing technology which allows for a greater variety of the magnetic field topology.

  2. Note: Experimental platform for magnetized high-energy-density plasma studies at the omega laser facility.

    PubMed

    Fiksel, G; Agliata, A; Barnak, D; Brent, G; Chang, P-Y; Folnsbee, L; Gates, G; Hasset, D; Lonobile, D; Magoon, J; Mastrosimone, D; Shoup, M J; Betti, R

    2015-01-01

    An upgrade of the pulsed magnetic field generator magneto-inertial fusion electrical discharge system [O. Gotchev et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 043504 (2009)] is described. The device is used to study magnetized high-energy-density plasma and is capable of producing a pulsed magnetic field of tens of tesla in a volume of a few cubic centimeters. The magnetic field is created by discharging a high-voltage capacitor through a small wire-wound coil. The coil current pulse has a duration of about 1 μs and a peak value of 40 kA. Compared to the original, the updated version has a larger energy storage and improved switching system. In addition, magnetic coils are fabricated using 3-D printing technology which allows for a greater variety of the magnetic field topology. PMID:25638132

  3. Note: Experimental platform for magnetized high-energy-density plasma studies at the omega laser facility

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Fiksel, G.; Agliata, A.; Barnak, D.; Brent, G.; Chang, P. -Y.; Folnsbee, L.; Gates, G.; Hasset, D.; Lonobile, D.; Magoon, J.; et al

    2015-01-12

    Here, an upgrade of the pulsed magnetic field generator magneto-inertial fusion electrical discharge system [O. Gotchev et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 043504 (2009)] is described. The device is used to study magnetized high-energy-density plasma and is capable of producing a pulsed magnetic field of tens of tesla in a volume of a few cubic centimeters. The magnetic field is created by discharging a high-voltage capacitor through a small wire-wound coil. The coil current pulse has a duration of about 1 μs and a peak value of 40 kA. Compared to the original, the updated version has a larger energymore » storage and improved switching system. In addition, magnetic coils are fabricated using 3-D printing technology which allows for a greater variety of the magnetic field topology.« less

  4. Intense ion beam generator

    DOEpatents

    Humphries, Jr., Stanley; Sudan, Ravindra N.

    1977-08-30

    Methods and apparatus for producing intense megavolt ion beams are disclosed. In one embodiment, a reflex triode-type pulsed ion accelerator is described which produces ion pulses of more than 5 kiloamperes current with a peak energy of 3 MeV. In other embodiments, the device is constructed so as to focus the beam of ions for high concentration and ease of extraction, and magnetic insulation is provided to increase the efficiency of operation.

  5. The National Ignition Facility: A New Era in High Energy Density Science

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, E

    2009-06-10

    The National Ignition Facility, the world's most energetic laser system, is now operational. This talk will describe NIF, the ignition campaign, and new opportunities in fusion energy and high energy density science enabled by NIF.

  6. Strongly Driven Magnetic Reconnection in a Magnetized High-Energy-Density Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiksel, G.; Barnak, D. H.; Chang, P.-Y.; Haberberger, D.; Hu, S. X.; Ivancic, S.; Nilson, P. M.; Fox, W.; Deng, W.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Germaschewski, K.

    2014-10-01

    Magnetic reconnection in a magnetized high-energy-density plasma is characterized by measuring the dynamics of the plasma density and magnetic field between two counter-propagating and colliding plasma flows. The density and magnetic field were profiled using the 4 ω angular filter refractometry and fast proton deflectometry diagnostics, respectively. The plasma flows are created by irradiating oppositely placed plastic targets with 1.8-kJ, 2-ns laser beams on the OMEGA EP Laser System. The two plumes are magnetized by an externally controlled magnetic field with an x-type null point geometry with B = 0 at the midplane and B = 8 T at the targets. The interaction region is pre-filled with a low-density background plasma. The counterflowing super-Alfvénic plasma plumes sweep up and compress the magnetic field and the background plasma into a pair of magnetized ribbons, which collide, stagnate, and reconnect at the midplane, allowing for the first detailed observation of a stretched current sheet in laser-driven reconnection experiments. The measurements are in good agreement with first-principles particle-in-cell simulations. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944 and NLUF Grant DE-SC0008655.

  7. High-Energy Density science at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Glenzer, S. H.; Fletcher, L. B.; Hastings, J. B.

    2016-03-01

    The Matter in Extreme Conditions end station at the Linac Coherent Light Source holds great promise for novel pump-probe experiments to make new discoveries in high- energy density science. Recently, our experiments have demonstrated the first spectrally- resolved measurements of plasmons using a seeded 8-keV x-ray laser beam. Forward x-ray Thomson scattering spectra from isochorically heated solid aluminum show a well-resolved plasmon feature that is down-shifted in energy by 19 eV from the incident 8 keV elastic scattering feature. In this spectral range, the simultaneously measured backscatter spectrum shows no spectral features indicating observation of collective plasmon oscillations on amore » scattering length comparable to the screening length. Moreover, this technique is a prerequisite for Thomson scattering measurements in compressed matter where the plasmon shift is a sensitive function of the free electron density and where the plasmon intensity provides information on temperature.« less

  8. High energy density interpenetrating networks from ionic networks and silicone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Liyun; Madsen, Frederikke B.; Hvilsted, Søren; Skov, Anne L.

    2015-04-01

    The energy density of dielectric elastomers (DEs) is sought increased for better exploitation of the DE technology since an increased energy density means that the driving voltage for a certain strain can be lowered in actuation mode or alternatively that more energy can be harvested in generator mode. One way to increase the energy density is to increase dielectric permittivity of the elastomer. A novel silicone elastomer system with high dielectric permittivity was prepared through the development of interpenetrating networks from ionically assembled silicone polymers and covalently crosslinked silicones. The system has many degrees of freedom since the ionic network is formed from two polymers (amine and carboxylic acid functional, respectively) of which the chain lengths can be varied, as well as the covalent silicone elastomer with many degrees of freedom arising from amongst many the varying content of silica particles. A parameter study is performed to elucidate which compositions are most favorable for the use as dielectric elastomers. The elastomers were furthermore shown to be self-repairing upon electrical breakdown.

  9. TEMPO-based catholyte for high-energy density nonaqueous redox flow batteries.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaoliang; Xu, Wu; Vijayakumar, Murugesan; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Liu, Tianbiao; Sprenkle, Vincent; Wang, Wei

    2014-12-01

    A TEMPO-based non-aqueous electrolyte with the TEMPO concentration as high as 2.0 m is demonstrated as a high-energy-density catholyte for redox flow battery applications. With a hybrid anode, Li|TEMPO flow cells using this electrolyte deliver an energy efficiency of ca. 70% and an impressively high energy density of 126 W h L(-1) . PMID:25327755

  10. Report of the Interagency Task Force on High Energy Density Physics

    SciTech Connect

    2007-08-01

    Identifies the needs for improving Federal stewardship of specific aspects of high energy density physics, particularly the study of high energy density plasmas in the laboratory, and strengthening university activities in this latter discipline. The report articulates how HEDP fits into the portfolio of federally funded missions and includes agency actions to be taken that are necessary to further this area of study consistent with Federal priorities and plans, while being responsive to the needs of the scientific community.

  11. Magnetic reconnection in high-energy-density plasmas in the presence of an external magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, W.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Fiksel, G.; Nilson, P.; Hu, S.; Chang, P.-Y.; Barnak, D.; Betti, R.

    2012-10-01

    Magnetic reconnection has recently been observed and studied in high-energy-density, laser-produced plasmas. These experiments are interesting both for obtaining fundamental data on reconnection, and may also be relevant for inertial fusion, as this magnetic reconnection geometry, with multiple, colliding, magnetized plasma bubbles, occurs naturally inside ICF hohlraums. We present initial results of experiments conducted on the OMEGA EP facility on magnetic reconnection between colliding, magnetized blowoff plasmas. While in previous experiments the magnetic fields were self-generated in the plasma by the Biermann battery effect, in these experiments the seed magnetic field is generated by pulsing current through a pair of external foils using the MIFEDS current generator (Magneto-Inertial Fusion Electrical Discharge System) developed at LLE. Time-resolved images of the magnetic fields and plasma dynamics are obtained from proton radiography and x-ray self-emission, respectively. We present initial results of the experiments, including comparison to ``null'' experiments with zero MIFEDS magnetic field, and associated modeling using the radiation-hydro code DRACO and the particle-in-cell code PSC.

  12. Toward high-energy-density, high-efficiency, and moderate-temperature chip-scale thermophotovoltaics

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Walker R.; Bermel, Peter; Pilawa-Podgurski, Robert C. N.; Marton, Christopher H.; Jensen, Klavs F.; Senkevich, Jay J.; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljačić, Marin; Celanovic, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    The challenging problem of ultra-high-energy-density, high-efficiency, and small-scale portable power generation is addressed here using a distinctive thermophotovoltaic energy conversion mechanism and chip-based system design, which we name the microthermophotovoltaic (μTPV) generator. The approach is predicted to be capable of up to 32% efficient heat-to-electricity conversion within a millimeter-scale form factor. Although considerable technological barriers need to be overcome to reach full performance, we have performed a robust experimental demonstration that validates the theoretical framework and the key system components. Even with a much-simplified μTPV system design with theoretical efficiency prediction of 2.7%, we experimentally demonstrate 2.5% efficiency. The μTPV experimental system that was built and tested comprises a silicon propane microcombustor, an integrated high-temperature photonic crystal selective thermal emitter, four 0.55-eV GaInAsSb thermophotovoltaic diodes, and an ultra-high-efficiency maximum power-point tracking power electronics converter. The system was demonstrated to operate up to 800 °C (silicon microcombustor temperature) with an input thermal power of 13.7 W, generating 344 mW of electric power over a 1-cm2 area. PMID:23440220

  13. Toward high-energy-density, high-efficiency, and moderate-temperature chip-scale thermophotovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Chan, Walker R; Bermel, Peter; Pilawa-Podgurski, Robert C N; Marton, Christopher H; Jensen, Klavs F; Senkevich, Jay J; Joannopoulos, John D; Soljacic, Marin; Celanovic, Ivan

    2013-04-01

    The challenging problem of ultra-high-energy-density, high-efficiency, and small-scale portable power generation is addressed here using a distinctive thermophotovoltaic energy conversion mechanism and chip-based system design, which we name the microthermophotovoltaic (μTPV) generator. The approach is predicted to be capable of up to 32% efficient heat-to-electricity conversion within a millimeter-scale form factor. Although considerable technological barriers need to be overcome to reach full performance, we have performed a robust experimental demonstration that validates the theoretical framework and the key system components. Even with a much-simplified μTPV system design with theoretical efficiency prediction of 2.7%, we experimentally demonstrate 2.5% efficiency. The μTPV experimental system that was built and tested comprises a silicon propane microcombustor, an integrated high-temperature photonic crystal selective thermal emitter, four 0.55-eV GaInAsSb thermophotovoltaic diodes, and an ultra-high-efficiency maximum power-point tracking power electronics converter. The system was demonstrated to operate up to 800 °C (silicon microcombustor temperature) with an input thermal power of 13.7 W, generating 344 mW of electric power over a 1-cm(2) area. PMID:23440220

  14. Magnetic reconnection in high-energy-density laser-produced plasmasa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, W.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Germaschewski, K.

    2012-05-01

    Recently, novel experiments on magnetic reconnection have been conducted in laser-produced plasmas in a high-energy-density regime. Individual plasma bubbles self-generate toroidal, mega-gauss-scale magnetic fields through the Biermann battery effect. When multiple bubbles are created at small separation, they expand into one another, driving reconnection of this field. Reconnection in the experiments was reported to be much faster than allowed by both Sweet-Parker, and even Hall-MHD theories, when normalized to the nominal magnetic fields self-generated by single bubbles. Through particle-in-cell simulations (both with and without a binary collision operator), we model the bubble interaction at parameters and geometry relevant to the experiments. This paper discusses in detail the reconnection regime of the laser-driven experiments and reports the qualitative features of simulations. We find substantial flux-pileup effects, which boost the relevant magnetic field for reconnection in the current sheet. When this is accounted for, the normalized reconnection rates are much more in line with standard two-fluid theory of reconnection. At the largest system sizes, we additionally find that the current sheet is prone to breakup into plasmoids.

  15. Magnetic reconnection in high-energy-density laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, W.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Germaschewski, K.

    2012-05-15

    Recently, novel experiments on magnetic reconnection have been conducted in laser-produced plasmas in a high-energy-density regime. Individual plasma bubbles self-generate toroidal, mega-gauss-scale magnetic fields through the Biermann battery effect. When multiple bubbles are created at small separation, they expand into one another, driving reconnection of this field. Reconnection in the experiments was reported to be much faster than allowed by both Sweet-Parker, and even Hall-MHD theories, when normalized to the nominal magnetic fields self-generated by single bubbles. Through particle-in-cell simulations (both with and without a binary collision operator), we model the bubble interaction at parameters and geometry relevant to the experiments. This paper discusses in detail the reconnection regime of the laser-driven experiments and reports the qualitative features of simulations. We find substantial flux-pileup effects, which boost the relevant magnetic field for reconnection in the current sheet. When this is accounted for, the normalized reconnection rates are much more in line with standard two-fluid theory of reconnection. At the largest system sizes, we additionally find that the current sheet is prone to breakup into plasmoids.

  16. Direct generation of Bessel beams.

    PubMed

    Muys, Peter; Vandamme, Eefje

    2002-10-20

    Two implementations are identified to create a Bessel beam directly, i.e. without the spatial filtering of an initially Gaussian beam. The first implementation is based on a resonator configuration whose lowest-loss transverse mode is a Bessel beam. Numerical simulation to corroborate the geometrical optical arguments is presented. The second implementation is based on the theorem that the angular-plane wave spectrum of a Bessel beam is composed of a cone of wave vectors. This cone is also generated through a phase-matching condition in a four-wave mixing process. This leads to the conclusion that anti-Stokes radiation generated in a nonlinear material will leave the substrate under the form of a Bessel beam.

  17. Direct generation of Bessel beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muys, Peter; Vandamme, Eefje

    2002-10-01

    Two implementations are identified to create a Bessel beam directly, i.e. without the spatial filtering of an initially Gaussian beam. The first implementation is based on a resonator configuration whose lowest-loss transverse mode is a Bessel beam. Numerical simulation to corroborate the geometrical optical arguments is presented. The second implementation is based on the theorem that the angular-plane wave spectrum of a Bessel beam is composed of a cone of wave vectors. This cone is also generated through a phase-matching condition in a four-wave mixing process. This leads to the conclusion that anti-Stokes radiation generated in a nonlinear material will leave the substrate under the form of a Bessel beam.

  18. Generation of electron Airy beams.

    PubMed

    Voloch-Bloch, Noa; Lereah, Yossi; Lilach, Yigal; Gover, Avraham; Arie, Ady

    2013-02-21

    Within the framework of quantum mechanics, a unique particle wave packet exists in the form of the Airy function. Its counterintuitive properties are revealed as it propagates in time or space: the quantum probability wave packet preserves its shape despite dispersion or diffraction and propagates along a parabolic caustic trajectory, even though no force is applied. This does not contradict Newton's laws of motion, because the wave packet centroid propagates along a straight line. Nearly 30 years later, this wave packet, known as an accelerating Airy beam, was realized in the optical domain; later it was generalized to an orthogonal and complete family of beams that propagate along parabolic trajectories, as well as to beams that propagate along arbitrary convex trajectories. Here we report the experimental generation and observation of the Airy beams of free electrons. These electron Airy beams were generated by diffraction of electrons through a nanoscale hologram, which imprinted on the electrons' wavefunction a cubic phase modulation in the transverse plane. The highest-intensity lobes of the generated beams indeed followed parabolic trajectories. We directly observed a non-spreading electron wavefunction that self-heals, restoring its original shape after passing an obstacle. This holographic generation of electron Airy beams opens up new avenues for steering electronic wave packets like their photonic counterparts, because the wave packets can be imprinted with arbitrary shapes or trajectories.

  19. The impact of Hall physics on magnetized high energy density plasma jets

    SciTech Connect

    Gourdain, P.-A.; Seyler, C. E.; Atoyan, L.; Greenly, J. B.; Hammer, D. A.; Kusse, B. R.; Pikuz, S. A.; Potter, W. M.; Schrafel, P. C.; Shelkovenko, T. A.

    2014-05-15

    Hall physics is often neglected in high energy density plasma jets due to the relatively high electron density of such jets (n{sub e} ∼ 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}). However, the vacuum region surrounding the jet has much lower densities and is dominated by Hall electric field. This electric field redirects plasma flows towards or away from the axis, depending on the radial current direction. A resulting change in the jet density has been observed experimentally. Furthermore, if an axial field is applied on the jet, the Hall effect is enhanced and ignoring it leads to serious discrepancies between experimental results and numerical simulations. By combining high currents (∼1 MA) and magnetic field helicity (15° angle) in a pulsed power generator such as COBRA, plasma jets can be magnetized with a 10 T axial field. The resulting field enhances the impact of the Hall effect by altering the density profile of current-free plasma jets and the stability of current-carrying plasma jets (e.g., Z-pinches)

  20. 3-D simulations of magnetic reconnection in high-energy-density laser-produced plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, W.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Germaschewski, K.

    2012-10-01

    Magnetic reconnection has recently been observed and studied in high-energy-density, laser-produced plasmas, in a regime characterized by extremely high magnetic fields, high plasma beta and strong, supersonic plasma inflow. These experiments are interesting both for obtaining fundamental data on reconnection, and may also be relevant for inertial fusion, as this magnetic reconnection geometry, with multiple, colliding, magnetized plasma bubbles occurs naturally inside ICF hohlraums. Previous 2-d particle-in-cell reconnection simulations, with parameters and geometry relevant to the experiments, identified key ingredients for obtaining the very fast reconnection rates, namely two-fluid reconnection mediated by collisionless effects (the Hall current and electron pressure tensor), and strong flux pile-up of the inflowing magnetic field [1]. We present results from extending the previous simulations to 3-d, and discuss 3-d effects in the experiments, including instabilities in the reconnection layer, the topological skeleton of null-null lines, and field-generation from the Biermann battery effect. [4pt] [1] W. Fox, A. Bhattacharjee, and K. Germaschewski, PRL 106, 215003 (2011).

  1. Particle simulation of high-energy-density laser-driven reconnection experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, A.; Fox, W.; Germaschewski, K.

    2012-10-01

    Recently, reconnection between magnetic fields, self-generated through the Biermann battery effect, has been observed and studied in high-energy-density, laser-driven experiments on the Vulcan, OMEGA, and Shenguang laser facilities. This is a novel regime for magnetic reconnection study, characterized by extremely high magnetic fields, high plasma beta and strong, supersonic plasma inflow. Reconnection in this regime is investigated with particle-in-cell simulations using the PSC code. Previous 2-d particle-in-cell reconnection simulations with parameters and geometry relevant to the experiments identified key ingredients for obtaining the very fast reconnection rates, namely two-fluid reconnection mediated by collisionless effects (that is, the Hall current and electron pressure tensor), strong flux pile-up of the inflowing magnetic field [1], and secondary instabilities that lead to magnetic island formation. We present further detailed simulations of reconnection in this geometry, exploring the role of binary particle collisions and examining mechanisms for particle energization and acceleration, as has been recently observed in laser-driven reconnection experiments [2].[4pt] [1] W. Fox, et al, PRL 106, 215003 (2011).[0pt] [2] Q.L.Dong, et al., PRL 108, 215001 (2012).

  2. Experimental investigation of opacity models for stellar interior, inertial fusion, and high energy density plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, J. E.; Rochau, G. A.; Mancini, R. C.; Iglesias, C. A.; MacFarlane, J. J.; Golovkin, I. E.; Blancard, C.; Cosse, Ph.; Faussurier, G.

    2009-05-15

    Theoretical opacities are required for calculating energy transport in plasmas. In particular, understanding stellar interiors, inertial fusion, and Z pinches depends on the opacities of mid-atomic-number elements over a wide range of temperatures. The 150-300 eV temperature range is particularly interesting. The opacity models are complex and experimental validation is crucial. For example, solar models presently disagree with helioseismology and one possible explanation is inadequate theoretical opacities. Testing these opacities requires well-characterized plasmas at temperatures high enough to produce the ion charge states that exist in the sun. Typical opacity experiments heat a sample using x rays and measure the spectrally resolved transmission with a backlight. The difficulty grows as the temperature increases because the heating x-ray source must supply more energy and the backlight must be bright enough to overwhelm the plasma self-emission. These problems can be overcome with the new generation of high energy density (HED) facilities. For example, recent experiments at Sandia's Z facility [M. K. Matzen et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 055503 (2005)] measured the transmission of a mixed Mg and Fe plasma heated to 156{+-}6 eV. This capability will also advance opacity science for other HED plasmas. This tutorial reviews experimental methods for testing opacity models, including experiment design, transmission measurement methods, accuracy evaluation, and plasma diagnostics. The solar interior serves as a focal problem and Z facility experiments illustrate the techniques.

  3. The formation of reverse shocks in magnetized high energy density supersonic plasma flows

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, S. V. E-mail: l.suttle10@imperial.ac.uk; Suttle, L.; Swadling, G. F.; Bennett, M.; Bland, S. N.; Burdiak, G. C.; Chittenden, J. P.; Grouchy, P. de; Hall, G. N.; Hare, J. D.; Kalmoni, N.; Niasse, N.; Patankar, S.; Smith, R. A.; Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Burgess, D.; Clemens, A.; Ciardi, A.; Sheng, L.; Yuan, J.; and others

    2014-05-15

    A new experimental platform was developed, based on the use of supersonic plasma flow from the ablation stage of an inverse wire array z-pinch, for studies of shocks in magnetized high energy density physics plasmas in a well-defined and diagnosable 1-D interaction geometry. The mechanism of flow generation ensures that the plasma flow (Re{sub M} ∼ 50, M{sub S} ∼ 5, M{sub A} ∼ 8, V{sub flow} ≈ 100 km/s) has a frozen-in magnetic field at a level sufficient to affect shocks formed by its interaction with obstacles. It is found that in addition to the expected accumulation of stagnated plasma in a thin layer at the surface of a planar obstacle, the presence of the magnetic field leads to the formation of an additional detached density jump in the upstream plasma, at a distance of ∼c/ω{sub pi} from the obstacle. Analysis of the data obtained with Thomson scattering, interferometry, and local magnetic probes suggests that the sub-shock develops due to the pile-up of the magnetic flux advected by the plasma flow.

  4. Development of high energy density fuels from mild gasification of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    The overall objective of the program is the determination of the minimal processing requirements to produce High Energy Density Fuels (HEDF), meeting a minimal energy density of 130,000 Btu/gal (conventional jet fuels have energy densities in the vicinity of 115,000--120,000 Btu/gal) and having acceptable advanced fuel specifications in accordance with the three defined categories of HEDF. The program encompasses assessing current technology capability; selecting acceptable processing and refining schemes; and generating samples of advanced test fuels. A task breakdown structure was developed containing eight key tasks. This report summarizes the work that Amoco Oil Company (AOC), as key subcontractor, performed in the execution of Task 4, Proposed Upgrading Schemes for Advanced Fuel. The intent of the Task 4 study was to represent all the candidate processing options, that were either studied in the experimental efforts of Task 3 or were available from the prior art in the open literature, in a linear program (LP) model. The LP model would allow scaling of the bench-scale Task 3 results to commercial scale and would perform economic evaluations on any combination of the processes which might be used to make HEDF. Section 2.0 of this report summarizes the process and economic bases used. Sections 3.0 and 4.0 details the economics and processing sensitivities for HEDF production. 1 ref., 15 figs., 9 tabs.

  5. The impact of Hall physics on magnetized high energy density plasma jetsa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourdain, P.-A.; Seyler, C. E.; Atoyan, L.; Greenly, J. B.; Hammer, D. A.; Kusse, B. R.; Pikuz, S. A.; Potter, W. M.; Schrafel, P. C.; Shelkovenko, T. A.

    2014-05-01

    Hall physics is often neglected in high energy density plasma jets due to the relatively high electron density of such jets (ne ˜ 1019 cm-3). However, the vacuum region surrounding the jet has much lower densities and is dominated by Hall electric field. This electric field redirects plasma flows towards or away from the axis, depending on the radial current direction. A resulting change in the jet density has been observed experimentally. Furthermore, if an axial field is applied on the jet, the Hall effect is enhanced and ignoring it leads to serious discrepancies between experimental results and numerical simulations. By combining high currents (˜1 MA) and magnetic field helicity (15° angle) in a pulsed power generator such as COBRA, plasma jets can be magnetized with a 10 T axial field. The resulting field enhances the impact of the Hall effect by altering the density profile of current-free plasma jets and the stability of current-carrying plasma jets (e.g., Z-pinches).

  6. Pressure-driven, resistive magnetohydrodynamic interchange instabilities in laser-produced high-energy-density plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Li, C. K.; Frenje, J. A.; Petrasso, R. D.; Seguin, F. H.; Amendt, P. A.; Landen, O. L.; Town, R. P. J.; Betti, R.; Knauer, J. P.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Soures, J. M.

    2009-07-15

    Recent experiments using proton backlighting of laser-foil interactions provide unique opportunities for studying magnetized plasma instabilities in laser-produced high-energy-density plasmas. Time-gated proton radiograph images indicate that the outer structure of a magnetic field entrained in a hemispherical plasma bubble becomes distinctly asymmetric after the laser turns off. It is shown that this asymmetry is a consequence of pressure-driven, resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) interchange instabilities. In contrast to the predictions made by ideal MHD theory, the increasing plasma resistivity after laser turn-off allows for greater low-mode destabilization (m>1) from reduced stabilization by field-line bending. For laser-generated plasmas presented herein, a mode-number cutoff for stabilization of perturbations with m>{approx}[8{pi}{beta}(1+D{sub m}k{sub perpendicular}{sup 2}{gamma}{sub max}{sup -1})]{sup 1/2} is found in the linear growth regime. The growth is measured and is found to be in reasonable agreement with model predictions.

  7. Characterization of nitrogen effects in high energy density weldments of Nitronic 40 stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeif, Erik Andrew

    Variation in the welding environment for laser beam welding and electron beam welding can alter the resulting weld chemical composition, microstructure and therefore the mechanical properties. The room temperature mechanical properties of Nitronic 40 stainless steel weld metal from three different heats containing 0.24, 0.28, and 0.31 wt. pct. nitrogen were evaluated for continuous mode Ytterbium doped Fiber laser welds conducted with argon and nitrogen shielding gases, and for electron beam welds. The bulk nitrogen contents were monitored and the resulting properties were then related to microstructural features measured using Electron BackScatter Diffraction (EBSD). Traditional tensile testing of weld metal is conducted on composite tensile bars consisting of base metal and weld metal often leading to failure in the region adjacent to the weld due to strength mismatch at the weld interface. These tests provide composite strength but do not specifically determine the mechanical properties of the heterogeneous weld metal. In this research, microtensile testing was conducted to characterize the properties of the different regions of the weld. The microtensile testing procedures were developed using two geometries of tensile bars measuring the properties through the thickness of 3 mm full penetration welds. In all cases an increase in the strength of the weld metal was found to occur, though the electron beam welds exhibited a higher strength than the laser welds. Standard predictive equations were found to under-predict the strength of the laser welds, even when average grain size or intercept distances were measured. The contribution of nitrogen solid solution strengthening was consistent at approximately 513 MPa per wt. pct. nitrogen. Similar cooling rates and heat inputs allow for a comparison across high energy density welding techniques. Though microstructural differences through the depth of the weld metal were observed as nitrogen vaporization decreased and

  8. Exploration of Plasma Jets Approach to High Energy Density Physics. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chiping

    2013-08-26

    High-energy-density laboratory plasma (HEDLP) physics is an emerging, important area of research in plasma physics, nuclear physics, astrophysics, and particle acceleration. While the HEDLP regime occurs at extreme conditions which are often found naturally in space but not on the earth, it may be accessible by colliding high intensity plasmas such as high-energy-density plasma jets, plasmoids or compact toroids from plasma guns. The physics of plasma jets is investigated in the context of high energy density laboratory plasma research. This report summarizes results of theoretical and computational investigation of a plasma jet undergoing adiabatic compression and adiabatic expansion. A root-mean-squared (rms) envelope theory of plasma jets is developed. Comparison between theory and experiment is made. Good agreement between theory and experiment is found.

  9. Controllable laser ion beam generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiyama, D.; Takano, M.; Nagashima, T.; Barada, D.; Gu, Y. J.; Li, X. F.; Kong, Q.; Wang, P. X.; Kawata, S.

    2016-05-01

    In intense-laser plasma interaction, several issues still remain to be solved for a future laser particle acceleration. In this paper we focus on a bunching of ion beam, which is preaccelerated by a strong electric field generated in a laser plasma interaction. In this study, a nearcritical-density plasma target is illuminated by an intense short laser pulse. A moving strong inductive electric field is generated inside of the target. We have successfully obtained a bunched ion beam in our particle-in-cell simulations in this paper.

  10. High energy density micro plasma bunch from multiple laser interaction with thin target

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Han; Yu, Wei; Luan, S. X.; Xu, Z. Z.; Yu, M. Y.; Cai, H. B.; Zhou, C. T.; Yang, X. H.; Yin, Y.; Zhuo, H. B.; Wang, J. W.; Murakami, M.

    2014-01-13

    Three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation is used to investigate radiation-pressure driven acceleration and compression of small solid-density plasma by intense laser pulses. It is found that multiple impacts by presently available short-pulse lasers on a small hemispheric shell target can create a long-living tiny quasineutral monoenergetic plasma bunch of very high energy density.

  11. A Fiber Supercapacitor with High Energy Density Based on Hollow Graphene/Conducting Polymer Fiber Electrode.

    PubMed

    Qu, Guoxing; Cheng, Jianli; Li, Xiaodong; Yuan, Demao; Chen, Peining; Chen, Xuli; Wang, Bin; Peng, Huisheng

    2016-05-01

    A hollow graphene/conducting polymer composite fiber is created with high mechanical and electronic properties and used to fabricate novel fiber-shaped supercapacitors that display high energy densities and long life stability. The fiber supercapacitors can be woven into flexible powering textiles that are particularly promising for portable and wearable electronic devices.

  12. Experimental and Computational Studies of High Energy Density Plasma Streams Ablated from Fine Wires

    SciTech Connect

    Greenly, John B.; Seyler, Charles

    2014-03-30

    Experimental and computational studies of high energy density plasma streams ablated from fine wires. Laboratory of Plasma Studies, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Cornell University. Principal Investigators: Dr. John B. Greenly and Dr. Charles E. Seyler. This report summarizes progress during the final year of this project to study the physics of high energy density (HED) plasma streams of 10^17-10^20/cm3 density and high velocity (~100-500 km/s). Such streams are produced from 5-250 micrometer diameter wires heated and ionized by a 1 MA, 250 ns current pulse on the COBRA pulsed power facility at Cornell University. Plasma is ablated from the wires and is driven away to high velocity by unbalanced JxB force. A wire, or an array of wires, can persist as an essentially stationary, continuous source of this streaming plasma for >200 ns, even with driving magnetic fields of many Tesla and peak current densities in the plasma of many MA/cm2. At the heart of the ablation stream generation is the continuous transport of mass from the relatively cold, near-solid-density wire "core" into current-carrying plasma within 1 mm of the wire, followed by the magnetic acceleration of that plasma and its trapped flux to form a directed stream. In the first two years of this program, an advancing understanding of ablation physics led to the discovery of several novel wire ablation experimental regimes. In the final year, one of these new HED plasma regimes has been studied in quantitative detail. This regime studies highly reproducible magnetic reconnection in strongly radiating plasma with supersonic and superalfvenic flow, and shock structures in the outflow. The key discovery is that very heavy wires, e.g. 250 micrometer diameter Al or 150 micrometer Cu, behave in a qualitatively different way than the lighter wires typically used in wire-array Z-pinches. Such wires can be configured to produce a static magnetic X-point null geometry that stores magnetic and

  13. Holographic generation of non-diffractive beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byoungho; Choi, Dawoon; Hong, Keehoon; Lee, Kyookeun; Kim, Kyoung-Youm

    2014-11-01

    An Airy beam is a non-diffractive wave which propagates along a ballistic trajectory without any external force. Although it is impossible to implement ideal Airy beams because they carry infinite power, so-called finite Airy beams can be achieved by tailoring infinite side lobes with an aperture function and they have similar propagating characteristics with those of ideal Airy beams. The finite Airy beam can be optically generated by several ways: the optical Fourier transform system with imposing cubic phase to a broad Gaussian beam, nonlinear generation of Airy beams, curved plasma channel generation, and electron beam generation. In this presentation, a holographic generation of the finite Airy beams will be discussed. The finite Airy beams can be generated in virtue of holographic technique by `reading' a hologram which is recorded by the interference between a finite Airy beam generated by the optical Fourier transform and a reference plane wave. Moreover, this method can exploit the unique features of holography itself such as successful reconstruction with the imperfect incidence of reference beam, reconstruction of phase-conjugated signal beam, and multiplexing, which can shed more light on the characteristics of finite Airy beams. This method has an advantage in that once holograms are recorded in the photopolymer, a bulky optics such as the SLM and lenses are not necessary to generate Airy beams. In addition, multiple Airy beams can be stored and reconstructed simultaneously or individually.

  14. High energy density capacitors for power electronic applications using nano-structure multilayer technology

    SciTech Connect

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Johnson, G.W.

    1995-09-01

    Power electronics applications are currently limited by capacitor size and performance. Only incremental improvements are anticipated in existing capacitor technologies, while significant performance advances are required in energy density and overall performance to meet the technical needs of the applications which are important for U.S. economic competitiveness. One application, the Power Electronic Building Block (PEBB), promises a second electronics revolution in power electronic design. High energy density capacitors with excellent electrical thermal and mechanical performance represent an enabling technology in the PEBB concept. We propose a continuing program to research and develop LLNL`s nano-structure multilayer technologies for making high voltage, high energy density capacitors. Our controlled deposition techniques are capable of synthesizing extraordinarily smooth sub-micron thick layers of dielectric and conductor materials. We have demonstrated that, with this technology, high voltage capacitors with an order of magnitude improvement in energy density are achievable.

  15. The Dawn of a New Era for High Energy Density Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, E; McCrory, R; Meyerhofer, D; Keane, C

    2009-02-26

    The field of High Energy Density (HED) physics is on the verge of a revolutionary event - the achievement of fusion ignition in the laboratory. New laser facilities, the OMEGA Extended Performance (EP) laser at the University of Rochester and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, greatly extend the range of high energy density (HED) plasma conditions (including ignition) accessible in the laboratory. These conditions are among the most extreme obtainable, with pressures in excess of {approx}1,000,000 atmospheres. Experiments at these facilities will elucidate fundamental new science in astrophysics, materials science, laser-matter interactions, and other areas. The demonstration of fusion ignition will be the culmination of decades of research, and for the first time, will open the burning plasma regime to laboratory exploration. Ignition will spur the development of advanced options for clean, environmentally sustainable energy.

  16. Pulsed-Power-Driven High Energy Density Physics and Inertial Confinement Fusion Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matzen, M. Keith

    2004-11-01

    There continues to be dramatic progress in applying pulsed-power drivers to research in High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) and Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). The Z facility at Sandia National Laboratories delivers 20-MA load currents to create high magnetic fields (> 1000 T) and pressures (Mbar to Gbar). In a z-pinch configuration, the magnetic pressure (Lorentz Force) supersonically implodes a plasma created from a cylindrical wire array, which at stagnation generates a plasma with energy densities of 10 MJ/cm^3 and temperatures exceeding 1 keV at 0.1% of solid density. These HED plasmas produce x-ray energies approaching 2 MJ at powers greater than 200 TW for ICF, radiation hydrodynamics, radiation-material interactions, Inertial Fusion Energy, astrophysics, and opacity experiments. In an alternate configuration, the large magnetic pressure is used to directly drive Isentropic Compression Experiments (ICE) to pressures greater than 3 Mbar and accelerate flyer plates to 27 km/s for equation of state (EOS) experiments at pressures up to 10 Mbar in Al. The challenge to model these complex geometric configurations over multiple orders of magnitude in spatial scale, temperatures, densities, and radiation fluxes is daunting. Nevertheless, development of multi-dimensional radiation-MHD codes (e.g. ALEGRA) coupled with more accurate material models (e.g. quantum molecular dynamics calculations within density functional theory) has resulted in a productive synergy between validating the simulations and guiding the experiments. The Z facility is now routinely used to drive ICF capsules (focusing on implosion symmetry and neutron production) and several different HEDP experiments (including radiation-driven hydrodynamic jets; material EOS, phase transitions, and strength; and the detailed behavior of z-pinch wire array initiation and implosion). This research is performed in collaboration with many other groups from around the world. A $60M, five-year project to enhance

  17. Publications of Proceedings for the RF 2005 7th Workshop on High Energy Density and High Power RF

    SciTech Connect

    Luhmann, Jr, N C

    2006-01-01

    The University of California, Davis hosted the High Energy Density and High Power RF 7th Workshop on High Energy Density and High Power RF in Kalamata, Greece, 13-17 June, 2005. The Proceedings cost was supported by these funds from the U.S. Department of Energy. The Proceedings was published through the American Institute of Physics.

  18. From Swords to Plowshares: The US/Russian Collaboration in High Energy Density Physics Using Pulsed Power

    SciTech Connect

    Younger, S.M.; Fowler, C.M.; Lindemuth, I.; Chernyshev, V.K.; Mokhov, V.N.; Pavlovskii, A.I.

    1999-03-15

    Since 1992, the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics and the Los Alamos National Laboratory, the institutes that designed the first nuclear weapons of the Soviet Union and the US, respectively, have been working together in fundamental research related to pulsed power and high energy density science. This collaboration has enabled scientists formerly engaged in weapons activities to redirect their attention to peaceful pursuits of wide benefit to the technical community. More than thirty joint experiments have been performed at Sarov and Los Alamos in areas as diverse as solid state physics in high magnetic fields, fusion plasma formation, isentropic compression of noble gases, and explosively driven-high current generation technology. Expanding on the introductory comments of the conference plenary presentation, this paper traces the origins of this collaboration and briefly reviews the scientific accomplishments. Detailed reports of the scientific accomplishments can be found in other papers in these proceedings and in other publications.

  19. High Energy Density Physics and Applications with a State-of-the-Art Compact X-Pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Beg, Farhat N

    2013-08-14

    Recent advances in technology has made possible to create matter with extremely high energy density (energy densities and pressure exceeding 1011 J/m3 and 1 Mbar respectively). The field is new and complex. The basic question for high energy density physics (HEDP) is how does matter behave under extreme conditions of temperature, pressure, density and electromagnetic radiation? The conditions for studying HEDP are normally produced using high intensity short pulse laser, x-rays, particle beams and pulsed power z-pinches. Most of these installations occupy a large laboratory floor space and require a team consisting of a large number of scientists and engineers. This limits the number of experiments that can be performed to explore and understand the complex physics. A novel way of studying HEDP is with a compact x-pinch in university scale laboratory. The x-pinch is a configuration in which a pulsed current is passed through two or more wires placed between the electrodes making the shape of the letter ‘X’. Extreme conditions of magnetic field (> 200 MGauss for less than 1 ns), temperature (1 keV) and density (~ 1022 cm-3) are produced at the cross-point, where two wires make contact. Further, supersonic jets are produced on either side of the cross-point. The physics of the formation of the plasma at the cross-point is complex. It is not clear what role radiation plays in the formation of high energy density plasma (>> 1011 J/m3) at the cross-point. Nor it is understood how the supersonic jets are formed. Present numerical codes do not contain complex physics that can take into account some of these aspects. Indeed, a comprehensive experimental study could answer some of the questions, which are relevant to wide-ranging fields such as inertial confinement fusion, astrophysical plasmas, high intensity laser plasma interactions and radiation physics. The main aim of the proposal was to increase the fundamental understanding of high energy density physics and

  20. Conceptual designs of two petawatt-class pulsed-power accelerators for high-energy-density-physics experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Stygar, W. A.; Awe, T. J.; Bennett, N L; Breden, E. W.; Campbell, E. M.; Clark, R. E.; Cooper, R. A.; Cuneo, M. E.; Ennis, J. B.; Fehl, D. L.; Genoni, T. C.; Gomez, M. R.; Greiser, G. W.; Gruner, F. R.; Herrmann, M. C.; Hutsel, B. T.; Jennings, C. A.; Jobe, D. O.; Jones, B. M.; Jones, M. C.; Jones, P. A.; Knapp, P. F.; Lash, J. S.; LeChien, K. R.; Leckbee, J. J.; Leeper, R. J.; Lewis, S. A.; Long, F. W.; Lucero, D. J.; Madrid, E. A.; Martin, M. R.; Matzen, M. K.; Mazarakis, M. G.; McBride, R. D.; McKee, G. R.; Miller, C. L.; Moore, J. K.; Mostrom, C. B.; Mulville, T. D.; Peterson, K. J.; Porter, J. L.; Reisman, D. B.; Rochau, G. A.; Rochau, G. E.; Rose, D. V.; Savage, M. E.; Sceiford, M. E.; Schmit, P. F.; Schneider, R. F.; Schwarz, J.; Sefkow, A. B.; Sinars, D. B.; Slutz, S. A.; Spielman, R. B.; Stoltzfus, B. S.; Thoma, C.; Vesey, R. A.; Wakeland, P. E.; Welch, D. R.; Wisher, M. L.; Woodworth, J. R.; Bailey, J. E.; Rovang, D. C.

    2015-11-30

    ) simulations suggest Z 300 will deliver 4.3 MJ to the liner, and achieve a yield on the order of 18 MJ. Z 800 is 52 m in diameter and stores 130 MJ. This accelerator generates 890 TW at the output of its LTD system, and delivers 65 MA in 113 ns to a MagLIF target. The peak electrical power at the MagLIF liner is 2500 TW. The principal goal of Z 800 is to achieve high-yield thermonuclear fusion; i.e., a yield that exceeds the energy initially stored by the accelerator’s capacitors. 2D MHD simulations suggest Z 800 will deliver 8.0 MJ to the liner, and achieve a yield on the order of 440 MJ. Z 300 and Z 800, or variations of these accelerators, will allow the international high-energy-density-physics community to conduct advanced inertial-confinement-fusion, radiation-physics, material-physics, and laboratory-astrophysics experiments over heretofore-inaccessible parameter regimes.

  1. Conceptual designs of two petawatt-class pulsed-power accelerators for high-energy-density-physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stygar, W. A.; Awe, T. J.; Bailey, J. E.; Bennett, N. L.; Breden, E. W.; Campbell, E. M.; Clark, R. E.; Cooper, R. A.; Cuneo, M. E.; Ennis, J. B.; Fehl, D. L.; Genoni, T. C.; Gomez, M. R.; Greiser, G. W.; Gruner, F. R.; Herrmann, M. C.; Hutsel, B. T.; Jennings, C. A.; Jobe, D. O.; Jones, B. M.; Jones, M. C.; Jones, P. A.; Knapp, P. F.; Lash, J. S.; LeChien, K. R.; Leckbee, J. J.; Leeper, R. J.; Lewis, S. A.; Long, F. W.; Lucero, D. J.; Madrid, E. A.; Martin, M. R.; Matzen, M. K.; Mazarakis, M. G.; McBride, R. D.; McKee, G. R.; Miller, C. L.; Moore, J. K.; Mostrom, C. B.; Mulville, T. D.; Peterson, K. J.; Porter, J. L.; Reisman, D. B.; Rochau, G. A.; Rochau, G. E.; Rose, D. V.; Rovang, D. C.; Savage, M. E.; Sceiford, M. E.; Schmit, P. F.; Schneider, R. F.; Schwarz, J.; Sefkow, A. B.; Sinars, D. B.; Slutz, S. A.; Spielman, R. B.; Stoltzfus, B. S.; Thoma, C.; Vesey, R. A.; Wakeland, P. E.; Welch, D. R.; Wisher, M. L.; Woodworth, J. R.

    2015-11-01

    suggest Z 300 will deliver 4.3 MJ to the liner, and achieve a yield on the order of 18 MJ. Z 800 is 52 m in diameter and stores 130 MJ. This accelerator generates 890 TW at the output of its LTD system, and delivers 65 MA in 113 ns to a MagLIF target. The peak electrical power at the MagLIF liner is 2500 TW. The principal goal of Z 800 is to achieve high-yield thermonuclear fusion; i.e., a yield that exceeds the energy initially stored by the accelerator's capacitors. 2D MHD simulations suggest Z 800 will deliver 8.0 MJ to the liner, and achieve a yield on the order of 440 MJ. Z 300 and Z 800, or variations of these accelerators, will allow the international high-energy-density-physics community to conduct advanced inertial-confinement-fusion, radiation-physics, material-physics, and laboratory-astrophysics experiments over heretofore-inaccessible parameter regimes.

  2. Conceptual designs of two petawatt-class pulsed-power accelerators for high-energy-density-physics experiments

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Stygar, W. A.; Awe, T. J.; Bennett, N L; Breden, E. W.; Campbell, E. M.; Clark, R. E.; Cooper, R. A.; Cuneo, M. E.; Ennis, J. B.; Fehl, D. L.; et al

    2015-11-30

    ) simulations suggest Z 300 will deliver 4.3 MJ to the liner, and achieve a yield on the order of 18 MJ. Z 800 is 52 m in diameter and stores 130 MJ. This accelerator generates 890 TW at the output of its LTD system, and delivers 65 MA in 113 ns to a MagLIF target. The peak electrical power at the MagLIF liner is 2500 TW. The principal goal of Z 800 is to achieve high-yield thermonuclear fusion; i.e., a yield that exceeds the energy initially stored by the accelerator’s capacitors. 2D MHD simulations suggest Z 800 will deliver 8.0 MJ to the liner, and achieve a yield on the order of 440 MJ. Z 300 and Z 800, or variations of these accelerators, will allow the international high-energy-density-physics community to conduct advanced inertial-confinement-fusion, radiation-physics, material-physics, and laboratory-astrophysics experiments over heretofore-inaccessible parameter regimes.« less

  3. A Discussion of the High Energy Density Primary Battery Employed in the FOTON M3 Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennetti, A.; Reece, D.; Spurrett, R.; Schautz, M.; Green, K.

    2008-09-01

    In 2005, ABSL Space Products (ABSL) was contracted by QinetiQ to deliver the lithium sulfuryl chloride primary battery system for the FOTON M3 ESA (European Space Agency) mission. FOTON M3 was led by the ESA Directorate of Human Spaceflight & Exploration and carried a number of materials science, fluid physics and biology experiments as well as technology demonstration payloads. A number of the experiments required a very high energy density primary battery power source. This battery was manufactured by ABSL, and the mission was successfully completed in September 2007 following a twelve days orbiting in Low Earth Orbit (LEO).

  4. The high-energy-density counterpropagating shear experiment and turbulent self-heating

    SciTech Connect

    Doss, F. W.; Fincke, J. R.; Loomis, E. N.; Welser-Sherrill, L.; Flippo, K. A.

    2013-12-15

    The counterpropagating shear experiment has previously demonstrated the ability to create regions of shock-driven shear, balanced symmetrically in pressure, and experiencing minimal net drift. This allows for the creation of a high-Mach-number high-energy-density shear environment. New data from the counterpropagating shear campaign is presented, and both hydrocode modeling and theoretical analysis in the context of a Reynolds-averaged-Navier-Stokes model suggest turbulent dissipation of energy from the supersonic flow bounding the layer is a significant driver in its expansion. A theoretical minimum shear flow Mach number threshold is suggested for substantial thermal-turbulence coupling.

  5. Ionic liquid enabled FeS2 for high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Evans, Tyler; Piper, Daniela Molina; Kim, Seul Cham; Han, Sang Sub; Bhat, Vinay; Oh, Kyu Hwan; Lee, Se-Hee

    2014-11-19

    High-energy-density FeS2 cathodes en-abled by a bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (TFSI-) anion-based room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) electrolyte are demonstrated. A TFSI-based ionic liquid (IL) significantly mitigates polysulfide dissolution, and therefore the parasitic redox shuttle mechanism, that plagues sulfur-based electrode chemistries. FeS2 stabilization with a TFSI(-) -based IL results in one of the highest energy density cathodes, 542 W h kg(-1) (normalized to cathode composite mass), reported to date.

  6. Differential heating: A versatile method for thermal conductivity measurements in high-energy-density matter

    SciTech Connect

    Ping, Y.; Fernandez-Panella, A.; Correa, A.; Shepherd, R.; Landen, O.; London, R. A.; Sterne, P. A.; Whitley, H. D.; Fratanduono, D.; Collins, G. W.; Sio, H.; Boehly, T. R.

    2015-09-15

    We propose a method for thermal conductivity measurements of high energy density matter based on differential heating. A temperature gradient is created either by surface heating of one material or at an interface between two materials by different energy deposition. The subsequent heat conduction across the temperature gradient is observed by various time-resolved probing techniques. Conceptual designs of such measurements using laser heating, proton heating, and x-ray heating are presented. The sensitivity of the measurements to thermal conductivity is confirmed by simulations.

  7. Differential heating: A versatile method for thermal conductivity measurements in high-energy-density matter

    SciTech Connect

    Ping, Y.; Fernandez-Panella, A.; Sio, H.; Correa, A.; Shepherd, R.; Landen, O.; London, R. A.; Sterne, P. A.; Whitley, H. D.; Fratanduono, D.; Boehly, T. R.; Collins, G. W.

    2015-09-04

    We propose a method for thermal conductivity measurements of high energy density matter based on differential heating. A temperature gradient is created either by surface heating of one material or at an interface between two materials by different energy deposition. The subsequent heat conduction across the temperature gradient is observed by various time-resolved probing techniques. Conceptual designs of such measurements using laser heating, proton heating, and x-ray heating are presented. As a result, the sensitivity of the measurements to thermal conductivity is confirmed by simulations.

  8. The high-energy-density counterpropagating shear experiment and turbulent self-heating

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Doss, F. W.; Fincke, J. R.; Loomis, E. N.; Welser-Sherrill, L.; Flippo, K. A.

    2013-12-06

    The counterpropagating shear experiment has previously demonstrated the ability to create regions of shockdriven shear, balanced symmetrically in pressure and experiencing minimal net drift. This allows for the creation of a high-Mach-number high-energy-density shear environment. New data from the counterpropagating shear campaign is presented, and both hydrocode modeling and theoretical analysis in the context of a Reynolds-averaged-Navier-Stokes model suggest turbulent dissipation of energy from the supersonic flow bounding the layer is a significant driver in its expansion. A theoretical minimum shear flow Mach number threshold is suggested for substantial thermal-turbulence coupling.

  9. Strongly Interacting Matter Matter at Very High Energy Density: 3 Lectures in Zakopane

    SciTech Connect

    McLerran, L.

    2010-06-09

    These lectures concern the properties of strongly interacting matter at very high energy density. I begin with the Color Glass Condensate and the Glasma, matter that controls the earliest times in hadronic collisions. I then describe the Quark Gluon Plasma, matter produced from the thermalized remnants of the Glasma. Finally, I describe high density baryonic matter, in particular Quarkyonic matter. The discussion will be intuitive and based on simple structural aspects of QCD. There will be some discussion of experimental tests of these ideas.

  10. Generating stable tractor beams with dielectric metasurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeiffer, Carl; Grbic, Anthony

    2015-03-01

    Propagation-invariant beams that pull objects towards a light source are commonly known as tractor beams. Here, an efficient, linearly polarized tractor beam with improved stability is introduced. The beam consists of a superposition of transverse-electric and transverse-magnetic polarized Bessel beams of orders m =+1 and m =-1 . It is shown that this beam can stably pull a wide range of dielectric microparticles arbitrarily long distances, independent of ambient conditions. Next, a straightforward method of generating these high-performance beams is proposed. A Si metasurface transforms an incident linearly polarized Gaussian beam into the desired tractor beam. Full-wave simulations demonstrate that it is possible for this simple geometry to pull a polystyrene sphere a distance equal to the nondiffracting range of the Bessel beam. The simplicity of the setup and the robust performance of the proposed tractor beam significantly enhance the ability to manipulate matter with light.

  11. Ambipolar zinc-polyiodide electrolyte for a high-energy density aqueous redox flow battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bin; Nie, Zimin; Vijayakumar, M.; Li, Guosheng; Liu, Jun; Sprenkle, Vincent; Wang, Wei

    2015-02-01

    Redox flow batteries are receiving wide attention for electrochemical energy storage due to their unique architecture and advantages, but progress has so far been limited by their low energy density (~25 Wh l-1). Here we report a high-energy density aqueous zinc-polyiodide flow battery. Using the highly soluble iodide/triiodide redox couple, a discharge energy density of 167 Wh l-1 is demonstrated with a near-neutral 5.0 M ZnI2 electrolyte. Nuclear magnetic resonance study and density functional theory-based simulation along with flow test data indicate that the addition of an alcohol (ethanol) induces ligand formation between oxygen on the hydroxyl group and the zinc ions, which expands the stable electrolyte temperature window to from -20 to 50 °C, while ameliorating the zinc dendrite. With the high-energy density and its benign nature free from strong acids and corrosive components, zinc-polyiodide flow battery is a promising candidate for various energy storage applications.

  12. Ambipolar zinc-polyiodide electrolyte for a high-energy density aqueous redox flow battery

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Li, Bin; Nie, Zimin; Vijayakumar, M.; Li, Guosheng; Liu, Jun; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Wang, Wei

    2015-02-24

    Large-scale energy storage systems are crucial for substantial deployment of renewable energy sources. Energy storage systems with high energy density, high safety, and low cost and environmental friendliness are desired. To overcome the major limitations of the current aqueous redox flow battery systems, namely lower energy density (~25 Wh L-1) and presence of strong acids and/or other hazardous, a high energy density aqueous zinc/polyiodide flow battery (ZIB) is designed with near neutral ZnI2 solutions as catholytes. The energy density of ZIB could reach 322 Wh L-1 at the solubility limit of ZnI2 in water (~7 M). We demonstrate charge andmore » discharge energy densities of 245.9 Wh/L and 166.7 Wh L-1 with ZnI2 electrolyte at 5.0 M, respectively. The addition of ethanol (EtOH) in ZnI2 electrolyte can effectively mitigate the growth of zinc dendrite at the anode and improve the stability of catholytes with wider temperature window (-20 to 50°C), which enable ZIB system to be a promising alternative as a high-energy and high- safety stationary energy storage system.« less

  13. High-Energy Density and Superhard Nitrogen-Rich B-N Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yinwei; Hao, Jian; Liu, Hanyu; Lu, Siyu; Tse, John S.

    2015-09-01

    The pressure-induced transformation of diatomic nitrogen into nonmolecular polymeric phases may produce potentially useful high-energy-density materials. We combine first-principles calculations with structure searching to predict a new class of nitrogen-rich boron nitrides with a stoichiometry of B3N5 that are stable or metastable relative to solid N2 and h -BN at ambient pressure. The most stable phase at ambient pressure has a layered structure (h -B3N5 ) containing hexagonal B3N3 layers sandwiched with intercalated freely rotating N2 molecules. At 15 GPa, a three-dimensional C 2 2 21 structure with single N-N bonds becomes the most stable. This pressure is much lower than that required for triple-to-single bond transformation in pure solid nitrogen (110 GPa). More importantly, C 2 2 21-B3N5 is metastable, and can be recovered under ambient conditions. Its energy density of ˜3.44 kJ /g makes it a potential high-energy-density material. In addition, stress-strain calculations estimate a Vicker's hardness of ˜4 4 GPa . Structure searching reveals a new clathrate sodalitelike BN structure that is metastable under ambient conditions.

  14. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium-nickel chloride batteries with ultra-high energy density

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Yong; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Chang, Hee -Jung; Canfield, Nathan L.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2016-02-11

    Here we demonstrate for the first time that planar Na-NiCl2 batteries can be operated at an intermediate temperature of 190°C with ultra-high energy density. A specific energy density of 350 Wh/kg, which is 3 times higher than that of conventional tubular Na-NiCl2 batteries operated at 280°C, was obtained for planar Na-NiCl2 batteries operated at 190°C over a long-term cell test (1000 cycles). The high energy density and superior cycle stability are attributed to the slower particle growth of the cathode materials (NaCl and Ni) at 190°C. The results reported in this work demonstrate that planar Na-NiCl2 batteries operated at anmore » intermediate temperature could greatly benefit this traditional energy storage technology by improving battery energy density, cycle life and reducing material costs.« less

  15. High energy density rechargeable magnesium battery using earth-abundant and non-toxic elements.

    PubMed

    Orikasa, Yuki; Masese, Titus; Koyama, Yukinori; Mori, Takuya; Hattori, Masashi; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Okado, Tetsuya; Huang, Zhen-Dong; Minato, Taketoshi; Tassel, Cédric; Kim, Jungeun; Kobayashi, Yoji; Abe, Takeshi; Kageyama, Hiroshi; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu

    2014-07-11

    Rechargeable magnesium batteries are poised to be viable candidates for large-scale energy storage devices in smart grid communities and electric vehicles. However, the energy density of previously proposed rechargeable magnesium batteries is low, limited mainly by the cathode materials. Here, we present new design approaches for the cathode in order to realize a high-energy-density rechargeable magnesium battery system. Ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 demonstrates a high reversible capacity exceeding 300 Ah · g(-1) at a voltage of approximately 2.4 V vs. Mg. Further, the electronic and crystal structure of ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 changes during the charging and discharging processes, which demonstrates the (de)insertion of magnesium in the host structure. The combination of ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 with a magnesium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide-triglyme electrolyte system proposed in this work provides a low-cost and practical rechargeable magnesium battery with high energy density, free from corrosion and safety problems.

  16. Ambipolar zinc-polyiodide electrolyte for a high-energy density aqueous redox flow battery

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bin; Nie, Zimin; Vijayakumar, M.; Li, Guosheng; Liu, Jun; Sprenkle, Vincent; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Redox flow batteries are receiving wide attention for electrochemical energy storage due to their unique architecture and advantages, but progress has so far been limited by their low energy density (~25 Wh l−1). Here we report a high-energy density aqueous zinc-polyiodide flow battery. Using the highly soluble iodide/triiodide redox couple, a discharge energy density of 167 Wh l−1 is demonstrated with a near-neutral 5.0 M ZnI2 electrolyte. Nuclear magnetic resonance study and density functional theory-based simulation along with flow test data indicate that the addition of an alcohol (ethanol) induces ligand formation between oxygen on the hydroxyl group and the zinc ions, which expands the stable electrolyte temperature window to from −20 to 50 °C, while ameliorating the zinc dendrite. With the high-energy density and its benign nature free from strong acids and corrosive components, zinc-polyiodide flow battery is a promising candidate for various energy storage applications. PMID:25709083

  17. Design and simulation of high-energy-density shear experiments on OMEGA and the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doss, F. W.; Devolder, B.; di Stefano, C.; Flippo, K. A.; Kline, J. L.; Kot, L.; Loomis, E. N.; Merritt, E. C.; Perry, T. S.; MacLaren, S. A.; Wang, P.; Zhou, Y. K.

    2015-11-01

    High-energy-density shear experiments have been performed by LANL at the OMEGA Laser Facility and National Ignition Facility (NIF). The experiments have been simulated using the LANL radiation-hydrocode RAGE and have been used to assess turbulence models' ability to function in the high-energy-density, inertial-fusion-relevant regime. Beginning with the basic configuration of two counter-oriented shock-driven flows of > 100 km/s, which initiate a strong shear instability across an initially solid density, 20 micron thick Al plate, variations of the experiment have been performed and are studied. These variations have included increasing the fluid density (by modifying the metal plate material from Al to Ti), imposing sinusoidal perturbations on the plate, and directly modifying the plate's intrinsic surface roughness. In addition to examining the shear-induced mixing, the simulations reveal other physics, such as how the interaction of our indirect-drive halfraums with a mated shock tube's ablator impedes a stagnation-driven shock. This work is conducted by the US DOE by LANL under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396, and NIF facility operations by LLNL under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  18. Ambipolar zinc-polyiodide electrolyte for a high-energy density aqueous redox flow battery.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Nie, Zimin; Vijayakumar, M; Li, Guosheng; Liu, Jun; Sprenkle, Vincent; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Redox flow batteries are receiving wide attention for electrochemical energy storage due to their unique architecture and advantages, but progress has so far been limited by their low energy density (~25 Wh l(-1)). Here we report a high-energy density aqueous zinc-polyiodide flow battery. Using the highly soluble iodide/triiodide redox couple, a discharge energy density of 167 Wh l(-1) is demonstrated with a near-neutral 5.0 M ZnI2 electrolyte. Nuclear magnetic resonance study and density functional theory-based simulation along with flow test data indicate that the addition of an alcohol (ethanol) induces ligand formation between oxygen on the hydroxyl group and the zinc ions, which expands the stable electrolyte temperature window to from -20 to 50 °C, while ameliorating the zinc dendrite. With the high-energy density and its benign nature free from strong acids and corrosive components, zinc-polyiodide flow battery is a promising candidate for various energy storage applications. PMID:25709083

  19. Ambipolar zinc-polyiodide electrolyte for a high-energy density aqueous redox flow battery.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Nie, Zimin; Vijayakumar, M; Li, Guosheng; Liu, Jun; Sprenkle, Vincent; Wang, Wei

    2015-02-24

    Redox flow batteries are receiving wide attention for electrochemical energy storage due to their unique architecture and advantages, but progress has so far been limited by their low energy density (~25 Wh l(-1)). Here we report a high-energy density aqueous zinc-polyiodide flow battery. Using the highly soluble iodide/triiodide redox couple, a discharge energy density of 167 Wh l(-1) is demonstrated with a near-neutral 5.0 M ZnI2 electrolyte. Nuclear magnetic resonance study and density functional theory-based simulation along with flow test data indicate that the addition of an alcohol (ethanol) induces ligand formation between oxygen on the hydroxyl group and the zinc ions, which expands the stable electrolyte temperature window to from -20 to 50 °C, while ameliorating the zinc dendrite. With the high-energy density and its benign nature free from strong acids and corrosive components, zinc-polyiodide flow battery is a promising candidate for various energy storage applications.

  20. Ambipolar zinc-polyiodide electrolyte for a high-energy density aqueous redox flow battery

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Bin; Nie, Zimin; Vijayakumar, M.; Li, Guosheng; Liu, Jun; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Wang, Wei

    2015-02-24

    Large-scale energy storage systems are crucial for substantial deployment of renewable energy sources. Energy storage systems with high energy density, high safety, and low cost and environmental friendliness are desired. To overcome the major limitations of the current aqueous redox flow battery systems, namely lower energy density (~25 Wh L-1) and presence of strong acids and/or other hazardous, a high energy density aqueous zinc/polyiodide flow battery (ZIB) is designed with near neutral ZnI2 solutions as catholytes. The energy density of ZIB could reach 322 Wh L-1 at the solubility limit of ZnI2 in water (~7 M). We demonstrate charge and discharge energy densities of 245.9 Wh/L and 166.7 Wh L-1 with ZnI2 electrolyte at 5.0 M, respectively. The addition of ethanol (EtOH) in ZnI2 electrolyte can effectively mitigate the growth of zinc dendrite at the anode and improve the stability of catholytes with wider temperature window (-20 to 50°C), which enable ZIB system to be a promising alternative as a high-energy and high- safety stationary energy storage system.

  1. Aerodynamic beam generator for large particles

    DOEpatents

    Brockmann, John E.; Torczynski, John R.; Dykhuizen, Ronald C.; Neiser, Richard A.; Smith, Mark F.

    2002-01-01

    A new type of aerodynamic particle beam generator is disclosed. This generator produces a tightly focused beam of large material particles at velocities ranging from a few feet per second to supersonic speeds, depending on the exact configuration and operating conditions. Such generators are of particular interest for use in additive fabrication techniques.

  2. The National Ignition Facility: Status and Plans for Laser Fusion and High-Energy-Density Experimental Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Wuest, C

    2001-10-29

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) currently under construction at the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a 192-beam, 1.8-megajoule, 500-terawatt, 351-nm laser for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and high-energy-density experimental studies. NIF is being built by the Department of Energy and the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA) to provide an experimental test bed for the U.S. Stockpile Stewardship Program to ensure the country's nuclear deterrent without underground nuclear testing. The experimental program will encompass a wide range of physical phenomena from fusion energy production to materials science. Of the roughly 700 shots available per year, about 10% will be dedicated to basic science research. Laser hardware is modularized into line replaceable units (LRUs) such as deformable mirrors, amplifiers, and multi-function sensor packages that are operated by a distributed computer control system of nearly 60,000 control points. The supervisory control room presents facility-wide status and orchestrates experiments using operating parameters predicted by physics models. A network of several hundred front-end processors (FEPs) implements device control. The object-oriented software system is implemented in the Ada and Java languages and emphasizes CORBA distribution of reusable software objects. NIF is currently scheduled to provide first light in 2004 and will be completed in 2008.

  3. Three-dimensional modeling and analysis of a high energy density Kelvin-Helmholtz experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, K. S.; Hurricane, O. A.; Park, H.-S.; Remington, B. A.; Robey, H.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Drake, R. P.; Krauland, C. M.; Kuranz, C. C.; Hansen, J. F.; Harding, E. C.

    2012-09-15

    A recent series of experiments on the OMEGA laser provided the first controlled demonstration of the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability in a high-energy-density physics context [E. C. Harding et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 045005, (2009); O. A. Hurricane et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 056305, (2009)]. We present 3D simulations which resolve previously reported discrepancies between those experiments and the 2D simulation used to design them. Our new simulations reveal a three-dimensional mechanism behind the low density 'bubble' structures which appeared in the experimental x-ray radiographs at late times but were completely absent in the 2D simulations. We also demonstrate that the three-dimensional expansion of the walls of the target is sufficient to explain the 20% overprediction by 2D simulation of the late-time growth of the KH rollups. The implications of these results for the design of future experiments are discussed.

  4. Measurements of ion stopping around the Bragg peak in high-energy-density plasmas

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Frenje, J. A.; Grabowski, P. E.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Zylstra, A. B.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu; Sangster, T. C.

    2015-11-09

    For the first time, quantitative measurements of ion stopping at energies about the Bragg peak (or peak ion stopping, which occurs at an ion velocity comparable to the average thermal electron velocity), and its dependence on electron temperature (Te) and electron number density (ne) in the range of 0.5 – 4.0 keV and 3 × 1022 – 3 × 1023 cm-3 have been conducted, respectively. It is experimentally demonstrated that the position and amplitude of the Bragg peak varies strongly with Te with ne. As a result, the importance of including quantum diffraction is also demonstrated in the stopping-power modelingmore » of High-Energy-Density Plasmas.« less

  5. Measurements of ion stopping around the Bragg peak in high-energy-density plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Frenje, J. A.; Grabowski, P. E.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Zylstra, A. B.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu; Sangster, T. C.

    2015-11-09

    For the first time, quantitative measurements of ion stopping at energies about the Bragg peak (or peak ion stopping, which occurs at an ion velocity comparable to the average thermal electron velocity), and its dependence on electron temperature (Te) and electron number density (ne) in the range of 0.5 – 4.0 keV and 3 × 1022 – 3 × 1023 cm-3 have been conducted, respectively. It is experimentally demonstrated that the position and amplitude of the Bragg peak varies strongly with Te with ne. As a result, the importance of including quantum diffraction is also demonstrated in the stopping-power modeling of High-Energy-Density Plasmas.

  6. Subsonic and Supersonic shear flows in laser driven high-energy-density plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, E. C.; Drake, R. P.; Gillespie, R. S.; Grosskopf, M. J.; Kuranz, C. C.; Visco, A.; Ditmar, J. R.; Aglitskiy, Y.; Weaver, J. L.; Velikovich, A. L.; Hurricane, O. A.; Hansen, J. F.; Remington, B. A.; Robey, H. F.; Bono, M. J.; Plewa, T.

    2009-05-01

    Shear flows arise in many high-energy-density (HED) and astrophysical systems, yet few laboratory experiments have been carried out to study their evolution in these extreme environments. Fundamentally, shear flows can initiate mixing via the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability and may eventually drive a transition to turbulence. We present two dedicated shear flow experiments that created subsonic and supersonic shear layers in HED plasmas. In the subsonic case the Omega laser was used to drive a shock wave along a rippled plastic interface, which subsequently rolled-upped into large KH vortices. In the supersonic shear experiment the Nike laser was used to drive Al plasma across a low-density foam surface also seeded with a ripple. Unlike the subsonic case, detached shocks developed around the ripples in response to the supersonic Al flow.

  7. Large laser sparks for laboratory simulation of high-energy-density events in planetary atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babankova, Dagmar; Juha, Libor; Civias, Svatopluk; Bittner, Michal; Cihelka, Jaroslav; Bartnik, Andrzej; Fiedorowicz, Henryk; Mikolajczyk, Janusz; Ryc, Leszek; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Skala, Jiri; Ullschmied, Jiri

    2005-09-01

    Single ≤1 kJ pulses from a high-power laser are focused into molecular gases to create large laser sparks. This provides a unique way to mimic the chemical effects of high-energy-density events in planetary atmospheres (cometary impact, lightning) matching the natural energy-density, its spatio-temporal evolution and plasma-volume scaling of such events in a fully-controlled laboratory environment. Some chemical reactions initiated by laser-induced dielectric breakdown (LIDB) in both pure molecular gases and mixtures related to the chemical evolution of the Earth's early atmosphere were studied. Most of the experiments were carried out in a static gas cell. However, an initial series of experiments was also performed with a gas-puff target placed within a vacuum interaction chamber. Under these dynamic conditions the hot core of a laser spark can be directly investigated.

  8. High energy density amorphous silicon anodes for lithium ion batteries deposited by DC sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmakis, Filippos; Elmasides, Costas; Fanz, Patrik; Hagen, Markus; Georgoulas, Nikolaos

    2015-10-01

    As more and more applications require high energy density electrochemical storage systems that deliver more than 200 Wh/kg, Lithium-ion batteries with silicon-based anodes provide promising electrochemical properties especially high specific capacity. In this paper, we present micro-grain structured silicon deposited by DC sputtering on special copper foil that serves as current collector. It is demonstrated that high-density silicon anodes are obtained with more than 2000 mAh g-1 and 2.0 mAh cm-2 that can be considered as a commercial value. In addition, irreversible capacity during the first galvanostatic cycle can be lower than 20% for such anodes. Finally, it is found that there exists a clear correlation between the grain-size and the texture of the amorphous silicon to the electrochemical performance of half-cells.

  9. High Energy Density Utracapacitors: Low-Cost, High Energy and Power Density, Nanotube-Enhanced Ultracapacitors

    SciTech Connect

    2010-04-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: FastCAP is improving the performance of an ultracapacitor—a battery-like electronic device that can complement, and possibly even replace, an HEV or EV battery pack. Ultracapacitors have many advantages over conventional batteries, including long lifespans (over 1 million cycles, as compared to 10,000 for conventional batteries) and better durability. Ultracapacitors also charge more quickly than conventional batteries, and they release energy more quickly. However, ultracapacitors have fallen short of batteries in one key metric: energy density—high energy density means more energy storage. FastCAP is redesigning the ultracapacitor’s internal structure to increase its energy density. Ultracapacitors traditionally use electrodes made of irregularly shaped, porous carbon. FastCAP’s ultracapacitors are made of tiny, aligned carbon nanotubes. The nanotubes provide a regular path for ions moving in and out of the ultracapacitor’s electrode, increasing the overall efficiency and energy density of the device.

  10. A high-energy-density, high-Mach number single jet experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, J. F.; Dittrich, T. R.; Elliott, J. B.; Glendinning, S. G.; Cotrell, D. L.

    2011-08-15

    A high-energy-density, x-ray-driven, high-Mach number (M{>=} 17) single jet experiment shows constant propagation speeds of the jet and its bowshock into the late time regime. The jet assumes a characteristic mushroom shape with a stalk and a head. The width of the head and the bowshock also grow linearly in time. The width of the stalk decreases exponentially toward an asymptotic value. In late time images, the stalk kinks and develops a filamentary nature, which is similar to experiments with applied magnetic fields. Numerical simulations match the experiment reasonably well, but ''exterior'' details of the laser target must be included to obtain a match at late times.

  11. Nuclear science research with dynamic high energy density plasmas at NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaughnessy, D. A.; Gharibyan, N.; Moody, K. J.; Despotopulos, J. D.; Grant, P. M.; Yeamans, C. B.; Berzak Hopkins, L.; Cerjan, C. J.; Schneider, D. H. G.; Faye, S.

    2016-05-01

    Nuclear reaction measurements are performed at the National Ignition Facility in a high energy density plasma environment by adding target materials to the outside of the hohlraum thermo-mechanical package on an indirect-drive exploding pusher shot. Materials are activated with 14.1-MeV neutrons and the post-shot debris is collected via the Solid Radiochemistry diagnostic, which consists of metal discs fielded 50 cm from target chamber center. The discs are removed post-shot and analyzed via radiation counting and mass spectrometry. Results from a shot using Nd and Tm foils as targets are presented, which indicate enhanced collection of the debris in the line of sight of a given collector. The capsule performance was not diminished due to the extra material. This provides a platform for future measurements of nuclear reaction data through the use of experimental packages mounted external to the hohlraum.

  12. Mixed metal oxides as alternate cathodes for high energy density electric propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Papp, J.E.

    1995-12-31

    Silver (II) oxide is currently the Navy`s cathode of choice in high energy density, high rate batteries for torpedo and mobile target applications, for medium rate applications such as Seal Delivery Vehicles, and may be useful for low rate, long endurance UUV missions. While it is certainly a versatile material, silver (II) oxide is expensive to produce and has a lower faradaic (storage) capacity than desired. New research being conducted at the NUWC electric propulsion laboratory is focused toward developing new, lower cost cathode materials with energy densities at least comparable to silver (II) oxide. Mixed metal oxides, with silver (II) oxide as one component, are under investigation. Other materials, without a silver component, are also being considered. This poster will illustrate recent developments in the modification of the silver (II) oxide cathode for Navy applications.

  13. Equation of State Models for Low-Z Materials at High Energy Densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khishchenko, Konstantin V.

    2013-10-01

    Models of thermodynamic properties of materials over a wide range of parameters are necessary for numerical simulations of processes at high energy densities including mixing in fusion plasmas. Accuracy of calculation results is determined mainly by adequacy of equation of state (EOS) of a medium. In the present work, different wide-range EOS models for low-Z elements and compounds are considered, such as Thomas-Fermi or Hartree-Fock-Slater plasma models. A semiempirical model of thermodynamic potential free energy with taking into account polymorphic phase transformations, melting, evaporation and ionization is presented. EOS calculations are carried out for hydrogen, deuterium, lithium, beryllium, carbon and hydrocarbon compounds in a broad region of the phase diagram. Obtained results are compared with available data of experiments at high pressures and temperatures in shock and release waves.

  14. High Energy Density Additives for Hybrid Fuel Rockets to Improve Performance and Enhance Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a conceptual study of prototype strained hydrocarbon molecules as high energy density additives for hybrid rocket fuels to boost the performance of these rockets without compromising safety and reliability. Use of these additives could extend the range of applications for which hybrid rockets become an attractive alternative to conventional solid or liquid fuel rockets. The objectives of the study were to confirm and quantify the high enthalpy of these strained molecules and to assess improvement in rocket performance that would be expected if these additives were blended with conventional fuels. We confirmed the chemical properties (including enthalpy) of these additives. However, the predicted improvement in rocket performance was too small to make this a useful strategy for boosting hybrid rocket performance.

  15. Asymmetric battery having a semi-solid cathode and high energy density anode

    DOEpatents

    Tan, Taison; Chiang, Yet-Ming; Ota, Naoki; Wilder, Throop; Duduta, Mihai

    2016-09-06

    Embodiments described herein relate generally to devices, systems and methods of producing high energy density batteries having a semi-solid cathode that is thicker than the anode. An electrochemical cell can include a positive electrode current collector, a negative electrode current collector and an ion-permeable membrane disposed between the positive electrode current collector and the negative electrode current collector. The ion-permeable membrane is spaced a first distance from the positive electrode current collector and at least partially defines a positive electroactive zone. The ion-permeable membrane is spaced a second distance from the negative electrode current collector and at least partially defines a negative electroactive zone. The second distance is less than the first distance. A semi-solid cathode that includes a suspension of an active material and a conductive material in a non-aqueous liquid electrolyte is disposed in the positive electroactive zone, and an anode is disposed in the negative electroactive zone.

  16. Performance of bent-crystal x-ray microscopes for high energy density physics research.

    PubMed

    Schollmeier, Marius S; Geissel, Matthias; Shores, Jonathon E; Smith, Ian C; Porter, John L

    2015-06-01

    We present calculations for the field of view (FOV), image fluence, image monochromaticity, spectral acceptance, and image aberrations for spherical crystal microscopes, which are used as self-emission imaging or backlighter systems at large-scale high energy density physics facilities. Our analytic results are benchmarked with ray-tracing calculations as well as with experimental measurements from the 6.151 keV backlighter system at Sandia National Laboratories. The analytic expressions can be used for x-ray source positions anywhere between the Rowland circle and object plane. This enables quick optimization of the performance of proposed but untested, bent-crystal microscope systems to find the best compromise between FOV, image fluence, and spatial resolution for a particular application.

  17. Schlieren technique applied to the arc temperature measurement in a high energy density cutting torch

    SciTech Connect

    Prevosto, L.; Mancinelli, B.; Artana, G.; Kelly, H.

    2010-01-15

    Plasma temperature and radial density profiles of the plasma species in a high energy density cutting arc have been obtained by using a quantitative schlieren technique. A Z-type two-mirror schlieren system was used in this research. Due to its great sensibility such technique allows measuring plasma composition and temperature from the arc axis to the surrounding medium by processing the gray-level contrast values of digital schlieren images recorded at the observation plane for a given position of a transverse knife located at the exit focal plane of the system. The technique has provided a good visualization of the plasma flow emerging from the nozzle and its interactions with the surrounding medium and the anode. The obtained temperature values are in good agreement with those values previously obtained by the authors on the same torch using Langmuir probes.

  18. Performance of bent-crystal x-ray microscopes for high energy density physics research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schollmeier, M.; Geissel, M.; Shores, J. E.; Smith, I. C.; Porter, J. L.

    2015-11-01

    We present calculations for the field of view (FOV), image fluence, image monochromaticity, spectral acceptance, and image aberrations for spherical crystal microscopes, which are used as self-emission imaging or backlighter systems at large-scale high energy density physics facilities. Our analytic results are benchmarked with ray-tracing calculations as well as with experimental measurements from the 6.151 keV backlighter system at Sandia National Laboratories. The analytic expressions can be used for x-ray source positions anywhere between the Rowland circle and object plane. This enables quick optimization of the performance of proposed but untested, bent-crystal microscope systems to find the best compromise between FOV, image fluence, and spatial resolution for a particular application.

  19. High Energy Density Thermal Batteries: Thermoelectric Reactors for Efficient Automotive Thermal Storage

    SciTech Connect

    2011-11-15

    HEATS Project: Sheetak is developing a new HVAC system to store the energy required for heating and cooling in EVs. This system will replace the traditional refrigerant-based vapor compressors and inefficient heaters used in today’s EVs with efficient, light, and rechargeable hot-and-cold thermal batteries. The high energy density thermal battery—which does not use any hazardous substances—can be recharged by an integrated solid-state thermoelectric energy converter while the vehicle is parked and its electrical battery is being charged. Sheetak’s converters can also run on the electric battery if needed and provide the required cooling and heating to the passengers—eliminating the space constraint and reducing the weight of EVs that use more traditional compressors and heaters.

  20. Reduced entropic model for studies of multidimensional nonlocal transport in high-energy-density plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Del Sorbo, D.; Feugeas, J.-L.; Nicolaï, Ph.; Olazabal-Loumé, M.; Dubroca, B.; Guisset, S.; Touati, M.; Tikhonchuk, V.

    2015-08-15

    Hydrodynamic simulations of high-energy-density plasmas require a detailed description of energy fluxes. For low and intermediate atomic number materials, the leading mechanism is the electron transport, which may be a nonlocal phenomenon requiring a kinetic modeling. In this paper, we present and test the results of a nonlocal model based on the first angular moments of a simplified Fokker-Planck equation. This multidimensional model is closed thanks to an entropic relation (the Boltzman H-theorem). It provides a better description of the electron distribution function, thus enabling studies of small scale kinetic effects within the hydrodynamic framework. Examples of instabilities of electron plasma and ion-acoustic waves, driven by the heat flux, are presented and compared with the classical formula.

  1. Ferroelectric polymer networks with high energy density and improved discharged efficiency for dielectric energy storage.

    PubMed

    Khanchaitit, Paisan; Han, Kuo; Gadinski, Matthew R; Li, Qi; Wang, Qing

    2013-01-01

    Ferroelectric polymers are being actively explored as dielectric materials for electrical energy storage applications. However, their high dielectric constants and outstanding energy densities are accompanied by large dielectric loss due to ferroelectric hysteresis and electrical conduction, resulting in poor charge-discharge efficiencies under high electric fields. To address this long-standing problem, here we report the ferroelectric polymer networks exhibiting significantly reduced dielectric loss, superior polarization and greatly improved breakdown strength and reliability, while maintaining their fast discharge capability at a rate of microseconds. These concurrent improvements lead to unprecedented charge-discharge efficiencies and large values of the discharged energy density and also enable the operation of the ferroelectric polymers at elevated temperatures, which clearly outperforms the melt-extruded ferroelectric polymer films that represents the state of the art in dielectric polymers. The simplicity and scalability of the described method further suggest their potential for high energy density capacitors.

  2. Performance of bent-crystal x-ray microscopes for high energy density physics research

    SciTech Connect

    Schollmeier, Marius S.; Geissel, Matthias; Shores, Jonathon E.; Smith, Ian C.; Porter, John L.

    2015-05-29

    We present calculations for the field of view (FOV), image fluence, image monochromaticity, spectral acceptance, and image aberrations for spherical crystal microscopes, which are used as self-emission imaging or backlighter systems at large-scale high energy density physics facilities. Our analytic results are benchmarked with ray-tracing calculations as well as with experimental measurements from the 6.151 keV backlighter system at Sandia National Laboratories. Furthermore, the analytic expressions can be used for x-ray source positions anywhere between the Rowland circle and object plane. We discovered that this enables quick optimization of the performance of proposed but untested, bent-crystal microscope systems to find the best compromise between FOV, image fluence, and spatial resolution for a particular application.

  3. Performance of bent-crystal x-ray microscopes for high energy density physics research

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Schollmeier, Marius S.; Geissel, Matthias; Shores, Jonathon E.; Smith, Ian C.; Porter, John L.

    2015-05-29

    We present calculations for the field of view (FOV), image fluence, image monochromaticity, spectral acceptance, and image aberrations for spherical crystal microscopes, which are used as self-emission imaging or backlighter systems at large-scale high energy density physics facilities. Our analytic results are benchmarked with ray-tracing calculations as well as with experimental measurements from the 6.151 keV backlighter system at Sandia National Laboratories. Furthermore, the analytic expressions can be used for x-ray source positions anywhere between the Rowland circle and object plane. We discovered that this enables quick optimization of the performance of proposed but untested, bent-crystal microscope systems to findmore » the best compromise between FOV, image fluence, and spatial resolution for a particular application.« less

  4. The High Energy Density science instrument at the European XFEL, Hamburg, Germany: a new platform for shock compression research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appel, Karen; Nakatsutsumi, Motoaki; Priebe, Gerd; Pelka, Alexander; Thorpe, Ian; Tschentscher, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    The High Energy Density science instrument (HED) at the European XFEL, Hamburg, Germany will provide unique experimental possibilities for the investigation of near solid material driven to extreme states and will also establish a new platform to study materials response to shock compression. HED is located at the SASE2 undulator, which provides up to 27000 pulses per second with about 1012 photons per pulse, photon energies between 3 and 24 keV and pulse lengths of 2 - 100 fs. Self-seeding is foreseen, as well as natural bandwidth (BW) SASE radiation. In addition, energy BW of 10-4 and 10-6 will be available through monochromators. Focussing is based on CRL optics, which will allow to provide beam sizes of 2 μm, 10-20 μm and 150 - 260 μm at the sample position. Samples will be driven to extreme states by different types of optical lasers (either 200 kHz/3 mJ/15 fs, 10 Hz/100 TW/30 fs or 10 Hz/100J/ns), the pump-probe FEL beam (delays of up to 2 -23 ps for 5 -20 keV using a split-and-delay unit) and pulsed magnetic fields (up to 50 T). Pump probe experiments can be performed at adapted repetition rates (4.5 MHz, 1 - 10 Hz, single shot). X-ray techniques comprise diffraction, imaging and spectroscopic methods. User operation is planned for fall 2017. We will present the science case of HED, the current layout and present ideas on first shock compression experiments.

  5. Optical fiber antenna generating spiral beam shapes

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar Pal, S.; Mondal, S. K. Kumar, R.; Akula, A.; Ghosh, R.; Bhatnagar, R.; Kumbhakar, D.

    2014-01-20

    A simple method is proposed here to generate vortex beam and spiral intensity patterns from a Gaussian source. It uses a special type of optical fiber antenna of aperture ∼80 nm having naturally grown surface curvature along its length. The antenna converts linearly polarized Gaussian beam into a beam with spiral intensity patterns. The experimentally obtained spiral patterns with single and double spiral arms manifest the orbital angular momentum, l = ±1, 2, carried by the output beam. Such beam can be very useful for optical tweezer, metal machining, and similar applications.

  6. A quantum chemistry study on thermochemical properties of high energy-density endothermic hydrocarbon fuel JP-10.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xiao-Mei; Xie, Hu-Jun; Yue, Lei; Lu, Xiao-Xing; Fang, Wen-Jun

    2014-04-01

    The density functional theory (DFT) calculations at the M06-2X/6-31++G(d,p) level have been performed to explore the molecular structure, electronic structure, C-H bond dissociation enthalpy, and reaction enthalpies for five isodesmic reactions of a high energy-density endothermic hydrocarbon fuel JP-10. On the basis of the calculations, it is found that the carbonium ion C-6 isomer formed from the catalytic cracking at the C₆ site of JP-10 has the lowest energy, and the R-5 radical generated from the thermal cracking at the C₅ site of JP-10 is the most stable isomer. Furthermore, a series of hypothetical and isodesmic work reactions containing similar bond environments are used to calculate the reaction enthalpies for target compounds. For the same isodesmic reaction, the reaction enthalpy of each carbon site radical has also been calculated. The present work is of fundamental significance and strategic importance to provide some valuable insights into the component design and energy utilization of advanced endothermic fuels.

  7. Aromatic poly(arylene ether urea) with high dipole moment for high thermal stability and high energy density capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Zhaoxi; Lin, Minren; Wu, Shan; Thakur, Yash; Zhou, Yue; Jeong, Dae-Yong; Shen, Qundong; Zhang, Q. M.

    2015-05-01

    Developing dielectric polymers with higher dielectric constant without sacrificing loss and thermal stability is of great importance for next generation of high energy density capacitors. We show here that by replacing the CH2 group in the aromatic polyurea (ArPU) with the polar ether group, thus raising the dipole moment of the molecular unit, poly(arylene ether urea) (PEEU) shows an increased dielectric constant of 4.7, compared with 4.2 of ArPU. Moreover, PEEU maintains the low dielectric loss and is thermally stable up to 250 °C. As a result, the polymer delivers 13 J/cm3 discharged energy density at room temperature and 9 J/cm3 at 120 °C. The high quality films perform well in terms of both breakdown strength (at 700 MV/m at room temperature) and leakage current from room temperature to elevated temperature. At 120 °C, the breakdown strength is 600 MV/m and the conductivity is 1.58 × 10-14 S/cm measured under 100 MV/m.

  8. Validation of a turbulent Kelvin-Helmholtz shear layer model using a high-energy-density OMEGA laser experiment.

    PubMed

    Hurricane, O A; Smalyuk, V A; Raman, K; Schilling, O; Hansen, J F; Langstaff, G; Martinez, D; Park, H-S; Remington, B A; Robey, H F; Greenough, J A; Wallace, R; Di Stefano, C A; Drake, R P; Marion, D; Krauland, C M; Kuranz, C C

    2012-10-12

    Following the successful demonstration of an OMEGA laser-driven platform for generating and studying nearly two-dimensional unstable plasma shear layers [Hurricane et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 056305 (2009); Harding et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 045005 (2009)], this Letter reports on the first quantitative measurement of turbulent mixing in a high-energy-density plasma. As a blast wave moves parallel to an unperturbed interface between a low-density foam and a high-density plastic, baroclinic vorticity is deposited at the interface and a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability-driven turbulent mixing layer is created in the postshock flow due to surface roughness. The spatial scale and density profile of the turbulent layer are diagnosed using x-ray radiography with sufficiently small uncertainty so that the data can be used to ~0.17 μm) in the postshock plasma flow are consistent with an "inertial subrange," within which a Kolmogorov turbulent energy cascade can be active. An illustration of comparing the data set with the predictions of a two-equation turbulence model in the ares radiation hydrodynamics code is also presented. PMID:23102319

  9. High resolution 17 keV to 75 keV backlighters for High Energy Density experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H; Maddox, B R; Giraldez, E; Hatchett, S P; Hudson, L; Izumi, N; Key, M H; Pape, S L; MacKinnon, A J; MacPhee, A G; Patel, P K; Phillips, T W; Remington, B A; Seely, J F; Tommasini, R; Town, R; Workman, J

    2008-02-25

    We have developed 17 keV to 75 keV 1-dimensional and 2-dimensional high-resolution (< 10 {micro}m) radiography using high-intensity short pulse lasers. High energy K-{alpha} sources are created by fluorescence from hot electrons interacting in the target material after irradiation by lasers with intensity I{sub L} > 10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2}. We have achieved high resolution point projection 1-dimensional and 2-dimensional radiography using micro-foil and micro-wire targets attached to low-Z substrate materials. The micro-wire size was 10 {micro}m x 10 {micro}m x 300 {micro}m on a 300 {micro}m x 300 {micro}m x 5 {micro}m CH substrate. The radiography performance was demonstrated using the Titan laser at LLNL. We observed that the resolution is dominated by the micro-wire target size and there is very little degradation from the plasma plume, implying that the high energy x-ray photons are generated mostly within the micro-wire volume. We also observe that there are enough K{alpha} photons created with a 300 J, 1-{omega}, 40 ps pulse laser from these small volume targets, and that the signal-to-noise ratio is sufficiently high, for single shot radiography experiments. This unique technique will be used on future high energy density (HED) experiments at the new Omega-EP, ZR and NIF facilities.

  10. Generation of plane shocks using intense heavy ion beams: Application to Richtmyer-Meshkov instability growth studies

    SciTech Connect

    Tahir, N. A.; Stoehlker, Th.; Shutov, A.; Zharkov, A. P.; Piriz, A. R.

    2011-03-15

    A design of a novel experiment that allows the generation of a well defined, steady, and strong plane shock wave employing an intense uranium ion beam that is incident on a wedge shaped compound target is presented. This technique will open up the possibility of carrying out unique high energy density physics experiments using these shock waves. One such experiment is to study the growth of Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in fluids as well as in solids, both in the linear and nonlinear regimes, as shown by detailed numerical simulations presented in this paper. The ion beam parameters used in this study correspond to those that will be available at the Facility for Antiprotons and Ion Research (FAIR) at Darmstadt.

  11. Short rise time intense electron beam generator

    DOEpatents

    Olson, Craig L.

    1987-01-01

    A generator for producing an intense relativistic electron beam having a subnanosecond current rise time includes a conventional generator of intense relativistic electrons feeding into a short electrically conductive drift tube including a cavity containing a working gas at a low enough pressure to prevent the input beam from significantly ionizing the working gas. Ionizing means such as a laser simultaneously ionize the entire volume of working gas in the cavity to generate an output beam having a rise time less than one nanosecond.

  12. Short rise time intense electron beam generator

    DOEpatents

    Olson, C.L.

    1984-03-16

    A generator for producing an intense relativisitc electron beam having a subnanosecond current rise time includes a conventional generator of intense relativistic electrons feeding into a short electrically conductive drift tube including a cavity containing a working gas at a low enough pressure to prevent the input beam from significantly ionizing the working gas. Ionizing means such as a laser simultaneously ionize the entire volume of working gas in the cavity to generate an output beam having a rise time less than one nanosecond.

  13. Making FLASH an Open Code for the Academic High-Energy Density Physics Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, D. Q.; Couch, S. M.; Dubey, A.; Gopal, S.; Graziani, C.; Lee, D.; Weide, K.; Xia, G.

    2010-11-01

    High-energy density physics (HEDP) is an active and growing field of research. DOE has recently decided to make FLASH a code for the academic HEDP community. FLASH is a modular and extensible compressible spatially adaptive hydrodynamics code that incorporates capabilities for a broad range of physical processes, performs well on a wide range of existing advanced computer architectures, and has a broad user base. A rigorous software maintenance process allows the code to operate simultaneously in production and development modes. We summarize the work we are doing to add HEDP capabilities to FLASH. We are adding (1) Spitzer conductivity, (2) super time-stepping to handle the disparity between diffusion and advection time scales, and (3) a description of electrons, ions, and radiation (in the diffusion approximation) by 3 temperatures (3T) to both the hydrodynamics and the MHD solvers. We are also adding (4) ray tracing, (5) laser energy deposition, and (6) a multi-species equation of state incorporating ionization to the hydrodynamics solver; and (7) Hall MHD, and (8) the Biermann battery term to the MHD solver.

  14. Observation of finite-wavelength screening in high-energy-density matter.

    PubMed

    Chapman, D A; Vorberger, J; Fletcher, L B; Baggott, R A; Divol, L; Döppner, T; Falcone, R W; Glenzer, S H; Gregori, G; Guymer, T M; Kritcher, A L; Landen, O L; Ma, T; Pak, A E; Gericke, D O

    2015-01-01

    A key component for the description of charged particle systems is the screening of the Coulomb interaction between charge carriers. First investigated in the 1920s by Debye and Hückel for electrolytes, charge screening is important for determining the structural and transport properties of matter as diverse as astrophysical and laboratory plasmas, nuclear matter such as quark-gluon plasmas, electrons in solids, planetary cores and charged macromolecules. For systems with negligible dynamics, screening is still mostly described using a Debye-Hückel-type approach. Here, we report the novel observation of a significant departure from the Debye-Hückel-type model in high-energy-density matter by probing laser-driven, shock-compressed plastic with high-energy X-rays. We use spectrally resolved X-ray scattering in a geometry that enables direct investigation of the screening cloud, and demonstrate that the observed elastic scattering amplitude is only well described within a more general approach.

  15. Coaxial wet-spun yarn supercapacitors for high-energy density and safe wearable electronics.

    PubMed

    Kou, Liang; Huang, Tieqi; Zheng, Bingna; Han, Yi; Zhao, Xiaoli; Gopalsamy, Karthikeyan; Sun, Haiyan; Gao, Chao

    2014-01-01

    Yarn supercapacitors have great potential in future portable and wearable electronics because of their tiny volume, flexibility and weavability. However, low-energy density limits their development in the area of wearable high-energy density devices. How to enhance their energy densities while retaining their high-power densities is a critical challenge for yarn supercapacitor development. Here we propose a coaxial wet-spinning assembly approach to continuously spin polyelectrolyte-wrapped graphene/carbon nanotube core-sheath fibres, which are used directly as safe electrodes to assembly two-ply yarn supercapacitors. The yarn supercapacitors using liquid and solid electrolytes show ultra-high capacitances of 269 and 177 mF cm(-2) and energy densities of 5.91 and 3.84 μWh cm(-2), respectively. A cloth supercapacitor superior to commercial capacitor is further interwoven from two individual 40-cm-long coaxial fibres. The combination of scalable coaxial wet-spinning technology and excellent performance of yarn supercapacitors paves the way to wearable and safe electronics. PMID:24786366

  16. Hydrate-melt electrolytes for high-energy-density aqueous batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Yuki; Usui, Kenji; Sodeyama, Keitaro; Ko, Seongjae; Tateyama, Yoshitaka; Yamada, Atsuo

    2016-10-01

    Aqueous Li-ion batteries are attracting increasing attention because they are potentially low in cost, safe and environmentally friendly. However, their low energy density (<100 Wh kg‑1 based on total electrode weight), which results from the narrow operating potential window of water and the limited selection of suitable negative electrodes, is problematic for their future widespread application. Here, we explore optimized eutectic systems of several organic Li salts and show that a room-temperature hydrate melt of Li salts can be used as a stable aqueous electrolyte in which all water molecules participate in Li+ hydration shells while retaining fluidity. This hydrate-melt electrolyte enables a reversible reaction at a commercial Li4Ti5O12 negative electrode with a low reaction potential (1.55 V versus Li+/Li) and a high capacity (175 mAh g‑1). The resultant aqueous Li-ion batteries with high energy density (>130 Wh kg‑1) and high voltage (∼2.3–3.1 V) represent significant progress towards performance comparable to that of commercial non-aqueous batteries (with energy densities of ∼150–400 Wh kg‑1 and voltages of ∼2.4–3.8 V).

  17. Development of a Big Area BackLighter for high energy density experiments.

    PubMed

    Flippo, K A; Kline, J L; Doss, F W; Loomis, E N; Emerich, M; Devolder, B; Murphy, T J; Fournier, K B; Kalantar, D H; Regan, S P; Barrios, M A; Merritt, E C; Perry, T S; Tregillis, I L; Welser-Sherrill, L; Fincke, J R

    2014-09-01

    A very large area (7.5 mm(2)) laser-driven x-ray backlighter, termed the Big Area BackLighter (BABL) has been developed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to support high energy density experiments. The BABL provides an alternative to Pinhole-Apertured point-projection Backlighting (PABL) for a large field of view. This bypasses the challenges for PABL in the equatorial plane of the NIF target chamber where space is limited because of the unconverted laser light that threatens the diagnostic aperture, the backlighter foil, and the pinhole substrate. A transmission experiment using 132 kJ of NIF laser energy at a maximum intensity of 8.52 × 10(14) W/cm(2) illuminating the BABL demonstrated good conversion efficiency of >3.5% into K-shell emission producing ~4.6 kJ of high energy x rays, while yielding high contrast images with a highly uniform background that agree well with 2D simulated spectra and spatial profiles. PMID:25273720

  18. Observation of finite-wavelength screening in high-energy-density matter.

    PubMed

    Chapman, D A; Vorberger, J; Fletcher, L B; Baggott, R A; Divol, L; Döppner, T; Falcone, R W; Glenzer, S H; Gregori, G; Guymer, T M; Kritcher, A L; Landen, O L; Ma, T; Pak, A E; Gericke, D O

    2015-01-01

    A key component for the description of charged particle systems is the screening of the Coulomb interaction between charge carriers. First investigated in the 1920s by Debye and Hückel for electrolytes, charge screening is important for determining the structural and transport properties of matter as diverse as astrophysical and laboratory plasmas, nuclear matter such as quark-gluon plasmas, electrons in solids, planetary cores and charged macromolecules. For systems with negligible dynamics, screening is still mostly described using a Debye-Hückel-type approach. Here, we report the novel observation of a significant departure from the Debye-Hückel-type model in high-energy-density matter by probing laser-driven, shock-compressed plastic with high-energy X-rays. We use spectrally resolved X-ray scattering in a geometry that enables direct investigation of the screening cloud, and demonstrate that the observed elastic scattering amplitude is only well described within a more general approach. PMID:25904218

  19. Extended CO Solid: A New Class of High Energy Density Material

    SciTech Connect

    Lipp, M J; Evans, W J; Baer, B J; Yoo, C

    2004-10-14

    Covalently bonded extended phases of molecular solids made of first- and second-row elements at high pressures are a new class of materials with advanced optical, mechanical and energetic properties. The existence of such extended solids has recently been demonstrated using diamond anvil cells in several systems, including N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2},and CO. However, the microscopic quantities produced at the formidable high-pressure/temperature conditions have limited the characterization of their predicted novel properties including high-energy content. In this paper, we present the first experimental evidence that these extended low-Z solids are indeed high energy density materials via milligram-scale high-pressure synthesis, recovery and characterization of polymeric CO (p-CO). Our spectroscopic data reveal that p-CO is a random polymer made of lactonic entities and conjugated C=C with an energy content rivaling or exceeding that of HMX. Solid p-CO explosively decomposes to CO{sub 2} and glassy carbon and thus might be used as an advanced energetic material.

  20. High-Energy-Density, Laboratory-Astrophysics Studies of Jets and Bow Shocks

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, J M; Wilde, B H; Rosen, P A; Perry, T S; Khokhlov, A M; Coker, R F; Frank, A; Keiter, P A; Blue, B E; Drake, R P; Knauer, J P; Williams, R R

    2005-01-24

    Large-scale directional outflows of supersonic plasma, also known as ''jets'', are ubiquitous phenomena in astrophysics [1]. The interaction of such jets with surrounding matter often results in spectacular bow shocks, and intense radiation from radio to gamma-ray wavelengths. The traditional approach to understanding such phenomena is through theoretical analysis and numerical simulations. However, such numerical simulations have limited resolution, often assume axial symmetry, do not include all relevant physical processes, and fail to scale correctly in Reynolds number and perhaps other key dimensionless parameters. Additionally, they are frequently not tested by comparison with laboratory experiments. Recent advances in high-energy-density physics using large inertial-confinement-fusion devices now allow controlled laboratory experiments on macroscopic volumes of plasma of direct relevance relevant to astrophysics [2]. In this Letter we report the first results of experiments designed to study the evolution of supersonic plasma jets and the bow shocks they drive into a surrounding medium. Our experiments reveal both regular and highly complex flow patterns in the bow shock, thus opening a new window--complementary to computer simulations--into understanding the nature of three-dimensional astrophysical jets.

  1. A high energy density shock driven Kelvin-Helmholtz shear layer experimenta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurricane, O. A.; Hansen, J. F.; Robey, H. F.; Remington, B. A.; Bono, M. J.; Harding, E. C.; Drake, R. P.; Kuranz, C. C.

    2009-05-01

    Radiographic data from a novel and highly successful high energy density Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability experiment is presented along with synapses of the theory and simulation behind the target design. Data on instability growth are compared to predictions from simulation and theory. The key role played by baroclinic vorticity production in the functioning of the target and the key design parameters are also discussed. The data show the complete evolution of large distinct KH eddies, from formation to turbulent break-up. Unexpectedly, low density bubbles comparable to the vortex size are observed forming in the free-stream region above each vortex at late time. These bubbles have the appearance of localized shocks, possibly supporting a theoretical fluid dynamics conjecture about the existence of supersonic bubbles over the vortical structure [transonic convective Mach numbers, D. Papamoschou and A. Roshko, J. Fluid Mech. 197, 453 (1988)] that support localized shocks (shocklets) not extending into the free stream (P. E. Dimotakis, Proceedings of the 22nd Fluid Dynamics, Plasma Dynamics and Lasers Conference, 1991, Paper No. AIAA 91-1724). However, it is also possible that these low density bubbles are the result of a cavitationlike effect. Hypothesis that may explain the appearance of low density bubbles will be discussed.

  2. Additions and Improvements to the FLASH Code for Simulating High Energy Density Physics Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, D. Q.; Daley, C.; Dubey, A.; Fatenejad, M.; Flocke, N.; Graziani, C.; Lee, D.; Tzeferacos, P.; Weide, K.

    2015-11-01

    FLASH is an open source, finite-volume Eulerian, spatially adaptive radiation hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics code that incorporates capabilities for a broad range of physical processes, performs well on a wide range of computer architectures, and has a broad user base. Extensive capabilities have been added to FLASH to make it an open toolset for the academic high energy density physics (HEDP) community. We summarize these capabilities, with particular emphasis on recent additions and improvements. These include advancements in the optical ray tracing laser package, with methods such as bi-cubic 2D and tri-cubic 3D interpolation of electron number density, adaptive stepping and 2nd-, 3rd-, and 4th-order Runge-Kutta integration methods. Moreover, we showcase the simulated magnetic field diagnostic capabilities of the code, including induction coils, Faraday rotation, and proton radiography. We also describe several collaborations with the National Laboratories and the academic community in which FLASH has been used to simulate HEDP experiments. This work was supported in part at the University of Chicago by the DOE NNSA ASC through the Argonne Institute for Computing in Science under field work proposal 57789; and the NSF under grant PHY-0903997.

  3. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium-nickel chloride batteries with ultra-high energy density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Y.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Chang, Hee Jung; Canfield, Nathan L.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2016-02-01

    Sodium-metal halide batteries have been considered as one of the more attractive technologies for stationary electrical energy storage, however, they are not used for broader applications despite their relatively well-known redox system. One of the roadblocks hindering market penetration is the high-operating temperature. Here we demonstrate that planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries can be operated at an intermediate temperature of 190 °C with ultra-high energy density. A specific energy density of 350 Wh kg-1, higher than that of conventional tubular sodium-nickel chloride batteries (280 °C), is obtained for planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries operated at 190 °C over a long-term cell test (1,000 cycles), and it attributed to the slower particle growth of the cathode materials at the lower operating temperature. Results reported here demonstrate that planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries operated at an intermediate temperature could greatly benefit this traditional energy storage technology by improving battery energy density, cycle life and reducing material costs.

  4. Activated Microporous Carbon Derived from Almond Shells for High Energy Density Asymmetric Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chun; Yang, Shaoran; Cai, Junjie; Zhang, Qiaobao; Zhu, Ying; Zhang, Kaili

    2016-06-22

    Via the activation treatment of carbonized almond shells with HNO3 and KOH, activated microporous carbon (AMC-3 and AMC-2) was successfully synthesized. These two AMC electrodes demonstrate remarkable electrochemical behaviors such as high rate capability, high specific capacitance, and excellent cycle stability when serving as electrodes for supercapacitors. More importantly, through the use of a Zn-Ni-Co ternary oxide (ZNCO) positive electrode and the AMC negative electrode, asymmetric supercapacitors (ASC) were assembled that deliver superior energy density (53.3 Wh kg(-1) at a power density of 1126.1 W kg(-1) for ASC-2 and 53.6 Wh kg(-1) at a power density of 1124.5 W kg(-1) for ASC-3) and excellent stability (82.7% and 83.4% specific capacitance retention for ZNCO//AMC ASC-2 and ZNCO//AMC ASC-3, respectively, after 5000 cycles). Through these two methods, low-cost, renewable, and environmentally friendly electrode materials can be provided for high energy density supercapacitors. PMID:27253880

  5. ZaP-HD: High Energy Density Z-Pinch Plasmas using Sheared Flow Stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golingo, R. P.; Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.; Claveau, E. L.; Doty, S. A.; Forbes, E. G.; Hughes, M. C.; Kim, B.; Ross, M. P.; Weed, J. R.

    2015-11-01

    The ZaP-HD flow Z-pinch project investigates scaling the flow Z-pinch to High Energy Density Plasma, HEDP, conditions by using sheared flow stabilization. ZaP used a single power supply to produce 100 cm long Z-pinches that were quiescent for many radial Alfven times and axial flow-through times. The flow Z-pinch concept provides an approach to achieve HED plasmas, which are dimensionally large and persist for extended durations. The ZaP-HD device replaces the single power supply from ZaP with two separate power supplies to independently control the plasma flow and current in the Z-pinch. Equilibrium is determined by diagnostic measurements of the density with interferometry and digital holography, the plasma flow and temperature with passive spectroscopy, the magnetic field with surface magnetic probes, and plasma emission with optical imaging. The diagnostics fully characterize the plasma from its initiation in the coaxial accelerator, through the pinch, and exhaust from the assembly region. The plasma evolution is modeled with high resolution codes: Mach2, WARPX, and NIMROD. Experimental results and scaling analyses are presented. This work is supported by grants from the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration.

  6. Observation of finite-wavelength screening in high-energy-density matter

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, D. A.; Vorberger, J.; Fletcher, L. B.; Baggott, R. A.; Divol, L.; Döppner, T.; Falcone, R. W.; Glenzer, S. H.; Gregori, G.; Guymer, T. M.; Kritcher, A. L.; Landen, O. L.; Ma, T.; Pak, A. E.; Gericke, D. O.

    2015-04-23

    A key component for the description of charged particle systems is the screening of the Coulomb interaction between charge carriers. First investigated in the 1920s by Debye and Hückel for electrolytes, charge screening is important for determining the structural and transport properties of matter as diverse as astrophysical and laboratory plasmas, nuclear matter such as quark-gluon plasmas, electrons in solids, planetary cores and charged macromolecules. For systems with negligible dynamics, screening is still mostly described using a Debye–Hückel-type approach. Here, we report the novel observation of a significant departure from the Debye–Hückel-type model in high-energy-density matter by probing laser-driven, shock-compressed plastic with high-energy X-rays. We use spectrally resolved X-ray scattering in a geometry that enables direct investigation of the screening cloud, and demonstrate that the observed elastic scattering amplitude is only well described within a more general approach.

  7. Accelerated dynamics of blast wave driven Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in high energy density plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swisher, N.; Kuranz, C.; Drake, R. P.; Abarzhi, S. I.

    2014-10-01

    We report the systematic analysis of experimental data describing the late time evolution of the high Mach number and high Reynolds number Rayleigh-Taylor instability which is driven by a blast wave. The parameter regime is relevant to high energy density plasmas and astrophysics. The experiments have been conducted at the Omega laser facility. By processing the experimental x-ray images, we quantified the delicate features of RT dynamics, including the measurements of the curvature of the transmitted shock and the interface envelopes, the positions of RT bubbles and spikes, and the quantification of statistics of RT mixing. The measurements were performed at four time steps and for three different initial perturbations of the target (single mode and two two-mode). We found that within the noise level the curvatures of the shock and interface envelope evolve steadily and are an imprint of laser imperfections. At late times, the bubble merge does not occur, and the flow keeps significant degree of order. Yet, the blast-wave-driven RT spikes do accelerate with the power-law exponent smaller than that in case of sustained acceleration. We compared the experimental results with the momentum model of RT mixing and stochastic model achieving good agreement. The work is supported by the US National Science Foundation.

  8. Towards an effective nonlinear Quantum Mechanics for High Energy-density (HED) Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahajan, Swadesh

    2015-11-01

    A relativistic quantum framework is presented for dealing with high energy density matter, in particular, an assembly of particles in the field of an electromagnetic (EM) wave of arbitrary magnitude. Two different approaches are presented: 1) A Statistical Mechanical model for the HED matter is developed - Principal steps involve solving the eigenvalue problem for a quantum relativistic particle in the presence of arbitrary strength EM field. The resulting energy eigenvalue (dependent on the magnitudes A, ω and k) defines the appropriate Boltzmann factor to construct expressions for physical variables for a weakly interacting system of these field-dressed particles. The fluid equations are the conservation laws, 2) Second, an equivalent nonlinear quantum mechanics is constructed to represent a hot fluid with and without internal degrees of freedom (like spin). Representative initial results are displayed and discussed: 1) fundamental changes in the particle energy momentum relationship 2) The EM wave induces anisotropy in the energy momentum tensor, 3) the EM wave splits the spin-degenerate states, 4) the propagation characteristics of the EM wave are modified by thermal and field effects causing differential self-induced transparency, 5) Particle trapping and ``pushing'' by the high amplitude EM wave. Attempts will be made to highlight testable predictions. Research supported by the U.S. Dept. of Energy Grant DE-FG02-04ER-54742.

  9. Development of optics for x-ray phase-contrast imaging of high energy density plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Stutman, D.; Finkenthal, M.; Moldovan, N.

    2010-10-15

    Phase-contrast or refraction-enhanced x-ray radiography can be useful for the diagnostic of low-Z high energy density plasmas, such as imploding inertial confinement fusion (ICF) pellets, due to its sensitivity to density gradients. To separate and quantify the absorption and refraction contributions to x-ray images, methods based on microperiodic optics, such as shearing interferometry, can be used. To enable applying such methods with the energetic x rays needed for ICF radiography, we investigate a new type of optics consisting of grazing incidence microperiodic mirrors. Using such mirrors, efficient phase-contrast imaging systems could be built for energies up to {approx}100 keV. In addition, a simple lithographic method is proposed for the production of the microperiodic x-ray mirrors based on the difference in the total reflection between a low-Z substrate and a high-Z film. Prototype mirrors fabricated with this method show promising characteristics in laboratory tests.

  10. A high energy density shock driven Kelvin-Helmholtz shear layer experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Hurricane, O. A.; Hansen, J. F.; Robey, H. F.; Remington, B. A.; Bono, M. J.; Harding, E. C.; Drake, R. P.; Kuranz, C. C.

    2009-05-15

    Radiographic data from a novel and highly successful high energy density Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability experiment is presented along with synapses of the theory and simulation behind the target design. Data on instability growth are compared to predictions from simulation and theory. The key role played by baroclinic vorticity production in the functioning of the target and the key design parameters are also discussed. The data show the complete evolution of large distinct KH eddies, from formation to turbulent break-up. Unexpectedly, low density bubbles comparable to the vortex size are observed forming in the free-stream region above each vortex at late time. These bubbles have the appearance of localized shocks, possibly supporting a theoretical fluid dynamics conjecture about the existence of supersonic bubbles over the vortical structure [transonic convective Mach numbers, D. Papamoschou and A. Roshko, J. Fluid Mech. 197, 453 (1988)] that support localized shocks (shocklets) not extending into the free stream (P. E. Dimotakis, Proceedings of the 22nd Fluid Dynamics, Plasma Dynamics and Lasers Conference, 1991, Paper No. AIAA 91-1724). However, it is also possible that these low density bubbles are the result of a cavitationlike effect. Hypothesis that may explain the appearance of low density bubbles will be discussed.

  11. Novel high energy density materials: Synthesis by megabar hot pressing. LDRD final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenzana, H.E.; Yoo, C.S.; Lipp, M.; Barbee, T. III; McMahan, A.K.; Mailhiot, C.

    1996-04-01

    The goal of this work was to demonstrate proof-of-principle existence of a new class of high energy density materials (HEDMs). These proposed novel solids are derived from first and second row elements arranged in a uniform, three-dimensional network. Thus, every bond in these systems is energetic, in contrast to conventional energetic materials that store energy only within individual molecules. Recent predictions have suggested that a number of possible compounds including a polymeric form of nitrogen can be synthesized at high pressures and recovered metastably at ambient conditions. Specifically, polymeric nitrogen is predicted to have an energy density about three times that of a typical explosive. Such extended solid HEDMs offer dramatic new opportunities as explosives, monopropellants, or as environmentally clean fuels. The authors utilized the laser heated diamond anvil cell as the synthesis route for establishing proof-of-principle existence. They conducted high pressure studies of pure molecular nitrogen samples and completely revised the previously published equation-of-state. They also pursued studies of carbon monoxide, a compound that is isoelectronic with nitrogen and exhibits very similar high pressure phase transformations. Carbon monoxide polymerizes under pressure into a solid that can be recovered and may be energetic.

  12. Using Magnetic Fields to Create and Control High Energy Density Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, Mark

    2012-05-09

    The recently refurbished Z facility at Sandia National Laboratories is the world’s largest pulsed power driver. Z can efficiently deliver currents as large as 26 Million Amperes to centimeter scale loads. These large currents create large magnetic fields that, in turn, create very large pressures in conducting materials. These very large pressures have been used to create unique conditions for high energy density science experiments for a variety of applications. Recently, we have been exploring the use of very strong magnetic fields to significantly relax the requirements for achieving inertial confinement fusion self heating1. The magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) concept relies on a cylindrically imploding liner, an axial magnetic field, and a laser heated fuel region. We hope to achieve significant fusion yield on the Z facility with this concept. Initial experiments assessing the growth of the Magneto-Rayleigh Taylor instability are promising and recent calculational work has identified an approach to achieving high gain with this concept.

  13. Inertial Fusion and High-Energy-Density Science in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Tarter, C B

    2001-09-06

    Inertial fusion and high-energy density science worldwide is poised to take a great leap forward. In the US, programs at the University of Rochester, Sandia National Laboratories, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the Naval Research Laboratory, and many smaller laboratories have laid the groundwork for building a facility in which fusion ignition can be studied in the laboratory for the first time. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is being built by the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Agency to provide an experimental test bed for the US Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP) to ensure the dependability of the country's nuclear deterrent without underground nuclear testing. NIF and other large laser systems being planned such as the Laser MegaJoule (LMJ) in France will also make important contributions to basic science, the development of inertial fusion energy, and other scientific and technological endeavors. NIF will be able to produce extreme temperatures and pressures in matter. This will allow simulating astrophysical phenomena (on a tiny scale) and measuring the equation of state of material under conditions that exist in planetary cores.

  14. Investigating the Effects of Anisotropic Mass Transport on Dendrite Growth in High Energy Density Lithium Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Jinwang; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Ferris, Kim F.; Ryan, Emily M.

    2016-01-01

    Dendrite formation on the electrode surface of high energy density lithium (Li) batteries causes safety problems and limits their applications. Suppressing dendrite growth could significantly improve Li battery performance. Dendrite growth and morphology is a function of the mixing in the electrolyte near the anode interface. Most research into dendrites in batteries focuses on dendrite formation in isotropic electrolytes (i.e., electrolytes with isotropic diffusion coefficient). In this work, an anisotropic diffusion reaction model is developed to study the anisotropic mixing effect on dendrite growth in Li batteries. The model uses a Lagrangian particle-based method to model dendrite growth in an anisotropic electrolyte solution. The model is verified by comparing the numerical simulation results with analytical solutions, and its accuracy is shown to be better than previous particle-based anisotropic diffusion models. Several parametric studies of dendrite growth in an anisotropic electrolyte are performed and the results demonstrate the effects of anisotropic transport on dendrite growth and morphology, and show the possible advantages of anisotropic electrolytes for dendrite suppression.

  15. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium–nickel chloride batteries with ultra-high energy density

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Y.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Chang, Hee Jung; Canfield, Nathan L.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2016-01-01

    Sodium-metal halide batteries have been considered as one of the more attractive technologies for stationary electrical energy storage, however, they are not used for broader applications despite their relatively well-known redox system. One of the roadblocks hindering market penetration is the high-operating temperature. Here we demonstrate that planar sodium–nickel chloride batteries can be operated at an intermediate temperature of 190 °C with ultra-high energy density. A specific energy density of 350 Wh kg−1, higher than that of conventional tubular sodium–nickel chloride batteries (280 °C), is obtained for planar sodium–nickel chloride batteries operated at 190 °C over a long-term cell test (1,000 cycles), and it attributed to the slower particle growth of the cathode materials at the lower operating temperature. Results reported here demonstrate that planar sodium–nickel chloride batteries operated at an intermediate temperature could greatly benefit this traditional energy storage technology by improving battery energy density, cycle life and reducing material costs. PMID:26864635

  16. Accelerating piston action and plasma heating in high-energy density laser plasma interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, M. C.; Wilks, S. C.; Baring, M. G.

    2013-03-01

    In the field of high-energy density physics (HEDP), lasers in both the nanosecond and picosecond regimes can drive conditions in the laboratory relevant to a broad range of astrophysical phenomena, including gamma-ray burst afterglows and supernova remnants. In the short-pulse regime, the strong light pressure (>Gbar) associated ultraintense lasers of intensity I > 1018 W/cm2 plays a central role in many HEDP applications. Yet, the behavior of this nonlinear pressure mechanism is not well-understood at late time in the laser-plasma interaction. In this paper, a more realistic treatment of the laser pressure 'hole boring' process is developed through analytical modeling and particle-in-cell simulations. A simple Liouville code capturing the phase space evolution of ponderomotively-driven ions is employed to distill effects related to plasma heating and ion bulk acceleration. Taking into account these effects, our results show that the evolution of the laser-target system encompasses ponderomotive expansion, equipartition, and quasi-isothermal expansion epochs. These results have implications for light piston-driven ion acceleration scenarios, and astrophysical applications where the efficiencies of converting incident Poynting flux into bulk plasma flow and plasma heat are key unknown parameters.

  17. Observation of finite-wavelength screening in high-energy-density matter

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chapman, D. A.; Vorberger, J.; Fletcher, L. B.; Baggott, R. A.; Divol, L.; Döppner, T.; Falcone, R. W.; Glenzer, S. H.; Gregori, G.; Guymer, T. M.; et al

    2015-04-23

    A key component for the description of charged particle systems is the screening of the Coulomb interaction between charge carriers. First investigated in the 1920s by Debye and Hückel for electrolytes, charge screening is important for determining the structural and transport properties of matter as diverse as astrophysical and laboratory plasmas, nuclear matter such as quark-gluon plasmas, electrons in solids, planetary cores and charged macromolecules. For systems with negligible dynamics, screening is still mostly described using a Debye–Hückel-type approach. Here, we report the novel observation of a significant departure from the Debye–Hückel-type model in high-energy-density matter by probing laser-driven, shock-compressedmore » plastic with high-energy X-rays. We use spectrally resolved X-ray scattering in a geometry that enables direct investigation of the screening cloud, and demonstrate that the observed elastic scattering amplitude is only well described within a more general approach.« less

  18. Pulse Power Capability Of High Energy Density Capacitors Based on a New Dielectric Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winsor, Paul; Scholz, Tim; Hudis, Martin; Slenes, Kirk M.

    1999-01-01

    A new dielectric composite consisting of a polymer coated onto a high-density metallized Kraft has been developed for application in high energy density pulse power capacitors. The polymer coating is custom formulated for high dielectric constant and strength with minimum dielectric losses. The composite can be wound and processed using conventional wound film capacitor manufacturing equipment. This new system has the potential to achieve 2 to 3 J/cu cm whole capacitor energy density at voltage levels above 3.0 kV, and can maintain its mechanical properties to temperatures above 150 C. The technical and manufacturing development of the composite material and fabrication into capacitors are summarized in this paper. Energy discharge testing, including capacitance and charge-discharge efficiency at normal and elevated temperatures, as well as DC life testing were performed on capacitors manufactured using this material. TPL (Albuquerque, NM) has developed the material and Aerovox (New Bedford, MA) has used the material to build and test actual capacitors. The results of the testing will focus on pulse power applications specifically those found in electro-magnetic armor and guns, high power microwave sources and defibrillators.

  19. Highly Oriented Graphene Sponge Electrode for Ultra High Energy Density Lithium Ion Hybrid Capacitors.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Wook; Lee, Dong Un; Li, Ge; Feng, Kun; Wang, Xiaolei; Yu, Aiping; Lui, Gregory; Chen, Zhongwei

    2016-09-28

    Highly oriented rGO sponge (HOG) can be easily synthesized as an effective anode for application in high-capacity lithium ion hybrid capacitors. X-ray diffraction and morphological analyses show that successfully exfoliated rGO sponge on average consists of 4.2 graphene sheets, maintaining its three-dimensional structure with highly oriented morphology even after the thermal reduction procedure. Lithium-ion hybrid capacitors (LIC) are fabricated in this study based on a unique cell configuration which completely eliminates the predoping process of lithium ions. The full-cell LIC consisting of AC/HOG-Li configuration has resulted in remarkably high energy densities of 231.7 and 131.9 Wh kg(-1) obtained at 57 W kg(-1) and 2.8 kW kg(-1). This excellent performance is attributed to the lithium ion diffusivity related to the intercalation reaction of AC/HOG-Li which is 3.6 times higher that of AC/CG-Li. This unique cell design and configuration of LIC presented in this study using HOG as an effective anode is an unprecedented example of performance enhancement and improved energy density of LIC through successful increase in cell operation voltage window.

  20. The Atlas project -- A new pulsed power facility for high energy density physics experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, W.M.; Ballard, E.O.; Bartsch, R.R.

    1997-04-01

    Atlas is a facility being designed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to perform high-energy-density experiments in support of weapon physics and basic research programs. It is designed to be an international user facility, providing experimental opportunities to researchers from national laboratories and academic institutions. For hydrodynamic experiments, it will be capable of achieving a pressure exceeding 30 Mbar in a several cubic centimeter volume. With the development of a suitable opening switch, it will be capable of producing more than 3 MJ of soft X-rays. The capacitor bank design consists of a 36 MJ array of 240 kV Marx modules. The system is designed to deliver a peak current of 45--50 MA with a 4--5-{micro}s rise time. The Marx modules are designed to be reconfigured to a 480-kV configuration for opening switch development. The capacitor bank is resistively damped to limit fault currents and capacitor voltage reversal. An experimental program for testing and certifying prototype components is currently underway. The capacitor bank design contains 300 closing switches. These switches are a modified version of a railgap switch originally designed for the DNA-ACE machines. Because of the large number of switches in the system, individual switch prefire rates must be less than 10{sup {minus}4} to protect the expensive target assemblies. Experiments are underway to determine if the switch-prefire probability can be reduced with rapid capacitor charging.

  1. Coaxial wet-spun yarn supercapacitors for high-energy density and safe wearable electronics

    PubMed Central

    Kou, Liang; Huang, Tieqi; Zheng, Bingna; Han, Yi; Zhao, Xiaoli; Gopalsamy, Karthikeyan; Sun, Haiyan; Gao, Chao

    2014-01-01

    Yarn supercapacitors have great potential in future portable and wearable electronics because of their tiny volume, flexibility and weavability. However, low-energy density limits their development in the area of wearable high-energy density devices. How to enhance their energy densities while retaining their high-power densities is a critical challenge for yarn supercapacitor development. Here we propose a coaxial wet-spinning assembly approach to continuously spin polyelectrolyte-wrapped graphene/carbon nanotube core-sheath fibres, which are used directly as safe electrodes to assembly two-ply yarn supercapacitors. The yarn supercapacitors using liquid and solid electrolytes show ultra-high capacitances of 269 and 177 mF cm−2 and energy densities of 5.91 and 3.84 μWh cm−2, respectively. A cloth supercapacitor superior to commercial capacitor is further interwoven from two individual 40-cm-long coaxial fibres. The combination of scalable coaxial wet-spinning technology and excellent performance of yarn supercapacitors paves the way to wearable and safe electronics. PMID:24786366

  2. Structured block copolymer thin film composites for ultra-high energy density capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samant, Saumil; Hailu, Shimelis; Grabowski, Christopher; Durstock, Michael; Raghavan, Dharmaraj; Karim, Alamgir

    2014-03-01

    Development of high energy density capacitors is essential for future applications like hybrid vehicles and directed energy weaponry. Fundamentally, energy density is governed by product of dielectric permittivity ɛ and breakdown strength Vbd. Hence, improvements in energy density are greatly reliant on improving either ɛ or Vbd or a combination of both. Polymer films are widely used in capacitors due to high Vbd and low loss but they suffer from very low permittivities. Composite dielectrics offer a unique opportunity to combine the high ɛ of inorganic fillers with the high Vbd of a polymer matrix. For enhancement of dielectric properties, it is essential to improve matrix-filler interaction and control the spatial distribution of fillers for which nanostructured block copolymers BCP act as ideal templates. We use Directed Self-assembly of block copolymers to rapidly fabricate highly aligned BCP-TiO2 composite nanostructures in thin films under dynamic thermal gradient field to synergistically combine the high ɛ of functionalized TiO2 and high Vbd of BCP matrix. The results of impact of BCP morphology, processing conditions and concentration of TiO2 on capacitor performance will be reported. U.S. Air Force of Scientific Research under contract FA9550-12-1-0306

  3. Activated Microporous Carbon Derived from Almond Shells for High Energy Density Asymmetric Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chun; Yang, Shaoran; Cai, Junjie; Zhang, Qiaobao; Zhu, Ying; Zhang, Kaili

    2016-06-22

    Via the activation treatment of carbonized almond shells with HNO3 and KOH, activated microporous carbon (AMC-3 and AMC-2) was successfully synthesized. These two AMC electrodes demonstrate remarkable electrochemical behaviors such as high rate capability, high specific capacitance, and excellent cycle stability when serving as electrodes for supercapacitors. More importantly, through the use of a Zn-Ni-Co ternary oxide (ZNCO) positive electrode and the AMC negative electrode, asymmetric supercapacitors (ASC) were assembled that deliver superior energy density (53.3 Wh kg(-1) at a power density of 1126.1 W kg(-1) for ASC-2 and 53.6 Wh kg(-1) at a power density of 1124.5 W kg(-1) for ASC-3) and excellent stability (82.7% and 83.4% specific capacitance retention for ZNCO//AMC ASC-2 and ZNCO//AMC ASC-3, respectively, after 5000 cycles). Through these two methods, low-cost, renewable, and environmentally friendly electrode materials can be provided for high energy density supercapacitors.

  4. Sulphur-impregnated flow cathode to enable high-energy-density lithium flow batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hongning; Zou, Qingli; Liang, Zhuojian; Liu, Hao; Li, Quan; Lu, Yi-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Redox flow batteries are promising technologies for large-scale electricity storage, but have been suffering from low energy density and low volumetric capacity. Here we report a flow cathode that exploits highly concentrated sulphur-impregnated carbon composite, to achieve a catholyte volumetric capacity 294 Ah l-1 with long cycle life (>100 cycles), high columbic efficiency (>90%, 100 cycles) and high energy efficiency (>80%, 100 cycles). The demonstrated catholyte volumetric capacity is five times higher than the all-vanadium flow batteries (60 Ah l-1) and 3-6 times higher than the demonstrated lithium-polysulphide approaches (50-117 Ah l-1). Pseudo-in situ impedance and microscopy characterizations reveal superior electrochemical and morphological reversibility of the sulphur redox reactions. Our approach of exploiting sulphur-impregnated carbon composite in the flow cathode creates effective interfaces between the insulating sulphur and conductive carbon-percolating network and offers a promising direction to develop high-energy-density flow batteries.

  5. Highly Oriented Graphene Sponge Electrode for Ultra High Energy Density Lithium Ion Hybrid Capacitors.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Wook; Lee, Dong Un; Li, Ge; Feng, Kun; Wang, Xiaolei; Yu, Aiping; Lui, Gregory; Chen, Zhongwei

    2016-09-28

    Highly oriented rGO sponge (HOG) can be easily synthesized as an effective anode for application in high-capacity lithium ion hybrid capacitors. X-ray diffraction and morphological analyses show that successfully exfoliated rGO sponge on average consists of 4.2 graphene sheets, maintaining its three-dimensional structure with highly oriented morphology even after the thermal reduction procedure. Lithium-ion hybrid capacitors (LIC) are fabricated in this study based on a unique cell configuration which completely eliminates the predoping process of lithium ions. The full-cell LIC consisting of AC/HOG-Li configuration has resulted in remarkably high energy densities of 231.7 and 131.9 Wh kg(-1) obtained at 57 W kg(-1) and 2.8 kW kg(-1). This excellent performance is attributed to the lithium ion diffusivity related to the intercalation reaction of AC/HOG-Li which is 3.6 times higher that of AC/CG-Li. This unique cell design and configuration of LIC presented in this study using HOG as an effective anode is an unprecedented example of performance enhancement and improved energy density of LIC through successful increase in cell operation voltage window. PMID:27603692

  6. High Energy Density and High Temperature Multilayer Capacitor Films for Electric Vehicle Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treufeld, Imre; Song, Michelle; Zhu, Lei; Baer, Eric; Snyder, Joe; Langhe, Deepak

    2015-03-01

    Multilayer films (MLFs) with high energy density and high temperature capability (>120 °C) have been developed at Case Western Reserve University. Such films offer a potential solution for electric car DC-link capacitors, where high ripple currents and high temperature tolerance are required. The current state-of-the-art capacitors used in electric cars for converting DC to AC use biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP), which can only operate at temperatures up to 85 °C requiring an external cooling system. The polycarbonate (PC)/poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) MLFs have a higher permittivity compared to that of BOPP (2.3), leading to higher energy density. They have good mechanical stability and reasonably low dielectric losses at 120 °C. Nonetheless, our preliminary dielectric measurements show that the MLFs exhibit appreciable dielectric losses (20%) at 120 °C, which would, despite all the other advantages, make them not suitable for practical applications. Our preliminary data showed that dielectric losses of the MLFs at 120 °C up to 400 MV/m and 1000 Hz originate mostly from impurity ionic conduction. This work is supported by the NSF PFI/BIC Program (IIP-1237708).

  7. High-Energy-Density Poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Fei; Xu, Zhuo; Xia, Weimin; Ye, Hongjun; Wei, Xiaoyong; Zhang, Zhicheng

    2013-12-01

    The dielectric response of poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) (PSAN) thin films fabricated by a solution casting process was investigated in this work. Linear dielectric behavior was obtained in PSAN films under an electric field at frequencies from 100 Hz to 1 MHz and temperature of -50°C to 100°C. The polymer films exhibited an intermediate dielectric permittivity of 4 and low dielectric loss (tan δ) of 0.027. Under 400 MV/m, the energy density of the PSAN films was 6.8 J/cm3, which is three times higher than that of biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) (about 1.6 J/cm3). However, their charge-discharge efficiency (about 90%) was rather close to that of BOPP. The calculated effective dielectric permittivity of the PSAN films under high electric field was as high as 9, which may be attributed to the improved displacement of the cyanide groups (-CN) polarized at high electric fields. These high-performance features make PSAN attractive for high-energy-density capacitor applications.

  8. Graphene/heparin template-controlled polyaniline nanofibers composite for high energy density supercapacitor electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moniruzzaman Sk, Md; Yue, Chee Yoon; Jena, Rajeeb Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Graphene/PANI nanofibers composites are prepared for the first time using a novel in situ polymerization method based on the chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline using heparin as a soft template. The even dispersion of individual graphene sheet within the polymer nanofibers matrix enhances the kinetics for both charge transfer and ion transport throughout the electrode. This novel G25PNF75 composite (weight ratio of GO:PANI = 25:75) shows a high specific capacitance of 890.79 F g-1 and an excellent energy density of 123.81 Wh kg-1 at a constant discharge current of 0.5 mA. The composite exhibits excellent cycle life with 88.78% specific capacitance retention after 1000 charge-discharge cycles. The excellent performance of the composite is due to the synergistic combination of graphene which provides good electrical conductivity and mechanical stability, and PANI nanofiber which provides good redox activity that consequently contributed such high energy density.

  9. Aromatic Polythiourea Dielectrics with High Energy Density, High Breakdown Strength, and Low Dielectric Loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shan; Burlingame, Quinn; Lin, Minren; Zhang, Qiming

    2013-03-01

    There is an increasing demand on dielectric materials with high electric energy density and low loss for a broad range of applications in modern electronics and electrical power systems such as hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), medical defibrillators, filters, and switched-mode power supplies. One major challenge in developing dielectric polymers is how to achieve high energy density Ue while maintaining low dielectric loss, even at very high-applied electric fields. Here we show that amorphous polar-polymers with very low impurity concentration can be promising for realizing such a dielectric polymer. Polar-polymer with high dipole moment and weak dipole coupling can provide relatively high dielectric constant for high Ue, eliminate polarization and conduction losses due to weak dipolar coupling and strong polar-scattering to charge carriers. Indeed, an aromatic polythiourea thin film can maintain low loss to high fields (>1 GV/m) with a high Ue (~ 24 J/cm3) , which is very attractive for energy storage capacitors.

  10. Observation of finite-wavelength screening in high-energy-density matter

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, D. A.; Vorberger, J.; Fletcher, L. B.; Baggott, R. A.; Divol, L.; Döppner, T.; Falcone, R. W.; Glenzer, S. H.; Gregori, G.; Guymer, T. M.; Kritcher, A. L.; Landen, O. L.; Ma, T.; Pak, A. E.; Gericke, D. O.

    2015-01-01

    A key component for the description of charged particle systems is the screening of the Coulomb interaction between charge carriers. First investigated in the 1920s by Debye and Hückel for electrolytes, charge screening is important for determining the structural and transport properties of matter as diverse as astrophysical and laboratory plasmas, nuclear matter such as quark-gluon plasmas, electrons in solids, planetary cores and charged macromolecules. For systems with negligible dynamics, screening is still mostly described using a Debye–Hückel-type approach. Here, we report the novel observation of a significant departure from the Debye–Hückel-type model in high-energy-density matter by probing laser-driven, shock-compressed plastic with high-energy X-rays. We use spectrally resolved X-ray scattering in a geometry that enables direct investigation of the screening cloud, and demonstrate that the observed elastic scattering amplitude is only well described within a more general approach. PMID:25904218

  11. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium-nickel chloride batteries with ultra-high energy density.

    PubMed

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Y; Meinhardt, Kerry D; Chang, Hee Jung; Canfield, Nathan L; Sprenkle, Vincent L

    2016-02-11

    Sodium-metal halide batteries have been considered as one of the more attractive technologies for stationary electrical energy storage, however, they are not used for broader applications despite their relatively well-known redox system. One of the roadblocks hindering market penetration is the high-operating temperature. Here we demonstrate that planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries can be operated at an intermediate temperature of 190 °C with ultra-high energy density. A specific energy density of 350 Wh kg(-1), higher than that of conventional tubular sodium-nickel chloride batteries (280 °C), is obtained for planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries operated at 190 °C over a long-term cell test (1,000 cycles), and it attributed to the slower particle growth of the cathode materials at the lower operating temperature. Results reported here demonstrate that planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries operated at an intermediate temperature could greatly benefit this traditional energy storage technology by improving battery energy density, cycle life and reducing material costs.

  12. Dense Plasma Focus - From Alternative Fusion Source to Versatile High Energy Density Plasma Source for Plasma Nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawat, R. S.

    2015-03-01

    The dense plasma focus (DPF), a coaxial plasma gun, utilizes pulsed high current electrical discharge to heat and compress the plasma to very high density and temperature with energy densities in the range of 1-10 × 1010 J/m3. The DPF device has always been in the company of several alternative magnetic fusion devices as it produces intense fusion neutrons. Several experiments conducted on many different DPF devices ranging over several order of storage energy have demonstrated that at higher storage energy the neutron production does not follow I4 scaling laws and deteriorate significantly raising concern about the device's capability and relevance for fusion energy. On the other hand, the high energy density pinch plasma in DPF device makes it a multiple radiation source of ions, electron, soft and hard x-rays, and neutrons, making it useful for several applications in many different fields such as lithography, radiography, imaging, activation analysis, radioisotopes production etc. Being a source of hot dense plasma, strong shockwave, intense energetic beams and radiation, etc, the DPF device, additionally, shows tremendous potential for applications in plasma nanoscience and plasma nanotechnology. In the present paper, the key features of plasma focus device are critically discussed to understand the novelties and opportunities that this device offers in processing and synthesis of nanophase materials using, both, the top-down and bottom-up approach. The results of recent key experimental investigations performed on (i) the processing and modification of bulk target substrates for phase change, surface reconstruction and nanostructurization, (ii) the nanostructurization of PLD grown magnetic thin films, and (iii) direct synthesis of nanostructured (nanowire, nanosheets and nanoflowers) materials using anode target material ablation, ablated plasma and background reactive gas based synthesis and purely gas phase synthesis of various different types of

  13. Direct photoetching of polymers using radiation of high energy density from a table-top extreme ultraviolet plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Barkusky, Frank; Bayer, Armin; Peth, Christian; Mann, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    In order to perform material interaction studies with intense extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation, a Schwarzschild mirror objective coated with Mo/Si multilayers was adapted to a compact laser-driven EUV plasma source utilizing a solid Au target. By 10x demagnified imaging of the plasma a maximum pulse energy density of {approx}0.73 J/cm{sup 2} at a wavelength of 13.5 nm can be achieved in the image plane of the objective at a pulse duration of 8.8 ns. In this paper we present EUV photoetching rates measured for polymethyl methacrylate, polycarbonate, and polytetrafluoroethylene at various fluence levels. A linear dependence between etch depth and applied EUV pulse number could be observed without the necessity for any incubation pulses. By evaluating the slope of these data, etch rates were determined, revealing also a linear behavior for low fluences. A threshold energy density could not be observed. The slope of the linear etch regime as well as deviations from the linear trend at higher energy densities are discussed and compared to data known from deep UV laser ablation. Furthermore, the surface roughness of the structured polymers was measured by atomic force microscopy and compared to the nonirradiated polymer surface, indicating a rather smooth etch process (roughness increase of 20%-30%). The different shapes of the etch craters observed for the three polymers at high energy densities can be explained by the measured fluence dependence of the etch rates, having consequences for the proper use of polymer ablation for beam profiling of focused EUV radiation.

  14. Generation of low-divergence laser beams

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1993-01-01

    Apparatus for transforming a conventional beam of coherent light, having a Gaussian energy distribution and relatively high divergence, into a beam in which the energy distribution approximates a single, non-zero-order Bessel function and which therefore has much lower divergence. The apparatus comprises a zone plate having transmitting and reflecting zones defined by the pattern of light interference produced by the combination of a beam of coherent light with a Gaussian energy distribution and one having such a Bessel distribution. The interference pattern between the two beams is a concentric array of multiple annuli, and is preferably recorded as a hologram. The hologram is then used to form the transmitting and reflecting zones by photo-etching portions of a reflecting layer deposited on a plate made of a transmitting material. A Bessel beam, containing approximately 50% of the energy of the incident beam, is produced by passing a Gaussian beam through such a Bessel zone plate. The reflected beam, also containing approximately 50% of the incident beam energy and having a Bessel energy distribution, can be redirected in the same direction and parallel to the transmitted beam. Alternatively, a filter similar to the Bessel zone plate can be placed within the resonator cavity of a conventional laser system having a front mirror and a rear mirror, preferably axially aligned with the mirrors and just inside the front mirror to generate Bessel energy distribution light beams at the laser source.

  15. Generation of low-divergence laser beams

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1993-09-14

    Apparatus for transforming a conventional beam of coherent light, having a Gaussian energy distribution and relatively high divergence, into a beam in which the energy distribution approximates a single, non-zero-order Bessel function and which therefore has much lower divergence. The apparatus comprises a zone plate having transmitting and reflecting zones defined by the pattern of light interference produced by the combination of a beam of coherent light with a Gaussian energy distribution and one having such a Bessel distribution. The interference pattern between the two beams is a concentric array of multiple annuli, and is preferably recorded as a hologram. The hologram is then used to form the transmitting and reflecting zones by photo-etching portions of a reflecting layer deposited on a plate made of a transmitting material. A Bessel beam, containing approximately 50% of the energy of the incident beam, is produced by passing a Gaussian beam through such a Bessel zone plate. The reflected beam, also containing approximately 50% of the incident beam energy and having a Bessel energy distribution, can be redirected in the same direction and parallel to the transmitted beam. Alternatively, a filter similar to the Bessel zone plate can be placed within the resonator cavity of a conventional laser system having a front mirror and a rear mirror, preferably axially aligned with the mirrors and just inside the front mirror to generate Bessel energy distribution light beams at the laser source. 11 figures.

  16. Dynamic Hohlraums as x-ray sources in high-energy density science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J. F.; Glendinning, S. G.; Heeter, R. F.; Brockington, S. J. E.

    2008-01-01

    The first demonstration of laser driven dynamic Hohlraums (LDDH) as a spectrally smooth backlighter source for opacity and temperature measurements through absorption spectrometry of materials in local thermodynamic equilibrium at temperatures >150eV has been made. This is a crucial temperature regime for future astrophysics and ignition fusion experiments at the nearly completed National Ignition Facility (NIF) [E. I. Moses and C. R. Wuest, Fusion Sci. Technol. 47, 314 (2005)] at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The new backlighter consists of a LDDH filled with either krypton or argon that implodes to create an x-ray flash. The properties of this x-ray flash have been measured in experiments at the Omega laser [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics in Rochester, New York, satisfying all requirements imposed by future experiments: (1) the emission spectrum extends to at least 5.5keV, well above the maximum x-ray energy (˜3.5keV) obtained from the previously "best" opacity backlighters (uranium M-shell emission backlighters); (2) the spectrum is smooth and featureless (intensity variation <6%rms), allowing absorption spectrometry through experimental samples; (3) the emission source size is sufficiently small (<50μm) for projection backlighting through future samples; (4) the emission is bright enough (and twice as bright as imploding hydrogen-filled capsules) for gated spectrometer measurements; (5) the emission duration is optimized (≈100ps) for the current and future generations of spectrometers; and (6) by using only a small number of beams with limited energy and symmetry for the backlighter (10 out of 60 beams in the Omega experiments), the majority of laser beams are left available for heating sample materials to >150eV.

  17. Counter-facing plasma focus system as a repetitive and/or long-pulse high energy density plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, Yutaka; Nakajima, Mitsuo; Horioka, Kazuhiko

    2009-11-01

    A plasma focus system composed of a pair of counter-facing coaxial plasma guns is proposed as a long-pulse and/or repetitive high energy density plasma source. A proof-of-concept experiment demonstrated that with an assist of breakdown and outer electrode connections, current sheets evolved into a configuration for stable plasma confinement at the center of the electrodes. The current sheets could successively compress and confine the high energy density plasma every half period of the discharge current, enabling highly repetitive light emissions in extreme ultraviolet region with time durations in at least ten microseconds.

  18. Counter-facing plasma focus system as a repetitive and/or long-pulse high energy density plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Aoyama, Yutaka; Nakajima, Mitsuo; Horioka, Kazuhiko

    2009-11-15

    A plasma focus system composed of a pair of counter-facing coaxial plasma guns is proposed as a long-pulse and/or repetitive high energy density plasma source. A proof-of-concept experiment demonstrated that with an assist of breakdown and outer electrode connections, current sheets evolved into a configuration for stable plasma confinement at the center of the electrodes. The current sheets could successively compress and confine the high energy density plasma every half period of the discharge current, enabling highly repetitive light emissions in extreme ultraviolet region with time durations in at least ten microseconds.

  19. 2D quasi-ordered nitrogen-enriched porous carbon nanohybrids for high energy density supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan, Kan; Wang, Lei; Yu, Peng; Jiang, Baojiang; Shi, Keying; Fu, Honggang

    2016-05-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) quasi-ordered nitrogen-enriched porous carbon (QNPC) nanohybrids, with the characteristics of an ultrathin graphite nanosheet framework and thick quasi-ordered nitrogen-doped carbon cladding with a porous texture, have been synthesized via an in situ polymerization assembly method. In the synthesis, the expandable graphite (EG) is enlarged by an intermittent microwave method, and then aniline monomers are intercalated into the interlayers of the expanded EG with the assistance of a vacuum. Subsequently, the intercalated aniline monomers could assemble on the interlayer surface of the expanded EG, accompanied by the in situ polymerization from aniline monomers to polyaniline. Meanwhile, the expanded EG could be exfoliated to graphite nanosheets. By subsequent pyrolysis and activation processes, the QNPC nanohybrids could be prepared. As supercapacitor electrodes, a typical QNPC12-700 sample derived from the precursor containing an EG content of 12%, with a high level of nitrogen doping of 5.22 at%, offers a high specific capacitance of 305.7 F g-1 (1 A g-1), excellent rate-capability and long-term stability. Notably, an extremely high energy density of 95.7 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 449.7 W kg-1 in an ionic liquid electrolyte can be achieved. The unique structural features and moderate heteroatom doping of the QNPC nanohybrids combines electrochemical double layer and faradaic capacitance contributions, which make these nanohybrids ideal candidates as electrode materials for high-performance energy storage devices.Two-dimensional (2D) quasi-ordered nitrogen-enriched porous carbon (QNPC) nanohybrids, with the characteristics of an ultrathin graphite nanosheet framework and thick quasi-ordered nitrogen-doped carbon cladding with a porous texture, have been synthesized via an in situ polymerization assembly method. In the synthesis, the expandable graphite (EG) is enlarged by an intermittent microwave method, and then aniline monomers are

  20. The NIF: An international high energy density science and inertial fusion user facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, E. I.; Storm, E.

    2013-11-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), a 1.8-MJ/500-TW Nd:Glass laser facility designed to study inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and high-energy-density science (HEDS), is operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). A primary goal of NIF is to create the conditions necessary to demonstrate laboratory-scale thermonuclear ignition and burn. NIF experiments in support of indirect-drive ignition began late in FY2009 as part of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC), an international effort to achieve fusion ignition in the laboratory. To date, all of the capabilities to conduct implosion experiments are in place with the goal of demonstrating ignition and developing a predictable fusion experimental platform in 2012. The results from experiments completed are encouraging for the near-term achievement of ignition. Capsule implosion experiments at energies up to 1.6 MJ have demonstrated laser energetics, radiation temperatures, and symmetry control that scale to ignition conditions. Of particular importance is the demonstration of peak hohlraum temperatures near 300 eV with overall backscatter less than 15%. Important national security and basic science experiments have also been conducted on NIF. Successful demonstration of ignition and net energy gain on NIF will be a major step towards demonstrating the feasibility of laser-driven Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE). This paper will describe the results achieved so far on the path toward ignition, the beginning of fundamental science experiments and the plans to transition NIF to an international user facility providing access to HEDS and fusion energy researchers around the world.

  1. Precision equation of state measurements on hydrocarbons in the high energy density regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrios Garcia, Maria Alejandra

    The equation of state (EOS) of materials at extreme temperatures and pressures is of interest to astrophysics, high-energy-density physics, and inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The behavior of hydrocarbon materials at high-pressures (>1 Mbar) is essential to the understanding of ablator materials for ICF ignition targets. The EOS measurements on CHX presented here provide benchmark behavior of hydrocarbons under extreme conditions and the effect of stoichiometry (i.e. C:H ratio) on that behavior. Advances in diagnostics and analysis have made it possible to perform highly accurate measurements of shock velocity to ˜1% precision in transparent materials. This refines the impedance-match (IM) technique for laser-driven shock experiments producing precise EOS data at extreme pressures using a transparent standard such as alpha-quartz. The OMEGA laser was used to produce principal (single-shock) Hugoniot EOS measurements on polystyrene (CH), polypropylene (CH2), Glow-Discharge-Polymer (GDP) (C43H56O), and Germanium-doped GDP at shock pressures of 1--10 Mbar, with an alpha-quartz standard. This precision data tightly constrains the Hugoniot behavior of these hydrocarbons, even with the inclusion of systematic uncertainties inherent in the IM technique. A novel target design providing double-shock (re-shock) measurements along with principal Hugoniot data is presented. Results of the single-and double-shock experiments on these hydrocarbons are presented and compared to various EOS models. Temperature measurements are presented for CH and CH2; measuring both the thermal and kinematic behavior of these materials provides their complete shock EOS. Reflectance measurements on CH and CH2 show that both hydrocarbons transition from transparent insulators to reflecting conductors at pressures of 1 to 2 Mbar.

  2. Measurements of Ion Stopping around the Bragg Peak in High-Energy-Density Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenje, Johan

    2015-11-01

    Over the last few decades, ion stopping in weakly- to strongly-coupled High-Energy-Density (HED) plasmas has been subject to extensive analytical and numerical studies, but only a limited set of experimental data exists to check the validity of these theories. Most of these experiments also did not probe the detailed characteristics of the Bragg peak (peak ion stopping) where the ion velocity is similar to the average thermal electron velocity. To the best of our knowledge, only one exploratory attempt to do this was conducted by Hicks et al., who were able to describe qualitatively the behavior of the Bragg peak for one plasma condition. The work described in this presentation makes significant advances over previous experimental efforts by quantitatively assessing the characteristics of the ion stopping, ranging from low-velocity stopping, through the Bragg peak, to high-velocity stopping for different HED plasma conditions. This was achieved by measuring the energy loss of DD-tritons, D3He-alphas, DD-protons and D3He-protons, with distinctly different velocities, and the results indicate that the stopping power varies strongly with Te and ne. This effort represents the first experimental test of state-of-art plasma-stopping-power theories around the Bragg peak, which is an important first step in our efforts of getting a fundamental understanding of DT-alpha stopping in HED plasmas, a prerequisite for understanding ignition margins in various implosion designs with varying hot spot areal density at the National Ignition Facility. The work described here was performed in part at the LLE National Laser User's Facility (NLUF), and was supported in part by US DOE (Grant No. DE-FG03- 03SF22691), LLNL (subcontract Grant No. B504974) and LLE (subcontract Grant No. 412160-001G).

  3. Experimental investigation of opacity models for stellar interiors, inertial fusion, and high energy density plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, James

    2008-11-01

    Theoretical opacities are required for calculating energy transport in plasmas. In particular, understanding stellar interiors, inertial fusion, and Z-pinches depends on the opacities of mid-atomic-number elements in the 150-300 eV temperature range. These models are complex and experimental validation is crucial. For example, solar models presently disagree with helioseismology and one possible explanation is inadequate opacities. Testing these opacities requires a uniform plasma at temperatures high enough to produce the ion charge states that exist in the sun. Typical opacity experiments heat a sample using x-rays and measure the spectrally resolved transmission with a backlight. The difficulty grows as the temperature increases because the heating x-ray source must supply more energy and the backlighter source must be bright enough to overwhelm the plasma self emission. These problems were overcome using the dynamic hohlraum x-ray source at Sandia's Z facility to measure the transmission of a mixed Mg-Fe plasma heated above 150 eV. This capability will also advance opacity science for other high energy density plasmas. This tutorial describes opacity experiment challenges including accurate transmission measurements, plasma diagnostics, and quantitative model comparisons. The solar interior serves as a focal problem and Z facility experiments are used to illustrate the techniques. **In collaboration with C. Iglesias (LLNL), R. Mancini (U. Nevada), J.MacFarlane, I. Golovkin and P. Wang (Prism), C. Blancard, Ph. Cosse, G. Faussurier, F. Gilleron, and J.C. Pain (CEA), J. Abdallah Jr. (LANL), and G.A. Rochau and P.W. Lake (Sandia). ++Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  4. The science applications of the high-energy density plasmas created on the Nova laser

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, M.D.

    1996-05-01

    Since the late 1970s it has been realized that the laser-heated hohlraums envisioned for indirect drive Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) could also serve as {open_quote}{open_quote}physics factories{close_quote}{close_quote} by providing a high-energy density environment for the study of a wide variety of physics with important applications. In this review we will describe some of these studies, accomplished in the early 1990s using the Nova laser [J. T. Hunt and D. R. Speck, Opt. Eng. {bold 28}, 461 (1989)] at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. They include measuring the opacity of Fe, thus confirming that the OPAL low {ital Z} opacity code [C. A. Iglesias and F. J. Rogers, Astrophys. J. {bold 443}, 460 (1995)] is quantitatively more accurate than {open_quote}{open_quote}standard{close_quote}{close_quote} models, with important astrophysical implications such as modeling the Cepheid variables [F. J. Rogers and C. A. Iglesias, Science {bold 263}, 50 (1994)]; measuring the Rosseland mean opacity of Au, confirming the correctness of the {open_quote}{open_quote}Super Transition Array{close_quote}{close_quote} (STA) high-{ital Z} code [Bar Shalom {ital et} {ital al}., Phys. Rev. A {bold 40}, 3183 (1989)] with important implications for ignition targets designed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF); sophisticated Rayleigh{endash}Taylor and other hydrodynamic turbulence experiments and analysis that serve as a test bed for understanding astrophysical observations such as supernova explosions; using laboratory x-ray lasers for probing high-density ICF plasmas as well as biology; and creating near Gbar pressures [Cauble {ital et} {ital al}. Phys. Rev. Lett. {bold 70}, 2102 (1993)]. Expanded opportunities for such research on the NIF will also be described. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. Applications of Robust, Radiation Hard AlGaN Optoelectronic Devices in Space Exploration and High Energy Density Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, K.

    2011-05-04

    This slide show presents: space exploration applications; high energy density physics applications; UV LED and photodiode radiation hardness; UV LED and photodiode space qualification; UV LED AC charge management; and UV LED satellite payload instruments. A UV LED satellite will be launched 2nd half 2012.

  6. A stencil printed, high energy density silver oxide battery using a novel photopolymerizable poly(acrylic acid) separator.

    PubMed

    Braam, Kyle; Subramanian, Vivek

    2015-01-27

    A novel photopolymerized poly(acrylic acid) separator is demonstrated in a printed, high-energy-density silver oxide battery. The printed battery demonstrates a high capacity of 5.4 mA h cm(-2) at a discharge current density of 2.75 mA cm(-2) (C/2 rate) while delivering good mechanical flexibility and robustness. PMID:25475759

  7. High-Energy-Density Fuel Blending Strategies and Drop Dispersion for Fuel Cost Reduction and Soot Propensity Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellan, J.; Harstad, K.

    1998-01-01

    The idea that low soot propensity of high-energy-density (HED) liquid sooting fuels and cost reduction of a multicomponent energetic fuel can be achieved by doping a less expensive, less sooting liquid fuel with HED is tested through numerical simulations.

  8. A stencil printed, high energy density silver oxide battery using a novel photopolymerizable poly(acrylic acid) separator.

    PubMed

    Braam, Kyle; Subramanian, Vivek

    2015-01-27

    A novel photopolymerized poly(acrylic acid) separator is demonstrated in a printed, high-energy-density silver oxide battery. The printed battery demonstrates a high capacity of 5.4 mA h cm(-2) at a discharge current density of 2.75 mA cm(-2) (C/2 rate) while delivering good mechanical flexibility and robustness.

  9. Transition metal sulfides grown on graphene fibers for wearable asymmetric supercapacitors with high volumetric capacitance and high energy density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Weihua; Lai, Ting; Lai, Jianwei; Xie, Haoting; Ouyang, Liuzhang; Ye, Jianshan; Yu, Chengzhong

    2016-06-01

    Fiber shaped supercapacitors are promising candidates for wearable electronics because they are flexible and light-weight. However, a critical challenge of the widespread application of these energy storage devices is their low cell voltages and low energy densities, resulting in limited run-time of the electronics. Here, we demonstrate a 1.5 V high cell voltage and high volumetric energy density asymmetric fiber supercapacitor in aqueous electrolyte. The lightweight (0.24 g cm-3), highly conductive (39 S cm-1), and mechanically robust (221 MPa) graphene fibers were firstly fabricated and then coated by NiCo2S4 nanoparticles (GF/NiCo2S4) via the solvothermal deposition method. The GF/NiCo2S4 display high volumetric capacitance up to 388 F cm-3 at 2 mV s-1 in a three-electrode cell and 300 F cm-3 at 175.7 mA cm-3 (568 mF cm-2 at 0.5 mA cm-2) in a two-electrode cell. The electrochemical characterizations show 1000% higher capacitance of the GF/NiCo2S4 as compared to that of neat graphene fibers. The fabricated device achieves high energy density up to 12.3 mWh cm-3 with a maximum power density of 1600 mW cm-3, outperforming the thin-film lithium battery. Therefore, these supercapacitors are promising for the next generation flexible and wearable electronic devices.

  10. Transition metal sulfides grown on graphene fibers for wearable asymmetric supercapacitors with high volumetric capacitance and high energy density

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Weihua; Lai, Ting; Lai, Jianwei; Xie, Haoting; Ouyang, Liuzhang; Ye, Jianshan; Yu, Chengzhong

    2016-01-01

    Fiber shaped supercapacitors are promising candidates for wearable electronics because they are flexible and light-weight. However, a critical challenge of the widespread application of these energy storage devices is their low cell voltages and low energy densities, resulting in limited run-time of the electronics. Here, we demonstrate a 1.5 V high cell voltage and high volumetric energy density asymmetric fiber supercapacitor in aqueous electrolyte. The lightweight (0.24 g cm−3), highly conductive (39 S cm−1), and mechanically robust (221 MPa) graphene fibers were firstly fabricated and then coated by NiCo2S4 nanoparticles (GF/NiCo2S4) via the solvothermal deposition method. The GF/NiCo2S4 display high volumetric capacitance up to 388 F cm−3 at 2 mV s−1 in a three-electrode cell and 300 F cm−3 at 175.7 mA cm−3 (568 mF cm−2 at 0.5 mA cm−2) in a two-electrode cell. The electrochemical characterizations show 1000% higher capacitance of the GF/NiCo2S4 as compared to that of neat graphene fibers. The fabricated device achieves high energy density up to 12.3 mWh cm−3 with a maximum power density of 1600 mW cm−3, outperforming the thin-film lithium battery. Therefore, these supercapacitors are promising for the next generation flexible and wearable electronic devices. PMID:27248510

  11. Terahertz twisted beams generation in plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobhani, Hassan; Vaziri (Khamedi), Mohammad; Rooholamininejad, Hossien; Bahrampour, Alireza

    2016-08-01

    The resonant vortex terahertz beam generation by the cross-focusing of two twisted coaxial laser beams is investigated. For the resonant excitation of terahertz radiation, the rippled density in plasma and the ripple wave number is suitably chosen to satisfy the phase matching condition. The nonlinear current density at terahertz frequency arises due to the spatial variation of two Laguerre-Gaussian coupled field. The terahertz intensity scales as the ponderomotive force of laser beams which imparts an oscillatory velocity to the electrons and, in fact, input Laguerre-Gaussian laser beams properties such as vortex charge number and beam waist. Various laser and plasma parameters are employed to yield vortex terahertz radiation with higher efficiency. Also, it is shown that when the beating frequency approaches plasma frequency, the amplitude of THz radiation increases.

  12. Optical vortex beam generator at nanoscale level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garoli, Denis; Zilio, Pierfrancesco; Gorodetski, Yuri; Tantussi, Francesco; de Angelis, Francesco

    2016-07-01

    Optical beams carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) can find tremendous applications in several fields. In order to apply these particular beams in photonic integrated devices innovative optical elements have been proposed. Here we are interested in the generation of OAM-carrying beams at the nanoscale level. We design and experimentally demonstrate a plasmonic optical vortex emitter, based on a metal-insulator-metal holey plasmonic vortex lens. Our plasmonic element is shown to convert impinging circularly polarized light to an orbital angular momentum state capable of propagating to the far-field. Moreover, the emerging OAM can be externally adjusted by switching the handedness of the incident light polarization. The device has a radius of few micrometers and the OAM beam is generated from subwavelength aperture. The fabrication of integrated arrays of PVLs and the possible simultaneous emission of multiple optical vortices provide an easy way to the large-scale integration of optical vortex emitters for wide-ranging applications.

  13. Electron-beam welder circle generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, R. K.

    1980-01-01

    Generator rotates electron beam and performs other convenient functions during welding process. Device eliminates time-consuming techniques relying heavily on operator's skill. Welding speed is varied with frequency selector, and amplitudes of x- and y-axes are varied by adjusting phase shift. Both high and low-range adjustments are available, and each axis can be separately controlled. Crosshair is provided for set-up and beam alinements.

  14. Observation of a Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability in a High-Energy-Density Plasma on the Omega Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, E C; Hansen, J F; Hurricane, O A; Drake, R P; Robey, H F; Kuranz, C C; Remington, B A; Bono, M J; Grosskopf, M J; Gillespie, R S

    2009-02-12

    A laser initiated experiment is described in which an unstable plasma shear layer is produced by driving a blast wave along a plastic surface with sinusoidal perturbations. In response to the vorticity deposited and the shear flow established by the blast wave, the interface rolls up into large vortices characteristic of the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability. The experiment used x ray radiography to capture the first well-resolved images of KH vortices in a high-energy-density plasma, and possibly the first images of transonic shocks generated by large-scale structures in a shear layer. The physical processes governing the evolution of a stratified fluid flow with a large velocity gradient (i.e., a shear flow) are of fundamental interest to a wide range of research areas including combustion, inertial confinement fusion (ICF), stellar supernovae, and geophysical fluid dynamics. Traditional experiments have used inclined tanks of fluid to initiate a flow, generally at low Reynolds numbers, or wind tunnels that combine two parallel gas flows at the end of a thin wedge, known as a splitter plate. The splitter plate experiments have explored flows with maximum shear velocities on the order of 10{sup 3} m/s and Reynolds numbers up to 10{sup 6}. Here we report the creation of a novel type of shear flow, achieved by confining a laser driven blast wave in a millimeter-sized shock tube, which produced shear velocities on the order of 10{sup 4} m/s and Reynolds numbers of 10{sup 6} in a plasma. This system enabled the first apparent observation of transonic shocklets, which are small, localized shocks believed to develop in response to a local supersonic flow occurring over a growing perturbation. These shocklets have been predicted previously in simulations, but have never to our knowledge been observed. These experiments are also the first to observe the growth of perturbations by the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability under high-energy-density (HED) conditions. In all

  15. High-Energy-Density, Low-Temperature Li/CFx Primary Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitacre, Jay; Bugga, Ratnakumar; Smart, Marshall; Prakash, G.; Yazami, Rachid

    2007-01-01

    High-energy-density primary (nonrechargeable) electrochemical cells capable of relatively high discharge currents at temperatures as low as -40 C have been developed through modification of the chemistry of commercial Li/CFx cells and batteries. The commercial Li/CFx units are not suitable for high-current and low-temperature applications because they are current limited and their maximum discharge rates decrease with decreasing temperature. The term "Li/CFx" refers to an anode made of lithium and a cathode made of a fluorinated carbonaceous material (typically graphite). In commercial cells, x typically ranges from 1.05 to 1.1. This cell composition makes it possible to attain specific energies up to 800 Wh/kg, but in order to prevent cell polarization and the consequent large loss of cell capacity, it is typically necessary to keep discharge currents below C/50 (where C is numerically equal to the current that, flowing during a charge or discharge time of one hour, would integrate to the nominal charge or discharge capacity of a cell). This limitation has been attributed to the low electronic conductivity of CFx for x approx. 1. To some extent, the limitation might be overcome by making cathodes thinner, and some battery manufacturers have obtained promising results using thin cathode structures in spiral configurations. The present approach includes not only making cathodes relatively thin [.2 mils (.0.051 mm)] but also using sub-fluorinated CFx cathode materials (x < 1) in conjunction with electrolytes formulated for use at low temperatures. The reason for choosing sub-fluorinated CFx cathode materials is that their electronic conductivities are high, relative to those for which x > 1. It was known from recent prior research that cells containing sub-fluorinated CFx cathodes (x between 0.33 and 0.66) are capable of retaining substantial portions of their nominal low-current specific energies when discharged at rates as high as 5C at room temperature. However

  16. Density Functional Theory in High Energy Density Physics: phase-diagram and electrical conductivity of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattsson, Thomas R.

    2007-06-01

    Atomistic simulations employing Density Functional Theory (DFT) have recently emerged as a powerful way of increasing our understanding of materials and processes in high energy density physics. Knowledge of the properties of water (equation of state, electrical conductivity, diffusion, low-energy opacity) is essential for correctly describing the physics of giant planets as well as shock waves in water. Although a qualitative picture of water electrical conductivity has emerged, the necessary quantitative information is scarce over a wide range of temperature and density. Since experiments can only access certain areas of phase space, and often require modeling as a part of the analysis, Quantum Molecular Dynamics simulations play a vital role. Using finite-temperature density functional theory (FT-DFT), we have investigated the structure and electronic conductivity of water across three phase transitions (molecular liquid/ ionic liquid/ superionic/ electronic liquid). The ionic contribution to the conduction is calculated from proton diffusion and the electronic contribution is calculated using the Kubo-Greenwood formula. The calculations are performed with VASP, a plane-wave pseudo-potential code. There is a rapid transition to ionic conduction at 2000 K and 2 g/cm^3, whereas electronic conduction dominates at temperatures at and above 6000 K&[tilde;1]. Contrary to earlier results using the Car-Parrinello method&[tilde;2], we predict that the fluid bordering the superionic phase is conducting above 4000 K and 100 GPa. Our comprehensive use of FT-DFT explains the new findings. The calculated conductivity is compared to experimental data. I gratefully acknowledge Mike Desjarlais, my collaborator in this effort. The LDRD office at Sandia supported this work. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL

  17. Highly biocompatible, nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite synthesized in a solvothermal process driven by high energy density microwave radiation.

    PubMed

    Smolen, Dariusz; Chudoba, Tadeusz; Malka, Iwona; Kedzierska, Aleksandra; Lojkowski, Witold; Swieszkowski, Wojciech; Kurzydlowski, Krzysztof Jan; Kolodziejczyk-Mierzynska, Małgorzata; Lewandowska-Szumiel, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    A microwave, solvothermal synthesis of highly biocompatible hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanopowder was developed. The process was conducted in a microwave radiation field having a high energy density of 5 W/mL and over a time less than 2 minutes. The sample measurements included: powder X-ray diffraction, density, specific surface area, and chemical composition. The morphology and structure were investigated by scanning electron microscopy as well as transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The thermal behavior analysis was conducted using a simultaneous thermal analysis technique coupled with quadruple mass spectrometry. Additionally, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy tests of heated samples were performed. A degradation test and a biocompatibility study in vitro using human osteoblast cells were also conducted. The developed method enables the synthesis of pure, fully crystalline hexagonal HAp nanopowder with a specific surface area close to 240 m(2)/g and a Ca/P molar ratio equal to 1.57. TEM measurements showed that this method results in particles with an average grain size below 6 nm. A 28-day degradation test conducted according to the ISO standard indicated a 22% loss of initial weight and a calcium ion concentration at 200 μmol/dm(3) in the tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane hydrochloride test solution. The cytocompatibility of the obtained material was confirmed in a culture of human bone derived cells, both in an indirect test using the material extract, and in direct contact. A quantitative analysis was based on the 2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide. Viability assay as well as on DNA content measurements in the PicoGreen test. Indirect observations were performed at one point in time according to the ISO standard for in vitro cytotoxicity (ie, after 24 hours of cell exposure to the extracts). The direct contact tests were completed at three time points: after 24 hours, on day 7, and on day 14 of a culture in an

  18. Synthesis and characterization of mechanically alloyed aluminum-based compounds as high energy density materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaoying

    2006-12-01

    A new type of metastable reactive powders for potential use as high energy density materials in propellants, explosives, and pyrotechnics was developed. These powders are intended to replace aluminum typically added to energetic formulations to increase reaction enthalpy and temperature. The new materials are metastable aluminum-based alloys, which enable achievement of substantially reduced ignition temperatures and accelerated bulk burn rates compared to aluminum. Titanium and lithium were used as alloying components. The materials properties and characteristics leading to their enhanced combustion performance were investigated. The powders were prepared using mechanical alloying and characterized using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM/EDX), and thermal analysis. Detailed ignition measurements were performed to identify the processes affecting ignition for the prepared metastable powders. Al-Ti alloys were prepared with compositions ranging from Al0.95 Ti0.05 to Al0.75Ti0.25. Mechanically alloyed powders comprised solid solution of Ti and Al. Upon their heating, a number of subsolidus exothermic transitions were detected and assigned to formation of different modifications of Al3Ti. Three distinguishable oxidation steps were observed for the prepared alloys. The products formed at different oxidation stages were quantitatively analyzed by XRD. Ignition of mechanically alloyed Al-Ti powders was investigated experimentally for heating rates ranging from 3·103 to 2·10 4 K/s. It was shown that ignition was triggered by the exothermic formation of a metastable L12 phase of Al3Ti. Al-Li alloys were synthesized with a fixed bulk composition of Al 0.7Li0.3. At short milling times, an intermetallic LiAl delta-phase was readily produced. At longer milling times, the LiAl phase disappears and a solid solution of Li in Al (alpha-phase) formed with as much as 10 at % of dissolved Li. Continuing milling

  19. Highly biocompatible, nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite synthesized in a solvothermal process driven by high energy density microwave radiation

    PubMed Central

    Smolen, Dariusz; Chudoba, Tadeusz; Malka, Iwona; Kedzierska, Aleksandra; Lojkowski, Witold; Swieszkowski, Wojciech; Kurzydlowski, Krzysztof Jan; Kolodziejczyk-Mierzynska, Małgorzata; Lewandowska-Szumiel, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    A microwave, solvothermal synthesis of highly biocompatible hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanopowder was developed. The process was conducted in a microwave radiation field having a high energy density of 5 W/mL and over a time less than 2 minutes. The sample measurements included: powder X-ray diffraction, density, specific surface area, and chemical composition. The morphology and structure were investigated by scanning electron microscopy as well as transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The thermal behavior analysis was conducted using a simultaneous thermal analysis technique coupled with quadruple mass spectrometry. Additionally, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy tests of heated samples were performed. A degradation test and a biocompatibility study in vitro using human osteoblast cells were also conducted. The developed method enables the synthesis of pure, fully crystalline hexagonal HAp nanopowder with a specific surface area close to 240 m2/g and a Ca/P molar ratio equal to 1.57. TEM measurements showed that this method results in particles with an average grain size below 6 nm. A 28-day degradation test conducted according to the ISO standard indicated a 22% loss of initial weight and a calcium ion concentration at 200 μmol/dm3 in the tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane hydrochloride test solution. The cytocompatibility of the obtained material was confirmed in a culture of human bone derived cells, both in an indirect test using the material extract, and in direct contact. A quantitative analysis was based on the 2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide. Viability assay as well as on DNA content measurements in the PicoGreen test. Indirect observations were performed at one point in time according to the ISO standard for in vitro cytotoxicity (ie, after 24 hours of cell exposure to the extracts). The direct contact tests were completed at three time points: after 24 hours, on day 7, and on day 14 of a culture in an osteogenic

  20. Intense steady state electron beam generator

    DOEpatents

    Hershcovitch, A.; Kovarik, V.J.; Prelec, K.

    1990-07-17

    An intense, steady state, low emittance electron beam generator is formed by operating a hollow cathode discharge plasma source at critical levels in combination with an extraction electrode and a target electrode that are operable to extract a beam of fast primary electrons from the plasma source through a negatively biased grid that is critically operated to repel bulk electrons toward the plasma source while allowing the fast primary electrons to move toward the target in the desired beam that can be successfully transported for relatively large distances, such as one or more meters away from the plasma source. 2 figs.

  1. Intense steady state electron beam generator

    DOEpatents

    Hershcovitch, Ady; Kovarik, Vincent J.; Prelec, Krsto

    1990-01-01

    An intense, steady state, low emittance electron beam generator is formed by operating a hollow cathode discharge plasma source at critical levels in combination with an extraction electrode and a target electrode that are operable to extract a beam of fast primary electrons from the plasma source through a negatively biased grid that is critically operated to repel bulk electrons toward the plasma source while allowing the fast primary electrons to move toward the target in the desired beam that can be successfully transported for relatively large distances, such as one or more meters away from the plasma source.

  2. Seeding magnetic fields for laser-driven flux compression in high-energy-density plasmas.

    PubMed

    Gotchev, O V; Knauer, J P; Chang, P Y; Jang, N W; Shoup, M J; Meyerhofer, D D; Betti, R

    2009-04-01

    A compact, self-contained magnetic-seed-field generator (5 to 16 T) is the enabling technology for a novel laser-driven flux-compression scheme in laser-driven targets. A magnetized target is directly irradiated by a kilojoule or megajoule laser to compress the preseeded magnetic field to thousands of teslas. A fast (300 ns), 80 kA current pulse delivered by a portable pulsed-power system is discharged into a low-mass coil that surrounds the laser target. A >15 T target field has been demonstrated using a <100 J capacitor bank, a laser-triggered switch, and a low-impedance (<1 Omega) strip line. The device has been integrated into a series of magnetic-flux-compression experiments on the 60 beam, 30 kJ OMEGA laser [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. The initial application is a novel magneto-inertial fusion approach [O. V. Gotchev et al., J. Fusion Energy 27, 25 (2008)] to inertial confinement fusion (ICF), where the amplified magnetic field can inhibit thermal conduction losses from the hot spot of a compressed target. This can lead to the ignition of massive shells imploded with low velocity-a way of reaching higher gains than is possible with conventional ICF.

  3. Seeding Magnetic Fields for Laser-Driven Flux Compression in High-Energy-Density Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Gotchev, O.V.; Knauer, J.P.; Chang, P.Y.; Jang, N.W.; Shoup III, M.J.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Betti, R.

    2010-03-23

    A compact, self-contained magnetic-seed-field generator (5 to 16 T) is the enabling technology for a novel laser-driven flux-compression scheme in laser-driven targets. A magnetized target is directly irradiated by a kilojoule or megajoule laser to compress the preseeded magnetic field to thousands of teslas. A fast (300 ns), 80 kA current pulse delivered by a portable pulsed-power system is discharged into a low-mass coil that surrounds the laser target. A >15 T target field has been demonstrated using a <100 J capacitor bank, a laser-triggered switch, and a low-impedance (<1 Omega) strip line. The device has been integrated into a series of magnetic-flux-compression experiments on the 60 beam, 30 kJ OMEGA laser [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. The initial application is a novel magneto-inertial fusion approach [O. V. Gotchev et al., J. Fusion Energy 27, 25 (2008)] to inertial confinement fusion (ICF), where the amplified magnetic field can inhibit thermal conduction losses from the hot spot of a compressed target. This can lead to the ignition of massive shells imploded with low velocity—a way of reaching higher gains than is possible with conventional ICF.

  4. Seeding magnetic fields for laser-driven flux compression in high-energy-density plasmas.

    PubMed

    Gotchev, O V; Knauer, J P; Chang, P Y; Jang, N W; Shoup, M J; Meyerhofer, D D; Betti, R

    2009-04-01

    A compact, self-contained magnetic-seed-field generator (5 to 16 T) is the enabling technology for a novel laser-driven flux-compression scheme in laser-driven targets. A magnetized target is directly irradiated by a kilojoule or megajoule laser to compress the preseeded magnetic field to thousands of teslas. A fast (300 ns), 80 kA current pulse delivered by a portable pulsed-power system is discharged into a low-mass coil that surrounds the laser target. A >15 T target field has been demonstrated using a <100 J capacitor bank, a laser-triggered switch, and a low-impedance (<1 Omega) strip line. The device has been integrated into a series of magnetic-flux-compression experiments on the 60 beam, 30 kJ OMEGA laser [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. The initial application is a novel magneto-inertial fusion approach [O. V. Gotchev et al., J. Fusion Energy 27, 25 (2008)] to inertial confinement fusion (ICF), where the amplified magnetic field can inhibit thermal conduction losses from the hot spot of a compressed target. This can lead to the ignition of massive shells imploded with low velocity-a way of reaching higher gains than is possible with conventional ICF. PMID:19405657

  5. Heavy ion fusion science research for high energy density physics and fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    LOGAN, B.G.; Logan, B.G.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Barnard, J.J.; Cohen, R.H.; Coleman, J.E.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Friedman, A.; Gilson, E.P.; Greenway, W.G.; Grisham, L.; Grote, D.P.; Henestroza, E.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Kaganovich, I.D.; Kireeff Covo, M.; Kwan, J.W.; LaFortune, K.N.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.; Lund, S.M.; Molvik, A.W.; Ni, P.; Penn, G.E.; Perkins, L.J.; Qin, H.; Roy, P.K.; Sefkow, A.B.; Seidl, P.A.; Sharp, W.; Startsev, E.A.; Varentsov, D.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W.L.; Wurtele, J.S.; Welch, D.; Westenskow, G.A.; Yu, S.S.

    2007-06-25

    During the past two years, the U.S. heavy ion fusion science program has made significant experimental and theoretical progress in simultaneous transverse and longitudinal beam compression, ion-beam-driven warm dense matter targets, high brightness beam transport, advanced theory and numerical simulations, and heavy ion target designs for fusion. First experiments combining radial and longitudinal compression of intense ion beams propagating through background plasma resulted in on-axis beam densities increased by 700X at the focal plane. With further improvements planned in 2007, these results will enable initial ion beam target experiments in warm dense matter to begin next year at LBNL. We are assessing how these new techniques apply to low-cost modular fusion drivers and higher-gain direct-drive targets for inertial fusion energy.

  6. Digital generation of partially coherent vortex beams.

    PubMed

    Perez-Garcia, Benjamin; Yepiz, Adad; Hernandez-Aranda, Raul I; Forbes, Andrew; Swartzlander, Grover A

    2016-08-01

    We present an experimental technique to generate partially coherent vortex beams with an arbitrary azimuthal index using only a spatial light modulator. Our approach is based on digitally simulating the intrinsic randomness of broadband light passing through a spiral phase plate. We illustrate the versatility of the technique by generating partially coherent beams with different coherence lengths and orbital angular momentum content, without any moving optical device. Consequently, we study its cross-correlation function in a wavefront folding interferometer. The comparison with theoretical predictions yields excellent agreement. PMID:27472596

  7. Gyrotron beam generation with helical magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, R. H.; Sedlak, C. A.

    1983-08-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation into the basic properties of a new type of electron gun for generating high transverse velocity beams, the bifilar helix - Pierce gun or H-gun. The H-gun differs significantly from presently used magnetron injection guns (MIGs) in that first a laminar, low transverse velocity beam is formed and then transverse velocity is imparted by propagating the beam through the magnetic field of a bifilar helix. In order to evaluate the H-gun, an analytic and computational study was conducted to examine the relationships between the magnetic fields (axial and helical), and the beam properties after existing the helical field. The effects of the helix field entrance profile, the helix-axial field gyroresonance, and helix field gradients have been taken into account in the investigation. Based on the results of this research, conditions have been specified which will produce a high transverse velocity beam with low axial velocity spread. In particular, it has been found that an adiabatic helix entrance profile can provide a flexible means of generating high quality beams for gyro-devices.

  8. Catenary nanostructures as compact Bessel beam generators.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiong; Pu, Mingbo; Zhao, Zeyu; Ma, Xiaoliang; Jin, Jinjin; Wang, Yanqin; Gao, Ping; Luo, Xiangang

    2016-01-01

    Non-diffracting Bessel beams, including zero-order and high-order Bessel Beams which carry orbital angular momentum (OAM), enable a variety of important applications in optical micromanipulation, sub-diffraction imaging, high speed photonics/quantum communication, etc. The commonly used ways to create Bessel beams, including an axicon or a digital hologram written to a spatial light modulator (SLM), have great challenges to operate at the nanoscale. Here we theoretically design and experimentally demonstrate one kind of planar Bessel beam generators based on metasurfaces with analytical structures perforated in ultra-thin metallic screens. Continuous phase modulation between 0 to 2π is realized with a single element. In addition, due to the dispersionless phase shift stemming from spin-orbit interaction, the proposed device can work in a wide wavelength range. The results may find applications in future optical communication, nanofabrication and super-resolution imaging, etc.

  9. Catenary nanostructures as compact Bessel beam generators

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiong; Pu, Mingbo; Zhao, Zeyu; Ma, Xiaoliang; Jin, Jinjin; Wang, Yanqin; Gao, Ping; Luo, Xiangang

    2016-01-01

    Non-diffracting Bessel beams, including zero-order and high-order Bessel Beams which carry orbital angular momentum (OAM), enable a variety of important applications in optical micromanipulation, sub-diffraction imaging, high speed photonics/quantum communication, etc. The commonly used ways to create Bessel beams, including an axicon or a digital hologram written to a spatial light modulator (SLM), have great challenges to operate at the nanoscale. Here we theoretically design and experimentally demonstrate one kind of planar Bessel beam generators based on metasurfaces with analytical structures perforated in ultra-thin metallic screens. Continuous phase modulation between 0 to 2π is realized with a single element. In addition, due to the dispersionless phase shift stemming from spin-orbit interaction, the proposed device can work in a wide wavelength range. The results may find applications in future optical communication, nanofabrication and super-resolution imaging, etc. PMID:26843142

  10. Catenary nanostructures as compact Bessel beam generators.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiong; Pu, Mingbo; Zhao, Zeyu; Ma, Xiaoliang; Jin, Jinjin; Wang, Yanqin; Gao, Ping; Luo, Xiangang

    2016-01-01

    Non-diffracting Bessel beams, including zero-order and high-order Bessel Beams which carry orbital angular momentum (OAM), enable a variety of important applications in optical micromanipulation, sub-diffraction imaging, high speed photonics/quantum communication, etc. The commonly used ways to create Bessel beams, including an axicon or a digital hologram written to a spatial light modulator (SLM), have great challenges to operate at the nanoscale. Here we theoretically design and experimentally demonstrate one kind of planar Bessel beam generators based on metasurfaces with analytical structures perforated in ultra-thin metallic screens. Continuous phase modulation between 0 to 2π is realized with a single element. In addition, due to the dispersionless phase shift stemming from spin-orbit interaction, the proposed device can work in a wide wavelength range. The results may find applications in future optical communication, nanofabrication and super-resolution imaging, etc. PMID:26843142

  11. Catenary nanostructures as compact Bessel beam generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiong; Pu, Mingbo; Zhao, Zeyu; Ma, Xiaoliang; Jin, Jinjin; Wang, Yanqin; Gao, Ping; Luo, Xiangang

    2016-02-01

    Non-diffracting Bessel beams, including zero-order and high-order Bessel Beams which carry orbital angular momentum (OAM), enable a variety of important applications in optical micromanipulation, sub-diffraction imaging, high speed photonics/quantum communication, etc. The commonly used ways to create Bessel beams, including an axicon or a digital hologram written to a spatial light modulator (SLM), have great challenges to operate at the nanoscale. Here we theoretically design and experimentally demonstrate one kind of planar Bessel beam generators based on metasurfaces with analytical structures perforated in ultra-thin metallic screens. Continuous phase modulation between 0 to 2π is realized with a single element. In addition, due to the dispersionless phase shift stemming from spin-orbit interaction, the proposed device can work in a wide wavelength range. The results may find applications in future optical communication, nanofabrication and super-resolution imaging, etc.

  12. Tailoring the dipole properties in dielectric polymers to realize high energy density with high breakdown strength and low dielectric loss

    SciTech Connect

    Thakur, Yash; Lin, Minren; Wu, Shan; Zhang, Q. M. E-mail: qxz1@psu.edu; Cheng, Zhaoxi; Jeong, D.-Y. E-mail: qxz1@psu.edu

    2015-03-21

    High energy density polymer materials are desirable for a broad range of modern power electronic systems. Here, we report the development of a new class of polymer dielectrics based on polyurea and polythiourea, which possess high thermal stability. By increasing the dipole density, the dielectric constant of meta-phenylene polyurea and methylene polythiourea can be increased to 5.7, compared with aromatic polyurea and aromatic polythiourea, which have a dielectric constant in the range of 4.1–4.3. The random dipoles with high dipolar moment and amorphous structure of these polyurea and polythiourea based polymers provide strong scattering to the charge carriers, resulting in low losses even at high electric fields. Consequently, this new class of polymers exhibit a linear dielectric response to the highest field measured (>700 MV/m) with a high breakdown strength, achieving high energy density (>13 J/cm{sup 3}) with high efficiency (>90%)

  13. Chemical mechanistic approaches for the suppression of soot formation in the combustion of high energy density fuels. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Santoro, R.J.

    1996-09-01

    Significant advantages can be gained by the use of high energy density fuels in volume limited applications. However, excessive soot formation that accompanies the combustion of these fuels presently limits their application. Fuel additive approaches prove attractive as they require minimal modifications to already existing equipment. In the present study, a variety of flame configurations were used to study the additive effects on soot formation. Through tests conducted on laminar diffusion flames carbon disulfide (CS2) and methanol (CH3OH) were found to be the most effective soot suppressants. Chemical interaction by either additive was found to far surpass the physical influences. However, the exact nature of the chemical action could not be established with the current set of experiments. Additionally, both of these additives were found to reduce soot formation in at least one high energy density fuel - quadricyclane (C7H8). To further validate this approach, studies were conducted using droplet flames and high-pressure spray flames.

  14. Observation of a Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability in a High-Energy-Density Plasma on the Omega Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, E. C.; Hansen, J. F.; Hurricane, O. A.; Drake, R. P.; Robey, H. F.; Kuranz, C. C.; Remington, B. A.; Bono, M. J.; Grosskopf, M. J.; Gillespie, R. S.

    2009-07-01

    A laser initiated experiment is described in which an unstable plasma shear layer is produced by driving a blast wave along a plastic surface with sinusoidal perturbations. In response to the vorticity deposited and the shear flow established by the blast wave, the interface rolls up into large vortices characteristic of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. The experiment used x-ray radiography to capture the first well-resolved images of Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices in a high-energy-density plasma.

  15. Generation of perfect vectorial vortex beams.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Sheng; Ma, Chaojie; Han, Lei; Cheng, Huachao; Zhao, Jianlin

    2016-05-15

    We propose the concept of perfect vectorial vortex beams (VVBs), which not merely have intensity profile independent of the polarization order and the topological charge of spiral phase, but also have stable intensity profile and state of polarization (SoP) upon propagation. Utilizing a Sagnac interferometer, we approximately generate perfect VVBs with locally linear and elliptical polarizations, and demonstrate that such beams can keep their intensity profile and SoP at a certain propagation distance. These proposed VVBs can be expanded to encode information and quantum cryptography, as well as to enrich the conversion of spin and orbital angular momenta. PMID:27176963

  16. Acoustic source for generating an acoustic beam

    DOEpatents

    Vu, Cung Khac; Sinha, Dipen N.; Pantea, Cristian

    2016-05-31

    An acoustic source for generating an acoustic beam includes a housing; a plurality of spaced apart piezo-electric layers disposed within the housing; and a non-linear medium filling between the plurality of layers. Each of the plurality of piezoelectric layers is configured to generate an acoustic wave. The non-linear medium and the plurality of piezo-electric material layers have a matching impedance so as to enhance a transmission of the acoustic wave generated by each of plurality of layers through the remaining plurality of layers.

  17. Second-harmonic generation with Bessel beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shatrovoy, Oleg

    We present the results of a numerical simulation tool for modeling the second-harmonic generation (SHG) interaction experienced by a diffracting beam. This code is used to study the simultaneous frequency and spatial profile conversion of a truncated Bessel beam that closely resembles a higher-order mode (HOM) of an optical fiber. SHG with Bessel beams has been investigated in the past and was determined have limited value because it is less efficient than SHG with a Gaussian beam in the undepleted pump regime. This thesis considers, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, whether most of the power from a Bessel-like beam could be converted into a second-harmonic beam (full depletion), as is the case with a Gaussian beam. We study this problem because using HOMs for fiber lasers and amplifiers allows reduced optical intensities, which mitigates nonlinearities, and is one possible way to increase the available output powers of fiber laser systems. The chief disadvantage of using HOM fiber amplifiers is the spatial profile of the output, but this can be transformed as part of the SHG interaction, most notably to a quasi-Gaussian profile when the phase mismatch meets the noncollinear criteria. We predict, based on numerical simulation, that noncollinear SHG (NC-SHG) can simultaneously perform highly efficient (90%) wavelength conversion from 1064 nm to 532 nm, as well as concurrent mode transformation from a truncated Bessel beam to a Gaussian-like beam (94% overlap with a Gaussian) at modest input powers (250 W, peak power or continuous-wave operation). These simulated results reveal two attractive features -- the feasibility of efficiently converting HOMs of fibers into Gaussian-like beams, and the ability to simultaneously perform frequency conversion. Combining the high powers that are possible with HOM fiber amplifiers with access to non-traditional wavelengths may offer significant advantages over the state of the art for many important applications

  18. Optical vortex beam generator at nanoscale level.

    PubMed

    Garoli, Denis; Zilio, Pierfrancesco; Gorodetski, Yuri; Tantussi, Francesco; De Angelis, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Optical beams carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) can find tremendous applications in several fields. In order to apply these particular beams in photonic integrated devices innovative optical elements have been proposed. Here we are interested in the generation of OAM-carrying beams at the nanoscale level. We design and experimentally demonstrate a plasmonic optical vortex emitter, based on a metal-insulator-metal holey plasmonic vortex lens. Our plasmonic element is shown to convert impinging circularly polarized light to an orbital angular momentum state capable of propagating to the far-field. Moreover, the emerging OAM can be externally adjusted by switching the handedness of the incident light polarization. The device has a radius of few micrometers and the OAM beam is generated from subwavelength aperture. The fabrication of integrated arrays of PVLs and the possible simultaneous emission of multiple optical vortices provide an easy way to the large-scale integration of optical vortex emitters for wide-ranging applications. PMID:27404659

  19. Optical vortex beam generator at nanoscale level

    PubMed Central

    Garoli, Denis; Zilio, Pierfrancesco; Gorodetski, Yuri; Tantussi, Francesco; De Angelis, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Optical beams carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) can find tremendous applications in several fields. In order to apply these particular beams in photonic integrated devices innovative optical elements have been proposed. Here we are interested in the generation of OAM-carrying beams at the nanoscale level. We design and experimentally demonstrate a plasmonic optical vortex emitter, based on a metal-insulator-metal holey plasmonic vortex lens. Our plasmonic element is shown to convert impinging circularly polarized light to an orbital angular momentum state capable of propagating to the far-field. Moreover, the emerging OAM can be externally adjusted by switching the handedness of the incident light polarization. The device has a radius of few micrometers and the OAM beam is generated from subwavelength aperture. The fabrication of integrated arrays of PVLs and the possible simultaneous emission of multiple optical vortices provide an easy way to the large-scale integration of optical vortex emitters for wide-ranging applications. PMID:27404659

  20. Experimental generation of amplitude squeezed vector beams.

    PubMed

    Chille, Vanessa; Berg-Johansen, Stefan; Semmler, Marion; Banzer, Peter; Aiello, Andrea; Leuchs, Gerd; Marquardt, Christoph

    2016-05-30

    We present an experimental method for the generation of amplitude squeezed high-order vector beams. The light is modified twice by a spatial light modulator such that the vector beam is created by means of a collinear interferometric technique. A major advantage of this approach is that it avoids systematic losses, which are detrimental as they cause decoherence in continuous-variable quantum systems. The utilisation of a spatial light modulator (SLM) gives the flexibility to switch between arbitrary mode orders. The conversion efficiency with our setup is only limited by the efficiency of the SLM. We show the experimental generation of Laguerre-Gauss (LG) modes with radial indices 0 or 1 and azimuthal indices up to 3 with complex polarization structures and a quantum noise reduction up to -0.9dB±0.1dB. The corresponding polarization structures are studied in detail by measuring the spatial distribution of the Stokes parameters. PMID:27410153

  1. High-power solid-state lasers for high-energy-density physics applications at CAEP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, H. S.; Zhang, X. M.; Zheng, W. G.; Wei, X. F.; Huang, X. J.; Sui, Z.; Jing, F.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Q. H.; Wang, X. D.; Zhou, K. N.; Liu, L. Q.; Zeng, X. M.; Wang, X.; Zhu, J. Q.; Lin, Z. Q.; Zhang, W. Y.

    2006-06-01

    High-power solid-state laser programs at China Academy of Engineering Physics have made great progresses in recent years. A three-stage Ti:sapphire laser system, SILEX-I, was completed early in 2004 which could deliver 26-fs pulses at 5TW, 30TW, and 300TW to the corresponding target chambers for diverse applications. SILEX-I has been working very stably since its completion for experiments, demonstrating that it is the most powerful femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser for exploring strong-field phenomena in the world. The SG-III Nd:glass laser facility has been under conceptual design to meet the requirements from laser fusion applications. The SG-III facility is planned to have sixty-four beamlines divided into eight bundles with an output energy more than 100kJ at 0.35μm for 3- to 5-ns pulses. The eight-beamline TIL (Technical Integration Line), the prototype of the SG-III laser facility, has been installed in the new laboratory in Mianyang. The commissioning experiments have been conducted and one of the eight beams has produced 1-ns pulses of 3.0kJ and 1.2kJ at 1.053μm and 0.35μm, respectively. All the eight beamlines will be activated by the end of 2005 and completed in 2006 for operation. Meanwhile, the eight-beam SG-II laser in Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics has been operated for the experiments since 2001 and an additional beam, built in 2004, has been used for plasma backlighting experiments.

  2. High energy density batteries. (Latest citations from the INSPEC: Information Services for the Physics and Engineering Communities database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning high energy density electric batteries. Battery electrolyte materials such as sodium-sulfur, lithium-aluminum, nickel-cadmium, lithium-thionyl, lithium-lead, sodium-sodiumpolysulfide, nickel-iron, nickel-zinc, and alkali-sulfur are examined. Test methods for these high energy batteries are discussed. Molten salt electrochemical studies for high energy cells are included. Military applications are also presented. (Contains a minimum of 63 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Characterization of spatially resolved high resolution x-ray spectrometers for high energy density physics and light source experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, K. W. Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparacio, L.; Efthimion, P.; Pablant, N. A.; Lu, J.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Chen, H.; Magee, E.

    2014-11-15

    A high resolution 1D imaging x-ray spectrometer concept comprising a spherically bent crystal and a 2D pixelated detector is being optimized for diagnostics of small sources such as high energy density physics (HEDP) and synchrotron radiation or x-ray free electron laser experiments. This instrument is used on tokamak experiments for Doppler measurements of ion temperature and plasma flow velocity profiles. Laboratory measurements demonstrate a resolving power, E/ΔE of order 10 000 and spatial resolution better than 10 μm. Initial tests of the high resolution instrument on HEDP plasmas are being performed.

  4. Dancing with Energetic Nitrogen Atoms: Versatile N-Functionalization Strategies for N-Heterocyclic Frameworks in High Energy Density Materials.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ping; Zhang, Qinghua; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2016-01-19

    Nitrogen-rich heterocycles represent a unique class of energetic frameworks featuring high heats of formation and high nitrogen content, which have generated considerable research interest in the field of high energy density materials (HEDMs). Although traditional C-functionalization methodology of aromatic hydrocarbons has been fully established, studies on N-functionalization strategies of nitrogen-containing heterocycles still have great potential to be exploited by virtue of forming diverse N-X bonds (X = C, N, O, B, halogen, etc.), which are capable of regulating energy performance and the stability of the resulting energetic compounds. In this sense, versatile N-functionalization of N-heterocyclic frameworks offers a flexible strategy to meet the requirements of developing new-generation HEDMs. In this Account, the role of strategic N-functionalization in designing new energetic frameworks, including the formation of N-C, N-N, N-O, N-B and N-halogen bonds, is emphasized. In the family of N-functionalized HEDMs, energetic derivatives, by virtue of forming N-C bonds, are the most widely used type due to the good nucleophilic capacity of most heterocyclic backbones. Although introduction of carbon tends to decrease energetic performance, significant improvement in material sensitivity makes this strategy attractive for safety concerns. More importantly, most "explosophores" can be readily introduced into the N-C linkage, thus providing a promising route to various HEDMs. Formation of additional N-N bonds typically gives rise to higher heats of formation, implying the potential enhancement in detonation performance. In many cases, the increased hydrogen bonding interactions within N-N functionalized heterocycles also improve thermal stability accordingly. Introduction of a single N,N'-azo bridge into several azole moieties leads to an extended nitrogen chain, demonstrating a new strategy for designing high-nitrogen compounds. The strategy of N-O functionalization

  5. Dancing with Energetic Nitrogen Atoms: Versatile N-Functionalization Strategies for N-Heterocyclic Frameworks in High Energy Density Materials.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ping; Zhang, Qinghua; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2016-01-19

    Nitrogen-rich heterocycles represent a unique class of energetic frameworks featuring high heats of formation and high nitrogen content, which have generated considerable research interest in the field of high energy density materials (HEDMs). Although traditional C-functionalization methodology of aromatic hydrocarbons has been fully established, studies on N-functionalization strategies of nitrogen-containing heterocycles still have great potential to be exploited by virtue of forming diverse N-X bonds (X = C, N, O, B, halogen, etc.), which are capable of regulating energy performance and the stability of the resulting energetic compounds. In this sense, versatile N-functionalization of N-heterocyclic frameworks offers a flexible strategy to meet the requirements of developing new-generation HEDMs. In this Account, the role of strategic N-functionalization in designing new energetic frameworks, including the formation of N-C, N-N, N-O, N-B and N-halogen bonds, is emphasized. In the family of N-functionalized HEDMs, energetic derivatives, by virtue of forming N-C bonds, are the most widely used type due to the good nucleophilic capacity of most heterocyclic backbones. Although introduction of carbon tends to decrease energetic performance, significant improvement in material sensitivity makes this strategy attractive for safety concerns. More importantly, most "explosophores" can be readily introduced into the N-C linkage, thus providing a promising route to various HEDMs. Formation of additional N-N bonds typically gives rise to higher heats of formation, implying the potential enhancement in detonation performance. In many cases, the increased hydrogen bonding interactions within N-N functionalized heterocycles also improve thermal stability accordingly. Introduction of a single N,N'-azo bridge into several azole moieties leads to an extended nitrogen chain, demonstrating a new strategy for designing high-nitrogen compounds. The strategy of N-O functionalization

  6. Multi-Megajoule NIF: Ushering In a New Era in High Energy Density Science

    SciTech Connect

    Keane, C; Moses, E I

    2008-04-30

    This paper describes the status of the stadium-sized National Ignition Facility (NIF), the world's largest laser system and first operational multi-megajoule laser. The 192-beam NIF, located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), is 96% complete and scheduled for completion in March 2009. The NIF laser will produce nanosecond laser pulses with energies up to approximately 4 MJ in the infrared (laser wavelength = 1.053-{micro}m) and 2MJ in the ultraviolet (laser wavelength = 0.35-{micro}m). With these energies NIF will access conditions of pressure and temperature not previously available on earth, allowing it to conduct experiments in support of the nation's national security, energy, and fundamental science goals. First ignition experiments at NIF are scheduled for FY2010. This paper will provide an overview of the NIF laser and the ignition, energy, and fundamental science activities at NIF.

  7. High energy density and extreme field physics in the transparent-overdense regime

    SciTech Connect

    Hegelich, Bjorn Manuel; Yin, Kin; Albright, Brian J; Bowers, Kevin J; Gautier, C; Huang, C; Jung, D; Letzring, S; Palaniyappan, S; Shah, R; Wu, H; Fernandez, J. C.; Dromey, B; Henig, A; Horlein, R; Kefer, D.; Tajima, T; Yan, X; Habs, D

    2011-01-31

    Conclusions of this report are: (1) high harmonics generated on solid surfaces are a very versatile source of intense coherent XUV radiation; (2) high harmonics can be used to probe and monitor the interaction of intense femtosecond laser pulses with nm-scale foil targets; (3) direct measurement of target density during relativistic interaction; (4) high harmonics generated with PW-scale short-pulse lasers could serve as unique backlighting sources for a wide range experiments; and (5) Trident can be a test bed to develop such experiments and the required instrumentation.

  8. Proton beam generation of oblique whistler waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, H. K.; Goldstein, M. L.

    1988-01-01

    It is known that ion beams are capable of generating whistler waves that propagate parallel to the mean magnetic field. Such waves may have been observed both upstream of the earth's bow shock and in the vicinity of comets. Previous analyses are extended to include propagation oblique to the mean magnetic field. The instability is generated by the perpendicular component of free energy in the ions, which can arise either via a temperature anisotropy or via a gyrating distribution. In the former case, the generation of whistler waves is confined to a fairly narrow cone of propagation directions centered about parallel propagation; in the latter case, the maximum growth of the instability can occur at fairly large obliquities (theta equal to about 50 deg).

  9. Summary Report on Beam and Radiation Generation, Monitoring and Control

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, D. F.; Power, J. G.

    2009-01-22

    The discussions of the working group on beam and radiation generation, monitoring, and control (working group 6) at the 2008 advanced accelerator concepts workshop are summarized. The discussions concerned electron injectors, phase space manipulation, beam diagnostics, pulse train generation, intense beam physics, and radiation generation.

  10. Graphene-wrapped sulfur nanospheres with ultra-high sulfur loading for high energy density lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ya; Guo, Jinxin; Zhang, Jun; Su, Qingmei; Du, Gaohui

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery with high theoretical energy density is one of the most promising energy storage systems for electric vehicles and intermittent renewable energy. However, due to the poor conductivity of the active material, considerable weight of the electrode is occupied by the conductive additives. Here we report a graphene-wrapped sulfur nanospheres composite (S-nanosphere@G) with sulfur content up to 91 wt% as the high energy density cathode material for Li-S battery. The sulfur nanospheres with diameter of 400-500 nm are synthesized through a solution-based approach with the existence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Then the sulfur nanospheres are uniformly wrapped by conductive graphene sheets through the electrostatic interaction between graphene oxide and PVP, followed by reducing of graphene oxide with hydrazine. The design of graphene wrapped sulfur nanoarchitecture provides flexible conductive graphene coating with void space to accommodate the volume expansion of sulfur and to minimize polysulfide dissolution. As a result, the S-nanosphere@G nanocomposite with 91 wt% sulfur shows a reversible initial capacity of 970 mA h g-1 and an average columbic efficiency > 96% over 100 cycles at a rate of 0.2 C. Taking the total mass of electrode into account, the S-nanosphere@G composite is a promising cathode material for high energy density Li-S batteries.

  11. A low cost, high energy density and long cycle life potassium-sulfur battery for grid-scale energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Bowden, Mark E.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Liu, Jun

    2015-08-15

    Alkali metal-sulfur batteries are attractive for energy storage applications because of their high energy density. Among the batteries, lithium-sulfur batteries typically use liquid in the battery electrolyte, which causes problems in both performance and safety. Sodium-sulfur batteries can use a solid electrolyte such as beta alumina but this requires a high operating temperature. Here we report a novel potassium-sulfur battery with K+-conducting beta-alumina as the electrolyte. Our studies indicate that liquid potassium exhibits much better wettability on the surface of beta-alumina compared to liquid sodium at lower temperatures. Based on this observation, we develop a potassium-sulfur battery that can operate at as low as 150°C with excellent performance. In particular, the battery shows excellent cycle life with negligible capacity fade in 1000 cycles because of the dense ceramic membrane. This study demonstrates a new battery with a high energy density, long cycle life, low cost and high safety, which is ideal for grid-scale energy storage.

  12. Synthesis of Mesoporous Carbons from Rice Husk for Supercapacitors with High Energy Density in Ionic Liquid Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaojun; Zhang, Hebao; Xie, Kang; Xia, Youyi; Zhao, Zhigang; Wang, Xiaoting

    2016-03-01

    High-performance mesoporous carbons (MCs) for supercapacitors were made from rice husk by one-step microwave-assisted ZnCl2 activation. The microstructures of MCs as-made were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The pore structure parameters of MCs were obtained by N2 adsorption technique. The electrochemical properties of MC electrodes were studied by constant current charge-discharge, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in different electrolytes. The results showed that the specific surface area of MC4 made at the ZnCl2/rice husk mass of 4:1 reached 1737 m2 g(-1). The specific capacitance and energy density of the electrodes fabricated from the mixture of MC4 and microporous carbon increased with the mass percentage of MC4, reaching 157 F g(-1) and 84 Wh kg(-1) at 0.05 A g(-1), and showed good cycle stability in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate electrolyte. Compared to the often-used aqueous and organic electrolytes, MC4 capacitor exhibited extremely high energy density in ionic liquid electrolyte, remaining at 28 Wh kg(-1) at 1684 W kg(-1). This work paves a new way to produce cost-effective MCs from biomass for supercapacitors with extremely high energy density in ionic liquid electrolytes.

  13. Synthesis of Mesoporous Carbons from Rice Husk for Supercapacitors with High Energy Density in Ionic Liquid Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaojun; Zhang, Hebao; Xie, Kang; Xia, Youyi; Zhao, Zhigang; Wang, Xiaoting

    2016-03-01

    High-performance mesoporous carbons (MCs) for supercapacitors were made from rice husk by one-step microwave-assisted ZnCl2 activation. The microstructures of MCs as-made were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The pore structure parameters of MCs were obtained by N2 adsorption technique. The electrochemical properties of MC electrodes were studied by constant current charge-discharge, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in different electrolytes. The results showed that the specific surface area of MC4 made at the ZnCl2/rice husk mass of 4:1 reached 1737 m2 g(-1). The specific capacitance and energy density of the electrodes fabricated from the mixture of MC4 and microporous carbon increased with the mass percentage of MC4, reaching 157 F g(-1) and 84 Wh kg(-1) at 0.05 A g(-1), and showed good cycle stability in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate electrolyte. Compared to the often-used aqueous and organic electrolytes, MC4 capacitor exhibited extremely high energy density in ionic liquid electrolyte, remaining at 28 Wh kg(-1) at 1684 W kg(-1). This work paves a new way to produce cost-effective MCs from biomass for supercapacitors with extremely high energy density in ionic liquid electrolytes. PMID:27455718

  14. Observation and analysis of emergent coherent structures in a high-energy-density shock-driven planar mixing layer experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doss, F. W.; Flippo, K. A.; Merritt, E. C.

    2016-08-01

    Coherent emergent structures have been observed in a high-energy-density supersonic mixing layer experiment. A millimeter-scale shock tube uses lasers to drive Mbar shocks into the tube volume. The shocks are driven into initially solid foam (60 mg /cm3 ) hemicylinders separated by an Al or Ti metal tracer strip; the components are vaporized by the drive. Before the experiment disassembles, the shocks cross at the tube center, creating a very fast (Δ U > 200 km/s) shear-unstable zone. After several nanoseconds, an expanding mixing layer is measured, and after 10+ ns we observe the appearance of streamwise-periodic, spanwise-aligned rollers associated with the primary Kelvin-Helmholtz instability of mixing layers. We additionally image roller pairing and spanwise-periodic streamwise-aligned filaments associated with secondary instabilities. New closures are derived to connect length scales of these structures to estimates of fluctuating velocity data otherwise unobtainable in the high-energy-density environment. This analysis indicates shear-induced specific turbulent energies 103-104 times higher than the nearest conventional experiments. Because of difficulties in continuously driving systems under these conditions and the harshness of the experimental environment limiting the usable diagnostics, clear evidence of these developing structures has never before been observed in this regime.

  15. Observation and analysis of emergent coherent structures in a high-energy-density shock-driven planar mixing layer experiment.

    PubMed

    Doss, F W; Flippo, K A; Merritt, E C

    2016-08-01

    Coherent emergent structures have been observed in a high-energy-density supersonic mixing layer experiment. A millimeter-scale shock tube uses lasers to drive Mbar shocks into the tube volume. The shocks are driven into initially solid foam (60 mg/cm^{3}) hemicylinders separated by an Al or Ti metal tracer strip; the components are vaporized by the drive. Before the experiment disassembles, the shocks cross at the tube center, creating a very fast (ΔU> 200 km/s) shear-unstable zone. After several nanoseconds, an expanding mixing layer is measured, and after 10+ ns we observe the appearance of streamwise-periodic, spanwise-aligned rollers associated with the primary Kelvin-Helmholtz instability of mixing layers. We additionally image roller pairing and spanwise-periodic streamwise-aligned filaments associated with secondary instabilities. New closures are derived to connect length scales of these structures to estimates of fluctuating velocity data otherwise unobtainable in the high-energy-density environment. This analysis indicates shear-induced specific turbulent energies 10^{3}-10^{4} times higher than the nearest conventional experiments. Because of difficulties in continuously driving systems under these conditions and the harshness of the experimental environment limiting the usable diagnostics, clear evidence of these developing structures has never before been observed in this regime. PMID:27627387

  16. High energy density and breakdown strength from β and γ phases in poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-bromotrifluoroethylene) copolymers.

    PubMed

    Gadinski, Matthew R; Han, Kuo; Li, Qi; Zhang, Guangzu; Reainthippayasakul, Wuttiichai; Wang, Qing

    2014-11-12

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) PVDF-based copolymers represent the state of the art dielectric polymers for high energy density capacitors. Past work on these copolymers has been done with limited emphasis on the effects of copolymer composition and with a limited range of defect monomers, focusing primarily on the commercially available poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-chlorotrifluoroethylene), P(VDF-CTFE), and poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene), P(VDF-HFP), and the processing thereof. To expand on this area of research, copolymers of VDF and bromotrifluoroethylene (BTFE) were synthesized examining the composition range where uniaxial stretching was possible. It is found that P(VDF-BTFE) copolymers with small BTFE contents (< 2 mol %) stabilize the γ phase, compared to P(VDF-CTFE)s and P(VDF-HFP)s that are largely α phase in composition. Furthermore, different from P(VDF-CTFE)s and P(VDF-HFP)s, whose energy storage capabilities depend on the reversibility of the α to β phases transformation, high discharged energy densities (i.e., 20.8 J/cm(3) at 716 MV/m) are also achievable through the β and γ phases in P(VDF-BTFE)s without significantly reducing crystallinity and breakdown strength. This study demonstrates new avenues to the development of high energy density ferroelectric copolymers via manipulation of the γ phase through variation of the structure and content of comonomers.

  17. Development of x-ray radiography for high energy density physics

    SciTech Connect

    Morace, A.; Fedeli, L.; Batani, D.; Hulin, S.; Margarit, A.; Nicolai, P.; Vaisseau, X.; Volpe, L.; Santos, J. J.; Baton, S.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Beg, F. N.; Jarrott, L. C.; Nakai, M.; Piovella, N.; Wei, M. S.

    2014-10-15

    We describe an experiment performed at the LULI laser facility using an advanced radiographic technique that allowed obtaining 2D, spatially resolved images of a shocked buried-code-target. The technique is suitable for applications on Fast Ignition as well as Warm Dense Matter research. In our experiment, it allowed to show cone survival up to Mbar pressures and to measure the shock front velocity and the fluid velocity associated to the laser-generated shock. This allowed obtaining one point on the shock polar of porous carbon.

  18. Development of x-ray radiography for high energy density physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morace, A.; Fedeli, L.; Batani, D.; Baton, S.; Beg, F. N.; Hulin, S.; Jarrott, L. C.; Margarit, A.; Nakai, M.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Nicolai, P.; Piovella, N.; Wei, M. S.; Vaisseau, X.; Volpe, L.; Santos, J. J.

    2014-10-01

    We describe an experiment performed at the LULI laser facility using an advanced radiographic technique that allowed obtaining 2D, spatially resolved images of a shocked buried-code-target. The technique is suitable for applications on Fast Ignition as well as Warm Dense Matter research. In our experiment, it allowed to show cone survival up to Mbar pressures and to measure the shock front velocity and the fluid velocity associated to the laser-generated shock. This allowed obtaining one point on the shock polar of porous carbon.

  19. Development of high energy density fuels from mild gasification of coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    METC has concluded that MCG technology has the potential to simultaneously satisfy the transportation and power generation fuel needs in the most cost-effective manner. MCG is based on low temperature pyrolysis, a technique known to the coal community for over a century. Most past pyrolysis developments were aimed at maximizing the liquids yield which results in a low quality tarry product requiring significant and capital intensive upgrading. By properly tailoring the pyrolysis severity to control the liquid yield-liquid quality relationship, it has been found that a higher quality distillate-boiling liquid can be readily ``skimmed`` from the coal. The resultant liquids have a much higher H/C ratio than conventional pyrolytic tars and therefore can be hydroprocessed at lower cost. These liquids are also extremely enriched in l-, 2-, and 3-ring aromatics. The co-product char material can be used in place of coal as a pulverized fuel (pf) for power generation in a coal combustor. In this situation where the original coal has a high sulfur content, the MCG process can be practiced with a coal-lime mixture and the calcium values retained on the char can tie up the unconverted coal sulfur upon pf combustion of the char. Lime has also been shown to improve the yield and quality of the MCG liquids.

  20. Development of high energy density fuels from mild gasification of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, Marvin

    1991-12-01

    METC has concluded that MCG technology has the potential to simultaneously satisfy the transportation and power generation fuel needs in the most cost-effective manner. MCG is based on low temperature pyrolysis, a technique known to the coal community for over a century. Most past pyrolysis developments were aimed at maximizing the liquids yield which results in a low quality tarry product requiring significant and capital intensive upgrading. By properly tailoring the pyrolysis severity to control the liquid yield-liquid quality relationship, it has been found that a higher quality distillate-boiling liquid can be readily skimmed'' from the coal. The resultant liquids have a much higher H/C ratio than conventional pyrolytic tars and therefore can be hydroprocessed at lower cost. These liquids are also extremely enriched in l-, 2-, and 3-ring aromatics. The co-product char material can be used in place of coal as a pulverized fuel (pf) for power generation in a coal combustor. In this situation where the original coal has a high sulfur content, the MCG process can be practiced with a coal-lime mixture and the calcium values retained on the char can tie up the unconverted coal sulfur upon pf combustion of the char. Lime has also been shown to improve the yield and quality of the MCG liquids.

  1. The National Ignition Facility: The Path to Ignition, High Energy Density Science and Inertial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, E

    2011-03-25

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, CA, is a Nd:Glass laser facility capable of producing 1.8 MJ and 500 TW of ultraviolet light. This world's most energetic laser system is now operational with the goals of achieving thermonuclear burn in the laboratory and exploring the behavior of matter at extreme temperatures and energy densities. By concentrating the energy from its 192 extremely energetic laser beams into a mm{sup 3}-sized target, NIF can produce temperatures above 100 million K, densities of 1,000 g/cm{sup 3}, and pressures 100 billion times atmospheric pressure - conditions that have never been created in a laboratory and emulate those in the interiors of planetary and stellar environments. On September 29, 2010, NIF performed the first integrated ignition experiment which demonstrated the successful coordination of the laser, the cryogenic target system, the array of diagnostics and the infrastructure required for ignition. Many more experiments have been completed since. In light of this strong progress, the U.S. and the international communities are examining the implication of achieving ignition on NIF for inertial fusion energy (IFE). A laser-based IFE power plant will require a repetition rate of 10-20 Hz and a 10% electrical-optical efficiency laser, as well as further advances in large-scale target fabrication, target injection and tracking, and other supporting technologies. These capabilities could lead to a prototype IFE demonstration plant in 10- to 15-years. LLNL, in partnership with other institutions, is developing a Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) baseline design and examining various technology choices for LIFE power plant This paper will describe the unprecedented experimental capabilities of the NIF, the results achieved so far on the path toward ignition, the start of fundamental science experiments and plans to transition NIF to an international user facility

  2. High-energy density nonaqueous all redox flow lithium battery enabled with a polymeric membrane.

    PubMed

    Jia, Chuankun; Pan, Feng; Zhu, Yun Guang; Huang, Qizhao; Lu, Li; Wang, Qing

    2015-11-01

    Redox flow batteries (RFBs) are considered one of the most promising large-scale energy storage technologies. However, conventional RFBs suffer from low energy density due to the low solubility of the active materials in electrolyte. On the basis of the redox targeting reactions of battery materials, the redox flow lithium battery (RFLB) demonstrated in this report presents a disruptive approach to drastically enhancing the energy density of flow batteries. With LiFePO4 and TiO2 as the cathodic and anodic Li storage materials, respectively, the tank energy density of RFLB could reach ~500 watt-hours per liter (50% porosity), which is 10 times higher than that of a vanadium redox flow battery. The cell exhibits good electrochemical performance under a prolonged cycling test. Our prototype RFLB full cell paves the way toward the development of a new generation of flow batteries for large-scale energy storage. PMID:26702440

  3. Laser-driven magnetic-flux compression in high-energy-density plasmas.

    PubMed

    Gotchev, O V; Chang, P Y; Knauer, J P; Meyerhofer, D D; Polomarov, O; Frenje, J; Li, C K; Manuel, M J-E; Petrasso, R D; Rygg, J R; Séguin, F H; Betti, R

    2009-11-20

    The demonstration of magnetic field compression to many tens of megagauss in cylindrical implosions of inertial confinement fusion targets is reported for the first time. The OMEGA laser [T. R. Boehly, Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)10.1016/S0030-4018(96)00325-2] was used to implode cylindrical CH targets filled with deuterium gas and seeded with a strong external field (>50 kG) from a specially developed magnetic pulse generator. This seed field was trapped (frozen) in the shock-heated gas fill and compressed by the imploding shell at a high implosion velocity, minimizing the effect of resistive flux diffusion. The magnetic fields in the compressed core were probed via proton deflectrometry using the fusion products from an imploding D3He target. Line-averaged magnetic fields between 30 and 40 MG were observed.

  4. High-energy density nonaqueous all redox flow lithium battery enabled with a polymeric membrane.

    PubMed

    Jia, Chuankun; Pan, Feng; Zhu, Yun Guang; Huang, Qizhao; Lu, Li; Wang, Qing

    2015-11-01

    Redox flow batteries (RFBs) are considered one of the most promising large-scale energy storage technologies. However, conventional RFBs suffer from low energy density due to the low solubility of the active materials in electrolyte. On the basis of the redox targeting reactions of battery materials, the redox flow lithium battery (RFLB) demonstrated in this report presents a disruptive approach to drastically enhancing the energy density of flow batteries. With LiFePO4 and TiO2 as the cathodic and anodic Li storage materials, respectively, the tank energy density of RFLB could reach ~500 watt-hours per liter (50% porosity), which is 10 times higher than that of a vanadium redox flow battery. The cell exhibits good electrochemical performance under a prolonged cycling test. Our prototype RFLB full cell paves the way toward the development of a new generation of flow batteries for large-scale energy storage.

  5. Pie-like electrode design for high-energy density lithium-sulfur batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen; Zhang, Jin Tao; Chen, Yu Ming; Li, Ju; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the overwhelming advantage in energy density, lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is a promising next-generation electrochemical energy storage system. Despite many efforts in pursuing long cycle life, relatively little emphasis has been placed on increasing the areal energy density. Herein, we have designed and developed a 'pie' structured electrode, which provides an excellent balance between gravimetric and areal energy densities. Combining lotus root-like multichannel carbon nanofibers 'filling' and amino-functionalized graphene 'crust', the free-standing paper electrode (S mass loading: 3.6 mg cm(-2)) delivers high specific capacity of 1,314 mAh g(-1) (4.7 mAh cm(-2)) at 0.1 C (0.6 mA cm(-2)) accompanied with good cycling stability. Moreover, the areal capacity can be further boosted to more than 8 mAh cm(-2) by stacking three layers of paper electrodes with S mass loading of 10.8 mg cm(-2). PMID:26608228

  6. Pie-like electrode design for high-energy density lithium-sulfur batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen; Zhang, Jin Tao; Chen, Yu Ming; Li, Ju; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2015-11-26

    Owing to the overwhelming advantage in energy density, lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is a promising next-generation electrochemical energy storage system. Despite many efforts in pursuing long cycle life, relatively little emphasis has been placed on increasing the areal energy density. Herein, we have designed and developed a 'pie' structured electrode, which provides an excellent balance between gravimetric and areal energy densities. Combining lotus root-like multichannel carbon nanofibers 'filling' and amino-functionalized graphene 'crust', the free-standing paper electrode (S mass loading: 3.6 mg cm(-2)) delivers high specific capacity of 1,314 mAh g(-1) (4.7 mAh cm(-2)) at 0.1 C (0.6 mA cm(-2)) accompanied with good cycling stability. Moreover, the areal capacity can be further boosted to more than 8 mAh cm(-2) by stacking three layers of paper electrodes with S mass loading of 10.8 mg cm(-2).

  7. Cylindrical liner Z-pinch experiments for fusion research and high-energy-density physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdiak, G. C.; Lebedev, S. V.; Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Swadling, G. F.; Bland, S. N.; Niasse, N.; Suttle, L.; Bennet, M.; Hare, J.; Weinwurm, M.; Rodriguez, R.; Gil, J.; Espinosa, G.

    2015-06-01

    A gas-filled cylindrical liner z-pinch configuration has been used to drive convergent radiative shock waves into different gases at velocities of 20-50 km s-1. On application of the 1.4 MA, 240 ns rise-time current pulse produced by the Magpie generator at Imperial College London, a series of cylindrically convergent shock waves are sequentially launched into the gas-fill from the inner wall of the liner. This occurs without any bulk motion of the liner wall itself. The timing and trajectories of the shocks are used as a diagnostic tool for understanding the response of the liner z-pinch wall to a large pulsed current. This analysis provides useful data on the liner resistivity, and a means to test equation of state (EOS) and material strength models within MHD simulation codes. In addition to providing information on liner response, the convergent shocks are interesting to study in their own right. The shocks are strong enough for radiation transport to influence the shock wave structure. In particular, we see evidence for both radiative preheating of material ahead of the shockwaves and radiative cooling instabilities in the shocked gas. Some preliminary results from initial gas-filled liner experiments with an applied axial magnetic field are also discussed.

  8. Surface modified CFx cathode material for ultrafast discharge and high energy density

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Yang; Zhu, Yimei; Cai, Sendan; Wu, Lijun; Yang, Weijing; Xie, Jingying; Wen, Wen; Zheng, Jin-Cheng; Zheng, Yi

    2014-11-10

    Li/CFx primary possesses the highest energy density of 2180 W h kg⁻¹ among all primary lithium batteries. However, a key limitation for the utility of this type of battery is in its poor rate capability because the cathode material, CFx, is an intrinsically poor electronic conductor. Here, we report on our development of a controlled process of surface de-fluorination under mild hydrothermal conditions to modify the highly fluorinated CFx. The modified CFx, consisting of an in situ generated shell component of F-graphene layers, possesses good electronic conductivity and removes the transporting barrier for lithium ions, yielding a high-capacity performance and an excellent rate-capability. Indeed, a capacity of 500 mA h g⁻¹ and a maximum power density of 44 800 W kg⁻¹ can be realized at the ultrafast rate of 30 C (24 A g⁻¹), which is over one order of magnitude higher than that of the state-of-the-art primary lithium-ion batteries.

  9. High energy density capacitors for vacuum operation with a pulsed plasma load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guman, W. J.

    1976-01-01

    Results of the effort of designing, fabricating, and testing of a 40 joules/lb (88.2 joules/Kg) high voltage energy storage capacitor suitable for operating a pulsed plasma thruster in a vacuum environment for millions of pulses are presented. Using vacuum brazing and heli-arc welding techniques followed by vacuum and high pressure helium leak tests it was possible to produce a hermetically sealed relatively light weight enclosure for the dielectric system. An energy density of 40 joules/lb was realized with a KF-polyvinylidene fluoride dielectric system. One capacitor was D.C. life tested at 4 KV (107.8 joules/lb) for 2,000 hours before it failed. Another exceeded 2,670 hours without failure at 38.3 joules/lb. Pulse life testing in a vacuum exceeded 300,000 discharges with testing still in progress. The D.C. life test data shows a small decrease in capacitance and an increase in dissipation factor with time. Heat transfer from the load to the capacitor must also be considered besides the self-heat generated by the capacitor.

  10. Pie-like electrode design for high-energy density lithium–sulfur batteries

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhen; Zhang, Jin Tao; Chen, Yu Ming; Li, Ju; Lou, Xiong Wen (David)

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the overwhelming advantage in energy density, lithium–sulfur (Li–S) battery is a promising next-generation electrochemical energy storage system. Despite many efforts in pursuing long cycle life, relatively little emphasis has been placed on increasing the areal energy density. Herein, we have designed and developed a ‘pie' structured electrode, which provides an excellent balance between gravimetric and areal energy densities. Combining lotus root-like multichannel carbon nanofibers ‘filling' and amino-functionalized graphene ‘crust', the free-standing paper electrode (S mass loading: 3.6 mg cm−2) delivers high specific capacity of 1,314 mAh g−1 (4.7 mAh cm−2) at 0.1 C (0.6 mA cm−2) accompanied with good cycling stability. Moreover, the areal capacity can be further boosted to more than 8 mAh cm−2 by stacking three layers of paper electrodes with S mass loading of 10.8 mg cm−2. PMID:26608228

  11. Surface modified CFx cathode material for ultrafast discharge and high energy density

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dai, Yang; Zhu, Yimei; Cai, Sendan; Wu, Lijun; Yang, Weijing; Xie, Jingying; Wen, Wen; Zheng, Jin-Cheng; Zheng, Yi

    2014-11-10

    Li/CFx primary possesses the highest energy density of 2180 W h kg⁻¹ among all primary lithium batteries. However, a key limitation for the utility of this type of battery is in its poor rate capability because the cathode material, CFx, is an intrinsically poor electronic conductor. Here, we report on our development of a controlled process of surface de-fluorination under mild hydrothermal conditions to modify the highly fluorinated CFx. The modified CFx, consisting of an in situ generated shell component of F-graphene layers, possesses good electronic conductivity and removes the transporting barrier for lithium ions, yielding a high-capacity performance andmore » an excellent rate-capability. Indeed, a capacity of 500 mA h g⁻¹ and a maximum power density of 44 800 W kg⁻¹ can be realized at the ultrafast rate of 30 C (24 A g⁻¹), which is over one order of magnitude higher than that of the state-of-the-art primary lithium-ion batteries.« less

  12. New approaches for high energy density lithium-sulfur battery cathodes.

    PubMed

    Evers, Scott; Nazar, Linda F

    2013-05-21

    The goal of replacing combustion engines or reducing their use presents a daunting problem for society. Current lithium-ion technologies provide a stepping stone for this dramatic but inevitable change. However, the theoretical gravimetric capacity (∼300 mA h g(-1)) is too low to overcome the problems of limited range in electric vehicles, and their cost is too high to sustain the commercial viability of electrified transportation. Sulfur is the one of the most promising next generation cathode materials. Since the 1960s, researchers have studied sulfur as a cathode, but only recently have great strides been made in preparing viable composites that can be used commercially. Sulfur batteries implement inexpensive, earth-abundant elements at the cathode while offering up to a five-fold increase in energy density compared with present Li-ion batteries. Over the past few years, researchers have come closer to solving the challenges associated with the sulfur cathode. Using carbon or conducting polymers, researchers have wired up sulfur, an excellent insulator, successfully. These conductive hosts also function to encapsulate the active sulfur mass upon reduction/oxidation when highly soluble lithium polysulfides are formed. These soluble discharge products remain a crux of the Li-S cell and need to be contained in order to increase cycle life and capacity retention. The use of mesoporous carbons and tailored designs featuring porous carbon hollow spheres have led to highly stable discharge capacities greater than 900 mA h g(-1) over 100 cycles. In an attempt to fully limit polysulfide dissolution, methods that rely on coating carbon/sulfur composites with polymers have led to surprisingly stable capacities (∼90% of initial capacity retained). Additives will also play an important role in sulfur electrode design. For example, small fractions (> 3 wt%) of porous silica or titania effectively act as polysulfide reservoirs, decreasing their concentration in the

  13. Chloroaluminate molten salt electrolytes and vanadium pentoxide xerogel cathodes for high energy density batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Jian

    The work presented here is part of an effort to develop a new type of battery which uses an alkali metal such as lithium or sodium or the alkaline earth magnesium, as the anode, a V2O5 xerogel as cathode, and a 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride/aluminum chloride room temperature molten salt as electrolyte. First, the stability of the electrolyte was studied. The electrochemistry of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (EMIC), the organic component of the 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride/aluminum chloride molten salt, was examined in acetonitrile. Cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry were used to study the reduction of EMI+, the cation of EMIC. Controlled potential coulometry was used to determine the number of electrons involved in the EMI+ reduction process. EMI+ reduction was found to be a one-electron, diffusion controlled process occurring at -2.35V (vs. a reference electrode consisting of a Ag wire in 0.1 M tetra-n-butylammonium perchlorate (TBAP)/acetonitrile solution) in 0.1M TBAP/acetonitrile solution. Two products were generated from the reduction, which are oxidized at about -0.45 and -0.65V. Mass spectroscopy data for these two products suggest that they are degradation products of EMI+. The major products of EMI+ reduction are not electrochemically active within the available potential window. Thus, small amounts of these species should not have a serious effect on the operation of a cell using an EMIC/AlCl3 electrolyte. The second project was to develop a method for buffering a melt which contains free Mg2+ ion for insertion into a V2O 5 xerogel cathode. The buffering of melts with MgCl2 and Mg metal was investigated starting with both acidic and basic melts. The following reaction is proposed for the Mg ribbon in acidic melt: 8Al2Cl - 7+3Mg→2Al+3Mg2++14AlCl -4 This was verified by electrochemical and atomic emission spectroscopy inductively coupled plasma (AES/ICP) data. Finally, the intercalation of Li+, Na+, and Mg2+ ions

  14. Preparation and characterization of porous carbon from expanded graphite for high energy density supercapacitor in aqueous electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barzegar, Farshad; Bello, Abdulhakeem; Momodu, Damilola; Madito, Moshawe Jack; Dangbegnon, Julien; Manyala, Ncholu

    2016-03-01

    In this work, we present the synthesis of low cost carbon nanosheets derived from expanded graphite dispersed in Polyvinylpyrrolidone, subsequently activated in KOH and finally carbonized in Ar/H2 atmosphere. Interconnected sheet-like structure with low concentration of oxygen (9.0 at.%) and a specific surface area of 457 m2 g-1 was obtained. The electrochemical characterization of the carbon material as supercapacitor electrode in a 2-electrode configuration shows high specific capacitance of 337 F g-1 at a current density of 0.5 A g-1 as well as high energy density of 37.9 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 450 W kg-1. This electrical double layer capacitor electrode also exhibits excellent stability after floating test for 120 h in 6 M KOH aqueous electrolyte. These results suggest that this activated expanded graphite (AEG) material has great potential for high performance electrode in energy storage applications.

  15. Activated carbons derived from coconut shells as high energy density cathode material for Li-ion capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Akshay; Aravindan, Vanchiappan; Jayaraman, Sundaramurthy; Kumar, Palaniswamy Suresh; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Madhavi, Srinivasan; Srinivasan, M. P.

    2013-10-01

    In this manuscript, a dramatic increase in the energy density of ~ 69 Wh kg-1 and an extraordinary cycleability ~ 2000 cycles of the Li-ion hybrid electrochemical capacitors (Li-HEC) is achieved by employing tailored activated carbon (AC) of ~ 60% mesoporosity derived from coconut shells (CS). The AC is obtained by both physical and chemical hydrothermal carbonization activation process, and compared to the commercial AC powders (CAC) in terms of the supercapacitance performance in single electrode configuration vs. Li. The Li-HEC is fabricated with commercially available Li4Ti5O12 anode and the coconut shell derived AC as cathode in non-aqueous medium. The present research provides a new routine for the development of high energy density Li-HEC that employs a mesoporous carbonaceous electrode derived from bio-mass precursors.

  16. A Highly Energetic N-Rich Metal-Organic Framework as a New High-Energy-Density Material.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huabin; Zhang, Mingjian; Lin, Ping; Malgras, Victor; Tang, Jing; Alshehri, Saad M; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Du, Shaowu; Zhang, Jian

    2016-01-18

    Metal-organic framework (MOF)-based energetic material [Cu3 (MA)2 (N3 )3 ] (1; MA=melamine) was synthesized and structurally characterized (47.55 % N). The structural analysis revealed the existence of unusual multiwalled tubular channels and interweaving of single and double helical units in 1. The standard molar enthalpy of formation was found to be 1788.73 kJ mol(-1) , which is the highest value among previously reported MOF-based energetic materials. The calculated detonation properties showed that 1 can be used as a potential explosive. Sensitivity tests revealed that 1 is insensitive and thus can function as a high-energy-density material with a favorable level of safety. PMID:26663482

  17. A Highly Energetic N-Rich Metal-Organic Framework as a New High-Energy-Density Material.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huabin; Zhang, Mingjian; Lin, Ping; Malgras, Victor; Tang, Jing; Alshehri, Saad M; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Du, Shaowu; Zhang, Jian

    2016-01-18

    Metal-organic framework (MOF)-based energetic material [Cu3 (MA)2 (N3 )3 ] (1; MA=melamine) was synthesized and structurally characterized (47.55 % N). The structural analysis revealed the existence of unusual multiwalled tubular channels and interweaving of single and double helical units in 1. The standard molar enthalpy of formation was found to be 1788.73 kJ mol(-1) , which is the highest value among previously reported MOF-based energetic materials. The calculated detonation properties showed that 1 can be used as a potential explosive. Sensitivity tests revealed that 1 is insensitive and thus can function as a high-energy-density material with a favorable level of safety.

  18. Understanding the implications of the data from recent high-energy-density Kelvin-Helmholtz shear layer experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Hurricane, O A; Hansen, J F; Harding, E C; Drake, R P; Robey, H F; Remington, B A; Kuranz, C C; Grosskopf, M J; Gillespie, R S; Park, H

    2009-10-26

    The first successful high energy density Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) shear layer experiments (O.A. Hurricane, et al., Phys. Plasmas, 16, 056305, 2009; E.C. Harding, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 103, 045005, 2009) demonstrated the ability to design and field a target that produces an array of large diagnosable KH vortices in a controlled fashion. Data from these experiments vividly showed the complete evolution of large distinct eddies, from formation to apparent turbulent break-up. Unexpectedly, low-density bubbles/cavities comparable to the vortex size ({approx} 300 - 400 {micro}m) appeared to grow up in the free-stream flow above the unstable material interface. In this paper, the basic principles of the experiment will be discussed, the data reviewed, and the progress on understanding the origin of the above bubble structures through theory and simulation will be reported on.

  19. Activated carbons derived from coconut shells as high energy density cathode material for Li-ion capacitors

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Akshay; Aravindan, Vanchiappan; Jayaraman, Sundaramurthy; Kumar, Palaniswamy Suresh; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Madhavi, Srinivasan; Srinivasan, M. P.

    2013-01-01

    In this manuscript, a dramatic increase in the energy density of ~ 69 Wh kg−1 and an extraordinary cycleability ~ 2000 cycles of the Li-ion hybrid electrochemical capacitors (Li-HEC) is achieved by employing tailored activated carbon (AC) of ~ 60% mesoporosity derived from coconut shells (CS). The AC is obtained by both physical and chemical hydrothermal carbonization activation process, and compared to the commercial AC powders (CAC) in terms of the supercapacitance performance in single electrode configuration vs. Li. The Li-HEC is fabricated with commercially available Li4Ti5O12 anode and the coconut shell derived AC as cathode in non-aqueous medium. The present research provides a new routine for the development of high energy density Li-HEC that employs a mesoporous carbonaceous electrode derived from bio-mass precursors. PMID:24141527

  20. Talbot-Lau X-ray Deflectometer electron density diagnostic for laser and pulsed power high energy density plasma experiments

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Valdivia, M. P.; Stutman, D.; Stoeckl, C.; Mileham, C.; Begishev, I.; Theobald, W.; Bromage, J.; Regan, S. P.; Klein, S. R.; Munoz-Cordoves, G.; et al

    2016-04-21

    Talbot-Lau X-ray Deflectometry has been developed as an electron density diagnostic for High Energy Density plasmas. The technique can deliver x-ray refraction, attenuation, elemental composition, and scatter information from a single Moiré image. An 8 keV Talbot-Lau interferometer was deployed using laser and x-pinch backlighters. Grating survival and electron density mapping was demonstrated for 25-29 J, 8-30 ps laser pulses using copper foil targets. Moire pattern formation and grating survival was also observed using a copper x-pinch driven at 400 kA, ~1 kA/ns. Lastly, these results demonstrate the potential of TXD as an electron density diagnostic for HED plasmas.

  1. Activated carbons derived from coconut shells as high energy density cathode material for Li-ion capacitors.

    PubMed

    Jain, Akshay; Aravindan, Vanchiappan; Jayaraman, Sundaramurthy; Kumar, Palaniswamy Suresh; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Madhavi, Srinivasan; Srinivasan, M P

    2013-10-21

    In this manuscript, a dramatic increase in the energy density of ~ 69 Wh kg⁻¹ and an extraordinary cycleability ~ 2000 cycles of the Li-ion hybrid electrochemical capacitors (Li-HEC) is achieved by employing tailored activated carbon (AC) of ~ 60% mesoporosity derived from coconut shells (CS). The AC is obtained by both physical and chemical hydrothermal carbonization activation process, and compared to the commercial AC powders (CAC) in terms of the supercapacitance performance in single electrode configuration vs. Li. The Li-HEC is fabricated with commercially available Li₄Ti₅O₁₂ anode and the coconut shell derived AC as cathode in non-aqueous medium. The present research provides a new routine for the development of high energy density Li-HEC that employs a mesoporous carbonaceous electrode derived from bio-mass precursors.

  2. A Web 2.0 Interface to Ion Stopping Power and Other Physics Routines for High Energy Density Physics Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoltz, Peter; Veitzer, Seth

    2008-04-01

    We present a new Web 2.0-based interface to physics routines for High Energy Density Physics applications. These routines include models for ion stopping power, sputtering, secondary electron yields and energies, impact ionization cross sections, and atomic radiated power. The Web 2.0 interface allows users to easily explore the results of the models before using the routines within other codes or to analyze experimental results. We discuss how we used various Web 2.0 tools, including the Python 2.5, Django, and the Yahoo User Interface library. Finally, we demonstrate the interface by showing as an example the stopping power algorithms researchers are currently using within the Hydra code to analyze warm, dense matter experiments underway at the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment facility at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  3. A broadband high-resolution elliptical crystal x-ray spectrometer for high energy density physics experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, S G; Heeter, R F; Booth, R; Emig, J; Fulkerson, S; McCarville, T; Norman, D; Young, B F

    2006-03-31

    Spectroscopic investigation of high temperature laser produced plasmas in general, and x-ray opacity experiments in particular, often requires instruments with both a broad coverage of x-ray energies and high spectral, spatial, and temporal resolution. We analyze the design, model the response, and report the commissioning of a spectrometer using elliptical crystals in conjunction with a large format, gated microchannel plate detector. Measurements taken with this instrument at the JANUS laser facilities demonstrate the designed spectral range of 0.24 to 5.8 keV, and spectral resolution E/{Delta}E > 500, resulting in 2 to 3 times more spectral data than achieved by previous spectrometer designs. The observed 100 picosecond temporal resolution and 35 {micro}m spatial resolution are consistent with the requirements of high energy density opacity experiments.

  4. A Stable Vanadium Redox-Flow Battery with High Energy Density for Large-scale Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Wang, Wei; Vijayakumar, M.; Nie, Zimin; Chen, Baowei; Zhang, Jianlu; Xia, Guanguang; Hu, Jian Z.; Graff, Gordon L.; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhenguo

    2011-05-01

    Low cost, high performance redox flow batteries are highly demanded for up to multi-megawatt levels of renewable and grid energy storage. Here, we report a new vanadium redox flow battery with a significant improvement over the current technologies. This new battery utilizes a sulfate-chloride mixed solution, which is capable of dissolving more than 2.5 M vanadium or about a 70% increase in the energy storage capacity over the current vanadium sulfate system. More importantly, the new electrolyte remains stable over a wide temperature range of -5 to 60oC, potentially eliminating the need of active heat management. Its high energy density, broad operational temperature window, and excellent electrochemical performance would lead to a significant reduction in the cost of energy storage, thus accelerating its market penetration.

  5. High Energy Density Capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-01

    BEEST Project: Recapping is developing a capacitor that could rival the energy storage potential and price of today’s best EV batteries. When power is needed, the capacitor rapidly releases its stored energy, similar to lightning being discharged from a cloud. Capacitors are an ideal substitute for batteries if their energy storage capacity can be improved. Recapping is addressing storage capacity by experimenting with the material that separates the positive and negative electrodes of its capacitors. These separators could significantly improve the energy density of electrochemical devices.

  6. Electron beam generation in Tevatron electron lenses

    SciTech Connect

    Kamerdzhiev, V.; Kuznetsov, G.; Shiltsev, V.; Solyak, N.; Tiunov, M.; /Novosibirsk, IYF

    2006-08-01

    New type of high perveance electron guns with convex cathode has been developed. Three guns described in this article are built to provide transverse electron current density distributions needed for Electron Lenses for beam-beam compensation in the Tevatron collider. The current distribution can be controlled either by the gun geometry or by voltage on a special control electrode located near cathode. We present the designs of the guns and report results of beam measurements on the test bench. Because of their high current density and low transverse temperature of electrons, electron guns of this type can be used in electron cooling and beam-beam compensation devices.

  7. Layer by layer assembly of ultrathin V₂O₅ anchored MWCNTs and graphene on textile fabrics for fabrication of high energy density flexible supercapacitor electrodes.

    PubMed

    Shakir, Imran; Ali, Zahid; Bae, Jihyun; Park, Jongjin; Kang, Dae Joon

    2014-04-21

    Among transition metal oxides, vanadium oxides have received relatively modest attention for supercapacitor applications. Yet, this material is abundant, relatively inexpensive and offer several oxidation states which can provide a broad range of redox reactions suitable for supercapacitor operation. Electrochemical supercapacitors based on nanostructured vanadium oxide (V₂O₅) suffer from relatively low energy densities as they have low surface area and poor electrical conductivities. To overcome these problems, we developed a layer by layer assembly (LBL) technique in which a graphene layer was alternatively inserted between MWCNT films coated with ultrathin (3 nm) V₂O₅. The insertion of a conductive spacer of graphene between the MWCNT films coated with V₂O₅ not only prevents agglomeration between the MWCNT films but also substantially enhances the specific capacitance by 67%, to as high as ∼2590 F g(-1). Furthermore, the LBL assembled multilayer supercapacitor electrodes exhibited an excellent cycling performance of >97%, capacitance retention over 5000 cycles and a high energy density of 96 W h kg(-1) at a power density of 800 W kg(-1). Our approach clearly offers an exciting opportunity for enhancing the device performance of metal oxide-based electrochemical supercapacitors suitable for next-generation flexible energy storage devices by employing a facile LBL assembly technique.

  8. Efficient Generation of Truncated Bessel Beams using Cylindrical Waveguides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilchenko, Vladimir S.; Mohageg, Makan; Savchenkov, Anatoliy A.; Matsko, Andrey B.; Maleki, Lute

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we address efficient conversion between a Gaussian beam (a truncated plane wave) and a truncated Bessel beam of agiven order, using cylindrical optical waveguides and whispering gallery mode resonators. Utilizing a generator based on waveguides combined with whispering gallery mode resonators, we have realized Bessel beams of the order of 200 with a conversion efficiency exceeding 10 %.

  9. Etching with electron beam generated plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Leonhardt, D.; Walton, S.G.; Muratore, C.; Fernsler, R.F.; Meger, R.A.

    2004-11-01

    A modulated electron beam generated plasma has been used to dry etch standard photoresist materials and silicon. Oxygen-argon mixtures were used to etch organic resist material and sulfur hexafluoride mixed with argon or oxygen was used for the silicon etching. Etch rates and anisotropy were determined with respect to gas compositions, incident ion energy (from an applied rf bias) and plasma duty factor. For 1818 negative resist and i-line resists the removal rate increased nearly linearly with ion energy (up to 220 nm/min at 100 eV), with reasonable anisotropic pattern transfer above 50 eV. Little change in etch rate was seen as gas composition went from pure oxygen to 70% argon, implying the resist removal mechanism in this system required the additional energy supplied by the ions. With silicon substrates at room temperature, mixtures of argon and sulfur hexafluoride etched approximately seven times faster (1375 nm/min) than mixtures of oxygen and sulfur hexafluoride ({approx}200 nm/min) with 200 eV ions, the difference is attributed to the passivation of the silicon by involatile silicon oxyfluoride (SiO{sub x}F{sub y}) compounds. At low incident ion energies, the Ar-SF{sub 6} mixtures showed a strong chemical (lateral) etch component before an ion-assisted regime, which started at {approx}75 eV. Etch rates were independent of the 0.5%-50% duty factors studied in this work.

  10. Generation and application of bessel beams in electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Grillo, Vincenzo; Harris, Jérémie; Gazzadi, Gian Carlo; Balboni, Roberto; Mafakheri, Erfan; Dennis, Mark R; Frabboni, Stefano; Boyd, Robert W; Karimi, Ebrahim

    2016-07-01

    We report a systematic treatment of the holographic generation of electron Bessel beams, with a view to applications in electron microscopy. We describe in detail the theory underlying hologram patterning, as well as the actual electron-optical configuration used experimentally. We show that by optimizing our nanofabrication recipe, electron Bessel beams can be generated with relative efficiencies reaching 37±3%. We also demonstrate by tuning various hologram parameters that electron Bessel beams can be produced with many visible rings, making them ideal for interferometric applications, or in more highly localized forms with fewer rings, more suitable for imaging. We describe the settings required to tune beam localization in this way, and explore beam and hologram configurations that allow the convergences and topological charges of electron Bessel beams to be controlled. We also characterize the phase structure of the Bessel beams generated with our technique, using a simulation procedure that accounts for imperfections in the hologram manufacturing process. PMID:27203186

  11. High-energy density experiments on planetary materials using high-power lasers and X-ray free electron laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozaki, Norimasa

    2015-06-01

    Laser-driven dynamic compression allows us to investigate the behavior of planetary and exoplanetary materials at extreme conditions. Our high-energy density (HED) experiments for applications to planetary sciences began over five years ago. We measured the equation-of-state of cryogenic liquid hydrogen under laser-shock compression up to 55 GPa. Since then, various materials constituting the icy giant planets and the Earth-like planets have been studied using laser-driven dynamic compression techniques. Pressure-volume-temperature EOS data and optical property data of water and molecular mixtures were obtained at the planetary/exoplanetary interior conditions. Silicates and oxides data show interesting behaviors in the warm-dense matter regime due to their phase transformations. Most recently the structural changes of iron were observed for understanding the kinetics under the bcc-hcp transformation phenomena on a new HED science platform coupling power-lasers and the X-ray free electron laser (SACLA). This work was performed under the joint research project at the Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University. It was partially supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (Grant Nos. 20654042, 22224012, 23540556, and 24103507) and also by grants from the Core-to-Core Program of JSPS on International Alliance for Material Science in Extreme States with High Power Laser and XFEL, and the X-ray Free Electron Laser Priority Strategy Program of MEXT.

  12. Zirconia doped barium titanate induced electroactive β polymorph in PVDF-HFP: high energy density and dielectric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Maya; Ranganatha, S.; Kalyani, Ajay Kumar; Ranjan, Rajeev; Madras, Giridhar; Bose, Suryasarathi

    2014-12-01

    Zirconium-doped barium titanate (BZT-08, Ba(Ti0.92 Zr0.08)O3) particles were synthesized and PVDF-HFP-based composites were prepared by melt mixing to design materials with tunable dielectric and ferroelectric properties. Composites of PVDF-HFP and barium titanate (BT) particles were also prepared to realize the exceptional properties associated with the BZT-08-like stabilization of two ferroelectric phases, i.e. tetragonal and orthorhombic at room temperature. To facilitate the uniform dispersion and interfacial adhesion with the matrix, the particles were modified with (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane. The dependence of the dielectric and ferroelectric properties of the as-prepared composites were systematically investigated in this study with respect to a wide range of frequencies. The composites with BZT-08 exhibited the significantly high dielectric permittivity of ca. 26 (at 100 Hz) and a high energy density (2.7 J cm-3 measured on 100 μm thick film) at room temperature with respect to the control PVDF-HFP and PVDF-HFP/BT composites. Interestingly, the BZT-08 particles facilitated the electroactive β polymorph in the PVDF-HFP and enhanced polarization in the composites, leading to improved ferroelectric properties in the composites.

  13. Fiber optic timing, firing, and control systems for high-energy density physics experiments at Pegasus II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Rodger C.; Primas, Lori E.; Earley, Lawrence M.; Cochrane, James

    1996-01-01

    Several fiber optic systems have been designed and implemented for the high energy density experiments at Pegasus II. The main fiber optic system developed for Pegasus II remotely controls both the charging and discharging of the capacitor discharge unit (CDU). This fiber optic system is also used to distribute the timing and firing information specific to each experiment to the operators and experimenters. The timing and firing information includes the voltage on the CDU as it is being charged, a confirmation signal indicating the CDU has discharged and common timing signals based on the output signals on the load ring of the CDU. Various fiber optic systems were implemented to transfer diagnostic information related to the discharge of the main capacitor bank to the control room. The diagnostics include the current, electric field, and vacuum pressure at the target area. Not only do these fiber optic systems provide the control and monitor signals for the experiments at Pegasus II, they have the added value of preventing premature firing of the capacitor bank, eliminating ground loops between the test area and the control room and providing overall increased operator safety.

  14. High energy density sodium-ion capacitors through co-intercalation mechanism in diglyme-based electrolyte system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Pengxian; Han, Xiaoqi; Yao, Jianhua; Zhang, Lixue; Cao, Xiaoyan; Huang, Changshui; Cui, Gunglei

    2015-11-01

    A novel sodium-ion capacitor (NIC) was assembled using graphitic mesocarbon microbead anode and activated carbon cathode in diglyme-based electrolyte. Charge/discharge tests indicate that sodium ions can reversibly co-intercalated with diglyme solvent into graphite anode and show good rate performance. The energy densities of the NICs are as high as 93.5 and 86.5 Wh kg-1 at 573 and 2832 W kg-1 (equal to 4 C and 50 C) in the voltage window at 1-4 V, respectively. By optimizing the voltage ranges, the capacity retention of the NIC at 20 C is 98.3% even after 3000 cycles. Such superior electrochemical performance should be attributed to the reversible intercalated/deintercalated reaction of sodium ions and the formation of ternary graphite intercalation compounds in diglyme-based electrolyte. The present work pioneers new realms of hybrid energy storage system with high energy density, high power density and long cycle life.

  15. Observation and modeling of mixing-layer development in high-energy-density, blast-wave-driven shear flow

    SciTech Connect

    Di Stefano, C. A. Kuranz, C. C.; Klein, S. R.; Drake, R. P.; Malamud, G.; Henry de Frahan, M. T.; Johnsen, E.; Shimony, A.; Shvarts, D.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Martinez, D.

    2014-05-15

    In this work, we examine the hydrodynamics of high-energy-density (HED) shear flows. Experiments, consisting of two materials of differing density, use the OMEGA-60 laser to drive a blast wave at a pressure of ∼50 Mbar into one of the media, creating a shear flow in the resulting shocked system. The interface between the two materials is Kelvin-Helmholtz unstable, and a mixing layer of growing width develops due to the shear. To theoretically analyze the instability's behavior, we rely on two sources of information. First, the interface spectrum is well-characterized, which allows us to identify how the shock front and the subsequent shear in the post-shock flow interact with the interface. These observations provide direct evidence that vortex merger dominates the evolution of the interface structure. Second, simulations calibrated to the experiment allow us to estimate the time-dependent evolution of the deposition of vorticity at the interface. The overall result is that we are able to choose a hydrodynamic model for the system, and consequently examine how well the flow in this HED system corresponds to a classical hydrodynamic description.

  16. Ag incorporated Mn3O4/AC nanocomposite based supercapacitor devices with high energy density and power density.

    PubMed

    Nagamuthu, S; Vijayakumar, S; Muralidharan, G

    2014-12-14

    Silver incorporated Mn3O4/amorphous carbon (AC) nanocomposites are synthesized by a green chemistry method. X-ray diffraction studies revealed the structural changes in Mn3O4/AC nanocomposites attributable to the addition of silver. Cyclic voltammetry, charge-discharge and ac-impedance studies indicated that the Ag-Mn3O4/AC-5 electrode was the most suitable candidate for supercapacitor applications. From the galvanostatic charge-discharge studies, a higher specific capacitance of 981 F g(-1) at a specific current of 1 A g(-1) was obtained. An Ag-Mn3O4/AC-symmetric supercapacitor consisting of an Ag-incorporated Mn3O4/AC composite as an anode as well as a cathode, and an asymmetric supercapacitor consisting of an Ag-incorporated Mn3O4/AC composite as a cathode and an activated carbon as an anode have been fabricated. The symmetric device exhibits a specific cell capacitance of 72 F g(-1) at a specific current of 1 A g(-1) whereas the asymmetric device delivers a specific cell capacitance of 180 F g(-1) at a high current rate of 10 A g(-1). The asymmetric supercapacitor device yields a high energy density of 81 W h kg(-1). This is higher than that of lead acid batteries and comparable with that of nickel hydride batteries.

  17. Density functional theory screening of gas-treatment strategies for stabilization of high energy-density lithium metal anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Stephan L.; Morgan, Benjamin J.; Passerini, Stefano; Teobaldi, Gilberto

    2015-11-01

    To explore the potential of molecular gas treatment of freshly cut lithium foils in non-electrolyte-based passivation of high-energy-density Li anodes, density functional theory (DFT) has been used to study the decomposition of molecular gases on metallic lithium surfaces. By combining DFT geometry optimization and Molecular Dynamics, the effects of atmospheric (N2, O2, CO2) and hazardous (F2, SO2) gas decomposition on Li(bcc) (100), (110), and (111) surfaces on relative surface energies, work functions, and emerging electronic and elastic properties are investigated. The simulations suggest that exposure to different molecular gases can be used to induce and control reconstructions of the metal Li surface and substantial changes (up to over 1 eV) in the work function of the passivated system. Contrary to the other considered gases, which form metallic adlayers, SO2 treatment emerges as the most effective in creating an insulating passivation layer for dosages ≤1 mono-layer. The substantial Li → adsorbate charge transfer and adlayer relaxation produce marked elastic stiffening of the interface, with the smallest change shown by nitrogen-treated adlayers.

  18. Recent Progress on Ferroelectric Polymer-Based Nanocomposites for High Energy Density Capacitors: Synthesis, Dielectric Properties, and Future Aspects.

    PubMed

    Prateek; Thakur, Vijay Kumar; Gupta, Raju Kumar

    2016-04-13

    Dielectric polymer nanocomposites are rapidly emerging as novel materials for a number of advanced engineering applications. In this Review, we present a comprehensive review of the use of ferroelectric polymers, especially PVDF and PVDF-based copolymers/blends as potential components in dielectric nanocomposite materials for high energy density capacitor applications. Various parameters like dielectric constant, dielectric loss, breakdown strength, energy density, and flexibility of the polymer nanocomposites have been thoroughly investigated. Fillers with different shapes have been found to cause significant variation in the physical and electrical properties. Generally, one-dimensional and two-dimensional nanofillers with large aspect ratios provide enhanced flexibility versus zero-dimensional fillers. Surface modification of nanomaterials as well as polymers adds flavor to the dielectric properties of the resulting nanocomposites. Nowadays, three-phase nanocomposites with either combination of fillers or polymer matrix help in further improving the dielectric properties as compared to two-phase nanocomposites. Recent research has been focused on altering the dielectric properties of different materials while also maintaining their superior flexibility. Flexible polymer nanocomposites are the best candidates for application in various fields. However, certain challenges still present, which can be solved only by extensive research in this field.

  19. Origins of Large Voltage Hysteresis in High-Energy-Density Metal Fluoride Lithium-Ion Battery Conversion Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Li, Linsen; Jacobs, Ryan; Gao, Peng; Gan, Liyang; Wang, Feng; Morgan, Dane; Jin, Song

    2016-03-01

    Metal fluorides and oxides can store multiple lithium ions through conversion chemistry to enable high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries. However, their practical applications have been hindered by an unusually large voltage hysteresis between charge and discharge voltage profiles and the consequent low-energy efficiency (<80%). The physical origins of such hysteresis are rarely studied and poorly understood. Here we employ in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, density functional theory calculations, and galvanostatic intermittent titration technique to first correlate the voltage profile of iron fluoride (FeF3), a representative conversion electrode material, with evolution and spatial distribution of intermediate phases in the electrode. The results reveal that, contrary to conventional belief, the phase evolution in the electrode is symmetrical during discharge and charge. However, the spatial evolution of the electrochemically active phases, which is controlled by reaction kinetics, is different. We further propose that the voltage hysteresis in the FeF3 electrode is kinetic in nature. It is the result of ohmic voltage drop, reaction overpotential, and different spatial distributions of electrochemically active phases (i.e., compositional inhomogeneity). Therefore, the large hysteresis can be expected to be mitigated by rational design and optimization of material microstructure and electrode architecture to improve the energy efficiency of lithium-ion batteries based on conversion chemistry.

  20. 3D strain engineered self-rolled thin-film architecture for high-energy density lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godbey, Griffin; Gong, Chen; Yu, Cynthia; Blythe, Clayton; Leite, Marina

    Recently, multiple 3D geometries have been implemented into energy storage devices (e . g . nanowire anodes and arrays of interdigitated rods) in order to better accommodate the large volume expansion experienced by the anode during lithiation and to increase the structure energy density. However, most approached structures are difficult to scale up. Here we show how self-rolled thin-films can maintain a high energy density and can potentially accommodate the volume expansion suffered by the anode. The self-rolled tubes are fabricated by physical deposition of the active layers, creating a stress gradient between thin-film stack due to differences in coefficient of thermal expansion. Upon a sacrificial layer removal, the thin-film rolls to relieve this built-in stress. We predict the final dimension of self-rolled battery tubes using known elastic properties of materials commonly used as the active layers of the device. We will discuss an appropriate figure-of-merit that defines how the winding process can ultimately affect the volumetric capacity of 3D self-rolled batteries.

  1. Recent Progress on Ferroelectric Polymer-Based Nanocomposites for High Energy Density Capacitors: Synthesis, Dielectric Properties, and Future Aspects.

    PubMed

    Prateek; Thakur, Vijay Kumar; Gupta, Raju Kumar

    2016-04-13

    Dielectric polymer nanocomposites are rapidly emerging as novel materials for a number of advanced engineering applications. In this Review, we present a comprehensive review of the use of ferroelectric polymers, especially PVDF and PVDF-based copolymers/blends as potential components in dielectric nanocomposite materials for high energy density capacitor applications. Various parameters like dielectric constant, dielectric loss, breakdown strength, energy density, and flexibility of the polymer nanocomposites have been thoroughly investigated. Fillers with different shapes have been found to cause significant variation in the physical and electrical properties. Generally, one-dimensional and two-dimensional nanofillers with large aspect ratios provide enhanced flexibility versus zero-dimensional fillers. Surface modification of nanomaterials as well as polymers adds flavor to the dielectric properties of the resulting nanocomposites. Nowadays, three-phase nanocomposites with either combination of fillers or polymer matrix help in further improving the dielectric properties as compared to two-phase nanocomposites. Recent research has been focused on altering the dielectric properties of different materials while also maintaining their superior flexibility. Flexible polymer nanocomposites are the best candidates for application in various fields. However, certain challenges still present, which can be solved only by extensive research in this field. PMID:27040315

  2. Laser-driven high-energy-density deuterium and tritium ions for neutron production in a double-cone configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Li-Xiang; Yu, Tong-Pu Shao, Fu-Qiu; Yin, Yan; Ma, Yan-Yun; Zhu, Qing-Jun

    2015-12-15

    By using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, we investigate laser-driven ion acceleration and compression from a thin DT foil in a double-cone configuration. By using two counterpropagating laser pulses, it is shown that a double-cone structure can effectively guide, focus, and strengthen the incident laser pulses, resulting in the enhanced acceleration and compression of D{sup +} and T{sup +}. Due to the ion Coulomb repulsion and the effective screening from the external laser electric fields, the transverse diffusion of ions is significantly suppressed. Finally, the peak energy density of the compressed ions exceeds 2.73 × 10{sup 16 }J/m{sup 3}, which is about five orders of magnitude higher than the threshold for high energy density physics, 10{sup 11 }J/m{sup 3}. Under this condition, DT fusion reactions are initiated and the neutron production rate per volume is estimated to be as high as 7.473 × 10{sup 35}/m{sup 3} s according to Monte Carlo simulations. It is much higher than that of the traditional large neutron sources, which may facilitate many potential applications.

  3. Nano-sized structured layered positive electrode materials to enable high energy density and high rate capability lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Deng, Haixia; Belharouak, Ilias; Amine, Khalil

    2012-10-02

    Nano-sized structured dense and spherical layered positive active materials provide high energy density and high rate capability electrodes in lithium-ion batteries. Such materials are spherical second particles made from agglomerated primary particles that are Li.sub.1+.alpha.(Ni.sub.xCo.sub.yMn.sub.z).sub.1-tM.sub.tO.sub.2-dR.sub.d- , where M is selected from can be Al, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cr, Ag, Ca, Na, K, In, Ga, Ge, V, Mo, Nb, Si, Ti, Zr, or a mixture of any two or more thereof, R is selected from F, Cl, Br, I, H, S, N, or a mixture of any two or more thereof, and 0.ltoreq..alpha..ltoreq.0.50; 0

  4. An x-ray backlit Talbot-Lau deflectometer for high-energy-density electron density diagnostics

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Valdivia, M. P.; Stutman, D.; Stoeckl, C.; Theobald, W.; Mileham, C.; Begishev, I. A.; Bromage, J.; Regan, S. P.

    2016-02-10

    X-ray phase-contrast techniques can measure electron density gradients in high-energy-density plasmas through refraction induced phase shifts. An 8 keV Talbot-Lau interferometer consisting of free standing ultrathin gratings was deployed at an ultra-short, high-intensity laser system using K-shell emission from a 1-30 J, 8 ps laser pulse focused on thin Cu foil targets. Grating survival was demonstrated for 30 J, 8 ps laser pulses. The first x-ray deflectometry images obtained under laser backlighting showed up to 25% image contrast and thus enabled detection of electron areal density gradients with a maximum value of 8.1 ± 0.5 × 1023 cm₋3 in amore » low-Z millimeter sized sample. An electron density profile was obtained from refraction measurements with an error of <8%. We found the 50 ± 15 μm spatial resolution achieved across the full field of view was limited by the x-ray source-size, similar to conventional radiography.« less

  5. Ti(N5)4 as a Potential Nitrogen-Rich Stable High-Energy Density Material.

    PubMed

    Choi, Changhyeok; Yoo, Hae-Wook; Goh, Eun Mee; Cho, Soo Gyeong; Jung, Yousung

    2016-06-23

    We have studied molecular structures and kinetic stabilities of M(N5)3 (M = Sc, Y) and M(N5)4 (M = Ti, Zr, Hf) complexes theoretically. All of these compounds are found to be stable with more than a 13 kcal/mol of kinetic barrier. In particular, Ti(N5)4 showed the largest dissociation energy of 173.0 kcal/mol and thermodynamic stability. This complex had a high nitrogen content (85% by weight), and a significantly high nitrogen to metal ratio (20:1) among the neutral M(N5)n species studied here and in the literature. Ti(N5)4 is thus forecasted to be a good candidate for a nitrogen-rich high-energy density material (HEDM). We reveal in further detail using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations that the dissociation pathways of M(N5)n involve the rearrangements of the bonding configurations before dissociation. PMID:27266258

  6. Generation of singular optical beams from fundamental Gaussian beam using Sagnac interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, Dinesh N.; Viswanathan, Nirmal K.

    2016-09-01

    We propose a simple free-space optics recipe for the controlled generation of optical vortex beams with a vortex dipole or a single charge vortex, using an inherently stable Sagnac interferometer. We investigate the role played by the amplitude and phase differences in generating higher-order Gaussian beams from the fundamental Gaussian mode. Our simulation results reveal how important the control of both the amplitude and the phase difference between superposing beams is to achieving optical vortex beams. The creation of a vortex dipole from null interference is unveiled through the introduction of a lateral shear and a radial phase difference between two out-of-phase Gaussian beams. A stable and high quality optical vortex beam, equivalent to the first-order Laguerre–Gaussian beam, is synthesized by coupling lateral shear with linear phase difference, introduced orthogonal to the shear between two out-of-phase Gaussian beams.

  7. Generation of singular optical beams from fundamental Gaussian beam using Sagnac interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, Dinesh N.; Viswanathan, Nirmal K.

    2016-09-01

    We propose a simple free-space optics recipe for the controlled generation of optical vortex beams with a vortex dipole or a single charge vortex, using an inherently stable Sagnac interferometer. We investigate the role played by the amplitude and phase differences in generating higher-order Gaussian beams from the fundamental Gaussian mode. Our simulation results reveal how important the control of both the amplitude and the phase difference between superposing beams is to achieving optical vortex beams. The creation of a vortex dipole from null interference is unveiled through the introduction of a lateral shear and a radial phase difference between two out-of-phase Gaussian beams. A stable and high quality optical vortex beam, equivalent to the first-order Laguerre-Gaussian beam, is synthesized by coupling lateral shear with linear phase difference, introduced orthogonal to the shear between two out-of-phase Gaussian beams.

  8. Flexible all solid state supercapacitor with high energy density employing black titania nanoparticles as a conductive agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhi, Jian; Yang, Chongyin; Lin, Tianquan; Cui, Houlei; Wang, Zhou; Zhang, Hui; Huang, Fuqiang

    2016-02-01

    Increasing the electrical conductivity of pseudocapacitive materials without changing their morphology is an ideal structural solution to realize both high electrochemical performance and superior flexibility for an all solid state supercapacitor (ASSSC). Herein, we fabricate a flexible ASSSC device employing black titania (TiO2-x:N) decorated two-dimensional (2D) NiO nanosheets as the positive electrode and mesoporous graphene as the negative electrode. In this unique design, NiO nanosheets are used as pseudocapacitive materials and TiO2-x:N nanoparticles serve as the conductive agent. Owing to the excellent electrical conductivity of TiO2-x:N and well defined ``particle on sheet'' planar structure of NiO/TiO2-x:N composites, the 2D morphology of the decorated NiO nanosheets is completely retained, which efficiently reinforces the pseudocapacitive activity and flexibility of the whole all solid state device. The maximum specific capacitance of fabricated the NiO/TiO2-x:N//mesoporous graphene supercapacitor can reach 133 F g-1, which is 2 and 4 times larger than the values of the NiO based ASSSC employing graphene and carbon black as the conductive agent, respectively. In addition, the optimized ASSSC displays intriguing performances with an energy density of 47 W h kg-1 in a voltage region of 0-1.6 V, which is, to the best of our knowledge, the highest value for flexible ASSSC devices. The impressive results presented here may pave the way for promising applications of black titania in high energy density flexible storage systems.Increasing the electrical conductivity of pseudocapacitive materials without changing their morphology is an ideal structural solution to realize both high electrochemical performance and superior flexibility for an all solid state supercapacitor (ASSSC). Herein, we fabricate a flexible ASSSC device employing black titania (TiO2-x:N) decorated two-dimensional (2D) NiO nanosheets as the positive electrode and mesoporous graphene as the

  9. Theoretical Studies of Possible Synthetic Routes for the High Energy Density Material Td N4: Excited Electronic States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Timothy J.; Dateo, Christopher E.

    2001-01-01

    Vertical electronic excitation energies for single states have been computed for the high energy density material (HEDM) Td N4 in order to assess possible synthetic routes that originate from excited electronic states of N2 molecules. Several ab initio theoretical approaches have been used, including complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF), state averaged CASSCF (SA-CASSCF), singles configuration interaction (CIS), CIS with second-order and third-order correlation corrections [CIS(D)) and CIS(3)], and linear response singles and doubles coupled-cluster (LRCCSD), which is the highest level of theory employed. Standard double zeta polarized (DZP) and triple zeta double polarized (TZ2P) one-particle basis sets were used. The CASSCF calculations are found to overestimate the excitation energies, while the SA-CASSCF approach rectifies this error to some extent, but not completely. The accuracy of the CIS calculations varied depending on the particular state, while the CIS(D), CIS(3), and LRCCSD results are in generally good agreement. Based on the LRCCSD calculations, the lowest six excited singlet states are 9.35(l(sup)T1), 10.01(l(sup)T2), 10.04(1(sup)A2), 10.07(1(sup)E), 10.12(2(sup)T1), and 10.42(2(sup)T2) eV above the ground state, respectively. Comparison of these excited state energies with the energies of possible excited states of N2+N2 fragments, leads us to propose that the most likely synthetic route for Td N4 involving this mechanism arises from combination of two bound quintet states of N2.

  10. Beam splitter and method for generating equal optical path length beams

    DOEpatents

    Qian, Shinan; Takacs, Peter

    2003-08-26

    The present invention is a beam splitter for splitting an incident beam into first and second beams so that the first and second beams have a fixed separation and are parallel upon exiting. The beam splitter includes a first prism, a second prism, and a film located between the prisms. The first prism is defined by a first thickness and a first perimeter which has a first major base. The second prism is defined by a second thickness and a second perimeter which has a second major base. The film is located between the first major base and the second major base for splitting the incident beam into the first and second beams. The first and second perimeters are right angle trapezoidal shaped. The beam splitter is configured for generating equal optical path length beams.

  11. A reflex electron beam discharge as a plasma source for electron beam generation

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, C.S.; Rocca, J.J.; Szapiro, B. )

    1988-10-01

    A reflex electron beam glow discharge has been used as a plasma source for the generation of broad-area electron beams. An electron current of 120 A (12 A/cm/sup 2/) was extracted from the plasma in 10 ..mu..s pulses and accelerated to energies greater than 1 keV in the gap between two grids. The scaling of the scheme for the generation of multikiloamp high-energy beams is discussed.

  12. AlGaN UV LED and Photodiodes Radiation Hardness and Space Qualifications and Their Applications in Space Science and High Energy Density Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, K. X.

    2011-05-31

    This presentation provides an overview of robust, radiation hard AlGaN optoelectronic devices and their applications in space exploration & high energy density physics. Particularly, deep UV LED and deep UV photodiodes are discussed with regard to their applications, radiation hardness and space qualification. AC charge management of UV LED satellite payload instruments, which were to be launched in late 2012, is covered.

  13. OZSPEC-2: An improved broadband high-resolution elliptical crystal x-ray spectrometer for high-energy density physics experiments (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Heeter, R. F.; Anderson, S. G.; Booth, R.; Brown, G. V.; Emig, J.; Fulkerson, S.; McCarville, T.; Norman, D.; Schneider, M. B.; Young, B. K. F.

    2008-10-15

    A novel time, space, and energy-resolved x-ray spectrometer has been developed which produces, in a single snapshot, a broadband and relatively calibrated spectrum of the x-ray emission from a high-energy density laboratory plasma. The opacity zipper spectrometer (OZSPEC-1) records a nearly continuous spectrum for x-ray energies from 240 to 5800 eV in a single shot. The second-generation OZSPEC-2, detailed in this work, records fully continuous spectra on a single shot from any two of these three bands: 270-650, 660-1580, and 1960-4720 eV. These instruments thus record thermal and line radiation from a wide range of plasmas. These instruments' single-shot bandwidth is unmatched in a time-gated spectrometer; conversely, other broadband instruments are either time-integrated (using crystals or gratings), lack spectral resolution (diode arrays), or cover a lower energy band (gratings). The OZSPECs are based on the zipper detector, a large-format (100x35 mm) gated microchannel plate detector, with spectra dispersed along the 100 mm dimension. OZSPEC-1 and -2 both use elliptically bent crystals of OHM, RAP, and/or PET. Individual spectra are gated in 100 ps. OZSPEC-2 provides one-dimensional spatial imaging with 30-50 {mu}m resolution over a 1500 {mu}m field of view at the source. The elliptical crystal design yields broad spectral coverage with resolution E/{delta}E>500, strong rejection of hard x-ray backgrounds, and negligible source broadening for extended sources. Near-term applications include plasma opacity measurements, detailed spectra of inertial fusion Hohlraums, and laboratory astrophysics experiments.

  14. Generation of stochastic electromagnetic beams with complete controllable coherence.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xudong; Chang, Chengcheng; Chen, Ziyang; Lin, Zhili; Pu, Jixiong

    2016-09-19

    We generate a stochastic electromagnetic beam (SEB) with complete controllable coherence, that is, the coherence degree can be controlled independently along two mutually perpendicular directions. We control the coherence of the SEB by adjusting the phase modulation magnitude applied onto two crossed phase only spatial light modulators. We measure the beam's coherence properties using Young's interference experiment, as well as the beam propagation factor. It is shown that the experimental results are consistent with our theoretical predictions. PMID:27661897

  15. Highly efficient electron vortex beams generated by nanofabricated phase holograms

    SciTech Connect

    Grillo, Vincenzo; Mafakheri, Erfan; Frabboni, Stefano

    2014-01-27

    We propose an improved type of holographic-plate suitable for the shaping of electron beams. The plate is fabricated by a focused ion beam on a silicon nitride membrane and introduces a controllable phase shift to the electron wavefunction. We adopted the optimal blazed-profile design for the phase hologram, which results in the generation of highly efficient (25%) electron vortex beams. This approach paves the route towards applications in nano-scale imaging and materials science.

  16. Effective generation of unidirectional SPP beam with arbitrary profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Oubo; Bai, Benfeng; Wu, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Zhendong; Wang, Qixia

    2016-04-01

    The beam formation of SPPs is very important in plasmonics. Different SPP beams could be used for different purposes, such as SPP focusing, non-diffractive SPP wave propagation, efficient SPP coupling, and manipulating particles. Here, we present a straightforward and effective method for generating unidirectionally propagating SPP beams with arbitrary profile in both amplitude and phase by locating the Δ-shaped nanoantennas. The Δ-shape of the nanoantennas is used to achieve unidirectionality of SPPs and the locations of the nanoantennas are controlled to realize arbitrary profile of the excited SPP wave. As examples, several SPP launchers generating different SPP beams are designed with this method. The near-field distribution of the generated SPP beams are also experimentally characterized to validate the effectiveness of this method.

  17. Recent Developments in High Energy Density Physics Targets for Experiments at Nif, Omega and the Sandia Z Pinch Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobile, Arthur; Balkey, Matthew; Bartos, Jacob; Batha, Steven; Brooks, Paul; Cameron, Bernard; Cobble, James; Cooley, Jason; Day, Robert; Edwards, John; Elliott, Joyce; Elliott, Norman; Fincke, James; Gomez, Veronica; Hatch, Douglas; Keiter, Paul; Kyrala, George; Lanier, Nicholas; Manzanares, Ruben; Papin, Pallas; Perea, Ron; Pierce, Timothy; Randolph, Blaine; Sandoval, David; Sebring, Robert; Rivera, Gerald; Schmidt, Derek; Snow, Ron; Steckle, Warren; Tierney, Thomas; Valdez, Adelaida; Watt, Robert

    2004-11-01

    Several new targets have recently been developed and fielded to investigate physical phenomena occurring in the high energy density regime. Phenomena studied included interacting hydrodynamic jets, hydrodynamic instabilities in convergent geometry, radiation flow, shock propagation in ignition-relevant materials, and issues associated with double shell targets for achieving ignition on NIF. Targets to study interacting hydrodynamic jets have been fabricated for a NIF campaign. Challenges associated with these targets included producing thin (150 μm) Al disks with 100 and 160 μm precisely placed high quality holes, and fabrication of a thin wall (40 μm) 800 μm diameter cylindrical shock tube filled with low density (90 mg/cm3) carbonized resorcinol formaldehyde foam. Cylindrical targets to investigate hydrodynamic instabilities in convergent geometry as a function of initial surface perturbations have been fabricated. Many experimental campaigns with these targets have been conducted at OMEGA. These targets have been fabricated with a wide range of surface perturbations on an imploding Al marker layer using precision machining methods. The key challenge with these targets was fabrication of a high quality Al marker layer, and placement of specified surface features on the marker layer. Targets to investigate radiation flow and shock propagation in silicon aerogel were developed and fielded at the Sandia Z Pinch facility. The challenging feature associated with these targets was a high quality silicon aerogel disk that is attached to a gold washer containing a hole. Experiments on OMEGA have recently been conducted for the purpose of developing data on radiation absorption and shock propagation through ignition relevant materials. Specifically, we have fabricated targets for these experiments to investigate radiation absorption and shock propagation in Be-Cu alloys. The challenges associated with these targets were fabrication and characterization of very thin Be

  18. Dispensing targets for ion beam particle generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A target for dispensing high energy protons or neutrons or ionized atoms or ionized molecules is provided which comprises a container for the target gas, which is at atmospheric or higher pressure. The container material can release the target gas in the spot where the container is heated above a predetermined temperature by the impact of an ion beam where protons or neutrons are desired, or by electrons where ionized atoms or molecules are desired. On the outside of the container, except for the region where the beam is to impact, there is deposited a layer of a metal which is imperious to gaseous diffusion. A further protective coating of a material is placed over the layer of metal, except at the region of the ion impact area in order to adsorb any unreacted gas in the vacuum in which the target is placed, to thereby prevent reduction of the high vacuum, as well as contamination of the interior of the vacuum chamber.

  19. Target Development for Radioactive Ion Beam Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronenberg, A.; Carter, H. K.; Stracener, D. W.; Bilheux, J. C.; Cizewski, J. A.; Koester, U.

    2004-10-01

    Development of ion beams of short-lived isotopes is crucial for modern nuclear structure and nuclear astrophysics. For example, ^82Ge,^130+xSn, ^92,94,95Sr beams are of interest but impurities and low intensities have prevented them from being useful. The code HSC-5 [1], with an extensive thermochemical database, predicts which chemical compounds may be transported within the target-ion source. The code also allows us to predict stability of target materials as function of temperature and pressure. So, a number of new targets have been fabricated and tested for use at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, based on the ISOL technique. Recent results from off-line and on-line tests at HRIBF and CERN-ISOLDE will be presented. This research was sponsored by the NNSA under Stewardship Science Academic Alliance program through DOE Cooperative Agreement # DE-FC03-3NA00143. [1] HSC Chemistry for Windows - Chemical Reaction and Equilibrium Software with extensive Thermochemical Database, Outokumpu Research Oy, Pori, Finnland

  20. Target Development for Radioactive Ion Beam Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronenberg, A.; Carter, H. K.; Stracener, D.; Bilheux, J.; Cizewski, J. A.; Koester, U.

    2004-11-01

    Development of ion beams of short-lived isotopes is crucial for modern nuclear structure and nuclear astrophysics. For example, ^82Ge, ^130+xSn, ^92,94,95Sr beams are of interest but impurities and low intensities have prevented them from being useful. The code HSC-5 [1], with an extensive thermochemical database predicts which chemical compounds may be transported within the target-ion source. The code also allows us to predict stability of target materials as function of temperature and pressure. So, a number of new targets have been fabricated and tested for use at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, based on the ISOL technique. Recent results from off-line and on-line tests at HRIBF and CERN-ISOLDE will be presented. This research was sponsored by the NNSA under Stewardship Science Academic Alliance program through DOE Cooperative Agreement # DE-FC03-3NA00143. [1] HSC Chemistry for Windows Chemical Reaction and Equilibrium Software with extensive Thermochemical Database, Outokumpu Research Oy, Pori, Finnland

  1. Two-color beam generation based on wakefield excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettoni, S.; Prat, E.; Reiche, S.

    2016-05-01

    Several beam manipulation methods have been studied and experimentally tested to generate two-color photon beams in free electron laser facilities to accommodate the user requests. We propose to use the interaction of the beam with an oscillating longitudinal wakefield source to obtain a suitable electron beam structure. The bunch generates two subpulses with different energies and delayed in time passing through a magnetic chicane after its longitudinal phase space has been modulated by the wakefield source. According to this approach the power of the emitted radiation is not degraded compared to the monochromatic beam, and the setup in the machine is quite simple because the bunch is manipulated only in the high energy section, where it is more rigid. We present the design applied to SwissFEL. We identified the parameters and the corresponding range of tunability of the time and energy separation among the two subbunches.

  2. High-Quality Ion Beam Generation in Laser Plasma Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagashima, Toshihiro; Takano, Masahiro; Izumiyzma, Takeshi; Barada, Daisuke; Kawata, Shigeo; Gu, Yan Jun; Kong, Qing; Xiao Wang, Ping; Ma, Yan Yun; Wang, Wei Min

    We focus on a control of generation of high-quality ion beam. In this study, near-critical density plasmas are employed and are illuminated by high intensity short laser pulses; we have successfully generated high-energy ions by multiple-stages acceleration. We performed particle-in-cell simulations in this paper. Near-critical density plasmas are employed at the proton source and also in the post acceleration. A beam bunching method is also proposed to control the ion beam length.

  3. Proton beam generation of whistler waves in the earth's foreshock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, H. K.; Goldstein, M. L.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that proton beams, often observed upstream of the earth's bow shock and associated with the generation of low-frequency hydromagnetic fluctuations, are also capable of generating whistler waves. The waves can be excited by an instability driven by two-temperature streaming Maxwellian proton distributions which have T (perpendicular)/T(parallel) much greater than 1. It can also be excited by gyrating proton beam distributions. These distributions generate whistler waves with frequencies ranging from 10 to 100 times the proton cyclotron frequency (in the solar wind reference frame) and provide another mechanism for generating the '1-Hz' waves often seen in the earth's foreshock.

  4. Particle beam generator using a radioactive source

    DOEpatents

    Underwood, D.G.

    1993-03-30

    The apparatus of the present invention selects from particles emitted by a radioactive source those particles having momentum within a desired range and focuses the selected particles in a beam having at least one narrow cross-dimension, and at the same time attenuates potentially disruptive gamma rays and low energy particles. Two major components of the present invention are an achromatic bending and focusing system, which includes sector magnets and quadrupole, and a quadrupole doublet final focus system. Permanent magnets utilized in the apparatus are constructed of a ceramic (ferrite) material which is inexpensive and easily machined.

  5. Particle beam generator using a radioactive source

    DOEpatents

    Underwood, David G.

    1993-01-01

    The apparatus of the present invention selects from particles emitted by a radioactive source those particles having momentum within a desired range and focuses the selected particles in a beam having at least one narrow cross-dimension, and at the same time attenuates potentially disruptive gamma rays and low energy particles. Two major components of the present invention are an achromatic bending and focusing system, which includes sector magnets and quadrupole, and a quadrupole doublet final focus system. Permanent magnets utilized in the apparatus are constructed of a ceramic (ferrite) material which is inexpensive and easily machined.

  6. Generation of filamentary structures by beam-plasma interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.Y.; Lin, Y.

    2006-05-15

    The previous simulations by Wang and Lin [Phys. Plasmas. 10, 3528 (2003)] showed that filaments, frequently observed in space plasmas, can form via the interaction between an ion beam and a background plasma. In this study, the physical mechanism for the generation of the filaments is investigated by a two-dimensional hybrid simulation, in which a field-aligned ion beam with relative beam density n{sub b}=0.1 and beam velocity V{sub b}=10V{sub A} is initiated in a uniform plasma. Right-hand nonresonant ion beam modes, consistent with the linear theory, are found to be dominant in the linear stage of the beam-plasma interaction. In the later nonlinear stage, the nonresonant modes decay and the resonant modes grow through a nonlinear wave coupling. The interaction among the resonant modes leads to the formation of filamentary structures, which are the field-aligned structures (k perpendicular B) of magnetic field B, density, and temperature in the final stage. The filaments are nonlinearly generated in a prey-predator fashion by the parallel and oblique resonant ion beam modes, which meanwhile evolve into two types of shear Alfven modes, with one mainly propagating along the background field B{sub 0} and the other obliquely propagating. The filamentary structures are found to be phase standing in the plasma frame, but their amplitude oscillates with time. In the dominant filament mode, fluctuations in the background ion density, background ion temperature, and beam density are in phase with the fluctuations in B, whereas the significantly enhanced beam temperature is antiphase with B. It is found that the filaments are produced by the interaction of at least two ion beam modes with comparable amplitudes, not by only one single mode, thus their generation mechanism is different from other mechanisms such as the stimulated excitation by the decay of an Alfven wave.

  7. Liquid-type cathode enabled by 3D sponge-like carbon nanotubes for high energy density and long cycling life of Li-S batteries.

    PubMed

    Pu, Xiong; Yang, Gang; Yu, Choongho

    2014-11-26

    High energy density and long-term stability of Li-S batteries are achieved by employing a 3D sponge-like carbon nanotube cathode and a liquid-type polysulfide catholyte. Carbon nanotubes not only provide excellent electron pathways and polysulfide reservoirs, but they can also be used as a standalone cathode without current collectors, which greatly alleviates problems arising from insulating sulfur and polysulfide shuttles as well as remarkably increasing the energy density.

  8. A new method for generating a hollow Gaussian beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Cun; Lu, Xingyuan; Wu, Gaofeng; Wang, Fei; Cai, Yangjian

    2014-04-01

    Hollow Gaussian beam (HGB) was introduced 10 years ago (Cai et al. in Opt Lett 28:1084, 2003). In this paper, we introduce a new method for generating a HGB through transforming a Laguerre-Gaussian beam with radial index 0 and azimuthal index l into a HGB with mode n = l/2. Furthermore, we report experimental generation of a HGB based on the proposed method, and we carry out experimental study of the focusing properties of the generated HGB. Our experimental results agree well with the theoretical predictions.

  9. Microstrip Antenna Generates Circularly Polarized Beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, J.

    1986-01-01

    Circular microstrip antenna excited with higher order transverse magnetic (TM) modes generates circularly polarized, conical radiation patterns. Found both theoretically and experimentally that peak direction of radiation pattern is varied within wide angular range by combination of mode selection and loading substrate with materials of different dielectric constants.

  10. Nonlinear generation of whistler waves by an ion beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akimoto, K.; Winske, D.

    1989-01-01

    An electromagnetic hybrid code is used to simulate a new mechanism for whistler wave generation by an ion beam. First, a field-aligned ion beam becomes unstable to the electromagnetic ion/ion right-hand resonant instability which generates large amplitude MHD-like waves. These waves then trap the ion beam and increase its effective temperature anisotropy. As a result, the growth rates of the electron/whistler instability are significantly enhanced, and whistlers start to grow above the noise level. At the same time, because of the reduced parallel drift speed of the ion beam, the frequencies of the whistlers are also downshifted. Full simulations were performed to isolate and separately investigate the electron/ion whistler instability. The results are in agreement with the assumption of fluid electrons in the hybrid simulations and with the linear theory of the instability.

  11. Necklace beam generation in nonlinear colloidal engineered media.

    PubMed

    Silahli, Salih Z; Walasik, Wiktor; Litchinitser, Natalia M

    2015-12-15

    Modulational instability is a phenomenon that reveals itself as the exponential growth of weak perturbations in the presence of an intense pump beam propagating in a nonlinear medium. It plays a key role in such nonlinear optical processes as supercontinuum generation, light filamentation, rogue waves, and ring (or necklace) beam formation. To date, a majority of studies of these phenomena have focused on light-matter interactions in self-focusing Kerr media existing in nature. However, a large and tunable nonlinear response of a colloidal suspension can be tailored at will by judiciously engineering the optical polarizability. Here, we analytically and numerically show the possibility of necklace beam generation originating from spatial modulational instability of vortex beams in engineered soft-matter nonlinear media with different types of exponential nonlinearity. PMID:26670494

  12. Beam-generated upper hybrid noise in Jupiter's outer magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, D. D.; Kurth, W. S.

    1990-06-01

    A model for generation of upper hybrid waves in Jupiter's outer magnetosphere is presented. Energetic electrons accelerated on high-latitude auroral field lines at 1 R(J) altitudes are assumed to stream outwards to the distant magnetosphere. The large decrease in the local magnetic field strength results in a highly collimated, field-aligned electron beam due to conservation of the particle's magnetic moment. As the beam travels outward it passes through the plasma sheet boundary layer region located on the edges of the plasma sheet. Because of the large field-aligned anisotropy of the beam, the distribution is unstable to the excitation of the upper hybrid waves which amplify and then undergo mode conversion at the f(p) layer to generate the Jovian continuum radiation. A novel feature of the model is the beam-anisotropic heat flux instability which drives UH waves unstable without the need for any positive slope on the electron distribution function.

  13. Electron Beam Collimation for the Next Generation Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Steier, C.; Emma, P.; Nishimura, H.; Papadopoulos, C.; Sannibale, F.

    2013-05-20

    The Next Generation Light Source will deliver high (MHz) repetition rate electron beams to an array of free electron lasers. Because of the significant average current in such a facility, effective beam collimation is extremely important to minimize radiation damage to undulators, prevent quenches of superconducting cavities, limit dose rates outside of the accelerator tunnel and prevent equipment damage. This paper describes the early conceptual design of a collimation system, as well as initial results of simulations to test its effectiveness.

  14. Theoretical studies of a molecular beam generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinbockel, John H.

    1993-01-01

    The following is a proposed baseline model that is being developed for the simulation of hydrodynamic generator, which can be converted at a later date to magnetohydrodynamic MHD thruster by adding the necessary electric and magnetic fields. The following development will include the electric and magnetic terms, however, the initial computer program will not include these terms. The analysis that follows is a one species, single temperature model constructed over a domain that is defined by an enclosed region.

  15. Conceptual Design of Electron-Beam Generated Plasma Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Ankur; Rauf, Shahid; Dorf, Leonid; Collins, Ken; Boris, David; Walton, Scott

    2015-09-01

    Realization of the next generation of high-density nanostructured devices is predicated on etching features with atomic layer resolution, no damage and high selectivity. High energy electron beams generate plasmas with unique features that make them attractive for applications requiring monolayer precision. In these plasmas, high energy beam electrons ionize the background gas and the resultant daughter electrons cool to low temperatures via collisions with gas molecules and lack of any accelerating fields. For example, an electron temperature of <0.6 eV with densities comparable to conventional plasma sources can be obtained in molecular gases. The chemistry in such plasmas can significantly differ from RF plasmas as the ions/radicals are produced primarily by beam electrons rather than those in the tail of a low energy distribution. In this work, we will discuss the conceptual design of an electron beam based plasma processing system. Plasma properties will be discussed for Ar, Ar/N2, and O2 plasmas using a computational plasma model, and comparisons made to experiments. The fluid plasma model is coupled to a Monte Carlo kinetic model for beam electrons which considers gas phase collisions and the effect of electric and magnetic fields on electron motion. The impact of critical operating parameters such as magnetic field, beam energy, and gas pressure on plasma characteristics in electron-beam plasma processing systems will be discussed. Partially supported by the NRL base program.

  16. Simplified Generation of High-Angular-Momentum Light Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Maleki, Lute; Matsko, Andrey; Strekalov, Dmitry; Grudinin, Ivan

    2007-01-01

    A simplified method of generating a beam of light having a relatively high value of angular momentum (see figure) involves the use of a compact apparatus consisting mainly of a laser, a whispering- gallery-mode (WGM) resonator, and optical fibers. The method also can be used to generate a Bessel beam. ( Bessel beam denotes a member of a class of non-diffracting beams, so named because their amplitudes are proportional to Bessel functions of the radii from their central axes. High-order Bessel beams can have high values of angular momentum.) High-angular-momentum light beams are used in some applications in biology and nanotechnology, wherein they are known for their ability to apply torque to make microscopic objects rotate. High-angular-momentum light beams could also be used to increase bandwidths of fiber-optic communication systems. The present simplified method of generating a high-angular-momentum light beam was conceived as an alternative to prior such methods, which are complicated and require optical setups that include, variously, holograms, modulating Fabry-Perot cavities, or special microstructures. The present simplified method exploits a combination of the complex structure of the electromagnetic field inside a WGM resonator, total internal reflection in the WGM resonator, and the electromagnetic modes supported by an optical fiber. The optical fiber used to extract light from the WGM resonator is made of fused quartz. The output end of this fiber is polished flat and perpendicular to the fiber axis. The input end of this fiber is cut on a slant and placed very close to the WGM resonator at an appropriate position and orientation. To excite the resonant whispering- gallery modes, light is introduced into the WGM resonator via another optical fiber that is part of a pigtailed fiber-optic coupler. Light extracted from the WGM resonator is transformed into a high-angular- momentum beam inside the extraction optical fiber and this beam is emitted from the

  17. Development and characterization of high temperature, high energy density dielectric materials to establish routes towards power electronics capacitive devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shay, Dennis P.

    The maximum electrostatic energy density of a capacitor is a function of the relative permittivity (epsilonr) and the square of the dielectric breakdown strength (Eb). Currently, state-of-the art high temperature (>200 °C), SiC-based power electronics utilize CaZrO3-rich NP0/C0G-type capacitors, which have low relative permittivities of epsilonr ˜ 30-40, high breakdown strengths (> 1.0 MV/cm), and are chosen for their minimal change in energy storage with temperature. However, with operating temperatures exceeding the rated temperatures for such capacitors, there is an opportunity to develop new dielectric ceramics having higher energy densities and volumetric efficiencies at high temperatures (>200 °C) by utilizing higher permittivity dielectrics while maintaining high breakdown strengths via doping. The solid solution behavior of was characterized in order to determine the optimal composition for balancing permittivity and dielectric breakdown strength to obtain high energy densities at elevated temperatures. Characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed Vegard's law behavior across the solid solution with minimal 2nd phases. To determine a Ca(TixZr1-x)O3 composition that will also minimize electronic or band conduction, the optical properties of the Ca(TixZr1-x)O3 solid solution were investigated to identify a composition on the CaTiO3 - rich end of the solid solution with a large band gap. Both ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and spectroscopic ellipsometry were utilized to determine the Ca(TixZr1-x)O3 band gaps and optical properties. The resistivity at 250 °C scaled with the band gap energy across the solid solution. Comparing the current-voltage (I--V) behavior at 250 °C for Ca(Tix-yMnyZr0.2)O3 (CTZ + Mn) where x = 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, and y = 0.005, it was found that the Ca(Ti 0.795Mn0.005Zr0.2)O3 composition showed the lowest current density and a decrease in current density of 5 orders of magnitude compared to the un

  18. Ion Beam Analysis of Targets Used in Controlatron Neutron Generators

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, James C.; Doyle, Barney L.; Walla, Lisa A.; Walsh, David S.

    2009-03-10

    Controlatron neutron generators are used for testing neutron detection systems at Sandia National Laboratories. To provide for increased tube lifetimes for the moderate neutron flux output of these generators, metal hydride (ZrT{sub 2}) target fabrication processes have been developed. To provide for manufacturing quality control of these targets, ion beam analysis techniques are used to determine film composition. The load ratios (i.e. T/Zr concentration ratios) of ZrT{sub 2} Controlatron neutron generator targets have been successfully measured by simultaneously acquiring RBS and ERD data using a He{sup ++} beam energy of 10 MeV. Several targets were measured and the film thicknesses obtained from RBS measurements agreed within {+-}2% with Dektak profilometer measurements. The target fabrication process and ion beam analysis techniques will be presented.

  19. The generation of proton beams in two-ribbon flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martens, P. C. H.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that, in the current sheet at the top of the arcade of postflare loops in a two-ribbon solar flare, particle beams are generated by direct electric-field acceleration. The acceleration process is completely collisionless and is limited only by the gyromotion along the component of the magnetic field perpendicular to the sheet. This mechanism is similar to the particle acceleration in the geomagnetic tail. Neutral beams emanate from the sheet with almost zero pitch angle, making protons the main carriers of the beam energy. Approximately 10 to the 35th protons/sec are generated with a typical energy of 200 keV. Their energy distribution is a single power law, with an upper and lower energy cut-off. Such a population is capable of simultaneously generating the observed impulsive-phase hard X-rays and the gamma rays.

  20. Angular-momentum-dominated electron beams and flat-beam generation

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yin-e

    2005-06-01

    In the absence of external forces, if the dynamics within an electron beam is dominated by its angular momentum rather than other effects such as random thermal motion or self Coulomb-repulsive force (i.e., space-charge force), the beam is said to be angular-momentum-dominated. Such a beam can be directly applied to the field of electron-cooling of heavy ions; or it can be manipulated into an electron beam with large transverse emittance ratio, i.e., a flat beam. A flat beam is of interest for high-energy electron-positron colliders or accelerator-based light sources. An angular-momentum-dominated beam is generated at the Fermilab/NICADD photoinjector Laboratory (FNPL) and is accelerated to an energy of 16 MeV. The properties of such a beam is investigated systematically in experiment. The experimental results are in very good agreement with analytical expectations and simulation results. This lays a good foundation for the transformation of an angular-momentum-dominated beam into a flat beam. The round-to-flat beam transformer is composed of three skew quadrupoles. Based on a good knowledge of the angular-momentum-dominated beam, the quadrupoles are set to the proper strengths in order to apply a total torque which removes the angular momentum, resulting in a flat beam. For bunch charge around 0.5 nC, an emittance ratio of 100 ± 5 was measured, with the smaller normalized root-mean-square emittance around 0.4 mm-mrad. Effects limiting the flat-beam emittance ratio are investigated, such as the chromatic effects in the round-to-flat beam transformer, asymmetry in the initial angular-momentum-dominated beam, and space-charge effects. The most important limiting factor turns out to be the uncorrelated emittance growth caused by space charge when the beam energy is low, for example, in the rf gun area. As a result of such emittance growth prior to the round-to-flat beam transformer, the emittance ratio achievable in simulation decreases from orders of thousands to

  1. Beam Echo Effect for Generation of Short-Wavelength Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Stupakov, G.; /SLAC

    2009-12-09

    The Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation (EEHG) FEL uses two modulators in combination with two dispersion sections to generate a high-harmonic density modulation starting with a relatively small initial energy modulation of the beam. After presenting the concept of the EEHG, we address several practically important issues, such as the effect of coherent and incoherent synchrotron radiation in the dispersion sections. Using a representative realistic set of beam parameters, we show how the EEHG scheme enhances the FEL performance and allows one to generate a fully (both longitudinally and transversely) coherent radiation. We then discuss application of the echo modulation for generation of attosecond pulses of radiation, and also using echo for generation of terahertz radiation. We present main parameters of a proof-of-principle experiment currently being planned at SLAC for demonstration of the echo modulation mechanism.

  2. Elongated optical bottle beams generated by composite binary axicons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porfirev, A. P.; Skidanov, R. V.

    2016-04-01

    We provide analytical, numerical and experimental study of the possibility of forming elongated optical bottle beams (OBBs) using composite binary phase axicons. In this case, the OBB is generated by the superposition of Bessel beams in the near-field region on the axicon. To generate the OBB experimentally, we utilized a spatial light modulator. The experimental results are qualitatively consistent with the results of numerical simulations performed using Fresnel transform. Such type of optical trap can be applied in many applications of microbiology, micromechanics and meteorology to manipulate micro- and nanoobjects in liquid or gaseous medium.

  3. Surface relief structures for multiple beam LO generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veldkamp, W. B.

    1980-01-01

    Linear and binary holograms for use in heterodyne detection with 10.6 micron imaging arrays are described. The devices match the amplitude and phase of the local oscillator to the received signal and thus maximize the system signal to noise ratio and resolution and minimize heat generation on the focal plane. In both the linear and binary approaches, the holographic surface-relief pattern is coded to generate a set of local oscillator beams when the relief pattern is illuminated by a single planewave. Each beam of this set has the same amplitude shape distribution as, and is collinear with, each single element wavefront illuminating array.

  4. Harmonic generation by circularly polarized laser beams propagating in plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, Ekta; Hemlata,; Jha, Pallavi

    2015-04-15

    An analytical theory is developed for studying the phenomenon of generation of harmonics by the propagation of an obliquely incident, circularly polarized laser beam in homogeneous, underdense plasma. The amplitudes of second and third harmonic radiation as well as detuning distance have been obtained and their variation with the angle of incidence is analyzed. The amplitude of harmonic radiation increases with the angle of incidence while the detuning distance decreases, for a given plasma electron density. It is observed that the generated second and third harmonic radiation is linearly and elliptically polarized, respectively. The harmonic radiation vanishes at normal incidence of the circularly polarized laser beam.

  5. Generating High-Brightness Light Ion Beams for Inertial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.G.; Bailey, J.E.; Cuneno, M.E.; Desjarlais, M.P.; Filuk, A.B.; Hanson, D.L.; Johnson, D.J.; Mehlohorn, T.A.; Menge, P.R.; Olson, C.L.; Pointon, T.D. Slutz, S.A.; Vesey, R.A.; Welch, D.R.; Wenger, D.F.

    1998-10-22

    Light ion beams may be the best option for an Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) driver from the standpoint of ei%ciency, standoff, rep-rate operation and cost. This approach uses high-energy-density pulsed power to efficiently accelerate ions in one or two stages at fields of 0.5 to 1.0 GV/m to produce a medium energy (30 MeV), high-current (1 MA) beam of light ions, such as lithium. Ion beams provide the ability for medium distance transport (4 m) of the ions to the target, and standofl of the driver from high- yield implosions. Rep-rate operation of' high current ion sources has ako been demonstrated for industrial applications and couId be applied to IFE. Although (hese factors make light ions the best Iong-teml pulsed- power approach to IFE, light-ion research is being suspended this year in favor of a Z-pinch-driven approach which has the best opport lnity to most-rapidly achieve the U.S. Department of Energy sponsor's goal of high-yield fusion. This paper will summarize the status and most recent results of the light-ion beam program at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and document the prospects of light ions for future IFE driver development.

  6. Fast ion beam chopping system for neutron generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahto, S. K.; Hahto, S. T.; Leung, K. N.; Reijonen, J.; Miller, T. G.; Van Staagen, P. K.

    2005-02-01

    Fast deuterium (D+) and tritium (T+) ion beam pulses are needed in some neutron-based imaging systems. A compact, integrated fast ion beam extraction and chopping system has been developed and tested at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory for these applications, and beam pulses with 15ns full width at half maximum have been achieved. Computer simulations together with experimental tests indicate that even faster pulses are achievable by shortening the chopper voltage rise time. This chopper arrangement will be implemented in a coaxial neutron generator, in which a small point-like neutron source is created by multiple 120keV D+ ion beams hitting a titanium target at the center of the source.

  7. Fast ion beam chopping system for neutron generators

    SciTech Connect

    Hahto, S.K.; Hahto, S.T.; Leung, K.N.; Reijonen, J.; Miller, T.G.; Van Staagen, P.K.

    2005-02-01

    Fast deuterium (D{sup +}) and tritium (T{sup +}) ion beam pulses are needed in some neutron-based imaging systems. A compact, integrated fast ion beam extraction and chopping system has been developed and tested at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory for these applications, and beam pulses with 15 ns full width at half maximum have been achieved. Computer simulations together with experimental tests indicate that even faster pulses are achievable by shortening the chopper voltage rise time. This chopper arrangement will be implemented in a coaxial neutron generator, in which a small point-like neutron source is created by multiple 120 keV D{sup +} ion beams hitting a titanium target at the center of the source.

  8. Propagation model for vector beams generated by metasurfaces.

    PubMed

    Shu, Weixing; Liu, Yachao; Ke, Yougang; Ling, Xiaohui; Liu, Zhenxing; Huang, Bin; Luo, Hailu; Yin, Xiaobo

    2016-09-01

    A propagation model of vector beams generated by metasurfaces based on vector diffraction theory is established theoretically and verified experimentally. Considering the Pancharatnam-Berry phase introduced by the metasurface, analytical forms of vector beams for arbitrary incident polarization and topological charge of metasurfaces are found in the Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction regions, respectively. The complex amplitude of the resultant vector beam can be described in terms of a confluent hypergeometric function, with an intensity profile that manifests concentric rings in the Fresnel region and a single ring in the Fraunhofer one. Fraunhofer diffraction provides a method to create vector beams with simultaneously high purity and modal power. Further experiments verify the theoretical results.

  9. Propagation model for vector beams generated by metasurfaces.

    PubMed

    Shu, Weixing; Liu, Yachao; Ke, Yougang; Ling, Xiaohui; Liu, Zhenxing; Huang, Bin; Luo, Hailu; Yin, Xiaobo

    2016-09-01

    A propagation model of vector beams generated by metasurfaces based on vector diffraction theory is established theoretically and verified experimentally. Considering the Pancharatnam-Berry phase introduced by the metasurface, analytical forms of vector beams for arbitrary incident polarization and topological charge of metasurfaces are found in the Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction regions, respectively. The complex amplitude of the resultant vector beam can be described in terms of a confluent hypergeometric function, with an intensity profile that manifests concentric rings in the Fresnel region and a single ring in the Fraunhofer one. Fraunhofer diffraction provides a method to create vector beams with simultaneously high purity and modal power. Further experiments verify the theoretical results. PMID:27607720

  10. On-chip generation and control of the vortex beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Aiping; Zou, Chang-Ling; Ren, Xifeng; Wang, Qin; Guo, Guang-Can

    2016-05-01

    A method to generate and control the amplitude and phase distributions of an optical vortex beam is proposed. By introducing a holographic grating on the top of a dielectric waveguide, the free space vortex beam and the in-plane guiding wave can be converted to each other. This microscale holographic grating is very robust against the variation of geometry parameters. The designed vortex beam generator can produce the target beam with a fidelity up to 0.93, and the working bandwidth is about 175 nm with the fidelity larger than 0.80. In addition, a multiple generator composed of two holographic gratings on two parallel waveguides is studied, which can perform an effective and flexible modulation on the vortex beam by controlling the phase of the input light. Our work opens an available avenue towards the integrated orbital angular momentum devices with multiple degrees of optical freedom, which can be used for optical tweezers, micronano imaging, information processing, and so on.

  11. Millimeter-wave generation with spiraling electron beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulke, B.

    1971-01-01

    The feasibility of using the interaction between a thin, solid, spiraling electron beam of 10 to 20 kV energy and a microwave cavity to generate watts of CW millimeter-wave power was investigated. Experimental results are given for several prototype devices operating at 9.4 GHz and at 94 GHz. Power outputs of 5 W, and electronic efficiencies near 3%, were obtained at X band, and moderate gain was obtained at 94 GHz. The small-signal theory gives a good fit to the X-band data, and the device behavior at 94 GHz is as expected from the given beam characteristics. The performance is limited chiefly by the velocity spread in the spiraling electron beam, and once this can be brought under control, high-power generation of millimeter waves appears quite feasible with this type of device.

  12. Red beam generation based on aperiodically poled lithium niobate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figen, Ziya Gürkan; Akın, Onur

    2014-04-01

    We propose a novel device with a simple architecture for high-power red beam generation. The device is an optical parametric generator based on an aperiodically poled LiNbO3 grating in which both the optical parametric amplification and sum frequency generation processes are simultaneously phase matched. The pump is a quasi-continuous-wave laser operating at 1064 nm. Aperiodic gratings which enable simultaneous phase matching of the two processes were designed using a method that gives the flexibility to adjust the relative strength of these two processes. A model that takes the diffraction of the beams into account was developed to characterize the red beam generation performance of the device depending on the parameters: the relative strength of these processes, the length of the crystal, the average pump power, and the pump beam waist radius. If one uses the 2-D Fourier transform in the solution of the coupled-mode equations, the computation power required for performing such a characterization on a personal computer is prohibitively large. Owing to the circular symmetry of the system, we employ the Hankel transform to overcome this bottleneck.

  13. The National Ignition Facility: Status and Plans for Laser Fusion and High-Energy-Density Experimental Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, E I

    2002-01-11

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), currently under construction at the University of California's Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is a $2.25B stadium-sized facility containing a 192-beam, 1.8-Megajoule, 500-Terawatt, 351-nm laser system. NIF is being built by the National Nuclear Security Agency and when completed will be the world's largest laser system, providing a national center to study inertial confinement fusion and the physics of extreme energy densities and pressures. In NIF up to 192 energetic laser beams will compress small fusion targets to conditions where they will ignite and burn, liberating more energy than is required to initiate the fusion reactions. NIF experiments will allow the study of physical processes at temperatures approaching 100 million K and 100 billion times atmospheric pressure. These conditions exist naturally only in the interior of stars and in nuclear weapons explosions. In the course of designing the world's most energetic laser system, a number of significant technology breakthroughs have been achieved. Research is also underway to develop a shorter pulse capability on NIF for high power applications. We discuss here the technology challenges and solutions that have made NIF possible along with enhancements to NIF's design that could lead to exawatt power levels.

  14. The National Ignition Facility: Status and Plans for Laser Fusion and High-Energy-Density Experimental Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, E I; Wuest, C R

    2002-10-16

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), currently under construction at the University of California's Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, is a stadium-sized facility containing a 192-beam, 1.8-Megajoule, 500-Terawatt, 351-nm laser system and a 10-meter diameter target chamber with room for nearly 100 experimental diagnostics. NIF is being built by the National Nuclear Security Administration and when completed will be the world's largest laser experimental system, providing a national center to study inertial confinement fusion and the physics of matter at extreme energy densities and pressures. NIF will provide 192 energetic laser beams that will compress small fusion targets to conditions where they will ignite and burn, liberating more energy than is required to initiate the fusion reactions. NIF experiments will allow the study of physical processes at temperatures approaching 100 million K and 100 billion times atmospheric pressure. These conditions exist naturally only in the interior of stars and in nuclear weapons explosions. In the course of designing the world's most energetic laser system, a number of significant technology breakthroughs have been achieved. Research is also underway to develop a shorter pulse capability on NIF for very high power and extreme electromagnetic field research and applications. We discuss here the technology challenges and solutions that have made NIF possible, along with enhancements to NIF's design that could lead to near-exawatt power levels.

  15. Fast slit-beam extraction and chopping for neutron generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvas, T.; Hahto, S. K.; Gicquel, F.; King, M.; Vainionpää, J. H.; Reijonen, J.; Leung, K. N.; Miller, T. G.

    2006-03-01

    High-intensity fast white neutron pulses are needed for pulsed fast neutron transmission spectroscopy (PFNTS). A compact tritium-tritium fusion reaction neutron generator with an integrated ion beam chopping system has been designed, simulated, and tested for PFNTS. The design consists of a toroidal plasma chamber with 20 extraction slits, concentric cylindrical electrodes, chopper plates, and a central titanium-coated beam target. The total ion beam current is 1A. The beam chopping is done at 30keV energy with a parallel-plate deflector integrated with an Einzel lens. Beam pulses with 5ns width can be achieved with a 15ns rise/fall time ±1500V sweep on the chopper plates. The neutrons are produced at 120keV energy. A three-dimensional simulation code based on Vlasov iteration was developed for simulating the ion optics of this system. The results with this code were found to be consistent with other simulation codes. So far we have measured 50ns ion beam pulses from the system.

  16. Fast slit-beam extraction and chopping for neutron generator

    SciTech Connect

    Kalvas, T.; Hahto, S.K.; Gicquel, F.; King, M.; Vainionpaeae, J.H.; Reijonen, J.; Leung, K.N.; Miller, T.G.

    2006-03-15

    High-intensity fast white neutron pulses are needed for pulsed fast neutron transmission spectroscopy (PFNTS). A compact tritium-tritium fusion reaction neutron generator with an integrated ion beam chopping system has been designed, simulated, and tested for PFNTS. The design consists of a toroidal plasma chamber with 20 extraction slits, concentric cylindrical electrodes, chopper plates, and a central titanium-coated beam target. The total ion beam current is 1 A. The beam chopping is done at 30 keV energy with a parallel-plate deflector integrated with an Einzel lens. Beam pulses with 5 ns width can be achieved with a 15 ns rise/fall time {+-}1500 V sweep on the chopper plates. The neutrons are produced at 120 keV energy. A three-dimensional simulation code based on Vlasov iteration was developed for simulating the ion optics of this system. The results with this code were found to be consistent with other simulation codes. So far we have measured 50 ns ion beam pulses from the system.

  17. Fast fall-time ion beam in neutron generators

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Q.; Kwan, J.; Regis, M.; Wu, Y.; Wilde, S.B.; Wallig, J.

    2008-08-10

    Ion beam with a fast fall time is useful in building neutron generators for the application of detecting hidden, gamma-shielded SNM using differential die-away (DDA) technique. Typically a fall time of less than 1 {micro}s can't be achieved by just turning off the power to the ion source due to the slow decay of plasma density (partly determined by the fall time of the RF power in the circuit). In this paper, we discuss the method of using an array of mini-apertures (instead of one large aperture beam) such that gating the beamlets can be done with low voltage and a small gap. This geometry minimizes the problem of voltage breakdown as well as reducing the time of flight to produce fast gating. We have designed and fabricated an array of 16 apertures (4 x 4) for a beam extraction experiment. Using a gating voltage of 1400 V and a gap distance of 1 mm, the fall time of extracted ion beam pulses is less than 1 {micro}s at various beam energies ranging between 400 eV to 800 eV. Usually merging an array of beamlets suffers the loss of beam brightness, i.e., emittance growth, but that is not an important issue for neutron source applications.

  18. Generating AN Optimum Treatment Plan for External Beam Radiation Therapy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabus, Irwin

    1990-01-01

    The application of linear programming to the generation of an optimum external beam radiation treatment plan is investigated. MPSX, an IBM linear programming software package was used. All data originated from the CAT scan of an actual patient who was treated for a pancreatic malignant tumor before this study began. An examination of several alternatives for representing the cross section of the patient showed that it was sufficient to use a set of strategically placed points in the vital organs and tumor and a grid of points spaced about one half inch apart for the healthy tissue. Optimum treatment plans were generated from objective functions representing various treatment philosophies. The optimum plans were based on allowing for 216 external radiation beams which accounted for wedges of any size. A beam reduction scheme then reduced the number of beams in the optimum plan to a number of beams small enough for implementation. Regardless of the objective function, the linear programming treatment plan preserved about 95% of the patient's right kidney vs. 59% for the plan the hospital actually administered to the patient. The clinician, on the case, found most of the linear programming treatment plans to be superior to the hospital plan. An investigation was made, using parametric linear programming, concerning any possible benefits derived from generating treatment plans based on objective functions made up of convex combinations of two objective functions, however, this proved to have only limited value. This study also found, through dual variable analysis, that there was no benefit gained from relaxing some of the constraints on the healthy regions of the anatomy. This conclusion was supported by the clinician. Finally several schemes were found that, under certain conditions, can further reduce the number of beams in the final linear programming treatment plan.

  19. Generation of subnanosecond electron beams in air at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostyrya, I. D.; Tarasenko, V. F.; Baksht, E. Kh.; Burachenko, A. G.; Lomaev, M. I.; Rybka, D. V.

    2009-11-01

    Optimum conditions for the generation of runaway electron beams with maximum current amplitudes and densities in nanosecond pulsed discharges in air at atmospheric pressure are determined. A supershort avalanche electron beam (SAEB) with a current amplitude of ˜30 A, a current density of ˜20 A/cm2, and a pulse full width at half maximum (FWHM) of ˜100 ps has been observed behind the output foil of an air-filled diode. It is shown that the position of the SAEB current maximum relative to the voltage pulse front exhibits a time shift that varies when the small-size collector is moved over the foil surface.

  20. Generation of Bessel beam arrays through Dammann gratings.

    PubMed

    García-Martínez, Pascuala; Sánchez-López, María M; Davis, Jeffrey A; Cottrell, Don M; Sand, David; Moreno, Ignacio

    2012-03-20

    In this work we apply the Dammann grating concept to generate an equal-intensity square array of Bessel quasi-free diffraction beams that diverge from a common center. We generate a binary phase mask that combines the axicon phase with the phase of a Dammann grating. The procedure can be extended to include vortex spiral phases that generate an array of optical pipes. Experimental results are provided by means of a twisted nematic liquid crystal display operating as a binary π phase spatial light modulator. PMID:22441485

  1. Study of extreme states of matter at high energy densities and high strain rates with powerful lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasyuk, I. K.; Pashinin, P. P.; Semenov, A. Yu; Khishchenko, K. V.; Fortov, V. E.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a review of the most important results of the experimental studies of thermonuclear plasma in conical targets, the generation of shock waves and of spallation phenomena in different materials is presented, all of which have been carried out at the laser facilities of the A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute RAS since 1977.

  2. Radiation sources with planar wire arrays and planar foils for inertial confinement fusion and high energy density physics research

    SciTech Connect

    Kantsyrev, V. L.; Safronova, A. S.; Esaulov, A. A.; Shrestha, I.; Astanovitsky, A.; Osborne, G. C.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.; Weller, M. E.; Keim, S.; Stafford, A.; Cooper, M.; Chuvatin, A. S.; Rudakov, L. I.; Velikovich, A. L.

    2014-03-15

    This article reports on the joint success of two independent lines of research, each of them being a multi-year international effort. One of these is the development of innovative sources, such as planar wire arrays (PWAs). PWAs turned out to be a prolific radiator, which act mainly as a resistor, even though the physical mechanism of efficient magnetic energy conversion into radiation still remains unclear. We review the results of our extensive studies of PWAs. We also report the new results of the experimental comparison PWAs with planar foil liners (another promising alternative to wire array loads at multi-mega-ampere generators). Pioneered at UNR, the PWA Z-pinch loads have later been tested at the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) on the Saturn generator, on GIT-12 machine in Russia, and on the QiangGuang-1 generator in China, always successfully. Another of these is the drastic improvement in energy efficiency of pulsed-power systems, which started in early 1980s with Zucker's experiments at Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). Successful continuation of this approach was the Load Current Multiplier (LCM) proposed by Chuvatin in collaboration with Rudakov and Weber from NRL. The 100 ns LCM was integrated into the Zebra generator, which almost doubled the plasma load current, from 0.9 to 1.7 MA. The two above-mentioned innovative approaches were used in combination to produce a new compact hohlraum radiation source for ICF, as jointly proposed by SNL and UNR [Jones et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 125001 (2010)]. The first successful proof-of-the-principle experimental implementation of new hohlraum concept at university-scale generator Zebra/LCM is demonstrated. A numerical simulation capability with VisRaD code (from PRISM Co.) established at UNR allowed for the study of hohlraum coupling physics and provides the possibility of optimization of a new hohlraum. Future studies are discussed.

  3. A green and high energy density asymmetric supercapacitor based on ultrathin MnO2 nanostructures and functional mesoporous carbon nanotube electrodes.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hao; Li, Chunzhong; Sun, Ting; Ma, Jan

    2012-02-01

    A green asymmetric supercapacitor with high energy density has been developed using birnessite-type ultrathin porous MnO(2) nanoflowers (UBMNFs) as positive electrode and functional mesoporous carbon nanotubes (FMCNTs) as negative electrode in 1 M Na(2)SO(4) electrolyte. Both of the electrode materials possess excellent electrochemical performances, with high surface areas and narrow pore size distributions. More significantly, the assembled asymmetric supercapacitor with optimal mass ratio can be cycled reversibly in the high-potential range of 0-2.0 V and exhibits an excellent energy density as high as 47.4 W h kg(-1), which is much higher than those of symmetric supercapacitors based on UBMNFs//UBMNFs and FMCNTs//FMCNTs supercapacitors. Furthermore, our asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) device also exhibits a superior cycling stability with 90% retention of the initial specific capacitance after 1000 cycles and stable Coulombic efficiency of ~98%. These intriguing results exhibit great potential in developing high energy density "green supercapacitors" for practical applications.

  4. Ultra high energy density nanocomposite capacitors with fast discharge using Ba0.2Sr0.8TiO3 nanowires.

    PubMed

    Tang, Haixiong; Sodano, Henry A

    2013-04-10

    Nanocomposites combining a high breakdown strength polymer and high dielectric permittivity ceramic filler have shown great potential for pulsed power applications. However, while current nanocomposites improve the dielectric permittivity of the capacitor, the gains come at the expense of the breakdown strength, which limits the ultimate performance of the capacitor. Here, we develop a new synthesis method for the growth of barium strontium titanate nanowires and demonstrate their use in ultra high energy density nanocomposites. This new synthesis process provides a facile approach to the growth of high aspect ratio nanowires with high yield and control over the stoichiometry of the solid solution. The nanowires are grown in the cubic phase with a Ba0.2Sr0.8TiO3 composition and have not been demonstrated prior to this report. The poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanocomposites resulting from this approach have high breakdown strength and high dielectric permittivity which results from the use of high aspect ratio fillers rather than equiaxial particles. The nanocomposites are shown to have an ultra high energy density of 14.86 J/cc at 450 MV/m and provide microsecond discharge time quicker than commercial biaxial oriented polypropylene capacitors. The energy density of our nanocomposites exceeds those reported in the literature for ceramic/polymer composites and is 1138% greater than the reported commercial capacitor with energy density of 1.2 J/cc at 640 MV/m for the current state of the art biaxial oriented polypropylene.

  5. Higher harmonics generation in relativistic electron beam with virtual cathode

    SciTech Connect

    Kurkin, S. A. Badarin, A. A.; Koronovskii, A. A.; Hramov, A. E.

    2014-09-15

    The study of the microwave generation regimes with intense higher harmonics taking place in a high-power vircator consisting of a relativistic electron beam with a virtual cathode has been made. The characteristics of these regimes, in particular, the typical spectra and their variations with the change of the system parameters (beam current, the induction of external magnetic field) as well as physical processes occurring in the system have been analyzed by means of 3D electromagnetic simulation. It has been shown that the system under study demonstrates the tendency to the sufficient growth of the amplitudes of higher harmonics in the spectrum of current oscillations in the VC region with the increase of beam current. The obtained results allow us to consider virtual cathode oscillators as promising high power mmw-to-THz sources.

  6. Higher harmonics generation in relativistic electron beam with virtual cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurkin, S. A.; Badarin, A. A.; Koronovskii, A. A.; Hramov, A. E.

    2014-09-01

    The study of the microwave generation regimes with intense higher harmonics taking place in a high-power vircator consisting of a relativistic electron beam with a virtual cathode has been made. The characteristics of these regimes, in particular, the typical spectra and their variations with the change of the system parameters (beam current, the induction of external magnetic field) as well as physical processes occurring in the system have been analyzed by means of 3D electromagnetic simulation. It has been shown that the system under study demonstrates the tendency to the sufficient growth of the amplitudes of higher harmonics in the spectrum of current oscillations in the VC region with the increase of beam current. The obtained results allow us to consider virtual cathode oscillators as promising high power mmw-to-THz sources.

  7. Disruption of Particle Detector Electronics by Beam Generated EMI

    SciTech Connect

    Bower, G.; Sugimoto, Y.; Sinev, N.; Arnold, R.; Woods, M.; /SLAC

    2007-06-27

    The possibility that radio frequency beam generated electromagnetic interference (EMI) could disrupt the operation of particle detector electronics has been of some concern since the inception of short pulse electron colliders more than 30 years ago [1]. Some instances have been reported where this may have occurred but convincing evidence has not been available. This possibility is of concern for the International Linear Collider (ILC). We have conducted test beam studies demonstrating that electronics disruption does occur using the vertex detector electronics (VXD) from the SLD detector which took data at the SLC at SLAC. We present the results of those tests, and we describe the need for EMI standards for beam and detector instrumentation in the IR region at the ILC.

  8. A method for generating double-ring-shaped vector beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huan, Chen; Xiao-Hui, Ling; Zhi-Hong, Chen; Qian-Guang, Li; Hao, Lv; Hua-Qing, Yu; Xu-Nong, Yi

    2016-07-01

    We propose a method for generating double-ring-shaped vector beams. A step phase introduced by a spatial light modulator (SLM) first makes the incident laser beam have a nodal cycle. This phase is dynamic in nature because it depends on the optical length. Then a Pancharatnam–Berry phase (PBP) optical element is used to manipulate the local polarization of the optical field by modulating the geometric phase. The experimental results show that this scheme can effectively create double-ring-shaped vector beams. It provides much greater flexibility to manipulate the phase and polarization by simultaneously modulating the dynamic and the geometric phases. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11547017), the Hubei Engineering University Research Foundation, China (Grant No. z2014001), and the Natural Science Foundation of Hubei Province, China (Grant No. 2014CFB578).

  9. Rapid Process to Generate Beam Envelopes for Optical System Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Joseph; Seals, Lenward

    2012-01-01

    The task of evaluating obstructions in the optical throughput of an optical system requires the use of two disciplines, and hence, two models: optical models for the details of optical propagation, and mechanical models for determining the actual structure that exists in the optical system. Previous analysis methods for creating beam envelopes (or cones of light) for use in this obstruction analysis were found to be cumbersome to calculate and take significant time and resources to complete. A new process was developed that takes less time to complete beam envelope analysis, is more accurate and less dependent upon manual node tracking to create the beam envelopes, and eases the burden on the mechanical CAD (computer-aided design) designers to form the beam solids. This algorithm allows rapid generation of beam envelopes for optical system obstruction analysis. Ray trace information is taken from optical design software and used to generate CAD objects that represent the boundary of the beam envelopes for detailed analysis in mechanical CAD software. Matlab is used to call ray trace data from the optical model for all fields and entrance pupil points of interest. These are chosen to be the edge of each space, so that these rays produce the bounding volume for the beam. The x and y global coordinate data is collected on the surface planes of interest, typically an image of the field and entrance pupil internal of the optical system. This x and y coordinate data is then evaluated using a convex hull algorithm, which removes any internal points, which are unnecessary to produce the bounding volume of interest. At this point, tolerances can be applied to expand the size of either the field or aperture, depending on the allocations. Once this minimum set of coordinates on the pupil and field is obtained, a new set of rays is generated between the field plane and aperture plane (or vice-versa). These rays are then evaluated at planes between the aperture and field, at a

  10. Gamma-ray generation using laser-accelerated electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Seong Hee; Lee, Ho-Hyung; Lee, Kitae; Cha, Yong-Ho; Lee, Ji-Young; Kim, Kyung-Nam; Jeong, Young Uk

    2011-06-01

    A compact gamma-ray source using laser-accelerated electron beam is being under development at KAERI for nuclear applications, such as, radiography, nuclear activation, photonuclear reaction, and so on. One of two different schemes, Bremsstrahlung radiation and Compton backscattering, may be selected depending on the required specification of photons and/or the energy of electron beams. Compton backscattered gamma-ray source is tunable and quasimonochromatic and requires electron beams with its energy of higher than 100 MeV to produced MeV photons. Bremsstrahlung radiation can generate high energy photons with 20 - 30 MeV electron beams, but its spectrum is continuous. As we know, laser accelerators are good for compact size due to localized shielding at the expense of low average flux, while linear RF accelerators are good for high average flux. We present the design issues for a compact gamma-ray source at KAERI, via either Bremsstrahlung radiation or Compton backscattering, using laser accelerated electron beams for the potential nuclear applications.

  11. Femtosecond, High-Brightness Electron Beam Generation and Advanced Diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, S G; Brown, W J; Tremaine, A M; Kuba, J; Hartemann, F V; Fittinghoff, D N

    2005-02-02

    This document serves as the final report for LDRD project number 04-LW-031, in which we created subpicosecond length, kilo-amp peak current electron beams with the 100 MeV electron/positron linac, using a novel technique designed to produce ultra-short bunch lengths while maintaining the high brightness produced by the S-band photoinjector. In addition, a diagnostic to measure the temporal distribution of the beam was investigated, as conventional pulse length measurement techniques do not apply to extremely short pulses. The creation and diagnosis of beams with both femtosecond length and high transverse brightness is of major concern to next generation acceleration and radiation production experiments. This work leveraged the previous investment in the PLEIADES facility and it's ability to produce high brightness electron beams. In addition, the ultra-short electron pulses generated by this work have been used in conjunction with the PLEIADES X-ray source to produce sub-picosecond, high-brightness X-ray pulses.

  12. Rapid generation of light beams carrying orbital angular momentum.

    PubMed

    Mirhosseini, Mohammad; Magaña-Loaiza, Omar S; Chen, Changchen; Rodenburg, Brandon; Malik, Mehul; Boyd, Robert W

    2013-12-16

    We report a technique for encoding both amplitude and phase variations onto a laser beam using a single digital micro-mirror device (DMD). Using this technique, we generate Laguerre-Gaussian and vortex orbital-angular-momentum (OAM) modes, along with modes in a set that is mutually unbiased with respect to the OAM basis. Additionally, we have demonstrated rapid switching among the generated modes at a speed of 4 kHz, which is much faster than the speed regularly achieved by phase-only spatial light modulators (SLMs). The dynamic control of both phase and amplitude of a laser beam is an enabling technology for classical communication and quantum key distribution (QKD) systems that employ spatial mode encoding.

  13. Precision Mapping of Laser-Driven Magnetic Fields and Their Evolution in High-Energy-Density Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, L.; Nilson, P. M.; Igumenshchev, I. V.; Haines, M. G.; Froula, D. H.; Betti, R.; Meyerhofer, D. D.

    2015-05-01

    The magnetic fields generated at the surface of a laser-irradiated planar solid target are mapped using ultrafast proton radiography. Thick (50 μ m ) plastic foils are irradiated with 4-kJ, 2.5-ns laser pulses focused to an intensity of 4 ×1014 W /cm2 . The data show magnetic fields concentrated at the edge of the laser-focal region, well within the expanding coronal plasma. The magnetic-field spatial distribution is tracked and shows good agreement with 2D resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations using the code draco when the Biermann battery source, fluid and Nernst advection, resistive magnetic diffusion, and Righi-Leduc heat flow are included.

  14. Precision mapping of laser-driven magnetic fields and their evolution in high-energy-density plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, L.; Nilson, P. M.; Igumenshchev, I. V.; Haines, M. G.; Froula, D. H.; Betti, R.; Meyerhofer, D. D.

    2015-05-29

    The magnetic fields generated at the surface of a laser-irradiated planar solid target are mapped using ultrafast proton radiography. Thick (50 μm) plastic foils are irradiated with 4-kJ, 2.5-ns laser pulses focused to an intensity of 4 x 10¹⁴ W/cm². The data show magnetic fields concentrated at the edge of the laser-focal region, well within the expanding coronal plasma. The magnetic-field spatial distribution is tracked and shows good agreement with 2D resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations using the code DRACO when the Biermann battery source, fluid and Nernst advection, resistive magnetic diffusion, and Righi-Leduc heat flow are included.

  15. Precision mapping of laser-driven magnetic fields and their evolution in high-energy-density plasmas.

    PubMed

    Gao, L; Nilson, P M; Igumenshchev, I V; Haines, M G; Froula, D H; Betti, R; Meyerhofer, D D

    2015-05-29

    The magnetic fields generated at the surface of a laser-irradiated planar solid target are mapped using ultrafast proton radiography. Thick (50  μm) plastic foils are irradiated with 4-kJ, 2.5-ns laser pulses focused to an intensity of 4×10^{14}  W/cm^{2}. The data show magnetic fields concentrated at the edge of the laser-focal region, well within the expanding coronal plasma. The magnetic-field spatial distribution is tracked and shows good agreement with 2D resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations using the code draco when the Biermann battery source, fluid and Nernst advection, resistive magnetic diffusion, and Righi-Leduc heat flow are included. PMID:26066442

  16. Generation and propagation dynamics of Airy beam with the tunable tail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huilong; Lü, Yanfei; Xia, Jing; Pu, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Li

    2016-05-01

    We introduce a new kind of Airy beam called Airy beam with the tunable tail, which can be generated from the elliptical flat-topped Gaussian beam. The analytical formula of Airy beam with the tunable tail is derived. Airy beam with the single tail can be obtained by adjusting the ration of the beam width of elliptical flat-topped Gaussian beam. The tail length of Airy beam can be controlled by the order N of incident beam. The normalized intensity distributions of Airy beam with the tunable tail propagating in free space are studied, and the propagation dynamics of Airy beam with the single tail are investigated. Compared with the Airy beam generated from the fundamental Gaussian beam or the flat-topped Gaussian beam, some interesting and useful information has been found.

  17. Educating the next generation in the science and technology of plasmas, beams and accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barletta, Wiliam

    2007-11-01

    Accelerators are essential tools for discovery in fundamental physics, biology, and chemistry. Particle beam based instruments in medicine, industry and national security constitute a multi-billion dollar per year industry. More than 55,000 peer-reviewed papers having accelerator as a keyword are available on the Web. Yet only a handful of universities offer any formal training in accelerator science. Several reasons can be cited: 1) The science and technology of non-neutral plasmas cuts across traditional academic disciplines. 2) Electrical engineering departments have evolved toward micro- and nano-technology and computing science. 3) Nuclear physics departments have atrophied. 4) With few exceptions, interest at individual universities is not extensive enough to support a strong faculty line. The United States Particle Accelerator School (USPAS) is National Graduate Educational Program that has developed an educational paradigm that, over the past twenty-years, has granted more university credit in accelerator / beam science and technology than any university in the world. Governed and supported by a consortium of nine DOE laboratories and two NSF university laboratories, USPAS offers a responsive and balanced curriculum of science, engineering, and hands-on courses. Sessions are held twice annually, hosted by major US research universities that approve course credit, certify the USPAS faculty, and grant course credit. The USPAS paradigm is readily extensible to other rapidly developing, cross-disciplinary research areas such as high energy density physics.

  18. Sandwich-structured polymer nanocomposites with high energy density and great charge-discharge efficiency at elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Liu, Feihua; Yang, Tiannan; Gadinski, Matthew R; Zhang, Guangzu; Chen, Long-Qing; Wang, Qing

    2016-09-01

    The demand for a new generation of high-temperature dielectric materials toward capacitive energy storage has been driven by the rise of high-power applications such as electric vehicles, aircraft, and pulsed power systems where the power electronics are exposed to elevated temperatures. Polymer dielectrics are characterized by being lightweight, and their scalability, mechanical flexibility, high dielectric strength, and great reliability, but they are limited to relatively low operating temperatures. The existing polymer nanocomposite-based dielectrics with a limited energy density at high temperatures also present a major barrier to achieving significant reductions in size and weight of energy devices. Here we report the sandwich structures as an efficient route to high-temperature dielectric polymer nanocomposites that simultaneously possess high dielectric constant and low dielectric loss. In contrast to the conventional single-layer configuration, the rationally designed sandwich-structured polymer nanocomposites are capable of integrating the complementary properties of spatially organized multicomponents in a synergistic fashion to raise dielectric constant, and subsequently greatly improve discharged energy densities while retaining low loss and high charge-discharge efficiency at elevated temperatures. At 150 °C and 200 MV m(-1), an operating condition toward electric vehicle applications, the sandwich-structured polymer nanocomposites outperform the state-of-the-art polymer-based dielectrics in terms of energy density, power density, charge-discharge efficiency, and cyclability. The excellent dielectric and capacitive properties of the polymer nanocomposites may pave a way for widespread applications in modern electronics and power modules where harsh operating conditions are present. PMID:27551101

  19. Sandwich-structured polymer nanocomposites with high energy density and great charge-discharge efficiency at elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Liu, Feihua; Yang, Tiannan; Gadinski, Matthew R; Zhang, Guangzu; Chen, Long-Qing; Wang, Qing

    2016-09-01

    The demand for a new generation of high-temperature dielectric materials toward capacitive energy storage has been driven by the rise of high-power applications such as electric vehicles, aircraft, and pulsed power systems where the power electronics are exposed to elevated temperatures. Polymer dielectrics are characterized by being lightweight, and their scalability, mechanical flexibility, high dielectric strength, and great reliability, but they are limited to relatively low operating temperatures. The existing polymer nanocomposite-based dielectrics with a limited energy density at high temperatures also present a major barrier to achieving significant reductions in size and weight of energy devices. Here we report the sandwich structures as an efficient route to high-temperature dielectric polymer nanocomposites that simultaneously possess high dielectric constant and low dielectric loss. In contrast to the conventional single-layer configuration, the rationally designed sandwich-structured polymer nanocomposites are capable of integrating the complementary properties of spatially organized multicomponents in a synergistic fashion to raise dielectric constant, and subsequently greatly improve discharged energy densities while retaining low loss and high charge-discharge efficiency at elevated temperatures. At 150 °C and 200 MV m(-1), an operating condition toward electric vehicle applications, the sandwich-structured polymer nanocomposites outperform the state-of-the-art polymer-based dielectrics in terms of energy density, power density, charge-discharge efficiency, and cyclability. The excellent dielectric and capacitive properties of the polymer nanocomposites may pave a way for widespread applications in modern electronics and power modules where harsh operating conditions are present.

  20. Resistively Heated SiC Nozzle for Generating Molecular Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cagiano, Steven; Abell, Robert; Patrick, Edward; Bendt, Miri; Gundersen, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    An improved nozzle has been developed to replace nozzles used previously in an apparatus that generates a substantially unidirectional beam of molecules passing through a vacuum at speeds of several kilometers per second. The basic principle of operation of the apparatus is the same for both the previous and the present nozzle designs. The main working part of the nozzle is essentially a cylinder that is closed except that there is an inlet for a pressurized gas and, at one end, the cylinder is closed by a disk that contains a narrow central hole that serves as an outlet. The cylinder is heated to increase the thermal speeds of the gas molecules into the desired high-speed range. Heated, pressurized gas escapes through the outlet into a portion of the vacuum chamber that is separated, by a wall, from the rest of the vacuum chamber. In this portion of the vacuum chamber, the gas undergoes a free jet expansion. Most of the expanded gas is evacuated and thus does not become part of the molecular beam. A small fraction of the expanded beam passes through a narrow central orifice in the wall and thereby becomes a needle- thin molecular beam in the portion of the vacuum on the downstream side of the wall.

  1. Electron-beam generated plasmas for processing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meger, Robert; Leonhardt, Darrin; Murphy, Donald; Walton, Scott; Blackwell, David; Fernsler, Richard; Lampe, Martin; Manheimer, Wallace

    2001-10-01

    NRL's Large Area Plasma Processing System (LAPPS) utilizes a 5-10 mA/cm^2, 2-4 kV, 1 cm x 30-60 cm cross section beam of electrons guided by a magnetic field to ionize a low density (10-100 mTorr) gas.[1] Beam ionization allows large area, high density, low temperature plasmas to be generated in an arbitrary gas mixture at a well defined location. Energy and composition of particle fluxes to surfaces on both sides of the plasma can be controlled by gas mixture, location, rf bias, and other factors. Experiments have been performed using both pulsed and cw beams. Extensive diagnostics (Langmuir probes, mass and ion energy analyzers, optical emissions, microwave interferometry, etc.) have been fielded to measure the plasma properties and neutral particle fluxes (ions, neutrals, free radicals) with and without rf bias on nearby surfaces both with the beam on and off. Uniform, cold (Te < 1eV), dense (ne 10^13 cm-3) plasmas in molecular and atomic gases and mixtures thereof have been produced in agreement with theoretical expectations. Initial tests of LAPPS application such as ashing, etching, sputtering, and diamond growth have been performed. Program status will be presented. [1]R.A. Meger, et al, Phys. of Plasmas 8(5), p. 2558 (2001)

  2. Radially polarized annular beam generated through a second-harmonic-generation process.

    PubMed

    Sato, Shunichi; Kozawa, Yuichi

    2009-10-15

    A radially polarized beam with an annular intensity pattern was generated through a second-harmonic-generation process by focusing an azimuthally polarized Ti:sapphire pulsed laser beam to a c-cut beta-barium borate (BBO) crystal. The annular intensity pattern of the second-harmonic wave had a nearly sixfold symmetry as a result of the nonlinear susceptibility tensor of the BBO crystal. The width of the annulus was as narrow as less than 1/40th of its radius.

  3. Whistler wave generation by non-gyrotropic, relativistic, electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skender, Marina; Tsiklauri, David

    2014-05-01

    Super-thermal electron beams travelling away from the Sun on the open magnetic field lines are widely accepted to be the source of the Type-III bursts. The earliest idea of the generation of the Type-III bursts was based on the plasma emission mechanism. A fast moving electron beam excites Langmuir waves at the local plasma frequency, ωp. The Langmuir waves are partially transformed via scattering at ωp and 2ωp, with ion sound and oppositely propagating Langmuir waves, respectively, into electromagnetic waves. As the electron beam propagates away from the Sun, through less dense coronal and interplanetary environment, the frequency of the emitted electromagnetic radiation decreases, because plasma frequency is a function of the square root of the plasma density. Type-III bursts have been subject of theoretical, observational and numerical studies. The first detailed theory of the Type-III emission invoked coherent plasma waves, generated by a stream of fast particles, which are due to Rayleigh and combination scattering at ωp and 2ωp subsequently transformed into radio waves. Stochastic growth of the density irregularities was invoked in order to produce stochastically generated clumpy Langmuir waves, where the ambient density perturbations cause the beam to fluctuate around marginal stability. Other theories on the mechanism which generates the Type-III emission include: linear mode conversion of Langmuir waves, Langmuir waves producing electromagnetic radiation as antennas and non-gyroptropic electron beam emission [1] of commensurable properties to the Type-III bursts. In Refs. [2,3] it was found that the non-gyrotropic beam excites electromagnetic radiation by the current transverse to the magnetic field, which results in (ω,k)-space drift while propagating along the 1-dimensional spatial domain throughout the decreasing plasma density profile. The role of the electron beam pitch angle and the background density gradient profile was investigated in [4

  4. Validating density-functional theory simulations at high energy-density conditions with liquid krypton shock experiments to 850 GPa on Sandia's Z machine

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mattsson, Thomas R.; Root, Seth; Mattsson, Ann E.; Shulenburger, Luke; Magyar, Rudolph J.; Flicker, Dawn G.

    2014-11-11

    We use Sandia's Z machine and magnetically accelerated flyer plates to shock compress liquid krypton to 850 GPa and compare with results from density-functional theory (DFT) based simulations using the AM05 functional. We also employ quantum Monte Carlo calculations to motivate the choice of AM05. We conclude that the DFT results are sensitive to the quality of the pseudopotential in terms of scattering properties at high energy/temperature. A new Kr projector augmented wave potential was constructed with improved scattering properties which resulted in excellent agreement with the experimental results to 850 GPa and temperatures above 10 eV (110 kK). Inmore » conclusion, we present comparisons of our data from the Z experiments and DFT calculations to current equation of state models of krypton to determine the best model for high energy-density applications.« less

  5. Teller Medal Lecture IFSA2001: Problems and solutions in the design and analysis of early laser driven high energy density and ICF target physics experiments (IFSA 2001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, Mordecai D.

    2016-10-01

    The high energy density (HED) and inertial confinement fusion (ICF) physics community relies on increasingly sophisticated high power laser driven experiments to advance the field. We review early work in the design and analysis of such experiments, and discuss the problems encountered. By finding solutions to those problems we put the field on firmer ground, allowing the community to develop it to the exciting stage it is in today. Specific examples include: drive and preheat in complex hohlraum geometries with the complicating effects of sample motion; and issues in the successful design of laboratory soft x-ray lasers and in the invention of methods to reduce the required optical laser driver energy by several orders of magnitude.

  6. Evaluation of room-temperature chloroaluminate molten salts as electrolytes for high energy density batteries. Final report, June 1988-April 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughn, R.L.

    1990-04-01

    This report reviews past battery studies using room-temperature chloroaluminate electrolytes, pointing out problems experienced. The report then summarizes attempts to circumvent these problems. A cell is described that uses a sodium anode, a copper (II) chloride cathode, and room-temperature chloroaluminate electrolyte buffered to the neutral composition. Cells give an open circuit voltage greater than 2.75 volts and discharge near 1 milliAmperes per centimeters squared at voltages greater than 2 volts for more than 20 hours. Cell failure is attributed to the formation of a nonconductive coating on the sodium electrode. Suggestions for future studies are presented. While the room-temperature chloroaluminates appear suitable for high-voltage, low-current batteries, their physical properties may limit their potential for high energy density batteries.

  7. Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene)-graft-poly(dopamine methacrylamide) copolymers: A nonlinear dielectric material for high energy density storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimabady, Mojtaba; Qun Xu, Li; Arabnejad, Saeid; Yao, Kui; Lu, Li; Shim, Victor P. W.; Gee Neoh, Koon; Kang, En-Tang

    2013-12-01

    A nonlinear dielectric poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene)-graft-poly(dopamine methacrylamide) [P(VDF-HFP)-g-PDMA] graft copolymer with ultra-high energy density of 33 J/cm3 was obtained by thermally initiated radical graft polymerization. It was observed that the dielectric constant of the graft copolymer films was 63% higher than that of P(VDF-HFP), with a large dielectric breakdown strength (>850 MV/m). Theoretical analyses and experimental measurements showed that the significant improvement in the electric polarization was attributed to the introduction of the highly polarizable hydroxyl groups in the PDMA side chains, and the large breakdown strength arose from the strong adhesion bonding of the catechol-containing graft copolymer to the metal electrode.

  8. Validating density-functional theory simulations at high energy-density conditions with liquid krypton shock experiments to 850 GPa on Sandia's Z machine

    SciTech Connect

    Mattsson, Thomas R.; Root, Seth; Mattsson, Ann E.; Shulenburger, Luke; Magyar, Rudolph J.; Flicker, Dawn G.

    2014-11-11

    We use Sandia's Z machine and magnetically accelerated flyer plates to shock compress liquid krypton to 850 GPa and compare with results from density-functional theory (DFT) based simulations using the AM05 functional. We also employ quantum Monte Carlo calculations to motivate the choice of AM05. We conclude that the DFT results are sensitive to the quality of the pseudopotential in terms of scattering properties at high energy/temperature. A new Kr projector augmented wave potential was constructed with improved scattering properties which resulted in excellent agreement with the experimental results to 850 GPa and temperatures above 10 eV (110 kK). In conclusion, we present comparisons of our data from the Z experiments and DFT calculations to current equation of state models of krypton to determine the best model for high energy-density applications.

  9. Talbot-Lau x-ray deflectometer electron density diagnostic for laser and pulsed power high energy density plasma experiments (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdivia, M. P.; Stutman, D.; Stoeckl, C.; Mileham, C.; Begishev, I. A.; Theobald, W.; Bromage, J.; Regan, S. P.; Klein, S. R.; Muñoz-Cordovez, G.; Vescovi, M.; Valenzuela-Villaseca, V.; Veloso, F.

    2016-11-01

    Talbot-Lau X-ray deflectometry (TXD) has been developed as an electron density diagnostic for High Energy Density (HED) plasmas. The technique can deliver x-ray refraction, attenuation, elemental composition, and scatter information from a single Moiré image. An 8 keV Talbot-Lau interferometer was deployed using laser and x-pinch backlighters. Grating survival and electron density mapping were demonstrated for 25-29 J, 8-30 ps laser pulses using copper foil targets. Moiré pattern formation and grating survival were also observed using a copper x-pinch driven at 400 kA, ˜1 kA/ns. These results demonstrate the potential of TXD as an electron density diagnostic for HED plasmas.

  10. An Accurate Quartic Force Field, Fundamental Frequencies, and Binding Energy for the High Energy Density Material T(d)N4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Timothy J.; Martin, Jan M. L.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The CCSD(T) method has been used to compute a highly accurate quartic force field and fundamental frequencies for all N-14 and N-15 isotopomers of the high energy density material T(sub d)N(sub 4). The computed fundamental frequencies show beyond doubt that the bands observed in a matrix isolation experiment by Radziszewski and coworkers are not due to different isotopomers of T(sub d)N(sub 4). The most sophisticated thermochemical calculations to date yield a N(sub 4) -> 2N(sub 2) heat of reaction of 182.22 +/- 0.5 kcal/mol at 0 K (180.64 +/- 0.5 at 298 K). It is hoped that the data reported herein will aid in the ultimate detection of T(sub d)N(sub 4).

  11. Teller Medal Lecture IFSA2001: Problems and Solutions in the Design and Analysis of Early Laser Driven High Energy Density and ICF Target Physics Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, M D

    2001-08-20

    The high energy density (HED) and inertial confinement fusion (ICF) physics community relies on increasingly sophisticated high power laser driven experiments to advance the field. We review early work in the design and analysis of such experiments, and discuss the problems encountered. By finding solutions to those problems we put the field on firmer ground, allowing the community to develop it to the exciting stage it is in today. Specific examples include: drive and preheat in complex hohlraum geometries with the complicating effects of sample motion; and issues in the successful design of laboratory soft x-ray lasers and in the invention of methods to reduce the required optical laser driver energy by several orders of magnitude.

  12. Validating density-functional theory simulations at high energy-density conditions with liquid krypton shock experiments to 850 GPa on Sandia's Z machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattsson, Thomas R.; Root, Seth; Mattsson, Ann E.; Shulenburger, Luke; Magyar, Rudolph J.; Flicker, Dawn G.

    2014-11-01

    We use Sandia's Z machine and magnetically accelerated flyer plates to shock compress liquid krypton to 850 GPa and compare with results from density-functional theory (DFT) based simulations using the AM05 functional. We also employ quantum Monte Carlo calculations to motivate the choice of AM05. We conclude that the DFT results are sensitive to the quality of the pseudopotential in terms of scattering properties at high energy/temperature. A new Kr projector augmented wave potential was constructed with improved scattering properties which resulted in excellent agreement with the experimental results to 850 GPa and temperatures above 10 eV (110 kK). Finally, we present comparisons of our data from the Z experiments and DFT calculations to current equation of state models of krypton to determine the best model for high energy-density applications.

  13. Ion Beam Analysis applied to laser-generated plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutroneo, M.; Macková, A.; Havranek, V.; Malinsky, P.; Torrisi, L.; Kormunda, M.; Barchuk, M.; Ullschmied, J.; Dudzak, R.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the research activity on Ion Beam Analysis methods performed at Tandetron Laboratory (LT) of the Institute of Nuclear Physics AS CR, Rez, Czech Republic. Recently, many groups are paying attention to implantation by laser generated plasma. This process allows to insert a controllable amount of energetic ions into the surface layers of different materials modifying the physical and chemical properties of the surface material. Different substrates are implanted by accelerated ions from plasma through terawatt iodine laser, at nominal intensity of 1015 W/cm2, at the PALS Research Infrastructure AS CR, in the Czech Republic. This regime of the laser matter interaction generates, multi-MeV proton beams, and multi-charged ions that are tightly confined in time (hundreds ps) and space (source radius of a few microns). These ion beams have a much lower transverse temperature, a much shorter duration and a much higher current than those obtainable from conventional accelerators. The implementation of protons and ions acceleration driven by ultra-short high intensity lasers is exhibited by adopting suitable irradiation conditions as well as tailored targets. An overview of implanted targets and their morphological and structural characterizations is presented and discussed.

  14. The influence of magnetic field on electron beam generated plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, G. M.; Boris, D. R.; Lock, E. H.; Petrova, Tz B.; Fernsler, R. F.; Walton, S. G.

    2015-06-01

    Magnetically confined argon plasma in a long cylindrical tube driven by an electron beam is studied experimentally and theoretically. Langmuir probes are used to measure the electron energy distribution function, electron density and temperature in plasmas generated by 2 keV, 10 mA electron beams in a 25 mTorr argon background for magnetic field strengths of up to 200 Gauss. The experimental results agree with simulations done using a spatially averaged Boltzmann model adapted to treat an electron beam generated plasma immersed in a constant magnetic field. The confining effect of the magnetic field is studied theoretically using fluid and kinetic approaches. The fluid approach leads to two regimes of operation: weakly and strongly magnetized. The former is similar to the magnetic field-free case, while in the latter the ambipolar diffusion coefficient and electron density depend quadratically on the magnetic field strength. Finally, a more rigorous kinetic treatment, which accounts for the impact of the magnetic field over the whole distribution of electrons, is used for accurate description of the plasma.

  15. Development of rf plasma generators for neutral beams

    SciTech Connect

    Vella, M.C.; Ehlers, K.W.; Kippenhan, D.; Pincosy, P.A.; Pyle, R.V.; DiVergilio, W.F.; Fosnight, V.V.

    1984-10-01

    The development of low frequency (1-2 MHz) rf plasma generators for high power neutral beam applications is summarized. Immersed couplers from one to three turns were used. Acceptable plasma profiles, less than or equal to 15% max/min, were obtained in a variety of field-free magnetic bucket and magnetic filter-bucket sources, with 10 x 10 cm or 10 x 40 cm extraction areas. Hydrogen beam properties were measured with a 7 x 10 cm accelerator operated at 80 kV. Atomic fraction and power efficiency were at least as high as with arc plasmas in similar chambers. The potential advantages of an rf plasma source are: ease of operation; reliability; and extended service lifetime.

  16. Development of rf plasma generators for neutral beams

    SciTech Connect

    Vella, M.C.; Ehlers, K.W.; Kippenhan, D.; Pincosy, P.A.; Pyle, R.V.; DiVergilio, W.F.; Fosnight, V.V.

    1985-05-01

    The development of low frequency (1--2 MHz) rf plasma generators for high power neutral beam applications is summarized. Immersed couplers from one to three turns were used. Acceptable plasma profiles, < or =15% max/min, were obtained in a variety of field-free, magnetic bucket and magnetic filter-bucket sources, with 10 x 10 or 10 x 40 cm extraction areas. Hydrogen beam properties were measured with a 7 x 10 cm accelerator operated at 80 kV. Atomic fraction and power efficiency were at least as high as with arc plasmas in similar chambers. The potential advantages of an rf plasma source are: ease of operation; reliability; and extended service lifetime.

  17. Summary report on beam and radiation generation, monitoring and control (working group 6).

    SciTech Connect

    Power, J. G.; Gordon, D. F.; High Energy Physics; Naval Research Lab.

    2009-01-01

    The discussions of the working group on beam and radiation generation, monitoring, and control (working group 6) at the 2008 advanced accelerator concepts workshop are summarized. The discussions concerned electron injectors, phase space manipulation, beam diagnostics, pulse train generation, intense beam physics, and radiation generation.

  18. A Sagnac-like interferometer for the generation of vector beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tonglu; Fu, Shiyao; Zhang, Shikun; Gao, Chunqing; He, Feng

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a Sagnac-like scheme, to transform Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beams into vector beams. The experimental apparatus of our scheme consists of a polarized beam splitter, two reflectors, and a quarter-wave plate (QWP). Firstly, holograms of spiral phase plates were encoded on a liquid crystal spatial light modulator to generate different LG beams. Then, the generated LG beams were transformed into radially polarized vector beams. Azimuthally polarized vector beams were also obtained through placing a half-wave plate group behind the QWP. The intensity distribution of the generated vector beams is similar to the incident LG beams. A rotating polarizer is used to analyze the polarization distribution of the generated vector beams, and the results of which are highly consistent with the theoretical analysis.

  19. High energy density electrochemical cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrne, J. J.; Williams, D. L.

    1970-01-01

    Primary cell has an anode of lithium, a cathode containing dihaloisocyanuric acid, and a nonaqueous electrolyte comprised of a solution of lithium perchlorate in methyl formate. It produces an energy density of 213 watt hrs/lb and can achieve a high current density.

  20. High energy density primary batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horning, R. J.; Beck, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    By the use of fractional factorials, paths of steepest ascent and direct comparison experimentation, performance characteristics of the CuF2/LiAsF6-MF/Li electrochemical system were optimized under conditions of temperature environment, discharge rate, active stand, and use of anhydrous cathodes. Two hundred ampere-hours/lb of CuF2 and 600 watt-hours/lb of CuF2 were achieved in anhydrous cells at plus 40 C and at a discharge rate of 10 ma sq cm. Electrical performance is primarily altered by temperature and discharge rate; however, other factors such as cathode water content, cathode conductor content, separator thickness, and the use of SO2 gas also have significant effects.

  1. Oxides having high energy densities

    DOEpatents

    Ceder, Gerbrand; Kang, Kisuk

    2013-09-10

    Certain disclosed embodiments generally relate to oxide materials having relatively high energy and/or power densities. Various aspects of the embodiments are directed to oxide materials having a structure B.sub.i(M.sub.jY.sub.k)O.sub.2, for example, a structure Li.sub.j(Ni.sub.jY.sub.k)O.sub.2 such as Li(Ni.sub.0.5Mn.sub.0.5)O.sub.2. In this structure, Y represents one or more atoms, each independently selected from the group consisting of alkaline earth metals, transition metals, Group 14 elements, Group 15, or Group 16 elements. In some embodiments, such an oxide material may have an O3 crystal structure, and/or a layered structure such that the oxide comprises a plurality of first, repeating atomic planes comprising Li, and a plurality of second, repeating atomic planes comprising Ni and/or Y.

  2. Digitally based pattern generator for an electron-beam welder

    SciTech Connect

    Whitten, L.G. III

    1981-02-19

    A digitally based deflection generator for an electron-beam welder is presented. Up to seven patterns of any shape are stored in programmable read-only memory (PROM). The pattern resolution is 39% at frequencies from 10 Hz to 1 kHz and can be x-t, y-t, or x-y formed. Frequency and pattern selections may be chosen by the welder computer or manually selected on the front panel. The ability to repeatedly synchronize two waveforms of any shape and frequency enables an unlimited variety of welds.

  3. Laboratory Apparatus Generates Dual-Species Cold Atomic Beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Robert; Klipstein, William; Kohel, James; Maleki, Lute; Lundblad, Nathan; Ramirez-Serrano, Jaime; Aveline, Dave; Yu, Nan; Enzer, Daphna

    2004-01-01

    A laser cooling apparatus that generates a cold beam of rubidium and cesium atoms at low pressure has been constructed as one of several intermediate products of a continuing program of research on laser cooling and atomic physics. Laser-cooled atomic beams, which can have temperatures as low as a microkelvin, have been used in diverse applications that include measurements of fundamental constants, atomic clocks that realize the international standard unit of time, atom-wave interferometers, and experiments on Bose-Einstein condensation. The present apparatus is a prototype of one being evaluated for use in a proposed microgravitational experiment called the Quantum Interferometric Test of Equivalence (QuITE). In this experiment, interferometric measurements of cesium and rubidium atoms in free fall would be part of a test of Einstein s equivalence principle. The present apparatus and its anticipated successors may also be useful in other experiments, in both microgravity and normal Earth gravity, in which there are requirements for dual-species atomic beams, low temperatures, and low pressures. The apparatus includes a pyramidal magneto-optical trap in which the illumination is provided by multiple lasers tuned to frequencies characteristic of the two atomic species. The inlet to the apparatus is located in a vacuum chamber that contains rubidium and cesium atoms at a low pressure; the beam leaving through the outlet of the apparatus is used to transfer the atoms to a higher-vacuum (lower-pressure) chamber in which measurements are performed. The pyramidal magneto-optical trap is designed so that the laser cooling forces in one direction are unbalanced, resulting in a continuous cold beam of atoms that leak out of the trap (see figure). The radiant intensity (number of atoms per unit time per unit solid angle) of the apparatus is the greatest of any other source of the same type reported to date. In addition, this is the first such apparatus capable of producing

  4. Visualization of expanding warm dense gold and diamond heated rapidly by laser-generated ion beams

    PubMed Central

    Bang, W.; Albright, B. J.; Bradley, P. A.; Gautier, D. C.; Palaniyappan, S.; Vold, E. L.; Cordoba, M. A. Santiago; Hamilton, C. E.; Fernández, J. C.

    2015-01-01

    With the development of several novel heating sources, scientists can now heat a small sample isochorically above 10,000 K. Although matter at such an extreme state, known as warm dense matter, is commonly found in astrophysics (e.g., in planetary cores) as well as in high energy density physics experiments, its properties are not well understood and are difficult to predict theoretically. This is because the approximations made to describe condensed matter or high-temperature plasmas are invalid in this intermediate regime. A sufficiently large warm dense matter sample that is uniformly heated would be ideal for these studies, but has been unavailable to date. Here we have used a beam of quasi-monoenergetic aluminum ions to heat gold and diamond foils uniformly and isochorically. For the first time, we visualized directly the expanding warm dense gold and diamond with an optical streak camera. Furthermore, we present a new technique to determine the initial temperature of these heated samples from the measured expansion speeds of gold and diamond into vacuum. We anticipate the uniformly heated solid density target will allow for direct quantitative measurements of equation-of-state, conductivity, opacity, and stopping power of warm dense matter, benefiting plasma physics, astrophysics, and nuclear physics. PMID:26392208

  5. Visualization of expanding warm dense gold and diamond heated rapidly by laser-generated ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Bang, W.; Albright, B. J.; Bradley, P. A.; Gautier, D. C.; Palaniyappan, S.; Vold, E. L.; Cordoba, M. A. Santiago; Hamilton, C. E.; Fernández, J. C.

    2015-09-22

    With the development of several novel heating sources, scientists can now heat a small sample isochorically above 10,000 K. Although matter at such an extreme state, known as warm dense matter, is commonly found in astrophysics (e.g., in planetary cores) as well as in high energy density physics experiments, its properties are not well understood and are difficult to predict theoretically. This is because the approximations made to describe condensed matter or high-temperature plasmas are invalid in this intermediate regime. A sufficiently large warm dense matter sample that is uniformly heated would be ideal for these studies, but has been unavailable to date. We have used a beam of quasi-monoenergetic aluminum ions to heat gold and diamond foils uniformly and isochorically. For the first time, we visualized directly the expanding warm dense gold and diamond with an optical streak camera. Furthermore, we present a new technique to determine the initial temperature of these heated samples from the measured expansion speeds of gold and diamond into vacuum. We anticipate the uniformly heated solid density target will allow for direct quantitative measurements of equation-of-state, conductivity, opacity, and stopping power of warm dense matter, benefiting plasma physics, astrophysics, and nuclear physics.

  6. Visualization of expanding warm dense gold and diamond heated rapidly by laser-generated ion beams

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bang, W.; Albright, B. J.; Bradley, P. A.; Gautier, D. C.; Palaniyappan, S.; Vold, E. L.; Cordoba, M. A. Santiago; Hamilton, C. E.; Fernández, J. C.

    2015-09-22

    With the development of several novel heating sources, scientists can now heat a small sample isochorically above 10,000 K. Although matter at such an extreme state, known as warm dense matter, is commonly found in astrophysics (e.g., in planetary cores) as well as in high energy density physics experiments, its properties are not well understood and are difficult to predict theoretically. This is because the approximations made to describe condensed matter or high-temperature plasmas are invalid in this intermediate regime. A sufficiently large warm dense matter sample that is uniformly heated would be ideal for these studies, but has beenmore » unavailable to date. We have used a beam of quasi-monoenergetic aluminum ions to heat gold and diamond foils uniformly and isochorically. For the first time, we visualized directly the expanding warm dense gold and diamond with an optical streak camera. Furthermore, we present a new technique to determine the initial temperature of these heated samples from the measured expansion speeds of gold and diamond into vacuum. We anticipate the uniformly heated solid density target will allow for direct quantitative measurements of equation-of-state, conductivity, opacity, and stopping power of warm dense matter, benefiting plasma physics, astrophysics, and nuclear physics.« less

  7. Whistler wave generation by non-gyrotropic, relativistic, electron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Skender, M.; Tsiklauri, D.

    2014-04-15

    Particle-in-cell code, EPOCH, is used for studying features of the wave component evident to propagate backwards from the front of the non-gyrotropic, relativistic beam of electrons injected in the Maxwellian, magnetised background plasma with decreasing density profile. According to recent findings presented in Tsiklauri [Phys. Plasmas 18, 052903 (2011)], Schmitz and Tsiklauri [Phys. Plasmas 20, 062903 (2013)], and Pechhacker and Tsiklauri [Phys. Plasmas 19, 112903 (2012)], in a 1.5-dimensional magnetised plasma system, the non-gyrotropic beam generates freely escaping electromagnetic radiation with properties similar to the Type-III solar radio bursts. In this study, the backwards propagating wave component evident in the perpendicular components of the electromagnetic field in such a system is presented for the first time. Background magnetic field strength in the system is varied in order to prove that the backwards propagating wave's frequency, prescribed by the whistler wave dispersion relation, is proportional to the specified magnetic field. Moreover, the identified whistlers are shown to be generated by the normal Doppler-shifted relativistic resonance. Large fraction of the energy of the perpendicular electromagnetic field components is found to be carried away by the whistler waves, while a small but sufficient fraction is going into L- and R-electromagnetic modes.

  8. Whistler wave generation by non-gyrotropic, relativistic, electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skender, M.; Tsiklauri, D.

    2014-04-01

    Particle-in-cell code, EPOCH, is used for studying features of the wave component evident to propagate backwards from the front of the non-gyrotropic, relativistic beam of electrons injected in the Maxwellian, magnetised background plasma with decreasing density profile. According to recent findings presented in Tsiklauri [Phys. Plasmas 18, 052903 (2011)], Schmitz and Tsiklauri [Phys. Plasmas 20, 062903 (2013)], and Pechhacker and Tsiklauri [Phys. Plasmas 19, 112903 (2012)], in a 1.5-dimensional magnetised plasma system, the non-gyrotropic beam generates freely escaping electromagnetic radiation with properties similar to the Type-III solar radio bursts. In this study, the backwards propagating wave component evident in the perpendicular components of the electromagnetic field in such a system is presented for the first time. Background magnetic field strength in the system is varied in order to prove that the backwards propagating wave's frequency, prescribed by the whistler wave dispersion relation, is proportional to the specified magnetic field. Moreover, the identified whistlers are shown to be generated by the normal Doppler-shifted relativistic resonance. Large fraction of the energy of the perpendicular electromagnetic field components is found to be carried away by the whistler waves, while a small but sufficient fraction is going into L- and R-electromagnetic modes.

  9. Summary report of working group 5 : beam generation, monitoring, and control.;

    SciTech Connect

    Lewellen, J. W.; Piot, P.; Accelerator Systems Division; Northern Illinois Univ.

    2006-01-01

    The working group on beam quality, diagnostics, and control at the 12th Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop held a series of meetings during the Workshop. The generation of bright charged-particle beams (in particular electron and positron beams), along with state-of-the-art beam diagnostics and synchronization were discussed.

  10. Modifying mixing and instability growth through the adjustment of initial conditions in a high-energy-density counter-propagating shear experiment on OMEGA

    SciTech Connect

    Merritt, E. C. Doss, F. W.; Loomis, E. N.; Flippo, K. A.; Kline, J. L.

    2015-06-15

    Counter-propagating shear experiments conducted at the OMEGA Laser Facility have been evaluating the effect of target initial conditions, specifically the characteristics of a tracer foil located at the shear boundary, on Kelvin-Helmholtz instability evolution and experiment transition toward nonlinearity and turbulence in the high-energy-density (HED) regime. Experiments are focused on both identifying and uncoupling the dependence of the model initial turbulent length scale in variable-density turbulence models of k-ϵ type on competing physical instability seed lengths as well as developing a path toward fully developed turbulent HED experiments. We present results from a series of experiments controllably and independently varying two initial types of scale lengths in the experiment: the thickness and surface roughness (surface perturbation scale spectrum) of a tracer layer at the shear interface. We show that decreasing the layer thickness and increasing the surface roughness both have the ability to increase the relative mixing in the system, and thus theoretically decrease the time required to begin transitioning to turbulence in the system. We also show that we can connect a change in observed mix width growth due to increased foil surface roughness to an analytically predicted change in model initial turbulent scale lengths.

  11. Theoretical studies on the crystal structure, thermodynamic properties, detonation performance and thermal stability of cage-tetranitrotetraazabicyclooctane as a novel high energy density compound.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guo-zheng; Lu, Ming

    2013-01-01

    The B3LYP/6-31G (d) method of density functional theory (DFT) was used to study molecular geometry, electronic structure, infrared spectrum (IR) and thermodynamic properties. The heat of formation (HOF) and calculated density were estimated to evaluate the detonation properties using Kamlet-Jacobs equations. Thermal stability of 3,5,7,10,12,14,15,16-octanitro- 3,5,7,10,12,14,15,16-octaaza-heptacyclo[7.5.1.1(2,8).0(1,11).0(2,6).0(4,13).0(6,11)]hexadecane (cage-tetranitrotetraazabicyclooctane) was investigated by calculating the bond dissociation energy (BDE) at unrestricted B3LYP/6-31G (d) level. The calculated results show that the N-NO2 bond is a trigger bond during thermolysis initiation process. The crystal structure obtained by molecular mechanics (MM) methods belongs to Pna2(1) space group, with cell parameters a=12.840 Å, b=9.129 Å, c=14.346 Å, Z=6 and ρ=2.292 g·cm(-3). Both the detonation velocity of 9.96 km·s(-1) and the detonation pressure of 47.47 GPa are better than those of CL-20. According to the quantitative standard of energetics and stability, as a high energy density compound (HEDC), cage-tetranitrotetraazabicyclooctane essentially satisfies this requirement. PMID:22790340

  12. Modifying mixing and instability growth through the adjustment of initial conditions in a high-energy-density counter-propagating shear experiment on OMEGA

    SciTech Connect

    Merritt, E. C.; Doss, F. W.; Loomis, E. N.; Flippo, K. A.; Kline, J. L.

    2015-06-24

    Counter-propagating shear experiments conducted at the OMEGA Laser Facility have been evaluating the effect of target initial conditions, specifically the characteristics of a tracer foil located at the shear boundary, on Kelvin-Helmholtz instability evolution and experiment transition toward nonlinearity and turbulence in the high-energy-density (HED) regime. Experiments are focused on both identifying and uncoupling the dependence of the model initial turbulent length scale in variable-density turbulence models of k-ϵ type on competing physical instability seed lengths as well as developing a path toward fully developed turbulent HED experiments. We present results from a series of experiments controllably and independently varying two initial types of scale lengths in the experiment: the thickness and surface roughness (surface perturbation scale spectrum) of a tracer layer at the shear interface. We show that decreasing the layer thickness and increasing the surface roughness both have the ability to increase the relative mixing in the system, and thus theoretically decrease the time required to begin transitioning to turbulence in the system. In addition, we also show that we can connect a change in observed mix width growth due to increased foil surface roughness to an analytically predicted change in model initial turbulent scale lengths.

  13. Moiré deflectometry using the Talbot-Lau interferometer as refraction diagnostic for High Energy Density plasmas at energies below 10 keV

    SciTech Connect

    Valdivia, M. P.; Stutman, D.; Finkenthal, M.

    2014-07-15

    The highly localized density gradients expected in High Energy Density (HED) plasma experiments can be characterized by x-ray phase-contrast imaging in addition to conventional attenuation radiography. Moiré deflectometry using the Talbot-Lau grating interferometer setup is an attractive HED diagnostic due to its high sensitivity to refraction induced phase shifts. We report on the adaptation of such a system for operation in the sub-10 keV range by using a combination of free standing and ultrathin Talbot gratings. This new x-ray energy explored matches well the current x-ray backlighters used for HED experiments, while also enhancing phase effects at lower electron densities. We studied the performance of the high magnification, low energy Talbot-Lau interferometer, for single image phase retrieval using Moiré fringe deflectometry. Our laboratory and simulation studies indicate that such a device is able to retrieve object electron densities from phase shift measurements. Using laboratory x-ray sources from 7 to 15 μm size we obtained accurate simultaneous measurements of refraction and attenuation for both sharp and mild electron density gradients.

  14. Hierarchical chestnut-like MnCo2O4 nanoneedles grown on nickel foam as binder-free electrode for high energy density asymmetric supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Kwun Nam; Hui, Kwan San; Tang, Zikang; Jadhav, V. V.; Xia, Qi Xun

    2016-10-01

    Hierarchical chestnut-like manganese cobalt oxide (MnCo2O4) nanoneedles (NNs) are successfully grown on nickel foam using a facile and cost-effective hydrothermal method. High resolution TEM image further verifies that the chestnut-like MnCo2O4 structure is assembled by numerous 1D MnCo2O4 nanoneedles, which are formed by numerous interconnected MnCo2O4 nanoparticles with grain diameter of ∼10 nm. The MnCo2O4 electrode exhibits high specific capacitance of 1535 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 and good rate capability (950 F g-1 at 10 A g-1) in a 6 M KOH electrolyte. An asymmetric supercapacitor is fabricated using MnCo2O4 NNs on Ni foam (MnCo2O4 NNs/NF) as the positive electrode and graphene/NF as the negative electrode. The device shows an operation voltage of 1.5 V and delivers a high energy density of ∼60.4 Wh kg-1 at a power density of ∼375 W kg-1. Moreover, the device exhibits an excellent cycling stability of 94.3% capacitance retention after 12000 cycles at 30 A g-1. This work demonstrates that hierarchical chestnut-like MnCo2O4 NNs could be a promising electrode for the high performance energy storage devices.

  15. High Energy Density All Solid State Asymmetric Pseudocapacitors Based on Free Standing Reduced Graphene Oxide-Co3O4 Composite Aerogel Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Debasis; Lim, Joonwon; Narayan, Rekha; Kim, Sang Ouk

    2016-08-31

    Modern flexible consumer electronics require efficient energy storage devices with flexible free-standing electrodes. We report a simple and cost-effective route to a graphene-based composite aerogel encapsulating metal oxide nanoparticles for high energy density, free-standing, binder-free flexible pseudocapacitive electrodes. Hydrothermally synthesized Co3O4 nanoparticles are successfully housed inside the microporous graphene aerogel network during the room temperature interfacial gelation at the Zn surface. The resultant three-dimensional (3D) rGO-Co3O4 composite aerogel shows mesoporous quasiparallel layer stack morphology with a high loading of Co3O4, which offers numerous channels for ion transport and a 3D interconnected network for high electrical conductivity. All solid state asymmetric pseudocapacitors employing the composite aerogel electrodes have demonstrated high areal energy density of 35.92 μWh/cm(2) and power density of 17.79 mW/cm(2) accompanied by excellent cycle life. PMID:27494271

  16. Investigation of the capacity retention mechanisms in novel composite sulfur copolymer-base cathodes for high-energy density Li-S batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleshko, Vladimir; Kim, Jenny; Masser, Kevin; Hudson, Steven; Soles, Christopher; Griebel, Jared; Chung, Woo Jin; Simmonds, Adam; Pyun, Jeffrey

    2013-03-01

    Utilization of the active cathode material in high-energy density Li-S batteries limited by the insulating nature of sulfur and losses in the form of insoluble polysulfides was improved by the use of 1,3-diisopropenylbenzene (DIB) copolymerized with molten sulfur. This approach termed, inverse vulcanization, transforms elemental sulfur into chemically stable processable copolymer forms with tunable thermomechanical properties. According to dielectric spectroscopy and dc conductivity measurements, composite sulfur-DIB copolymer cathodes exhibit a glassy-state beta relaxation related to short sulfur segments or to the DIB cross-linker. High-resolution AEM and FESEM studies down to the atomic scale reveal multiscale 3D-architectures created within the pristine and cycled composite cathodes with various contents of the electroactive copolymers. The morphology, structures, bonding and local compositional distributions of the constituents (sulfur, copolymers, aggregated conductive carbon nanoparticles) as well as extended pore structures and their transformations under cycling have been examined to provide insights into mechanisms of the enhanced capacity retention in the modified Li-S cells. NIST support under grant MML12-1053-N00

  17. High-energy-density, all-solid-state microsupercapacitors with three-dimensional interdigital electrodes of carbon/polymer electrolyte composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Juan; Wang, Xiaohong; Zhang, Tianyi; Li, Siwei; Liu, Jinghe; Komvopoulos, Kyriakos

    2016-01-01

    Novel all-solid-state microsupercapacitors (MSCs) with three-dimensional (3D) electrodes consisting of active materials (i.e., graphene or activated carbon (AC) particles) and polymer electrolyte (PE) designed for high-energy-density storage applications were fabricated and tested in this work. The incorporation of PE in the electrode material enhances the accessibility of electrolyte ions to the surface of active materials and decreases the ion diffusion path during electrochemical charge/discharge. For a scan rate of 5 mV s-1, the MSCs with graphene/PE and AC/PE composite electrodes demonstrate a very high areal capacitance of 95 and 134 mF cm-2, respectively, comparable to that of 3D MSCs with liquid electrolyte. In addition, the graphene/PE MSCs show a ˜70% increase in specific capacitance after 10 000 charge/discharge cycles, attributed to an electro-activation process resulting from ion intercalation between the graphene nanosheets. The AC/PE MSCs also demonstrate excellent stability. The results of this study illustrate the potential of the present 3D MSCs for various high-density solid-state energy storage applications.

  18. The hybrid nanostructure of MnCo2O4.5 nanoneedle/carbon aerogel for symmetric supercapacitors with high energy density.

    PubMed

    Hao, Pin; Zhao, Zhenhuan; Li, Liyi; Tuan, Chia-Chi; Li, Haidong; Sang, Yuanhua; Jiang, Huaidong; Wong, C P; Liu, Hong

    2015-09-14

    Current applications of carbon-based supercapacitors are limited by their low energy density. One promising strategy to enhance the energy density is to couple metal oxides with carbon materials. In this study, a porous MnCo2O4.5 nanoneedle/carbon aerogel hybrid nanostructure was synthesized by assembling MnCo2O4.5 nanoneedle arrays on the surface of channel walls of hierarchical porous carbon aerogels derived from chitosan for the supercapacitor application. The synthetic process of the hybrid nanostructure involves two steps, i.e. the growth of Mn-Co precursors on carbon aerogel by a hydrothermal process and the conversion of the precursor into MnCo2O4.5 nanoneedles by calcination. The carbon aerogel exhibits a high electrical conductivity, high specific surface area and porous structure, ensuring high electrochemical performance of the hybrid nanostructure when coupled with the porous MnCo2O4.5 nanoneedles. The symmetric supercapacitor using the MnCo2O4.5 nanoneedle/carbon aerogel hybrid nanostructure as the active electrode material exhibits a high energy density of about 84.3 Wh kg(-1) at a power density of 600 W kg(-1). The voltage window is as high as 1.5 V in neutral aqueous electrolytes. Due to the unique nanostructure of the electrodes, the capacitance retention reaches 86% over 5000 cycles.

  19. High Energy Density All Solid State Asymmetric Pseudocapacitors Based on Free Standing Reduced Graphene Oxide-Co3O4 Composite Aerogel Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Debasis; Lim, Joonwon; Narayan, Rekha; Kim, Sang Ouk

    2016-08-31

    Modern flexible consumer electronics require efficient energy storage devices with flexible free-standing electrodes. We report a simple and cost-effective route to a graphene-based composite aerogel encapsulating metal oxide nanoparticles for high energy density, free-standing, binder-free flexible pseudocapacitive electrodes. Hydrothermally synthesized Co3O4 nanoparticles are successfully housed inside the microporous graphene aerogel network during the room temperature interfacial gelation at the Zn surface. The resultant three-dimensional (3D) rGO-Co3O4 composite aerogel shows mesoporous quasiparallel layer stack morphology with a high loading of Co3O4, which offers numerous channels for ion transport and a 3D interconnected network for high electrical conductivity. All solid state asymmetric pseudocapacitors employing the composite aerogel electrodes have demonstrated high areal energy density of 35.92 μWh/cm(2) and power density of 17.79 mW/cm(2) accompanied by excellent cycle life.

  20. Modifying mixing and instability growth through the adjustment of initial conditions in a high-energy-density counter-propagating shear experiment on OMEGA

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Merritt, E. C.; Doss, F. W.; Loomis, E. N.; Flippo, K. A.; Kline, J. L.

    2015-06-24

    Counter-propagating shear experiments conducted at the OMEGA Laser Facility have been evaluating the effect of target initial conditions, specifically the characteristics of a tracer foil located at the shear boundary, on Kelvin-Helmholtz instability evolution and experiment transition toward nonlinearity and turbulence in the high-energy-density (HED) regime. Experiments are focused on both identifying and uncoupling the dependence of the model initial turbulent length scale in variable-density turbulence models of k-ϵ type on competing physical instability seed lengths as well as developing a path toward fully developed turbulent HED experiments. We present results from a series of experiments controllably and independently varyingmore » two initial types of scale lengths in the experiment: the thickness and surface roughness (surface perturbation scale spectrum) of a tracer layer at the shear interface. We show that decreasing the layer thickness and increasing the surface roughness both have the ability to increase the relative mixing in the system, and thus theoretically decrease the time required to begin transitioning to turbulence in the system. In addition, we also show that we can connect a change in observed mix width growth due to increased foil surface roughness to an analytically predicted change in model initial turbulent scale lengths.« less

  1. Beam steering by computer generated hologram for optical switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Keita; Suzuki, Kenya; Yamaguchi, Joji

    2016-02-01

    We describe a computer generated hologram (CGH) method for application to a multiple input and multiple output (MxN) optical switch based on a liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS). The conventional MxN optical switch needs multiple spatial light modulations. However, the CGH method realizes an MxN optical switch simply with a one-time spatial light modulation, resulting in fewer optical elements and better cost efficiency. Moreover, the intrinsic loss of the proposed MxN switch resulting from beam splitting can be reduced by routing multiple signals with a single knob control, which is called a multi-pole multi-throw switch. In this paper, we demonstrate a 5x5 wavelength selective switch (WSS) and a 2-degree ROADM that we realized using the above CGH method. The experimental results indicate that these switches work well with a crosstalk of < -14.9 dB.

  2. Generation of metal ions in the beam plasma produced by a forevacuum-pressure electron beam source

    SciTech Connect

    Tyunkov, A. V.; Yushkov, Yu. G. Zolotukhin, D. B.; Klimov, A. S.; Savkin, K. P.

    2014-12-15

    We report on the production of metal ions of magnesium and zinc in the beam plasma formed by a forevacuum-pressure electron source. Magnesium and zinc vapor were generated by electron beam evaporation from a crucible and subsequently ionized by electron impact from the e-beam itself. Both gaseous and metallic plasmas were separately produced and characterized using a modified RGA-100 quadrupole mass-spectrometer. The fractional composition of metal isotopes in the plasma corresponds to their fractional natural abundance.

  3. Generation of metal ions in the beam plasma produced by a forevacuum-pressure electron beam source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyunkov, A. V.; Yushkov, Yu. G.; Zolotukhin, D. B.; Savkin, K. P.; Klimov, A. S.

    2014-12-01

    We report on the production of metal ions of magnesium and zinc in the beam plasma formed by a forevacuum-pressure electron source. Magnesium and zinc vapor were generated by electron beam evaporation from a crucible and subsequently ionized by electron impact from the e-beam itself. Both gaseous and metallic plasmas were separately produced and characterized using a modified RGA-100 quadrupole mass-spectrometer. The fractional composition of metal isotopes in the plasma corresponds to their fractional natural abundance.

  4. Generation of Electron Bessel Beams with Nondiffractive Spreading by a Nanofabricated Annular Slit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitoh, Koh; Hirakawa, Kazuma; Nambu, Hiroki; Tanaka, Nobuo; Uchida, Masaya

    2016-04-01

    The shaping of a wavefront of free electrons has been experimentally realized very recently. We report the generation of an electron Bessel beam using a nanofabricated annular slit. We directly observe that electron Bessel beams propagate while maintaining a narrow beam width over a long propagation distance. In addition, we experimentally verify the self-healing property of these electron beams, which can reconstruct their shape after passing an obstacle. The experimental results are compared with simulation results of the propagation including a hexagonal slit. The present technique of electron Bessel beam generation can be used to develop a novel electron-beam-shaping, an atomic manipulation technique, and a new electron microscopy.

  5. Arbitrary polarized beams generated and detected by one phase-only LC-SLM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dong; Qi, Junli; Wang, Weihua; Chen, Yu; Gu, Guohua; Chu, Delin; Zhang, Qianghua; Deng, Haifei; Zhao, Sugui; Han, Jiajia; Wang, Rongfei

    2014-09-01

    Arbitrary polarized beams, including homogeneously polarized beams and cylindrical vector beams, have been generated by an experimental setup with one phase-only liquid crystal spatial light modulator, and a four-path method was demonstrated to measure the polarization degree of detected beams. Besides, another method was proposed to measure the polarization directions of cylindrical vector beams. The polarized states can be calculated by controlling the spatial light modulator and optical intensity obtained from a CCD. The generation setup and detection methods have simple structure and low cost, and they are available for multi wavelength input beams, and the detection methods can realize real-time and on-line measurement.

  6. Phased laser array for generating a powerful laser beam

    DOEpatents

    Holzrichter, John F.; Ruggiero, Anthony J.

    2004-02-17

    A first injection laser signal and a first part of a reference laser beam are injected into a first laser element. At least one additional injection laser signal and at least one additional part of a reference laser beam are injected into at least one additional laser element. The first part of a reference laser beam and the at least one additional part of a reference laser beam are amplified and phase conjugated producing a first amplified output laser beam emanating from the first laser element and an additional amplified output laser beam emanating from the at least one additional laser element. The first amplified output laser beam and the additional amplified output laser beam are combined into a powerful laser beam.

  7. Relativistic electron beam interaction and Ka - generation in solid targets

    SciTech Connect

    Eder, D C; Eidman, K; Fill, E; Pretzler, G; Saemann, A

    1999-06-01

    When fs laser pulses interact with solid surfaces at intensities I{lambda}{sup 2} > 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2} {micro}m{sup 2}, collimated relativistic electron beams are generated. These electrons can be used for producing intense X-radiation (bremsstrahlung or K{sub {alpha}}) for pumping an innershell X-ray laser. The basic concept of such a laser involves the propagation of the electron beam in a material which converts electron energy into appropriate pump photons. Using the ATLAS titanium-sapphire laser at Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, the authors investigate the generation of hot electrons and of characteristic radiation in copper. The laser (200 mJ/130 fs) is focused by means of an off-axis parabola to a diameter of about 10 {micro}m. By varying the position of the focus, they measure the copper K{sub {alpha}} - yield as a function of intensity in a range of 10{sup 15} to 2 x 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2} while keeping the laser pulse energy constant. Surprisingly, the highest emission is obtained at an intensity of about 10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2}. However, this result is readily explained by the weak scaling of the hot-electron temperature with intensity. An efficiency of 2 x 10{sup -4} for the conversion of laser energy into copper K{sub {alpha}} is measured. Simulations of the interaction of the hot electrons with the cold target material and the conversion into X-rays are carried out by means of the TIGER/ITS code, a time-independent, coupled electron/photon Monte Carlo transport code. The code calculates the propagation of individual electrons and the generation of photons in cold material. Comparison of the code predictions with the data shows an efficiency of 15% for the generation of electrons with energies in the 100 keV range. A second experiment involves the demonstration of photopumping of an innershell transition in cobalt by the copper radiation. Comparing the emission with the one of nickel, which is not photopumped by copper K{sub {alpha}} photons

  8. The generation of arbitrary vector beams using a division of a wavefront-based setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalita, Ranjan; Gaffar, Md; Boruah, Bosanta R.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we introduce an arbitrary vector-beam-forming scheme using a simple arrangement involving only one liquid crystal spatial light modulator. An arbitrary vector beam can be obtained by overlapping two orthogonally polarized beams. In most of the existing vector-beam-forming schemes the two orthogonally polarized beams are essentially copies of a single incident wavefront. However, in the proposed scheme the two orthogonally polarized beams correspond to two separated parts of a single incident wavefront. Taking a cue from the two-beam interference phenomenon, the present scheme can be referred to as a division of a wavefront-based scheme. The proposed setup offers certain important advantages and is more suitable for the generation of higher average-power vector beams. We demonstrate the working of the vector-beam-forming scheme by generating various vector beams such as radially polarized, azimuthally polarized, and Bessel-Gauss beams and also a boat-shaped beam in the focal volume of a low-numerical-aperture focusing lens. The boat-shaped beam comprises a dark center surrounded by intense light from all but one direction. The beam is realized at the focus of an azimuthally polarized beam in the presence of a moderate amount of coma in the beam. The experimental results obtained using the proposed setup are verified by comparing them with the theoretical results.

  9. Efficient generation of Hermite-Gauss and Ince-Gauss beams through kinoform phase elements.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Olivas, Dilia; Mellado-Villaseñor, Gabriel; Sánchez-de-la-Llave, David; Arrizón, Victor

    2015-10-01

    We discuss the generation of Hermite-Gauss and Ince-Gauss beams employing phase elements whose transmittances coincide with the phase modulations of such beams. A scaled version of the desired field appears, distorted by marginal optical noise, at the element's Fourier domain. The motivation to perform this study is that, in the context of the proposed approach, the desired beams are generated with the maximum possible efficiency. A disadvantage of the method is the distortion of the desired beams by the influence of several nondesired beam modes generated by the phase elements. We evaluate such distortion employing the root mean square deviation as a figure of merit. PMID:26479622

  10. Design of a 50 TW/20 J chirped-Pulse Amplification Laser for High-Energy-Density Plasma Physics Experiments at the Nevada Terawatt Facility of the University of Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Erlandson, A C; Astanovitskiy, A; Batie, S; Bauer, B; Bayramian, A; Caird, J A; Cowan, T; Ebbers, C; Fuchs, J; Faretto, H; Glassman, J; Ivanov, V; LeGalloudec, B; LeGalloudec, N; Letzring, S; Payne, S; Stuart, B

    2003-09-07

    We have developed a conceptual design for a 50 TW/20 J short-pulse laser for performing high-energy-density plasma physics experiments at the Nevada Terawatt Facility of the University of Nevada, Reno. The purpose of the laser is to develop proton and x-ray radiography techniques, to use these techniques to study z-pinch plasmas, and to study deposition of intense laser energy into both magnetized and unmagnetized plasmas. Our design uses a commercial diode-pumped Nd:glass oscillator to generate 3-nJ. 200-fs mode-locked pulses at 1059 m. An all-reflective grating stretcher increases pulse duration to 1.1 ns. A two-stage chirped-pulse optical parametric amplifier (OPCPA) using BBO crystals boosts pulse energy to 12 mJ. A chain using mixed silicate-phosphate Nd:glass increases pulse energy to 85 J while narrowing bandwidth to 7.4 nm (FWHM). About 50 J is split off to the laser target chamber to generate plasma while the remaining energy is directed to a roof-mirror pulse compressor, where two 21 cm x 42 cm gold gratings recompress pulses to {approx}350 fs. A 30-cm-focal-length off-axis parabolic reflector (OAP) focuses {approx}20 J onto target, producing an irradiance of 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2} in a 10-{micro}m-diameter spot. This paper describes planned plasma experiments, system performance requirements, the laser design, and the target area design.

  11. Ultrafast laser parallel microdrilling using multiple annular beams generated by a spatial light modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Zheng; Perrie, Walter; Edwardson, Stuart P.; Fearon, Eamonn; Dearden, Geoff

    2014-03-01

    Ultrafast laser parallel microdrilling using diffractive multiple annular beam patterns is demonstrated in this paper. The annular beam was generated by diffractive axicon computer generated holograms (CGHs) using a spatial light modulator. The diameter of the annular beam can be easily adjusted by varying the radius of the smallest ring in the axicon. Multiple annular beams with arbitrary arrangement and multiple annular beam arrays were generated by superimposing an axicon CGH onto a grating and lenses algorithm calculated multi-beam CGH and a binary Dammann grating CGH, respectively. Microholes were drilled through a 0.03 mm thick stainless steel foil using the multiple annular beams. By avoiding huge laser output attenuation and mechanical annular scanning, the processing is ˜200 times faster than the normal single beam processing.

  12. Generation of arbitrary order Bessel beams via 3D printed axicons at the terahertz frequency range.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xuli; Liu, Changming; Niu, Liting; Zhang, Zhongqi; Wang, Kejia; Yang, Zhengang; Liu, Jinsong

    2015-12-20

    We present the generation of arbitrary order Bessel beams at 0.3 THz through the implementation of suitably designed axicons based on 3D printing technology. The helical axicons, which possess thickness gradients in both radial and azimuthal directions, can convert the incident Gaussian beam into a high-order Bessel beam with spiral phase structure. The evolution of the generated Bessel beams are characterized experimentally with a three-dimensional field scanner. Moreover, the topological charges carried by the high-order Bessel beams are determined by the fork-like interferograms. This 3D-printing-based Bessel beam generation technique is useful not only for THz imaging systems with zero-order Bessel beams but also for future orbital-angular-momentum-based THz free-space communication with higher-order Bessel beams. PMID:26837031

  13. The hybrid nanostructure of MnCo2O4.5 nanoneedle/carbon aerogel for symmetric supercapacitors with high energy density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Pin; Zhao, Zhenhuan; Li, Liyi; Tuan, Chia-Chi; Li, Haidong; Sang, Yuanhua; Jiang, Huaidong; Wong, C. P.; Liu, Hong

    2015-08-01

    Current applications of carbon-based supercapacitors are limited by their low energy density. One promising strategy to enhance the energy density is to couple metal oxides with carbon materials. In this study, a porous MnCo2O4.5 nanoneedle/carbon aerogel hybrid nanostructure was synthesized by assembling MnCo2O4.5 nanoneedle arrays on the surface of channel walls of hierarchical porous carbon aerogels derived from chitosan for the supercapacitor application. The synthetic process of the hybrid nanostructure involves two steps, i.e. the growth of Mn-Co precursors on carbon aerogel by a hydrothermal process and the conversion of the precursor into MnCo2O4.5 nanoneedles by calcination. The carbon aerogel exhibits a high electrical conductivity, high specific surface area and porous structure, ensuring high electrochemical performance of the hybrid nanostructure when coupled with the porous MnCo2O4.5 nanoneedles. The symmetric supercapacitor using the MnCo2O4.5 nanoneedle/carbon aerogel hybrid nanostructure as the active electrode material exhibits a high energy density of about 84.3 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 600 W kg-1. The voltage window is as high as 1.5 V in neutral aqueous electrolytes. Due to the unique nanostructure of the electrodes, the capacitance retention reaches 86% over 5000 cycles.Current applications of carbon-based supercapacitors are limited by their low energy density. One promising strategy to enhance the energy density is to couple metal oxides with carbon materials. In this study, a porous MnCo2O4.5 nanoneedle/carbon aerogel hybrid nanostructure was synthesized by assembling MnCo2O4.5 nanoneedle arrays on the surface of channel walls of hierarchical porous carbon aerogels derived from chitosan for the supercapacitor application. The synthetic process of the hybrid nanostructure involves two steps, i.e. the growth of Mn-Co precursors on carbon aerogel by a hydrothermal process and the conversion of the precursor into MnCo2O4.5 nanoneedles by

  14. The Effective Design of a Polysulfide-Trapped Separator at the Molecular Level for High Energy Density Li-S Batteries.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chao-Ying; Yuan, Hai-Yan; Li, Huan-Huan; Wang, Hai-Feng; Li, Wen-Liang; Sun, Hai-Zhu; Wu, Xing-Long; Zhang, Jing-Ping

    2016-06-29

    In this work, the lightweight and scalable organic macromolecule graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) with enriched polysulfide adsorption sites of pyridinic-N was introduced to achieve the effective functionalization of separator at the molecular level. This simple method overcomes the difficulty of low doping content as well as the existence of an uncontrolled form of nitrogen heteroatom in the final product. Besides the conventional pyridinic-N-Li bond formed in the vacancies of g-C3N4, the C-S bond was interestingly observed between g-C3N4 and Li2S, which endowed g-C3N4 with an inherent adsorption capacity for polysulfides. In addition, the microsized g-C3N4 provided the coating layer with good mechanical strength to guarantee its restriction function for polysulfides during long cycling. As a result, an excellent reversible capacity of 840 mA h g(-1) was retained at 0.5 C after 400 cycles for a pure sulfur electrode, much better than that of the cell with an innocent carbon-coated separator. Even at a current density of 1 C, the cell still delivered a stable capacity of 732.7 mA h g(-1) after 500 cycles. Moreover, when further increasing the sulfur loading to 5 mg cm(-2), an excellent specific capacity of 1134.7 mA h g(-1) was acquired with the stable cycle stability, ensuring a high areal capacity of 5.11 mA h cm(-2). Besides the intrinsic adsorption ability for polysulfides, g-C3N4 is nontoxic and mass produced. Therefore, a scalable separator decorated with g-C3N4 and a commercial sulfur cathode promises high energy density for the practical application of Li-S batteries.

  15. Unraveling the Voltage-Fade Mechanism in High-Energy-Density Lithium-Ion Batteries: Origin of the Tetrahedral Cations for Spinel Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Mohanty, Debasish; Li, Jianlin; Abraham, Daniel P.; Huq, Ashfia; Payzant, E. Andrew; Wood, David L.; Daniel, Claus

    2014-09-30

    Discovery of high-voltage layered lithium-and manganese-rich (LMR) composite oxide electrode has dramatically enhanced the energy density of current Li-ion energy storage systems. However, practical usage of these materials is currently not viable because of their inability to maintain a consistent voltage profile (voltage fading) during subsequent charge-discharge cycles. This report rationalizes the cause of this voltage fade by providing the evidence of layer to spinel-like (LSL) structural evolution pathways in the host Li1.2Mn0.55Ni0.15Co0.1O2 LMR composite oxide. By employing neutron powder diffraction, and temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility, we show that LSL structural rearrangement in LMR oxide occurs through a tetrahedral cation intermediate via: i) diffusion of lithium atoms from octahedral to tetrahedral sites of the lithium layer [(LiLioct →LiLitet] which is followed by the dispersal of the lithium ions from the adjacent octahedral site of the metal layer to the tetrahedral sites of lithium layer [LiTM oct → LiLitet]; and ii) migration of Mn from the octahedral sites of the transition metal layer to the permanent octahedral site of lithium layer via tetrahedral site of lithium layer [MnTMoct MnLitet MnLioct)]. The findings opens the door to the potential routes to mitigate this atomic restructuring in the high-voltage LMR composite oxide cathodes by manipulating the composition/structure for practical use in high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries.

  16. Unraveling the Voltage-Fade Mechanism in High-Energy-Density Lithium-Ion Batteries: Origin of the Tetrahedral Cations for Spinel Conversion

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mohanty, Debasish; Li, Jianlin; Abraham, Daniel P.; Huq, Ashfia; Payzant, E. Andrew; Wood, David L.; Daniel, Claus

    2014-09-30

    Discovery of high-voltage layered lithium-and manganese-rich (LMR) composite oxide electrode has dramatically enhanced the energy density of current Li-ion energy storage systems. However, practical usage of these materials is currently not viable because of their inability to maintain a consistent voltage profile (voltage fading) during subsequent charge-discharge cycles. This report rationalizes the cause of this voltage fade by providing the evidence of layer to spinel-like (LSL) structural evolution pathways in the host Li1.2Mn0.55Ni0.15Co0.1O2 LMR composite oxide. By employing neutron powder diffraction, and temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility, we show that LSL structural rearrangement in LMR oxide occurs through a tetrahedral cationmore » intermediate via: i) diffusion of lithium atoms from octahedral to tetrahedral sites of the lithium layer [(LiLioct →LiLitet] which is followed by the dispersal of the lithium ions from the adjacent octahedral site of the metal layer to the tetrahedral sites of lithium layer [LiTM oct → LiLitet]; and ii) migration of Mn from the octahedral sites of the transition metal layer to the permanent octahedral site of lithium layer via tetrahedral site of lithium layer [MnTMoct MnLitet MnLioct)]. The findings opens the door to the potential routes to mitigate this atomic restructuring in the high-voltage LMR composite oxide cathodes by manipulating the composition/structure for practical use in high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries.« less

  17. The Effective Design of a Polysulfide-Trapped Separator at the Molecular Level for High Energy Density Li-S Batteries.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chao-Ying; Yuan, Hai-Yan; Li, Huan-Huan; Wang, Hai-Feng; Li, Wen-Liang; Sun, Hai-Zhu; Wu, Xing-Long; Zhang, Jing-Ping

    2016-06-29

    In this work, the lightweight and scalable organic macromolecule graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) with enriched polysulfide adsorption sites of pyridinic-N was introduced to achieve the effective functionalization of separator at the molecular level. This simple method overcomes the difficulty of low doping content as well as the existence of an uncontrolled form of nitrogen heteroatom in the final product. Besides the conventional pyridinic-N-Li bond formed in the vacancies of g-C3N4, the C-S bond was interestingly observed between g-C3N4 and Li2S, which endowed g-C3N4 with an inherent adsorption capacity for polysulfides. In addition, the microsized g-C3N4 provided the coating layer with good mechanical strength to guarantee its restriction function for polysulfides during long cycling. As a result, an excellent reversible capacity of 840 mA h g(-1) was retained at 0.5 C after 400 cycles for a pure sulfur electrode, much better than that of the cell with an innocent carbon-coated separator. Even at a current density of 1 C, the cell still delivered a stable capacity of 732.7 mA h g(-1) after 500 cycles. Moreover, when further increasing the sulfur loading to 5 mg cm(-2), an excellent specific capacity of 1134.7 mA h g(-1) was acquired with the stable cycle stability, ensuring a high areal capacity of 5.11 mA h cm(-2). Besides the intrinsic adsorption ability for polysulfides, g-C3N4 is nontoxic and mass produced. Therefore, a scalable separator decorated with g-C3N4 and a commercial sulfur cathode promises high energy density for the practical application of Li-S batteries. PMID:27285289

  18. Improved dispensing targets for ion beam particle generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.

    1974-01-01

    Beam impinges on palladium-silver tube, which is target, and heats impinged surface causing local hot spot. Contained gas diffuses through hot spot to meet incoming beam and produce desired particles. When beam is turned off, target spot cools and stops dispensing contained gas.

  19. Photorefractive and computational holography in the experimental generation of Airy beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez, Rafael A. B.; Vieira, Tarcio A.; Yepes, Indira S. V.; Gesualdi, Marcos R. R.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we present the experimental generation of Airy beams via computational and photorefractive holography. Experimental generation of Airy beams using conventional optical components presents several difficulties and a practically infeasible. Thus, the optical generation of Airy beams has been made from the optical reconstruction of a computer generated hologram implemented by a spatial light modulator. In the photorefractive holography technique, being used for the first time to our knowledge, the hologram of an Airy beam is constructed (recorded) and reconstructed (read) optically in a nonlinear photorefractive medium. The Airy beam experimental realization was made by a setup of computational and photorefractive holography using a photorefractive Bi12 TiO20 crystal as holographic recording medium. Airy beams and Airy beam arrays were obtained experimentally in accordance with the predicted theory; with excellent prospects for applications in optical trapping and optical communications systems.

  20. Nonlinear evolution of Airy-like beams generated by modulated waveguide arrays.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zheng; Tan, Qinggui; Li, Xiaojun; Qi, Xinyuan

    2016-08-20

    We numerically study the formation of modulated waveguide generated Airy-like beams and their subsequent evolution in homogeneous medium. The results show that the Airy-like beams could be generated from narrow Gaussian beams propagating in one-dimensional transverse separation modulated unbent, cosine bent, or logarithm bent waveguide arrays, respectively. The waveguide-generated Airy-like beams maintain their characteristics when propagating without nonlinearity or under the self-defocusing nonlinearity in homogeneous medium, while the beams are distorted under the self-focusing nonlinearity. The deformation depends on the waveguide bending and the outgoing angles of the Airy-like beams. Our results provide a new way to generate and manipulate the Airy-like beam.

  1. RF Guns for Generation of Polarized Electron Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Clendenin, J.E.; Brachmann, A.; Dowell, D.H.; Garwin, E.L.; Ioakeimidi, K.; Kirby, R.E.; Maruyama, T.; Prescott, C.Y.; Prepost, R.; /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2005-11-09

    Several accelerators, including the SLC, JLAB, Mainz, Bates/MIT, and Bonn have successfully operated for medium and high energy physics experiments using polarized electron beams generated by dc-biased guns employing GaAs photocathodes. Since these guns have all used a bias on the order of 100 kV, the longitudinal emittance of the extracted bunch is rather poor. Downstream rf bunching systems increase the transverse emittance. An rf gun with a GaAs photocathode would eliminate the need for separate rf bunchers, resulting in a simpler injection system. In addition, the thermal emittance of GaAs-type cathodes is significantly lower than for other photocathode materials. The environmental requirements for operating activated GaAs photocathodes cannot be met by rf guns as currently designed and operated. These requirements, including limits on vacuum and electron back bombardment, are discussed in some detail. Modifications to actual and proposed rf gun designs that would allow these requirements to be met are presented.

  2. Naphthalene and acenaphthene decomposition by electron beam generated plasma application

    SciTech Connect

    Ostapczuk, A.; Hakoda, T.; Shimada, A.; Kojima, T.

    2008-08-15

    The application of non-thermal plasma generated by electron beam (EB) was investigated in laboratory scale to study decomposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons like naphthalene and acenaphthene in flue gas. PAH compounds were treated by EB with the dose up to 8 kGy in dry and humid base gas mixtures. Experimentally established G-values gained 1.66 and 3.72 mol/100 eV for NL and AC at the dose of 1 kGy. NL and AC removal was observed in dry base gas mixtures showing that the reaction with OH radical is not exclusive pathway to initialize PAH decomposition; however in the presence of water remarkably higher decomposition efficiency was observed. As by-products of NL decomposition were identified compounds containing one aromatic ring and oxygen atoms besides CO and CO{sub 2}. It led to the conclusion that PAH decomposition process in humid flue gas can be regarded as multi-step oxidative de-aromatization analogical to its atmospheric chemistry.

  3. Vortex array laser beam generation from a Dove prism-embedded unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer.

    PubMed

    Chu, Shu-Chun; Yang, Chao-Shun; Otsuka, Kenju

    2008-11-24

    This paper proposes a new scheme for generating vortex laser beams from a laser. The proposed system consists of a Dove prism embedded in an unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer configuration. This configuration allows controlled construction of p x p vortex array beams from Ince-Gaussian modes, IG(e) (p,p) modes. An incident IG(e)(p,p) laser beam of variety order p can easily be generated from an end-pumped solid-state laser system with an off-axis pumping mechanism. This study simulates this type of vortex array laser beam generation, analytically derives the vortex positions of the resulting vortex array laser beams, and discusses beam propagation effects. The resulting vortex array laser beam can be applied to optical tweezers and atom traps in the form of two-dimensional arrays, or used to study the transfer of angular momentum to micro particles or atoms (Bose-Einstein condensate).

  4. The second generation Singapore high resolution proton beam writing facilitya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Kan, J. A.; Malar, P.; Baysic de Vera, Armin

    2012-02-01

    A new proton beam focusing facility, designed for proton beam writing (PBW) applications has been tested. PBW allows for proximity free structuring of high aspect ratio, high-density 3D nanostructures. The new facility is designed around OM52 compact quadrupole lenses capable of operating in a variety of high demagnification configurations. Performance tests show that proton beams can be focused down to 19.0 × 29.9 nm2 and single line scans show a beam width of 12.6 nm. The ultimate goal of sub 10 nm structuring with MeV protons will be discussed.

  5. The second generation Singapore high resolution proton beam writing facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kan, J. A. van; Malar, P.; Baysic de Vera, Armin

    2012-02-15

    A new proton beam focusing facility, designed for proton beam writing (PBW) applications has been tested. PBW allows for proximity free structuring of high aspect ratio, high-density 3D nanostructures. The new facility is designed around OM52 compact quadrupole lenses capable of operating in a variety of high demagnification configurations. Performance tests show that proton beams can be focused down to 19.0 x 29.9 nm{sup 2} and single line scans show a beam width of 12.6 nm. The ultimate goal of sub 10 nm structuring with MeV protons will be discussed.

  6. Polar POLICRYPS diffractive structures generate cylindrical vector beams

    SciTech Connect

    Alj, Domenico; Caputo, Roberto Umeton, Cesare; Paladugu, Sathyanarayana; Volpe, Giovanni

    2015-11-16

    Local shaping of the polarization state of a light beam is appealing for a number of applications. This can be achieved by employing devices containing birefringent materials. In this article, we present one such enables converting a uniformly circularly polarized beam into a cylindrical vector beam (CVB). This device has been fabricated by exploiting the POLICRYPS (POlymer-LIquid CRYstals-Polymer-Slices) photocuring technique. It is a liquid-crystal-based optical diffraction grating featuring polar symmetry of the director alignment. We have characterized the resulting CVB profile and polarization for the cases of left and right circularly polarized incoming beams.

  7. Polar POLICRYPS diffractive structures generate cylindrical vector beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alj, Domenico; Paladugu, Sathyanarayana; Volpe, Giovanni; Caputo, Roberto; Umeton, Cesare

    2015-11-01

    Local shaping of the polarization state of a light beam is appealing for a number of applications. This can be achieved by employing devices containing birefringent materials. In this article, we present one such enables converting a uniformly circularly polarized beam into a cylindrical vector beam (CVB). This device has been fabricated by exploiting the POLICRYPS (POlymer-LIquid CRYstals-Polymer-Slices) photocuring technique. It is a liquid-crystal-based optical diffraction grating featuring polar symmetry of the director alignment. We have characterized the resulting CVB profile and polarization for the cases of left and right circularly polarized incoming beams.

  8. Contribution of longitudinal electric field of a gaussian beam to second harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, S. R.; Rustagi, K. C.

    1990-01-01

    A laser beam with a nonuniform transverse intensity profile necessarily has a longitudinal component of the electric field. We show that a detectable second harmonic can be generated due to coupling of this longitudinal component with the transverse field of a gaussian beam in a configuration in which second harmonic generation is forbidden for plane wave interaction.

  9. Fault detection and protection system for neutral beam generators on the Neutral Beam Engineering Test Facility (NBETF)

    SciTech Connect

    deVries, G.J.; Chesley, K.L.; Owren, H.M.

    1983-12-01

    Neutral beam sources, their power supplies and instrumentation can be damaged from high voltage sparkdown or from overheating due to excessive currents. The Neutral Beam Engineering Test Facility (NBETF) in Berkeley has protective electronic hardware that senses a condition outside a safe operating range and generates a response to terminate such a fault condition. A description of this system is presented in this paper. 8 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  10. Generation of tunable chain of three-dimensional optical bottle beams via focused multi-ring hollow Gaussian beam.

    PubMed

    Philip, Geo M; Viswanathan, Nirmal K

    2010-11-01

    We report here the generation of a chain of three-dimensional (3-D) optical bottle beams by focusing a π-phase shifted multi-ring hollow Gaussian beam (HGB) using a lens with spherical aberration. The rings of the HGB of suitable radial (k(r)) and axial (k(z)) wave vectors are generated using a double-negative axicon chemically etched in the optical fiber tips. Moving the lens position with respect to the fiber tip results in variation of the semi-angle of the cones of wave vectors of the HGBs and their diameter, using which we demonstrate tunability in the size and the periodicity of the 3-D optical bottle beams over a wide range, from micrometers to millimeters. The propagation characteristics of the beams resulting from focusing of single- and multi-ring HGBs and resulting in a quasi-non-diffracting beam and a chain of 3-D optical bottle beams, respectively, are simulated using only the input beam parameters and are found to agree well with experimental results.

  11. Method and split cavity oscillator/modulator to generate pulsed particle beams and electromagnetic fields

    DOEpatents

    Clark, M. Collins; Coleman, P. Dale; Marder, Barry M.

    1993-01-01

    A compact device called the split cavity modulator whose self-generated oscillating electromagnetic field converts a steady particle beam into a modulated particle beam. The particle beam experiences both signs of the oscillating electric field during the transit through the split cavity modulator. The modulated particle beam can then be used to generate microwaves at that frequency and through the use of extractors, high efficiency extraction of microwave power is enabled. The modulated beam and the microwave frequency can be varied by the placement of resistive wires at nodes of oscillation within the cavity. The short beam travel length through the cavity permit higher currents because both space charge and pinching limitations are reduced. The need for an applied magnetic field to control the beam has been eliminated.

  12. Method and split cavity oscillator/modulator to generate pulsed particle beams and electromagnetic fields

    DOEpatents

    Clark, M.C.; Coleman, P.D.; Marder, B.M.

    1993-08-10

    A compact device called the split cavity modulator whose self-generated oscillating electromagnetic field converts a steady particle beam into a modulated particle beam. The particle beam experiences both signs of the oscillating electric field during the transit through the split cavity modulator. The modulated particle beam can then be used to generate microwaves at that frequency and through the use of extractors, high efficiency extraction of microwave power is enabled. The modulated beam and the microwave frequency can be varied by the placement of resistive wires at nodes of oscillation within the cavity. The short beam travel length through the cavity permit higher currents because both space charge and pinching limitations are reduced. The need for an applied magnetic field to control the beam has been eliminated.

  13. Return Current Electron Beams and Their Generation of "Raman" Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, A.

    1998-11-01

    For some years, we(A. Simon and R. W. Short, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53), 1912 (1984). have proposed that the only reasonable explanation for many of the observations of "Raman" scattering is the presence of an electron beam in the plasma. (The beam creates a bump-on-tail instability.) Two major objections to this picture have been observation of Raman when no n_c/4 surface was present, with no likely source for the electron beam, and the necessity for the initially outward directed beam to bounce once to create the proper waves. Now new observations on LLE's OMEGA(R. Petrasso et al), this conference. and at LULI(C. Labaune et al)., Phys. Plasma 5, 234 (1998). have suggested a new origin for the electron beam. This new scenario answers the previous objections, maintains electron beams as the explanation of the older experiments, and may clear up puzzling observations that have remained unexplained. The new scenario is based on two assumptions: (1) High positive potentials develop in target plasmas during their creation. (2) A high-intensity laser beam initiates spark discharges from nearby surfaces to the target plasma. The resulting return current of electrons should be much more delta-like, is initially inwardly directed, and no longer requires the continued presence of a n_c/4 surface. Scattering of the interaction beam from the BOT waves yields the observed Raman signal. Experimental observations that support this picture will be cited. ``Pulsation'' of the scattering and broadband ``flashes'' are a natural part of this scenario. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC03-92SF19460.

  14. PREVAIL: IBM's e-beam technology for next generation lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeiffer, Hans C.

    2000-07-01

    PREVAIL - Projection Reduction Exposure with Variable Axis Immersion Lenses represents the high throughput e-beam projection approach to NGL which IBM is pursuing in cooperation with Nikon Corporation as alliance partner. This paper discusses the challenges and accomplishments of the PREVAIL project. The supreme challenge facing all e-beam lithography approaches has been and still is throughput. Since the throughput of e-beam projection systems is severely limited by the available optical field size, the key to success is the ability to overcome this limitation. The PREVAIL technique overcomes field-limiting off-axis aberrations through the use of variable axis lenses, which electronically shift the optical axis simultaneously with the deflected beam so that the beam effectively remains on axis. The resist images obtained with the Proof-of-Concept (POC) system demonstrate that PREVAIL effectively eliminates off- axis aberrations affecting both resolution and placement accuracy of pixels. As part of the POC system a high emittance gun has been developed to provide uniform illumination of the patterned subfield and to fill the large numerical aperture projection optics designed to significantly reduce beam blur caused by Coulomb interaction.

  15. Direct patterning of vortex generators on a fiber tip using a focused ion beam.

    PubMed

    Vayalamkuzhi, Pramitha; Bhattacharya, Shanti; Eigenthaler, Ulrike; Keskinbora, Kahraman; Samlan, C T; Hirscher, Michael; Spatz, Joachim P; Viswanathan, Nirmal K

    2016-05-15

    The realization of spiral phase optical elements on the cleaved end of an optical fiber by focused ion beam milling is presented. A focused Ga+ ion beam with an acceleration voltage of 30 keV is used to etch continuous spiral phase plates and fork gratings directly on the tip of the fiber. The phase characteristics of the output beam generated by the fabricated structures measured via an interference experiment confirmed the presence of phase singularity in the output beam. The devices are expected to be promising candidates for all-fiber beam shaping and optical trapping applications.

  16. Low-energy run of Fermilab Electron Cooler's beam generation system

    SciTech Connect

    Prost, Lionel; Shemyakin, Alexander; Fedotov, Alexei; Kewisch, Jorg; /Brookhaven

    2010-08-01

    As a part of a feasibility study of using the Fermilab Electron Cooler for a low-energy Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) run at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), the cooler operation at 1.6 MeV electron beam energy was tested in a short beam line configuration. The main result of the study is that the cooler beam generation system is suitable for BNL needs. In a striking difference with running 4.3 MeV beam, no unprovoked beam recirculation interruptions were observed.

  17. Investigation of structure-dielectric property relationships in zirconium oxide, tantalum pentoxide, and oxide-polymer laminate films for high energy density capacitor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sethi, Guneet

    Pulsed power applications involve transformation of electrical energy into high-peak power pulses through capacitors. There is an immediate need for fast-response capacitors with decreased volume, weight, and cost for pulsed power applications and power distribution systems. This research challenge is dominated by energy density. Energy density is directly related to dielectric properties such as dielectric polarization, conductivity and breakdown strength of the capacitor dielectric. This research work correlates processing and microstructure of single and multiple component dielectric films with their dielectric properties. The inorganic materials studied in this dissertation include zirconium oxide (ZrO2) and tantalum pentoxide (Ta 2O5) reactive sputtered films. Film crystallization & structure was studied as a function of sputtering growth variables such as sputtering power, sputtering pressure, source frequency, oxygen pressure, substrate temperature, substrate material, and post-deposition annealing temperature. Polycrystalline phase of ZrO2 and amorphous phase of Ta2O 5 were obtained for most sputtering growth variables. Although the amorphous films have lower permittivity (32 for amorphous & 51 for polycrystalline at 1 kHz), they also have lower AC and DC conductivities (3.4x10-8 S/m for amorphous & 12.2x10 -8 S/m for polycrystalline at 1 kHz), which result in high breakdown strength than polycrystalline films. Amorphous Ta2O5 films are found to be ideal for high-energy density capacitors with energy density of 14 J/cm3 because of their high permittivity, low leakage current density, and high dielectric breakdown strength. Oxide films were combined with different polymers (polyvinyldene flouride-triflouroethylene, polypropylene and polyethylene terephthalate) to produce two different kinds of laminate composites---oxide on polymer and polymer on oxide. Permittivity and conductivity differences in the polymer and oxide films result in an impedance contrast

  18. Generation mechanism of whistler waves produced by electron beam injection in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchett, P. L.; Karimabadi, H.; Omidi, N.

    1989-01-01

    Electromagnetic particle simulations are used to determine the generation mechanism of the whistler waves observed in connection with the artificial injection of electron beams in the ionosphere. The production of the waves is shown to be closely connected with the beam-plasma interaction, which leads to the formation of a current structure which acts like an antenna and emits the whistler waves in a coherent manner. This process, in contrast to a mechanism involving amplification of radiation by a whistler mode plasma instability within the beam, allows the whistlers to be generated even though the beam width is less than one wavelength.

  19. High current density sheet-like electron beam generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow-Miller, Cora; Korevaar, Eric; Schuster, John

    Sheet electron beams are very desirable for coupling to the evanescent waves in small millimeter wave slow-wave circuits to achieve higher powers. In particular, they are critical for operation of the free-electron-laser-like Orotron. The program was a systematic effort to establish a solid technology base for such a sheet-like electron emitter system that will facilitate the detailed studies of beam propagation stability. Specifically, the effort involved the design and test of a novel electron gun using Lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6) as the thermionic cathode material. Three sets of experiments were performed to measure beam propagation as a function of collector current, beam voltage, and heating power. The design demonstrated its reliability by delivering 386.5 hours of operation throughout the weeks of experimentation. In addition, the cathode survived two venting and pump down cycles without being poisoned or losing its emission characteristics. A current density of 10.7 A/sq cm. was measured while operating at 50 W of ohmic heating power. Preliminary results indicate that the nearby presence of a metal plate can stabilize the beam.

  20. Characteristics of low energy atom and molecule beams generated by the charge exchange reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Hara, Yasuhiro; Takashima, Seigo; Toyoda, Hirotaka; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru; Yamakawa, Koji; Den, Shoji

    2008-03-01

    A low energy NB source, which consisted of a surface wave plasma (SWP) source and two large diameter carbon electrodes, was developed for damageless etching of ultralarge-scale integrated devices. Ion beams were extracted from the SWP using two carbon electrodes, accelerated and injected to the process chamber, and then neutralized without energy loss by a charge exchange reaction. The energy distribution functions of an Ar ion beam and an Ar atom beam was observed using a quadrupole mass spectroscope equipped with an energy analyzer. The energy of the Ar ion beam and the Ar atom beam was controlled by the acceleration voltage. N{sub 2} ion and N ion beams were also extracted from a nitrogen plasma source. The intensity ratio of the N ion beam to the N{sub 2} ion beam was 5:9, indicating that N ions were efficiently generated in the nitrogen SWP. The N{sub 2} ion and N ion beams were changed to N{sub 2} molecule and N atom beams, respectively, through a charge exchange reaction without energy loss. The energy of these beams was controlled by the acceleration voltage and was in the region less of than 100 eV. When the acceleration voltage is higher than 40 V, not only the primary peaks due to the N{sub 2} ion beam or N ion beam were observed but also a low energy second peak was observed in the energy distribution. The energy of the low energy second peak was controlled by the acceleration voltage. It was concluded that the low energy second peak corresponds to the N{sub 2} molecule ion beam and the N ion beam, which is extracted from the second plasma generated in the space between the two carbon electrodes.