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Sample records for bean leaves exposed

  1. Developmental and anatomical changes in leaves of yellow birch and red kidney bean exposed to simulated acid precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Paparozzi, E.T.; Tukey, H.B. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Leaves of Betula alleghaniensis Britt. (yellow birch) and Phaseolus vulgaris L cv. Red Kidney (bean) were examined microscopically during development and after exposure to simulated rain of pH 5.5, 4.3, 3.2, and 2.8. Yellow birch leaves attained maximal leaf area, midvein length, and cuticle thickness at 21 days. Trichomes were either long, unicellular, or multicellular with caplike head and stalk. Epicuticular wax was a bumpy and amorphous layer. The 2nd trifoliolate leaf of red kidney bean attained maximal leaf area, midvein length, and cuticle thickness when the 3rd trifoliolate leaf was expanding. Trichomes present were long, with a unicellular head and a multicellular base; long, unicellular, and terminally hooked; and small and multicellular. Epicuticular wax was present as small irregular flakes. After 2 days of pH 2.8 and 4 days of pH 3.2 simulated acid rain, round yellow and small tan lesions appeared on birch and bean leaves, respectively. Most injury occurred on or between small veins. Most trichome types were uninjured. Lesions formed as a result of collapsed epidermal and highly plasmolyzed palisade cells. The cuticle was still present over injured epidermal cells and epicuticular waxes were unchanged. There was not statistical difference in mean cuticle thickness due to pH of simulated rain. 25 references, 10 figures, 4 tables.

  2. Want to Leave Dinner Feeling Full? Bring on The Beans

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Leave Dinner Feeling Full? Bring on the Beans Vegetable patties make diners feel fuller than meat ... Jan. 11, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Legumes such as beans and peas make people feel fuller after a ...

  3. Proteome Characterization of Leaves in Common Bean

    PubMed Central

    Robison, Faith M.; Heuberger, Adam L.; Brick, Mark A.; Prenni, Jessica E.

    2015-01-01

    Dry edible bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a globally relevant food crop. The bean genome was recently sequenced and annotated allowing for proteomics investigations aimed at characterization of leaf phenotypes important to agriculture. The objective of this study was to utilize a shotgun proteomics approach to characterize the leaf proteome and to identify protein abundance differences between two bean lines with known variation in their physiological resistance to biotic stresses. Overall, 640 proteins were confidently identified. Among these are proteins known to be involved in a variety of molecular functions including oxidoreductase activity, binding peroxidase activity, and hydrolase activity. Twenty nine proteins were found to significantly vary in abundance (p-value < 0.05) between the two bean lines, including proteins associated with biotic stress. To our knowledge, this work represents the first large scale shotgun proteomic analysis of beans and our results lay the groundwork for future studies designed to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in pathogen resistance. PMID:28248269

  4. Response of bush bean exposed to acid mist

    SciTech Connect

    Hindawi, I.J.; Rea, J.A.; Griffis, W.L.

    1980-01-01

    Bush bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris l. Cv. contender) were treated once a week for six weeks with simulated acid mist at five pH levels ranging from 5.5 to 2.0. Leaf injury developed on plants exposed to acid concentrations below pH 3 and many leaves developed a flecking symptom similar to that caused by ozone. An adaxial, interveinal bleached area resembling SO/sub 2/ injury also developed on some trifoliate leaves at the low pH treatments. Microscopic observation of injured trifoliates indicated that the pallisade cells were plasmolyzed and that the chloroplasts lost structural integrity. Reductions in plant weight and chlorophyll content were detected across the pH gradient. Seed and pod growth were reduced at some intermediate acid depositions even though no visible foliar injury developed. Foliar losses of nitrogen, calcium, magnesium and phosphorous increased with decreases in acid mist pH, whereas foliar potassium concentrations were unaffected by acid mist treatment.

  5. Histological effects of aqueous acids and gaseous hydrogen chloride on bean leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Swiecki, T.J.; Endress, A.G.; Taylor, O.C.

    1982-01-01

    Primary leaves of Phaseoulus vulgaris L. (pinto bean), 9 or 12 days from sowing, were exposed to aqueous acids, chloride salts, or hydrogen chloride gas. Leaves were examined for the presence and severity of resultant visible injury and samples for light and scanning electron microscopy. Exposure to 0.06 N HCl, HNO/sub 3/, H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ or 14.5-19.0 mg m/sup -3/ gaseous HCl for 20 min evoked similar foliar injury including glazing and necrosis of the laminas. This injury appeared to result initially from plasmolysis and collapse of the epidermis and subsequently of the underlying mesophyll. Cellular injury was accompanied by various cytoplasmic alterations. Microscopic symptoms observed in leaves exposed to gaseous HCl or aqueous acids included vesicles and particulates within the larger vacuoles. Similar symptoms were present in leaves exposed to polyethylene glycol 6000. Differential effects included formation of necrotic pits and preferential injury to paravascular tissues in leaves treated with aqueous acids and crystalline chloroplast inclusions in gaseous HCl-treated and water-stressed leaves. The visible and microscopic appearances of leaves exposed to aqueous acids or gaseous HCl were compared and related to injury stemming from acid precipitation and a possible mechanism of action for gaseous HCl phytotoxicity.

  6. Effect of Gibberellic Acid on Crown Gall Tumor Induction in Aging Primary Pinto Bean Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Vinod K.; Bauer, Chris; Heberlein, Gary T.

    1975-01-01

    Gibberellic acid was tested for its effect on tumor induction by Agrobacterium tumefaciens in primary pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) leaves in various stages of development. The hormone was found to promote tumor induction in partially aged leaves but did not effect tumor induction in very young leaves or in fully matured leaves. It is suggested that the natural loss of susceptibility to tumor induction in maturing pinto bean leaves is associated with a concomitant loss of endogenous gibberellins and/or a sensitivity to gibberellins. PMID:16659201

  7. Xanthophylls and abscisic acid biosynthesis in water-stressed bean leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.; Walton, D.C.

    1987-12-01

    Experiments were designed to obtain evidence about the possible role of xanthophylls as abscisic acid (ABA) precursors in water-stressed leaves of Phaseolus vularis L. Leaves were exposed to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ and the specific activities of several major leaf xanthophylls and stress-induced ABA were determined after a chase in /sup 12/CO/sub 2/ for varying periods of time. The ABA specific radioactivities were about 30 to 70% of that of lutein and violaxanthin regardless of the chase period. The specific activity of neoxanthin, however, was only about 15% of that of ABA. The effects of fluridone on xanthophyll and ABA levels and the extent of labeling of both from /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ were determined. Fluridone did not inhibit the accumulation of ABA when leaves were stressed once, although subsequent stresses in the presence of fluridone did lead to a reduced ABA accumulation. The incorporation of /sup 14/C from /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ into ABA and the xanthophylls was inhibited by fluridone and to about the same extent. The incorporation of /sup 18/O into ABA from violaxanthin which had been labeled in situ by means of the violaxanthin cycle was measured. The results indicated that a portion of the ABA accumulated during stress was formed from violaxanthin which had been labeled with /sup 18/O. The results of these experiments are consistent with a preformed xanthophyll(s) as the major ABA precursor in water-stressed bean leaves.

  8. Immunological detection of bean common mosaic virus in French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Verma, Poonam; Gupta, U P

    2010-09-01

    Bean common mosaic potyvirus (BCMV) is an important seed borne pathogen of French bean. Differential inoculation with bean common mosaic virus at cotylodonary trifoliate leaf stage and pre-flowering stage of crop growth revealed that cotyledonary leaf infection favored maximum disease expression. Under immunosorbent electron microscopy (ISEM) the virus particles of filamentous structure having a diameter of 750 nm (l) and 15 nm (w) were observed. These particles gave positive precipitin tests with polyclonal antiserum of Potato virus Y.

  9. UV-C induces K sup + efflux from bean but not from oat leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Huerta, A.J.; Gueltig, B.G. )

    1990-05-01

    Previous reports have shown that ultraviolet radiation (UV) induces a specific leakage of K{sup +} from cells in culture as well as from guard cells of bean leaves resulting in stomatal closure. In an effort to determine how general this response may be in photosynthetic leaf cells, we measured the UV-C-induced K{sup +} efflux from irradiated 10-14 day-old bean and oat leaf sections. Our results show that oat leaves do not respond to UV-C irradiation with K{sup +} efflux. However UV-C irradiated bean leaves leaked K{sup +} at a rate of approximately 47 nmoles cm{sup {minus}2} h{sup {minus}1} and the leakage was linear for at least 3.5 hours. The source cells for K{sup +} efflux and the possible mechanisms responsible for this difference in UV-sensitivity will be discussed.

  10. Exposure of lima bean leaves to volatiles from herbivore-induced conspecific plants results in emission of carnivore attractants: active or passive process?

    PubMed

    Choh, Yasuyuki; Shimoda, Takeshi; Ozawa, Rika; Dicke, Marcel; Takabayashi, Junji

    2004-07-01

    There is increasing evidence that volatiles emitted by herbivore-damaged plants can cause responses in downwind undamaged neighboring plants, such as the attraction of carnivorous enemies of herbivores. One of the open questions is whether this involves an active (production of volatiles) or passive (adsorption of volatiles) response of the uninfested downwind plant. This issue is addressed in the present study. Uninfested lima bean leaves that were exposed to volatiles from conspecific leaves infested with the spider mite Tetranychus urticae, emitted very similar blends of volatiles to those emitted from infested leaves themselves. Treating leaves with a protein-synthesis inhibitor prior to infesting them with spider mites completely suppressed the production of herbivore-induced volatiles in the infested leaves. Conversely, inhibitor treatment to uninfested leaves prior to exposure to volatiles from infested leaves did not affect the emission of volatiles from the exposed, uninfested leaves. This evidence supports the hypothesis that response of the exposed downwind plant is passive. T. urticae-infested leaves that had been previously exposed to volatiles from infested leaves emitted more herbivore-induced volatiles than T. urticae-infested leaves previously exposed to volatiles from uninfested leaves. The former leaves were also more attractive to the predatory mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis, than the latter. This shows that previous exposure of plants to volatiles from herbivore-infested neighbors results in a stronger response of plants in terms of predator attraction when herbivores damage the plant. This supports the hypothesis that the downwind uninfested plant is actively involved. Both adsorption and production of volatiles can mediate the attraction of carnivorous mites to plants that have been exposed to volatiles from infested neighbors.

  11. Effect of Wilting on Carbohydrates during Incubation of Excised Bean Leaves in the Dark

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Cecil R.

    1971-01-01

    Excised bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) leaves were used to compare the changes in various carbohydrates during dark incubation in a wilted and turgid condition. After a rapid (less than 1 hour) wilt, leaves were incubated at a constant water content (75% of original fresh weight). The starch content of the wilted leaves decreased faster than it did in the turgid leaves. This accelerated starch loss was accompanied by an increase in free (alcohol-soluble) sugars, while no similar increase was observed in the turgid leaves. The increase in free sugars in the wilted leaves during accelerated starch loss was sufficient to account for the decreased starch content in wilted leaves compared to turgid leaves. Thus, total carbohydrate decreased at the same rate in both wilted and turgid leaves during dark incubation. The free sugar which accumulated in the wilted leaves was mainly sucrose. There was no increase in sucrose content of turgid leaves during incubation, although there was a rapid loss of starch. Glucose and fructose also increased during incubation, but there was no difference between the wilted and turgid leaves. These results suggest that wilting of detached leaves caused a conversion of starch to sucrose in the dark. PMID:16657882

  12. The uptake of elemental iodine vapour by bean leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garland, J. A.; Cox, L. C.

    Deposition of iodine vapour to leaves of phaseolus vulgaris was measured over a range of conditions of humidity, temperature and illumination. Transpiration measurements were used to deduce stomatal opening. The results showed that stomatal resistance controlled iodine absorption at relative humidities below 40 per cent, but that the rate of absorption of iodine increased by an order of magnitude when the relative humidity was raised to 80 per cent, presumably due to cuticular absorption. After exposure to iodine at high humidity, a substantial fraction of the iodine could be washed from the leaves. In Britain, cuticular uptake would probably dominate stomatal uptake of iodine on most occasions.

  13. Enhanced success of Mexican bean beetle (coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on glutathione-enriched soybean leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, P.R.; Chiment, J.J. )

    1988-01-01

    Artificial augmentation of soybean leaves with reduced glutathione (GSH) elicited all of the same responses from Mexican bean beetle (MBB), Epilachna varivestis Mulsant, as did fumigation with the air pollutant sulfur dioxide. Larval growth, rate of development, and survivorship as well as adult fecundity and longevity were all significantly greater on excised leaves that had been allowed to imbibe a solution of the tripeptide. In addition, adults showed a strong preference for feeding on the treated leaves over nontreated leaves. Increased fecundity after feeding on treated leaves was a consequence of the earlier and longer period of egg laying rather than a change in the rate of egg production. The effects of GSH treatment were even more distinct than those produced by exposure of plants to the pollutant. These results establish the very close correlation between changes in foliar glutathione and alteration of MBB success on this plant in response to air pollution.

  14. Ca sup 2+ transport in membrane vesicles from pinto bean leaves and its alteration after ozone exposure. [Phaseolus vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    Castillo, F.J.; Heath, R.L. )

    1990-10-01

    The influence of ozone on Ca{sup 2+} transport in plant membranes from pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var Pinto) leaves was investigated in vitro by means of a filtration method using purified vesicles. Two transport mechanisms located at the plasma membrane are involved in a response to ozone: (a) passive Ca{sup 2+} influx into the cell and (b) active Ca{sup 2+} efflux driven by an ATP-dependent system, which has two components: a primary Ca{sup 2+} transport directly linked to ATP which is partially activated by calmodulin and a H{sup +}/Ca{sup 2+} antiport coupled to activity of a H{sup +}-ATPase. The passive Ca{sup 2+} permeability is increased by ozone. A triangular pulse of ozone stimulates a higher influx of Ca{sup 2+} than does a square wave, even though the total dose with the same (0.6 microliter per liter {times} hour). Leaves exposed to a square wave did not exhibit visible injury and were still able to recover from oxidant stress by activation of calmodulin-dependent Ca{sup 2+} extrusion mechanisms. On the other hand, leaves exposed to a triangular wave of ozone, exhibit visible injury and lost the ability of extruding Ca{sup 2+} out of the cell.

  15. Senescence of attached bean leaves accelerated by sprays of silicone oil antitranspirants.

    PubMed

    Neumann, P M

    1974-04-01

    During an investigation into the use of oil emulsions in foliar sprays, it was found that silicone oil emulsions accelerated the senescence of the primary leaves of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) plants. It was shown that accelerated senescence was not a result of the reduced transpiration rates found in silicone-sprayed leaves. Furthermore, the silicone oil emulsions did not induce leakiness in plant cell membranes. The senescence-enhancing effect seems to be connected with the ability of the silicone oil emulsions to penetrate into the leaf interior.

  16. Violaxanthin is an abscisic acid precursor in water-stressed dark-grown bean leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yi; Walton, D.C. )

    1990-03-01

    The leaves a dark-grown bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seedlings accumulate considerably lower quantities of xanthophylls and carotenes than do leaves of light-grown seedlings, but they synthesize at least comparable amounts of abscisic acid (ABA) and its metabolites when water stressed. We observed a 1:1 relationship on a molar basis between the reduction in levels of ciolaxanthin, 9{prime}-cis-neoxanthin, and 9-cis-violaxanthin and the accumulation of ABA, phaseic acid, and dihydrophaseic acid, when leaves from dark-grown plants were stressed for 7 hours. Early in the stress period, reductions in xanthophylls were greater than the accumulation of ABA and its metabolites, suggesting the accumulation of an intermediate which was subsequently converted to ABA. Leaves which were detached, but no stressed, did not accumulate ABA nor were their xanthophyll levels reduced. Leaves from plants that had been sprayed with cycloheximido did not accumulate ABA when stressed, nor were their xanthophyll levels reduced significantly. Incubation of dark-grown stressed leaves in an {sup 18}O{sub 2}-containing atmosphere resulted in the synthesis of ABA with levels of {sup 18}O in the carboxyl group that were virtually identical to those observed in light-grown leaves. The results of these experiments indicate that violaxanthin is an ABA precursor in stressed dark-grown leaves, and they are used to suggest several possible pathways from violaxanthin to ABA.

  17. Growth characteristics of mung beans and water convolvuluses exposed to 425-MHz electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Jinapang, Peeraya; Prakob, Panida; Wongwattananard, Pongtorn; Islam, Naz E; Kirawanich, Phumin

    2010-10-01

    Effects of high-frequency, continuous wave (CW) electromagnetic fields on mung beans (Vigna radiata L.) and water convolvuluses (Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.) were studied at different growth stages (pre-sown seed and early seedling). Specifically, the effects of the electromagnetic source's power and duration (defined as power-duration level) on the growth of the two species were studied. Mung beans and water convolvuluses were exposed to electromagnetic fields inside a specially designed chamber for optimum field absorption, and the responses of the seeds to a constant frequency at various power levels and durations of exposure were monitored. The frequency used in the experiments was 425 MHz, the field strengths were 1 mW, 100 mW, and 10 W, and the exposure durations were 1, 2, and 4 h. Results show that germination enhancement is optimum for the mung beans at 100 mW/1 h power-duration level, while for water convolvuluses the optimum germination power-duration level was 1 mW/2 h. When both seed types were exposed at the early sprouting phase with their respective optimum power-duration levels for optimum seed growth, water convolvuluses showed growth enhancement while mung bean sprouts showed no effects. Water content analysis of the seeds suggests thermal effects only at higher field strength.

  18. Isolation and characterization of endophytic bacteria isolated from the leaves of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Costa, Leonardo Emanuel; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira; Borges, Arnaldo Chaer; de Moraes, Celia Alencar; de Araújo, Elza Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    The common bean is one of the most important legumes in the human diet, but little is known about the endophytic bacteria associated with the leaves of this plant. The objective of this study was to characterize the culturable endophytic bacteria of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) leaves from three different cultivars (Vermelhinho, Talismã, and Ouro Negro) grown under the same field conditions. The density of endophytic populations varied from 4.5 x 102 to 2.8 x 103 CFU g-1 of fresh weight. Of the 158 total isolates, 36.7% belonged to the Proteobacteria, 32.9% to Firmicutes, 29.7% to Actinobacteria, and 0.6% to Bacteroidetes. The three P. vulgaris cultivars showed class distribution differences among Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Bacilli. Based on 16S rDNA sequences, 23 different genera were isolated comprising bacteria commonly associated with soil and plants. The genera Bacillus, Delftia, Methylobacterium, Microbacterium, Paenibacillus, Staphylococcus and Stenotrophomonas were isolated from all three cultivars. To access and compare the community structure, diversity indices were calculated. The isolates from the Talismã cultivar were less diverse than the isolates derived from the other two cultivars. The results of this work indicate that the cultivar of the plant may contribute to the structure of the endophytic community associated with the common bean. This is the first report of endophytic bacteria from the leaves of P. vulgaris cultivars. Future studies will determine the potential application of these isolates in biological control, growth promotion and enzyme production for biotechnology. PMID:24031988

  19. Influence of cadmium on water relations, stomatal resistance, and abscisic acid content in expanding bean leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Poschenrieder, C.; Gunse, B.; Barcelo, J. )

    1989-08-01

    Ten day old bush bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Contender) were used to analyze the effects of 3 micromolar Cd on the time courses of expansion growth, dry weight, leaf water relations, stomatal resistance, and abscisic acid (ABA) levels in roots and leaves. Control and Cd-treated plants were grown for 144 hours in nutrient solution. Samples were taken at 24 hour intervals. At the 96 and 144 hour harvests, additional measurements were made on excised leaves which were allowed to dry for 2 hours. From the 48 hour harvest, Cd-treated plants showed lower leaf relative water contents and higher stomatal resistances than controls. At the same time, root and leaf expansion growth, but not dry weight, was significantly reduced. The turgor potentials of leaves from Cd-treated plants were nonsignificantly higher than those of control leaves. A significant increase (almost 400%) of the leaf ABA concentration was detected after 120 hours exposure to Cd. But Cd was found to inhibit ABA accumulation during drying of excised leaves. It is concluded that Cd-induced decrease of expansion growth is not due to turgor decrease. The possible mechanisms of Cd-induced stomatal closure are discussed.

  20. Cadmium-induced accumulation of putrescine in oat and bean leaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, L. H.; Kaur-Sawhney, R.; Rajam, M. V.; Wettlaufer, S. H.; Galston, A. W.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of Cd2+ on putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd), and spermine (Spm) titers were studied in oat and bean leaves. Treatment with Cd2+ for up to 16 hours in the light or dark resulted in a large increase in Put titer, but had little or no effect on Spd or Spm. The activity of arginine decarboxylase (ADC) followed the pattern of Put accumulation, and experiments with alpha-difluoromethylarginine established that ADC was the enzyme responsible for Put increase. Concentrations of Cd2+ as low as 10 micromolar increased Put titer in oat segments. In bean leaves, there was a Cd(2+)-induced accumulation of Put in the free and soluble conjugated fractions, but not in the insoluble fraction. This suggests a rapid exchange between Put that exists in the free form and Put found in acid soluble conjugate forms. It is concluded that Cd2+ can act like certain other stresses (K+ and Mg2+ deficiency, excess NH4+, low pH, salinity, osmotic stress, wilting) to induce substantial increases in Put in plant cells.

  1. Cadmium-Induced Accumulation of Putrescine in Oat and Bean Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, Leonard H.; Kaur-Sawhney, Ravindar; Rajam, M. Venkat; Wettlaufer, Scott H.; Galston, Arthur W.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of Cd2+ on putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd), and spermine (Spm) titers were studied in oat and bean leaves. Treatment with Cd2+ for up to 16 hours in the light or dark resulted in a large increase in Put titer, but had little or no effect on Spd or Spm. The activity of arginine decarboxylase (ADC) followed the pattern of Put accumulation, and experiments with α-difluoromethylarginine established that ADC was the enzyme responsible for Put increase. Concentrations of Cd2+ as low as 10 micromolar increased Put titer in oat segments. In bean leaves, there was a Cd2+-induced accumulation of Put in the free and soluble conjugated fractions, but not in the insoluble fraction. This suggests a rapid exchange between Put that exists in the free form and Put found in acid soluble conjugated forms. It is concluded that Cd2+ can act like certain other stresses (K+ and Mg2+ deficiency, excess NH4+, low pH, salinity, osmotic stress, wilting) to induce substantial increases in Put in plant cells. PMID:11539091

  2. Response of pinto bean plants exposed to O/sub 3/, SO/sub 2/, or mixtures at varying temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.A.; Davis, D.D.

    1981-08-01

    Pinto bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. ev. Pinto 111) in the uniforliolate leaf stage were exposed for 3 hours to 0.8 ppm SO/sub 2/, 0.25 ppm O/sub 3/ or a mixture of the 2 pollutants at these concentrations at 15, 24, or 32/sup 0/C. Foliage exposed to O/sub 3/ alone developed adaxial stipple and leaves exposed to SO/sub 2/ alone developed interveinal necrosis. The mixture of O/sub 3/ and SO/sub 2/ induce O/sub 3/-type symptoms at 32/sup 0/ and SO/sub 2/-type symptoms at 15/sup 0/. Both symptom types were present at 24/sup 0/. Some abaxial glazing or silvering was also induced by the mixture, and was most common at 15/sup 0/ and 24/sup 0/. Ozone and SO/sub 2/ each induced greater foliar injury at 15/sup 0/ or 32/sup 0/, as compared to 24/sup 0/. The mixture of O/sub 3/ and SO/sub 2/ induced greatest macroscopic foliar injury at 15/sup 0/. The degree of adaxial vs abaxial leaf surface injury varied with temperature.

  3. Synthesis of Suberin during Wound-healing in Jade Leaves, Tomato Fruit, and Bean Pods 1

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Bill Bryan; Kolattukudy, P. E.

    1976-01-01

    The structure and composition of the aliphatic monomers of the polymeric material deposited during wound-healing of tomato fruit, bean pods, and Jade leaves were examined. After removing the cuticle-containing layer of tissue, the wounds were healed for 14 days and the resulting surface layer was excised, lyophilized, solvent-extracted, and depolymerized by hydrogenolysis with LiAlH4 or transesterified with BF3 in methanol. The products obtained by the chemical depolymerization were subjected to thin layer chromatography and combined gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The major aliphatic components isolated from the hydrogenolysate of the wound polymer produced by tomato fruit were hexadecane-1,16-diol and octadec-9-ene-1,18-diol, which were shown to be derived from a 1:1 mixture of ω-hydroxy and dicarboxylic acids of the appropriate chain length by LiAlH4 reduction. Also identified in the wound polymer were long chain (>C20) fatty acids and alcohols. This monomer composition is typical of suberin polymers and is in sharp contrast with that of the cutin of tomato fruit which contains dihydroxy C16 acid as the major aliphatic component. The hydrogenolysis of the wound material from bean pods gave octadecene-1,18-diol as the major aliphatic component, and smaller amounts of hexadecane-1,16-diol and long chain alcohols. Similar treatment of the normal cuticular tissue of these pods gave hexadecane triol, as well as C16 and C18 alcohols. Hydrogenolysis of wound material from the Jade leaves gave octadecene-1,18-diol, C16 and C22 diols, as well as alcohols from C16 to C26, whereas similar treatment of the cutin-containing tissue from these leaves gave C16 triol as the major aliphatic component. Thus, the major aliphatic monomers of the polymeric material deposited during the wound-healing of bean pods and Jade leaves are very similar to those of suberin, although the natural protective polymer of these tissues is cutin. From these results, it is concluded that

  4. Soil organic matter influences cerium translocation and physiological processes in kidney bean plants exposed to cerium oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Sanghamitra; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Trujillo-Reyes, Jesica; Sun, Youping; Barrios, Ana C; Niu, Genhua; Margez, Juan P Flores-; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2016-11-01

    Soil organic matter plays a major role in determining the fate of the engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in the soil matrix and effects on the residing plants. In this study, kidney bean plants were grown in soils varying in organic matter content and amended with 0-500mg/kg cerium oxide nanoparticles (nano-CeO2) under greenhouse condition. After 52days of exposure, cerium accumulation in tissues, plant growth and physiological parameters including photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls and carotenoids), net photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate, and stomatal conductance were recorded. Additionally, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities were measured to evaluate oxidative stress in the tissues. The translocation factor of cerium in the nano-CeO2 exposed plants grown in organic matter enriched soil (OMES) was twice as the plants grown in low organic matter soil (LOMS). Although the leaf cover area increased by 65-111% with increasing nano-CeO2 concentration in LOMS, the effect on the physiological processes were inconsequential. In OMES leaves, exposure to 62.5-250mg/kg nano-CeO2 led to an enhancement in the transpiration rate and stomatal conductance, but to a simultaneous decrease in carotenoid contents by 25-28%. Chlorophyll a in the OMES leaves also decreased by 27 and 18% on exposure to 125 and 250mg/kg nano-CeO2. In addition, catalase activity increased in LOMS stems, and ascorbate peroxidase increased in OMES leaves of nano-CeO2 exposed plants, with respect to control. Thus, this study provides clear evidence that the properties of the complex soil matrix play decisive roles in determining the fate, bioavailability, and biological transport of ENMs in the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Heavy metal accumulation in leaves and beans of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) in major cacao growing regions in Peru.

    PubMed

    Arévalo-Gardini, Enrique; Arévalo-Hernández, Cesar O; Baligar, Virupax C; He, Zhenli L

    2017-12-15

    Peru is one of the leading exporters of organic cacao beans in the world. However, the accumulation of heavy metals in cacao beans represents a problem for cocoa bean export and chocolate quality. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution and accumulation of heavy metals in cacao leaves and cocoa beans in three major cacao growing regions of Peru. The study was conducted in cacao plantations of 10 to 15years old in three regions of Peru: North (Regions of Tumbes, Piura, Cajamarca, and Amazonas); Center (Regions of Huánuco and San Martin) and South (Junin and Cuzco). Samples of leaf and cacao beans were collected from 70 cacao plantations, and the nature of cacao clone or genotype sampled was recorded. The concentrations of heavy metals such as Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in leaves and beans were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Overall, concentrations of heavy metals were below the critical limits; however, the presence of high levels of Cd in cacao grown in Amazonas, Piura, and Tumbes regions is of primary concern. Plantations of cacao with different cacao clones show differences in Cd accumulation both in leaves and cocoa beans. Therefore, it is promising to screen low Cd accumulator cacao genotypes for safe production of cacao on lightly to moderately Cd contaminated soils. Also, synergism between Zn and Cd present both in plant and soil suggests that Zn has a direct effect on Cd accumulation in cacao. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The effects of rust and anthracnose on the photosynthetic competence of diseased bean leaves.

    PubMed

    Lopes, D B; Berger, R D

    2001-02-01

    ABSTRACT The effects of rust (caused by Uromyces appendiculatus) and anthracnose (caused by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum) and their interaction on the photosynthetic rates of healthy and diseased bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) leaves were determined by gas-exchange analysis, in plants with each disease, grown under controlled conditions. The equation P(x)/P(0) = (1 - x)() was used to relate relative photosynthetic rate (P(x)/P(0)) to proportional disease severity (x), where beta represents the ratio between virtual and visual lesion. The beta values obtained for rust were near one, indicating that the effect of the pathogen on the remaining green leaf area was minimal. The high values of beta obtained for anthracnose (8.46 and 12.18) indicated that the photosynthesis in the green area beyond the necrotic symptoms of anthracnose was severely impaired. The impact of anthracnose on bean leaf photosynthesis should be considered in assessments of the proportion of healthy tissue in diseased leaves. The accurate assessment of the healthy portion of the leaf could improve the use of concepts such as healthy leaf area duration and healthy leaf area absorption, which are valuable predictors of crop yield. The equation used to analyze the interaction between rust and anthracnose on the same leaf was P(z) = P(0) (1 - x)(x) x (1 - y)(y), where P(z) is the relative photosynthetic rate of any given leaf, P(0) is the maximum relative photosynthetic rate, x is anthracnose severity, y is rust severity, betax is the beta value for anthracnose in the presence of rust, and betay is the beta value for rust in the presence of anthracnose. From the resulting response surface, no interaction of the two diseases was observed. Dark respiration rate increased on diseased leaves compared with control leaves. The remaining green leaf area of leaves with both diseases was not a good source to estimate net photosynthetic rate because the effect of anthracnose extended far beyond the visual lesions

  7. Characterization and effect of light on the plasma membrane H(+) -ATPase of bean leaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linnemeyer, P. A.; Van Volkenburgh, E.; Cleland, R. E.

    1990-01-01

    Proton excretion from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) leaf cells is increased by bright white light. To test whether this could be due, at least in part, to an increase in plasma membrane (PM) ATPase activity, PM vesicles were isolated from primary leaves by phase partitioning and used to characterize PM ATPase activity and changes in response to light. ATPase activity was characterized as magnesium ion dependent, vanadate sensitive, and slightly stimulated by potassium chloride. The pH optimum was 6.5, the Km was approximately 0.30 millimolar ATP, and the activity was about 60% latent. PM vesicles were prepared from leaves of plants grown for 11 days in dim red light (growing slowly) or grown for 10 days in dim red light and then transferred to bright white-light for 1 day (growing rapidly). For both light treatments, ATPase specific activity was approximately 600 to 700 nanomoles per milligram protein per minute, and the latency, Km, and sensitivity to potassium chloride were also similar. PM vesicles from plants grown in complete darkness, however, exhibited a twofold greater specific activity. We conclude that the promotion of leaf growth and proton excretion by bright white light is not due to an increase in ATPase specific activity. Light does influence ATPase activity, however; both dim red light and bright white light decreased the ATPase specific activity by nearly 50% as compared with dark-grown leaves.

  8. Characterization and effect of light on the plasma membrane H(+) -ATPase of bean leaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linnemeyer, P. A.; Van Volkenburgh, E.; Cleland, R. E.

    1990-01-01

    Proton excretion from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) leaf cells is increased by bright white light. To test whether this could be due, at least in part, to an increase in plasma membrane (PM) ATPase activity, PM vesicles were isolated from primary leaves by phase partitioning and used to characterize PM ATPase activity and changes in response to light. ATPase activity was characterized as magnesium ion dependent, vanadate sensitive, and slightly stimulated by potassium chloride. The pH optimum was 6.5, the Km was approximately 0.30 millimolar ATP, and the activity was about 60% latent. PM vesicles were prepared from leaves of plants grown for 11 days in dim red light (growing slowly) or grown for 10 days in dim red light and then transferred to bright white-light for 1 day (growing rapidly). For both light treatments, ATPase specific activity was approximately 600 to 700 nanomoles per milligram protein per minute, and the latency, Km, and sensitivity to potassium chloride were also similar. PM vesicles from plants grown in complete darkness, however, exhibited a twofold greater specific activity. We conclude that the promotion of leaf growth and proton excretion by bright white light is not due to an increase in ATPase specific activity. Light does influence ATPase activity, however; both dim red light and bright white light decreased the ATPase specific activity by nearly 50% as compared with dark-grown leaves.

  9. On the mechanism of rejuvenation of ageing detached bean leaves by low-concentration stressors.

    PubMed

    Nyitrai, P; Kovács, E; Király, I; Ovári, M; Keresztes, A

    2009-03-01

    The effect of low concentrations of some stress-inducing compounds of different toxicity and chemical nature, such as Cd and Pb salts or DCMU, was investigated on the senescence of chloroplasts in detached primary leaves of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). After 1 week of senescence followed by root development from the petiole, these agents stimulated chlorophyll accumulation and photosynthetic activity ((14)CO(2) fixation) as compared to the control, thus inducing rejuvenation. Low-concentration stressors increased the level of active cytokinins in roots and leaves during the treatment, as monitored by the Amaranthus betacyanin bioassay and high-pressure liquid chromatography. The lithium ion, an inhibitor of the PIP(2)-IP(3)/DAG signal transduction pathway, abolished the stimulating effect of stressors, both in roots (retarding cytokinin synthesis) and consequently also in leaves (reducing cytokinin-dependent chlorophyll accumulation). This suggests the involvement of the PIP(2)-IP(3)/DAG signal transduction pathway in generation of these consecutive organ-specific responses.

  10. Acid-Soluble Nucleotides of Pinto Bean Leaves at Different Stages of Development 1

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, L. H.; McCune, D. C.; Mancini, Jill F.; van Leuken, P.

    1969-01-01

    Acid-soluble nucleotides of unifoliate leaves of Pinto bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were determined at young, mature, and senescent stages of development. At least 25 components could be distinguished on the basis of inorganic phosphorus determinations and 37 or more fractions on the basis of 32P labeling, with adenosine di- and triphosphates accounting for 60% of the total moles of nucleotide. The total nucleotide P and inorganic P, on a fresh weight basis, decreased about 44% between each stage of leaf development, but decrements in the levels of individual nucleotides varied from this over-all pattern. Minor changes in the relative abundance of the individual nucleotides accompanied aging although the percentage of purine-containing nucleotides decreased with age. Total 32P activity per leaf in the nucleotide pool increased about 3-fold between the young and mature leaves and decreased slightly as leaves became senescent. In general, the specific activities of the nucleotides increased with increased age and adenosine-, guanosine-, uridine-, and cytidine triphosphates and adenosine diphosphate accounted for approximately 90% of the total activity. The changes in the relative sizes and energy status of the nucleotide pools were not so obvious as the changes in other metabolites that have been reported to accompany aging in leaf tissue. PMID:16657232

  11. Isoflavonoid formation as an indicator of UV stress in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. ) leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Beggs, C.J.; Stolzer-Jehle, A.; Wellmann, E.

    1985-11-01

    Induction of the isoflavonoid pigment, coumestrol (3,9-dihydroxy-6H-benzofuro-(3,2-c)(1) benzopyran-6-one), in primary leaves of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var Saxa) by ultraviolet (UV) radiation was used as a quantifiable marker for UV damage to a plant system. Coumestrol was induced only by wavelengths below 300 nanometers and its formation could be reversed by treatment with white, but not red light after the UV irradiation period. Formation of coumestrol by UV could also be prevented over a period of 14 hours by simultaneous irradiation with blue light provided that the blue fluence rate was high enough. The results suggest that coumestrol formation is mediated via UV-induced pyrimidine dimer formation in the plant DNA and the photorepair properties of blue light are discussed with respect to possible increases in solar UV due to stratospheric ozone depletion.

  12. Isoflavonoid Formation as an Indicator of UV Stress in Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Beggs, Christopher J.; Stolzer-Jehle, Andrea; Wellmann, Eckard

    1985-01-01

    Induction of the isoflavonoid pigment, coumestrol (3,9-dihydroxy-6H-benzofuro-[3,2-c][1] benzopyran-6-one), in primary leaves of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var Saxa) by ultraviolet (UV) radiation was used as a quantifiable marker for UV damage to a plant system. Coumestrol was induced only by wavelengths below 300 nanometers and its formation could be reversed by treatment with white, but not red light after the UV irradiation period. Formation of coumestrol by UV could also be prevented over a period of 14 hours by simultaneous irradiation with blue light provided that the blue fluence rate was high enough. The results suggest that coumestrol formation is mediated via UV-induced pyrimidine dimer formation in the plant DNA and the photorepair properties of blue light are discussed with respect to possible increases in solar UV due to stratospheric ozone depletion. PMID:16664463

  13. Light-stimulated cell expansion in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) leaves. I. Growth can occur without photosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Volkenburgh, E.; Cleland, R. E.

    1990-01-01

    Cell expansion in dicotyledonous leaves is strongly stimulated by bright white light (WL), at least in part as a result of light-induced acidification of the cell walls. It has been proposed that photosynthetic reactions are required for light-stimulated transport processes across plasma membranes of leaf cells, including proton excretion. The involvement of photosynthesis in growth and wall acidification of primary leaves of bean has been tested by inhibiting photosynthesis in two ways: by reducing chlorophyll content of intact plants with tentoxin (TX) and by treating leaf discs with 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU). Exposure to bright WL stimulated growth of intact leaves of TX-treated plants. Discs excised from green as well as from TX-or DCMU-treated leaves also responded by growing faster in WL, as long as exogenous sucrose was supplied to the photosynthetically inhibited tissues. The WL caused acidification of the epidermal surface of intact TX-leaves, but acidification of the incubation medium by mesophyll cells only occurred when photosynthesis was not inhibited. It is concluded that light-stimulated cell enlargement of bean leaves, and the necessary acidification of epidermal cell walls, are mediated by a pigment other than chlorophyll. Light-induced proton excretion by mesophyll cells, on the other hand, may require both a photosynthetic product (or exogenous sugars) and a non-photosynthetic light effect.

  14. Light-stimulated cell expansion in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) leaves. I. Growth can occur without photosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Volkenburgh, E.; Cleland, R. E.

    1990-01-01

    Cell expansion in dicotyledonous leaves is strongly stimulated by bright white light (WL), at least in part as a result of light-induced acidification of the cell walls. It has been proposed that photosynthetic reactions are required for light-stimulated transport processes across plasma membranes of leaf cells, including proton excretion. The involvement of photosynthesis in growth and wall acidification of primary leaves of bean has been tested by inhibiting photosynthesis in two ways: by reducing chlorophyll content of intact plants with tentoxin (TX) and by treating leaf discs with 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU). Exposure to bright WL stimulated growth of intact leaves of TX-treated plants. Discs excised from green as well as from TX-or DCMU-treated leaves also responded by growing faster in WL, as long as exogenous sucrose was supplied to the photosynthetically inhibited tissues. The WL caused acidification of the epidermal surface of intact TX-leaves, but acidification of the incubation medium by mesophyll cells only occurred when photosynthesis was not inhibited. It is concluded that light-stimulated cell enlargement of bean leaves, and the necessary acidification of epidermal cell walls, are mediated by a pigment other than chlorophyll. Light-induced proton excretion by mesophyll cells, on the other hand, may require both a photosynthetic product (or exogenous sugars) and a non-photosynthetic light effect.

  15. Turnover of thylakoid membrane proteins during senescence of primary bean leaves. [Phaseolus vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, D.R.; Dumbroff, E.B.; Mattoo, A.K.; Thompson, J.E.

    1986-04-01

    Pulse-labelling of primary bean leaves (Phaseolus vulgaris) with /sup 35/S-methionine has revealed differential changes in the rates at which proteins in thylakoid membranes are synthesized during senescence. In particular, synthesis of the 32 Kd herbicide-binding protein remains highly active throughout senescence, whereas turnover of the ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. subunits of ATPase and of the LHCP declines. During a 24-h pulse chase experiment with unlabelled methionine, only the 32 KD protein showed evidence of degradation. Degradation of the 32 Kd unit and, to a lesser extent, of other thylakoid proteins was also observed when the membranes were aged in vitro. The latter process resembled that observed in vivo in that it was light dependent, sensitive to DCMU, and it was inhibited by spermine and Ca/sup 2 +/, both of which alter membrane fluidity. Collectively, these observations suggest that in vitro aging of thylakoid membranes is a useful model system for studying the characteristics of the thylakoid protein degradation.

  16. Reduction of evaporative flux in bean leaves due to chitosan treatment assessed by infrared thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, N.; Cabrini, R.; Faoro, F.; Gargano, M.; Gomarasca, S.; Iriti, M.; Picchi, V.; Soave, C.

    2010-01-01

    Infrared thermography can be used as a tool for evaluating antitranspirant treatment through the measurement of evaporative fluxes. The aim of this work is to compare the leaf surface temperatures of plant treated with chitosan (CHT), a potential stomatal-closing antitranspirant, with temperatures of leaves treated with the commercially available antitranspirant Vapor Gard®, a film-forming polyterpene. The main problem in the correct evaluation of stomatal conductance at leaf level is due to the need of performing a measurement in a completely non-invasive method. The main advantage of thermographic method is the possibility to acquire information about instantaneous conditions of transpiration over a large number of plants, with no need of sampling and avoiding any contact with plants. Tests on bean plants ( Phaseolus vulgaris) showed the applicability of the thermal imaging to discriminate plants with different evaporation rate due to treatment with different antitranspirant compounds. Quantitative evaluation of evaporative flux and stomatal conductance was obtained through reference measurements on standards with calibrated conductance. Non-destructive gravimetric measurements were used in order to get a reliable evaluation of evaporative fluxes. In conclusion, thermographic approach, in climatic chamber, seems to be a valid tool for rapidly screening the performance of different antitranspirant products.

  17. Stimulation of Growth and Ion Uptake in Bean Leaves by Red and Blue Light 1

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Dale E.; Elzenga, J. Theo M.; Linnemeyer, Paul A.; Van Volkenburgh, Elizabeth

    1992-01-01

    Red and blue light both stimulate growth and ion accumulation in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) leaves, and previous studies showed that the growth response is mediated by phytochrome and a blue-light receptor. Results of this study confirm that there is an additional photosynthetic contribution from the growing cells that supports ion uptake and growth. Disc expansion in the light was enhanced by exogenous K+ and Rb+, but was not specific for anions. Light increased K+ accumulation and the rate of 86Rb+ uptake by discs, over darkness, with no effect of light quality. The photosynthetic inhibitor, 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea, inhibited light-driven 86Rb+ uptake by 75%. Light quality caused differences in short-term kinetics of growth and acidification of the leaf surface. At comparable fluence rates (50 μmol m−2 s−1), continuous exposure to blue light increased the growth rate 3-fold after a 2-min lag, whereas red light caused a smaller growth response after a lag of 12 min. In contrast, the acidification of the leaf surface normally associated with growth was stimulated 3-fold by red light but only slightly (1.3-fold) by blue light. This result shows that, in addition to acidification caused by red light, a second mechanism specifically stimulated by blue light is normally functioning in light-driven leaf growth. PMID:16653225

  18. Quantitative variability of direct chemical defense in primary and secondary leaves of lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) and consequences for a natural herbivore.

    PubMed

    Ballhorn, Daniel J; Schiwy, Susann; Jensen, Manfred; Heil, Martin

    2008-10-01

    Ontogenetic variability in chemical plant defenses against herbivores is a common phenomenon, but the effects of this variability on herbivore-plant interactions are little understood. In a previous study on lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus), we found a trade-off between cyanogenesis, a direct defense, and the release of herbivore-induced volatile organic compounds (VOCs; mainly functioning as an indirect defense). Moreover, the expression of these two defenses could change during plant ontogeny. The present study aimed at elucidating whether such ontogenetic changes in plant defense can affect herbivore-plant interactions. We quantified feeding rates of a natural insect herbivore, the Mexican bean beetle (Epilachna varivestis), on primary and secondary leaves of individual lima bean plants. These insects strongly preferred low cyanogenic primary leaves over high cyanogenic secondary leaves. Although weakly defended by cyanogenesis, lima beans' primary leaves showed protein concentrations and photosynthetic activities that did not differ significantly from secondary leaves at the time of analysis. Based on our findings, we suggest that lima beans' long-lived primary leaves function as efficient source organs, even beyond the stage of seedlings. This hypothesis may explain why primary leaves express a strong indirect defense by the release of herbivore induced VOCs.

  19. Common Bean Leaves as a Source of Dietary Iron: Functional Test in an Iron-Deficient Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Zavala, Mauricio; Mora-Avilés, María Alejandra; Anaya-Loyola, Miriam Aracely; Guzmán-Maldonado, Horacio; Aguilera-Barreyro, Araceli; Blanco-Labra, Alejandro; García-Gasca, Teresa

    2016-09-01

    Recent findings made by our group indicate that the iron content in Phaseolus vulgaris leaves is at least four times greater than in grains therefore, we evaluated the effect of supplementation with bean leaf (iron content of 275 mg/kg on a dry basis) in iron-deficient rats. Anemia was induced by feeding rats with an iron-deficient diet (IDD) for 11 days and iron-recovery diets were subsequently tested for 14 days using a normal diet, a 10 % bean leaf-supplemented IDD (BLSD) or a ferrous sulfate-supplemented IDD. Decreased levels of leukocytes (64 %), erythrocytes (30 %), lymphocytes (62 %), granulocytes (72 %), hematocrit (34 %), hemoglobin (35 %), and ferritin (34 %) were observed in the iron-deficient rats compared to the control rats. BLSD supplementation showed the highest recovery values relative to those recorded for control rats: leukocytes (40 %), erythrocytes (24 %), lymphocytes (33 %), granulocytes (88 %), hematocrit (17 %), and hemoglobin (18 %), suggesting that common bean leaves could be a good source of bioavailable iron with possible immunomodulatory effects.

  20. Gas Exchange and Phytoluminography of Single Red Kidney Bean Leaves during Periods of Induced Stomatal Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Ellenson, James L.; Raba, Richard M.

    1983-01-01

    This report examines the capabilities of a new approach to the study of gas exchange and electron transport properties of single, intact leaves. The method combines conventional aspects of analysis with an image intensification system that records the spatial distribution of delayed light emission (DLE) over single leaf surfaces. The combined system was used to investigate physiological perturbations induced by exposure of single leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris cv `California Light Red' to a combination of SO2 (0.5 microliters per liter) and ozone (0.1 microliters per liter). Exposure of one-half of a leaf to this combination induced DLE and stomatal oscillations, but only in the half of the leaf exposed to the combined gases. Examination of phytoluminographs taken during these oscillations revealed distinct leaf patches where the greatest changes in DLE intensity occurred. This phenomenon is interpreted to be evidence that control of stomatal activity of intact plant leaves occurs within discrete leaf areas defined within the vascular network. Images Fig. 6 PMID:16662989

  1. Assimilation of 3H in photosynthesizing leaves exposed to HTO.

    PubMed

    Guenot, J; Belot, Y

    1984-12-01

    Potato and wine grape plants were exposed for a period of 4 h to tritiated water vapor, and simultaneously to 14CO2 which served as a tracer for photosynthetic assimilation. During and after exposure, foliar samples were collected in which the exchangeable and nonexchangeable fractions of organic 3H were determined, taking care that the exchangeable fraction should not be lost to atmosphere. It was demonstrated that about 20% of the organic H in vegetation could be exchanged with 3H of tissue water, and that nonexchangeable 3H was fixed by photosynthesis. The kinetic behavior of the 2 forms was very different.

  2. Evaluation of injury to expanded and expanding leaves of peas exposed to sulfur dioxide and ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Olszyk, D.M.; Tibbitts, T.W.

    1982-03-01

    Necrosis, chlorophyll concentration, dry weight and surface area measurements were made to evaluate injury to leaves of Pisum sativum L. cv Alsweet grown under controlled environments and exposed to sulfur dioxide, ozone and combinations of sulfur dioxide plus ozone. Injury evaluations were made at low pollutant levels causing slight necrotic injury and high levels causing severe necrotic injury. At low levels, expanded leaves with a trace of necrotic injury had a 10% reduction in chlorophyll concentration but no reductions in dry weight or surface area, while expanding leaves, also with a trace of necrotic injury, had a reduction in chlorophyll concentration accompanied by reductions in dry weight and surface area. At high pollutant levels, expanded leaves with severe necrotic injury had a 70% reduction in chlorophyll concentration and significant reductions in dry weight and surface area, while expanding leaves had a smaller amount of necrotic injury and a smaller reduction in chlorophyll concentration, but reductions in dry weight and surface area similar to those in expanded leaves. Thus, the following measurements are proposed as reliable indicators of injury at pollutant concentrations just above the threshold for injury: chlorophyll concentration for expanded leaves and surface area for expanding leaves. Reliable indicators of injury at higher concentrations causing serious injury to leaves are: necrosis for expanded leaves and chlorophyll concentration, dry weight, and surface area for expanding leaves. 19 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of a Genomovirus Associated with Common Bean Plant Leaves in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Lamas, Natalia Silva; Fontenele, Rafaela Salgado; Melo, Fernando Lucas; Costa, Antonio Felix; Varsani, Arvind

    2016-01-01

    A new genomovirus has been identified in three common bean plants in Brazil. This virus has a circular genome of 2,220 nucleotides and 3 major open reading frames. It shares 80.7% genome-wide pairwise identity with a genomovirus recovered from Tongan fruit bat guano. PMID:27834705

  4. Putative rust fungal effector proteins in infected bean and soybean leaves

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The plant pathogenic fungi Uromyces appendiculatus and Phakopsora pachyrhizi cause debilitating rust diseases on common bean and soybean. These rust fungi secrete effector proteins that allow them to infect plants, but the effector repertoire for U. appendiculatus and P. pachyrhizi is not fully def...

  5. Correction of Flow Resistances of Plants Measured From Covered and Exposed Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Neil C.

    1981-01-01

    The difference in water potential between an enclosed nontranspiring leaf and an adjacent exposed transpiring leaf, and the transpiration rate of a similarly exposed leaf, were used to calculate the change in hydraulic resistance of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) leaves throughout the day and at various rates of transpiration. Since cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) leaves enclosed in aluminum foil alone had enclosed leaf water potentials about 0.06 megapascals lower than similar leaves enclosed in a polyethylene bag shielded with aluminum foil, the sorghum and sunflower leaves were enclosed in polyethylene bags shielded with aluminum foil. Enclosing the exposed leaf in a plastic sheath just prior to excision led to the water potential measured by the pressure chamber technique being 0.3 to 0.4 megapascals higher at rapid transpiration rates than in exposed leaves not sheathed just prior to excision. This error, previously shown to arise from rapid water loss after excision, led to an overestimation of the leaf hydraulic resistance in both species. Correction of the error reduced the resistance by 40 to 90% in irrigated sorghum and by about 40% in irrigated and unirrigated sunflower. After correction, the hydraulic resistances were still flow-dependent, but the dependency was markedly reduced in sorghum. PMID:16662056

  6. Conversion of Xanthoxin to Abscisic Acid by Cell-Free Preparations from Bean Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Sindhu, Ram K.; Walton, Daniel C.

    1987-01-01

    Cell-free extracts from the leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris L. convert xanthoxin to abscisic acid. The enzyme activity in dialyzed or acetone-precipitated extracts shows a strong dependence on either NAD or NADP. The enzyme activity appears to be cytosolic with no significant activity observed in chloroplasts. The activity was observed in extracts from roots of Phaseolus vulgaris, and also in extracts prepared from the leaves of Pisum sativum L., Zea mays L., Cucurbita maxima Duchesne, and Vigna radiata L. Neither water stress nor cycloheximide appear to significantly affect the level of enzyme activity in leaves. No intermediates between xanthoxin and abscisic acid were detected. PMID:16665831

  7. Effects of progesterone application on antioxidant enzyme activities and K+/Na+ ratio in bean seeds exposed to salt stress.

    PubMed

    Erdal, Serkan; Genisel, Mucip; Turk, Hulya; Gorcek, Zeynep

    2012-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of progesterone, a mammalian sex hormone, on germination of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds exposed to salt stress. The exogenous addition of 10(-6), 10(-8) and 10(-10) M progesterone to the stressing media in which bean seeds were germinated in combination with the salt (100 mM NaCl) stressor induced significant protective changes in the germination and early growth parameters. The mitigating effect of progesterone was evaluated by the measurement of radicle and plumule lengths, activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POX) and catalase (CAT). In addition, it is the first study that exhibited changes in K/Na ratio. The obtained results showed that progesterone application stimulated germination and growth of salt-stressed seeds. Similarly, it stimulated significantly SOD, POX and CAT activities compared to both control and salt control. Salt stress significantly increased the lipid peroxidation compared to the control seeds. However, parallel to the increase in antioxidant activity, lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced by progesterone application. The best stimulatory effects on investigated parameters were recorded at 10(-8) M progesterone-applied seeds. On the other hand, salt stress reduced remarkably K/Na ratio by 50% in radicle and by 80% in plumule. However, progesterone application significantly mitigated the reduction in K/Na ratio. These findings clearly demonstrate that progesterone has a positive role in moderate detrimental effects induced by salt.

  8. Changes in enzymatic activities in etiolated bean seedling leaves after a brief illumination.

    PubMed

    Filner, B; Klein, A O

    1968-10-01

    The phytochrome controlled increase in total protein in the primary leaf pair of etiolated bean (Phaseolus vulgaris var. Black Valentine) seedlings, which occurs during growth in the dark subsequent to a brief illumination, was investigated. Enzymes from the chloroplasts, the mitochondria, and the soluble cytoplasm all increase in total activity after the illumination.The total protein and the ribulose carboxylase increases are not inhibited by FUdR, an inhibitor of DNA synthesis. Cycloheximide, an inhibitor of protein synthesis, applied at a time when the ribulose carboxylase activity increase has already commenced, blocks further increase. It was concluded that the total protein and the enzyme increases in the leaf are the result of increases in the per cell levels.The initial brief illumination is saturating, but 40 minutes later the seedlings have acquired the ability to respond to a second brief illumination. The rate of increase in ribulose carboxylase activity in seedlings that have been illuminated twice is greater than the rate in seedlings that have been illuminated only once.Far-red light prevents further increase in enzyme activity 48 hours after the initial illumination. There is a lag period interposed between the time of illumination with far-red light and the time at which the seedlings show the greatest effect of far-red light. It was concluded that the phytochrome influence on protein synthesis is not at the terminal steps.

  9. Influence of gamma radiation on the activities of some carbohydrate metabolic enzymes in the cotyledons and the leaves of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L. ) bean seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Ahanotu, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    Studies indicated that 21-day old cotyledons from gamma irradiated seeds of fenugreek beans were heavier and had more starch and sugar than their non-irradiated controls. To test whether these effects occurred in the leaves and to seek a possible biochemical explanation for these results, the activities of five enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism were studied. Three groups of fenugreek bean seeds were irradiated (100-300 Gy) and then allowed to grow for 21 days. On harvest, wet and dry weights of both cotyledons and leaves were determined. Starch and sugar contents in cotyledons and leaves were measured. The five enzymes ..cap alpha..-amylase, ..beta..-amylase, starch phosphorylase, ADPG-pyrophosphorylase and ribulose-1,5-diphosphate carboxylase were extracted from cotyledons and leaves, respectively. The protein contents and activities of the enzyme extracts were determined. The results suggest an increase in carbohydrate metabolism in cotyldeons and a decrease in leaves due to the radiation treatment of the seeds before germination. Thus, increased amounts of starch and sugars are observed in the cotyledons, and decreased amounts in the leaves. Radiation damage to the translocatory system of the plant may retard the movement of sugars from the cotyledons to the other parts of the plant. This may cause accumulation of sugars and starch in the cotyledons, leading to an increase in their size and weight.

  10. Alteration of extracellular enzymes in pinto bean leaves upon exposure to air pollutants, ozone and sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, J.L.; Castillo, F.J.; Heath, R.L. )

    1989-01-01

    Diamine oxidase and peroxidase, associated with the wall in pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var Pinto) leaves, can be washed out by vacuum infiltration and assayed without grinding the leaf. The diamine oxidase activity is inhibited in vivo by exposure of the plants to ozone (dose of 0.6 microliters per liter {times} hour), whereas the peroxidase activity associated with the wall space is stimulated. This dose does not cause obvious necrosis or chlorosis of the leaf. These alterations are greater when the dose of ozone exposure is given as a triangular pulse (a slow rise to a peak of 0.24 microliters per liter followed by a slow fall) compared to that given as a constant square wave pulse of 0.15 microliters per liter for the same 4 hour period. Exposure of the plants to sulfur dioxide (at a concentration of 0.4 microliters per liter for 4 hours) does not result in any change in the diamine oxidase or peroxidase activities, yet the total sulfhydryl content of the leaf is increased, demonstrating the entry of sulfur dioxide. These two pollutants, with different chemical reactivities, affect the activities of the extracellular enzymes in different manners. In the case of ozone exposure, the inhibition of extracellular diamine oxidase could profoundly alter the movements of polyamines from cell to cell.

  11. Respiratory Carbon Metabolism following Illumination in Intact French Bean Leaves Using 13C/12C Isotope Labeling1

    PubMed Central

    Nogués, Salvador; Tcherkez, Guillaume; Cornic, Gabriel; Ghashghaie, Jaleh

    2004-01-01

    The origin of the carbon atoms in the CO2 respired by French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) leaves in the dark has been studied using 13C/12C isotopes as tracers. The stable isotope labeling was achieved through a technical device that uses an open gas-exchange system coupled online to an elemental analyzer and linked to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer. The isotopic analysis of the CO2 respired in the dark after a light period revealed that the CO2 was labeled, but the labeling level decreased progressively as the dark period increased. The pattern of disappearance depended on the amount of carbon fixed during the labeling and indicated that there were several pools of respiratory metabolites with distinct turnover rates. We demonstrate that the carbon recently assimilated during photosynthesis accounts for less than 50% of the carbon in the CO2 lost by dark respiration and that the proportion is not influenced by leaf starvation in darkness before the labeling. Therefore, most of the carbon released by dark respiration after illumination does not come from new photosynthates. PMID:15377781

  12. Respiratory carbon metabolism following illumination in intact French bean leaves using (13)C/(12)C isotope labeling.

    PubMed

    Nogués, Salvador; Tcherkez, Guillaume; Cornic, Gabriel; Ghashghaie, Jaleh

    2004-10-01

    The origin of the carbon atoms in the CO(2) respired by French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) leaves in the dark has been studied using (13)C/(12)C isotopes as tracers. The stable isotope labeling was achieved through a technical device that uses an open gas-exchange system coupled online to an elemental analyzer and linked to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer. The isotopic analysis of the CO(2) respired in the dark after a light period revealed that the CO(2) was labeled, but the labeling level decreased progressively as the dark period increased. The pattern of disappearance depended on the amount of carbon fixed during the labeling and indicated that there were several pools of respiratory metabolites with distinct turnover rates. We demonstrate that the carbon recently assimilated during photosynthesis accounts for less than 50% of the carbon in the CO(2) lost by dark respiration and that the proportion is not influenced by leaf starvation in darkness before the labeling. Therefore, most of the carbon released by dark respiration after illumination does not come from new photosynthates.

  13. Growth cessation uncouples isotopic signals in leaves and tree rings of drought-exposed oak trees.

    PubMed

    Pflug, Ellen E; Siegwolf, R; Buchmann, N; Dobbertin, M; Kuster, T M; Günthardt-Goerg, M S; Arend, M

    2015-10-01

    An increase in temperature along with a decrease in summer precipitation in Central Europe will result in an increased frequency of drought events and gradually lead to a change in species composition in forest ecosystems. In the present study, young oaks (Quercus robur L. and Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.) were transplanted into large mesocosms and exposed for 3 years to experimental warming and a drought treatment with yearly increasing intensities. Carbon and oxygen isotopic (δ(13)C and δ(18)O) patterns were analysed in leaf tissue and tree-ring cellulose and linked to leaf physiological measures and tree-ring growth. Warming had no effect on the isotopic patterns in leaves and tree rings, while drought increased δ(18)O and δ(13)C. Under severe drought, an unexpected isotopic pattern, with a decrease in δ(18)O, was observed in tree rings but not in leaves. This decrease in δ(18)O could not be explained by concurrent physiological analyses and is not supported by current physiological knowledge. Analysis of intra-annual tree-ring growth revealed a drought-induced growth cessation that interfered with the record of isotopic signals imprinted on recently formed leaf carbohydrates. This missing record indicates isotopic uncoupling of leaves and tree rings, which may have serious implications for the interpretation of tree-ring isotopes, particularly from trees that experienced growth-limiting stresses.

  14. Physiological investigations on the effect of olive and rosemary leaves extracts in male rats exposed to thioacetamide

    PubMed Central

    Al-Attar, Atef M.; Shawush, Nessreen A.

    2014-01-01

    Physiologically, it is known that thioacetamide (TAA) toxicity is generally associated with hepatic fibrosis induction, complicated metabolic disorders and health problems. The capability of extracts of olive and rosemary leaves to attenuate the severe physiological disturbances induced by thioacetamide (TAA) intoxication in male rats has been evaluated. Healthy male Wistar rats were used in the present study and were divided randomly into eight groups. Rats of the first group were served as normal control. Rats of the second group were administrated with TAA. Rats of the third, fourth and fifth groups were exposed to TAA plus olive leaves extract, TAA plus rosemary leaves extract and TAA plus olive and rosemary leaves extracts respectively. The sixth, seventh and eighth groups were supplemented with olive leaves extract, rosemary leaves extract, and olive and rosemary leaves extracts respectively. After 12 weeks of experimental treatments, the levels of serum glucose, total protein, albumin and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly decreased, while the levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase were statistically increased in rats exposed to TAA. Administration of the studied extracts inhibited the hematobiochemical parameters and improved the physiological disturbances induced by TAA intoxication. Additionally, most improvements were noted in rats administrated with rosemary leaves extract followed by olive and rosemary leaves extracts and olive leaves extract. These results suggested that the effect of these extracts might be due to their antioxidant activities against TAA toxicity. PMID:25313283

  15. Physiological investigations on the effect of olive and rosemary leaves extracts in male rats exposed to thioacetamide.

    PubMed

    Al-Attar, Atef M; Shawush, Nessreen A

    2014-11-01

    Physiologically, it is known that thioacetamide (TAA) toxicity is generally associated with hepatic fibrosis induction, complicated metabolic disorders and health problems. The capability of extracts of olive and rosemary leaves to attenuate the severe physiological disturbances induced by thioacetamide (TAA) intoxication in male rats has been evaluated. Healthy male Wistar rats were used in the present study and were divided randomly into eight groups. Rats of the first group were served as normal control. Rats of the second group were administrated with TAA. Rats of the third, fourth and fifth groups were exposed to TAA plus olive leaves extract, TAA plus rosemary leaves extract and TAA plus olive and rosemary leaves extracts respectively. The sixth, seventh and eighth groups were supplemented with olive leaves extract, rosemary leaves extract, and olive and rosemary leaves extracts respectively. After 12 weeks of experimental treatments, the levels of serum glucose, total protein, albumin and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly decreased, while the levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase were statistically increased in rats exposed to TAA. Administration of the studied extracts inhibited the hematobiochemical parameters and improved the physiological disturbances induced by TAA intoxication. Additionally, most improvements were noted in rats administrated with rosemary leaves extract followed by olive and rosemary leaves extracts and olive leaves extract. These results suggested that the effect of these extracts might be due to their antioxidant activities against TAA toxicity.

  16. Principal Component Analysis of Chlorophyll Content in Tobacco, Bean and Petunia Plants Exposed to Different Tropospheric Ozone Concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borowiak, Klaudia; Zbierska, Janina; Budka, Anna; Kayzer, Dariusz

    2014-06-01

    Three plant species were assessed in this study - ozone-sensitive and -resistant tobacco, ozone-sensitive petunia and bean. Plants were exposed to ambient air conditions for several weeks in two sites differing in tropospheric ozone concentrations in the growing season of 2009. Every week chlorophyll contents were analysed. Cumulative ozone effects on the chlorophyll content in relation to other meteorological parameters were evaluated using principal component analysis, while the relation between certain days of measurements of the plants were analysed using multivariate analysis of variance. Results revealed variability between plant species response. However, some similarities were noted. Positive relations of all chlorophyll forms to cumulative ozone concentration (AOT 40) were found for all the plant species that were examined. The chlorophyll b/a ratio revealed an opposite position to ozone concentration only in the ozone-resistant tobacco cultivar. In all the plant species the highest average chlorophyll content was noted after the 7th day of the experiment. Afterwards, the plants usually revealed various responses. Ozone-sensitive tobacco revealed decrease of chlorophyll content, and after few weeks of decline again an increase was observed. Probably, due to the accommodation for the stress factor. While during first three weeks relatively high levels of chlorophyll contents were noted in ozone-resistant tobacco. Petunia revealed a slow decrease of chlorophyll content and the lowest values at the end of the experiment. A comparison between the plant species revealed the highest level of chlorophyll contents in ozone-resistant tobacco.

  17. Light-stimulated cell expansion in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) leaves. II. Quantity and quality of light required

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Volkenburgh, E.; Cleland, R. E.; Watanabe, M.

    1990-01-01

    The quantity and quality of light required for light-stimulated cell expansion in leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris L. have been determined. Seedlings were grown in dim red light (RL; 4 micromoles photons m-2 s-1) until cell division in the primary leaves was completed, then excised discs were incubated in 10 mM sucrose plus 10 mM KCl in a variety of light treatments. The growth response of discs exposed to continuous white light (WL) for 16 h was saturated at 100 micromoles m-2 s-1, and did not show reciprocity. Extensive, but not continuous, illumination was needed for maximal growth. The wavelength dependence of disc expansion was determined from fluence-response curves obtained from 380 to 730 nm provided by the Okazaki Large Spectrograph. Blue (BL; 460 nm) and red light (RL; 660 nm) were most effective in promoting leaf cell growth, both in photosynthetically active and inhibited leaf discs. Far-red light (FR; 730 nm) reduced the effectiveness of RL, but not BL, indicating that phytochrome and a separate blue-light receptor mediate expansion of leaf cells.

  18. Light-stimulated cell expansion in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) leaves. II. Quantity and quality of light required

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Volkenburgh, E.; Cleland, R. E.; Watanabe, M.

    1990-01-01

    The quantity and quality of light required for light-stimulated cell expansion in leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris L. have been determined. Seedlings were grown in dim red light (RL; 4 micromoles photons m-2 s-1) until cell division in the primary leaves was completed, then excised discs were incubated in 10 mM sucrose plus 10 mM KCl in a variety of light treatments. The growth response of discs exposed to continuous white light (WL) for 16 h was saturated at 100 micromoles m-2 s-1, and did not show reciprocity. Extensive, but not continuous, illumination was needed for maximal growth. The wavelength dependence of disc expansion was determined from fluence-response curves obtained from 380 to 730 nm provided by the Okazaki Large Spectrograph. Blue (BL; 460 nm) and red light (RL; 660 nm) were most effective in promoting leaf cell growth, both in photosynthetically active and inhibited leaf discs. Far-red light (FR; 730 nm) reduced the effectiveness of RL, but not BL, indicating that phytochrome and a separate blue-light receptor mediate expansion of leaf cells.

  19. Exogenous polyamines elicit herbivore-induced volatiles in lima bean leaves: involvement of calcium, H2O2 and Jasmonic acid.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Rika; Bertea, Cinzia M; Foti, Maria; Narayana, Ravishankar; Arimura, Gen-Ichiro; Muroi, Atsushi; Horiuchi, Jun-Ichiro; Nishioka, Takaaki; Maffei, Massimo E; Takabayashi, Junji

    2009-12-01

    We investigated the role of polyamines (PAs) in lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) leaves on the production of herbivorous mite (Tetranychus urticae)-induced plant volatiles that attract carnivorous natural enemies of the herbivores. To do this, we focused on the effects of the exogenous PAs [cadaverine, putrescine, spermidine and spermine (Spm)] on the production of volatiles, H(2)O(2) and jasmonic acid (JA) and the levels of defensive genes, cytosolic calcium and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Among the tested PAs, Spm was the most active in inducing the production of volatile terpenoids known to be induced by T. urticae. An increase in JA levels was also found after Spm treatment, indicating that Spm induces the biosynthesis of JA, which has been shown elsewhere to regulate the production of some volatile terpenoids. Further, treatment with JA and Spm together resulted in greater volatile emission than that with JA alone. In a Y-tube olfactometer, leaves treated with Spm + JA attracted more predatory mites (Phytoseiulus persimilis) than those treated with JA alone. After treatment with Spm + JA, no effects were found on the enzyme activity of polyamine oxidase and copper amine oxidase. However, induction of calcium influx and ROS production, and increased enzyme activities and gene expression for NADPH oxidase complex, superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase were found after treatment with Spm + JA. These results indicate that Spm plays an important role in the production of T. urticae-induced lima bean leaf volatiles.

  20. Effects of ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate on polar lipids and fatty acids in leaves of morning glory and kidney bean. [Pharbitis nil; Phaseolus vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    Nouchi, Isamu; Toyama, Susumu Ochanomizu Univ., Tokyo )

    1988-07-01

    To compare the effects of ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) on leaf lipids, fatty acids and malondialdehyde (MDA), morning glory (Pharbitis nil Choisy cv Scarlet O'Hara) and kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Gintebo) plants were exposed to either ozone (0.15 microliter per liter for 8 hours) or PAN (0.10 microliter per liter for up to 8 hours). Ozone increased phospholipids in morning glory and decreased in kidney bean at the initial stage (2-4 hours) of exposure, while it scarcely changed glycolipids, the unsaturated fatty acids, and MDA in both plants. A large reduction of glycolipids occurred 1 day after ozone exposure in both plants. PAN caused marked drops in phospholipids and glycolipids in kidney bean at relatively late stage (6-8 hours) of exposure, while it increased phosphatidic acid and decreased the unsaturated fatty acids, an increase which was accompanied by a large increase in MDA. These results suggest that ozone may not directly oxidize unsaturated fatty acids at the initial stage of exposure, but may alter polar lipid metabolism, particularly phospholipids. On the other hand, PAN may abruptly and considerably degrade phospholipids and glycolipids by peroxidation or hydrolysis at the late stage of exposure. The present study shows that ozone and PAN affect polar lipids in different manners.

  1. Abscisic acid signalling determines susceptibility of bundle sheath cells to photoinhibition in high light-exposed Arabidopsis leaves

    PubMed Central

    Gorecka, Magdalena; Alvarez-Fernandez, Ruben; Slattery, Katie; McAusland, Lorna; Davey, Phillip A.; Karpinski, Stanislaw; Lawson, Tracy; Mullineaux, Philip M.

    2014-01-01

    The rapid induction of the bundle sheath cell (BSC)-specific expression of ASCORBATE PEROXIDASE2 (APX2) in high light (HL)-exposed leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana is, in part, regulated by the hormone abscisic acid (ABA) produced by vascular parenchyma cells. In this study, we provide more details of the ABA signalling that regulates APX2 expression and consider its importance in the photosynthetic responses of BSCs and whole leaves. This was done using a combination of analyses of gene expression and chlorophyll a fluorescence of both leaves and individual BSCs and mesophyll cells. The regulation of APX2 expression occurs by the combination of the protein kinase SnRK2.6 (OST1):protein phosphatase 2C ABI2 and a Gα (GPA1)-regulated signalling pathway. The use of an ost1-1/gpa1-4 mutant established that these signalling pathways are distinct but interact to regulate APX2. In HL-exposed leaves, BSC chloroplasts were more susceptible to photoinhibition than those of mesophyll cells. The activity of the ABA-signalling network determined the degree of susceptibility of BSCs to photoinhibition by influencing non-photochemical quenching. By contrast, in HL-exposed whole leaves, ABA signalling did not have any major influence on their transcriptomes nor on their susceptibility to photoinhibition, except where guard cell responses were observed. PMID:24591719

  2. Uptake of deuterium by dead leaves exposed to deuterated water vapor in a greenhouse at daytime and nighttime.

    PubMed

    Momoshima, N; Matsushita, R; Nagao, Y; Okai, T

    2006-01-01

    Dead leaves were exposed to deuterated water vapor (D(2)O) as a substitute of tritiated water (HTO) in a greenhouse at daytime and nighttime to examine uptake and release of tritium by dead leaves because they cover a wide area of the forest floor and are therefore a major target material to be exposed when HTO is atmospherically derived to the forest. The dead cedar needles showed faster uptake and faster release rates during and after the exposure than the fresh ones, and the equilibrium concentration of the dead cedar needles was about two times higher than the fresh ones, indicating a quick response and a high buffering potential of dead leaves. The relation between uptake of D(2)O and number of stoma was examined for dead deciduous leaves; the species with larger number of stoma accumulated more D(2)O at the daytime and nighttime exposures. However, drying of the dead leaves suppressed D(2)O uptake greatly at daytime, suggesting stomata's opening and closing controls the D(2)O uptake of dead leaves.

  3. Effects of Feeding Spodoptera littoralis on Lima Bean Leaves: IV. Diurnal and Nocturnal Damage Differentially Initiate Plant Volatile Emission1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Arimura, Gen-ichiro; Köpke, Sabrina; Kunert, Maritta; Volpe, Veronica; David, Anja; Brand, Peter; Dabrowska, Paulina; Maffei, Massimo E.; Boland, Wilhelm

    2008-01-01

    Continuous mechanical damage initiates the rhythmic emission of volatiles in lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) leaves; the emission resembles that induced by herbivore damage. The effect of diurnal versus nocturnal damage on the initiation of plant defense responses was investigated using MecWorm, a robotic device designed to reproduce tissue damage caused by herbivore attack. Lima bean leaves that were damaged by MecWorm during the photophase emitted maximal levels of β-ocimene and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate in the late photophase. Leaves damaged during the dark phase responded with the nocturnal emission of (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, but with only low amounts of β-ocimene; this emission was followed by an emission burst directly after the onset of light. In the presence of 13CO2, this light-dependent synthesis of β-ocimene resulted in incorporation of 75% to 85% of 13C, demonstrating that biosynthesis of β-ocimene is almost exclusively fueled by the photosynthetic fixation of CO2 along the plastidial 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-P pathway. Jasmonic acid (JA) accumulated locally in direct response to the damage and led to immediate up-regulation of the P. lunatus β-ocimene synthase gene (PlOS) independent of the phase, that is, light or dark. Nocturnal damage caused significantly higher concentrations of JA (approximately 2–3 times) along with enhanced expression levels of PlOS. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana transformed with PlOS promoter∷β-glucuronidase fusion constructs confirmed expression of the enzyme at the wounded sites. In summary, damage-dependent JA levels directly control the expression level of PlOS, regardless of light or dark conditions, and photosynthesis is the major source for the early precursors of the 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-P pathway. PMID:18165324

  4. Drought tolerance of leaves from plants exposed to a global warming manipulation in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Loik, M.E.

    1995-06-01

    Drought tolerance was compared for leaves of Artemisia tridentata, Festuca thurberi and Potentilla gracilis exposed to a global warming manipulation at the Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory, near Crested Butte, CO. Leaves of the three species were collected from plants growing in situ in heated and control plots then dried for various periods of time up to 24 h. Tolerance was compared in terms of reduction of relative water content, change in water potential, and changes in chlorophyll a fluorescence quenching kinetics. Relative water content decreased by about 80% for F. thurberi and P. gracilis, but by less than 50% for A. tridentata. Also, plants from heated plots lost water faster than controls for F. thurberi and P. gracilis; for A. tridentata the opposite was true. Water potential for both control and heated-plot leaves decreased below -10 MPa after 24 h drying for F. thurberi and P. gracilis; water potential for A. tridentata decreased little and averaged -2.0 MPa. Quenching of chlorophyll a fluorescence was abolished for F. thurberi and P. gracilis leaves after 8 h drying, and there was little difference between heated and control leaves. Quenching decreased for A. tridentata, but was slower for leaves from heated plots. Leaves from A. tridentata may be better adapted than F. thurberi and P. gracilis to a drier climate in the Rocky Mountains under global warming.

  5. A comparative proteomic analysis of Pinellia ternata leaves exposed to heat stress.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yunhao; Zhu, Guosheng; Guo, Qiaosheng; Zhu, Zaibiao; Wang, Changlin; Liu, Zuoyi

    2013-10-15

    Pinellia ternata is an important traditional Chinese medicinal plant. The growth of P. ternata is sensitive to high temperatures. To gain a better understanding of heat stress responses in P. ternata, we performed a comparative proteomic analysis. P. ternata seedlings were subjected to a temperature of 38 °C and samples were collected 24 h after treatment. Increased relative ion leakage and lipid peroxidation suggested that oxidative stress was frequently generated in rice leaves exposed to high temperature. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) was used to analyze heat-responsive proteins. More than 600 protein spots were reproducibly detected on each gel; of these spots, 20 were up-regulated, and 7 were down-regulated. A total of 24 proteins and protein species were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. These proteins and protein species were found to be primarily small heat shock proteins (58%) as well as proteins involved in RNA processing (17%), photosynthesis (13%), chlorophyll biosynthetic processes (4%), protein degradation (4%) and defense (4%). Using 2-DE Western blot analysis, we confirmed the identities of the cytosolic class II small heat shock protein (sHSPs-CII) identified by MS. The expression levels of four different proteins [cytosolic class I small heat shock protein (sHSPs-CI), sHSPs-CII, mitochondrial small heat shock protein (sHSPs-MIT), glycine-rich RNA-binding protein (GRP)] were analyzed at the transcriptional level by quantitative real-time PCR. The mRNA levels of three sHSPs correlated with the corresponding protein levels. However, GRP was down-regulated at the beginning of heat stress but then increased substantially to reach a peak after 24 h of heat stress. Our study provides valuable new insight into the responses of P. ternata to heat stress.

  6. A Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Pinellia ternata Leaves Exposed to Heat Stress

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yunhao; Zhu, Guosheng; Guo, Qiaosheng; Zhu, Zaibiao; Wang, Changlin; Liu, Zuoyi

    2013-01-01

    Pinellia ternata is an important traditional Chinese medicinal plant. The growth of P. ternata is sensitive to high temperatures. To gain a better understanding of heat stress responses in P. ternata, we performed a comparative proteomic analysis. P. ternata seedlings were subjected to a temperature of 38 °C and samples were collected 24 h after treatment. Increased relative ion leakage and lipid peroxidation suggested that oxidative stress was frequently generated in rice leaves exposed to high temperature. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) was used to analyze heat-responsive proteins. More than 600 protein spots were reproducibly detected on each gel; of these spots, 20 were up-regulated, and 7 were down-regulated. A total of 24 proteins and protein species were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. These proteins and protein species were found to be primarily small heat shock proteins (58%) as well as proteins involved in RNA processing (17%), photosynthesis (13%), chlorophyll biosynthetic processes (4%), protein degradation (4%) and defense (4%). Using 2-DE Western blot analysis, we confirmed the identities of the cytosolic class II small heat shock protein (sHSPs-CII) identified by MS. The expression levels of four different proteins [cytosolic class I small heat shock protein (sHSPs-CI), sHSPs-CII, mitochondrial small heat shock protein (sHSPs-MIT), glycine-rich RNA-binding protein (GRP)] were analyzed at the transcriptional level by quantitative real-time PCR. The mRNA levels of three sHSPs correlated with the corresponding protein levels. However, GRP was down-regulated at the beginning of heat stress but then increased substantially to reach a peak after 24 h of heat stress. Our study provides valuable new insight into the responses of P. ternata to heat stress. PMID:24132150

  7. Betalain induction by l-DOPA application confers photoprotection to saline-exposed leaves of Disphyma australe.

    PubMed

    Jain, Gagandeep; Schwinn, Kathy E; Gould, Kevin S

    2015-09-01

    The capacity to synthesize betalains has arisen in diverse phylogenetic lineages across the Caryophyllales, and because betalainic plants often grow in deserts, sand dunes, or salt marshes, it is likely that these pigments confer adaptive advantages. However, possible functional roles of foliar betalains remain largely unexplored and are difficult to test experimentally. We adopted a novel approach to examine putative photoprotective roles of betalains in leaves for which chloroplast function has been compromised by salinity. Responses of l-DOPA-treated red shoots of Disphyma australe to high light and salinity were compared with those of naturally red- and green-leafed morphs. Betalain content and tyrosinase activity were measured, and Chl fluorescence profiles and H2 O2 production were compared under white, red or green light. Green leaves lacked tyrosinase activity, but when supplied with exogenous l-DOPA they produced five betacyanins. Both the naturally red and l-DOPA-induced red leaves generated less H2 O2 and showed smaller declines in photosystem II quantum efficiency than did green leaves when exposed to white or green light, although not when exposed to red light. Light screening by epidermal betalains effectively reduces the propensity for photoinhibition and photo-oxidative stress in subjacent chlorenchyma. This may assist plant survival in exposed and saline environments.

  8. Photoinhibition of photosynthesis in vivo results in singlet oxygen production detection via nitroxide-induced fluorescence quenching in broad bean leaves.

    PubMed

    Hideg, E; Kálai, T; Hideg, K; Vass, I

    1998-08-18

    In plants experiencing environmental stress, the formation of reactive oxygen is often presumed. In this study, singlet oxygen was detected in broad bean (Vicia faba) leaves that were photoinhibited in vivo. Detection was based on the reaction of singlet oxygen with DanePy (dansyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrole) yielding a nitroxide radical (DanePyO) which is EPR active and also features lower fluorescence compared to DanePy. The two (fluorescent and spin) sensor fuctions of DanePy are commensurate, which makes detecting singlet oxygen possible with a spectrofluorimeter in samples hard to measure with EPR spectroscopy [Kálai, T., Hideg, E., Vass, I., and Hideg, K. (1998) Free Radical Biol. Med. 24, 649-652]. We found that in leaves saturated with DanePy, the fluorescence of this double sensor was decreased when the leaves were photoinhibited by 1500 micromol m-2 s-1 photosynthetically active radiation. This fluorescence quenching is the first direct experimental evidence that photoinhibition of photosynthesis in vivo is accompanied by 1O2 production and is, at least partly, governed by the process characterized as acceptor side-induced photoinhibition in vitro.

  9. D-Glucosone and L-sorbosone, putative intermediates of L-ascorbic acid biosynthesis in detached bean and spinach leaves. [Phaseolus vulgaris L. ; Spinacia oleracea L

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Kazumi; Nick, J.A.; Loewus, F.A. )

    1990-11-01

    D-(6-{sup 14}C)Glucosone that had been prepared enzymically from D-(6-{sup 14}C)glucose was used to compare relative efficiencies of these two sugars for L-ascorbic acid (AA) biosynthesis in detached bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cv California small white) apices and 4-week-old spinach (Spinacia oleracea L., cv Giant Noble) leaves. At tracer concentration, {sup 14}C from glucosone was utilized by spinach leaves for AA biosynthesis much more effectively than glucose. Carbon-14 from (6-{sup 14}C)glucose underwent considerable redistribution during AA formation, whereas {sup 14}C from (6-{sup 14}C)glucosone remained almost totally in carbon 6 of AA. In other experiments with spinach leaves, L-(U-{sup 14}C)sorbosone was found to be equivalent to (6-{sup 14}C)glucose as a source of {sup 14}C for AA. In the presence of 0.1% D-glucosone, conversion of (6-{sup 14}C) glucose into labeled AA was greatly repressed. In a comparable experiment with L-sorbosone replacing D-glucosone, the effect was much less. The experiments described here give substance to the proposal that D-glucosone and L-sorbosone are putative intermediates in the conversion of D-glucose to AA in higher plants.

  10. High-performance liquid chromatography method to measure alpha- and gamma-tocopherol in leaves, flowers and fresh beans from Moringa oleifera.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Machado, D I; López-Cervantes, J; Vázquez, N J Ríos

    2006-02-10

    A high-performance liquid chromatography method for the microscale determination of alpha- and gamma-tocopherol in leaves, flowers and fresh beans from Moringa oleifera is reported. The method includes microscale saponification and extraction with n-hexane. Optimized conditions for reversed-phase HPLC with UV detection were as follows: column, 25 cm x 0.46 cm, Exil ODS 5-microm; column temperature, 25 degrees C; mobile phase, a 20:80 (v/v) mixture of methanol:acetonitrile; flow rate, 1.0 ml/min. With these conditions, method precision (relative standard deviation) was 5.6% for alpha-tocopherol and 4.9% for gamma-tocopherol. We used this method to measure alpha- and gamma-tocopherol in samples from M. oleifera as part of nutritional studies in edible plants cultivated in the Northwest México.

  11. Abscisic acid is a key inducer of hydrogen peroxide production in leaves of maize plants exposed to water stress.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiuli; Zhang, Aying; Zhang, Jianhua; Jiang, Mingyi

    2006-11-01

    The histochemical and cytochemical localization of water stress-induced H(2)O(2) production in the leaves of ABA-deficient vp5 mutant and wild-type maize (Zea mays L.) plants were examined, using 3,3-diaminobenzidine and CeCl(3) staining, respectively, and the roles of endogenous ABA in the production of H(2)O(2) induced by water stress were assessed. Water stress induced by polyethylene glycol resulted in the accumulation of H(2)O(2) in mesophyll cells, bundle-sheath cells and vascular bundles of wild-type maize leaves, and the accumulation was substantially blocked in the mutant maize leaves exposed to water stress. Pre-treatments with several apoplastic H(2)O(2) manipulators abolished the majority of H(2)O(2) accumulation induced by water stress in the wild-type leaves. The subcellular localization of H(2)O(2) production was demonstrated in the cell walls, xylem vessels, chloroplasts, mitochondria and peroxisomes in the leaves of wild-type maize plants exposed to water stress, and the accumulation of H(2)O(2) induced by water stress in the cell walls and xylem vessels, but not in the chloroplasts, mitochondria and peroxisomes, was arrested in the leaves of the ABA mutant or the ABA biosynthesis inhibitor (tungstate)-pre-treated maize plants. Pre-treatments with the apoplastic H(2)O(2) manipulators also blocked the apoplastic but not the intracellular H(2)O(2) accumulation induced by water stress in the leaves of wild-type plants. These data indicate that under water stress, the apoplast is the major source of H(2)O(2) production and ABA is a key inducer of apoplastic H(2)O(2) production. These data also suggest that H(2)O(2) generated in the apoplast could not diffuse freely into subcellular compartments.

  12. Nitric oxide increases tolerance responses to moderate water deficit in leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna unguiculata bean species.

    PubMed

    Zimmer-Prados, Lucas Martins; Moreira, Ana Sílvia Franco Pinheiro; Magalhaes, Jose Ronaldo; França, Marcel Giovanni Costa

    2014-07-01

    Drought stress is one of the most intensively studied and widespread constraints, and nitric oxide (NO) is a key signaling molecule involved in the mediation of abiotic stresses in plants. We demonstrated that a sprayed solution of NO from donor sodium nitroprusside increased drought stress tolerance responses in both sensitive (Phaseolus vulgaris) and tolerant (Vigna unguiculata) beans. In intact plants subjected to halting irrigation, NO increased the leaf relative water content and stomatal conductance in both species. After cutting leaf discs and washing them, NO induced increased electrolyte leakage, which was more evident in the tolerant species. These leaf discs were then subjected to different water deficits, simulating moderate and severe drought stress conditions through polyethylene glycol solutions. NO supplied at moderate drought stress revealed a reduced membrane injury index in sensitive species. In hydrated discs and at this level of water deficit, NO increased the electron transport rate in both species, and a reduction of these rates was observed at severe stress levels. Taken together, it can be shown that NO has an effective role in ameliorating drought stress effects, activating tolerance responses at moderate water deficit levels and in both bean species which present differential drought tolerance.

  13. Leaving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Robyn L.

    2011-01-01

    Within this article, the author presents a personal story, "Leaving," which highlights the problematic experience of opposing established practice. The tale tells of the difficulty faced by creative agency when confronted by a constraining structural hegemony. Specifically, it draws attention to the professionalization of academic life through a…

  14. Leaving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Robyn L.

    2011-01-01

    Within this article, the author presents a personal story, "Leaving," which highlights the problematic experience of opposing established practice. The tale tells of the difficulty faced by creative agency when confronted by a constraining structural hegemony. Specifically, it draws attention to the professionalization of academic life through a…

  15. Regulation of proline accumulation in detached rice leaves exposed to excess copper.

    PubMed

    Chen, C T.; Chen, L -M.; Lin, C C.; Kao, C H.

    2001-01-05

    Accumulation of proline in response to excess Cu was studied in detached leaves of rice (Oryza sativa). CuSO(4) was effective in inducing proline accumulation in detached rice leaves under both light and dark conditions. CuSO(4) and CuCl(2) were equally effective in inducing proline accumulation, indicating that proline accumulation is induced by Cu. Sulfate salts of Mg, Mn, and Fe were ineffective in inducing proline accumulation in detached rice leaves. Excess Cu had no effect on relative water content of detached rice leaves, suggesting that Cu-induced proline accumulation is unlikely due to water deficit. Proline accumulation induced by excess Cu was related to proteolysis and an increase in Delta(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase or ornithine-delta-aminotransferase activity and could not be explained by proline utilization or stress-induced modifications in proline dehydrogenase or Delta(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase. The content of glutamic acid decreased by excess Cu. The increase in arginine but not ornithine was found to be associated with the increase in proline content in Cu-stressed detached rice leaves. CuSO(4) treatment resulted in an increase in abscisic acid content in detached rice leaves. The possibility that proline accumulation induced by excess Cu is mediated through abscisic acid is discussed.

  16. The effect of wind velocity, air temperature and humidity on NH 3 and SO 2 transfer into bean leaves ( phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hove, L. W. A.; Vredenberg, W. J.; Adema, E. H.

    The influence of wind velocity, air temperature and vapour pressure deficit of the air (VPD) on NH 3 and SO 2 transfer into bean leaves ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) was examined using a leaf chamber. The measurements suggested a transition in the properties of the leaf boundary layer at a wind velocity of 0.3-0.4 ms -1 which corresponds to a Recrit value of about 2000. At higher wind velocities the leaf boundary layer resistance ( rb) was 1.5-2 times lower than can be calculated from the theory. Nevertheless, the assessed relationships between rb and wind velocity appeared to be similar to the theoretical derived relationship for rb. The NH 3 flux and in particular the SO 2 flux into the leaf strongly increased at a VPD decline. The increase of the NH 3 flux could be attributed to an increase of the stomatal conductance ( gs). However, the increase of the SO 2 flux could only partly be explained by an increase of gs. An apparent additional uptake was also observed for the NH 3 uptake at a low temperature and VPD. The SO 2 flux was also influenced by air temperature which could be explained by a temperature effect on gs. The results suggest that calculation of the NH 3 and SO 2 flux using data of gs gives a serious understimation of the real flux of these gases into leaves at a low temperature and VPD.

  17. Dissipation rate and residual fate of thiamethoxam in tobacco leaves and soil exposed to field treatments.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuguo; Xiang, Zhenbo; Yan, Xiaoyang; Sun, Huiqing; Li, Yiqiang; Pan, Canping

    2013-08-01

    A two-year field experiment was conducted in two different locations to investigate the dissipation rate and residual fate of thiamethoxam in tobacco leaves and soil by high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. The average recoveries for green, cured tobacco leaves and soil ranged from 89.7 %-94.8 %, 90.6 %-94.4 % and 89.0%-92.8 %, respectively, with relative standard deviations between 2.7 % and 9.2 %. The dissipation rates of thiamethoxam were described by first-order kinetics and its half-life values were in the range of 3.9-4.4 days in green tobacco leaves and 12.0-19.1 days in soil, respectively. The residue levels of thiamethoxam at harvest time ranged from 0.020-0.541 mg/kg in cured tobacco leaves, and 0.005-0.019 mg/kg in soil, respectively.

  18. Transcriptome Analysis of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Exposed to Lysates of Lettuce Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Kyle, Jennifer L.; Parker, Craig T.; Goudeau, Danielle; Brandl, Maria T.

    2010-01-01

    Harvesting and processing of leafy greens inherently cause plant tissue damage, creating niches on leaves that human pathogens can exploit. We previously demonstrated that Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157) multiplies more rapidly on shredded leaves than on intact leaves (M. T. Brandl, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74:5285-5289, 2008). To investigate how EcO157 cells adapt to physicochemical conditions in injured lettuce tissue, we used microarray-based whole-genome transcriptional profiling to characterize gene expression patterns in EcO157 after 15- and 30-min exposures to romaine lettuce lysates. Multiple carbohydrate transport systems that have a role in the utilization of substrates known to be prevalent in plant cells were activated in EcO157. This indicates the availability to the human pathogen of a variety of carbohydrates released from injured plant cells that may promote its extensive growth in leaf lysates and, thus, in wounded leaf tissue. In addition, microarray analysis revealed the upregulation of numerous genes associated with EcO157 attachment and virulence, with oxidative stress and antimicrobial resistance (including the OxyR and Mar regulons), with detoxification of noxious compounds, and with DNA repair. Upregulation of oxidative stress and antimicrobial resistance genes in EcO157 was confirmed on shredded lettuce by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. We further demonstrate that this adaptation to stress conditions imparts the pathogen with increased resistance to hydrogen peroxide and calcium hypochlorite. This enhanced resistance to chlorinated sanitizers combined with increased expression of virulence determinants and multiplication at sites of injury on the leaves may help explain the association of processed leafy greens with outbreaks of EcO157. PMID:20061451

  19. Effects of Feeding Spodoptera littoralis on Lima Bean Leaves. I. Membrane Potentials, Intracellular Calcium Variations, Oral Secretions, and Regurgitate Components1

    PubMed Central

    Maffei, Massimo; Bossi, Simone; Spiteller, Dieter; Mithöfer, Axel; Boland, Wilhelm

    2004-01-01

    Membrane potentials (Vm) and intracellular calcium variations were studied in Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) leaves when the Mediterranean climbing cutworm (Spodoptera littoralis) was attacking the plants. In addition to the effect of the feeding insect the impact of several N-acyl Glns (volicitin, N-palmitoyl-Gln, N-linolenoyl-Gln) from the larval oral secretion was studied. The results showed that the early events upon herbivore attack were: a) a strong Vm depolarization at the bite zone and an isotropic wave of Vm depolarization spreading throughout the entire attacked leaf; b) a Vm depolarization observed for the regurgitant but not with volicitin {N-(17-hydroxy-linolenoyl)-Gln} alone; c) an enhanced influx of Ca2+ at the very edge of the bite, which is halved, if the Ca2+ channel blocker Verapamil is used. Furthermore, the dose-dependence effects of N-acyl Gln conjugates-triggered influx of Ca2+ studied in transgenic aequorin-expressing soybean (Glycine max) cells, showed: a) a concentration-dependent influx of Ca2+; b) a configuration-independent effect concerning the stereochemistry of the amino acid moiety; c) a slightly reduced influx of Ca2+ after modification of the fatty acid backbone by functionalization with oxygen and; d) a comparable effect with the detergent SDS. Finally, the herbivore wounding causes a response in the plant cells that cannot be mimicked by mechanical wounding. The involvement of Ca2+ in signaling after herbivore wounding is discussed. PMID:15051862

  20. Response of Quercus pubescens leaves exposed to geothermal pollutant input in southern Tuscany (Italy).

    PubMed

    Bussotti, F; Tognelli, R; Montagni, G; Borghini, F; Bruschi, P; Tani, C

    2003-01-01

    The paper reports a case of evident and widespread leaf damage on trees in southern Tuscany (Central Italy) attributed to the input of pollutants produced in a geothermal area. The main potentially phytotoxic substances are boron and hydrogen sulphide. Trees affected are conifers as well as both evergreen and deciduous broadleaves. In the present study the possible impact of geothermal pollutants on Quercus pubescens leaves has been considered. Leaf samples coming from three sampling locations (S1 inside the geothermal area; S2 on the margins; S3 outside) and three consecutive dates (June, July and August) were analyzed for the following parameters: sulphur and boron concentration; leaf area; leaf mass per area; chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm); chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoid concentrations. Anatomical and ultrastructural observations were also performed. In all sampling location sulphur and boron concentrations are greater than the background values recorded in southern Tuscany in a previous survey. The sulphur concentration in leaves was higher in S1 than S2 and S3, but did not increase throughout the survey period. Boron reached the greatest concentrations in S2 and showed a continuous increase over the study period. Leaves subjected to a higher load of pollutants were smaller in size (in terms of leaf area), but were more sclerophyllous. Damaged chloroplasts and reduced Fv/Fm values were observed at S1 and S2, but chlorophyll concentration values were higher at S1. Such an apparent anomaly can possibly be explained by the onset of compensation and recovery mechanisms. Foliar injuries appeared to be related to boron concentration.

  1. Metabolic changes of Vitis vinifera berries and leaves exposed to Bordeaux mixture.

    PubMed

    Martins, Viviana; Teixeira, António; Bassil, Elias; Blumwald, Eduardo; Gerós, Hernâni

    2014-09-01

    Since the development of Bordeaux mixture in the late 1800's, copper-based fungicides have been widely used against grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) diseases, mainly in organic but also in conventional viticulture; however their intensive use has raised phytotoxicity concerns. In this study, the composition of grape berries and leaves upon Bordeaux mixture treatment was investigated during the fructification season by a metabolomic approach. Four applications of Bordeaux mixture till 3 weeks before harvest were performed following the regular management practices of organic viticulture. Results showed that the copper-based treatment affected the content in sugars, organic acids, lipids and flavan-3-ols of grapes and leaves at specific developmental stages. Nonetheless, the levels of sucrose, glucose and fructose, and of tartaric and malic acids were not significantly affected in mature grapes. In contrast, a sharp decrease in free natural amino acids was observed, together with a reduction in protein content and in mineral nitrogen forms. The treatment with Bordeaux mixture increased by 7-fold the copper levels in tissue extracts from surface-washed mature berries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Dissipation of pyrethroid residues in peppers, zucchinis, and green beans exposed to field treatments in greenhouses: evaluation by decline curves.

    PubMed

    Martinez Galera, Maria; Gil Garcia, Maria D; Rodriguez Lallena, Jose A; Lopez Lopez, Trinidad; Martinez Vidal, Jose L

    2003-09-10

    Dissipation of seven pyrethroid insecticides under field conditions was evaluated on green beans, zucchinis, and peppers grown in experimental greenhouses (Almería, Spain). Pyrethroid residues were determined by high performance liquid chromatography using continuous on-line post-elution photoirradiation with fluorescence detection after dichloromethane extraction and cleanup on florisil phase cartridges. Mathematically defined decline curves were established by determining optimal relationships between pyrethroid residues and time. Different models were used to find these curves. The 1st-order model achieved the best adjustment to the experimental data in 42.9% of cases. The RF (root function) 1st-order model was the best in 33.3% of times. Each of the 1.5th- and 2nd-order models provided the best adjustment in a 9.5% of the cases. Finally, the RF 1.5th-order model was the most appropriate in only 4.8% of cases. Half-life times for these three vegetables were estimated from the optimal models. The preharvest intervals for the residues in these three vegetables was obtained, taking into account the maximum residue levels established by the existing legislation. They were all lower than the ones specified by the makers of commercial formulates, which ensures a safe enough consumption.

  3. CO(2)-triggered chloride release from guard cells in intact fava bean leaves. Kinetics of the onset of stomatal closure.

    PubMed

    Hanstein, Stefan M; Felle, Hubert H

    2002-10-01

    The influence of CO(2) on Cl(-) release from guard cells was investigated within the intact leaf by monitoring the Cl(-) activity in the apoplastic fluid of guard cells with a Cl(-)-sensitive microelectrode. In illuminated leaves adapted to a CO(2) concentration within the cuvette of 350 microL L(-1), an increase of 250 microL L(-1) CO(2) triggered a transient rise in the apoplastic Cl(-) activity from 3 to 14 mM within 10 min. This Cl(-) response was similar to the Cl(-) efflux evoked by turning off the light, when the substomatal CO(2) was kept constant (CO(2) clamp). Without CO(2) clamp, substomatal CO(2) increased by 120 microL L(-1) upon "light off." The response to an increase in CO(2) within the cuvette from 250 to 500 microL L(-1) in dark-adapted leaves was equivalent to the response to an increase from 350 to 600 microL L(-1) in the light. No Cl(-) efflux was triggered by 2-min CO(2) pulses (150-800 microL L(-1)). After a switch from 350 microL L(-1) to CO(2)-free cuvette air, the guard cells were less sensitive to a rise in CO(2) and to light off, but the sensitivity to both stimuli partially recovered. Changes in CO(2) also caused changes of the guard cell apoplastic voltage, which were generally faster than the observed Cl(-) responses, and which also promptly occurred when CO(2) did not initiate Cl(-) efflux. The comparatively slow activation of Cl(-) efflux by CO(2) indicates that an intermediate effector derived from CO(2) has to accumulate to fully activate plasma membrane anion channels of guard cells.

  4. Leaving safety to visit a feeding site: is it optimal to hesitate while exposed?

    PubMed

    Rands, Sean A

    2017-01-01

    Animals living in complex environments experience differing risks of predation depending upon their location within the landscape. An animal could reduce the risk it experiences by remaining in a refuge site, but it may need to emerge from its refuge and enter more dangerous sites for feeding and other activities. Here, I consider the actions of an animal choosing to travel a short distance between a safe refuge and a dangerous foraging site, such as a bird leaving cover to visit a feeder. Although much work has been conducted examining the choice between a refuge and a foraging site when faced with a trade-off between starvation and predation risk, the work presented here is the first to consider the travel behaviour between these locations. Using state-dependent stochastic dynamic programming, I illustrate that there are several forms of optimal behaviour that can emerge. In some situations, the animal should choose to travel without stopping between sites, but in other cases, it is optimal for the animal to travel hesitantly towards the food, and to stop its travel at a point before it reaches the refuge. I discuss how this hesitant 'dawdling' behaviour may be optimal, and suggest further work to test these predictions.

  5. Leaving safety to visit a feeding site: is it optimal to hesitate while exposed?

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Animals living in complex environments experience differing risks of predation depending upon their location within the landscape. An animal could reduce the risk it experiences by remaining in a refuge site, but it may need to emerge from its refuge and enter more dangerous sites for feeding and other activities. Here, I consider the actions of an animal choosing to travel a short distance between a safe refuge and a dangerous foraging site, such as a bird leaving cover to visit a feeder. Although much work has been conducted examining the choice between a refuge and a foraging site when faced with a trade-off between starvation and predation risk, the work presented here is the first to consider the travel behaviour between these locations. Using state-dependent stochastic dynamic programming, I illustrate that there are several forms of optimal behaviour that can emerge. In some situations, the animal should choose to travel without stopping between sites, but in other cases, it is optimal for the animal to travel hesitantly towards the food, and to stop its travel at a point before it reaches the refuge. I discuss how this hesitant ‘dawdling’ behaviour may be optimal, and suggest further work to test these predictions. PMID:28280590

  6. Biosynthetis of phytoquinones. Biosynthetic origins of the nuclei and satellite methyl groups of plastoquinone, tocopherols and tocopherolquinones in maize shoots, bean shoots and ivy leaves

    PubMed Central

    Whistance, G. R.; Threlfall, D. R.

    1968-01-01

    1. By using dl-[ring-14C]phenylalanine, dl-[β-14C]phenylalanine, dl-[α-14C]-tyrosine and dl-[β-14C]tyrosine it was shown that in maize shoots (Zea mays) the nucleus and one nuclear methyl group of each of the following compounds, plastoquinone, γ-tocopherol (aromatic nucleus) and α-tocopherolquinone, are formed from the nuclear carbon atoms and β-carbon atom respectively of either exogenous phenylalanine or exogenous tyrosine. With ubiquinone only the aromatic ring of the amino acid is used in the synthesis of the quinone nucleus. Chemical degradation of plastoquinone and γ-tocopherol molecules labelled from l-[U-14C]tyrosine established that a C6–C1 unit directly derived from the amino acid is involved in the synthesis of these compounds. Radioactivity from [β-14C]cinnamic acid is not incorporated into plastoquinone, tocopherols or tocopherolquinones, demonstrating that the C6–C1 unit is not formed from any of the C6–C1 phenolic acids associated with the metabolism of this compound. 2. The incorporation of radioactivity from l-[U-14C]tyrosine, dl-[β-14C]tyrosine and dl-[U-14C]phenylalanine into bean shoots (Phaseolus vulgaris) and dl-[β-14C]tyrosine and l-[Me-14C]methionine into ivy leaves (Hedera helix) was also investigated. Similar results were obtained to those reported for maize, except that in beans phenylalanine is only used for ubiquinone biosynthesis. This is attributed to the absence of phenylalanine hydroxylase from these tissues. In ivy leaves it is found that the β-carbon atom of tyrosine gives rise to the 8-methyl group of δ-tocopherol, and it is suggested that for all other compounds examined it will give rise to the nuclear methyl group meta to the polyprenyl unit. 3. Preliminary investigations with the alga Euglena gracilis showed that in this organism ring-opening of tyrosine occurs to such an extent that the incorporation data from radiochemical experiments are meaningless. 4. The above results, coupled with previous

  7. Biosynthesis of phytoquinones. Biosynthetic origins of the nuclei and satellite methyl groups of plastoquinone, tocopherols and tocopherolquinones in maize shoots, bean shoots and ivy leaves.

    PubMed

    Whistance, G R; Threlfall, D R

    1968-10-01

    1. By using dl-[ring-(14)C]phenylalanine, dl-[beta-(14)C]phenylalanine, dl-[alpha-(14)C]-tyrosine and dl-[beta-(14)C]tyrosine it was shown that in maize shoots (Zea mays) the nucleus and one nuclear methyl group of each of the following compounds, plastoquinone, gamma-tocopherol (aromatic nucleus) and alpha-tocopherolquinone, are formed from the nuclear carbon atoms and beta-carbon atom respectively of either exogenous phenylalanine or exogenous tyrosine. With ubiquinone only the aromatic ring of the amino acid is used in the synthesis of the quinone nucleus. Chemical degradation of plastoquinone and gamma-tocopherol molecules labelled from l-[U-(14)C]tyrosine established that a C(6)-C(1) unit directly derived from the amino acid is involved in the synthesis of these compounds. Radioactivity from [beta-(14)C]cinnamic acid is not incorporated into plastoquinone, tocopherols or tocopherolquinones, demonstrating that the C(6)-C(1) unit is not formed from any of the C(6)-C(1) phenolic acids associated with the metabolism of this compound. 2. The incorporation of radioactivity from l-[U-(14)C]tyrosine, dl-[beta-(14)C]tyrosine and dl-[U-(14)C]phenylalanine into bean shoots (Phaseolus vulgaris) and dl-[beta-(14)C]tyrosine and l-[Me-(14)C]methionine into ivy leaves (Hedera helix) was also investigated. Similar results were obtained to those reported for maize, except that in beans phenylalanine is only used for ubiquinone biosynthesis. This is attributed to the absence of phenylalanine hydroxylase from these tissues. In ivy leaves it is found that the beta-carbon atom of tyrosine gives rise to the 8-methyl group of delta-tocopherol, and it is suggested that for all other compounds examined it will give rise to the nuclear methyl group meta to the polyprenyl unit. 3. Preliminary investigations with the alga Euglena gracilis showed that in this organism ring-opening of tyrosine occurs to such an extent that the incorporation data from radiochemical experiments are

  8. Nitric Oxide Mediates 5-Aminolevulinic Acid-Induced Antioxidant Defense in Leaves of Elymus nutans Griseb. Exposed to Chilling Stress.

    PubMed

    Fu, Juanjuan; Chu, Xitong; Sun, Yongfang; Miao, Yanjun; Xu, Yuefei; Hu, Tianming

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) are both extremely important signalling molecules employed by plants to control many aspects of physiology. In the present study, the role of NO in ALA-induced antioxidant defense in leaves of two sources of Elymus nutans Griseb. (Damxung, DX and Zhengdao, ZD) was investigated. Chilling stress enhanced electrolyte leakage, accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide radical in two E. nutans, which were substantially alleviated by exogenous ALA and NO application. Pretreatment with NO scavenger PTIO or NOS inhibitor L-NNA alone and in combination with ALA induced enhancements in electrolyte leakage and the accumulation of MDA, H2O2 and superoxide radical in leaves of DX and ZD exposed to chilling stress, indicating that the inhibition of NO biosynthesis reduced the chilling resistance of E. nutans and the ALA-enhanced chilling resistance. Further analyses showed that ALA and NO enhanced antioxidant defense and activated plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase and decreased the accumulation of ROS induced by chilling stress. A pronounced increase in nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity and NO release by exogenous ALA treatment was found in chilling-resistant DX plants exposed to chilling stress, while only a little increase was observed in chilling-sensitive ZD. Furthermore, inhibition of NO accumulation by PTIO or L-NNA blocked the protective effect of exogenous ALA, while both exogenous NO treatment and inhibition of endogenous NO accumulation did not induce ALA production. These results suggested that NO might be a downstream signal mediating ALA-induced chilling resistance in E. nutans.

  9. Nitric Oxide Mediates 5-Aminolevulinic Acid-Induced Antioxidant Defense in Leaves of Elymus nutans Griseb. Exposed to Chilling Stress

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Juanjuan; Chu, Xitong; Sun, Yongfang; Miao, Yanjun; Xu, Yuefei; Hu, Tianming

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) are both extremely important signalling molecules employed by plants to control many aspects of physiology. In the present study, the role of NO in ALA-induced antioxidant defense in leaves of two sources of Elymus nutans Griseb. (Damxung, DX and Zhengdao, ZD) was investigated. Chilling stress enhanced electrolyte leakage, accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide radical in two E. nutans, which were substantially alleviated by exogenous ALA and NO application. Pretreatment with NO scavenger PTIO or NOS inhibitor L-NNA alone and in combination with ALA induced enhancements in electrolyte leakage and the accumulation of MDA, H2O2 and superoxide radical in leaves of DX and ZD exposed to chilling stress, indicating that the inhibition of NO biosynthesis reduced the chilling resistance of E. nutans and the ALA-enhanced chilling resistance. Further analyses showed that ALA and NO enhanced antioxidant defense and activated plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase and decreased the accumulation of ROS induced by chilling stress. A pronounced increase in nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity and NO release by exogenous ALA treatment was found in chilling-resistant DX plants exposed to chilling stress, while only a little increase was observed in chilling-sensitive ZD. Furthermore, inhibition of NO accumulation by PTIO or L-NNA blocked the protective effect of exogenous ALA, while both exogenous NO treatment and inhibition of endogenous NO accumulation did not induce ALA production. These results suggested that NO might be a downstream signal mediating ALA-induced chilling resistance in E. nutans. PMID:26151364

  10. Formation of (E)-nerolidol in tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves exposed to multiple stresses during tea manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying; Zeng, Lanting; Liu, Xiaoyu; Gui, Jiadong; Mei, Xin; Fu, Xiumin; Dong, Fang; Tang, Jingchi; Zhang, Lingyun; Yang, Ziyin

    2017-09-15

    (E)-Nerolidol is a volatile sesquiterpene that contributes to the floral aroma of teas (Camellia sinensis). The unique manufacturing process for oolong tea involves multiple stresses, resulting in a high content of (E)-nerolidol, which is not known to form in tea leaves. This study aimed to determine the formation mechanism of (E)-nerolidol in tea exposed to multiple stresses during tea manufacture. C. sinensis (E)-nerolidol synthase (CsNES) recombinant protein, found in the cytosol, was found to transform farnesyl diphosphate into (E)-nerolidol. CsNES was highly expressed during the oolong tea turn over process, resulting in (E)-nerolidol accumulation. Continuous mechanical damage, simulating the turn over process, significantly enhanced CsNES expression level and (E)-nerolidol content. The combination of low temperature stress and mechanical damage had a synergistic effect on (E)-nerolidol formation. This is the first evidence of (E)-nerolidol formation mechanism in tea leaves and a characteristic example of plant volatile formation in response to dual stresses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A method for (13)C-labeling of metabolic carbohydrates within French bean leaves (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) for decomposition studies in soils.

    PubMed

    Girardin, Cyril; Rasse, Daniel P; Biron, Philippe; Ghashghaie, Jaleh; Chenu, Claire

    2009-06-01

    The molecular composition of plant residues is suspected to largely govern the fate of their constitutive carbon (C) in soils. Labile compounds, such as metabolic carbohydrates, are affected differently from recalcitrant and structural compounds by soil-C stabilisation mechanisms. Producing (13)C-enriched plant residues with specifically labeled fractions would help us to investigate the fate in soils of the constitutive C of these compounds. The objective of the present research was to test (13)C pulse chase labeling as a method for specifically enriching the metabolic carbohydrate components of plant residues, i.e. soluble sugars and starch. Bean plants were exposed to a (13)CO(2)-enriched atmosphere for 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 21 h. The major soluble sugars were then determined on water-soluble extracts, and starch on HCl-hydrolysable extracts. The results show a quick differential labeling between water-soluble and water-insoluble compounds. For both groups, (13)C-labeling increased linearly with time. The difference in delta(13)C signature between water-soluble and insoluble fractions was 7 per thousand after 0.5 h and 70 per thousand after 21 h. However, this clear isotopic contrast masked a substantial labeling variability within each fraction. By contrast, metabolic carbohydrates on the one hand (i.e. soluble sugars + starch) and other fractions (essentially cell wall components) on the other hand displayed quite homogeneous signatures within fractions, and a significant difference in labeling between fractions: delta(13)C = 414 +/- 3.7 per thousand and 56 +/- 5.5 per thousand, respectively. Thus, the technique generates labeled plant residues displaying contrasting (13)C-isotopic signatures between metabolic carbohydrates and other compounds, with homogenous signatures within each group. Metabolic carbohydrates being labile compounds, our findings suggest that the technique is particularly appropriate for investigating the effect of compound lability on the long

  12. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) as a potential environmental bioindicator.

    PubMed

    Mendes, M G; Santos Junior, C D; Dias, A C C; Bonetti, A M

    2015-10-21

    Biomonitoring of air quality using living organisms is a very interesting approach to environmental impact assessment. Organisms with a vast distribution, such as plants, are widely used for these purposes. The castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) is an oleaginous plant that can potentially be used as a bioindicator plant owing to its rapid growth and large leaves, which have a wide surface area of contact with the air and the pollutants therein. This study investigated the the bioindicator potential of the castor bean by performing several tests. We observed statistically significant differences in the concentrations of chlorophyll a and b in the leaves of plants in polluted areas compared to that in the control group plants, which were located in a pollution-free area. Leaves of plants in the former group had higher peroxidase activity and showed a greater buffering ability than those of plants in the control group. The pKa values obtained via buffering capacity tests, revealed the presence of aminoazobenzene (an industrial dye) in leaves of R. communis. Genotoxicity was evaluated through the comet assay technique and revealed that other than some differences in DNA fragmentation, there is no statistically significant difference in this parameter between places analyzed. Our data indicate that R. communis can be a highly useful biological indicator. Further, we hypothesized that the castor bean can be a potential candidate for phytoremediation owing its physiological buffering capacity when exposed to substantial pollution.

  13. Relationship between fresh-packaged spinach leaves exposed to continuous light or dark and bioactive contents: effects of cultivar, leaf size, and storage duration.

    PubMed

    Lester, Gene E; Makus, Donald J; Hodges, D Mark

    2010-03-10

    Current retail marketing conditions allow produce to receive artificial light 24 h per day during its displayed shelf life. Essential human-health vitamins [ascorbic acid (vit C), folate (vit B(9)), phylloquinone (vit K(1)), alpha-tocopherol (vit E), and the carotenoids lutein, violaxanthin, zeaxanthin, and beta-carotene (provit A)] also are essential for photosynthesis and are biosynthesized in plants by light conditions even under chilling temperatures. Spinach leaves, notably abundant in the aforementioned human-health compounds, were harvested from flat-leaf 'Lazio' and crinkle-leafed 'Samish' cultivars at peak whole-plant maturity as baby (top- and midcanopy) and larger (lower-canopy) leaves. Leaves were placed as a single layer in commercial, clear-polymer retail boxes and stored at 4 degrees C for up to 9 days under continuous light (26.9 micromol.m(2 ).s) or dark. Top-canopy, baby-leaf spinach generally had higher concentrations of all bioactive compounds, on a dry weight basis, with the exception of carotenoids, than bottom-canopy leaves. All leaves stored under continuous light generally had higher levels of all bioactive compounds, except beta-carotene and violaxanthin, and were more prone to wilting, especially the flat-leafed cultivar. All leaves stored under continuous darkness had declining or unchanged levels of the aforementioned bioactive compounds. Findings from this study revealed that spinach leaves exposed to simulated retail continuous light at 4 degrees C, in clear plastic containers, were overall more nutritionally dense (enriched) than leaves exposed to continuous darkness.

  14. The responses of Vitreoscilla hemoglobin-expressing hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × tremuloides) exposed to 24-h herbivory: expression of hemoglobin and stress-related genes in exposed and nonorthostichous leaves.

    PubMed

    Sutela, Suvi; Ylioja, Tiina; Jokipii-Lukkari, Soile; Anttila, Anna-Kaisa; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Niemi, Karoliina; Mölläri, Tiina; Kallio, Pauli T; Häggman, Hely

    2013-11-01

    The responses of transcriptome and phenolic compounds were determined with Populus tremula L. × Populus tremuloides Michx. expressing the hemoglobin (Hb) of Vitreoscilla (VHb) and non-transformant (wt) line. After 24-h exposure of leaves to Conistra vaccinii L., the transcript levels of endogenous non-symbiotic class 1 Hb (PttHb1) and truncated Hb (PttTrHb) genes were modestly reduced and increased, respectively, in both wt and VHb-expressing line. Besides the herbivory exposed leaves showing the most significant transcriptome changes, alterations were also detected in the transcriptome of nonorthostichous leaves positioned directly above the exposed leaves. Both wt and VHb-expressing line displayed similar herbivory-induced effects on gene expression, although the extent of responses was more pronounced in the wt than in the VHb-expressing line. The contents of phenolic compounds were not altered due to herbivory and they were alike in the wt and VHb-expressing line. In addition, we determined the relative growth rates (RGRs) of Orthosia gothica L., Ectropis crepuscularia Denis & Schiff. and Orgyia antiqua L. larvae, and found no variation in the RGRs between the lines. Thus, VHb-expressing P. tremula × tremuloides lines showed to be comparable with wt in regards to the food quality of leaves.

  15. Phenolic content of daylight-exposed and shaded floating leaves of water lilies (Nymphaeaceae) in relation to infection by fungi.

    PubMed

    Vergeer, L H T; van der Velde, G

    1997-11-01

    Under suboptimal growing conditions (e.g. a lack of sunshine), floating leaves of Nymphaea alba and Nuphar lutea can become heavily infected with the fungi Colletotrichum nymphaeae and Pythium F, respectively. These fungi normally act as decomposers of senescent leaves. Mature leaves of Nymphaea alba and Nuphar lutea contain high concentrations of phenolics, secondary substances known for their fungistatic properties. The production of these compounds requires energy and primary metabolites. The hypothesis that suboptimal growing conditions reduce the ability of nymphaeids to maintain a sufficiently high level of phenolics, thereby making them more vulnerable to infection by fungi, was tested. Outdoor mesocosm experiments were used to examine the response of floating leaves of Nymphaea alba and Nuphar lutea to reduced light availability. Shading significantly reduced the phenolic content of the leaves. This was accompanied by higher disease severity. The outcome of this experiment is also discussed in relation to the higher nitrogen content measured in shaded leaves.

  16. Metabolic Response of Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) Leaves Exposed to the Angular Leaf Spot Bacterium (Xanthomonas fragariae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Sun; Jin, Jong Sung; Kwak, Youn-Sig; Hwang, Geum-Sook

    2016-03-09

    Plants have evolved various defense mechanisms against biotic stress. The most common mechanism involves the production of metabolites that act as defense compounds. Bacterial angular leaf spot disease (Xanthomonas fragariae) of the strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) has become increasingly destructive to strawberry leaves and plant production. In this study, we examined metabolic changes associated with the establishment of long-term bacterial disease stress using UPLC-QTOF mass spectrometry. Infected leaves showed decreased levels of gallic acid derivatives and ellagitannins, which are related to the plant defense system. The levels of phenylalanine, tryptophan, and salicylic acid as precursors of aromatic secondary metabolites were increased in inoculated leaves, whereas levels of coumaric acid, quinic acid, and flavonoids were decreased in infected plants, which are involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway. In addition, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity, a key enzyme in the phenylpropanoid pathway, was decreased following infection. These results suggest that long-term bacterial disease stress may lead to down-regulation of select molecules of the phenylpropanoid metabolic pathway in strawberry leaves. This approach could be applied to explore the metabolic pathway associated with plant protection/breeding in strawberry leaves.

  17. Effect of Tea (Camellia sinensis) and Olive (Olea europaea L.) Leaves Extracts on Male Mice Exposed to Diazinon

    PubMed Central

    Al-Attar, Atef M.; Abu Zeid, Isam M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the effects of tea and olive leaves extracts and their combination in male mice intoxicated with a sublethal concentration of diazinon. Exposure of mice to 6.5 mg/kg body weight of diazinon for seven weeks resulted in statistical increases of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase, creatinine, glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol, while the value of serum total protein was declined. Treating diazinon-intoxicated mice with tea and olive leaves extracts or their combination significantly attenuated the severe alterations in these hematobiochemical parameters. Moreover, the results indicated that the supplementation with combination of tea and olive leaves extracts led to more attenuation effect against diazinon toxicity. Additionally, these new findings suggest that the effect of tea and olive leaves extracts and their combination against toxicity of diazinon may be due to antioxidant properties of their chemical constituents. Finally, the present study indicated that the extracts of tea and olive leaves and their combination can be considered as promising therapeutic agents against hepatotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and metabolic disorders induced by diazinon and maybe by other toxicants and pathogenic factors. PMID:23691503

  18. Physiological and biochemical responses in the leaves of two mangrove plant seedlings (Kandelia candel and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza) exposed to multiple heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guo-Yong; Wang, You-Shao

    2010-10-15

    The accumulation of heavy metals and their effect on photosynthetic pigments, proline, glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins (PCs-SH) were studied in the leaves of two mangrove plants seedlings (Kandelia candel and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza) grown for 30 days in the nutrient solution containing four different concentrations of Cd(2+), Pb(2+) and Hg(2+) (T(1), T(2), T(3) and T(4)). An increase in Cd, Pb and Hg content was found in the leaves of both species exposed to multiple heavy metal stress, whereas higher heavy metal levels (>T(1)) led to a remarkable breakdown of chlorophyll in the leaves of both species. The content of proline, GSH and PCs-SH in the leaves of both species exhibited a significant increase in response to heavy metal stress, at least under most of experimental conditions. Increased contents of proline, GSH and PCs-SH in metal-treated plants suggest that metal tolerance in both K. candel and B. gymnorrhiza might be associated to the efficiency of these antioxidants. Moreover, proline, GSH and PCs-SH in K. candel may play more important role in ameliorating the effect of heavy metal toxicity than those in B. gymnorrhiza.

  19. Prosopis pubescens (screw bean mesquite) seedlings are hyperaccumulators of copper.

    PubMed

    Zappala, Marian N; Ellzey, Joanne T; Bader, Julia; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge

    2013-08-01

    Due to health reasons, toxic metals must be removed from soils contaminated by mine tailings and smelter activities. The phytoremediation potential of Prosopis pubescens (screw bean mesquite) was examined by use of inductively-coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe ultrastructural changes of parenchymal cells of leaves in the presence of copper. Elemental analysis was used to localize copper within leaves. A 600-ppm copper sulfate exposure to seedlings for 24 days resulted in 31,000 ppm copper in roots, 17,000 ppm in stems, 11,000 in cotyledons and 20 ppm in the true leaves. For a plant to be considered a hyperaccumulator, the plant must accumulate a leaf-to-root ratio <1. Screw bean mesquite exposed to copper had a leaf-to-root ratio of 0.355 when cotyledons were included. We showed that P. pubescens grown in soil is a hyperaccumulator of copper. We recommend that this plant should be field tested.

  20. Aerial Dispersal of Epiphytic Bacteria over Bean Plants.

    PubMed

    Lindemann, J; Upper, C D

    1985-11-01

    Plant canopies are strong sources of bacterial aerosols during sunny days when the leaves are dry. Bacterial concentration, upward flux, and deposition onto exposed petri plates were measured over snap beans during three growing seasons. A net upward flux of bacteria occurred only during the warm part of sunny days, not at night when leaves were wet with dew or when a thermal inversion was present. Aerosol source strength was positively correlated with wind speed. Upward fluxes were higher on days after rain than on days when the soil was dry. Other unidentified sources of variability in source strength probably exist. Canopy-level deposition, apparently due to intermediate-scale transport of bacteria in fairly concentrated clouds, can occur in the early evening.

  1. Carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes aggravated biochemical and subcellular damages in leaves of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) seedlings under combined stress of lead and cadmium.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chengrun; Liu, Haitao; Chen, Jinyun; Tian, Yuan; Shi, Jian; Li, Dongdong; Guo, Chen; Ma, Qingping

    2014-06-15

    Increasing industrialization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) would inevitably lead to their release into the environment and combination with heavy metals. However, studies concerning the combined effects of MWCNTs and heavy metals on agricultural crops are limited. Herein, effects and mechanisms of carboxylated MWCNTs (MWCNTs-COOH) (2.5, 5 and 10mg/L) and their combination with 20 μM Pb and 5 μM Cd (shortened as Pb+Cd) on Vicia faba L. seedlings were investigated. The results showed that the MWCNTs-COOH disturbed the imbalance of nutrient elements, and caused oxidative stress and damages in the leaves. Additionally, the combination of MWCNTs-COOH with Pb+Cd resulted in enrichment of Pb and Cd, and deterioration of oxidative damages compared with the treatments of MWCNTs-COOH or Pb+Cd alone in the leaves. As the results, the concentrations of MWCNTs-COOH not only caused oxidative stress, but also exacerbated the biochemical and subcellular damages due to the treatment of Pb+Cd in the leaves. It also suggests that persistent release of MWCNTs-COOH into the environment may cause phytotoxicity and aggravate ecological risks due to combination of heavy metals.

  2. Manipulation of light and CO2 environments of the primary leaves of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) affects photosynthesis in both the primary and the first trifoliate leaves: involvement of systemic regulation.

    PubMed

    Araya, Takao; Noguchi, Ko; Terashima, Ichiro

    2008-01-01

    Possible involvement of systemic regulation of the photosynthetic properties of young leaves by the local environments and/or photosynthate production of the mature leaves were examined using Phaseolus vulgaris plants. When primary leaves (PLs) were treated with air containing 150 microL CO2 L(-1) with the other plant parts in ambient air at a photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) of 300 micromol photon m(-2) s(-1), decreases in the photosynthetic rate measured at 360 microL CO2 L(-1) and a PPFD of 300 micromol photon m(-2) s(-1) (A360) were markedly retarded in both PLs and the first trifoliate leaves (TLs) as compared to plants treated with 400 microL CO2 L(-1). Conversely, when PLs were treated with 1000 microL CO2 L(-1), decreases in A360 were accelerated in both PLs and TLs. Shading of PLs accelerated the decrease in PL A360, and delayed the decrease in TLs. In the CO2 treatments, changes in A360 in TLs were mainly attributed to the changes in ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP) carboxylation rate, while the shading of PLs caused increases in both the RuBP carboxylation and regeneration rates in TLs. The ribulose 1.5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) activity on chlorophyll basis, an indicator of sun/shade acclimation, differed both among PLs and among TLs in accordance with the redox state of photosystem II (PSII) in PLs. Although carbohydrate contents of TLs were not affected by any manipulation of PLs, changes in the photosynthetic capacities of TLs acted to compensate for changes in PL photosynthesis. These results clearly indicate that the CO2 and shade treatments of PLs not only affect photosynthetic properties of the PLs themselves, but also systemically affected the photosynthetic properties of TLs. Possible roles of the redox state and photosynthate concentration in PLs in regulation of photosynthesis in PLs and TLs are discussed.

  3. Proteome readjustments in the apoplastic space of Arabidopsis thaliana ggt1 mutant leaves exposed to UV-B radiation

    PubMed Central

    Trentin, Anna Rita; Pivato, Micaela; Mehdi, Syed M. M.; Barnabas, Leonard Ebinezer; Giaretta, Sabrina; Fabrega-Prats, Marta; Prasad, Dinesh; Arrigoni, Giorgio; Masi, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B radiation acts as an environmental stimulus, but in high doses it has detrimental effects on plant metabolism. Plasma membranes represent a major target for Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) generated by this harmful radiation. Oxidative reactions occurring in the apoplastic space are counteracted by antioxidative systems mainly involving ascorbate and, to some extent, glutathione. The occurrence of the latter and its exact role in the extracellular space are not well documented, however. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the gamma-glutamyl transferase isoform (GGT1) bound to the cell wall takes part in the so-called gamma-glutamyl cycle for extracellular glutathione degradation and recovery, and may be implicated in redox sensing and balance. In this work, oxidative conditions were imposed with Ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) and studied in redox altered ggt1 mutants. The response of ggt1 knockout Arabidopsis leaves to UV-B radiation was assessed by investigating changes in extracellular glutathione and ascorbate content and their redox state, and in apoplastic protein composition. Our results show that, on UV-B exposure, soluble antioxidants respond to the oxidative conditions in both genotypes. Rearrangements occur in their apoplastic protein composition, suggesting an involvement of Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2), which may ultimately act as a signal. Other important changes relating to hormonal effects, cell wall remodeling, and redox activities are discussed. We argue that oxidative stress conditions imposed by UV-B and disruption of the gamma-glutamyl cycle result in similar stress-induced responses, to some degree at least. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001807. PMID:25852701

  4. Light and excess manganese . Implications for oxidative stress in common bean

    PubMed

    Gonzalez; Steffen; Lynch

    1998-10-01

    The effect of light intensity on antioxidants, antioxidant enzymes, and chlorophyll content was studied in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) exposed to excess Mn. Leaves of bean genotypes contrasting in Mn tolerance were exposed to two different light intensities and to excess Mn; light was controlled by shading a leaflet with filter paper. After 5 d of Mn treatment ascorbate was depleted by 45% in leaves of the Mn-sensitive genotype ZPV-292 and by 20% in the Mn-tolerant genotype CALIMA. Nonprotein sulfhydryl groups and glutathione reductase were not affected by Mn or light treatment. Ten days of Mn-toxicity stress increased leaf ascorbate peroxidase activity of cv ZPV-292 by 78% in low light and by 235% in high light, and superoxide dismutase activity followed a similar trend. Increases of ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity observed in cv CALIMA were lower than those observed in the susceptible cv ZPV-292. The cv CALIMA had less ascorbate oxidation under excess Mn-toxicity stress. Depletion of ascorbate occurred before the onset of chlorosis in Mn-stressed plants, especially in cv ZPV-292. Lipid peroxidation was not detected in floating leaf discs of mature leaves exposed to excess Mn. Our results suggest that Mn toxicity may be mediated by oxidative stress, and that the tolerant genotype may maintain higher ascorbate levels under stress than the sensitive genotype.

  5. Dual mechanisms regulating glutamate decarboxylases and accumulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid in tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves exposed to multiple stresses.

    PubMed

    Mei, Xin; Chen, Yiyong; Zhang, Lingyun; Fu, Xiumin; Wei, Qing; Grierson, Don; Zhou, Ying; Huang, Yahui; Dong, Fang; Yang, Ziyin

    2016-03-29

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is one of the major inhibitory neurotransmitters in the central nervous system. It has multiple positive effects on mammalian physiology and is an important bioactive component of tea (Camellia sinensis). GABA generally occurs at a very low level in plants but GABA content increases substantially after exposure to a range of stresses, especially oxygen-deficiency. During processing of tea leaves, a combination of anoxic stress and mechanical damage are essential for the high accumulation of GABA. This is believed to be initiated by a change in glutamate decarboxylase activity, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. In the present study we characterized factors regulating the expression and activity of three tea glutamate decarboxylase genes (CsGAD1, 2, and 3), and their encoded enzymes. The results suggests that, unlike the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, there are dual mechanisms regulating the accumulation of GABA in tea leaves exposed to multiple stresses, including activation of CsGAD1 enzymatic activity by calmodulin upon the onset of the stress and accumulation of high levels of CsGAD2 mRNA induced by a combination of anoxic stress and mechanical damage.

  6. Dual mechanisms regulating glutamate decarboxylases and accumulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid in tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves exposed to multiple stresses

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Xin; Chen, Yiyong; Zhang, Lingyun; Fu, Xiumin; Wei, Qing; Grierson, Don; Zhou, Ying; Huang, Yahui; Dong, Fang; Yang, Ziyin

    2016-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is one of the major inhibitory neurotransmitters in the central nervous system. It has multiple positive effects on mammalian physiology and is an important bioactive component of tea (Camellia sinensis). GABA generally occurs at a very low level in plants but GABA content increases substantially after exposure to a range of stresses, especially oxygen-deficiency. During processing of tea leaves, a combination of anoxic stress and mechanical damage are essential for the high accumulation of GABA. This is believed to be initiated by a change in glutamate decarboxylase activity, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. In the present study we characterized factors regulating the expression and activity of three tea glutamate decarboxylase genes (CsGAD1, 2, and 3), and their encoded enzymes. The results suggests that, unlike the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, there are dual mechanisms regulating the accumulation of GABA in tea leaves exposed to multiple stresses, including activation of CsGAD1 enzymatic activity by calmodulin upon the onset of the stress and accumulation of high levels of CsGAD2 mRNA induced by a combination of anoxic stress and mechanical damage. PMID:27021285

  7. Determination of replacement of some inorganic elements in pulvinus of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Gina 2004) at chilling temperature by the WDXRF spectroscopic technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumlupinar, Rahmi; Demir, Faruk; Budak, Gokhan; Karabulut, Abdulhalik; Kadi, Nuray; Karakurt, Halil; Erdal, Serkan

    2007-01-01

    In this study, bean seedlings (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Gina 2004) were exposed to chilling temperatures until leaves are wrinkled (9 day), that is, showed nyctinastic movement. Pulvinus were subsequently were cut from the leaves. Concentrations of inorganic elements (P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cu) in the pulvinus were measured by wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) spectrometry. Results indicated that concentration change (%) was not significant for Ca (0.82) but it was significant for K, P, Cl, S, and especially Cu concentrations (5.4%, 12.8%, 40.2%, 43.7%, 365%, respectively) in pulvinus of plants exposed to chilling temperature compared with control group. We hypothesize here the presence of association between nyctinasti movement brought about by pulvinus at chilling temperature in bean and changes of K, P, Cl, S and especially Cu concentrations measured by WDXRF analysis method.

  8. Reflective Polyethylene Mulch Reduces Mexican Bean Beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Densities and Damage in Snap Beans.

    PubMed

    Nottingham, L B; Kuhar, T P

    2016-08-01

    Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis Mulsant, is a serious pest of snap beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., in the eastern United States. These beetles are intolerant to direct sunlight, explaining why individuals are typically found on the undersides of leaves and in the lower portion of the plant canopy. We hypothesized that snap beans grown on reflective, agricultural polyethylene (plastic mulch) would have fewer Mexican bean beetles and less injury than those grown on black plastic or bare soil. In 2014 and 2015, beans were seeded into beds of metallized, white, and black plastic, and bare soil, in field plots near Blacksburg, VA. Mexican bean beetle density, feeding injury, predatory arthropods, and snap bean yield were sampled. Reflected light intensity, temperature, and humidity were monitored using data loggers. Pyranometer readings showed that reflected light intensity was highest over metallized plastic and second highest over white plastic; black plastic and bare soil were similarly low. Temperature and humidity were unaffected by treatments. Significant reductions in Mexican bean beetle densities and feeding injury were observed in both metallized and white plastic plots compared to black plastic and bare soil, with metallized plastic having the fewest Mexican bean beetle life stages and injury. Predatory arthropod densities were not reduced by reflective plastic. Metallized plots produced the highest yields, followed by white. The results of this study suggest that growing snap beans on reflective plastic mulch can suppress the incidence and damage of Mexican bean beetle, and increase yield in snap beans. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Characterization of a type II chlorophyll a/b-binding protein gene (Lhcb2*Pp1) in peach. II. mRNA abundance in developing leaves exposed to sun or shade.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Carole L; Callahan, Ann M

    2003-05-01

    Leaf development of shoots exposed to full sunlight and shoots shaded by the canopy was followed in field-grown, mature peach trees (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, cv. Loring) during the first half of the 1995 growing season. The architecture and size of shaded shoots and sun-exposed shoots differed significantly. Total number of leaves produced on shaded shoots was significantly less than on sun-exposed shoots throughout the season, and differences in leaf number between light conditions increased as the season progressed. The overall patterns of leaf development along sun-exposed and shaded shoots were qualitatively similar. The expression pattern of the type II chlorophyll a/b-binding protein gene, Lhcb2*Pp1, determined by RNA abundance in leaves at different positions along the shoot, was also similar between the two light conditions. The major difference between sun-exposed and shaded leaves was a lower abundance of Lhcb2*Pp1 RNA in mature, shaded leaves compared with sun-exposed leaves. Although the number of fruit per shoot was significantly lower on shaded shoots than on sun-exposed shoots, the rate of fruit drop was not substantially different during the growing season, indicating that quantitative differences in leaf initiation and growth caused by differences in light exposure did not adversely affect fruit retention. However, based on comparison with a previous study of leaf development in non-fruiting trees, reproductive development slowed the rate of vegetative growth without affecting the overall pattern of leaf development along the shoots.

  10. Short-term physiological changes in roots and leaves of sugarcane varieties exposed to H2O2 in root medium.

    PubMed

    Silva, Karina I; Sales, Cristina R G; Marchiori, Paulo E R; Silveira, Neidiquele M; Machado, Eduardo C; Ribeiro, Rafael V

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the differential sensitivity of sugarcane genotypes to H2O2 in root medium. As a hypothesis, the drought tolerant genotype would be able to minimize the oxidative damage and maintain the water transport from roots to shoots, reducing the negative effects on photosynthesis. The sugarcane genotypes IACSP94-2094 (drought tolerant) and IACSP94-2101 (drought sensitive) were grown in a growth chamber and exposed to three levels of H2O2 in nutrient solution: control; 3 mmol L(-1) and 80 mmol L(-1). Leaf gas exchange, photochemical activity, root hydraulic conductance (Lr) and antioxidant metabolism in both roots and leaves were evaluated after 15 min of treatment with H2O2. Although, root hydraulic conductance, stomatal aperture, apparent electron transport rate and instantaneous carboxylation efficiency have been reduced by H2O2 in both genotypes, IACSP94-2094 presented higher values of those variables as compared to IACSP94-2101. There was a significant genotypic variation in relation to the physiological responses of sugarcane to increasing H2O2 in root tissues, being root changes associated with modifications in plant shoots. IACSP94-2094 presented a root antioxidant system more effective against H2O2 in root medium, regardless H2O2 concentration. Under low H2O2 concentration, water transport and leaf gas exchange of IACSP94-2094 were less affected as compared to IACSP94-2101. Under high H2O2 concentration, the lower sensitivity of IACSP94-2094 was associated with increases in superoxide dismutase activity in roots and leaves and increases in catalase activity in roots. In conclusion, we propose a general model of sugarcane reaction to H2O2, linking root and shoot physiological responses.

  11. Phytoassessment of a waste engine oil-polluted soil exposed to two different intervals of monitored natural attenuation using African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa).

    PubMed

    Ikhajiagbe, B; Anoliefo, G O; Jolaoso, M A; Oshomoh, E O

    2013-07-15

    The present study comparatively investigated the phytotoxic effects of waste engine oil (WEO)-polluted soil exposed to monitored natural attenuation up to 5 and 14 months respectively. Soil was previously polluted with WEO at 0, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10% w/w oil in soil. Although, there was significant reduction in heavy metal concentration of soil as well as total hydrocarbon contents, performance of Sphenostylis stenocarpa was greatly retarded when sown at 5 months after pollution (MAP), with death of all seedlings except in the control. However, growth and yield performances were significantly (p > 0.05) enhanced at 14 MAP. Computation of hazard quotient showed that ecological risk factor initially posed by the presence of heavy metals in the soil at 5 MAP was significantly (p > 0.05) reduced to safe levels at 14 MAP.

  12. 2D-DIGE-based proteome expression changes in leaves of rice seedlings exposed to low-level gamma radiation at Iitate village, Fukushima

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Gohei; Moro, Carlo F; Rohila, Jai Singh; Shibato, Junko; Kubo, Akihiro; Imanaka, Tetsuji; Kimura, Shinzo; Ozawa, Shoji; Fukutani, Satoshi; Endo, Satoru; Ichikawa, Katsuki; Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Shioda, Seiji; Hori, Motohide; Fukumoto, Manabu; Rakwal, Randeep

    2015-01-01

    The present study continues our previous research on investigating the biological effects of low-level gamma radiation in rice at the heavily contaminated Iitate village in Fukushima, by extending the experiments to unraveling the leaf proteome. 14-days-old plants of Japonica rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Nipponbare) were subjected to gamma radiation level of upto 4 µSv/h, for 72 h. Following exposure, leaf samples were taken from the around 190 µSv/3 d exposed seedling and total proteins were extracted. The gamma irradiated leaf and control leaf (harvested at the start of the experiment) protein lysates were used in a 2-D differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) experiment using CyDye labeling in order to asses which spots were differentially represented, a novelty of the study. 2D-DIGE analysis revealed 91 spots with significantly different expression between samples (60 positive, 31 negative). MALDI-TOF and TOF/TOF mass spectrometry analyses revealed those as comprising of 59 different proteins (50 up-accumulated, 9 down-accumulated). The identified proteins were subdivided into 10 categories, according to their biological function, which indicated that the majority of the differentially expressed proteins consisted of the general (non-energy) metabolism and stress response categories. Proteome-wide data point to some effects of low-level gamma radiation exposure on the metabolism of rice leaves. PMID:26451896

  13. 2D-DIGE-based proteome expression changes in leaves of rice seedlings exposed to low-level gamma radiation at Iitate village, Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Gohei; Moro, Carlo F; Rohila, Jai Singh; Shibato, Junko; Kubo, Akihiro; Imanaka, Tetsuji; Kimura, Shinzo; Ozawa, Shoji; Fukutani, Satoshi; Endo, Satoru; Ichikawa, Katsuki; Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Shioda, Seiji; Hori, Motohide; Fukumoto, Manabu; Rakwal, Randeep

    2015-01-01

    The present study continues our previous research on investigating the biological effects of low-level gamma radiation in rice at the heavily contaminated Iitate village in Fukushima, by extending the experiments to unraveling the leaf proteome. 14-days-old plants of Japonica rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Nipponbare) were subjected to gamma radiation level of upto 4 µSv/h, for 72 h. Following exposure, leaf samples were taken from the around 190 µSv/3 d exposed seedling and total proteins were extracted. The gamma irradiated leaf and control leaf (harvested at the start of the experiment) protein lysates were used in a 2-D differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) experiment using CyDye labeling in order to asses which spots were differentially represented, a novelty of the study. 2D-DIGE analysis revealed 91 spots with significantly different expression between samples (60 positive, 31 negative). MALDI-TOF and TOF/TOF mass spectrometry analyses revealed those as comprising of 59 different proteins (50 up-accumulated, 9 down-accumulated). The identified proteins were subdivided into 10 categories, according to their biological function, which indicated that the majority of the differentially expressed proteins consisted of the general (non-energy) metabolism and stress response categories. Proteome-wide data point to some effects of low-level gamma radiation exposure on the metabolism of rice leaves.

  14. Photosynthesis, Growth, and Ultraviolet Irradiance Absorbance of Cucurbita pepo L. Leaves Exposed to Ultraviolet-B Radiation (280-315 nm) 1

    PubMed Central

    Sisson, William B.

    1981-01-01

    Net photosynthesis, growth, and ultraviolet (UV) radiation absorbance were determined for the first leaf of Cucurbita pepo L. exposed to two levels of UV-B irradiation and a UV-B radiation-free control treatment. Absorbance by extracted flavonoid pigments and other UV-B radiation-absorbing compounds from the first leaves increased with time and level of UV-B radiation impinging on leaf surfaces. Although absorbance of UV-B radiation by extracted pigments increased substantially, UV-B radiation attenuation apparently was insufficient to protect completely the photosynthetic apparatus or leaf growth processes. Leaf expansion was repressed by daily exposure to 1365 Joules per meter per day of biologically effective UV-B radiation but not by exposure to 660 Joules per meter per day. Photosynthesis measured through ontogenesis of the first leaf was depressed by both UV-B radiation treatments. Repression of photosynthesis by UV-B radiation was especially evident during the ontogenetic period of maximum photosynthetic activity. PMID:16661610

  15. Photosynthesis, Growth, and Ultraviolet Irradiance Absorbance of Cucurbita pepo L. Leaves Exposed to Ultraviolet-B Radiation (280-315 nm).

    PubMed

    Sisson, W B

    1981-01-01

    Net photosynthesis, growth, and ultraviolet (UV) radiation absorbance were determined for the first leaf of Cucurbita pepo L. exposed to two levels of UV-B irradiation and a UV-B radiation-free control treatment. Absorbance by extracted flavonoid pigments and other UV-B radiation-absorbing compounds from the first leaves increased with time and level of UV-B radiation impinging on leaf surfaces. Although absorbance of UV-B radiation by extracted pigments increased substantially, UV-B radiation attenuation apparently was insufficient to protect completely the photosynthetic apparatus or leaf growth processes. Leaf expansion was repressed by daily exposure to 1365 Joules per meter per day of biologically effective UV-B radiation but not by exposure to 660 Joules per meter per day. Photosynthesis measured through ontogenesis of the first leaf was depressed by both UV-B radiation treatments. Repression of photosynthesis by UV-B radiation was especially evident during the ontogenetic period of maximum photosynthetic activity.

  16. Photosynthesis, growth, and ultraviolet irradiance absorbance of Cucurbita pepo L. leaves exposed to ultraviolet-B radiation (280 to 315 nm)

    SciTech Connect

    Sisson, W.B.

    1981-01-01

    Net photosynthesis, growth, and ultraviolet (uv) radiation absorbance were determined for the first leaf of Cucurbita pepo L. exposed to two levels of uv-B irradiation and a uv-B radiation-free control treatment. Absorbance by extracted flavonoid pigments and other uv-B radiation-absorbing compounds from the first leaves increased with time and level of uv-B radiation impinging on leaf surfaces. Although absorbance of uv-B radiation by extracted pigments increased substantially, uv-B radiation attenuation apparently was insufficient to protect completely the photosynthetic apparatus or leaf growth processes. Leaf expansion was repressed by daily exposure to 1365 Joules per meter per day of biologically effective uv-B radiation by not by exposure to 660 Joules per meter per day. Photosynthesis measured through ontogenesis of the first leaf was depressed by both uv-B radiation treatments. Repression of photosynthesis by uv-B radiation was especially evident during the ontogenetic period of maximum photosynthetic activity.

  17. Ozone alters the concentrations of nutrients in bean tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Tingey, D.T.; Rodecap, K.D.; Lee, E.H.; Moser, T.J.; Hogsett, W.E.

    1986-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the impact of ozone on the nutrient concentrations in tissue from various organs of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Bush Bluelake 290). The plants were exposed to episodic concentrations of ozone in open-top field exposure chambers from soon after emergence until pod maturity. At harvest the leaf, stem, root and pod tissue were separated and dried (at 70C) to a constant weight. Nutrient concentrations in the tissue were determined using an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer. Ozone exposure decreased the foliar concentrations of only four of the twelve nutrients analyzed (Ca, Mg, Fe and Mn) and increased the concentrations of three nutrients (K,P and Mo) in the pods. There were no significant changes in the macro- or micronutrient levels in the stem or root tissue. The decreased concentrations in the foliage appear to be the result of reduced transport into the leaves rather than reduced uptake or leaching.

  18. Prosopis pubescens (Screw bean mesquite) seedlings are hyper accumulators of copper

    PubMed Central

    Zappala, Marian N.; Ellzey, Joanne T.; Bader, Julia; Peralta-Videa, Jose R.; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Due to health reasons, toxic metals must be removed from soils contaminated by mine tailings and smelter activities. The phytoremediation potential of Prosopis pubescens (screw bean mesquite) was examined by use of inductively-coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to observe ultrastructural changes of parenchymal cells of leaves in the presence of copper. Elemental analysis was utilized to localize copper within leaves. A 600 ppm copper sulfate exposure to seedlings for 24 days resulted in 31,000 ppm copper in roots, 17,000 ppm in stems, 11,000 in cotyledons and 20 ppm in the true leaves. In order for a plant to be considered a hyper accumulator, the plant must accumulate a leaf: root ratio of <1. Screw bean mesquite exposed to copper had a leaf: root ratios of 0.355 when cotyledons were included. We showed that Prosopis pubescens grown in soil is a hyper accumulator of copper. We recommend that this plant should be field tested. PMID:23612918

  19. The C-household of young broad-leaved and conifer tree species exposed to long-term carbon limitation by shading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Raphael; Hoch, Günter

    2017-04-01

    Non-structural carbohydrates (NSC, i.e. free sugars and starch) are regarded as freely available carbon (C) reserves in plants. They are often quantified to estimate a plant's C-balance, assuming that NSC are controlled by the net-balance between photo-assimilation and C-usage (respiration, growth and other sinks). Within a recent field experiment, we investigated the extent, to which C-reserves (NSC) can be formed in young trees against prevailing C-sink demands (growth) under C-limitation. A total of almost 1000 individuals of two-year-old tree saplings from 6 deciduous, broadleaved species and 4 evergreen conifer species were planted on a field side. Half of the trees per species were treated with long-term C-limitation by exposing them to continuous deep shade conditions (5% of natural PPFD) under a permanent shading tent. C gas-exchange, growth and NSC tissue concentrations were analyzed in shaded and unshaded saplings for two consecutive years. Three months after the beginning of the experiment, leaf photosynthesis acclimatized to the low light conditions, with leaves of shaded trees showing significantly higher SLA and lower light saturation and maximum photosynthesis. During the second season of the experiment, most species exhibited very strong reductions in NSC, but much less pronounced reductions in growth. In contrast, other species, with few exceptions, kept NSC concentrations similar to unshaded controls, while growth virtually stopped under deep shade. In conclusion, we found species-specific strategies in the trees' C-household after two years of C-limitation, that fall into two major carbon allocation strategies: 1) "C-spenders", which deplete C reserves in order to keep up significant growth, and 2) "C-savers", which reduce C sink activities to a minimum in order to store substantial amounts of C reserves. Overall, early-successional species tended to follow the first strategy, while late-successional species tended to save higher C reserve pools

  20. Veinloading in seedlings of phaseolus vulgaris exposed to excess cobalt, nickel, and zinc

    SciTech Connect

    Rauser, W.E.; Samarakoon, A.B.

    1980-04-01

    Vein loading in unifoliate leaves of white bean seedlings exposed to excess Co/sup 2 +/, Ni/sup 2 +/, or Zn/sup 2 +/ for 1 to 4 days was studied by incubating leaf discs in absolute value of /sup 14/C sucrose. The discs from plants exposed to metal exhibited an increased total uptake of radiosucrose but reduced vein loading. Uptake of radiosucrose was greater particularly in discs from seedlings exposed to excess Ni/sup 2 +/ and Zn/sup 2 +/. The effect increased as exposure of the seedlings to metal increased up to 4 days. Autoradiographs showed vein loading in control leaf tissues with most of the radiosucrose accumulating in minor veins and little remaining in the mesophyll. In discs from metal-treated plants, most of the sucrose remained in the mesophyll without accumulating perferentially in the minor veins. The effect was evident within 24 hours of exposure to excess metal and intensified with longer exposures to metal. The inhibition of vein loading was also evident in situ. Both the preferential accumulation of sucrose into the minor veins of control tissues and the accumulation into mesophyll of metal exposed tissues were sensitive to 2,4-dinitrophenol and the blockage of sulfhydryl groups. It is concluded that the inhibition of vein loading contributes markedly to the observed toxicological effects of reduced photoassimilate export and of accumulation of carbohydrates in fully expanded leaves of bean seedlings exposed to excess metal ions.

  1. Influence of compost on the mobility of arsenic in soil and its uptake by bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) irrigated with arsenite-contaminated water.

    PubMed

    Caporale, Antonio G; Pigna, Massimo; Sommella, Alessia; Dynes, James J; Cozzolino, Vincenza; Violante, Antonio

    2013-10-15

    The influence of compost on the growth of bean plants irrigated with As-contaminated waters and its influence on the mobility of As in the soils and the uptake of As (as NaAs(III)O2) by plant components was studied at various compost application rates (3·10(4) and 6·10(4) kg ha(-1)) and at three As concentrations (1, 2 and 3 mg kg(-1)). The biomass and As and P concentrations of the roots, shoots and beans were determined at harvest time, as well as the chlorophyll content of the leaves and nonspecific and specifically bound As in the soil. The bean plants exposed to As showed typical phytotoxicity symptoms; no plants however died over the study. The biomass of the bean plants increased with the increasing amounts of compost added to the soil, attributed to the phytonutritive capacity of compost. Biomass decreased with increasing As concentrations, however, the reduction in the biomass was significantly lower with the addition of compost, indicating that the As phytotoxicity was alleviated by the compost. For the same As concentration, the As content of the roots, shoots and beans decreased with increasing compost added compared to the Control. This is due to partial immobilization of the As by the organic functional groups on the compost, either directly or through cation bridging. Most of the As adsorbed by the bean plants accumulated in the roots, while a scant allocation of As occurred in the beans. Hence, the addition of compost to soils could be used as an effective means to limit As accumulation in crops from As-contaminated waters.

  2. Foliar injury response of petunia and kidney bean to simultaneous and alternate exposures to ozone and pan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouchi, Isamu; Mayumi, Hirokazu; Yamazoe, Fumio

    Petunia at about 6 weeks old and kidney bean at two growing stages (6-7 days old and 16-18 days old) were exposed separately to O 3, (0-0.40 ppm) and PAN (0-0.25 ppm) for 4 h and to the mixture for the same time. In addition, petunia was exposed to O, (0.10-0.40 ppm) and then PAN (0.010-0.040 ppm) for 4 h, respectively. Foliar injury of petunia and kidney bean in exposures to the mixtures of O 3 and PAN was significantly smaller than that induced by each oxidant, with the exception of PAN injury on young leaves of 16-18 day-old kidney bean. The percentage of foliar injury caused by either of the mixed pollutants decreased with an increase of the concentration of the other oxidant, and was found to approximate a logarithmic function of the combined pollutant concentrations expressed as O 3, minum PAN or vice versa. Alternate exposures caused no additive or synergistic injuries.

  3. Alan Bean Art Exhibit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-19

    NASA Apollo 12 Astronaut and Artist Alan Bean gives remarks at the opening of the exhibit "Alan Bean: Painting Apollo, First Artist on Another World" at the National Air and Space Museum, Monday, July 20, 2009 in Washington. The show opening coincided with the 40th anniversary celebration of Apollo. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  4. Alan Bean Art Exhibit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-19

    Guest view works of art by NASA Apollo 12 Astronaut and Artist Alan Bean during the opening of the show "Alan Bean: Painting Apollo, First Artist on Another World" at the National Air and Space Museum, Monday, July 20, 2009 in Washington. The show opening coincided with the 40th anniversary celebration of Apollo. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. Ozone-induced increase in bean leaf maintenance respiration

    SciTech Connect

    Amthor, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    Rates of respiration by unifoliate leaves of pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) plants, exposed to low levels of ozone, were partitioned into growth and maintenance components using a popular model of plant respiration. The mode can be written as R/W = G/sub R/(dW/dt)/W + m, where R/W is the leaf specific respiration rate, (dW/dt)/W is the leaf specific growth rate, G/sub R/ is the growth coefficient, and m is the maintenance coefficient. In controlled environment growth chamber experiments, plants were treated with one of two levels of ozone: 90 parts per billion (p.p.b., i.e., nl liter/sup -1/), for 6 h d/sup -1/ (+ ozone), or less than 15 p.p.b. (-ozone). The growth coefficient was not affected by ozone. The maintenance coefficient, however, was 10-15% larger in leaves of plants from the + ozone treatment, compared to the-ozone treatment. This difference in the maintenance coefficient was statistically significant. Open-top field chamber experiments were also conducted. As in the growth chamber experiments, ozone dose did not affect the growth coefficient, but increases in ozone resulted in significant increases in the maintenance coefficient. The results of these experiments suggest that one reason ozone inhibits plant growth and productivity is that maintenance respiration increases, probably in order to repair injury.

  6. Protection against common bean rust conferred by a gene silencing method

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rust disease of the dry bean plant, Phaseolus vulgaris, is caused by the fungus Uromyces appendiculatus. The fungus acquires its nutrients and energy from bean leaves using a specialized cell structure, the haustorium, through which it secretes effector proteins that contribute to pathogenicity by ...

  7. White beans provide more bioavailable iron than red beans: studies in poultry (Gallus gallus) and an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 model.

    PubMed

    Tako, Elad; Glahn, Raymond P

    2010-12-01

    Iron-biofortification of crops is a strategy that alleviates iron deficiency. The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an attractive candidate for biofortification. However, beans are high in polyphenols that may inhibit iron absorption. In vitro studies have shown that iron bioavailability from white beans is higher than that from colored beans. In this study, our objective was to determine if white beans contain more bioavailable iron than red beans and to determine if the in vitro observations of bean-iron bioavailability would be evident in an in vivo feeding trial. We compared iron bioavailability between diets containing either white (Matterhorn) or red (Merlot) beans, which differ in polyphenol content. One-week-old chicks (Gallus gallus) were divided into four groups: 1. "WB": 40% white-bean diet; 2. "RB" :40% red-bean diet; 3. "WB+Fe": 40% white-bean diet; 4. "RB+Fe": 40% red-bean diet (51, 47, 179, and 175 ppm iron, respectively). Diets 1 and 2 had no supplemental iron; whereas 125 µg/g iron was added to diets 3 and 4. For 8 weeks, hemoglobin, feed consumption, and body weights were measured. Divalent metal transporter 1 (iron-uptake-transporter), duodenal-cytochrome-B (iron reductase), and ferroportin (iron-exporter) expressions were higher (p<0.05), villus-surface-area (tissue iron-deficiency adaptation) was greater in the "RB" group vs. other groups. Cecal microflora was similar between treatments. Hemoglobin, body-hemoglobin iron, and body weights were lower in the "RB" group vs. other groups (p<0.05). In vitro analysis showed lower ferritin formation (less bioavailable iron) in cells exposed to the "RB" diet. We conclude that the in vivo results support the in vitro observations; i. e., white beans contain more bioavailable iron than red beans.

  8. Influence of ozone on induced resistance in soybean to the Mexican bean beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Hengchen; Kogan, M. ); Endress, A.G. )

    1990-08-01

    The influence of ozone (O{sub 3}) on induced resistance in soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., cv. Williams 82, was investigated. Feeding by larval soybean looper, Pseudoplusia includens (Walker), was used to induce resistance, and the feeding preference of the Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivetis Mulsant, was used to indicate induced resistance. Greenhouse grown soybean plants at the V9 growth stage (eight open trifoliolates) were used in all experiments. One day following feeding injury by the soybean looper, the injured plants and the uninjured controls were exposed to three concentrations of ozone in transparent mylar chambers; level in ambient air (about 0.025 ppm), 0.06 ppm, or 0.1 ppm. Plants were exposed for 5 h a day for a period of 2-4 d. Ozone exposure at the levels used in this study produced no visible injuries to leaves. Low doses (up to 4-d-exposure to 0.06 ppm or 2-d exposure to 0.1 ppm) of ozone overrode the resistance in soybean that had been induced by the feeding of soybean looper larvae. Higher doses (3- or 4-d exposure to 0.1 ppm) of ozone actually resulted in a greater acceptability by the Mexican bean beetle of plants injured by the soybean looper than of uninjured plants. Doses of ozone used in these experiments did not significantly alter the feeding preference of the Mexican bean beetle for the uninjured plants. Because ozone pollution and herbivore injury are commonly experienced by plants in nature, the results of this study add another perspective to insect-plant interactions.

  9. Protecting beans from ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.

    1983-03-01

    A chemical treatment to protect navy beans from ozone damage increased yields by an average of more than 20% in 3 years of tests. An experimental antioxidant chemical, EDU, made by the DuPont company was tested as soil applications and sprays on several varieties and under a variety of soil and planting conditions. The average yield increases were between 16 and 24%. Chemical treatment also increased snap bean pod production by 12%.

  10. Alan Bean Art Exhibit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-19

    NASA Apollo 7 Astronaut Walt Cunningham, left, and NASA STS-125 Mission Specialist Michael Massimino talk with another guest during the opening of "Alan Bean: Painting Apollo, First Artist on Another World" by NASA Apollo 12 Astronaut and Artist Alan Bean at the National Air and Space Museum, Monday, July 20, 2009 in Washington. The show opening coincided with the 40th anniversary celebration of Apollo. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. Global Scale Transcriptional Profiling of Two Contrasting Barley Genotypes Exposed to Moderate Drought Conditions: Contribution of Leaves and Crowns to Water Shortage Coping Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Svoboda, Pavel; Janská, Anna; Spiwok, Vojtěch; Prášil, Ilja T.; Kosová, Klára; Vítámvás, Pavel; Ovesná, Jaroslava

    2016-01-01

    Drought is a serious threat for sustainable agriculture. Barley represents a species well adapted to environmental stresses including drought. To elucidate the adaptive mechanism of barley on transcriptional level we evaluated transcriptomic changes of two contrasting barley cultivars upon drought using the microarray technique on the level of leaves and crowns. Using bioinformatic tools, differentially expressed genes in treated vs. non-treated plants were identified. Both genotypes revealed tissue dehydration under drought conditions as shown at water saturation deficit and osmotic potential data; however, dehydration was more severe in Amulet than in drought-resistant Tadmor under the same ambient conditions. Performed analysis showed that Amulet enhanced expression of genes related to active plant growth and development, while Tadmor regarding the stimulated genes revealed conservative, water saving strategy. Common reactions of both genotypes and tissues included an induction of genes encoding several stress-responsive signaling proteins, transcription factors as well as effector genes encoding proteins directly involved in stress acclimation. In leaf, tolerant cultivar effectively stimulated mainly the expression of genes encoding proteins and enzymes involved in protein folding, sulfur metabolism, ROS detoxification or lipid biosynthesis and transport. The crown specific reaction of tolerant cultivar was an enhanced expression of genes encoding proteins and enzymes involved in cell wall lignification, ABRE-dependent abscisic acid (ABA) signaling, nucleosome remodeling, along with genes for numerous jasmonate induced proteins. PMID:28083001

  12. Global Scale Transcriptional Profiling of Two Contrasting Barley Genotypes Exposed to Moderate Drought Conditions: Contribution of Leaves and Crowns to Water Shortage Coping Strategies.

    PubMed

    Svoboda, Pavel; Janská, Anna; Spiwok, Vojtěch; Prášil, Ilja T; Kosová, Klára; Vítámvás, Pavel; Ovesná, Jaroslava

    2016-01-01

    Drought is a serious threat for sustainable agriculture. Barley represents a species well adapted to environmental stresses including drought. To elucidate the adaptive mechanism of barley on transcriptional level we evaluated transcriptomic changes of two contrasting barley cultivars upon drought using the microarray technique on the level of leaves and crowns. Using bioinformatic tools, differentially expressed genes in treated vs. non-treated plants were identified. Both genotypes revealed tissue dehydration under drought conditions as shown at water saturation deficit and osmotic potential data; however, dehydration was more severe in Amulet than in drought-resistant Tadmor under the same ambient conditions. Performed analysis showed that Amulet enhanced expression of genes related to active plant growth and development, while Tadmor regarding the stimulated genes revealed conservative, water saving strategy. Common reactions of both genotypes and tissues included an induction of genes encoding several stress-responsive signaling proteins, transcription factors as well as effector genes encoding proteins directly involved in stress acclimation. In leaf, tolerant cultivar effectively stimulated mainly the expression of genes encoding proteins and enzymes involved in protein folding, sulfur metabolism, ROS detoxification or lipid biosynthesis and transport. The crown specific reaction of tolerant cultivar was an enhanced expression of genes encoding proteins and enzymes involved in cell wall lignification, ABRE-dependent abscisic acid (ABA) signaling, nucleosome remodeling, along with genes for numerous jasmonate induced proteins.

  13. Proteomic analysis of common bean stem under drought stress using in-gel stable isotope labeling.

    PubMed

    Zadražnik, Tanja; Egge-Jacobsen, Wolfgang; Meglič, Vladimir; Šuštar-Vozlič, Jelka

    2017-02-01

    Drought is an abiotic stress that strongly influences plant growth, development and productivity. Proteome changes in the stem of the drought-tolerant common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivar Tiber have were when the plants were exposed to drought. Five-week-old plants were subjected to water deficit by withholding irrigation for 7, 12 and 17days, whereas control plants were regularly irrigated. Relative water content (RWC) of leaves, as an indicator of the degree of cell and tissue hydration, showed the highest statistically significant differences between control and drought-stressed plants after 17days of treatment, where RWC remained at 90% for control and declined to 45% for stressed plants. Plants exposed to drought for 17days and control plants at the same developmental stage were included in quantitative proteomic analysis using in-gel stable isotope labeling of proteins in combination with mass spectrometry. The quantified proteins were grouped into several functional groups, mainly into energy metabolism, photosynthesis, proteolysis, protein synthesis and proteins related to defense and stress. 70kDa heat shock protein showed the greatest increase in abundance under drought of all the proteins, suggesting its role in protecting plants against stress by re-establishing normal protein conformations and thus cellular homeostasis. The abundance of proteins involved in protein synthesis also increased under drought stress, important for recovery of damaged proteins involved in the plant cell's metabolic activities. Other important proteins in this study were related to proteolysis and folding, which are necessary for maintaining proper cellular protein homeostasis. Taken together, these results reveal the complexity of pathways involved in the drought stress response in common bean stems and enable comparison with the results of proteomic analysis of leaves, thus providing important information to further understand the biochemical and molecular mechanisms

  14. Light-Induced Changes in Hydrogen, Calcium, Potassium, and Chloride Ion Fluxes and Concentrations from the Mesophyll and Epidermal Tissues of Bean Leaves. Understanding the Ionic Basis of Light-Induced Bioelectrogenesis1

    PubMed Central

    Shabala, Sergey; Newman, Ian

    1999-01-01

    Noninvasive, ion-selective vibrating microelectrodes were used to measure the kinetics of H+, Ca2+, K+, and Cl− fluxes and the changes in their concentrations caused by illumination near the mesophyll and attached epidermis of bean (Vicia faba L.). These flux measurements were related to light-induced changes in the plasma membrane potential. The influx of Ca2+ was the main depolarizing agent in electrical responses to light in the mesophyll. Changes in the net fluxes of H+, K+, and Cl− occurred only after a significant delay of about 2 min, whereas light-stimulated influx of Ca2+ began within the time resolution of our measurements (5 s). In the absence of H+ flux, light caused an initial quick rise of external pH near the mesophyll and epidermal tissues. In the mesophyll this fast alkalinization was followed by slower, oscillatory pH changes (5–15 min); in the epidermis the external pH increased steadily and reached a plateau 3 min later. We explain the initial alkalinization of the medium as a result of CO2 uptake by photosynthesizing tissue, whereas activation of the plasma membrane H+ pump occurred 1.5 to 2 min later. The epidermal layer seems to be a substantial barrier for ion fluxes but not for CO2 diffusion into the leaf. PMID:10069851

  15. Light-induced changes in hydrogen, calcium, potassium, and chloride ion fluxes and concentrations from the mesophyll and epidermal tissues of bean leaves. Understanding the ionic basis of light-induced bioelectrogenesis

    PubMed

    Shabala; Newman

    1999-03-01

    Noninvasive, ion-selective vibrating microelectrodes were used to measure the kinetics of H+, Ca2+, K+, and Cl- fluxes and the changes in their concentrations caused by illumination near the mesophyll and attached epidermis of bean (Vicia faba L.). These flux measurements were related to light-induced changes in the plasma membrane potential. The influx of Ca2+ was the main depolarizing agent in electrical responses to light in the mesophyll. Changes in the net fluxes of H+, K+, and Cl- occurred only after a significant delay of about 2 min, whereas light-stimulated influx of Ca2+ began within the time resolution of our measurements (5 s). In the absence of H+ flux, light caused an initial quick rise of external pH near the mesophyll and epidermal tissues. In the mesophyll this fast alkalinization was followed by slower, oscillatory pH changes (5-15 min); in the epidermis the external pH increased steadily and reached a plateau 3 min later. We explain the initial alkalinization of the medium as a result of CO2 uptake by photosynthesizing tissue, whereas activation of the plasma membrane H+ pump occurred 1.5 to 2 min later. The epidermal layer seems to be a substantial barrier for ion fluxes but not for CO2 diffusion into the leaf.

  16. Sulfur dioxide inhibition of translocation in bean plants

    SciTech Connect

    Teh, K.H.; Swanson, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    Exposure of the source leaf of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Black Valentine) for 2 hours to 2.9 microliters per liter SO/sub 2/ inhibited the net photosynthetic rate an average of 75% and, simultaneously, the translocation rate an average of 45%. Calculations indicated that the experimentally determined translocation rates from SO/sub 2/-stressed leaves were lower than were the rates expected on the basis of the observed reductions in photosynthesis. It is inferred that, under SO/sub 2/ stress, the phloem-loading system becomes a major limiting step in controlling the translocation rate. Following removal of SO/sub 2/, photosynthesis recovered quite rapidly (to about 60% of its preexposure rate within 2 hours), but the translocation rate failed to increase during this time interval. This delayed response of translocation to removal of SO/sub 2/ does not appear to be due to an injury effect of SO/sub 2/ inasmuch as a similar effect was obtained by exposing the source leaf to a short (2-hour) interval of dark.

  17. Cell-Wall Proteins Induced by Water Deficit in Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Seedlings.

    PubMed Central

    Covarrubias, A. A.; Ayala, J. W.; Reyes, J. L.; Hernandez, M.; Garciarrubio, A.

    1995-01-01

    In the last few years, much attention has been given to the role of proteins that accumulate during water deficit. In this work, we analyzed the electrophoretic patterns of basic protein extracts, enriched for a number of cell-wall proteins, from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seedlings and 21-d-old plants subjected to water deficit. Three major basic proteins accumulated in bean seedlings exposed to low water potentials, with apparent molecular masses of 36, 33, and 22 kD, which we refer to as p36, p33, and p22, respectively. Leaves and roots of 21-d-old plants grown under low-water-availability conditions accumulated only p36 and p33 proteins. In 21-d-old plants subjected to a fast rate of water loss, both p33 and p36 accumulated to approximately the same levels, whereas if the plants were subjected to a gradual loss of water, p33 accumulated to higher levels. Both p36 and p33 were glycosylated and were found in the cell-wall fraction. In contrast, p22 was not glycosylated and was found in the soluble fraction. The accumulation of these proteins was also induced by abscisic acid (0.1-1.0 mM) treatment but not by wounding or by jasmonate treatment. PMID:12228420

  18. Sharing Beans with Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Clare V.

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and researchers have known for decades that the use of storybooks can have a positive impact on students' experiences with mathematics. This article describes how first graders in an urban public school actively engage with mathematics by using the story "Bean Thirteen" as a context for developing number sense. This…

  19. "The Bean Files."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haq, Krystyna; Longnecker, Nancy; Hickey, Ruth

    1999-01-01

    Describes classroom use and effectiveness of "The Bean Files," an internet package that uses humorous stories to introduce students to life on a wheat-sheep farm in the Mediterranean climate areas of Australia. The focus of the program is on the role of legume-cereal rotations in the farming system and the science underpinning this…

  20. "The Bean Files."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haq, Krystyna; Longnecker, Nancy; Hickey, Ruth

    1999-01-01

    Describes classroom use and effectiveness of "The Bean Files," an internet package that uses humorous stories to introduce students to life on a wheat-sheep farm in the Mediterranean climate areas of Australia. The focus of the program is on the role of legume-cereal rotations in the farming system and the science underpinning this…

  1. Sharing Beans with Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Clare V.

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and researchers have known for decades that the use of storybooks can have a positive impact on students' experiences with mathematics. This article describes how first graders in an urban public school actively engage with mathematics by using the story "Bean Thirteen" as a context for developing number sense. This…

  2. Full of Beans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, David H.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a genetics activity illustrating genetic variation, mutation, and influence of environmental factors on genotypic expression. Irridiated bean seeds are planted and observed (x-rayed by dentist's x-ray machine at different exposures and for different times). Questions to extend the activity are discussed. (Author/JN)

  3. Alan Bean Art Exhibit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-19

    Former NASA Astronaut and U.S. Senator John Glenn is seen at the opening of the exhibit "Alan Bean: Painting Apollo, First Artist on Another World" at the National Air and Space Museum, Monday, July 20, 2009 in Washington. The show opening coincided with the 40th anniversary celebration of Apollo. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  4. 7 CFR 319.56-54 - French beans and runner beans from Kenya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false French beans and runner beans from Kenya. 319.56-54... § 319.56-54 French beans and runner beans from Kenya. French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and runner beans (Phaseolus coccineus L.) may be imported into the United States from Kenya only under the...

  5. 7 CFR 319.56-54 - French beans and runner beans from Kenya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false French beans and runner beans from Kenya. 319.56-54... § 319.56-54 French beans and runner beans from Kenya. French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and runner beans (Phaseolus coccineus L.) may be imported into the United States from Kenya only under the...

  6. 7 CFR 319.56-54 - French beans and runner beans from Kenya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false French beans and runner beans from Kenya. 319.56-54... § 319.56-54 French beans and runner beans from Kenya. French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and runner beans (Phaseolus coccineus L.) may be imported into the United States from Kenya only under the...

  7. Carotenoid transformations underlying the blue absorbance change in flashed leaves during the induction of oxygen evolution.

    PubMed

    Siefermann-Harms, D; Michel, J M; Collard, F

    1980-02-08

    The blue absorbance change occurring in flashed bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) leaves when exposed to continuous light (first observed by Strasser; Strasser, R.J. (1973) Arch. Int. Physiol. Biochem. 81, 935--955) is caused by the conversion of the following xanthophylls: violaxanthine leads to antheraxanthine leads to zeaxanthine. This conclusion is derived from the simultaneous occurrence of both reactions: (a) In flashed leaves, blue absorbance change and xanthophyll conversion take place under strong (2 mW . cm-2) but not under weak (0.02 mW . cm-2) white light. (b) In chloroplasts isolated from flashed leaves, the blue absorbance change occurs in the dark under conditions that also induce the xanthophyll conversion. (c) Blue absorbance change and xanthophyll conversion are both inhibited by dithiothreitol. In addition, the light-induced blue absorbance change is reversed in the dark if aerobic conditions are maintained, i.e. under conditions that in normal leaves favor the reversal of the above reaction sequence. The significance of the xanthophyll conversion is discussed in relation to other phenomena occurring in flashed leaves after exposure to continuous illumination.

  8. Effect of hydrocarbons and crude oil contamination on the sensitivity of French bean to alfalfa mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Jurík, M; Gallo, J; Subr, Z

    1995-12-01

    Determination of local necrotic lesions on primary leaves infected by alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) revealed that hydrocarbons (HC) contamination of the substrate used for cultivation of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cv. Black Turtle Soup) caused a reduction of bean leaf area and an increase of plant sensitivity to AMV infection. On the other hand, superficial contamination of the leaves by crude oil caused an inhibition of lesion formation. Changes of SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) patterns of extractable bean leaf proteins related to the cultivation substrate contamination by HC were also detected.

  9. Icephobicity of Leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavehpour, H. Pirouz; Shirazi, Elika T.; Alizadeh-Birjandi, Elaheh

    2016-11-01

    Ice adhesion and excessive accumulation on exposed structures and equipment are well known to cause serious problems in cold-climate regions; therefore, the development of coatings that can resist icing can solve many challenges in various areas of industry. This work was inspired by nature and ice-resistivity and superhydrophobicity of plants leaves. Kale is an example of a plant that can be harvested in winter. It shows superhydrophobic behavior, which is normally known as an advantage for cleaning the leaves, but we were able to show that its surface structure and high contact angle of water drops on kale leaves could delay the ice formation process making it a good candidate for an ice-repellent coating. We have performed in-depth experimental analyses on how different plants can prevent icing, and contact angle measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the leaves were taken to further mimic their surface morphology.

  10. Identity recognition in response to different levels of genetic relatedness in commercial soya bean

    PubMed Central

    Van Acker, Rene; Rajcan, Istvan; Swanton, Clarence J.

    2017-01-01

    Identity recognition systems allow plants to tailor competitive phenotypes in response to the genetic relatedness of neighbours. There is limited evidence for the existence of recognition systems in crop species and whether they operate at a level that would allow for identification of different degrees of relatedness. Here, we test the responses of commercial soya bean cultivars to neighbours of varying genetic relatedness consisting of other commercial cultivars (intraspecific), its wild progenitor Glycine soja, and another leguminous species Phaseolus vulgaris (interspecific). We found, for the first time to our knowledge, that a commercial soya bean cultivar, OAC Wallace, showed identity recognition responses to neighbours at different levels of genetic relatedness. OAC Wallace showed no response when grown with other commercial soya bean cultivars (intra-specific neighbours), showed increased allocation to leaves compared with stems with wild soya beans (highly related wild progenitor species), and increased allocation to leaves compared with stems and roots with white beans (interspecific neighbours). Wild soya bean also responded to identity recognition but these responses involved changes in biomass allocation towards stems instead of leaves suggesting that identity recognition responses are species-specific and consistent with the ecology of the species. In conclusion, elucidating identity recognition in crops may provide further knowledge into mechanisms of crop competition and the relationship between crop density and yield. PMID:28280587

  11. Identity recognition in response to different levels of genetic relatedness in commercial soya bean.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Guillermo P; Van Acker, Rene; Rajcan, Istvan; Swanton, Clarence J

    2017-01-01

    Identity recognition systems allow plants to tailor competitive phenotypes in response to the genetic relatedness of neighbours. There is limited evidence for the existence of recognition systems in crop species and whether they operate at a level that would allow for identification of different degrees of relatedness. Here, we test the responses of commercial soya bean cultivars to neighbours of varying genetic relatedness consisting of other commercial cultivars (intraspecific), its wild progenitor Glycine soja, and another leguminous species Phaseolus vulgaris (interspecific). We found, for the first time to our knowledge, that a commercial soya bean cultivar, OAC Wallace, showed identity recognition responses to neighbours at different levels of genetic relatedness. OAC Wallace showed no response when grown with other commercial soya bean cultivars (intra-specific neighbours), showed increased allocation to leaves compared with stems with wild soya beans (highly related wild progenitor species), and increased allocation to leaves compared with stems and roots with white beans (interspecific neighbours). Wild soya bean also responded to identity recognition but these responses involved changes in biomass allocation towards stems instead of leaves suggesting that identity recognition responses are species-specific and consistent with the ecology of the species. In conclusion, elucidating identity recognition in crops may provide further knowledge into mechanisms of crop competition and the relationship between crop density and yield.

  12. Ligand Specificity of Bean Leaf Soluble Auxin-binding Protein 1

    PubMed Central

    Wardrop, Alison J.; Polya, Gideon M.

    1980-01-01

    The soluble bean leaf auxin-binding protein (ABP) has a high affinity for a range of auxins including indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), α-napthaleneacetic acid, phenylacetic acid, 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and structurally related auxins. A large number of nonauxin compounds that are nevertheless structurally related to auxins do not displace IAA from bean ABP. Bean ABP has a high affinity for auxin transport inhibitors and antiauxins. The specificity of pea ABP for representative auxins is similar to that found for bean ABP. The bean ABP auxin binding site is similar to the corn endoplasmic reticulum auxin-binding sites in specificity for auxins and sensitivity to thiol reagents and azide. Qualitative similarities between the ligand specificity of bean ABP and the specificity of auxin-induced bean leaf hyponasty provide further evidence, albeit circumstantial, that ABP (ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase) can bind auxins in vivo. The high incidence of ABP in bean leaves and the high affinity of this protein for auxins and auxin transport inhibitors suggest possible functions for ABP in auxin transport and/or auxin sequestration. PMID:16661370

  13. Apple latent spherical virus vector as vaccine for the prevention and treatment of mosaic diseases in pea, broad bean, and eustoma plants by bean yellow mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Nozomi; Kon, Tatsuya; Yamagishi, Noriko; Takahashi, Tsubasa; Natsuaki, Tomohide; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2014-11-07

    We investigated the protective effects of a viral vector based on an Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) harboring a segment of the Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) genome against mosaic diseases in pea, broad bean, and eustoma plants caused by BYMV infection. In pea plants pre-inoculated with the ALSV vaccine and challenge inoculated with BYMV expressing green fluorescence protein, BYMV multiplication occurred in inoculated leaves, but was markedly inhibited in the upper leaves. No mosaic symptoms due to BYMV infection were observed in the challenged plants pre-inoculated with the ALSV vaccine. Simultaneous inoculation with the ALSV vaccine and BYMV also prevented mosaic symptoms in broad bean and eustoma plants, and BYMV accumulation was strongly inhibited in the upper leaves of plants treated with the ALSV vaccine. Pea and eustoma plants were pre-inoculated with BYMV followed by inoculation with the ALSV vaccine to investigate the curative effects of the ALSV vaccine. In both plant species, recovery from mosaic symptoms was observed in upper leaves and BYMV accumulation was inhibited in leaves developing post-ALSV vaccination. These results show that ALSV vaccination not only prevents mosaic diseases in pea, broad bean, and eustoma, but that it is also effective in curing these diseases.

  14. Apple Latent Spherical Virus Vector as Vaccine for the Prevention and Treatment of Mosaic Diseases in Pea, Broad Bean, and Eustoma Plants by Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, Nozomi; Kon, Tatsuya; Yamagishi, Noriko; Takahashi, Tsubasa; Natsuaki, Tomohide; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the protective effects of a viral vector based on an Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) harboring a segment of the Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) genome against mosaic diseases in pea, broad bean, and eustoma plants caused by BYMV infection. In pea plants pre-inoculated with the ALSV vaccine and challenge inoculated with BYMV expressing green fluorescence protein, BYMV multiplication occurred in inoculated leaves, but was markedly inhibited in the upper leaves. No mosaic symptoms due to BYMV infection were observed in the challenged plants pre-inoculated with the ALSV vaccine. Simultaneous inoculation with the ALSV vaccine and BYMV also prevented mosaic symptoms in broad bean and eustoma plants, and BYMV accumulation was strongly inhibited in the upper leaves of plants treated with the ALSV vaccine. Pea and eustoma plants were pre-inoculated with BYMV followed by inoculation with the ALSV vaccine to investigate the curative effects of the ALSV vaccine. In both plant species, recovery from mosaic symptoms was observed in upper leaves and BYMV accumulation was inhibited in leaves developing post-ALSV vaccination. These results show that ALSV vaccination not only prevents mosaic diseases in pea, broad bean, and eustoma, but that it is also effective in curing these diseases. PMID:25386843

  15. Morphogenesis and bioluminescence in germination of red bean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kai, Shoichi; Mitani, Tomohiko; Fujikawa, Masahiro

    1994-10-01

    Spontaneous bioluminescence and morphogenesis were investigated for the germination and the growth processes of a red bean seed under suppression of photosynthesis. Three types of shape in seed growth were observed in well controlled conditions: (1) no root hair and leaves, (2) with root hairs and leaves and (3) no root growth. In this article, growth dynamics for the first case was investigated. The average growth dynamics of the root length of a red bean after germination and its variance were well described by a simple logistic equation with a noise term. It was observed that the scaling property for the growth dynamics has held. Strong luminescence was observed at two inflection points of the logistic curve of the root growth. By the use of a two dimensional photon counting method, it was clarified that the strong emission was mainly radiated from the cell division zone near a root cap and rather less emission from an elongation area.

  16. Gibberellic Acid Induced Leaf Abscission in the Bean Plant.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The action mechanism of gibberellic acid during abscission of bean leaves was studied. Three phenomena that occur during the abscission process were...experimentally monitored to ascertain any alteration induced by gibberellic acid : (1) ethylene production, (2) cellulase synthesis, and/or (3...cellulase secretion. No increase in ethylene production was noted. Results show an increase in cellulase synthesis induced by gibberellic acid with a subsequent increase in secretion of this enzyme. (Author)

  17. Registration of 'Croissant' pinto bean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ‘Croissant’ (Reg. No. CV-299, PI 656597), a new medium-maturity (94–98 d) pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivar was released by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station to provide dry bean producers in the USA with a high-yielding cultivar that combines resistance to rust [caused by Uromyc...

  18. Modification of whole flours of navy bean, pinto bean, black bean and chickpea by steam jet cooking and drum drying

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Whole bean flours of navy bean, pinto bean, black bean and chickpea were processed by excess steam jet cooking, drum drying, and milling to a state resembling the raw flours. Analysis of the structure and size of the particles, color, solubility and pasting characteristics, dietary fiber, and protei...

  19. Effect of petroleum-derived substances on life history traits of black bean aphid (Aphis fabae Scop.) and on the growth and chemical composition of broad bean.

    PubMed

    Rusin, Milena; Gospodarek, Janina; Nadgórska-Socha, Aleksandra; Barczyk, Gabriela

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effects of various petroleum-derived substances, namely petrol, diesel fuel and spent engine oil, on life history traits and population dynamics of the black bean aphid Aphis fabae Scop. and on growth and chemical composition of its host plant Vicia faba L. Each substance was tested separately, using two concentrations (9 g kg(-1) and 18 g kg(-1)). The experiment was conducted in four replications (four pots with five plants in each pot per treatment). Plants were cultivated in both control and contaminated soils. After six weeks from soil contamination and five weeks from sowing the seeds, observations of the effect of petroleum-derived substances on traits of three successive generations of aphids were conducted. Aphids were inoculated separately on leaves using cylindrical cages hermetically closed on both sides. Contamination of aphid occurred through its host plant. Results showed that all tested substances adversely affected A. fabae life history traits and population dynamics: extension of the prereproductive period, reduction of fecundity and life span, reduction of the population intrinsic growth rate. In broad bean, leaf, roots, and shoot growth was also impaired in most conditions, whereas nutrient and heavy metal content varied according to substances, their concentration, as well as plant part analysed. Results indicate that soil contamination with petroleum-derived substances entails far-reaching changes not only in organisms directly exposed to these pollutants (plants), but also indirectly in herbivores (aphids) and consequently provides information about potential negative effects on further links of the food chain, i.e., for predators and parasitoids.

  20. Transcript profiling of common bean nodules subjected to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Mario; Guillén, Gabriel; Fuentes, Sara I; Iñiguez, Luis P; Aparicio-Fabre, Rosaura; Zamorano-Sánchez, David; Encarnación-Guevara, Sergio; Panzeri, Dario; Castiglioni, Bianca; Cremonesi, Paola; Strozzi, Francesco; Stella, Alessandra; Girard, Lourdes; Sparvoli, Francesca; Hernández, Georgina

    2013-11-01

    Several environmental stresses generate high amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant cells, resulting in oxidative stress. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) in the legume-rhizobia symbiosis is sensitive to damage from oxidative stress. Active nodules of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) exposed to the herbicide paraquat (1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium dichloride hydrate), which stimulates ROS accumulation, exhibited reduced nitrogenase activity and ureide content. We analyzed the global gene response of nodules subjected to oxidative stress using the Bean Custom Array 90K, which includes probes from 30,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs). A total of 4280 ESTs were differentially expressed in stressed bean nodules; of these, 2218 were repressed. Based on Gene Ontology analysis, these genes were grouped into 42 different biological process categories. Analysis with the PathExpress bioinformatic tool, adapted for bean, identified five significantly repressed metabolic pathways related to carbon/nitrogen metabolism, which is crucial for nodule function. Quantitative reverse transcription (qRT)-PCR analysis of transcription factor (TF) gene expression showed that 67 TF genes were differentially expressed in nodules exposed to oxidative stress. Putative cis-elements recognized by highly responsive TF were detected in promoter regions of oxidative stress regulated genes. The expression of oxidative stress responsive genes and of genes important for SNF in bacteroids analyzed in stressed nodules revealed that these conditions elicited a transcriptional response. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  1. Suspected white kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) toxicity in horses and cattle.

    PubMed

    Carmalt, J; Rosel, K; Burns, T; Janzen, E

    2003-11-01

    Thirty-four mixed breed horses from two separate farms showed signs of abdominal discomfort, pyrexia and dehydration after being exposed to a new batch of 14% complete horse feed. A new batch of cattle feed from the same manufacturer resulted in dairy cows showing depression, a drop in milk production and diarrhoea. Examination of both diets revealed the presence of white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Inclusion of raw beans of this genus in animal feeds is to be avoided.

  2. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

  3. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

  4. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

  5. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

  6. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

  7. Construction of an agroinfectious clone of bean rugose mosaic virus using Gibson Assembly.

    PubMed

    Bijora, Taise; Blawid, Rosana; Costa, Danielle K T; Aragão, Francisco J L; Souto, Eliezer R; Nagata, Tatsuya

    2017-03-18

    Construction of agroinfectious viral clones usually requires many steps of cloning and sub-cloning and also a binary vector, which makes the process laborious, time-consuming, and frequently susceptible to some degree of plasmid instability. Nowadays, novel methods have been applied to the assembly of infectious viral clones, and here we have applied isothermal, single-step Gibson Assembly (GA) to construct an agroinfectious clone of Bean rugose mosaic virus (BRMV) using a small binary vector. The procedure has drastically reduced the cloning steps, and BRMV could be recovered from agroinfiltrated common bean twenty days after inoculation, indicating that the infectious clone could spread in the plant tissues and efficiently generate a systemic infection. The virus was also recovered from leaves of common bean and soybean cultivars mechanically inoculated with infectious clone two weeks after inoculation, confirming the efficiency of GA cloning procedure to produce the first BRMV agroinfectious clone to bean and soybean.

  8. Constitutive nitrate reductase expression and inhibition in winged bean

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Shenchuan; Harper, J.E. )

    1990-05-01

    It was found that NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} had no effect on winged bean nitrate reductase activity (NRA). Similar NRA was expressed in plants grown on NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, urea, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, and nil N. This indicated that the primary NR expressed in winged bean was constitutive, rather than substrate-inducible. Maximum NRA in winged bean was obtained in the light. KClO{sub 3} was capable of inhibiting NRA of leaves if added to the root growth medium or to the NR assay medium, indicating possible competition with NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} at the reduction site. While it has previously been shown that either cycloheximide alone, or both cycloheximide and chloramphenicol impair the synthesis of NR protein, our data unexpectedly demonstrated that cycloheximide had little effect on NRA, whereas chloramphenicol greatly inhibited the expression of NRA in winged bean. One interpretation is that chloroplasts may influence the activity and/or synthesis of constitutive NR proteins.

  9. Enhancing faba bean (Vicia faba L.) genome resources

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, James W.; Wilson, Michael H.; Derks, Martijn F. L.; Smit, Sandra; Kunert, Karl J.; Cullis, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Grain legume improvement is currently impeded by a lack of genomic resources. The paucity of genome information for faba bean can be attributed to the intrinsic difficulties of assembling/annotating its giant (~13 Gb) genome. In order to address this challenge, RNA-sequencing analysis was performed on faba bean (cv. Wizard) leaves. Read alignment to the faba bean reference transcriptome identified 16 300 high quality unigenes. In addition, Illumina paired-end sequencing was used to establish a baseline for genomic information assembly. Genomic reads were assembled de novo into contigs with a size range of 50–5000 bp. Over 85% of sequences did not align to known genes, of which ~10% could be aligned to known repetitive genetic elements. Over 26 000 of the reference transcriptome unigenes could be aligned to DNA-sequencing (DNA-seq) reads with high confidence. Moreover, this comparison identified 56 668 potential splice points in all identified unigenes. Sequence length data were extended at 461 putative loci through alignment of DNA-seq contigs to full-length, publicly available linkage marker sequences. Reads also yielded coverages of 3466× and 650× for the chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes, respectively. Inter- and intraspecies organelle genome comparisons established core legume organelle gene sets, and revealed polymorphic regions of faba bean organelle genomes. PMID:28419381

  10. Silicon and Nitrate Differentially Modulate the Symbiotic Performances of Healthy and Virus-Infected Bradyrhizobium-nodulated Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), Yardlong Bean (V. unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) and Mung Bean (V. radiata)

    PubMed Central

    Izaguirre-Mayoral, Maria Luisa; Brito, Miriam; Garrido, Mario José

    2017-01-01

    The effects of 2 mM silicon (Si) and 10 mM KNO3 (N)—prime signals for plant resistance to pathogens—were analyzed in healthy and Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) or Cowpea mild mottle virus (CMMV)-infected Bradyrhizobium-nodulated cowpea, yardlong bean and mung bean plants. In healthy plants of the three Vigna taxa, nodulation and growth were promoted in the order of Si + N > N > Si > controls. In the case of healthy cowpea and yardlong bean, the addition of Si and N decreased ureide and α-amino acids (AA) contents in the nodules and leaves in the order of Si + N> N > Si > controls. On the other hand, the addition of N arrested the deleterious effects of CCMV or CMMV infections on growth and nodulation in the three Vigna taxa. However, the addition of Si or Si + N hindered growth and nodulation in the CCMV- or CMMV-infected cowpea and yardlong bean, causing a massive accumulation of ureides in the leaves and nodules. Nevertheless, the AA content in leaves and nodules of CCMV- or CMMV-infected cowpea and yardlong bean was promoted by Si but reduced to minimum by Si + N. These results contrasted to the counteracting effects of Si or Si + N in the CCMV- and CMMV-infected mung bean via enhanced growth, nodulation and levels of ureide and AA in the leaves and nodules. Together, these observations suggest the fertilization with Si + N exclusively in virus-free cowpea and yardlong bean crops. However, Si + N fertilization must be encouraged in virus-endangered mung bean crops to enhance growth, nodulation and N-metabolism. It is noteworthy to see the enhanced nodulation of the three Vigna taxa in the presence of 10 mM KNO3. PMID:28914770

  11. Silicon and Nitrate Differentially Modulate the Symbiotic Performances of Healthy and Virus-Infected Bradyrhizobium-nodulated Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), Yardlong Bean (V. unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) and Mung Bean (V. radiata).

    PubMed

    Izaguirre-Mayoral, Maria Luisa; Brito, Miriam; Baral, Bikash; Garrido, Mario José

    2017-09-15

    The effects of 2 mM silicon (Si) and 10 mM KNO₃ (N)-prime signals for plant resistance to pathogens-were analyzed in healthy and Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) or Cowpea mild mottle virus (CMMV)-infected Bradyrhizobium-nodulated cowpea, yardlong bean and mung bean plants. In healthy plants of the three Vigna taxa, nodulation and growth were promoted in the order of Si + N > N > Si > controls. In the case of healthy cowpea and yardlong bean, the addition of Si and N decreased ureide and α-amino acids (AA) contents in the nodules and leaves in the order of Si + N> N > Si > controls. On the other hand, the addition of N arrested the deleterious effects of CCMV or CMMV infections on growth and nodulation in the three Vigna taxa. However, the addition of Si or Si + N hindered growth and nodulation in the CCMV- or CMMV-infected cowpea and yardlong bean, causing a massive accumulation of ureides in the leaves and nodules. Nevertheless, the AA content in leaves and nodules of CCMV- or CMMV-infected cowpea and yardlong bean was promoted by Si but reduced to minimum by Si + N. These results contrasted to the counteracting effects of Si or Si + N in the CCMV- and CMMV-infected mung bean via enhanced growth, nodulation and levels of ureide and AA in the leaves and nodules. Together, these observations suggest the fertilization with Si + N exclusively in virus-free cowpea and yardlong bean crops. However, Si + N fertilization must be encouraged in virus-endangered mung bean crops to enhance growth, nodulation and N-metabolism. It is noteworthy to see the enhanced nodulation of the three Vigna taxa in the presence of 10 mM KNO₃.

  12. Biofortified red mottled beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in a maize and bean diet provide more bioavailable iron than standard red mottled beans: Studies in poultry (Gallus gallus) and an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 model

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Our objective was to compare the capacities of biofortified and standard colored beans to deliver iron (Fe) for hemoglobin synthesis. Two isolines of large-seeded, red mottled Andean beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), one standard ("Low Fe") and the other biofortified ("High Fe") in Fe (49 and 71 μg Fe/g, respectively) were used. This commercial class of red mottled beans is the preferred varietal type for most of the Caribbean and Eastern and Southern Africa where almost three quarters of a million hectares are grown. Therefore it is important to know the affect of biofortification of these beans on diets that simulate human feeding studies. Methods Maize-based diets containing the beans were formulated to meet the nutrient requirements for broiler except for Fe (Fe concentrations in the 2 diets were 42.9 ± 1.2 and 54.6 ± 0.9 mg/kg). One day old chicks (Gallus gallus) were allocated to the experimental diets (n = 12). For 4 wk, hemoglobin, feed-consumption and body-weights were measured. Results Hemoglobin maintenance efficiencies (HME) (means ± SEM) were different between groups on days 14 and 21 of the experiment (P < 0.05). Final total body hemoglobin Fe contents were different between the standard (12.58 ± 1.0 mg {0.228 ± 0.01 μmol}) and high Fe (15.04 ± 0.65 mg {0.273 ± 0.01 μmol}) bean groups (P < 0.05). At the end of the experiment, tissue samples were collected from the intestinal duodenum and liver for further analyses. Divalent-metal-transporter-1, duodenal-cytochrome-B, and ferroportin expressions were higher and liver ferritin was lower (P < 0.05) in the standard group vs. the biofortified group. In-vitro analysis showed lower iron bioavailability in cells exposed to standard ("Low Fe") bean based diet. Conclusions We conclude that the in-vivo results support the in-vitro observations; biofortified colored beans contain more bioavailable-iron than standard colored beans. In addition, biofortified beans seems to be a promising vehicle

  13. Biofortified red mottled beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in a maize and bean diet provide more bioavailable iron than standard red mottled beans: studies in poultry (Gallus gallus) and an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 model.

    PubMed

    Tako, Elad; Blair, Matthew W; Glahn, Raymond P

    2011-10-14

    Our objective was to compare the capacities of biofortified and standard colored beans to deliver iron (Fe) for hemoglobin synthesis. Two isolines of large-seeded, red mottled Andean beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), one standard ("Low Fe") and the other biofortified ("High Fe") in Fe (49 and 71 μg Fe/g, respectively) were used. This commercial class of red mottled beans is the preferred varietal type for most of the Caribbean and Eastern and Southern Africa where almost three quarters of a million hectares are grown. Therefore it is important to know the affect of biofortification of these beans on diets that simulate human feeding studies. Maize-based diets containing the beans were formulated to meet the nutrient requirements for broiler except for Fe (Fe concentrations in the 2 diets were 42.9 ± 1.2 and 54.6 ± 0.9 mg/kg). One day old chicks (Gallus gallus) were allocated to the experimental diets (n = 12). For 4 wk, hemoglobin, feed-consumption and body-weights were measured. Hemoglobin maintenance efficiencies (HME) (means ± SEM) were different between groups on days 14 and 21 of the experiment (P < 0.05). Final total body hemoglobin Fe contents were different between the standard (12.58 ± 1.0 mg {0.228 ± 0.01 μmol}) and high Fe (15.04 ± 0.65 mg {0.273 ± 0.01 μmol}) bean groups (P < 0.05). At the end of the experiment, tissue samples were collected from the intestinal duodenum and liver for further analyses. Divalent-metal-transporter-1, duodenal-cytochrome-B, and ferroportin expressions were higher and liver ferritin was lower (P < 0.05) in the standard group vs. the biofortified group. In-vitro analysis showed lower iron bioavailability in cells exposed to standard ("Low Fe") bean based diet. We conclude that the in-vivo results support the in-vitro observations; biofortified colored beans contain more bioavailable-iron than standard colored beans. In addition, biofortified beans seems to be a promising vehicle for increasing intakes of bioavailable

  14. Evaluation of rotational effect of bean in large-scale rice-bean rotation using satellite remote sensing experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ling; Zhu, Zesheng

    2017-06-01

    A large-scale rice-bean rotation experiment was examined to analyze the rotational effect of bean by using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of bean on satellite remote sensing image. The experiment was undertaken at Rudong County of China from 2009 to 2010. The difference between the bean NDVIs of bean-bean monoculture and rice-bean rotation was used to evaluate the rotational effect of bean. The results show that the NDVI of rice-bean rotation is obviously larger than one of bean-bean monoculture in such large-scale experiment. Thus, we have also found the compelling evidence that the bean yield of rice-bean rotation is greater than the bean yield of bean-bean monoculture.

  15. Radiofrequency radiation effects on the common bean

    SciTech Connect

    Thomkins, K.; Griggs, L.; Myles, E.L.

    1995-07-01

    Our environment is bombarded daily with thousands of objects we can visually detect. However, invisible to humans are the electromagnetic waves that penetrate our environment. Electromagnetic waves consist of a large spectrum of waves including the harmful gamma rays, x-rays, and ultraviolet rays. The question that has increased tremendously is: can low energy electromagnetic waves become harmful to living organisms? The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of radiofrequency radiation on protein synthesis of the common bean. Phaseolus vulgaris (kidney bean) was surface-sterilized and allowed to germinate on Mushurage and Skoog`s medium for 1 week. Hypocotyls were wounded and placed on media to initiate callus production. Six petri dishes containing 1 g of callus were used in the experiment. Three dishes were exposed to 100kH in a Crawford cell for 24h. The remaining three petri dishes with callus were used as a control. After the exposure period, the protein from callus was extracted and analyzed by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The results show that hypocotyl growth was not different between control and experimental groups after 24 h. The result of one-dimensional gel electrophoresis did not show observable differences in protein synthesized by the control and experimental groups. Analysis of protein synthesis is still ongoing.

  16. Breeding Beans with Bruchid and Multiple Virus Resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) are worldwide threats to dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production. Beans planted in the lowlands of Central America and the Caribbean also need resistance to Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV). The common bean weev...

  17. Regulation of Copper Homeostasis and Biotic Interactions by MicroRNA 398b in Common Bean

    PubMed Central

    Valdés-López, Oswaldo; Mendoza-Soto, Ana B.; Nova-Franco, Bárbara; Sosa-Valencia, Guadalupe; Reyes, José L.; Hernández, Georgina

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs are recognized as important post-transcriptional regulators in plants. Information about the roles of miRNAs in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), an agronomically important legume, is yet scant. The objective of this work was to functionally characterize the conserved miRNA: miR398b and its target Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase 1 (CSD1) in common bean. We experimentally validated a novel miR398 target: the stress up-regulated Nodulin 19 (Nod19). Expression analysis of miR398b and target genes –CSD1 and Nod19- in bean roots, nodules and leaves, indicated their role in copper (Cu) homeostasis. In bean plants under Cu toxicity miR398b was decreased and Nod19 and CSD1, that participates in reactive oxygen species (ROS) detoxification, were up-regulated. The opposite regulation was observed in Cu deficient bean plants; lower levels of CSD1 would allow Cu delivery to essential Cu-containing proteins. Composite common bean plants with transgenic roots over-expressing miR398 showed ca. 20-fold higher mature miR398b and almost negligible target transcript levels as well as increased anthocyanin content and expression of Cu-stress responsive genes, when subjected to Cu deficiency. The down-regulation of miR398b with the consequent up-regulation of its targets was observed in common bean roots during the oxidative burst resulting from short-time exposure to high Cu. A similar response occurred at early stage of bean roots inoculated with Rhizobium tropici, where an increase in ROS was observed. In addition, the miR398b down-regulation and an increase in CSD1 and Nod19 were observed in bean leaves challenged with Sclerotinia scleortiorum fungal pathogen. Transient over-expression of miR398b in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves infected with S. sclerotiorum resulted in enhanced fungal lesions. We conclude that the miR398b-mediated up-regulation of CSD and Nod19 is relevant for common bean plants to cope with oxidative stress generated in abiotic and biotic stresses. PMID

  18. Regulation of copper homeostasis and biotic interactions by microRNA 398b in common bean.

    PubMed

    Naya, Loreto; Paul, Sujay; Valdés-López, Oswaldo; Mendoza-Soto, Ana B; Nova-Franco, Bárbara; Sosa-Valencia, Guadalupe; Reyes, José L; Hernández, Georgina

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs are recognized as important post-transcriptional regulators in plants. Information about the roles of miRNAs in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), an agronomically important legume, is yet scant. The objective of this work was to functionally characterize the conserved miRNA: miR398b and its target Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase 1 (CSD1) in common bean. We experimentally validated a novel miR398 target: the stress up-regulated Nodulin 19 (Nod19). Expression analysis of miR398b and target genes -CSD1 and Nod19- in bean roots, nodules and leaves, indicated their role in copper (Cu) homeostasis. In bean plants under Cu toxicity miR398b was decreased and Nod19 and CSD1, that participates in reactive oxygen species (ROS) detoxification, were up-regulated. The opposite regulation was observed in Cu deficient bean plants; lower levels of CSD1 would allow Cu delivery to essential Cu-containing proteins. Composite common bean plants with transgenic roots over-expressing miR398 showed ca. 20-fold higher mature miR398b and almost negligible target transcript levels as well as increased anthocyanin content and expression of Cu-stress responsive genes, when subjected to Cu deficiency. The down-regulation of miR398b with the consequent up-regulation of its targets was observed in common bean roots during the oxidative burst resulting from short-time exposure to high Cu. A similar response occurred at early stage of bean roots inoculated with Rhizobium tropici, where an increase in ROS was observed. In addition, the miR398b down-regulation and an increase in CSD1 and Nod19 were observed in bean leaves challenged with Sclerotinia scleortiorum fungal pathogen. Transient over-expression of miR398b in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves infected with S. sclerotiorum resulted in enhanced fungal lesions. We conclude that the miR398b-mediated up-regulation of CSD and Nod19 is relevant for common bean plants to cope with oxidative stress generated in abiotic and biotic stresses.

  19. POP levels in beans from Mediterranean and tropical areas.

    PubMed

    Di Bella, Giuseppa; Haddaoui, Imen; Lo Turco, Vincenzo; Potortì, Angela Giorgia; Fede, Maria Rita; Dugo, Giacomo

    2017-06-01

    Despite the importance of beans as food, few studies are conducted to control their contamination by persistent organic pollutants (POPs), compounds of great importance because of their toxicity and tendency to accumulate in food chains. In order to evaluate the human exposure to POPs by the consumption of beans a monitoring programme was conducted on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) residues in samples coming from Italy, Mexico, India, Japan, Ghana and Ivory Coast. All beans were extracted with an accelerated solvents extractor in triplicate; the clean-up step was done with a Florisil column; identification and quantification was carried out using a TSQ Quantum XLS Ultra GC-MS/MS in selected reaction monitoring mode. Results revealed concentrations of ∑PAHs ranged from 7.31 µg kg(-1) to 686 µg kg(-1) , ∑PCBs between 1.85 µg kg(-1) and 43.1 µg kg(-1) and ∑OCPs ranged from 1.37 µg kg(-1) to 71.8 µg kg(-1) . Our results showed that beans coming from Ivory Coast are the most exposed to the risk of contamination by all the pollutants investigated. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Detection of radiation treatment of beans using DNA comet assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Ashfaq A.; Khan, Hasan M.; Delincée, Henry

    2002-03-01

    A simple technique of microgel electrophoresis of single cells (DNA Comet Assay) enabled a quick detection of radiation treatment of several kinds of leguminous beans (azuki, black, black eye, mung, pinto, red kidney and white beans). Each variety was exposed to radiation doses of 0.5, 1 and 5kGy covering the permissible limits for insect disinfestation. The cells or nuclei from beans were extracted in cold PBS, embedded in agarose on microscope slides, lysed between 15 and 60min in 2.5% SDS and electrophoresis was carried out at a voltage of 2V/cm for 2-2.5min. After silver staining, the slides were evaluated through an ordinary transmission microscope. In irradiated samples, fragmented DNA stretched towards the anode and the damaged cells appeared as a comet. The density of DNA in the tails increased with increasing radiation dose. However, in non-irradiated samples, the large molecules of DNA remained relatively intact and there was only minor or no migration of DNA; the cells were round or had very short tails only. Hence, the DNA comet assay provides an inexpensive, rapid and relatively simple screening method for the detection of irradiated beans.

  1. Analysis of variation for white mold resistance in the BeanCAP snap bean panel

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    White mold disease caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Lib. de Bary, is one of the most devastated diseases that infect snap and dry beans (Miklas et al. 2013). The USDA-NIFA supported Bean Coordinated Agricultural Project (CAP) has assembled and genotyped dry and a snap bean panels. The snap bean pa...

  2. Significance of pollutant concentration distribution in the response of 'Red Kidney' beans to ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Musselman, R.C.; Oshima, R.J.; Gallavan, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    Bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. red kidney) exposed to ozone with a simulated ambient concentration distribution showed significantly more injury, less growth, and lower yield than those exposed to an equivalent dose of ozone with a uniform concentration distribution. The concentration distribution did not alter the type of biological response of red kidney beans to ozone, an indication that uniform concentration distribution fumigations are appropriate for investigations of mode of action of pollutants on plants. However, this study suggests that research using a uniform concentration distribution of pollutants may underestimate the magnitude of growth and yield responses to ambient pollutants. 26 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  3. Healthy food trends -- beans and legumes

    MedlinePlus

    ... large, fleshy, colorful plant seeds. Beans, peas, and lentils are all types of legumes. Vegetables such as ... in healthy diets and have many benefits. Beans, lentils, and peas come in many options, cost little ...

  4. [Determination of chlorinated hydrocarbons in coffee beans].

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, Jolanta; Czyrska, Regina; Wieczorek, Zbigniew; Smoczyńska, Krystyna

    2002-01-01

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons (gamma-HCH, DDT and their analogous metabolites) were determined in coffee beans. Four sorts of green coffee beans and 18 sorts of burnt coffee beans were used in the research. The method was based on extraction of fat and its destruction with concentrated sulphuric acid. Chlorinated hydrocarbons were extracted with n-hexane, separated and quantitatively determined by gas chromatography. The presence of chlorinated hydrocarbons was detected in green coffee beans and, in smaller quantities, in burnt coffee beans. The concentration of chlorinated hydrocarbons was lower in medium and darkly burnt coffee beans than lightly burnt coffee. The level of DDT and its metabolites in final product decreased after coffee burning at higher temperatures. After brewing the grind coffee beans the remains of chlorinated hydrocarbons were detected in coffee-grounds at concentration to those found in coffee beans. Drinking of natural coffee does not influence an increase of intake the chlorinated hydrocarbons by human beings.

  5. Influence of ozone, sulfur dioxide, and salinity on leaf injury, stomatal resistance, growth, and chemical composition of bean plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bytnerowicz, A.; Taylor, O.C.

    1983-01-01

    Bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris) growing in half-strength Hoagland solutions modified to provide three salinity levels of -40, -240, and -440 kPa, were exposed four times to 390 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ O/sub 3/, 520 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ SO/sub 2/, and 390 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ O/sub 3/ + 520 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ SO/sub 2/. Plants fumigated with SO/sub 2/ alone showed no injury. Primary leaves of O/sub 3/-treated plants were injured more than those of plants fumigated with the combination of O/sub 3/ and SO/sub 2/. Pollutant injury to leaves decreased as salinity increased. Stomatal resistance on the abaxial surface of primary leaves of SO/sub 2/, and especially of (O/sub 3/ + SO/sub 2/)-treated plants, increased sharply during fumigations, and returned to prefumigation levels the next day. Stomatal resistances of O/sub 3/-treated plants were similar to nonfumigated plants during the first phase of the experiment, but after the last fumigation, this resistance returned to essentially normal only in plants growing at the highest salinity level. Plant growth was suppressed by increased salinity. Root growth on O/sub 3/- and (O/sub 3/ + SO/sub 2/)-treated plants was reduced at all salinity levels. As salinity increased, plants accumulated Cl and Ca. Sodium increased in stems and roots, and decreased in leaves of plants grown in high Na-nutrient solutions. Plants fumigated with SO/sub 2/ and (O/sub 3/ + SO/sub 2/) had higher S content in roots than nonfumigated and O/sub 3/-treated plants. The highest S content in leaves was found in SO/sub 2/-treated plants at the -40 kPa salinity level. Accumulation of Ca in leaves and of Mg in roots was lowest in plants fumigated with O/sub 3/ alone and (O/sub 3/ + SO/sub 2/). Plants fumigated with O/sub 3/ alone and (O/sub 3/ + SO/sub 2/) accumulated more K in stems and leaves, and more Fe in roots and leaves, compared with nonfumigated and SO/sub 2/-treated plants. The O/sub 3/ and (O/sub 3/ + SO/sub 2/) effects on mineral content of the plants

  6. Partition coefficient of cadmium between organic soils and bean and oat plants

    SciTech Connect

    Siddqui, M.F.R.; Courchesne, F.; Kennedy, G.; Zayed, J.

    1995-12-31

    Environmental fate models require the partition coefficient data of contaminants among two or more environmental compartments. The bioaccumulation of cadmium (Cd) by bean and oat plants grown on organic soils in a controlled growth chamber was investigated to validate the plant/soil partition coefficient. Total Cd was measured in the soils and in the different parts of the plants. The mean total Cd concentrations for soil cultivated with beans and oats were 0.86 and 0.69 {micro}g/g, respectively. Selective extractants (BaCl{sub 2}, Na-pyrophosphate and HNO{sub 3}-hydroxy) were used to evaluate solid phase Cd species in the soil. In the soil cultivated with bean, BaCl{sub 2} exchangeable, Na-pyrophosphate extractable and HNO{sub 3}-NH{sub 2}OH extractable Cd represented 1.2, 1.6 and 50.9% of total soil Cd, respectively. For the soil cultivated with oats, the same extractants gave values of 1.1, 1.8 and 61.9%. Cd concentration levels in bean plants followed the sequence roots > fruits = stems > leaves (p < 0.01) while the following sequence was observed for oat plants: roots > fruits > stems > leaves (p < 0.05). The partition coefficient for total Cd (Cd{sub Plant tissue}/Cd{sub Soil}) was in the range of 0.28--0.55 for bean plants and 1.03--1.86 for oat plants.

  7. 46 CFR 148.235 - Castor beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Castor beans. 148.235 Section 148.235 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.235 Castor beans. (a) This part applies only to the stowage and transportation of whole castor beans. Castor meal, castor...

  8. 46 CFR 148.235 - Castor beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Castor beans. 148.235 Section 148.235 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.235 Castor beans. (a) This part applies only to the stowage and transportation of whole castor beans. Castor meal, castor...

  9. 46 CFR 148.235 - Castor beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Castor beans. 148.235 Section 148.235 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.235 Castor beans. (a) This part applies only to the stowage and transportation of whole castor beans. Castor meal, castor...

  10. 46 CFR 148.235 - Castor beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Castor beans. 148.235 Section 148.235 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.235 Castor beans. (a) This part applies only to the stowage and transportation of whole castor beans. Castor meal, castor...

  11. Registration of ‘Krimson’ cranberry bean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cranberry is an important dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) market class grown in the United States and Canada. Beet curly top virus (BCTV) plagues cranberry bean production in the western U.S. (CA, ID, OR, WA). ‘Krimson’ (Reg. No. CV PI 663911 ) cranberry bean released by the USDA-ARS in 2009, ...

  12. Phytohemagglutination Activity in Extruded Dry Bean Powder

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dry beans are a highly nutritious food. Besides making beans palatable, cooking is required to denature lectin, a protein found in beans. If consumed raw or undercooked, lectin poisoning can occur. Symptoms of lectin poisoning include vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain, and occur within hours of...

  13. Cacao bean shell poisoning in a dog.

    PubMed

    Drolet, R; Arendt, T D; Stowe, C M

    1984-10-15

    Cacao bean shells contain potentially toxic quantities of theobromine, a xanthine compound similar in effects to caffeine and theophylline. A dog, which ingested a lethal quantity of garden mulch made from cacao bean shells, developed severe convulsions and died 17 hours later. Analysis of the stomach contents and the ingested cacao bean shells revealed the presence of lethal amounts of theobromine.

  14. [Response of photosynthesis and growth to weak light regime in different Adzuki bean (Vigna angularis) varieties].

    PubMed

    Zou, Chang-ming; Wang, Yun-qing; Cao, Wei-dong; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Xiao-hong; Tang, Shan

    2015-12-01

    In order to determine the adaptability of Adzuki beans as the interplanting crops in fruit yards, field and pot experimental treatments with full natural light and weak light (48% of full natural light) regimes were conducted to test the shade tolerance and physiological responses of three Adzuki bean varieties including Funan green Vigna angularis (FGVA), early-mature black V. angularis (EBVA) and late-mature black V. angularis (LBVA). The leaf photosynthetic characteristic parameters, photosynthetic pigment contents and the activity of RuBPCase were measured during the first bloom stage. The response of growth to weak light was likewise studied. The results showed that the photosynthetic characteristic parameters, i.e., the maximum net photosynthetic rate, light saturation point and light compensation point of the three Adzuki bean varieties under the weak light stress changed differently. The weak light stress induced the reduction of net photosynthetic rate, water use efficiency and RuBPCase activity of the three Adzuki bean varieties significantly. The contents of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b in leaves of FGVA increased significantly, while Chl a/b and carotenoid content in the leaves decreased significantly after shading. But the other two varieties did not change obviously in photosynthetic pigments content after shading. The weak light changed the growth of the three Adzuki bean varieties, such as decreasing dry matter yield and dry matter accumulation efficiency, reducing root nodule and root-shoot ratio, debasing leaves quantity and leaf area index. The first bloom stage and maturing stage of FGVA advanced, while that of EBVA delayed under weak light. However, flowers were not strong enough to seed for LBVA under the weak light. In conclusion, according to the photosynthetic characteristics changes after shading, as well as the growth status, we concluded that the shade tolerance of the three Adzuki beans was ranked as FGVA>EBVA>LBVA.

  15. First Report of Cowpea Mild Mottle Carlavirus on Yardlong Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) in Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Miriam; Fernández-Rodríguez, Thaly; Garrido, Mario José; Mejías, Alexander; Romano, Mirtha; Marys, Edgloris

    2012-01-01

    Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%–74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV) isolates deposited in the GenBank database. This is the first report of CPMMV in Venezuela and is thought to be the first report of CPMMV infecting yardlong bean. PMID:23242372

  16. First report of Cowpea mild mottle Carlavirus on yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Brito, Miriam; Fernández-Rodríguez, Thaly; Garrido, Mario José; Mejías, Alexander; Romano, Mirtha; Marys, Edgloris

    2012-12-14

    Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%-74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV) isolates deposited in the GenBank database. This is the first report of CPMMV in Venezuela and is thought to be the first report of CPMMV infecting yardlong bean.

  17. Disinfection of mung bean seed with gaseous acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Delaquis, P J; Sholberg, P L; Stanich, K

    1999-08-01

    Mung bean seed inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes (3 to 5 log CFU/g) was exposed to gaseous acetic acid in an aluminum fumigation chamber. Salmonella Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 were not detected by enrichment of seeds treated with 242 microl of acetic acid per liter of air for 12 h at 45 degrees C. L. monocytogenes was recovered by enrichment from two of 10 25-g seed samples treated in this manner. Fumigation with gaseous acetic acid was also lethal to indigenous bacteria and fungi on mung bean seed. The treatment did not significantly reduce seed germination rates, and no differences in surface microstructure were observed between treated and untreated seed viewed by scanning electron microscopy.

  18. The transcriptome of common bean: nodules to beans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) is one of the most important grain legumes for direct human consumption. It comprises 50% of the grain legumes consumed worldwide and is important as a primary source of dietary protein in developing countries. We performed next generation sequencing (RNAseq) on five...

  19. The water budget of rainfed maize and bean intercrop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, S.; Ogindo, H. O.

    Food production in the South African Development Community (SADC) region is predominantly under rainfed conditions and therefore experiences annual fluctuations due to the rainfall variability. Although the staple food of maize ( Zea mays) is commonly grown in the same field as dry beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris) little work has been done to characterize the soil water budget of this intercropping system. The evapotranspiration can theoretically be divided into transpiration from the leaves and evaporation from the soil surface. However, it is difficult to separate the components in field studies. In this paper the Ritchie model is used to estimate the soil surface evaporation using the fractional radiation interception which depends on the crop leaf area. The intercropping system has higher leaf area than the sole crops of both maize and beans in all seasons. Therefore, the soil surface is shaded and the canopy is more dense resulting in a lower soil surface evaporation. The water budget thus gives a higher value of transpiration for the intercrop during each of the four growing seasons. This appears to be due to the complimentary use of the water resources by the maize and bean plants in the intercropping system. This illustrates the ability of the intercrop to use the available soil water in a semi-arid environment more productively. Thus the experience of the small-holder farmers in the SADC region is based on sound physical principles of water use by the two crops.

  20. A field survey on coffee beans drying methods of Indonesian small holder farmers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siagian, Parulian; Setyawan, Eko Y.; Gultom, Tumiur; Napitupulu, Farel H.; Ambarita, Himsar

    2017-09-01

    Drying agricultural product is a post-harvest process that consumes significant energy. It can affect the quality of the product. This paper deals with literature review and field survey of drying methods of coffee beans of Indonesia farmers. The objective is to supply the necessary information on developing continuous solar drier. The results show that intermittent characteristic of sun drying results in a better quality of coffee beans in comparison with constant convective drying. In order to use energy efficiently, the drying process should be divided into several stages. In the first stage when the moist content is high, higher drying air temperature is more effective. After this step, where the moist content is low, lower drying air temperature is better. The field survey of drying coffee beans in Sumatera Utara province reveals that the used drying process is very traditional. It can be divided into two modes and depend on the coffee beans type. The Arabica coffee is firstly fermented and dried to moisture content of 80% using sun drying method, then followed by Green House model of drying up to moisture content about 12%. The latter typically spends 3 days of drying time. On the other hand, The Robusta coffee is dried by exposing to the sun directly without any treatment. After the coffee beans dried follow by peeled process. These findings can be considered to develop a continuous solar drying that suitable for coffee beans drying.

  1. Starch characteristics of bean extrudates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are one of the significant sources of food in the world. They are a rich source of carbohydrates (28-35%), even though they are better known for proteins (23-27%), fiber (2-5%), and minerals (4.21-5.17%). United States is the sixth-leading producer of dry edible...

  2. Stress ethylene evolution of bean plants—a parameter indicating ozone pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stan, Hans-Jürgen; Schicker, Sieglinde; Kassner, Helmut

    Bean plants treated with varying ozone concentrations for varying exposure times showed increased rates of ethylene production compared with controls. A standard method was worked out in which primary leaves of bean plants were encapsulated in 250 ml Erlenmeyer flasks after exposure. The amount of ethylene produced was determined by gas chromatography after about 24 h. The 'no effect level' of the bean plant was found to be 100 ppb ozone because there was no significant stress ethylene production even after 12 h fumigation. A treatment with 150 ppb ozone induced the beginning of stress ethylene production after about 8 h. With higher ozone concentrations shorter exposure times are necessary to induce a first response. Stress ethylene production correlates better with ozone concentration than with exposure time comparing the same products of concentration and time.

  3. Protein Quality of Irradiated Brazilian Beans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna-Lucia C. H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    1998-06-01

    Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil. However, high losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. To combat these losses, radiation processing of beans offers promise as an alternative to chemical treatment, provided the nutritional quality of beans is not impaired by the radiation treatment. Conflicting results have been published about the effect of radiation on the biological value of legume proteins. Therefore, two varieties of Brazilian beans were studied: 1) Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and 2) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macaçar. The beans were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. Since irradiated beans will be consumed after appropriate storage, the beans under study were stored for 6 months at ambient temperature. Protein quality was measured by a biological assay employing the nitrogen balance approach in weanling rats. The animals were fed with optimally cooked beans, which were the only source of protein (˜10%). Nitrogen contents of legumes, diets, animal urine and faeces were determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The indices for apparent protein quality: net protein utilisation, digestibility and biological value were not influenced by irradiation. Thus, radiation treatment of Brazilian beans offers considerable promise as an effective insect disinfection process, without impairing the biological quality of the valuable bean protein.

  4. Intercropping Corn with Lablab bean, Velvet Bean, and Scarlet Runner Bean for Forage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Low crude protein (CP) concentration in corn (Zea mays L.) forage is its major limitation in dairy rations. This experiment was designed to determine if intercropping corn with climbing beans is a viable option to increase CP concentration in forage rather than purchasing costly CP supplements for ...

  5. 76 FR 16700 - Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya Into the United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD39 Importation of French Beans and... regulations to allow the importation of French beans and runner beans from the Republic of Kenya into the... action would allow for the importation of French beans and runner beans from the Republic of Kenya...

  6. Absence and leave; sick leave. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2010-12-03

    The U.S. Office of Personnel Management is issuing final regulations on the use of sick leave and advanced sick leave for serious communicable diseases, including pandemic influenza when appropriate. We are also permitting employees to substitute up to 26 weeks of accrued or accumulated sick leave for unpaid Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) leave to care for a seriously injured or ill covered servicemember, as authorized under the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008, including up to 30 days of advanced sick leave for this purpose. Finally, we are reorganizing the existing sick leave regulations to enhance reader understanding and administration of the program.

  7. Attributes of bean yellow mosaic potyvirus transmission from clover to snap beans by four species of aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Hampton, R O; Jensen, A; Hagel, G T

    2005-12-01

    After characterization of the natural spread of necrosis-inducing Bean yellow mosaic potyvirus (family Potyviridae, genus Potyvirus, BYMV(N)), nonpersistently transmitted from clover, Trifolium repens L., to an adjacent field of snap bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., in western Oregon, we established a study site enabling us to investigate the virus reservoir, to observe en masse transmission of BYMV(N) to bean plants, and to identify aphid species associated with virus spread. Colonies of Myzus persicae (Sulzer), Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris), and Aphis fabae Scopoli associated with virus spread were established in an insectary and shown to vector this virus. Although Nearctaphis bakeri (Cowen) comprised 68% of aphid alatae taken from bean leaves during virus spread, we were unable to show that this species could vector the virus by using the same methods that were successful for the other species. Instead, we found that when two distinct N. bakeri colonies unexpectedly emerged from the roots of T. repens BYMV(N) source plants (WZwc #6 and #11) that were present in the laboratory (insectary), these aphids transmitted BYMVN at rates comparable with those of M. persicae and A. pisum. Transmission of BYMVN also occurred with two other N. bakeri colonies maintained for 4 mo on Trifolium pratense L. (NZwc Sch 3B and Sch 7C) BYMVN source plants. Each of these four BYMVN transmission successes also demonstrated an unprecedented once-only transmission of BYMV(N) by N. bakeri colonies. Our experience with western Oregon N. bakeri colonies was compared with descriptions of this native North American species after its 1960-1980s arrival in France, Germany, and Italy.

  8. Glutathione-induced drought stress tolerance in mung bean: coordinated roles of the antioxidant defence and methylglyoxal detoxification systems.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Kamrun; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Alam, Md Mahabub; Fujita, Masayuki

    2015-07-01

    Drought is considered one of the most acute environmental stresses presently affecting agriculture. We studied the role of exogenous glutathione (GSH) in conferring drought stress tolerance in mung bean (Vigna radiata L. cv. Binamoog-1) seedlings by examining the antioxidant defence and methylglyoxal (MG) detoxification systems and physiological features. Six-day-old seedlings were exposed to drought stress (-0.7 MPa), induced by polyethylene glycol alone and in combination with GSH (1 mM) for 24 and 48 h. Drought stress decreased seedling dry weight and leaf area; resulted in oxidative stress as evidenced by histochemical detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and [Formula: see text] in the leaves; increased lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde), reactive oxygen species like H2O2 content and [Formula: see text] generation rate and lipoxygenase activity; and increased the MG level. Drought decreased leaf succulence, leaf chlorophyll and relative water content (RWC); increased proline (Pro); decreased ascorbate (AsA); increased endogenous GSH and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) content; decreased the GSH/GSSG ratio; increased ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase activities; and decreased the activities of monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and catalase. The activities of glyoxalase I (Gly I) and glyoxalase II (Gly II) increased due to drought stress. In contrast to drought stress alone, exogenous GSH enhanced most of the components of the antioxidant and glyoxalase systems in drought-affected mung bean seedlings at 24 h, but GSH did not significantly affect AsA, Pro, RWC, leaf succulence and the activities of Gly I and DHAR after 48 h of stress. Thus, exogenous GSH supplementation with drought significantly enhanced the antioxidant components and successively reduced oxidative damage, and GSH up-regulated the glyoxalase system and reduced MG toxicity, which played a significant role in improving the physiological

  9. Glutathione-induced drought stress tolerance in mung bean: coordinated roles of the antioxidant defence and methylglyoxal detoxification systems

    PubMed Central

    Nahar, Kamrun; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Alam, Md. Mahabub; Fujita, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Drought is considered one of the most acute environmental stresses presently affecting agriculture. We studied the role of exogenous glutathione (GSH) in conferring drought stress tolerance in mung bean (Vigna radiata L. cv. Binamoog-1) seedlings by examining the antioxidant defence and methylglyoxal (MG) detoxification systems and physiological features. Six-day-old seedlings were exposed to drought stress (−0.7 MPa), induced by polyethylene glycol alone and in combination with GSH (1 mM) for 24 and 48 h. Drought stress decreased seedling dry weight and leaf area; resulted in oxidative stress as evidenced by histochemical detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and O2⋅− in the leaves; increased lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde), reactive oxygen species like H2O2 content and O2⋅− generation rate and lipoxygenase activity; and increased the MG level. Drought decreased leaf succulence, leaf chlorophyll and relative water content (RWC); increased proline (Pro); decreased ascorbate (AsA); increased endogenous GSH and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) content; decreased the GSH/GSSG ratio; increased ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase activities; and decreased the activities of monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and catalase. The activities of glyoxalase I (Gly I) and glyoxalase II (Gly II) increased due to drought stress. In contrast to drought stress alone, exogenous GSH enhanced most of the components of the antioxidant and glyoxalase systems in drought-affected mung bean seedlings at 24 h, but GSH did not significantly affect AsA, Pro, RWC, leaf succulence and the activities of Gly I and DHAR after 48 h of stress. Thus, exogenous GSH supplementation with drought significantly enhanced the antioxidant components and successively reduced oxidative damage, and GSH up-regulated the glyoxalase system and reduced MG toxicity, which played a significant role in improving the physiological features and drought

  10. Relationship between carbohydrate partitioning and drought resistance in common bean.

    PubMed

    Cuellar-Ortiz, Sonia M; De La Paz Arrieta-Montiel, Maria; Acosta-Gallegos, Jorge; Covarrubias, Alejandra A

    2008-10-01

    Drought is a major yield constraint in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Pulse-chase (14)C-labelling experiments were performed using Pinto Villa (drought resistant) and Canario 60 (drought sensitive) cultivars, grown under optimal irrigation and water-deficit conditions. Starch and the radioactive label incorporated into starch were measured in leaves and pods at different time points, between the initiation of pod development and the production of mature pods. The water-stress treatment induced a higher starch accumulation in the drought-resistant cultivar pods than in those of the drought-sensitive cultivar. This effect was more noticeable during the early stages of pod development. Consistently, a reduction of starch content occurred in the leaves of the drought-resistant cultivar during the grain-filling stage. Furthermore, a synchronized accumulation of sucrose was observed in immature pods of this cultivar. These data indicate that carbohydrate partitioning is affected by drought in common bean, and that the modulation of this partitioning towards seed filling has been a successful strategy in the development of drought-resistant cultivars. In addition, our results suggest that, in the drought-resistant cultivar, the efficient carbon mobilization towards the seeds in response to water limitation is favoured by a mechanism that implies a more effective sucrose transport.

  11. Genome-wide identification and characterization of aquaporin gene family in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Ariani, Andrea; Gepts, Paul

    2015-10-01

    Plant aquaporins are a large and diverse family of water channel proteins that are essential for several physiological processes in living organisms. Numerous studies have linked plant aquaporins with a plethora of processes, such as nutrient acquisition, CO2 transport, plant growth and development, and response to abiotic stresses. However, little is known about this protein family in common bean. Here, we present a genome-wide identification of the aquaporin gene family in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), a legume crop essential for human nutrition. We identified 41 full-length coding aquaporin sequences in the common bean genome, divided by phylogenetic analysis into five sub-families (PIPs, TIPs, NIPs, SIPs and XIPs). Residues determining substrate specificity of aquaporins (i.e., NPA motifs and ar/R selectivity filter) seem conserved between common bean and other plant species, allowing inference of substrate specificity for these proteins. Thanks to the availability of RNA-sequencing datasets, expression levels in different organs and in leaves of wild and domesticated bean accessions were evaluated. Three aquaporins (PvTIP1;1, PvPIP2;4 and PvPIP1;2) have the overall highest mean expressions, with PvTIP1;1 having the highest expression among all aquaporins. We performed an EST database mining to identify drought-responsive aquaporins in common bean. This analysis showed a significant increase in expression for PvTIP1;1 in drought stress conditions compared to well-watered environments. The pivotal role suggested for PvTIP1;1 in regulating water homeostasis and drought stress response in the common bean should be verified by further field experimentation under drought stress.

  12. Successful introgression of abiotic stress tolerance from wild tepary bean to common bean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production is severely limited due to abiotic stresses, including drought and sub-zero temperatures. Tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius Gray), a relative of common bean, has demonstrated tolerance to these stresses. Preliminary studies screening tepary accessions ...

  13. Kinetics model development of cocoa bean fermentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Gunawan, Agus Yodi; Muliyadini, Winny

    2015-12-01

    Although Indonesia is one of the biggest cocoa beans producers in the world, Indonesian cocoa beans are oftenly of low quality and thereby frequently priced low in the world market. In order to improve the quality, adequate post-harvest cocoa processing techniques are required. Fermentation is the vital stage in series of cocoa beans post harvest processing which could improve the quality of cocoa beans, in particular taste, aroma, and colours. During the fermentation process, combination of microbes grow producing metabolites that serve as the precursors for cocoa beans flavour. Microbial composition and thereby their activities will affect the fermentation performance and influence the properties of cocoa beans. The correlation could be reviewed using a kinetic model that includes unstructured microbial growth, substrate utilization and metabolic product formation. The developed kinetic model could be further used to design cocoa bean fermentation process to meet the expected quality. Further the development of kinetic model of cocoa bean fermentation also serve as a good case study of mixed culture solid state fermentation, that has rarely been studied. This paper presents the development of a kinetic model for solid-state cocoa beans fermentation using an empirical approach. Series of lab scale cocoa bean fermentations, either natural fermentations without starter addition or fermentations with mixed yeast and lactic acid bacteria starter addition, were used for model parameters estimation. The results showed that cocoa beans fermentation can be modelled mathematically and the best model included substrate utilization, microbial growth, metabolites production and its transport. Although the developed model still can not explain the dynamics in microbial population, this model can sufficiently explained the observed changes in sugar concentration as well as metabolic products in the cocoa bean pulp.

  14. Leaving liza.

    PubMed

    Futcher, Jane

    2004-01-01

    Abstract This is Chapter Thirteen of Leaving Liza, a novel about life, death, love, friendship, jealousy and lesbian ex-lovers. In the novel, six women are spending the weekend at a beach house in Long Island's Hamptons, where they have gathered to be with their friend Liza, who is battling terminal ovarian cancer. Liza's lover, Jill, has agreed to the house party and helped plan the guest list. But, as she smolders with resentment at the attention Liza is getting and the depth of the women's friendships, she begins to come unraveled. After a severe asthma attack that requires an emergency room visit the day before, Jill conducts a seance, purporting to have contacted another of Liza's ex-lovers, who died a few months earlier. Now, on this last night of the house party, she lets Liza and her friends know what she's really feeling. The editors have asked me to add some "commentary" on the questions this story raises about the roles of ex-lovers. I would hope the scene reflects some of the tensions that can occur when ex-lovers choose to remain friends, particularly when those bonds provoke profound jealousy in both current and ex-lovers. For many of us, the job of assuaging and reassuring the current lover while maintaining intimate friendships with an ex-lover is simply too exhausting and prickly to endure. For others, it is worth the struggle. Liza and her friends clearly think it is. But at what point, they all wonder at this house party, does their hunger for honesty and their anger at being insulted and manipulated become more important than keeping the peace, and possibly their friendship with Liza? Perhaps only Liza's death will free them from this compromising coexistence.

  15. Impact of three different fungicides on fungal epi- and endophytic communities of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and broad bean (Vicia faba).

    PubMed

    Prior, René; Mittelbach, Moritz; Begerow, Dominik

    2017-06-03

    In this study, the impacts of three different fungicides to fungal phyllosphere communities on broad bean (Vicia faba, Fabaceae) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, Fabaceae) were analyzed. The fungicides included copper, sulfur, and azoxystrobin. The plants were sowed, grown, and treated under conditions occurring in conventional and organic farming. A culture-based approach was used to identify changes in the phyllosphere fungal community after the treatment. Different effects on species richness and growth index of the epiphytic and endophytic communities for common bean and broad bean could be shown. Treatments with sulfur showed the weakest effect, followed by those based on copper and the systemic azoxystrobin, which showed the strongest effect especially on endophytic communities. The epiphytic fungal community took five weeks to recover after treatment with azoxystrobin. However, the effect of azoxystrobin on the endophytic community lasted more than five weeks. Finally, the data suggest that the surface structure of the host leaves have a huge impact on the mode of action that the fungicides exert.

  16. The genetics of domestication of rice bean, Vigna umbellata

    PubMed Central

    Isemura, Takehisa; Kaga, Akito; Tomooka, Norihiko; Shimizu, Takehiko; Vaughan, Duncan Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims The Asian genus Vigna, to which four cultivated species (rice bean, azuki bean, mung bean and black gram) belong, is suitable for comparative genomics. The aims were to construct a genetic linkage map of rice bean, to identify the genomic regions associated with domestication in rice bean, and to compare these regions with those in azuki bean. Methods A genetic linkage map was constructed by using simple sequence repeat and amplified fragment length polymorphism markers in the BC1F1 population derived from a cross between cultivated and wild rice bean. Using this map, 31 domestication-related traits were dissected into quantitative trait loci (QTLs). The genetic linkage map and QTLs of rice bean were compared with those of azuki bean. Key Results A total of 326 markers converged into 11 linkage groups (LGs), corresponding to the haploid number of rice bean chromosomes. The domestication-related traits in rice bean associated with a few major QTLs distributed as clusters on LGs 2, 4 and 7. A high level of co-linearity in marker order between the rice bean and azuki bean linkage maps was observed. Major QTLs in rice bean were found on LG4, whereas major QTLs in azuki bean were found on LG9. Conclusions This is the first report of a genetic linkage map and QTLs for domestication-related traits in rice bean. The inheritance of domestication-related traits was so simple that a few major QTLs explained the phenotypic variation between cultivated and wild rice bean. The high level of genomic synteny between rice bean and azuki bean facilitates QTL comparison between species. These results provide a genetic foundation for improvement of rice bean; interchange of major QTLs between rice bean and azuki bean might be useful for broadening the genetic variation of both species. PMID:20880934

  17. Infestation of Caliothrips phaseoli (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on Bean Cultivars Grown in the Winter, Rainy, and Dry Seasons in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Boiça Júnior, Arlindo Leal; Costa, Eduardo Neves; De Souza, Bruno Henrique Sardinha; Da Silva, Anderson Gonçalves; Chiorato, Alisson Fernando

    2015-08-01

    The present study aimed to identify common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars less susceptible to Caliothrips phaseoli (Hood) in different growing seasons, to evaluate whether climatic conditions influence plant resistance to C. phaseoli infestation, and to investigate the preferred plant part for insect feeding. Eighteen common bean cultivars were evaluated in the winter season, and 19 cultivars were assessed in the rainy and dry seasons, under field conditions in the municipality of Jaboticabal, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Infestation of C. phaseoli nymphs in the upper and lower parts of the beans plants was recorded at weekly intervals from 25 days after plant emergence (DAE) to 60 DAE. In the winter season, the cultivars 'IAC Galante,' 'IAC Centauro,' 'IAC Carioca Eté,' and 'IAC Formoso' had significantly lower number of thrips than the cultivar 'IAC Diplomata.' In the rainy season, the cultivars 'IAC Harmonia' and 'IPR Siriri' had the lowest thrips infestation, differing from the cultivars 'BRS Pontal' and 'IAC Una.' The bean cultivars were equally susceptible to C. phaseoli in the dry season. The results suggest that C. phaseoli nymphs prefer to infest leaves of the lower part of bean plants, like most generalist herbivorous insects. In the winter and dry seasons, the highest thrips infestation was observed at 60 DAE, while in the rainy season, it was recorded from 32 to 46 DAE. Overall, C. phaseoli infestation on bean cultivars was not influenced by either temperature, relative humidity, or rainfall.

  18. Concerning the Preparation of Chloroplasts Active in Hill and Photosynthetic Phosphorylation Activities from Leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris12

    PubMed Central

    Margulies, Maurice M.

    1966-01-01

    When bean plants are cultivated under certain conditions, liberation of cell contents by grinding with mortar and pestle yields chloroplasts of low Hill and photosynthetic phosphorylation activities, while grinding in a high speed blendor yields active chloroplasts. The inactivity of plastids obtained with mortar and pestle is due to the presence of an inactivator in the homogenate. The culture conditions that determine whether bean leaves ground with mortar and pestle contain inactivator were not determined. PMID:16656403

  19. FOLATE CONTENT IN SELECT DRY BEAN GENOTYPES

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dry edible beans are a good natural source of folate (½-cup serving of cooked beans provide 35% daily value of folate). Recognized healthful benefits of folate in the human diet include reduced birth defects, decreased plasma homocysteine level which is a risk factor in cardiovascular disease, reduc...

  20. Nutritional and health benefits of dried beans.

    PubMed

    Messina, Virginia

    2014-07-01

    Dried beans (often referred to as grain legumes) may contribute to some of the health benefits associated with plant-based diets. Beans are rich in a number of important micronutrients, including potassium, magnesium, folate, iron, and zinc, and are important sources of protein in vegetarian diets. In particular, they are among the only plant foods that provide significant amounts of the indispensable amino acid lysine. Commonly consumed dried beans are also rich in total and soluble fiber as well as in resistant starch, all of which contribute to the low glycemic index of these foods. They also provide ample amounts of polyphenols, many of which are potent antioxidants. Intervention and prospective research suggests that diets that include beans reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, favorably affect risk factors for metabolic syndrome, and reduce risk of ischemic heart disease and diabetes. The relatively low bean intakes of North Americans and northern Europeans can be attributed to a negative culinary image as well as to intestinal discomfort attributable to the oligosaccharide content of beans. Cooking practices such as sprouting beans, soaking and discarding soaking water before cooking, and cooking in water with a more alkaline pH can reduce oligosaccharide content. Promotional efforts are needed to increase bean intake. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Astronaut Alan Bean shaves while aboard Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Skylab 3 commander, uses battery powered shaver while in the crew quarters of the Skylab space station's Orbital Workshop (OWS) crew quarters. This photograph was taken with a 35mm Nikon camera held by one of Bean's fellow crewmen during the 56.5 day second manned Skylab mission in Earth orbit.

  2. Registration of ‘Samurai’ Otebo Bean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ‘Samurai’ otebo bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (Reg. no. CV- , PI ), developed by Michigan State University AgBioResearch was released in 2015 as an upright, full-season cultivar with virus [caused by Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV)] resistance and high-yield potential. Samurai was developed using ped...

  3. Common beans, diseases: ecology and control

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, is one of the most important edible legume crops worldwide, nutritionally and economically. Diseases caused by pathogens that affect beans can have catastrophic effects, destroying entire crops in some instances. There are more than 200 pathogens (bacterial, fungal,...

  4. Astronaut Bean - Acrobatics - Orbital Workshop (OWS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-08-20

    S73-32632 (19 Aug. 1973) --- Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Skylab 3 commander, performs acrobatics and simulated gymnastics in the dome area of the Orbital Workshop in this photographic reproduction taken from a television transmission made by a color TV camera aboard the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. Bean appears to be floating in a diving position. Photo credit: NASA

  5. Bean Samples The Ocean of Storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Lunar Module pilot for the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission, holds a Special Environmental Sample Container filled with lunar soil collected during the extravehicular activity (EVA) in which Astronauts Charles Conrad Jr., commander, and Bean participated. Connrad, who took this picture, is reflected in the helmet visor of the Lunar Module pilot.

  6. Extraction and analysis of coffee bean allergens.

    PubMed

    Lehrer, S B; Karr, R M; Salvaggio, J E

    1978-05-01

    Workers in the coffee industry can develop occupational allergic disease upon exposure to dust associated with coffee manufacturing. Since controversy exists as to the source or chemical nature of these allergens, the mouse model of reaginic antibody production was used to assess the potential sources of allergens in samples obtained from a local coffee manufacturing plant. Mice were immunized with extracts of coffee dust and beans and the resulting reaginic antibody response determined by the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction. Cross-reacting allergens were detected in samples of coffee dust, cleaner can debris and green coffee beans, but not in chaff or roasted coffee beans. None of the allergens detected in coffee samples cross-reacted with extract of castor beans, although these extracts contained the potent castor bean allergen. Green coffee bean allergens partially purified by gel filtration were heterogeneous with respect to molecular size, although quite similar in their reactivity with reaginic antiserum. These results suggest that the green coffee bean is the major source of allergen in coffee manufacturing plants. This allergen is heterogeneous with respect to size and heat lability, and is immunochemically different from the castor bean allergen.

  7. Jasmonic acid enhances plant cyanogenesis and resistance to herbivory in lima bean.

    PubMed

    Kautz, Stefanie; Trisel, Julie A; Ballhorn, Daniel J

    2014-12-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is a natural plant hormone ubiquitously distributed in plants and centrally involved in the induction of direct and indirect plant defenses. Defenses up-regulated by this hormone include trichomes--a direct, mechanical defense--and alkaloids--a direct chemical defense--as well as two indirect chemical defenses: volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and extrafloral nectar (EFN). Plant cyanogenesis--the release of toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN) from preformed cyanogenic precursors in fruits, leaves, and seeds of many plants--is recognized as a direct, constitutive plant defensive trait, and is among the most widely distributed of all direct chemical plant defenses. The cyanogenic system in plants is composed of three parameters: The cyanogenic potential (HCNp; concentration of cyanogenic precursors), β-glucosidase activity, and cyanogenic capacity (HCNc; release of gaseous hydrogen cyanide). Here, we demonstrated that experimental application of aqueous solutions of JA ranging from 0.001 to 1.0 mmol L(-1), as well as insect herbivory significantly enhanced HCNc via the induction of β-glucosidase activity in wild lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.). In choice feeding trials with JA induced and damaged leaves, adult Mexican bean beetles--natural herbivores of lima bean--rejected leaves with enhanced β-glucosidase activity and HCNc. Our findings suggest that jasmonic acid plays a critical role in regulating activity of β-glucosidases, which determines the rate of cyanogenesis, and thus mediates direct plant defense against herbivores.

  8. 5 CFR 630.503 - Leave from former leave systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leave from former leave systems. 630.503... AND LEAVE Recredit of Leave § 630.503 Leave from former leave systems. An employee who earned leave under the leave acts of 1936 or any other leave system merged under subchapter I of chapter 63 of...

  9. Cyanide-induced death of cells in plant leaves.

    PubMed

    Vasil'ev, L A; Vorobyov, A A; Dzyubinskaya, E V; Nesov, A V; Shestak, A A; Samuilov, V D

    2007-05-01

    Destruction of guard cell nuclei in epidermis isolated from leaves of pea, maize, sunflower, and haricot bean, as well as destruction of cell nuclei in leaves of the aquatic plants waterweed and eelgrass were induced by cyanide. Destruction of nuclei was strengthened by illumination, prevented by the antioxidant alpha-tocopherol and an electron acceptor N,N,N ,N -tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine, and removed by quinacrine. Photosynthetic O2 evolution by the leaf slices of a C3 plant (pea), or a C4 plant (maize) was inhibited by CN- inactivating ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase, and was renewed by subsequent addition of the electron acceptor p-benzoquinone.

  10. Occurrence of phytoplasma phyllody and witches' broom disease of faba bean in Bihar.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anil K; Bhatt, B P; Manibhushan

    2013-09-01

    Faba bean (Vicio faba) plants showed symptoms of shoe stringed leaves, phyllody and flower abortion in experimental field. The first symptoms consisted of phyllody mild yellowing, vein clearing and slightly inward folding of newly formed leaves in the apical region of the plant. The disease was characterized by a series of floral abnormalities including virescence, phyllody and proliferation of sprouts together with other abnormalities, such as loss of apical dominance, vivipary and enhanced vegetative growth. Ambient temperature found to be contributing positively on disease development. Under climate change condition there may be every possible chance for speedy spread of this very economic important disease to the earlier not known regions.

  11. Differential adaptation of two varieties of common bean to abiotic stress: I. Effects of drought on yield and photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Lizana, Carolina; Wentworth, Mark; Martinez, Juan P; Villegas, Daniel; Meneses, Rodrigo; Murchie, Erik H; Pastenes, Claudio; Lercari, Bartolomeo; Vernieri, Paulo; Horton, Peter; Pinto, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    The yield of 24 commercial varieties and accessions of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) has been determined at different sites in Chile and Bolivia. Statistical analysis was performed in order to characterize whether a particular variety was more or less stable in yield under different environmental conditions. Amongst these, two varieties have been identified for more detailed study: one variety has a higher than average yield under unstressed conditions but is strongly affected by stress, and another has a reduced yield under unstressed conditions but is less affected by stress. The contrasting rate of abscission of the reproductive organs under drought stress was clearly consistent with these differences. The more tolerant genotype shows a great deal of plasticity at the biochemical and cellular level when exposed to drought stress, in terms of stomatal conductance, photosynthetic rate, abscisic acid synthesis, and resistance to photoinhibition. By contrast, the former lacks such plasticity, but shows an enhanced tendency for a morphological response, the movement of leaves, which appears to be its principal response to drought stress.

  12. The IP amplitude of the fluorescence rise OJIP is sensitive to changes in the photosystem I content of leaves: a study on plants exposed to magnesium and sulfate deficiencies, drought stress and salt stress.

    PubMed

    Ceppi, Margarita Georgina; Oukarroum, Abdallah; Çiçek, Nuran; Strasser, Reto J; Schansker, Gert

    2012-03-01

    The hypothesis that changes in the IP amplitude of the fluorescence transient OJIP reflect changes in leaf photosystem I (PSI) content was tested using mineral-deficient sugar beet plants. Young sugar beet plants (Beta vulgaris) were grown hydroponically on nutrient solutions containing either 1 mM or no Mg(2+) and 2.1 µM to 1.88 mM SO(4)(2-) for 4 weeks. During this period two leaf pairs were followed: the already developed second leaf pair and the third leaf pair that was budding at the start of the treatment. The IP amplitude [ΔF(IP) (fluorescence amplitude of the I-to-P-rise) and its relative contribution to the fluorescence rise: ΔV(IP) (amplitude of the relative variable fluorescence of the I-to-P-rise = relative contribution of the I-to-P-rise to the OJIP-rise)] and the amplitude of the transmission change at 820 nm (difference between all plastocyanin and the primary electron donor of photosystems I oxidized and reduced, respectively) relative to the total transmission signal (ΔI(max) /I(tot)) were determined as a function of the treatment time. Correlating the transmission and the two fluorescence parameters yielded approximately linear relationships in both cases. For the least severely affected leaves the parameter ΔV(IP) correlated considerably better with ΔI(max) /I(tot) than ΔF(IP) indicating that it is the ratio PSII:PSI that counts. To show that the relationship also holds for other plants and treatments, data from salt- and drought-stressed plants of barley, chickpea and pea are shown. The relationship between ΔV(IP) and PSI content was confirmed by western blot analysis using an antibody against psaD. The good correlations between ΔI(max) /I(tot) and ΔF(IP) and ΔV(IP) , respectively, suggest that changes in the IP amplitude can be used as semi-quantitative indicators for (relative) changes in the PSI content of the leaf. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2011.

  13. Breeding black beans for Haiti with multiple virus resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Black bean production in the lowlands of Central America and the Caribbean is threatened by Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) and Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV). Therefore, the objective of this research was to develop, test and release tropically-adapted black bean lines with resis...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1343 - Locust (carob) bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Locust (carob) bean gum. 184.1343 Section 184.1343... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1343 Locust (carob) bean gum. (a) Locust (carob) bean gum is primarily the macerated endosperm of the seed of the locust (carob) bean tree, Ceratonia...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1343 - Locust (carob) bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Locust (carob) bean gum. 184.1343 Section 184.1343... GRAS § 184.1343 Locust (carob) bean gum. (a) Locust (carob) bean gum is primarily the macerated endosperm of the seed of the locust (carob) bean tree, Ceratonia siliqua (Linne), a leguminous evergreen...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1343 - Locust (carob) bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Locust (carob) bean gum. 184.1343 Section 184.1343... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1343 Locust (carob) bean gum. (a) Locust (carob) bean gum is primarily the macerated endosperm of the seed of the locust (carob) bean tree, Ceratonia...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1343 - Locust (carob) bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Locust (carob) bean gum. 184.1343 Section 184.1343... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1343 Locust (carob) bean gum. (a) Locust (carob) bean gum is primarily the macerated endosperm of the seed of the locust (carob) bean tree, Ceratonia...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1343 - Locust (carob) bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Locust (carob) bean gum. 184.1343 Section 184.1343... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1343 Locust (carob) bean gum. (a) Locust (carob) bean gum is primarily the macerated endosperm of the seed of the locust (carob) bean tree, Ceratonia...

  19. Development, release and dissemination of "Sankara" black bean in Haiti

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production in the Caribbean is threatened by Bean Golden Yellow Mosaic Virus (BGYMV), Bean Common Mosaic Virus (BCMV) and Bean Common Mosaic Necrosis Virus (BCMNV). The University of Puerto Rico, the University of Nebraska, the USDA-ARS, Zamorano and the National ...

  20. Key odorants in cured Madagascar vanilla beans (Vanilla planiforia) of differing bean quality.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Makoto; Inai, Yoko; Miyazawa, Norio; Kurobayashi, Yoshiko; Fujita, Akira

    2013-01-01

    The odor-active volatiles in Madagascar vanilla beans (Vanilla planiforia) of two grades, red whole beans as standard quality and cuts beans as substandard quality, were characterized by instrumental and sensory analyses. The higher contents of vanillin and β-damascenone in red whole beans than in cuts beans respectively contributed to significant differences in the sweet and dried fruit-like notes, while the higher contents of guaiacol and 3-phenylpropanoic acid in cuts beans than in red whole beans respectively contributed to significant differences in the phenolic and metallic notes. A sensory evaluation to compare red whole beans and their reconstituted aroma characterized both samples as being similar, while in respect of the phenolic note, the reconstituted aroma significantly differed from the reconstituted aroma with guaiacol added at the concentration ratio of vanillin and guaiacol in cuts beans. It is suggested from these results that the concentration ratio of vanillin and guaiacol could be used as an index for the quality of Madagascar vanilla beans.

  1. Interaction of cold radiofrequency plasma with seeds of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    PubMed Central

    Bormashenko, Edward; Shapira, Yekaterina; Grynyov, Roman; Whyman, Gene; Bormashenko, Yelena; Drori, Elyashiv

    2015-01-01

    The impact of cold radiofrequency air plasma on the wetting properties and water imbibition of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) was studied. The influence of plasma on wetting of a cotyledon and seed coat (testa) was elucidated. It was established that cold plasma treatment leads to hydrophilization of the cotyledon and tissues constituting the testa when they are separately exposed to plasma. By contrast, when the entire bean is exposed to plasma treatment, only the external surface of the bean is hydrophilized by the cold plasma. Water imbibition by plasma-treated beans was studied. Plasma treatment markedly accelerates the water absorption. The crucial role of a micropyle in the process of water imbibition was established. It was established that the final percentage of germination was almost the same in the cases of plasma-treated, untreated, and vacuum-pumped samples. However, the speed of germination was markedly higher for the plasma-treated samples. The influence of the vacuum pumping involved in the cold plasma treatment on the germination was also clarified. PMID:25948708

  2. Laser pretreatment protects cells of broad bean from UV-B radiation damage.

    PubMed

    Qi, Z; Yue, M; Wang, X L

    2000-12-01

    In order to determine the role of lasers in the stress resistance of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) to ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation, the embryos in seeds were exposed to He-Ne laser or CO2 laser radiation. Afterwards they were cultivated in Petri dishes in a constant temperature incubator until the lengths of epicotyls were nearly 3 cm. The epicotyls were then exposed to 1.02, 3.03 or 4.52 kJ m(-2) UV-B radiation, respectively, under 70 micromol m(-2) s(-1) photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in a growth cabinet. Changes in the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), ascorbic acid (AsA) and UV-B absorbing compounds (absorbance at 300 nm) were measured to test the effects of laser pretreatment. The results showed that laser pretreatment of embryos enhanced UV-B stress resistance in the epicotyls of the broad bean by decreasing the MDA concentration and increasing the content of AsA and UV-B absorbing compounds. We suggest that those changes in MDA, AsA and UV-B absorbing compounds were responsible for the increase in stress resistance observed in the broad bean. This is the first investigation reporting the use of laser pretreatment to protect the cells of the broad bean from UV-B-induced damage.

  3. Interaction of cold radiofrequency plasma with seeds of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Bormashenko, Edward; Shapira, Yekaterina; Grynyov, Roman; Whyman, Gene; Bormashenko, Yelena; Drori, Elyashiv

    2015-07-01

    The impact of cold radiofrequency air plasma on the wetting properties and water imbibition of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) was studied. The influence of plasma on wetting of a cotyledon and seed coat (testa) was elucidated. It was established that cold plasma treatment leads to hydrophilization of the cotyledon and tissues constituting the testa when they are separately exposed to plasma. By contrast, when the entire bean is exposed to plasma treatment, only the external surface of the bean is hydrophilized by the cold plasma. Water imbibition by plasma-treated beans was studied. Plasma treatment markedly accelerates the water absorption. The crucial role of a micropyle in the process of water imbibition was established. It was established that the final percentage of germination was almost the same in the cases of plasma-treated, untreated, and vacuum-pumped samples. However, the speed of germination was markedly higher for the plasma-treated samples. The influence of the vacuum pumping involved in the cold plasma treatment on the germination was also clarified.

  4. Effect of methionine sulfoximine on nitrogen metabolism and externally supplied ammonium assimilation in kidney bean.

    PubMed

    Sadunishvili, T; Gvarliani, N; Nutsubidze, N; Kvesitadze, G

    1996-06-01

    L-Methionine sulfoximine (MSO) at concentration 1.25 mM in vivo causes the inhibition of glutamine synthetase (GS) in both roots and leaves of young seedlings of kidney bean following the accumulation of high levels of ammonia and decrease in amounts of free amino acids that is more pronounced in leaves. The inhibition of GS by MSO in leaves in the case of externally supplied 5 mM (15NH4)2SO4 assimilation leads to ammonia accumulation and the decrease in the amounts of glutamine and glutamic acid and the intensity of the incorporation of 15N into them. In roots the inhibition of GS is not followed by the decrease of 15N content into glutamate. It is concluded that the pathway of ammonia primary assimilation in leaves is via GS and glutamate synthase (GOGAT), while in roots glutamate dehydrogenase also plays an important role in this process.

  5. Patterns of Ehtylene Production in Senescing Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Aharoni, Nehemia; Lieberman, Morris; Sisler, Hugh D.

    1979-01-01

    Changes in the patterns of ethylene production, chlorophyll content, and respiration were studied in relation to the senescence of intact leaves and leaf discs. The primary leaves of pinto bean, which abscise readily during natural senescence, and tobacco and sugar beet leaves, which do not abscise, were used. A decrease in the rate of ethylene production and respiration, during the slow phase of chlorophyll degradation, was observed in leaf-blade discs cut from mature leaves and aged in the dark. During rapid chlorophyll loss both ethylene production and respiration increased and then decreased. These climacteric-like patterns were shown by leaf discs of all three species. Discs taken from leaves that had been senescing on the plant also showed a climacteric-like rise in ethylene production but not in respiration, which decreased continuously with leaf age. Climacteric-like patterns in the rise of ethylene and respiration for leaf discs were also shown by the petioles of both bean and tobacco leaves. This indicates that the rise of ethylene and respiration is characteristic of the general process of senescence in leaves and is not restricted to the abscission process. In contrast to the ethylene-forming systems in climacteric fruits and many flowers, the one in leaves declines sharply in the early stages of senescence. The subsequent rise of ethylene production appears to be associated with the rapid phase of chlorophyll breakdown, and may indicate the final stage of the senescence process during which ethylene could be actively involved in inducing leaf abscission. PMID:16661056

  6. Astronaut Alan L. Bean - Family - Houston, TX

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-07-05

    S73-31104 (17 July 1973) --- The wife and children of astronaut Alan L. Bean are photographed at their home near the Johnson Space Center (JSC), where their husband and father is preparing for NASA?s second manned Skylab mission. Bean is commander of the Skylab 3 Earth-orbital mission and will be joined by scientist-astronaut Owen K. Garriott, science pilot, and astronaut Jack R. Lousma, pilot for the schedule two-month mission. With Mrs. Sue Bean are the couple?s children Clay, 17, and Amy Sue, 10; and the family?s pet dog. Photo credit: NASA

  7. Analysis of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid in leaves from Coffea arabica using high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole mass spectrometry detection.

    PubMed

    Schrübbers, Lars C; Masís-Mora, Mario; Rojas, Elizabeth Carazo; Valverde, Bernal E; Christensen, Jan H; Cedergreen, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Glyphosate is a commonly applied herbicide in coffee plantations. Because of its non-selective mode of action it can damage the crop exposed through spray drift. Therefore, it is of interest to study glyphosate fate in coffee plants. The aim of this study was to develop an analytical method for accurate and precise quantification of glyphosate and its main metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) at trace levels in coffee leaves using liquid chromatography with single-quadrupole mass spectrometry detection. The method is based on a two-step solid phase extraction (SPE) with an intermediate derivatization reaction using 9-fluorenylmethylchloroformate (FMOC). An isotope dilution method was used to account for matrix effects and to enhance the confidence in analyte identification. The limit of quantification (LOQ) for glyphosate and AMPA in coffee leaves was 41 and 111 μg kg(-1) dry weight, respectively. For the method optimization a design of experiments (DOE) approach was used. The sample clean-up procedure can be simplified for the analysis of less challenging matrices, for laboratories having a tandem mass spectrometry detector and for cases in which quantification limits above 0.1 mg kg(-1) are acceptable, which is often the case for glyphosate. The method is robust, possesses high identification confidence, while being suitable for most commercial and academic laboratories. All leaf samples from five coffee fields analyzed (n=21) contained glyphosate, while AMPA was absent. The simplified clean-up procedure was successfully validated for coffee leaves, rice, black beans and river water.

  8. Field assessment of a snap bean ozone bioindicator system under elevated ozone and carbon dioxide in a free air system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ozone-sensitive (S156) and -tolerant (R123 and R331) genotypes of snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were tested as a plant bioindicator system for detecting O3 effects at current and future levels of tropospheric O3 and atmospheric CO2 under field conditions. Plants were exposed to reciprocal combi...

  9. Phytotoxicity, Uptake, and Translocation of Fluorescent Carbon Dots in Mung Bean Plants.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Zheng, Yinjian; Zhang, Haoran; Liu, Zulang; Su, Wei; Chen, Shi; Liu, Yingliang; Zhuang, Jianle; Lei, Bingfu

    2016-08-10

    Fluorescent carbon dots (CDs) have been widely studied in bioscience and bioimaging, but the effect of CDs on plants has been rarely studied. Herein, mung bean was adopted as a model plant to study the phytotoxicity, uptake, and translocation of red emissive CDs in plants. The incubation with CDs at a concentration range from 0.1 to 1.0 mg/mL induced physiological response of mung bean plant and imposed no phytotoxicity on mung bean growth. The lengths of the root and stem presented an increasing trend up to the treatment of 0.4 mg/mL. Confocal imaging showed that CDs were transferred from the roots to the stems and leaves by the vascular system through the apoplastic pathway. The uptake kinetics study was performed and demonstrated that the CDs were abundantly incubated by mung beans during both germination and growth periods. Furthermore, in vivo visualization of CDs provides potential for their successful application as delivery vehicles in plants based on the unique optical properties.

  10. Transcriptome analysis of two recombinant inbred lines of common bean contrasting for symbiotic nitrogen fixation

    PubMed Central

    Kamfwa, Kelvin; Zhao, Dongyan; Kelly, James D.

    2017-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) fixes atmospheric nitrogen (N2) through symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) at levels lower than other grain legume crops. An understanding of the genes and molecular mechanisms underlying SNF will enable more effective strategies for the genetic improvement of SNF traits in common bean. In this study, transcriptome profiling was used to identify genes and molecular mechanisms underlying SNF differences between two common bean recombinant inbred lines that differed in their N-fixing abilities. Differential gene expression and functional enrichment analyses were performed on leaves, nodules and roots of the two lines when grown under N-fixing and non-fixing conditions. Receptor kinases, transmembrane transporters, and transcription factors were among the differentially expressed genes identified under N-fixing conditions, but not under non-fixing conditions. Genes up-regulated in the stronger nitrogen fixer, SA36, included those involved in molecular functions such as purine nucleoside binding, oxidoreductase and transmembrane receptor activities in nodules, and transport activity in roots. Transcription factors identified in this study are candidates for future work aimed at understanding the functional role of these genes in SNF. Information generated in this study will support the development of gene-based markers to accelerate genetic improvement of SNF in common bean. PMID:28192540

  11. Transcriptome analysis of two recombinant inbred lines of common bean contrasting for symbiotic nitrogen fixation.

    PubMed

    Kamfwa, Kelvin; Zhao, Dongyan; Kelly, James D; Cichy, Karen A

    2017-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) fixes atmospheric nitrogen (N2) through symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) at levels lower than other grain legume crops. An understanding of the genes and molecular mechanisms underlying SNF will enable more effective strategies for the genetic improvement of SNF traits in common bean. In this study, transcriptome profiling was used to identify genes and molecular mechanisms underlying SNF differences between two common bean recombinant inbred lines that differed in their N-fixing abilities. Differential gene expression and functional enrichment analyses were performed on leaves, nodules and roots of the two lines when grown under N-fixing and non-fixing conditions. Receptor kinases, transmembrane transporters, and transcription factors were among the differentially expressed genes identified under N-fixing conditions, but not under non-fixing conditions. Genes up-regulated in the stronger nitrogen fixer, SA36, included those involved in molecular functions such as purine nucleoside binding, oxidoreductase and transmembrane receptor activities in nodules, and transport activity in roots. Transcription factors identified in this study are candidates for future work aimed at understanding the functional role of these genes in SNF. Information generated in this study will support the development of gene-based markers to accelerate genetic improvement of SNF in common bean.

  12. Catechol--an oviposition stimulant for cigarette beetle in roasted coffee beans.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Atsuhiko; Kamada, Yuji; Kosaka, Yuji; Arakida, Naohiro; Hori, Masatoshi

    2014-05-01

    The cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricorne, is a serious global pest that preys on stored food products. Larvae of the beetle cannot grow on roasted coffee beans or dried black or green tea leaves, although they oviposit on such products. We investigated oviposition by the beetles on MeOH extracts of the above products. The number of eggs laid increased with an increase in dose of each extract, indicating that chemical factors stimulate oviposition by the beetles. This was especially true for \\ coffee bean extracts, which elicited high numbers of eggs even at a low dose (0.1 g bean equivalent/ml) compared to other extracts. Coffee beans were extracted in hexane, chloroform, 1-butanol, MeOH, and 20% MeOH in water. The number of eggs laid was higher on filter papers treated with chloroform, 1-butanol, MeOH, and 20% MeOH in water extracts than on control (solvent alone) papers. The chloroform extract was fractionated by silica-gel column chromatography. Nine compounds were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry from an active fraction. Of these compounds, only a significant ovipositional response to catechol was observed.

  13. Biofortified black beans in a maize and bean diet provide more bioavailable iron to piglets than standard black beans.

    PubMed

    Tako, Elad; Laparra, J Moises; Glahn, Raymond P; Welch, Ross M; Lei, Xin Gen; Beebe, Steve; Miller, Dennis D

    2009-02-01

    Our objective was to compare the capacities of biofortified and standard black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to deliver iron (Fe) for hemoglobin (Hb) synthesis. Two lines of black beans, one standard and the other biofortified (high) in Fe (71 and 106 microg Fe/g, respectively), were used. Maize-based diets containing the beans were formulated to meet the nutrient requirements for swine except for Fe (Fe concentrations in the 2 diets were 42.9 +/- 1.2 and 54.6 +/- 0.9 mg/kg). At birth, pigs were injected with 50 mg of Fe as Fe dextran. At age 28 d, pigs were allocated to the experimental diets (n = 10). They were fed 2 times per day for 5 wk and given free access to water at all times. Body weights and Hb concentrations were measured weekly. Hb repletion efficiencies (means +/- SEM) did not differ between groups and, after 5 wk, were 20.8 +/- 2.1% for the standard Fe group and 20.9 +/- 2.1% for the high Fe group. Final total body Hb Fe contents did not differ between the standard [539 +/- 39 mg (9.7 +/- 0.7 micromol)] and high Fe [592 +/- 28 mg (10.6 +/- 0.5 micromol)] bean groups (P = 0.15). The increase in total body Hb Fe over the 5-wk feeding period was greater in the high Fe bean group [429 +/- 24 mg (7.7 +/- 0.4 micromol)] than in the standard Fe bean group [361 +/- 23 mg (6.4 +/- 0.4 micromol)] (P = 0.034). We conclude that the biofortified beans are a promising vehicle for increasing intakes of bioavailable Fe in human populations that consume beans as a dietary staple.

  14. Transcriptome-Wide Identification and Characterization of MicroRNAs from Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L.)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fei; Liu, Aizhong

    2013-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenously encoded small RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression and play essential roles in numerous developmental and physiological processes. Currently, little information on the transcriptome and tissue-specific expression of miRNAs is available in the model non-edible oilseed crop castor bean (Ricinus communis L.), one of the most important non-edible oilseed crops cultivated worldwide. Recent advances in sequencing technologies have allowed the identification of conserved and novel miRNAs in many plant species. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing technologies to identify and characterize the miRNAs in castor bean. Results Five small RNA libraries were constructed for deep sequencing from root tips, leaves, developing seeds (at the initial stage, seed1; and at the fast oil accumulation stage, seed2) and endosperms in castor bean. High-throughput sequencing generated a large number of sequence reads of small RNAs in this study. In total, 86 conserved miRNAs were identified, including 63 known and 23 newly identified. Sixteen miRNA isoform variants in length were found from the conserved miRNAs of castor bean. MiRNAs displayed diverse organ-specific expression levels among five libraries. Combined with criteria for miRNA annotation and a RT-PCR approach, 72 novel miRNAs and their potential precursors were annotated and 20 miRNAs newly identified were validated. In addition, new target candidates for miRNAs newly identified in this study were proposed. Conclusions The current study presents the first high-throughput small RNA sequencing study performed in castor bean to identify its miRNA population. It characterizes and increases the number of miRNAs and their isoforms identified in castor bean. The miRNA expression analysis provides a foundation for understanding castor bean miRNA organ-specific expression patterns. The present study offers an expanded picture of miRNAs for castor bean and other members

  15. Survival, growth, and localization of epiphytic fitness mutants of pseudomonas syringae on leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Beattie, G.A.; Lindow, S.E. )

    1994-10-01

    Among 82 epiphytic fitness mutants of a Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae strain that were characterized in a previous study, 4 mutants were particularly intolerant of the stresses associated with dry leaf surfaces. These four mutants each exhibited distinctive behaviors when inoculated into and into plant leaves. For example, while non showed measurable growth on dry potato leaf surfaces, they grew to different population sizes in the intercellular space of bean leaves and on dry bean leaf surfaces, and one mutant appeared incapable of growth in both environments although it grew well on moist bean leaves. The presence of the parental strain did not influence the survival of the mutants immediately following exposure of leaves to dry, high-light incubation conditions, suggesting that the reduced survival of the mutants did not result from an inability to produce extracellular factors in planta. On moist bean leaves that were colonized by either a mutant or the wild type, the proportion of the total epiphytic population that was located in sizes protected from a surface sterilant was smaller for the mutants than for the wild type, indicating that the mutants were reduced in their ability to locate, multiply in, and/or survive in such protected sites. This reduced ability was only one of possible several factors contributing to the reduced epiphytic fitness of each mutant. Their reduced fitness was not specific to the host plant bean, since they also exhibited reduced fitness on the nonhost plant potato; the functions altered in these strains are thus of interest for their contribution to the general fitness of bacterial epiphytes. 52 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Transcriptional Analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana Response to Lima Bean Volatiles

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sufang; Wei, Jianing; Kang, Le

    2012-01-01

    Background Exposure of plants to herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) alters their resistance to herbivores. However, the whole-genome transcriptional responses of treated plants remain unknown, and the signal pathways that produce HIPVs are also unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings Time course patterns of the gene expression of Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to Lima bean volatiles were examined using Affymetrix ATH1 genome arrays. Results showed that A. thaliana received and responded to leafminer-induced volatiles from Lima beans through up-regulation of genes related to the ethylene (ET) and jasmonic acid pathways. Time course analysis revealed strong and partly qualitative differences in the responses between exposure at 24 and that at 48 h. Further experiments using either A. thaliana ET mutant ein2-1 or A. thaliana jasmonic acid mutant coi1-2 indicated that both pathways are involved in the volatile response process but that the ET pathway is indispensable for detecting volatiles. Moreover, transcriptional comparisons showed that plant responses to larval feeding do not merely magnify the volatile response process. Finally, (Z)-3-hexen-ol, ocimene, (3E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, and (3E,7E)-4,8,12-trimethyl-1,3,7,11-tridecatetraene triggered responses in A. thaliana similar to those induced by the entire suite of Lima bean volatiles after 24 and 48 h. Conclusions/Significance This study shows that the transcriptional responses of plants to HIPVs become stronger as treatment time increases and that ET signals are critical during this process. PMID:22558246

  17. Mercury uptake into poplar leaves.

    PubMed

    Assad, Mohamad; Parelle, Julien; Cazaux, David; Gimbert, Frédéric; Chalot, Michel; Tatin-Froux, Fabienne

    2016-03-01

    Tailings dumps require mercury stabilization to prevent air pollution by evaporated mercury, which can be achieved through plant covers. Plants are considered a net sink for atmospheric Hg via incorporation into leaf tissues. However, most studies related to Hg uptake by plants have considered plants exposed to only atmospheric Hg, whereas in the case of tailings dumps, plants are potentially exposed to both soil and atmospheric Hg. The goal of this work is to evaluate the relative contributions of root and atmospheric pathways by growing poplar (Populus trichocarpa X Populus maximowiczii/var Skado) cuttings on either control or polluted substrates and under either natural or controlled exposure conditions. We showed that foliar Hg concentrations significantly increased with age, reaching 120 ng g(-1) dry mass when poplars were exposed to Hg-contaminated substrate under natural exposure. Remarkably, we did not observe significantly different Hg concentrations in poplar leaves grown on either the control or polluted substrates when cultivated together in growth chambers. Our set of data prompted us to conclude that Hg entry into poplar leaves is exclusively through an atmospheric pathway. Our results are discussed in line with existing literature.

  18. Arsenic speciation in phloem and xylem exudates of castor bean.

    PubMed

    Ye, Wen-Ling; Wood, B Alan; Stroud, Jacqueline L; Andralojc, P John; Raab, Andrea; McGrath, Steve P; Feldmann, Jörg; Zhao, Fang-Jie

    2010-11-01

    How arsenic (As) is transported in phloem remains unknown. To help answer this question, we quantified the chemical species of As in phloem and xylem exudates of castor bean (Ricinus communis) exposed to arsenate [As(V)], arsenite [As(III)], monomethylarsonic acid [MMA(V)], or dimethylarsinic acid. In the As(V)- and As(III)-exposed plants, As(V) was the main species in xylem exudate (55%-83%) whereas As(III) predominated in phloem exudate (70%-94%). The ratio of As concentrations in phloem to xylem exudate varied from 0.7 to 3.9. Analyses of phloem exudate using high-resolution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and accurate mass electrospray mass spectrometry coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography identified high concentrations of reduced and oxidized glutathione and some oxidized phytochelatin, but no As(III)-thiol complexes. It is thought that As(III)-thiol complexes would not be stable in the alkaline conditions of phloem sap. Small concentrations of oxidized glutathione and oxidized phytochelatin were found in xylem exudate, where there was also no evidence of As(III)-thiol complexes. MMA(V) was partially reduced to MMA(III) in roots, but only MMA(V) was found in xylem and phloem exudate. Despite the smallest uptake among the four As species supplied to plants, dimethylarsinic acid was most efficiently transported in both xylem and phloem, and its phloem concentration was 3.2 times that in xylem. Our results show that free inorganic As, mainly As(III), was transported in the phloem of castor bean exposed to either As(V) or As(III), and that methylated As species were more mobile than inorganic As in the phloem.

  19. Microbial hazards associated with bean sprouting.

    PubMed

    Andrews, W H; Mislivec, P B; Wilson, C R; Bruce, V R; Poelma, P L; Gibson, R; Trucksess, M W; Young, K

    1982-03-01

    The behaviour of microorganisms was studied in mung beans and alfalfa seeds before and after germination in modified, commercially available bean-sprouting kits. The microorganism were enumerated by the aerobic plate count (APC) and by total yeast and mold count procedures. Salmonella species were artificially inoculated into selected samples and were enumerated by the most probable number (MPN) method. After germination of the beans or seeds into mature sprouts, significant increases were noted in APCs and in MPN values of Salmonella species. Although counts of yeasts and molds did not increase significantly after germination, these samples show an increase in toxic Aspergillus flavus and potentially toxic Alternaria species. The presence of toxic Penicillium cyclopium molds also increase substantially in 5 samples of a single brand of mung beans. Analysis of selected sprout samples, however, showed no presence of aflatoxin.

  20. Portrait of Astronaut Alan L. Bean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Portrait of Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Prime Crew Lunar Module Pilot of the Apollo 12 Lunar Landing Mission, in his space suit minus the helmet. He is standing outside beside a mock-up of the Lunar Lander.

  1. Portrait of Astronaut Alan L. Bean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Portrait of Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Prime Crew Lunar Module Pilot of the Apollo 12 Lunar Landing Mission, in his space suit minus the helmet. He is standing outside beside a mock-up of the Lunar Lander.

  2. The "white kidney bean incident" in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Haruko; Date, Kimie

    2014-01-01

    Lectin poisoning occurred in Japan in 2006 after a TV broadcast that introduced a new diet of eating staple foods with powdered toasted white kidney beans, seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris. Although the method is based on the action of a heat-stable α-amylase inhibitor in the beans, phaseolamin, more than 1,000 viewers who tried the method suffered from acute intestinal symptoms and 100 people were hospitalized. Lectins in the white kidney beans were suspected to be the cause of the trouble. We were asked to investigate the lectin activity remaining in the beans after the heat treatment recommended on the TV program. The test suggested that the heat treatment was insufficient to inactivate the lectin activity, which, combined with our ignorance of carbohydrate signaling in the intestine, was the cause of the problem.

  3. Phenotyping common beans for adaptation to drought

    PubMed Central

    Beebe, Stephen E.; Rao, Idupulapati M.; Blair, Matthew W.; Acosta-Gallegos, Jorge A.

    2013-01-01

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) originated in the New World and are the grain legume of greatest production for direct human consumption. Common bean production is subject to frequent droughts in highland Mexico, in the Pacific coast of Central America, in northeast Brazil, and in eastern and southern Africa from Ethiopia to South Africa. This article reviews efforts to improve common bean for drought tolerance, referring to genetic diversity for drought response, the physiology of drought tolerance mechanisms, and breeding strategies. Different races of common bean respond differently to drought, with race Durango of highland Mexico being a major source of genes. Sister species of P. vulgaris likewise have unique traits, especially P. acutifolius which is well adapted to dryland conditions. Diverse sources of tolerance may have different mechanisms of plant response, implying the need for different methods of phenotyping to recognize the relevant traits. Practical considerations of field management are discussed including: trial planning; water management; and field preparation. PMID:23507928

  4. Locust bean gum: a versatile biopolymer.

    PubMed

    Prajapati, Vipul D; Jani, Girish K; Moradiya, Naresh G; Randeria, Narayan P; Nagar, Bhanu J

    2013-05-15

    Biopolymers or natural polymers are an attractive class of biodegradable polymers since they are derived from natural sources, easily available, relatively cheap and can be modified by suitable reagent. Locust bean gum is one of them that have a wide potentiality in drug formulations due to its extensive application as food additive and its recognized lack of toxicity. It can be tailored to suit its demands of applicants in both the pharmaceutical and biomedical areas. Locust bean gum has a wide application either in the field of novel drug delivery system as rate controlling excipients or in tissue engineering as scaffold formation. Through keen references of reported literature on locust bean gum, in this review, we have described critical aspects of locust bean gum, its manufacturing process, physicochemical properties and applications in various drug delivery systems.

  5. Influence of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) on water stress in bean plants

    SciTech Connect

    Starkey, T.E.; Davis, D.D.; Pell, E.J.; Merrill, W.

    1981-08-01

    Bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cvs. Provider and Stringless Black Valentine) were exposed to 395 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ (0.08 ppm) peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) for 0.5 hr and subjected to drought stress following exposure. PAN influenced the plant potential of PAN-sensitive Provider resulting in visible wilting and reduced soil moisture content. There was no effect of PAN on the water relations of the PAN-tolerant Stringless Black Valentine.

  6. Effect of processing on ochratoxin A content in dried beans.

    PubMed

    Iha, M H; Trucksess, M W; Tournas, V H

    2009-10-01

    Dried pink beans naturally contaminated with ochratoxin A (OTA) and dried carioca beans artificially contaminated with OTA by inoculation with Aspergillus ochraceus (ATCC 22947) were tested for ochratoxin A levels as follows: dried beans were washed with water for 2, 60 or 120 min, soaked in water for 60, 120 min or 10 h, and cooked for 60 or 120 min. At each step, test water and beans were separated. Test water, raw beans and cooked beans were analyzed for OTA. The amount of OTA partitioned into water and in residual beans was determined by methanol-sodium bicarbonate extraction, buffer dilution, immunoaffinity column cleanup, liquid chromatographic separation and fluorescence detection. The results demonstrated that the distribution of OTA in processing water and beans depends on the method of preparation. All treatments (washing, soaking and cooking) when applied individually reduced the amounts of OTA retained in bean flour and whole beans. Higher amounts of OTA remained in whole beans than in bean flour after removing the processing water. The combination of the three treatments eliminated about 50% of the toxin from whole beans. This study provides evidence that discarding the washing, soaking and cooking water leads to a significant reduction in OTA contamination in dried beans.

  7. Bean Type Modifies Larval Competition in Zabrotes subfasciatus (Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, S O D; Rodrigues, A S; Vieira, J L; Rosi-Denadai, C A; Guedes, N M P; Guedes, R N C

    2015-08-01

    Larval competition is particularly prevalent among grain beetles that remain within their mother-selected grain throughout development, and the behavioral process of competition is usually inferred by the competition outcome. The Mexican bean weevil Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) is subjected to resource availability variation because of the diversity of common bean types and sizes, from small (e.g., kidney beans) to large (e.g., cranberry beans). The competition process was identified in the Mexican bean weevil reared on kidney and cranberry beans by inference from the competition outcome and by direct observation through digital X-ray imaging. Increased larval density negatively affected adult emergence in kidney beans and reduced adult body mass in both kidney and cranberry beans. Developmental time was faster in cranberry beans. The results allowed for increased larval fitness (i.e., higher larval biomass produced per grain), with larval density reaching a maximum plateau >5 hatched larvae per kidney bean, whereas in cranberry beans, larval fitness linearly increased with density to 13 hatched larvae per bean. These results, together with X-ray imaging without evidence of direct aggressive interaction among larvae, indicate scramble competition, with multiple larvae emerging per grain. However, higher reproductive output was detected for adults from lower density competition with better performance on cranberry beans. Larger populations and fitter adults are expected in intermediate larval densities primarily in cranberry beans where grain losses should be greater.

  8. Effect of DTPA on concentration ratios of /sup 237/Np and /sup 244/Cm in vegetative parts of bush bean and barley

    SciTech Connect

    Romney, E.M.; Wallace, A.; Mueller, R.T.; Cha, J.W.; Wood, R.A.

    1981-07-01

    We grew bush beans, barley, and rice in two different soils in a glasshouse with /sup 237/Np or /sup 244/Cm mixed into separate containers of the soil. The chelating agent DTPA at 100 ..mu..g/g soil was added to half of the containers. The concentration ratio (CR) for /sup 237/Np without DTPA was two orders of magnitude higher than for /sup 244/Cm without DTPA for all three plant species. The DTPA increased the CR of /sup 244/Cm by two to three orders of magnitude, but had no influence on that for /sup 237/Np. In bush beans, both /sup 237/Np and /sup 244/Cm CRs were higher in primary leaves than in trifoliate leaves, which were higher than for stems. The CRs for bush beans were generally higher for both /sup 237/Np and /sup 244/Cm than for either barley or rice, especially without DTPA.

  9. Goodbye, Mandatory Maternity Leaves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nation's Schools, 1972

    1972-01-01

    In precedent-setting decrees, courts and federal and State authorities have branded compulsory maternity leaves either unconstitutional or illegal. School administrators are urged to prod boards of education to adopt more lenient maternity leave policies -- now. (Author)

  10. MicroRNA expression profile in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) under nutrient deficiency stresses and manganese toxicity.

    PubMed

    Valdés-López, Oswaldo; Yang, S Samuel; Aparicio-Fabre, Rosaura; Graham, Peter H; Reyes, José Luis; Vance, Carroll P; Hernández, Georgina

    2010-08-01

    *MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a pivotal role in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in plants. Information on miRNAs in legumes is as yet scarce. This work investigates miRNAs in an agronomically important legume, common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). *A hybridization approach employing miRNA macroarrays - printed with oligonucleotides complementary to 68 known miRNAs - was used to detect miRNAs in the leaves, roots and nodules of control and nutrient-stressed (phosphorus, nitrogen, or iron deficiency; acidic pH; and manganese toxicity) common bean plants. *Thirty-three miRNAs were expressed in control plants and another five were only expressed under stress conditions. The miRNA expression ratios (stress:control) were evaluated using principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses. A group of miRNAs responded to nearly all stresses in the three organs analyzed. Other miRNAs showed organ-specific responses. Most of the nodule-responsive miRNAs showed up-regulation. miRNA blot expression analysis confirmed the macroarray results. Novel miRNA target genes were proposed for common bean and the expression of selected targets was evaluated by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. *In addition to the detection of previously reported stress-responsive miRNAs, we discovered novel common bean stress-responsive miRNAs, for manganese toxicity. Our data provide a foundation for evaluating the individual roles of miRNAs in common bean.

  11. 21 CFR 155.120 - Canned green beans and canned wax beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canned green beans and canned wax beans. 155.120 Section 155.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED VEGETABLES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned...

  12. Preharvest herbicide treatments affect black bean desiccation, yield, and canned bean color

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A field trial was conducted near Richville, Michigan in 2013 and 2014 to evaluate the effects of preharvest herbicide treatments on desiccation, yield, and canned black bean quality and color. Three Type II black bean varieties, Zorro, Eclipse, and Zenith, were planted on two different dates in each...

  13. Dynamic transcriptome profiling of Bean Common Mosaic Virus (BCMV) infection in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) is widespread, with Phaseolus species as the primary host plants. Numerous BCMV strains have been identified on the basis of a panel of bean varieties that distinguish the pathogenicity types with respect to the viral strains. Here, we report the transcriptional respo...

  14. Reactive oxygen and ethylene are involved in the regulation of regurgitant-induced responses in bean plants.

    PubMed

    Steinite, Ineta; Gailite, Agnese; Ievinsh, Gederts

    2004-02-01

    Application of regurgitant from Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say on wound surfaces of one wounded leaf of intact bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants resulted in activation of ethylene biosynthesis followed by an increase of both peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activity. The aim of the present investigation was to study the source of increased oxidative enzyme activities in regurgitant-treated bean leaves and to determine if hydrogen peroxide and ethylene biosynthesis is responsible for regurgitant-induced amplification of wound responses in bean plants. As the regurgitant contained relative high activities of both peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase, there is a possibility that increased enzyme activities in bean leaves following regurgitant treatment is an artifact of insect-derived enzymes. Localisation experiments and electrophoretic analysis revealed that only part of the increased enzyme activities could be attributed to regurgitant-derived enzymes. Both increase of ethylene production and oxidative enzyme activities depended on protein synthesis. To demonstrate if the increase of oxidative metabolism was ethylene-dependent, seedlings were pretreated with aminooxyacetic acid, an inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis, and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), a competitive inhibitor of ethylene action. Increase of both peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activity in wounded and subsequently regurgitant-treated leaf was abolished by both aminooxyacetic acid and 1-MCP. Inhibitor studies indicated that H2O2 generated through NADPH oxidase and superoxide dismutase is necessary for regurgitant-induced increase of ethylene production and oxidative enzyme activities.

  15. Study Leave in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Arthur

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of statistics since 1994 on the use of study leave as allowed by a 1974 Swedish law indicates that about 1% of the work force takes leave at any time. Women and manual workers benefit more than men and salaried workers. Leave application causes employees few problems with employers but financial assistance is a concern. (Contains 37…

  16. Fungal endophytes in germinated seeds of the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Parsa, Soroush; García-Lemos, Adriana M.; Castillo, Katherine; Ortiz, Viviana; López-Lavalle, Luis Augusto Becerra; Braun, Jerome; Vega, Fernando E.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a survey of fungal endophytes in 582 germinated seeds belonging to 11 Colombian cultivars of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). The survey yielded 394 endophytic isolates belonging to 42 taxa, as identified by sequence analysis of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Aureobasidium pullulans was the dominant endophyte, isolated from 46.7 % of the samples. Also common were Fusarium oxysporum, Xylaria sp., and Cladosporium cladosporioides, but found in only 13.4 %, 11.7 %, and 7.6 % of seedlings, respectively. Endophytic colonization differed significantly among common bean cultivars and seedling parts, with the highest colonization occurring in the first true leaves of the seedlings. PMID:27109374

  17. Large-Scale Transcriptome Analysis in Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.) under Ascochyta fabae Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ocaña, Sara; Seoane, Pedro; Bautista, Rocio; Palomino, Carmen; Claros, Gonzalo M.; Torres, Ana M.; Madrid, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Faba bean is an important food crop worldwide. However, progress in faba bean genomics lags far behind that of model systems due to limited availability of genetic and genomic information. Using the Illumina platform the faba bean transcriptome from leaves of two lines (29H and Vf136) subjected to Ascochyta fabae infection have been characterized. De novo transcriptome assembly provided a total of 39,185 different transcripts that were functionally annotated, and among these, 13,266 were assigned to gene ontology against Arabidopsis. Quality of the assembly was validated by RT-qPCR amplification of selected transcripts differentially expressed. Comparison of faba bean transcripts with those of better-characterized plant genomes such as Arabidopsis thaliana, Medicago truncatula and Cicer arietinum revealed a sequence similarity of 68.3%, 72.8% and 81.27%, respectively. Moreover, 39,060 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and 3,669 InDels were identified for genotyping applications. Mapping of the sequence reads generated onto the assembled transcripts showed that 393 and 457 transcripts were overexpressed in the resistant (29H) and susceptible genotype (Vf136), respectively. Transcripts involved in plant-pathogen interactions such as leucine rich proteins (LRR) or plant growth regulators involved in plant adaptation to abiotic and biotic stresses were found to be differently expressed in the resistant line. The results reported here represent the most comprehensive transcript database developed so far in faba bean, providing valuable information that could be used to gain insight into the pathways involved in the resistance mechanism against A. fabae and to identify potential resistance genes to be further used in marker assisted selection. PMID:26267359

  18. Effect of post-harvest treatments on the occurrence of ochratoxin A in raw cocoa beans.

    PubMed

    Kedjebo, Kra Brou Didier; Guehi, Tagro Simplice; Kouakou, Brou; Durand, Noël; Aguilar, Philippe; Fontana, Angélique; Montet, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Cocoa beans are the principal raw material for chocolate manufacture. Moulds have an important place in the change in the quality of cocoa beans due to their role in the production of free fatty acids and mycotoxins, namely ochratoxin A (OTA). This study investigated the impact of the key post-harvest treatments, namely the fermentation and drying methods on OTA contamination of raw cocoa beans. Analytical methods for OTA detection were based on solid-liquid extraction, clean-up using an immunoaffinity column, and identification by reversed-phase HPLC with fluorescence detection. Of a total of 104 randomly selected cocoa samples analysed, 32% had OTA contents above 2 µg kg(-1). Cocoa sourced from pods in a bad state of health had a maximum OTA content of 39.2 µg kg(-1), while that obtained from healthy pods recorded 11.2 µg kg(-1). The production of OTA in cocoa beans increased according to the pod-opening delay and reached 39.2 µg kg(-1) after an opening delay of 7 days after harvest, while 6.1 and 11.2 µg kg(-1) were observed when pods were opened after 0 and 4 days. OTA production also seemed to depend considerably to the cocoa fermentation materials. When using plastic boxes for bean fermentation, the OTA production was enhanced and reached an average OTA content of about 4.9 µg kg(-1), while the raw cocoa treated in banana leaves and wooden boxes recorded 1.6 and 2.2 µg kg(-1) on average respectively. In parallel, the OTA production was not really influenced by either the mixing or the duration of the fermentation or the drying materials.

  19. Large-Scale Transcriptome Analysis in Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.) under Ascochyta fabae Infection.

    PubMed

    Ocaña, Sara; Seoane, Pedro; Bautista, Rocio; Palomino, Carmen; Claros, Gonzalo M; Torres, Ana M; Madrid, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Faba bean is an important food crop worldwide. However, progress in faba bean genomics lags far behind that of model systems due to limited availability of genetic and genomic information. Using the Illumina platform the faba bean transcriptome from leaves of two lines (29H and Vf136) subjected to Ascochyta fabae infection have been characterized. De novo transcriptome assembly provided a total of 39,185 different transcripts that were functionally annotated, and among these, 13,266 were assigned to gene ontology against Arabidopsis. Quality of the assembly was validated by RT-qPCR amplification of selected transcripts differentially expressed. Comparison of faba bean transcripts with those of better-characterized plant genomes such as Arabidopsis thaliana, Medicago truncatula and Cicer arietinum revealed a sequence similarity of 68.3%, 72.8% and 81.27%, respectively. Moreover, 39,060 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and 3,669 InDels were identified for genotyping applications. Mapping of the sequence reads generated onto the assembled transcripts showed that 393 and 457 transcripts were overexpressed in the resistant (29H) and susceptible genotype (Vf136), respectively. Transcripts involved in plant-pathogen interactions such as leucine rich proteins (LRR) or plant growth regulators involved in plant adaptation to abiotic and biotic stresses were found to be differently expressed in the resistant line. The results reported here represent the most comprehensive transcript database developed so far in faba bean, providing valuable information that could be used to gain insight into the pathways involved in the resistance mechanism against A. fabae and to identify potential resistance genes to be further used in marker assisted selection.

  20. Bean Plants: A Growth Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Donna

    2004-01-01

    Teaching plant growth to seventh-grade life science students has been interesting for the author because she grew up in a rural area and always had to help in the garden. She made many assumptions about what her rural and suburban students knew. One year she decided to have them grow plants to observe the roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and fruit…

  1. Bean Plants: A Growth Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Donna

    2004-01-01

    Teaching plant growth to seventh-grade life science students has been interesting for the author because she grew up in a rural area and always had to help in the garden. She made many assumptions about what her rural and suburban students knew. One year she decided to have them grow plants to observe the roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and fruit…

  2. Heavy metal accumulations of 24 asparagus bean cultivars grown in soil contaminated with Cd alone and with multiple metals (Cd, Pb, and Zn).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yun; Yu, Hui; Wang, Junli; Fang, Wei; Yuan, Jiangang; Yang, Zhongyi

    2007-02-07

    Crops grown in heavy metal contaminated soils are an important avenue for these toxic pollutants entering the human food chain. Information on how crops respond to soil contaminations of single versus multiple metals is scarce and much needed. This study investigated the accumulation of Cd by 24 cultivars of asparagus bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. Sesquipedalis L., family Fabaceae) under a low level (0.8 mg kg-1) and a high level (11.8 mg kg-1) of Cd exposure in a garden experiment, and that in a field experiment with Cd, Pb, and Zn (1.2, 486, and 1114 mg kg-1, respectively) contaminated soil. Both experiments showed that there were highly significant variations among the tested cultivars in Cd accumulation by roots, stems, leaves, and fruits of asparagus bean. In the garden experiment, all cultivars under the low Cd exposure and 41.7% of the tested cultivars under the high Cd exposure bore fruits (pods) whose Cd concentrations were lower than 0.05 mg kg-1 fw and therefore were safe for consumption. In addition, the fruit Cd concentrations of cultivars with black seed coats were significantly lower than those with red or spotted seed coats. These results suggest that asparagus bean is a hypo-accumulator to Cd pollutant and the trait of Cd accumulation is genetic-dependent among cultivars. In the field experiment, correlation between fruit Cd and Pb concentrations was significantly positive (p < 0.05). Additional correlation analyses between two experiments showed that fruit Cd concentrations in the field experiment were significantly correlated with those exposed to the high level of Cd stress, instead of to the low level of Cd stress in the garden experiment. This suggests that the presence of other toxic heavy metals in the soil might have facilitated the accumulation of Cd in fruits, and the selection of pollution-safe-cultivars (PSC) in multi-metal polluted condition could refer to the PSCs selected under a high level exposure of a single heavy metal.

  3. Assimilation of ammonium and nitrate nitrogen by bean plants

    SciTech Connect

    Volk, R.J. ); Chaillou, S.; Morot-Gaudry, J.F. ); Mariotti, A. )

    1989-04-01

    Enhanced growth is often observed in plants growing on combined ammonium and nitrate nutrition. The physiological basis for such enhancement was examined by exposing non-nodulated bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants to {sup 15}N-labeled, 1.0 mM N solutions containing 0, 33, 67 or 100% of the N as ammonium, the balance being nitrate. Maximal total N uptake and biomass production were attained by plants receiving 33% ammonium. A higher proportion of incoming ammonium than nitrate was incorporated into root protein. This was accompanied by increased partitioning of plant biomass to roots. It was concluded that as a consequence of greater N metabolism in the root under mixed ammonium and nitrate nutrition, the root became a more active sink for photosynthate. Concurrently, the augmented supply of N to the shoot enhanced net photosynthesis as reflected in increased plant biomass.

  4. 32. Coffee bean sluiceway on ground floor showing chute bringing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Coffee bean sluiceway on ground floor showing chute bringing beans from first floor hopper. HAER PR, 6-MAGU, 1B-17 - Hacienda Buena Vista, PR Route 10 (Ponce to Arecibo), Magueyes, Ponce Municipio, PR

  5. Preservation of flavor in freeze dried green beans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, C. S.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Davis, D.

    1973-01-01

    Before freeze drying, green beans are heated to point at which their cell structure is altered. Beans freeze dried with altered cell structure have improved rehydration properties and retain color, flavor, and texture.

  6. Astronaut Alan Bean participates in lunar surface simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot of the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission, participates in lunar surface simulation training in bldg 29 at the Manned Spacecraft Center. Bean is strapped to a one-sixth gravity simulator.

  7. Bean with Tools on the Ocean of Storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Lunar Module pilot, pauses near a tool carrier during extravehicular activity (EVA) on the Moon's surface. Commander Charles Conrad Jr., who took the black and white photo, is reflected in Bean's helmet visor.

  8. Astronaut Alan Bean participates in lunar surface simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot of the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission, participates in lunar surface simulation training in bldg 29 at the Manned Spacecraft Center. Bean is strapped to a one-sixth gravity simulator.

  9. Registration of AO-1012-29-3-3A red kidney bean germplasm line with bean weevil, BCMV and BCMNV resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) are important seed-borne diseases of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in the Americas and Africa. The bean weevil (Acanthoscelides obtectus Say) is an aggressive post-harvest pest of the common bean. The development of bea...

  10. Acclimation to high CO/sub 2/ in bean

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, M.A.; Grodzinski, B.

    1984-02-01

    Young bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Seafarer) grew faster in air enriched with CO/sub 2/ (1200 microliters per liter) than in ambient CO/sub 2/ (30 microliters per liter). However, by 7 days when increases in overall growth (dry weight, leaf area) were visible, there was a significant decline (about 25%) in the leaf mineral content (N, P, K, Ca, Mg) and a drop in the activity of two enzymes of carbon fixation, carbonic anhydrase and ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) carboxylase under high CO/sub 2/. Although the activity of neither enzyme was altered in young, expanding leaves during the acclimation period, in mature leaves the activity of carbonic anhydrase was reduced 95% compared with a decline of 50% in the ambient atmosphere. While CO/sub 2/ enrichment might alter the flow of carbon into the glycolate pathway by modifying the activities of carbonic anhydrase or RuBP carboxylase, there is no early change in the ability of photosynthetic tissue to oxidize glycolate to CO/sub 2/.

  11. Influence of Ca 2+ in biological stimulating effects of AC magnetic fields on germination of bean seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakhnini, Lama

    This study reports an attempt to investigate the effects of AC magnetic field on the seed germination and seedling growth of beans, at different concentrations of CaCl 2, since Ca 2+ is an essential plant nutrient. Bean seeds were exposed to a combination of local geomagnetic field (DC field) and sinusoidal time-varying extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic field (AC field) 28.3 Hz, 20 μT AC field tuned to the fundamental cyclotron resonance for calcium ions. . The application of AC field promoted the germination of bean seeds for all CaCl 2 concentrations. There was no significant change of average weight of the radicals for all concentrations of CaCl 2, whereas there was a significant increase of radicals' length for deionized (DD) and distilled DD water and DD water+ Ca 10 mM.

  12. Effect of cooking methods on selected physicochemical and nutritional properties of barlotto bean, chickpea, faba bean, and white kidney bean.

    PubMed

    Güzel, Demet; Sayar, Sedat

    2012-02-01

    The effects of atmospheric pressure cooking (APC) and high-pressure cooking (HPC) on the physicochemical and nutritional properties of barlotto bean, chickpea, faba bean, and white kidney bean were investigated. The hardness of the legumes cooked by APC or HPC were not statistically different (P > 0.05). APC resulted in higher percentage of seed coat splits than HPC. Both cooking methods decreased Hunter "L" value significantly (P < 0.05). The "a" and "b" values of dark-colored seeds decreased after cooking, while these values tended to increase for the light-colored seeds. The total amounts of solid lost from legume seeds were higher after HPC compared with APC. Rapidly digestible starch (RDS) percentages increased considerably after both cooking methods. High pressure cooked legumes resulted in higher levels of resistant starch (RS) but lower levels of slowly digestible starch (SDS) than the atmospheric pressure cooked legumes.

  13. Effect of hydrocolloids on functional properties of navy bean starch

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects of hydrocolloid replacement on the pasting properties of navy bean starch and on the properties of navy bean starch gels were studied. Navy bean starch was isolated, and blends were prepared with beta-glucan, guar gum, pectin and xanthan gum solutions. The total solids concentration was ...

  14. 21 CFR 582.7343 - Locust bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Locust bean gum. 582.7343 Section 582.7343 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... bean gum. (a) Product. Locust (carob) bean gum. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  15. 21 CFR 582.7343 - Locust bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Locust bean gum. 582.7343 Section 582.7343 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... bean gum. (a) Product. Locust (carob) bean gum. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  16. 21 CFR 582.7343 - Locust bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Locust bean gum. 582.7343 Section 582.7343 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... bean gum. (a) Product. Locust (carob) bean gum. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  17. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall contain...

  18. 7 CFR 457.150 - Dry bean crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dry bean crop insurance provisions. 457.150 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.150 Dry bean crop insurance provisions. The dry bean crop insurance provisions for the 2003 and succeeding crop years are as follows...

  19. 21 CFR 582.7343 - Locust bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Locust bean gum. 582.7343 Section 582.7343 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... bean gum. (a) Product. Locust (carob) bean gum. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  20. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall contain...

  1. 21 CFR 582.7343 - Locust bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Locust bean gum. 582.7343 Section 582.7343 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... bean gum. (a) Product. Locust (carob) bean gum. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  2. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall contain...

  3. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall contain...

  4. A Phaseolus vulgaris diversity panel for Andean bean improvement

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) of the Andean gene pool, including red mottled, kidney, cranberry, and yellow seed types are important in Africa and in the Americas. Andean dry bean breeding gains have lagged behind those of Mesoamerican beans. These differences may be due to a narrower genetic b...

  5. Activities to Grow On: Buttons, Beads, and Beans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzolis, Amy; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents new ideas for using buttons, beans, and beads as teaching manipulatives for elementary school children. The ideas include a button scavenger hunt, a button count, a cup puppet bean game, a numbers guessing game with beans in jars, and a bead stringing activity. (SM)

  6. Activities to Grow On: Buttons, Beads, and Beans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzolis, Amy; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents new ideas for using buttons, beans, and beads as teaching manipulatives for elementary school children. The ideas include a button scavenger hunt, a button count, a cup puppet bean game, a numbers guessing game with beans in jars, and a bead stringing activity. (SM)

  7. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall...

  8. Differential soil acidity tolerance of dry bean genotypes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil acidity is a major yield limiting factors for bean production in the tropical regions. Using soil acidity tolerant genotypes is an important strategy in improving bean yields and reducing cost of production. A greenhouse experiment was conducted with the objective of evaluating 20 dry bean geno...

  9. Standard nomenclature for common bean chromosomes and linkage groups

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Several DNA-based linkage maps have been developed for common bean including the core common bean linkage map using the BAT93 x Jalo EEP558 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. Correlation of common bean chromosomes to the genetic linkage groups was completed using RFLP markers to assign each l...

  10. Window contamination on Expose-R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demets, R.; Bertrand, M.; Bolkhovitinov, A.; Bryson, K.; Colas, C.; Cottin, H.; Dettmann, J.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Elsaesser, A.; Jaramillo, E.; Lebert, M.; van Papendrecht, G.; Pereira, C.; Rohr, T.; Saiagh, K.

    2015-01-01

    Expose is a multi-user instrument for astrobiological and astrochemical experiments in space. Installed at the outer surface of the International Space Station, it enables investigators to study the impact of the open space environment on biological and biochemical test samples. Two Expose missions have been completed so far, designated as Expose-E (Rabbow et al. 2012) and Expose-R (Rabbow et al. this issue). One of the space-unique environmental factors offered by Expose is full-spectrum, ultraviolet (UV)-rich electromagnetic radiation from the Sun. This paper describes and analyses how on Expose-R, access of the test samples to Solar radiation degraded during space exposure in an unpredicted way. Several windows in front of the Sun-exposed test samples acquired a brown shade, resulting in a reduced transparency in visible light, UV and vacuum UV (VUV). Post-flight investigations revealed the discolouration to be caused by a homogenous film of cross-linked organic polymers at the inside of the windows. The chemical signature varied per sample carrier. No such films were found on windows from sealed, pressurized compartments, or on windows that had been kept out of the Sun. This suggests that volatile compounds originating from the interior of the Expose facility were cross-linked and photo-fixed by Solar irradiation at the rear side of the windows. The origin of the volatiles was not fully identified; most probably there was a variety of sources involved including the biological test samples, adhesives, plastics and printed circuit boards. The outer surface of the windows (pointing into space) was chemically impacted as well, with a probable effect on the transparency in VUV. The reported analysis of the window contamination on Expose-R is expected to help the interpretation of the scientific results and offers possibilities to mitigate this problem on future missions - in particular Expose-R2, the direct successor of Expose-R.

  11. Mechanism of Plant Growth Stimulation by Naphthenic Acid: II. Enzymes of CO(2) Fixation, CO(2) Compensation Point, Bean Embryo Respiration.

    PubMed

    Wort, D J

    1976-07-01

    Potassium naphthenate, 20 mm, was applied to the foliage of 14-day-old plants of bush bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L, cv Top Crop, maize, Zea mays L, cv Golden Bantam, spring wheat, Triticum vulgare Vill., cv Neepawa, and a 2 mm solution to 21-day-old plants of sugar beet, Beta vulgaris L, cv CS-43. Seven days after application, the activities of ribulose diphosphate carboxylase and phosphoenolpyruvic carboxylase in leaves of naphthenate-treated bean and maize were greater than in the leaves of untreated plants. The increase in activity of the carboxylases in treated spring wheat lacked statistical significance. At the same time after treatment, the CO(2) compensation point of bean was smaller than that of control plants, as was the average CO(2) compensation point of sugar beet measured at intervals up to 21 days after spraying. Respiratory rates of embryos of bean seeds soaked for 12, 24, and 48 hours in 43.5 mum K naphthenate were greater than those of seeds soaked in water. Ascorbate oxidase activity in bean leaves, determined 7, 14, and 21 days after K naphthenate application, was also stimulated. Foliar application of 10 mm cyclohexanecarboxylic acid to bean was followed in 7 and 14 days by a greater activity of catalase than in control plants. Higher activity of the enzyme, measured 6, 7, 12, and 14 days after spraying, also resulted from K naphthenate application. The results indicate that the higher rates of photosynthesis in naphthenate-treated plants may be due in part to increased rates of CO(2) fixation, and that greater photosynthetic efficiency, together with a more plentiful supply of ATP arising from increased electron flow in respiration, is involved in the greater growth of plants to which naphthenate has been applied.

  12. Effects of Orocol TL (a corrosion inhibitor) on germination and growth of bush beans

    SciTech Connect

    Parr, P.D.

    1982-04-01

    As part of a continuing series of studies conducted to determine the environmental effects of hexavalent chromium from cooling tower drift on biological systems, the potential for germination and growth effects in bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var Bush Blue Lake) from hexavelent chromium in Orocol TL (a proprietary chromated, zinc-phosphate compound added to DOE cooling water systems for corrosion inhibition) was investigated at low and high concentrations in the soil by adjusting soil pH and the percent of organic matter. Germination effects were determined in bean plants grown in soils adjusted to differing pH range (4-4.5, 5-5.5, 6.5-7), levels of organic matter (1.8%, 3%, 5%) and Orocol TL amendments (control of 0 ..mu..g/g, 10 ..mu..g/g chromium). Growth responses (effects) were determined from bush bean plants cultured in the same soil treatment combinations as described for the germination study. Plants were harvested when the plant died or at the end of eight weeks and partitioned into leaves, stems and roots. Following weight determinations, the leaves, stems and roots were analyzed for total chromium content, and the results compared using analysis of variance and multiple comparison procedures. High levels (500 ..mu..g/g) of hexavalent chromium in soil (as Orocol TL) affected germination and growth, while a high level of organic matter significantly reduced chromium toxicity on germination. At lower chromium concentrations there was significant uptake by all plant parts, with a corresponding reduction in biomass of leaves. Consequently, adjustments of soil pH from 4.0 to 7.0 appear to have no significant effect on chromium uptake in plants. Increasing the organic matter level to 5%, while decreasing the toxicity of high chromium levels to germinating seed, did not affect chromium uptake.

  13. Antifungal activity of various essential oils against Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phaseolina as major bean pathogens.

    PubMed

    Khaledi, N; Taheri, P; Tarighi, S

    2015-03-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of various essential oils (EOs) to decrease the activity of cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDEs) produced by fungal phytopathogens, which are associated with disease progress. Also, effect of seed treatment and foliar application of peppermint EO and its main constituent, menthol, on diseases caused by two necrotrophic pathogens on bean was investigated. Antifungal activity of EOs on Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phaseolina, as bean pathogens, was evaluated. The EOs of Mentha piperita, Bunium persicum and Thymus vulgaris revealed the highest antifungal activity against fungi. The EO of M. piperita had the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for R. solani among the three EOs tested. This pathogen did not grow in the presence of M. piperita, B. persicum and T. vulgaris EOs at 850, 1200 and 1100 ppm concentrations, respectively. The B. persicum EO had the lowest MIC for M. phaseolina as this fungus did not grow in the presence of M. piperita, B. persicum and T. vulgaris EOs at concentrations of 975, 950 and 1150 ppm, respectively. Hyphae exposed to EOs showed structural changes. Activities of cellulase and pectinase, as main CWDEs of pathogens, decreased by EOs at low concentration without effect on fungal growth. Seed treatment and foliar application of peppermint EO and/or menthol significantly reduced the development of bean diseases caused by both fungi. Higher capability of menthol than peppermint EO in decreasing diseases on bean was observed. Reducing CDWEs activity is a mechanism of EOs' effect on fungi. Higher antifungal activity of menthol compared to peppermint EO was observed not only in vitro but also in vivo. Effect of EOs on CWDEs involved in pathogenesis is described in this study for the first time. Menthol can be used as a botanical fungicide to control destructive fungal diseases on bean. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Evaluation of the reaction oof interspecific hybrids of common bean and tepary bean to Bradyrhizobium y Rhizobium

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Interspecific hybrids between common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., and tepary bean, Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray, have the potential to increase bean production in regions where rainfall is limited. In 2014, an experiment was initiated using a split-plot design. The treatments included inoculation, ...

  15. Spectral Analysis of Ultraweak Chemiluminescence from Kidney Bean Leaf Infested with Tetranychus Kanzawai Kishida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawabata, Ryuzou; Miike, Tohru; Okabe, Hirotaka; Uefune, Masayoshi; Takabayashi, Junji; Takagi, Masami; Kai, Shoichi

    2005-02-01

    We performed the spectral analysis of ultraweak-photon emissions from kidney bean leaves infested by the kanzawa spider mite, Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida (Acari: Tetranychidae). We also measured the spectrum of photon emissions from artificially wounded leaves, and compared the result with spectral data obtained from the mite-infested leaves. Photon emissions from both the mite-infested and wounded leaves primarily consisted of wavelengths ranging from 500 to 700 nm, and photon intensity at these wavelengths increased steadily after perturbation. In contrast, photon intensity of the mite-infested leaves at 300-400 nm exhibited only differential changes; it began increasing at 20 h, and showed two peaks at 72 and 120 h. We previously reported that photon emissions from infested leaves might be the result of both insect damage and plant self-protection. Plant defensive responses, such as herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPV), are induced by insect elicitors via insect damage. Therefore, photon intensity at 500-700 nm might be related to direct injury (physiological stress), while photon intensity at 300-400 nm may signify a physiological (biochemical)-action-related defensive response.

  16. Does ascorbate in the mesophyll cell walls form the first line of defence against ozone? Testing the concept using broad bean (Vicia faba L.).

    PubMed

    Turcsányi, E; Lyons, T; Plöchl, M; Barnes, J

    2000-05-01

    Broad bean (Vicia faba L.) plants were exposed, in duplicate controlled environment chambers, to charcoal/Purafil-filtered air (CFA-grown plants) or to 75 nmol mol(-1) ozone (O(3)) for 7 h d(-1) (O(3)-grown plants) for 28 d, and then exposed to 150 nmol mol(-1) O(3 )for 8 h. The concentration of ascorbate (ASC) was determined in leaf extracellular washing fluid (apoplast) and in the residual leaf tissue (symplast) after 0, 4 and 8 h acute fumigation, and after a 16 h "recovery" period in CFA. Changes in stomatal conductance were measured in vivo in order to model pollutant uptake, while the light-saturated rate of CO(2) assimilation (A:(sat)) was recorded as an indicator of O(3)-induced intracellular damage. Measurements of A:(sat) revealed enhanced tolerance to 150 nmol mol(-1) O(3) in plants pre-exposed to the pollutant compared with equivalent plants grown in CFA, consistent with the observed reduction in pollutant uptake due to lower stomatal conductance. The concentration of ASC in the leaf apoplast (ASC(apo)) declined upon O(3)-treatment in both CFA- and O(3)-grown plants, consistent with the oxidation of ASC(apo) under O(3)-stress. Furthermore, the decline in ASC(apo) was reversible in O(3)-grown plants after a 16 h "recovery" period, but not in plants grown in CFA. No significant change in the level and/or redox state of ASC in the symplast (ASC(symp)) was observed in plants exposed to 150 nmol mol(-1) O(3), and there was no difference in the constitutive level of ASC(symp) between CFA- and O(3)-grown plants. Model calculations indicated that the reaction of O(3) with ASC(apo) in the leaves of Vicia faba is potentially sufficient to intercept a substantial proportion (30-40%) of the O(3)entering the plant under environmentally-relevant conditions. The potential role of apoplastic ASC in mediating the tolerance of leaves to O(3) is discussed.

  17. Fate of allelopathic substances in space--allelopathy of velvet bean plant and gravity.

    PubMed

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Fujii, Yoshiharu; Nakamura, Teruko; Yamashita, Masamichi

    2004-11-01

    Interactions between organisms and species have been long known. It has not been known that the interactive phenomena (allelopathy) may (or may not) differ in space from those on earth. We have studied the gravitational effects on allelopathy by exposing a plant-plant system to pseudo-microgravity, which was generated by a 3D-clinostat. We hypothesized that allelopathy would be modified under altered gravity. L-DOPA (L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) is known to be the major substance in the allelopathy of velvet bean, released from its root. It has been found that there have been some differences of the allelopathic action of velvet bean plant under pseudo-microgravity. Biosynthesis, release, transport and sensing mechanism associated with allelopathy might be affected by gravity.

  18. Mapping snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) pod and color traits, in a dry bean x snap bean recombinant inbred population

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) breeding programs are tasked with developing varieties that meet the standards of the vegetable processing industry and ultimately that of the consumer; all the while matching or exceeding the field performance of existing varieties. While traditional breeding methods ...

  19. Complete genome sequence of bean leaf crumple virus, a novel begomovirus infecting common bean in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Carvajal-Yepes, Monica; Zambrano, Leidy; Bueno, Juan M; Raatz, Bodo; Cuellar, Wilmer J

    2017-02-10

    A copy of the complete genome of a novel bipartite begomovirus infecting common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Colombia was obtained by rolling-circle amplification (RCA), cloned, and sequenced. The virus is associated with leaf crumple symptoms and significant yield losses in Andean and Mesoamerican beans. Such symptoms have been reported increasingly in Colombia since at least 2002, and we detected the virus in leaf material collected since 2008. Sequence analysis showed that the virus is a member of a distinct species, sharing 81% and 76% nucleotide (nt) sequence identity (in DNA-A and DNA-B, respectively) to other begomoviruses infecting common bean in the Americas. The data obtained support the taxonomic status of this virus (putatively named 'bean leaf crumple virus', BLCrV) as a member of a novel species in the genus Begomovirus.

  20. Problematising Early School Leaving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Alistair; Leathwood, Carole

    2013-01-01

    Early school leaving has been identified as a key policy priority across Europe. In this article, we critically discuss the underpinning assumptions and rationale for this policy focus, challenging the association that is made between early school leaving, economic growth and employment. We suggest that ESL is important, not because it is…

  1. Insecticide Efficacy and Timing for Control of Western Bean Cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Dry and Snap Beans.

    PubMed

    Goudis, L A; Trueman, C L; Baute, T S; Hallett, R H; Gillard, C L

    2016-02-01

    The western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a recent pest of corn, dry,and snap beans, in the Great Lakes region, and best practices for its management in beans need to be established.Insecticide efficacy and application timing field studies, conducted in 2011–2013, determined that lambda-cyhalothrin and chlorantraniliprole were capable of reducing western bean cutworm feeding damage in dry beans from 2.3 to 0.4% in preharvest samples, and in snap beans from 4.8 to 0.1% of marketable pods, respectively. The best application timing in dry beans was determined to be 4–18 d after 50% egg hatch. No economic benefit was found when products were applied to dry beans, and despite high artificial inoculation rates, damage to marketable yield was relatively low. Thiamethoxam, methoxyfenozide, and spinetoram were also found to be effective at reducing western bean cutworm damage in dry bean to as low as 0.3% compared to an untreated control with 2.5% damaged pods. In snap beans, increased return on investment between CAD$400 and CAD$600 was seen with multiple applications of lambda-cyhalothrin, and with chlorantraniliprole applied 4 d after egg mass infestation.

  2. Mung bean: technological and nutritional potential.

    PubMed

    Dahiya, P K; Linnemann, A R; Van Boekel, M A J S; Khetarpaul, N; Grewal, R B; Nout, M J R

    2015-01-01

    Mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek) has been intensively researched; scattered data are available on various properties. Data on physical, chemical, food processing, and nutritional properties were collected for whole mung bean grains and reviewed to assess the crop's potential as food and to set research priorities. Results show that mung bean is a rich source of protein (14.6-33.0 g/100 g) and iron (5.9-7.6 mg/100 g). Grain color is correlated with compounds like polyphenols and carotenoids, while grain hardness is associated with fiber content. Physical properties like grain dimensions, sphericity, porosity, bulk, and true density are related to moisture content. Anti-nutrients are phytic acid, tannins, hemagglutinins, and polyphenols. Reported nutrient contents vary greatly, the causes of which are not well understood. Grain size and color have been associated with different regions and were used by plant breeders for selection purposes. Analytical methods require more accuracy and precision to distinguish biological variation from analytical variation. Research on nutrient digestibility, food processing properties, and bioavailability is needed. Furthermore, the effects of storage and processing on nutrients and food processing properties are required to enable optimization of processing steps, for better mung bean food quality and process efficiency.

  3. Phytoalexin Induction in French Bean 1

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Richard A.; Dey, Prakash M.; Lawton, Michael A.; Lamb, Christopher J.

    1983-01-01

    Treatment of hypocotyl sections or cell suspension cultures of dwarf French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) with an abiotic elicitor (denatured ribonuclease A) resulted in increased extractable activity of the enzyme l-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase. This induction could be transmitted from treated cells through a dialysis membrane to cells which were not in direct contact with the elicitor. In hypocotyl sections, induction of isoflavonoid phytoalexin accumulation was also transmitted across a dialysis membrane, although levels of insoluble, lignin-like phenolic material remained unchanged in elicitor-treated and control sections. In bean cell suspension cultures, the induction of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in cells separated from ribonuclease-treated cells by a dialysis membrane was also accompanied by increases in the activities of chalcone synthase and chalcone isomerase, two enzymes previously implicated in the phytoalexin defense response. Such intercellular transmission of elicitation did not occur in experiments with cells treated with a biotic elicitor preparation heat-released from the cell walls of the bean pathogen Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. The results confirm and extend previous suggestions that a low molecular weight, diffusible factor of host plant origin is involved (in French bean) in the intercellular transmission of the elicitation response to abiotic elicitors. PMID:16662813

  4. Registration of ‘Eldorado’ pinto bean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ‘Eldorado’ (Reg. No. CV-302, PI 665012) pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), which was developed by Michigan State University AgBioResearch, was released in 2012 as an upright, full-season,disease-resistant cultivar. Eldorado, tested as MSU breeding line P07863, was developed using the single-seed-de...

  5. Registration of ‘Zenith' black bean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ‘Zenith’ black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (Reg. no. CV- , PI -), developed by Michigan State University AgBioResearch was released in 2014 as an upright, full-season cultivar with anthracnose [caused by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. et Magnus) Lams.-Scrib] resistance and excellent canning q...

  6. Forage potential of American potato bean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    American potato bean (Apios americana Medikus) is a nitrogen-fixing perennial leguminous vine that is native to the eastern half of the United States. In the wild, the plant prefers moist soils near bodies of water and full sunlight for at least part of the day. It grows well in waterlogged, acidi...

  7. Registration of ‘Alpena' navy bean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ‘Alpena’ navy bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (Reg. no. CV- , PI -), developed by Michigan State University AgBioResearch was released in 2014 as an upright, midseason cultivar with uniform dry down and excellent canning quality. Alpena was developed using pedigree breeding method to the F3 generation ...

  8. Common bean and cowpea improvement in Angola

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During 2014 and 2015, the Instituto de Investigação Agronómica (IIA) evaluated the performance of common bean (Phaselolus vulgaris L.) breeding lines and improved cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) varieties. The field experiments were planted in the lowlands at Mazozo and in the highlands at Chian...

  9. Seed coat darkening in Cowpea bean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seed coat of cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) slowly browns to a darker color during storage. High temperature and humidity during storage might contribute to this color change. Variation in browning rate among seeds in a lot leads to a mixture of seed colors creating an unacceptable product...

  10. Interaction of common bacterial blight bacteria with disease resistance quantitative trait loci in common bean.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Robert W; Singh, Shree P; Gilbertson, Robert L

    2011-04-01

    Common bacterial blight (CBB) of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli and X. fuscans subsp. fuscans, and is the most important bacterial disease of this crop in many regions of the world. In 2005 and 2006, dark red kidney bean fields in a major bean-growing region in central Wisconsin were surveyed for CBB incidence and representative symptomatic leaves collected. Xanthomonad-like bacteria were isolated from these leaves and characterized based upon phenotypic (colony) characteristics, pathogenicity on common bean, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with X. campestris pv. phaseoli- and X. fuscans subsp. fuscans-specific primers, and repetitive-element PCR (rep-PCR) and 16S-28S ribosomal RNA spacer region sequence analyses. Of 348 isolates that were characterized, 293 were identified as common blight bacteria (i.e., pathogenic on common bean and positive in PCR tests with the X. campestris pv. phaseoli- and X. fuscans subsp. fuscans-specific primers), whereas the other isolates were nonpathogenic xanthomonads. Most (98%) of the pathogenic xanthomonads were X. campestris pv. phaseoli, consistent with the association of this bacterium with CBB in large-seeded bean cultivars of the Andean gene pool. Two types of X. campestris pv. phaseoli were involved with CBB in this region: typical X. campestris pv. phaseoli (P) isolates with yellow mucoid colonies, no brown pigment production, and a typical X. campestris pv. phaseoli rep-PCR fingerprint (60% of strains); and a new phenotype and genotype (Px) with an X. campestris pv. phaseoli-type fingerprint and less mucoid colonies that produced brown pigment (40% of strains). In addition, a small number of X. fuscans subsp. fuscans strains, representing a new genotype (FH), were isolated from two fields in 2005. Representative P and Px X. campestris pv. phaseoli strains, an FH X. fuscans subsp. fuscans strain, plus five previously characterized X. campestris pv. phaseoli and X

  11. Concentration of cadmium in cacao beans and its relationship with soil cadmium in southern Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Chavez, E; He, Z L; Stoffella, P J; Mylavarapu, R S; Li, Y C; Moyano, B; Baligar, V C

    2015-11-15

    Cadmium (Cd) content in cacao beans above a critical level (0.6 mg kg(-1)) has raised concerns in the consumption of cacao-based chocolate. Little is available regarding Cd concentration in soil and cacao in Ecuador. The aim of this study was to determine the status of Cd in both, soils and cacao plants, in southern Ecuador. Soil samples were collected from 19 farms at 0-5, 5-15, 15-30, and 30-50 cm depths, whereas plant samples were taken from four nearby trees. Total recoverable and extractable Cd were measured at the different soil depths. Total recoverable Cd ranged from 0.88 to 2.45 and 0.06 to 2.59, averaged 1.54 and 0.85 mg kg(-1), respectively in the surface and subsurface soils whereas the corresponding values for M3-extractable Cd were 0.08 to 1.27 and 0.02 to 0.33 with mean values of 0.40 and 0.10 mg kg(-1). Surface soil in all sampling sites had total recoverable Cd above the USEPA critical level for agricultural soils (0.43 mg kg(-1)), indicating that Cd pollution occurs. Since both total recoverable and M3-extractable Cd significantly decreased depth wise, anthropogenic activities are more likely the source of contamination. Cadmium in cacao tissues decreased in the order of beans>shell>leaves. Cadmium content in cacao beans ranged from 0.02 to 3.00, averaged 0.94 mg kg(-1), and 12 out of 19 sites had bean Cd content above the critical level. Bean Cd concentration was highly correlated with M3- or HCl-extractable Cd at both the 0-5 and 5-15 cm depths (r=0.80 and 0.82 for M3, and r=0.78 and 0.82 for HCl; P<0.01). These results indicate that accumulation of Cd in surface layers results in excessive Cd in cacao beans and M3- or HCl-extractable Cd are suitable methods for predicting available Cd in the studied soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of pig manure and wheat straw on growth of mung bean seedlings grown in aluminium toxicity soil.

    PubMed

    Shen, Q R; Shen, Z G

    2001-02-01

    Crop production in red soil areas may be limited by Al toxicity. A possible alternative to ameliorate Al toxicity is the application of such organic manure as crop straw and animal manure. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of organic materials on the alleviation of Al toxicity in acid red soil. Ground wheat straw, pig manure or CaCO3 were mixed with the soil and incubated, at 85% of water holding capacity and 25 degrees C, for 8 weeks. After the incubation, 14 seedlings of mung bean (Phaseolus aures Roxb) were allowed to grow for 12 days. Results showed that application of organic material or CaCO3 increased soil pH and decreased soil monomeric inorganic Al concentrations. Growth of mung bean seedling was improved sustantially by the application of organic material or CaCO3. Pig manure or wheat straw was more effective in ameliorating Al toxicity than was CaCO3. Mung bean plants receiving pig manure or wheat straw contained relatively high concentrations of P, Ca and K in their leaves. It is suggested that the beneficial effect of organic manure on mung bean is likely due to decreasing concentrations of monomeric inorganic Al concentrations in soil solution and improvement of mineral nutrition.

  13. Propagule production by Phytophthora ramorum on infected leaves of lilac (Syringa vulgaris)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Leaves with lesions caused by Phytophthora ramorum often drop off infected plants. Because fallen leaves might serve as sources of inoculum, this study quantified inoculum produced by such leaves on the surface of pots when exposed to different watering regimes or different temperatures. In one ex...

  14. Estimation of phenotypic variability in symbiotic nitrogen fixation ability of common bean under drought stress using (15)N natural abundance in grain.

    PubMed

    Polania, Jose; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Rao, Idupulapati; Beebe, Stephen

    2016-09-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most important food legume, cultivated by small farmers and is usually exposed to unfavorable conditions with minimum use of inputs. Drought and low soil fertility, especially phosphorus and nitrogen (N) deficiencies, are major limitations to bean yield in smallholder systems. Beans can derive part of their required N from the atmosphere through symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF). Drought stress severely limits SNF ability of plants. The main objectives of this study were to: (i) test and validate the use of (15)N natural abundance in grain to quantify phenotypic differences in SNF ability for its implementation in breeding programs of common bean with bush growth habit aiming to improve SNF, and (ii) quantify phenotypic differences in SNF under drought to identify superior genotypes that could serve as parents. Field studies were conducted at CIAT-Palmira, Colombia using a set of 36 bean genotypes belonging to the Middle American gene pool for evaluation in two seasons with two levels of water supply (irrigated and drought stress). We used (15)N natural abundance method to compare SNF ability estimated from shoot tissue sampled at mid-pod filling growth stage vs. grain tissue sampled at harvest. Our results showed positive and significant correlation between nitrogen derived from the atmosphere (%Ndfa) estimated using shoot tissue at mid-pod filling and %Ndfa estimated using grain tissue at harvest. Both methods showed phenotypic variability in SNF ability under both drought and irrigated conditions and a significant reduction in SNF ability was observed under drought stress. We suggest that the method of estimating Ndfa using grain tissue (Ndfa-G) could be applied in bean breeding programs to improve SNF ability. Using this method of Ndfa-G, we identified four bean lines (RCB 593, SEA 15, NCB 226 and BFS 29) that combine greater SNF ability with greater grain yield under drought stress and these could serve as potential

  15. Antioxidant enzyme and osmotic adjustment changes in bean seedlings as affected by biochar under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Farhangi-Abriz, Salar; Torabian, Shahram

    2017-03-01

    Salinity damaged cellular membranes through overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), while osmolytes and antioxidant capacities play a vital role in protecting plants from salinity caused oxidative damages. Biochar also could alleviate the negative impacts of salt stress in crops. The pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of biochar on some antioxidant enzyme activities and osmolyte adjustments of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Derakhshan) under salinity stress. Bean plants were subjected to three salinity levels (non-saline, 6 and 12 dSm(-1) of NaCl) and biochar treatments (non-biochar, 10% and 20% total pot mass). Shoot and root dry weights of bean were decreased at two salt stress treatments. Salinity increased the activity of catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), oxygen radicals (O(2•-)), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in leaf and root compared to control. Additionally, increased magnitudes of proline, glycine betaine, soluble sugar and soluble protein contents were more pronounced under 12 dSm(-1) NaCl than those under 6 dSm(-1) NaCl. In contrast, biochar applied to soil enhanced the shoot and root dry weight in comparison with the non-biochar treatment. Furthermore, all of the antioxidant activities of seedlings in soil treated with biochar, particularly at 20% biochar, declined. With the addition of biochar, the contents of MDA, O(2•-) and H2O2 displayed remarkable decrease, and the osmotic substances accumulation in leaves and roots also reduced. The presented results supported the view that biochar can contribute to protect common bean seedlings against NaCl stress by alleviating the oxidative stress.

  16. Use of different spices as potential natural antioxidant additives on cooked beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Increase of DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Marina Pelincer; Tavano, Olga Luisa

    2014-12-01

    Herbs and spices, excellent sources of phenolic compounds, can be considered potential antioxidant additives. The use of spices must strike a balance between their potential antioxidant capabilities during preparation and the flavor acceptance, in order to avoid rejection of the food. The aimed of this study is to evaluate the influence of different spices and their concentrations on cooked common beans, focusing its potential as antioxidant additives. Onion, parsley, spring onion, laurel and coriander increased the antioxidant activity of preparation when used at 7.96 g of onion, 1.06 g parsley, 3.43 g spring onion, 0.25 g laurel (dry leaves), and 0.43 g coriander/100 g of cooked beans. Besides, these spices concentrations enhance total phenolics and alter the mixture protein digestibility minimally. For garlic samples it was not possible to establish a concentration that increases the antioxidant activity of cooked beans.

  17. Acceptability and characterization of extruded pinto, navy and black beans.

    PubMed

    Simons, Courtney W; Hall, Clifford; Tulbek, Mehmet; Mendis, Mihiri; Heck, Taylor; Ogunyemi, Samuel

    2015-08-30

    Consumption of dry beans has been relatively flat over the last decade. Creating new bean products may increase the consumption of beans and allow more consumers to obtain the health benefits of beans. In this study, pinto, navy and black beans were milled and the resulting flours extruded into puffs. Unflavored extruded puffs were evaluated by untrained panelists using a hedonic scale for appearance, flavor, texture and overall acceptability. The compositions of raw flours and extrudates were characterized. Sensory results indicated that all beans met or exceeded the minimum requirement for acceptability. Overall acceptability of navy and pinto beans was not significantly different, while acceptability of black bean puffs was significantly lower. Total protein (198-217 g kg(-1)) in extrudates was significantly different among the three beans. Total starch ranged from 398 to 406 g kg(-1) and was not significantly different. Resistant starch, total extractable lipid and raffinose contents were significantly reduced by extrusion. Extrusion did not affect crude fiber and phytic acid contents. The minimal effects on protein and fiber contents, the significant reduction in raffinose content and the acceptability of the unflavored extruded puffs support using various bean flours as ingredients in extruded puffed products. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Volatile compounds as potential defective coffee beans' markers.

    PubMed

    Toci, Aline T; Farah, Adriana

    2008-06-01

    Although Brazil is the largest raw coffee producer and exporter in the world, a large amount of its Arabica coffee production is considered inappropriate for exportation. This by-product of coffee industry is called PVA due to the presence of black (P), green (V) and sour (A) defective beans, which are known to contribute considerably for cup quality decrease. Data on the volatile composition of Brazilian defective coffee beans are scarce. In this study, we evaluated the volatile composition of defective coffee beans (two lots) compared to good quality beans from the respective lots. Potential defective beans' markers were identified. In the raw samples, 2-methylpyrazine and 2-furylmethanol acetate were identified only in black-immature beans and butyrolactone only in sour beans, while benzaldehyde and 2,3,5,6-tetramethylpyrazine showed to be potential markers of defective beans in general. In the roasted PVA beans, pyrazine, 2,3-butanediol meso, 2-methyl-5-(1-propenyl)pyrazine, hexanoic acid, 4-ethyl-guayacol and isopropyl p-cresol sulfide also showed to be potential defective coffee beans' markers. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The study of equivalent dose of uranium in long bean (V. U. Sesquipedalis) and the effect on human

    SciTech Connect

    Rashid, Nur Shahidah Abdul; Yoshandi, Tengku Mohammad; Majid, Sukiman Sarmania Amran Ab.; Mohamed, Faizal; Siong, Khoo Kok

    2016-01-22

    In the case of accidental release of Uranium-238 ({sup 238}U) radionuclides in a nuclear facility or in the environment, internal contamination by either acute or chronic exposure has the potential to induce both radiological and chemical toxic effects. A study was conducted to estimate the {sup 238}U radionuclide concentration in the long beans using Induced Coupled Mass Plasma-Spectrometry (ICP-MS). {sup 238}U radionuclide is a naturally occurring radioactive material that can be found in soil and can be transferred to the long bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. Sesquapedalis) directly or indirectly via water or air. Kidney and liver are the major sites of deposition of {sup 238}U radionuclide. The obtained dose exposed in the liver and kidney is used to assess the safety level for public intake of {sup 238}U radionuclide from the consumption of long beans. The concentration of {sup 238}U radionuclide measured in long bean samples was 0.0226 ± 0.0009 mg/kg. Total activity of {sup 238}U radionuclide was 0.0044 ± 0.0002 Bq/day with the daily intake of 0.3545 ± 0.0143 µg/day and the annual committed effective dose due to ingestion of {sup 238}U radionuclide in long beans was 0.2230 ± 0.0087 µSv/year. The committed equivalent dose of {sup 238}U radionuclide from the assessment in the liver and kidney are 0.4198 ± 0.0165 nSv and 10.9335 ± 0.4288 nSv. The risk of cancer of {sup 238}U radionuclide was determined to be (86.0466 ± 3.3748) × 10-9. Thus, the results concluded that {sup 238}U radionuclide in local long beans was in the permitted level and safe to consume without posing any significant radiological threat to population.

  20. The study of equivalent dose of uranium in long bean (V. U. Sesquipedalis) and the effect on human

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Nur Shahidah Abdul; Yoshandi, Tengku Mohammad; Majid, Sukiman Sarmania Amran Ab.; Mohamed, Faizal; Siong, Khoo Kok

    2016-01-01

    In the case of accidental release of Uranium-238 (238U) radionuclides in a nuclear facility or in the environment, internal contamination by either acute or chronic exposure has the potential to induce both radiological and chemical toxic effects. A study was conducted to estimate the 238U radionuclide concentration in the long beans using Induced Coupled Mass Plasma-Spectrometry (ICP-MS). 238U radionuclide is a naturally occurring radioactive material that can be found in soil and can be transferred to the long bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. Sesquapedalis) directly or indirectly via water or air. Kidney and liver are the major sites of deposition of 238U radionuclide. The obtained dose exposed in the liver and kidney is used to assess the safety level for public intake of 238U radionuclide from the consumption of long beans. The concentration of 238U radionuclide measured in long bean samples was 0.0226 ± 0.0009 mg/kg. Total activity of 238U radionuclide was 0.0044 ± 0.0002 Bq/day with the daily intake of 0.3545 ± 0.0143 µg/day and the annual committed effective dose due to ingestion of 238U radionuclide in long beans was 0.2230 ± 0.0087 µSv/year. The committed equivalent dose of 238U radionuclide from the assessment in the liver and kidney are 0.4198 ± 0.0165 nSv and 10.9335 ± 0.4288 nSv. The risk of cancer of 238U radionuclide was determined to be (86.0466 ± 3.3748) × 10-9. Thus, the results concluded that 238U radionuclide in local long beans was in the permitted level and safe to consume without posing any significant radiological threat to population.

  1. Biophoton Emission from Kidney Bean Leaf Infested with Tetranychus Kanzawai Kishida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawabata, Ryuzou; Uefune, Masayoshi; Miike, Tohru; Okabe, Hirotaka; Takabayashi, Junji; Takagi, Masami; Kai, Shoichi

    2004-08-01

    We studied spontaneous photon emission from kidney bean leaves infested with spider mites. Strong photon radiation was observed from the leaf veins where spider mites were crowding. Photon emission intensity increased with the decreases in chlorophyll content and photosynthesis yield; these decreases represented the degree of damage caused by the pest. When both infested and un-infested leaves were put on the same wet cotton, photon emission from the un-infested leaf increased, too. Photon emission from the un-infested leaf might be induced by an aqueous elicitor released from the infested leaf. Such an elicitor activates the plant defense response. Therefore, it is suggested that photon emission from an infested leaf conveys information on the direct injury (physical stresses) and physiological (biochemical) actions associated with the defensive response.

  2. Ruminal fermentation and degradation patterns, protozoa population and urinary purine derivatives excretion in goats and wethers fed diets based on olive leaves.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, D R Yáñez; García, A I Martín; Moumen, A; Alcaide, E Molina

    2004-10-01

    Olives leaves, accrued during the processing of olive harvests for oil extraction, are poor in N, rich in crude fat and ADF (1.19, 8.03 and 28.2 g/100 g of DM, respectively), and relatively low in condensed tannins (11.1 mg/g of DM). Three experiments were conducted in a 2 x 3 (two animal species: goats vs. wethers; and three experimental diets: olive leaves without or with polyethylene glycol supply and olive leaves supplemented with barley and faba beans) factorial design to evaluate ruminal degradation and passage kinetics (Exp. 1), fermentation pattern and protozoa population (Exp. 2), and urinary purine derivatives excretion (Exp. 3). Polyethylene glycol was supplied to evaluate the effects of condensed tannins contained in olive leaves. Ruminal degradability of CP was low in both goats and wethers, although goats showed higher (P < 0.05) values than wethers. Supplementation of olive leaves with barley and faba beans increased (P < 0.001) ruminal degradability of DM and CP. Both goats and wethers fed olive leaves showed similarly low particulate fractional passage rates (0.021 and 0.023/h, respectively). Ingestion of olive leaves promoted low NH3-N and VFA concentrations, which reflect poor microbial activity. These concentrations, especially that of VFA, increased when barley and faba beans were added. Ingestion of olive leaves affected ruminal protozoa: Entodiniomorphida showed low concentrations and Holotricha completely disappeared. When animals received a diet based on olive leaves, barley, and faba beans, Holotricha appeared in the ruminal liquor and Entodiniomorphida increased (P < 0.001). In goats and wethers fed olive leaves alone, urinary allantoin excretion was very low (163 and 164 micromol/kg BW0.75 in goats and wethers, respectively), and moderate values (352 and 389 micromol/kg BW0.75 in goats and wethers, respectively) were observed when a diet of olive leaves, barley, and faba beans was fed. The polyethylene glycol supply did not have an

  3. Paid Educational Leave

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munro, John

    1978-01-01

    Discusses three reasons why the Canadian government is supportive of paid educational leave (PEL): the provision of a second chance, equal opportunity, and increased productivity. It also compares Canadian efforts in providing workers' education with those of other countries. (EM)

  4. Falling for Clay Leaves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernan, Christine

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art project that integrated science and art education. Explains that students create ceramic bowls by using real leaves. Discusses the process of creating the ceramic bowls, including how to glaze the bowls. Includes a list of materials. (CMK)

  5. Falling for Clay Leaves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernan, Christine

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art project that integrated science and art education. Explains that students create ceramic bowls by using real leaves. Discusses the process of creating the ceramic bowls, including how to glaze the bowls. Includes a list of materials. (CMK)

  6. The Effect of Ultraviolet Radiation and Di-1-p-Menthene on the Phytotoxicity of 2,4-D Applications to Black Valentine Bean Plants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    dimer of beta - pinene ), the dimethylamine salt of (2,4- dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid, and the combination of the latter two. Greenhouse- grown bean...plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Black Valentine) were exposed for various time periods to a mid-ultraviolet light source having a major emission peak at...254 nm. The energy level recorded at plant height was 350 ergs/sq cm/ sec. Plants exposed to this light source for 1 hr had chlorotic, malformed

  7. Kinetic studies on the control of the bean rust fungus (Uromyces phaseoli L.) by an inhibitor of polyamine biosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajam, M. V.; Weinstein, L. H.; Galston, A. W.

    1986-01-01

    alpha-Difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), a specific and irreversible inhibitor of the polyamine biosynthetic enzyme ornithine decarboxylase, effectively inhibits mycelial growth of several phytopathogenic fungi on defined media in vitro and provides systemic protection of bean plants against infection by Uromyces phaseoli L. race 0 (MV Rajam, AW Galston 1985 Plant Cell Physiol 26: 683-692; MV Rajam et al. 1985 Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 82: 6874-6878). We now find that application of 0.5 millimolar DFMO to unifoliolate leaves of Pinto beans up to 3 days after inoculation with uredospores of U. phaseoli completely inhibits the growth of the pathogen, while application 4 or 5 days after inoculation results in partial protection against the pathogen. Spores do not germinate on the surface of unifoliolate leaves treated with DFMO 1 day before infection, but addition of spermidine to the DFMO treatments partially reverses the inhibitory effect. The titer of polyamines in bean plants did not decline after DFMO treatment; rather, putrescine and spermidine contents actually rose, probably due to the known but paradoxical stimulation of arginine decarboxylase activity by DFMO.

  8. Kinetic studies on the control of the bean rust fungus (Uromyces phaseoli L.) by an inhibitor of polyamine biosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajam, M. V.; Weinstein, L. H.; Galston, A. W.

    1986-01-01

    alpha-Difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), a specific and irreversible inhibitor of the polyamine biosynthetic enzyme ornithine decarboxylase, effectively inhibits mycelial growth of several phytopathogenic fungi on defined media in vitro and provides systemic protection of bean plants against infection by Uromyces phaseoli L. race 0 (MV Rajam, AW Galston 1985 Plant Cell Physiol 26: 683-692; MV Rajam et al. 1985 Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 82: 6874-6878). We now find that application of 0.5 millimolar DFMO to unifoliolate leaves of Pinto beans up to 3 days after inoculation with uredospores of U. phaseoli completely inhibits the growth of the pathogen, while application 4 or 5 days after inoculation results in partial protection against the pathogen. Spores do not germinate on the surface of unifoliolate leaves treated with DFMO 1 day before infection, but addition of spermidine to the DFMO treatments partially reverses the inhibitory effect. The titer of polyamines in bean plants did not decline after DFMO treatment; rather, putrescine and spermidine contents actually rose, probably due to the known but paradoxical stimulation of arginine decarboxylase activity by DFMO.

  9. Adhesion and fitness in the bean phyllosphere and transmission to seed of Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. fuscans.

    PubMed

    Darsonval, A; Darrasse, A; Durand, K; Bureau, C; Cesbron, S; Jacques, M-A

    2009-06-01

    Deciphering the mechanisms enabling plant-pathogenic bacteria to disperse, colonize, and survive on their hosts provides the necessary basis to set up new control methods. We evaluated the role of bacterial attachment and biofilm formation in host colonization processes for Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. fuscans on its host. This bacterium is responsible for the common bacterial blight of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), a seedborne disease. The five adhesin genes (pilA, fhab, xadA1, xadA2, and yapH) identified in X. fuscans subsp. fuscans CFBP4834-R strain were mutated. All mutants were altered in their abilities to adhere to polypropylene or seed. PilA was involved in adhesion and transmission to seed, and mutation of pilA led to lower pathogenicity on bean. YapH was required for adhesion to seed, leaves, and abiotic surfaces but not for in planta transmission to seed or aggressiveness on leaves. Transmission to seed through floral structures did not require any of the known adhesins. Conversely, all mutants tested, except in yapH, were altered in their vascular transmission to seed. In conclusion, we showed that adhesins are implicated in the various processes leading to host phyllosphere colonization and transmission to seed by plant-pathogenic bacteria.

  10. Iron and zinc bioavailability in rats fed intrinsically labeled bean and bean-rice infant weaning food products.

    PubMed

    Kannan, S; Nielsen, S S; Rodriguez-Burger, A P; Mason, A C

    2001-10-01

    Beans are the core of the Latin American diet and contain iron and zinc. However, the bioavailability of these trace minerals from beans is low. The objective of this study was to determine if the bioavailability of iron and zinc could be improved with the use of fermentation and germination processing technologies. Black beans native to Costa Rica were grown hydroponically with either radioactive iron or zinc. The influence of fermentation and germination on iron and zinc bioavailability from intrinsically labeled infant weaning food products based on black beans and beans-rice was determined in rats. Mineral bioavailability was determined using whole-body (59)Fe retention for iron, and whole-body (65)Zn retention and incorporation of radiolabel into bone for zinc. Percent absorption of (59)Fe from fermented products ranged between 48.0 and 58.0. Percent absorption of (65)Zn ranged from 57.0 to 64.0. Fermentation did not increase iron bioavailability in rats fed fermented beans without rice. Fermentation of cooked beans significantly increased zinc retention. Germination significantly enhanced iron retention from cooked beans from 46 to 55% and from cooked beans-cooked rice from 34 to 48%. Germination significantly improved zinc absorption and retention from cooked beans without added rice.

  11. Maternity Leave Policies

    PubMed Central

    Strang, Lucy; Broeks, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Over recent years many European Union countries have made changes to the design of the maternity leave provision. These policy developments reflect calls for greater gender equality in the workforce and more equal share of childcare responsibilities. However, while research shows that long period of leave can have negative effects on women's labour market attachment and career advancements, early return to work can be seen as a factor preventing exclusive breastfeeding, and therefore, potentially having negative health impacts for babies. Indeed, the World Health Organisation recommends exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 months of age to provide babies with the nutrition for healthy growth and brain development, protection from life-threatening ailments, obesity and non-communicable diseases such as asthma and diabetes. Therefore, labour market demands on women may be at odds with the health benefits for children gained by longer periods of maternity leave. The aim of this article is to examine the relationship between leave provision and health benefits for children. We examine maternity and parental leave provision across European countries and its potential impact on the breastfeeding of very young babies (up to 6-months of age). We also consider economic factors of potential extension of maternity leave provision to 6 months, such as costs to businesses, effects on the female labour market attachment, and wider consequences (benefits and costs) for individuals, families, employers and the wider society. PMID:28983432

  12. Purification of leucoplast pyruvate kinase from developing castor bean endosperm.

    PubMed

    Plaxton, W C; Dennis, D T; Knowles, V L

    1990-12-01

    Leucoplast pyruvate kinase from endosperm of developing castor oil seeds (Ricinus communis L.; cv Baker) has been purified 1370-fold to a specific activity of 41.1 micromoles pyruvate produced per minute per milligram protein. Nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the purified enzyme resulted in a single protein staining band that co-migrated with pyruvate kinase activity. However, following sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide electrophoresis, two major protein staining bands of 57.5 and 44 kilodaltons, which occurred in an approximate 2:1 ratio, respectively, were observed. The native molecular mass was approximately 305 kilodaltons. Rabbit antiserum raised against the final enzyme preparation effectively immunoprecipitated leucoplast pyruvate kinase. The 57.5- and 44-kilodalton polypeptides are immunologically related as both proteins cross-reacted strongly on Western blots probed with the rabbit anti-(developing castor seed endosperm leucoplast pyruvate kinase) immunoglobulin that had been affinity-purified against the 57.5-kilodalton polypeptide. In contrast, pyruvate kinases from the following sources showed no immunological cross-reactivity with the same immunoglobulin: the cytosolic enzyme from developing or germinating castor bean endosperm; chloroplastic pyruvate kinase from expanding leaves of the castor oil plant; chloroplastic or cytosolic pyruvate kinase from the green alga, Selenastrum minutum; and mammalian or bacterial pyruvate kinases.

  13. [Duration of maternity leave and sick leave during pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Tophøj, A; Sabroe, S

    1999-09-06

    The aim of the project was to describe the reasons for sick leave during pregnancy. This article presents data on a subgroup of women on sick leave. The purpose of this reanalysis was to examine whether women with short maternity leave had longer sick leave during pregnancy. Pregnant women in a Danish County applying for sick leave in a year were consecutively included in the study. Data were obtained by questionnaires during 1991-1992. Women with rights to a longer maternity leave, obtained through collective bargaining, were mainly employed in occupational groups related to the public sector and were on sick leave significantly longer, than women with short maternity leave, obtained only through legislation. The diagnoses differed among the two groups. Data suggest unequal possibilities for obtaining pregnancy related sick leave, as women with longer predelivery leave and a more secure employment situation had significantly longer sick leave than other women.

  14. Biofortified black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in a maize/bean diet provide more bioavailable iron to piglets than standard black beans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our objective was to compare the capacities of biofortified and standard black beans to deliver iron (Fe) for hemoglobin synthesis. Two lines of black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), one standard (“Low”) and the other biofortified (“High”) in Fe (71 and 106 ug Fe/g, respectively) were used. Maize-bas...

  15. Chemical analysis and hemolytic activity of the fava bean aglycon divicine.

    PubMed

    McMillan, D C; Schey, K L; Meier, G P; Jollow, D J

    1993-01-01

    Divicine is an unstable aglycon metabolite of the fava bean pyrimidine beta-glucoside vicine. Divicine has long been thought to be a mediator of an acute hemolytic crisis, known as favism, in susceptible individuals who ingest fava beans (Vicia faba). However, a recent report has questioned the chemical identity of the divicine that was used in most of the studies on divicine hemotoxicity. The present study was undertaken to examine the hemolytic potential of synthetic divicine. Divicine was synthesized and its identity and purity were confirmed by HPLC, mass spectrometry, and NMR spectroscopy. The stability and redox behavior of divicine, under physiological conditions, were examined by HPLC and cyclic voltammetry. The data indicate that divicine is readily oxidized under aerobic conditions; however, it was sufficiently stable at pH 7.4 to permit its experimental manipulation. When 51Cr-labeled rat erythrocytes were exposed in vitro to the parent glucoside, vicine (5 mM), and then readministered to rats, no decrease in erythrocyte survival was observed. In contrast, erythrocyte survival was dramatically reduced by in vitro exposure to divicine (1.5 mM). These data demonstrate that divicine is a direct-acting hemolytic agent and thus may be a mediator of the hemolytic crisis induced by fava bean ingestion.

  16. Insect pollination reduces yield loss following heat stress in faba bean (Vicia faba L.).

    PubMed

    Bishop, Jacob; Jones, Hannah Elizabeth; Lukac, Martin; Potts, Simon Geoffrey

    2016-03-15

    Global food security, particularly crop fertilization and yield production, is threatened by heat waves that are projected to increase in frequency and magnitude with climate change. Effects of heat stress on the fertilization of insect-pollinated plants are not well understood, but experiments conducted primarily in self-pollinated crops, such as wheat, show that transfer of fertile pollen may recover yield following stress. We hypothesized that in the partially pollinator-dependent crop, faba bean (Vicia faba L.), insect pollination would elicit similar yield recovery following heat stress. We exposed potted faba bean plants to heat stress for 5 days during floral development and anthesis. Temperature treatments were representative of heat waves projected in the UK for the period 2021-2050 and onwards. Following temperature treatments, plants were distributed in flight cages and either pollinated by domesticated Bombus terrestris colonies or received no insect pollination. Yield loss due to heat stress at 30 °C was greater in plants excluded from pollinators (15%) compared to those with bumblebee pollination (2.5%). Thus, the pollinator dependency of faba bean yield was 16% at control temperatures (18-26 °C) and extreme stress (34 °C), but was 53% following intermediate heat stress at 30 °C. These findings provide the first evidence that the pollinator dependency of crops can be modified by heat stress, and suggest that insect pollination may become more important in crop production as the probability of heat waves increases.

  17. Ion beam analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debastiani, R.; dos Santos, C. E. I.; Yoneama, M. L.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J. F.

    2014-01-01

    The way that coffee is prepared (using roasted ground coffee or roasted coffee beans) may influence the quality of beverage. Therefore, the aim of this work is to use ion beam techniques to perform a full elemental analysis of packed roasted ground coffee and packed roasted coffee beans, as well as green coffee beans. The samples were analyzed by PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission). Light elements were measured through RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) experiments. Micro-PIXE experiments were carried out in order to check the elemental distribution in the roasted and green coffee beans. In general, the elements found in ground coffee were Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr. A comparison between ground coffee and grinded roasted beans shows significant differences for several elements. Elemental maps reveal that P and K are correlated and practically homogeneously distributed over the beans.

  18. Functional properties of yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus) starch.

    PubMed

    Mélo, E A; Stamford, T L M; Silva, M P C; Krieger, N; Stamford, N P

    2003-08-01

    The study was carried out in order to determine and establish the functional characters of starch extracted from yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus (L) Urban) compared with cassava starch. Yam bean is a tropical tuber legume easily grown and holds a great potential as a new source of starch. Yam bean starch shows functional properties which are peculiar to those of most starch root crops. Gelatinization temperature (53-63 degrees C) and the pasting temperature (64.5 degrees C) are less than those of cereal starch, however, the swelling power is high (54.4 g gel/g dried starch). Yam bean starch paste presents a high viscosity profile, high retrogradation tendency and low stability on cooking. The functional properties of yam bean starch, similar to those of cassava starch, allows yam bean to be used as a potential new source of starch.

  19. Dynamic transcriptome profiling of Bean Common Mosaic Virus (BCMV) infection in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Martin, Kathleen; Singh, Jugpreet; Hill, John H; Whitham, Steven A; Cannon, Steven B

    2016-08-11

    Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) is widespread, with Phaseolus species as the primary host plants. Numerous BCMV strains have been identified on the basis of a panel of bean varieties that distinguish the pathogenicity types with respect to the viral strains. The molecular responses in Phaseolus to BCMV infection have not yet been well characterized. We report the transcriptional responses of a widely susceptible variety of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cultivar 'Stringless green refugee') to two BCMV strains, in a time-course experiment. We also report the genome sequence of a previously unreported BCMV strain. The interaction with the known strain NL1-Iowa causes moderate symptoms and large transcriptional responses, and the newly identified strain (Strain 2 or S2) causes severe symptoms and moderate transcriptional responses. The transcriptional profiles of host plants infected with the two isolates are distinct, and involve numerous differences in splice forms in particular genes, and pathway specific expression patterns. We identified differential host transcriptome response after infection of two different strains of Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Virus infection initiated a suite of changes in gene expression level and patterns in the host plants. Pathways related to defense, gene regulation, metabolic processes, photosynthesis were specifically altered after virus infection. Results presented in this study can increase the understanding of host-pathogen interactions and provide resources for further investigations of the biological mechanisms in BCMV infection and defense.

  20. Bean Common Mosaic Virus and Bean Common Mosaic Necrosis Virus: Relationships, Biology, and Prospects for Control.

    PubMed

    Worrall, Elizabeth A; Wamonje, Francis O; Mukeshimana, Gerardine; Harvey, Jagger J W; Carr, John P; Mitter, Neena

    2015-01-01

    The closely related potyviruses Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) are major constraints on common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) production. Crop losses caused by BCMV and BCMNV impact severely not only on commercial scale cultivation of this high-value crop but also on production by smallholder farmers in the developing world, where bean serves as a key source of dietary protein and mineral nutrition. In many parts of the world, progress has been made in combating BCMV through breeding bean varieties possessing the I gene, a dominant gene conferring resistance to most BCMV strains. However, in Africa, and in particular in Central and East Africa, BCMNV is endemic and this presents a serious problem for deployment of the I gene because this virus triggers systemic necrosis (black root disease) in plants possessing this resistance gene. Information on these two important viruses is scattered throughout the literature from 1917 onward, and although reviews on resistance to BCMV and BCMNV exist, there is currently no comprehensive review on the biology and taxonomy of BCMV and BCMNV. In this chapter, we discuss the current state of our knowledge of these two potyviruses including fundamental aspects of classification and phylogeny, molecular biology, host interactions, transmission through seed and by aphid vectors, geographic distribution, as well as current and future prospects for the control of these important viruses.

  1. Safety assessment of the biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd.

    PubMed

    Yang, Juan; Ding, Xiaowen; Qin, Yingrui; Zeng, Yitao

    2014-08-06

    To evaluate the safety of biogenic amines, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to evaluate the levels of biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd. In fermented soya beans, the total biogenic amines content was in a relatively safe range in many samples, although the concentration of histamine, tyramine, and β-phenethylamine was high enough in some samples to cause a possible safety threat, and 8 of the 30 samples were deemed unsafe. In fermented bean curd, the total biogenic amines content was more than 900 mg/kg in 19 white sufu amples, a level that has been determined to pose a safety hazard; putrescine was the only one detected in all samples and also had the highest concentration, which made samples a safety hazard; the content of tryptamine, β-phenethylamine, tyramine, and histamine had reached the level of threat to human health in some white and green sufu samples, and that may imply another potential safety risk; and 25 of the 33 samples were unsafe. In conclusion, the content of biogenic amines in all fermented soya bean products should be studied and appropriate limits determined to ensure the safety of eating these foods.

  2. Evaluation of the tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius) CIAT germplasm collection for response to common bacterial blight and bean common mosaic necrosis virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aphid-transmitted Bean Common Mosaic Necrosis Virus (BCMNV) and Bean Common Mosaic Virus (BCMV) are potyvirus that cause production losses in common and tepary beans. Developing resistance to viruses, specifically BCMV, BCMNV and BGYMV, will be critical for expanding tepary bean production. This stu...

  3. A viral resistance gene from common bean functions across plant families and is up-regulated in a non-virus-specific manner

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Young-Su; Rojas, Maria R.; Lee, Jung-Youn; Lee, Sang-Won; Jeon, Jong-Seong; Ronald, Pamela; Lucas, William J.; Gilbertson, Robert L.

    2006-01-01

    Genes involved in a viral resistance response in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Othello) were identified by inoculating a geminivirus reporter (Bean dwarf mosaic virus expressing the green fluorescent protein), extracting RNA from tissue undergoing the defense response, and amplifying sequences with degenerate R gene primers. One such gene (a TIR-NBS-LRR gene, RT4-4) was selected for functional analysis in which transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana were generated and screened for resistance to a range of viruses. This analysis revealed that RT4-4 did not confer resistance to the reporter geminivirus; however, it did activate a resistance-related response (systemic necrosis) to seven strains of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) from pepper or tomato, but not to a CMV strain from common bean. Of these eight CMV strains, only the strain from common bean systemically infected common bean cv. Othello. Additional evidence that RT4-4 is a CMV R gene came from the detection of resistance response markers in CMV-challenged leaves of RT4-4 transgenic plants, and the identification of the CMV 2a gene product as the elicitor of the necrosis response. These findings indicate that RT4-4 functions across two plant families and is up-regulated in a non-virus-specific manner. This experimental approach holds promise for providing insights into the mechanisms by which plants activate resistance responses against pathogens. PMID:16880399

  4. On the Relationship between Ribulose Diphosphate Carboxylase and Protochlorophyllide Holochrome of Phaseolus vulgaris Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Akoyunoglou, G.; Argyroudi-Akoyunoglou, J. H.; Guiali, A.; Dassiou, C.

    1970-01-01

    The relationship between ribulose diphosphate carboxylase (3-phospho-d-glycerate carboxy-lyase [dimerizing], EC 4.1.1.39, formerly known as carboxydismutase) and protochlorophyllide holochrome of etiolated Phaseolus vulgaris leaves has been studied. A procedure for partially selective extraction of the two proteins was devised using tris-HCl buffer first without and then with Triton X-100. Ribulose diphosphate carboxylase was readily extracted from etiolated bean leaves without Triton X-100, and protochlorophyllide holochrome was extracted on the addition of Triton X-100. Optimal extraction conditions for protochlorophyllide holochrome have been found to be different for tissues of different ages. PMID:5427114

  5. Optimisation of focused-microwave assisted digestion procedure for Kjeldahl nitrogen determination in bean samples by factorial design and Doehlert design.

    PubMed

    Korn, Maria das Graças A; Dos Santos, Wagna P C; Korn, Mauro; Ferreira, Sérgio L C

    2005-02-15

    In the present paper a focused-microwave Kjeldahl digestion procedure without metal catalyst for nitrogen determination in bean samples was developed. Temperature at which the decomposition plateau occurs, mass of potassium sulphate and either volume of sulphuric acid or hydrogen peroxide were optimised. Results of the two-level full factorial design (2(4)) based on an analysis of variance demonstrated that only the decomposition plateau temperature and the sulphuric acid volume were statistically significant. Optimal conditions for the digestion of bean samples were obtained by using Doehlert design. The modified digestion procedure of 0.25g of bean samples has been performed in 27min at optimised conditions. The accuracy of the developed procedure by the analysis of the two certified reference materials, peach leaves (NIST 1547) and apple leaves (NIST 1515). The t-test applied to the results revealed that they are in agreement (p > 0.05) with the certified values. The precision, expressed as relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) was of 0.96% for four successive Kjeldahl nitrogen determinations. In addition, interlaboratory exercises were performed with several bean samples in reference Brazilian food control laboratory.

  6. Complex toxic effects of Cd2+, Zn2+, and acid rain on growth of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L).

    PubMed

    Liao, Bo-han; Liu, Hong-yu; Zeng, Qing-ru; Yu, Ping-zhong; Probst, Anne; Probst, Jean-Luc

    2005-08-01

    Complex toxic effects of Cd2+, Zn2+, and acid rain on growth of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) were studied in a pot experiment by measurement of fresh weights of the plants, determination of surperoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and lipid peroxidation (MDA) in the plant organs, and observation of injury symptoms. The experimental results demonstrated that all treatments of Cd2+, Zn2+, and/or acid rain significantly decreased fresh weights of kidney bean and caused toxic effects on growth of the plants, especially higher amounts of Cd2+ and Zn2+ and higher acidity of acid rain. Combination of these three pollutant factors resulted in more serious toxic effects than any single pollutant and than combinations of any two pollutants. SOD, POD, and MDA in the plant organs changed with different pollution levels, but MDA content in the leaves showed the best relationship between the pollution levels and toxic effects.

  7. Clinical complications of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) consumption.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Verma, Alok Kumar; Das, Mukul; Jain, S K; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2013-06-01

    Kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), are common legumes, consumed worldwide. The delicacy of kidney beans is highly appreciable but, at the same time, their toxicity has raised an alarming concern. Kidney bean toxicity may be divided into two subcategories: toxicity caused by its lectins, saponins, phytates, and protease inhibitors or allergenicity induced by its allergenic proteins. The purpose of this review is to unravel the facts behind the different aspects of toxicity and allergenicity induced by kidney beans and try to fill the gaps that exist currently.

  8. Astronaut Alan Bean holds Special Environmental Sample Container

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-11-20

    AS12-49-7278 (19-20 Nov. 1969) --- Astronaut Alan L. Bean holds a Special Environmental Sample Container filled with lunar soil collected during the extravehicular activity (EVA) in which astronauts Charles Conrad Jr., commander, and Bean, lunar module pilot, participated. Conrad, who took this picture, is reflected in Bean's helmet visor. Conrad and Bean descended in the Apollo 12 Lunar Module (LM) to explore the lunar surface while astronaut Richard F. Gordon Jr., command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) in lunar orbit. Photo credit: NASA

  9. [The evaluation of thermophilic fungi in raw coffee beans].

    PubMed

    Falkowski, Joachim; Jakubowska, Barbara; Janda, Katarzyna

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the study was the attempt of the isolation of the thermophilic fungi from raw coffee beans. The material constituted of 24 coffee beans samples came from 12 countries. The isolation and the identification of the thermophilic fungi was conducted according to Biłaj [2], Biłaj and Zacharczenko [3]. The study proved, that raw coffee beans were the rich source of the thermophilic mycoflora. From all tested samples 270 species were isolated. The most refused sample came from Ecuador--81% coffee beans were infected. The most of species (90% from among isolated) were species belonged to the Thermomyces lanuginosus.

  10. Responses of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing common bean to aluminum toxicity and delineation of nodule responsive microRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza-Soto, Ana B.; Naya, Loreto; Leija, Alfonso; Hernández, Georgina

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is widespread in acidic soils where the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), the most important legume for human consumption, is produced and it is a limiting factor for crop production and symbiotic nitrogen fixation. We characterized the nodule responses of common bean plants inoculated with Rhizobioum tropici CIAT899 and the root responses of nitrate-fertilized plants exposed to excess Al in low pH, for long or short periods. A 43–50% reduction in nitrogenase activity indicates that Al toxicity (Alt) highly affected nitrogen fixation in common bean. Bean roots and nodules showed characteristic symptoms for Alt. In mature nodules Al accumulation and lipoperoxidation were observed in the infected zone, while callose deposition and cell death occurred mainly in the nodule cortex. Regulatory mechanisms of plant responses to metal toxicity involve microRNAs (miRNAs) along other regulators. Using a miRNA-macroarray hybridization approach we identified 28 (14 up-regulated) Alt nodule-responsive miRNAs. We validated (quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR) the expression of eight nodule responsive miRNAs in roots and in nodules exposed to high Al for long or short periods. The inverse correlation between the target and miRNA expression ratio (stress:control) was observed in every case. Generally, miRNAs showed a higher earlier response in roots than in nodules. Some of the common bean Alt-responsive miRNAs identified has also been reported as differentially expressed in other plant species subjected to similar stress condition. miRNA/target nodes analyzed in this work are known to be involved in relevant signaling pathways, thus we propose that the participation of miR164/NAC1 (NAM/ATAF/CUC transcription factor) and miR393/TIR1 (TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE 1-like protein) in auxin and of miR170/SCL (SCARECROW-like protein transcription factor) in gibberellin signaling is relevant for common bean response/adaptation to Al stress. Our data provide a

  11. Responses of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing common bean to aluminum toxicity and delineation of nodule responsive microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Soto, Ana B; Naya, Loreto; Leija, Alfonso; Hernández, Georgina

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is widespread in acidic soils where the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), the most important legume for human consumption, is produced and it is a limiting factor for crop production and symbiotic nitrogen fixation. We characterized the nodule responses of common bean plants inoculated with Rhizobioum tropici CIAT899 and the root responses of nitrate-fertilized plants exposed to excess Al in low pH, for long or short periods. A 43-50% reduction in nitrogenase activity indicates that Al toxicity (Alt) highly affected nitrogen fixation in common bean. Bean roots and nodules showed characteristic symptoms for Alt. In mature nodules Al accumulation and lipoperoxidation were observed in the infected zone, while callose deposition and cell death occurred mainly in the nodule cortex. Regulatory mechanisms of plant responses to metal toxicity involve microRNAs (miRNAs) along other regulators. Using a miRNA-macroarray hybridization approach we identified 28 (14 up-regulated) Alt nodule-responsive miRNAs. We validated (quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR) the expression of eight nodule responsive miRNAs in roots and in nodules exposed to high Al for long or short periods. The inverse correlation between the target and miRNA expression ratio (stress:control) was observed in every case. Generally, miRNAs showed a higher earlier response in roots than in nodules. Some of the common bean Alt-responsive miRNAs identified has also been reported as differentially expressed in other plant species subjected to similar stress condition. miRNA/target nodes analyzed in this work are known to be involved in relevant signaling pathways, thus we propose that the participation of miR164/NAC1 (NAM/ATAF/CUC transcription factor) and miR393/TIR1 (TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE 1-like protein) in auxin and of miR170/SCL (SCARECROW-like protein transcription factor) in gibberellin signaling is relevant for common bean response/adaptation to Al stress. Our data provide a

  12. Nucleotide sequence of the bean strain of southern bean mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Othman, Y; Hull, R

    1995-01-10

    The genome of the bean strain of southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV-B) comprises 4109 nucleotides and thus is slightly shorter than those of the two other sequenced sobemoviruses (southern bean mosaic virus, cowpea strain (SBMV-C) and rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV)). SBMV-B has an overall sequence similarity with SBMV-C of 55% and with RYMV of 45%. Three potential open reading frames (ORFs) were recognized in SBMV-B which were in similar positions in the genomes of SBMV-C and RYMV. However, there was no analog of SBMV-C and RYMV ORF 3. From a comparison of the predicted sequences of the ORFs of these three sobemoviruses and of the noncoding regions, it is suggested that the two SBMV strains differ from one another as much as they do from RYMV and that they should be considered as different viruses.

  13. Genetic control of inflorescence in common bean.

    PubMed

    Guilherme, S R; Ramalho, M A P; de F B Abreu, A; Pereira, L A

    2014-12-04

    The number of pods per common bean plant is a primary component of grain yield, which depends on the number of flowers produced and on the flower set. Thus, a larger number of flowers per plant would increase yield. Lines with inflorescences that had a large number of flowers compared to common bean plants now under cultivation were identified. We analyzed the genetic control of this trait and its association with grain yield. The cultivar BRSMG Talismã was crossed with 2 lines, L.59583 and L.59692, which have a large number of flowers. The F1, F2, and F3 generations were obtained. These generations were assessed together with the parents in a randomized block experimental design with 2 replications. The traits assessed included length of inflorescence, number of pods per inflorescence, number of pods per plant, number of grains per plant, 100-grain weight, and grain yield per plant. Mean genetic components and variance were estimated. The traits length of inflorescence and number of pods per inflorescence exhibited genetic control with predominance that showed an additive effect. In the 2 crosses, genetic control of grain yield and of its primary components showed that the allelic interaction of dominance was high. The wide variability in the traits assessed may be used to increase yield of the common bean plant by increasing the number of flowers on the plant.

  14. Physiological and biochemical mechanisms of spermine-induced cadmium stress tolerance in mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Kamrun; Rahman, Motiar; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Alam, Md Mahabub; Rahman, Anisur; Suzuki, Toshisada; Fujita, Masayuki

    2016-11-01

    The role of exogenous spermine (0.25 mM Spm, a type of polyamine (PA) in reducing Cd uptake and alleviating Cd toxicity (containing 1 and 1.5 mM CdCl2 in the growing media) effects was studied in the mung bean (Vigna radiata L. cv. BARI Mung-2) plant. Exogenously applied Spm reduced Cd content, accumulation, and translocation in different plant parts. Increasing phytochelatin content, exogenous Spm reduced Cd accumulation and translocation. Spm application reduced the Cd-induced oxidative damage which was reflected from the reduction of H2O2 content, O2(•-) generation rate, lipoxygenase (LOX) activity, and lipid peroxidation level and also reflected from the reduction of spots of H2O2 and O2(•-) from mung bean leaves (compared to control treatment). Spm pretreatment increased non-enzymatic antioxidant contents (ascorbate, AsA, and glutathione, GSH) and activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), and glutathione reductase (GR) which reduced oxidative stress. The cytotoxicity of methylglyoxal (MG) is also reduced by exogenous Spm because it enhanced glyoxalase system enzymes and components. Through osmoregulation, Spm maintained a better water status of Cd-affected mung bean seedlings. Spm prevented the chl damage and increased its content. Exogenous Spm also modulated the endogenous free PAs level which might have the roles in improving physiological processes including antioxidant capacity, osmoregulation, and Cd and MG detoxification capacity. The overall Spm-induced tolerance of mung bean seedlings to Cd toxicity was reflected through improved growth of mung bean seedlings.

  15. Endophytic Bacteria Isolated from Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Exhibiting High Variability Showed Antimicrobial Activity and Quorum Sensing Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Ralf Bruno Moura; Costa, Leonardo Emanuel de Oliveira; Vanetti, Maria Cristina Dantas; de Araújo, Elza Fernandes; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira

    2015-10-01

    Endophytic bacteria play a key role in the biocontrol of phytopathogenic microorganisms. In this study, genotypic diversity was analyzed via repetitive element PCR (rep-PCR) of endophytic isolates of the phylum Actinobacteria that were previously collected from leaves of cultivars of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Considerable variability was observed, which has not been reported previously for this phylum of endophytic bacteria of the common bean. Furthermore, the ethanol extracts from cultures of various isolates inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria in vitro, especially Gram-positive pathogens. Extracts from cultures of Microbacterium testaceum BAC1065 and BAC1093, which were both isolated from the 'Talismã' cultivar, strongly inhibited most of the pathogenic bacteria tested. Bean endophytic bacteria were also demonstrated to have the potential to inhibit the quorum sensing of Gram-negative bacteria. This mechanism may regulate the production of virulence factors in pathogens. The ability to inhibit quorum sensing has also not been reported previously for endophytic microorganisms of P. vulgaris. Furthermore, M. testaceum with capacity to inhibit quorum sensing appears to be widespread in common bean. The genomic profiles of M. testaceum were also analyzed via pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and greater differentiation was observed using this method than rep-PCR; in general, no groups were formed based on the cultivar of origin. This study showed for the first time that endophytic bacteria from common bean plants exhibit high variability and may be useful for the development of strategies for the biological control of diseases in this important legume plant.

  16. Bioactive and nutritive compounds in Sorghum bicolor (Guinea corn) red leaves and their health implication.

    PubMed

    Abugri, D A; Tiimob, B J; Apalangya, V A; Pritchett, G; McElhenney, W H

    2013-05-01

    Sorghum bicolor L. Moench (Naga Red) red leaves is an ingredient used in rice and beans that is known as "waakye" in the Hausa language in some African countries. Little is known about its benefits aside from its colourant properties. We studied its bioactive, nutritive compounds and the effectiveness of four organic solvents (methanol, ethanol, acetone and diethyl ether) in isolation of these compounds to gain information regarding its health benefits to consumers. Of the compounds evaluated, the leaves consisted primarily of carotenoids, flavonoids and phenolic acids with small amounts of chlorophyll (a and b), lycopene and β-carotene. The fatty acid profiles of the leaves revealed palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acid as predominant with each having greater than 5% of the total fatty acid identified. The nutritional implication of these findings is that the consumption of diets prepared with the leaves provides natural antioxidant and essential fatty acids that could fight cardiovascular related diseases.

  17. Novel vitamin E forms in leaves of Kalanchoe daigremontiana and Phaseolus coccineus.

    PubMed

    Kruk, Jerzy; Pisarski, Adam; Szymańska, Renata

    2011-11-15

    In the present study, we isolated novel tocochromanols from green leaves of Kalanchoe daigremontiana and primary leaves of etiolated seedlings of Phaseolus coccineus that were identified as β-, γ-, and δ-tocomonoenols with unsaturation at the terminal isoprene unit of the side chain. The content of γ-tocomonoenol in leaves of etiolated bean increased gradually with the age of seedlings, reaching 50% of the γ-tocopherol level in 40-day-old plants. The content of this compound in leaves was increased by short illumination of etiolated plants and by addition of homogentisic acid, a biosynthetic precursor of tocopherols. These data indicated that γ-tocomonoenol is synthesized de novo from homogentisic acid and tetrahydro-geranylgeraniol diphosphate, a phytol precursor. Based on these results, a biosynthetic pathway of tocomonoenols is proposed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Growth and lignification in seedlings exposed to eight days of microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowles, J. R.; Scheld, H. W.; Lemay, R.; Peterson, C.

    1984-01-01

    Four-day-old pine seedlings and mung bean and oat seeds were prepared for flight on the third Space Transport System Mission (STS-3). The seedlings and seeds were planted in six mini-growth chambers (two chambers per species) which were placed in a plant growth unit (PGU). Another set of seedlings and seeds was prepared and placed in another PGU as the 1 g control. The flight PGU was positioned in the orbiter mid-deck locker area about 11 h prior to launch. The pine seedlings and germinating mung bean and oat seeds were exposed to 194 h of microgravity. The PGU was received at a temporary laboratory about 75 min post-landing. Plants were observed, photographed and the atmospheric gases analyzed at the landing site. The plants were then brought to our Houston laboratory where they were measured and analyzed for lignin and protein content and for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and peroxidase activities. Flight seedlings were shorter than the controls in all three species. Twenty-five to 40 per cent of the mung bean and oat roots were growing upward, and the mung beans showed signs of disorientation. Flight mung beans showed a significant reduction in lignin content in comparison to the controls, and PAL and peroxidase activities were reduced in flight pine seedlings. The results generally support the postulate that lignin synthesis is reduced in near-weightlessness and show other interesting findings.

  19. Growth and lignification in seedlings exposed to eight days of microgravity.

    PubMed

    Cowles, J R; Scheld, H W; Lemay, R; Peterson, C

    1984-01-01

    Four-day-old pine seedlings and mung bean and oat seeds were prepared for flight on the third Space Transport System Mission (STS-3). The seedlings and seeds were planted in six mini-growth chambers (two chambers per species) which were placed in a plant growth unit (PGU). Another set of seedlings and seeds was prepared and placed in another PGU as the 1 g control. The flight PGU was positioned in the orbiter mid-deck locker area about 11 h prior to launch. The pine seedlings and germinating mung bean and oat seeds were exposed to 194 h of microgravity. The PGU was received at a temporary laboratory about 75 min post-landing. Plants were observed, photographed and the atmospheric gases analyzed at the landing site. The plants were then brought to our Houston laboratory where they were measured and analyzed for lignin and protein content and for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and peroxidase activities. Flight seedlings were shorter than the controls in all three species. Twenty-five to 40 per cent of the mung bean and oat roots were growing upward, and the mung beans showed signs of disorientation. Flight mung beans showed a significant reduction in lignin content in comparison to the controls, and PAL and peroxidase activities were reduced in flight pine seedlings. The results generally support the postulate that lignin synthesis is reduced in near-weightlessness and show other interesting findings.

  20. Pretreatment of African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa): effect of soaking and blanching on the quality of African yam bean seed.

    PubMed

    Aminigo, Ebiokpo R; Metzger, Lloyd E

    2005-12-01

    The effect of pretreatment (soaking in sodium salts and blanching) on hydration coefficient (HC), chemical composition, texture, and color of African yam bean (AYB) was investigated. Soaking in water and in salt solutions increased the HC and about 90% of final HC values were attained at 12 and 4 hr of soaking for whole and dehulled beans, respectively. Protein content was slightly increased by soaking and blanching while ash and fat contents were reduced. Generally, a combination of dehulling and wet-processing reduced firmness of the beans more than soaking or blanching of the whole beans. Antioxidant activity was lowest (3260 TE(3)100 g) in cream-colored beans and highest (16,600 TE/100 g) in brown-colored beans. The tannin contents of unprocessed cream-colored beans and dehulled wet-processed marble variety were not significantly different (p > 0.05). The levels of tannins in the marble variety were reduced by blanching for 40 min (19.2%), soaking for 12 hr (16.0%), dehulling (72.0%), dehulling and blanching (88.8%). The whiteness of bean flours was increased significantly by dehulling, slightly by wet-processing of marble variety, and reduced significantly by wet-processing of cream-colored beans.

  1. Aerosol deposition on plant leaves

    Treesearch

    James B. Wedding; Roger W. Carlson; James J. Stukel; Fakhri A. Bazzaz

    1976-01-01

    An aerosol generator and wind tunnel system designed for use in aerosol deposition is described. Gross deposition on rough pubescent leaves was nearly 7 times greater than on smooth, waxy leaves. Results suggest that aerosol deposition, on a per unit area basis, for single horizontal streamlining leaves is similar to that for arrays of leaves under similar flow...

  2. Evaluation of beneficial use of wood-fired boiler ash on oat and bean growth

    SciTech Connect

    Krejsl, J.A.; Scanlon, T.M.

    1996-09-01

    An evaluation on the effects of pulp and paper mill combined boiler ashes on growth and nutrient uptake by oat (Avena sativa L., var. 501) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. blue pole) was conducted in a greenhouse. Ash with a calcium carbonate equivalent of 29.1% and a pH of 12.1 was applied at the rates 30, 40, and 50 dry Mg ha{sup -1} to Chehalis silty clay loam (fine-silty, mixed, mesic Cumulic Ultic Haploxerolls), with pH 5.4. An agricultural dolomitic lime treatment of 7.4 Mg ha{sup -1} and a nonamended control were also included. Plants grown on ash-amended soil had higher biomass compared to plants grown on lime and control treatments. Ash treatments 30, 40, and 50 dry Mg ha{sup -1} increased the bean (stems and leaves) dry matter (DM) yield over the control by 49, 57, and 64%, respectively. The lime treatment increased the bean DM yield by 31% compared with the control. The ash rate 30 dry Mg ha{sup -1}, equivalent to the recommended agronomic lime rate 7.4 Mg ha{sup -1}, increased oat (shoots) DM yields over the control by 45%, while the lime treatment increased biomass by 8% over control. The highest ash treatment, 50 Mg ha{sup -1}, produced the lowest oat biomass. The ash was as effective as dolomitic lime in raising soil pH. Ash-amended soils contained higher concentrations of P, S, and B for plant growth compared to lime and nonamended soils. Soil Zn, Fe, mn, and Cu concentrations decreased as ash application rates increased. Oat and bean plants grown in the ash-amended soil had increased concentrations of K, S, and B and decreased concentrations of Mn and Cu compared with plants grown in the nonamended control soil. Overall, oat and bean benefited from the increased nutrient availability and soil pH caused by the application of boiler ash. 20 refs., 6 tabs.

  3. The effect of lactic acid bacteria on cocoa bean fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2015-07-16

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) are the raw material for chocolate production. Fermentation of cocoa pulp by microorganisms is crucial for developing chocolate flavor precursors. Yeasts conduct an alcoholic fermentation within the bean pulp that is essential for the production of good quality beans, giving typical chocolate characters. However, the roles of bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria in contributing to the quality of cocoa bean and chocolate are not fully understood. Using controlled laboratory fermentations, this study investigated the contribution of lactic acid bacteria to cocoa bean fermentation. Cocoa beans were fermented under conditions where the growth of lactic acid bacteria was restricted by the use of nisin and lysozyme. The resultant microbial ecology, chemistry and chocolate quality of beans from these fermentations were compared with those of indigenous (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii, Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in control fermentations. In fermentations with the presence of nisin and lysozyme, the same species of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria grew but the growth of lactic acid bacteria was prevented or restricted. These beans underwent characteristic alcoholic fermentation where the utilization of sugars and the production of ethanol, organic acids and volatile compounds in the bean pulp and nibs were similar for beans fermented in the presence of lactic acid bacteria. Lactic acid was produced during both fermentations but more so when lactic acid bacteria grew. Beans fermented in the presence or absence of lactic acid bacteria were fully fermented, had similar shell weights and gave acceptable chocolates with no differences

  4. Interactions involving ozone, Botrytis cinerea, and B. squamosa on onion leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Rist, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    Interactions involving Botrytis cinerea Pers., B. squamosa Walker, and ozone on onion (alium cepae L.) were investigated. Initially, threshold dosages of ozone required to predispose onion leaves to greater infection by B. cinerea and B. squamosa were determined under controlled conditions in an ozone-exposure chamber. Subsequent experiments supported the hypothesis that nutrients leaking out of ozone-injured cells stimulated lesion production by B. cinerea. The electrical conductivity of, and carbohydrate concentration in, dew collected from leaves of onion plants which had been exposed to ozone were greater than the electrical conductivity of, and carbohydrate concentration in, dew collected from leaves of other, non-exposed onion plants. When conidia of B. cinerea were suspended in dew collected from leaves of plants which had been exposed to ozone and the resulting suspension atomized onto leaves of non-exposed plants, more lesions were induced than on leaves of other non-exposed plants inoculated with conidia suspended in dew collected from plants which had not been exposed to ozone. EDU protected onion leaves from ozone-induced predisposition to these fungi under controlled conditions. Experiments designed to detect interaction between B. cinerea and B. squamosa in onion leaf blighting indicated that such interaction did not occur. Leaves were blighted rapidly when inoculated with B. squamosa whether B. cinerea was present or absent.

  5. Quantification of the In Vitro Radiosensitivity of Mung Bean Sprout Elongation to 6MV X-Ray: A Revised Target Model Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tzu Hwei; Kittipayak, Samrit; Lin, Yu Ting; Lin, Cheng Hsun; Pan, Lung Kwang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a revised target model for quantifying the in vitro radiosensitivity of mung bean sprout elongation to 6-MV X-rays was developed. The revised target model, which incorporated the Poisson prediction for a low probability of success, provided theoretical estimates that were highly consistent with the actual data measured in this study. The revised target model correlated different in vitro radiosensitivities to various effective target volumes and was successfully confirmed by exposing mung beans in various elongation states to various doses of 6-MV X-rays. For the experiment, 5,000 fresh mung beans were randomly distributed into 100 petri dishes, which were randomly divided into ten groups. Each group received an initial watering at a different time point prior to X-ray exposure, resulting in different effective target volumes. The bean sprouts were measured 70 hr after X-ray exposure, and the average length of the bean sprouts in each group was recorded as an index of the mung bean in vitro radiosensitivity. Mung beans that received an initial watering either six or sixteen hours before X-ray exposure had the shortest sprout length, indicating that the maximum effective target volume was formed within that specific time period. The revised target model could be also expanded to interpret the "two-hit" model of target theory, although the experimental data supported the "one-hit" model. If the "two-hit" model was sustained, theoretically, the target size would be 2.14 times larger than its original size to produce the same results.

  6. Quantification of the In Vitro Radiosensitivity of Mung Bean Sprout Elongation to 6MV X-Ray: A Revised Target Model Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tzu Hwei; Kittipayak, Samrit; Lin, Yu Ting; Lin, Cheng Hsun; Pan, Lung Kwang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a revised target model for quantifying the in vitro radiosensitivity of mung bean sprout elongation to 6-MV X-rays was developed. The revised target model, which incorporated the Poisson prediction for a low probability of success, provided theoretical estimates that were highly consistent with the actual data measured in this study. The revised target model correlated different in vitro radiosensitivities to various effective target volumes and was successfully confirmed by exposing mung beans in various elongation states to various doses of 6-MV X-rays. For the experiment, 5,000 fresh mung beans were randomly distributed into 100 petri dishes, which were randomly divided into ten groups. Each group received an initial watering at a different time point prior to X-ray exposure, resulting in different effective target volumes. The bean sprouts were measured 70 hr after X-ray exposure, and the average length of the bean sprouts in each group was recorded as an index of the mung bean in vitro radiosensitivity. Mung beans that received an initial watering either six or sixteen hours before X-ray exposure had the shortest sprout length, indicating that the maximum effective target volume was formed within that specific time period. The revised target model could be also expanded to interpret the “two-hit” model of target theory, although the experimental data supported the “one-hit” model. If the “two-hit” model was sustained, theoretically, the target size would be 2.14 times larger than its original size to produce the same results. PMID:26053016

  7. Leaves: Nature's Solar Collectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isabelle, Aaron D.; de Groot, Cornelis

    2009-01-01

    One of the most captivating things about plants is the way they capture the Sun's energy, but this can be a difficult topic to cover with elementary students. Therefore, to help students to make a concrete connection to this abstract concept, this series of solar-energy lessons focuses on leaves and how they act as "solar collectors." As students…

  8. Leaves: Nature's Solar Collectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isabelle, Aaron D.; de Groot, Cornelis

    2009-01-01

    One of the most captivating things about plants is the way they capture the Sun's energy, but this can be a difficult topic to cover with elementary students. Therefore, to help students to make a concrete connection to this abstract concept, this series of solar-energy lessons focuses on leaves and how they act as "solar collectors." As students…

  9. Maternity Leave in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

    2010-01-01

    Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk…

  10. Identifying Early School Leaving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Millicent E.

    1978-01-01

    Using a matched sample of students who stay in school and those who drop out, or leave early, an attempt was made, via multiple discriminant analysis, to identify the significant characteristics which distinguish "drop outs" from their peers who remain at school. Results indicated that both types of students have similar value orientations and…

  11. Maternity Leave in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

    2010-07-01

    Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk versus formula. We found that the time when mothers returned to work coincided with the duration of guaranteed leave. In particular, mothers with a labor pension plan resumed work significantly earlier than mothers with no pension plan, and mothers with no pension plan returned to work significantly later than those with pension plans. The short leave of absence guaranteed under existing policies translated into mothers spending less time with their children and being more likely to exclusively use formula by 6 months after birth. In contrast, mothers who resumed work later than 6 months after birth were more likely to have not worked before birth or to have quit their jobs during pregnancy. Implications and recommendations for parental leave policy in Taiwan are discussed.

  12. Maternity Leave in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

    2010-01-01

    Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk…

  13. Maternity Leave in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

    2011-01-01

    Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk versus formula. We found that the time when mothers returned to work coincided with the duration of guaranteed leave. In particular, mothers with a labor pension plan resumed work significantly earlier than mothers with no pension plan, and mothers with no pension plan returned to work significantly later than those with pension plans. The short leave of absence guaranteed under existing policies translated into mothers spending less time with their children and being more likely to exclusively use formula by 6 months after birth. In contrast, mothers who resumed work later than 6 months after birth were more likely to have not worked before birth or to have quit their jobs during pregnancy. Implications and recommendations for parental leave policy in Taiwan are discussed. PMID:21603074

  14. Salmonella internalization in mung bean sprouts and pre- and postharvest intervention methods in a hydroponic system.

    PubMed

    Ge, Chongtao; Rymut, Susan; Lee, Cheonghoon; Lee, Jiyoung

    2014-05-01

    Mung bean sprouts, typically consumed raw or minimally cooked, are often contaminated with pathogens. Internalized pathogens pose a high risk because conventional sanitization methods are ineffective for their inactivation. The studies were performed (i) to understand the potential of internalization of Salmonella in mung bean sprouts under conditions where the irrigation water was contaminated and (ii) to determine if pre- and postharvest intervention methods are effective in inactivating the internalized pathogen. Mung bean sprouts were grown hydroponically and exposed to green fluorescence protein-tagged Salmonella Typhimurium through maturity. One experimental set received contaminated water daily, while other sets received contaminated water on a single day at different times. For preharvest intervention, irrigation water was exposed to UV, and for postharvest intervention-contaminated sprouts were subjected to a chlorine wash and UV light. Harvested samples were disinfected with ethanol and AgNO3 to differentiate surface-associate pathogens from the internalized ones. The internalized Salmonella Typhimurium in each set was quantified using the plate count method. Internalized Salmonella Typhimurium was detected at levels of 2.0 to 5.1 log CFU/g under all conditions. Continuous exposure to contaminated water during the entire period generated significantly higher levels of Salmonella Typhimurium internalization than sets receiving contaminated water for only a single day (P < 0.05). Preintervention methods lowered the level of internalized Salmonella by 1.84 log CFU/g (P < 0.05), whereas postintervention methods were ineffective in eliminating internalized pathogens. Preintervention did not completely inactivate bacteria in sprouts and demonstrated that the remaining Salmonella Typhimurium in water became more resistant to UV. Because postharvest intervention methods are ineffective, proper procedures for maintaining clean irrigation water must be followed

  15. Behavior of pesticides in coffee beans during the roasting process.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Katsushi; Nishizawa, Hideo; Manabe, Noboru

    2012-01-01

    In Japan, maximum residue limits for pesticides (MRL) in coffee are set on green coffee beans, but not roasted coffee beans, although roasted beans are actually used to prepare coffee for drinking. Little is known about the behavior of pesticides during the roasting process. In the present study, we examined the changes in the concentration of pesticide (organochlorine: γ-BHC, chlordane and heptachlor) residues in coffee beans during the roasting process. We prepared green coffee beans spiked with these pesticides (0.2 and 1.0 μg/g), and the residue levels in the beans were measured before and after the roasting process. We determined the residual rate after the roasting process. γ-BHC was not detectable at all, and more than 90% of chlordane was lost after the roasting (3.1 and 5.1% of chlordane remained in the beans spiked with 0.2 and 1.0 μg/g of chlordane, respectively). A low level of heptachlor (0.72%) was left in the coffee beans spiked with 1 μg/g of heptachlor. Disappearance of γ-BHC during the roasting process may be due to the high vapor pressure of γ-BHC, while chlordane has a lower vapor pressure. We also examined the behavior of piperonyl butoxide and atrazine during the roasting process. Piperonyl butoxide behaved similarly to chlordane, but atrazine disappeared after the roasting process, because it is unstable to heat.

  16. 40. Coffee bean drying trays that are stored in racks ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. Coffee bean drying trays that are stored in racks under building and pulled out to sun dry beans on terraces to the north and south of building. HAER PR, 6-MAGU, 1C-3 - Hacienda Buena Vista, PR Route 10 (Ponce to Arecibo), Magueyes, Ponce Municipio, PR

  17. Astronaut Alan Bean with subpackages of the ALSEP during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot, traverses with the two subpackages of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) during the first Apollo 12 extravehicular activity (EVA). Bean deployed the ALSEP components 300 feet from the Lunar Module (LM). The LM and deployed erectable S-band antenna can be seen in the background.

  18. Astronaut Alan Bean holds Special Environmental Sample Container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot for the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission, holds a Special Environmental Sample Container filled with lunar soil collected during the extravehicular activity (EVA) in which Astronauts Charles Conrad Jr., commander, and Bean participated. Connrad, who took this picture, is reflected in the helmet visor of the lunar module pilot.

  19. Antioxidant activity of black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein hydrolysates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of enzymatic hydrolysis of black bean protein concentrate using different enzymes. Bean proteins were extracted and hydrolyzed over a period of 120 min using the enzymes pepsin or alcalase. The protein hydrolysates’ molecular weight was assayed by e...

  20. Astronaut Owen Garriott trims hair of Astronaut Alan Bean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Owen K. Garriott, Skylab 3 science pilot, trims the hair of Astronaut Alan L. Bean, commander, in this on-board photograph from the Skylab Orbital Workshop (OWS). Bean holds a vacuum hose to gather in loose hair.

  1. Registration of ‘Long’s Peak’ Pinto Bean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Methods to harvest dry edible bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) have changed dramatically in the past 20 years to accommodate direct harvest systems that eliminate the need to undercut and windrow the crop before it can be threshed. Direct harvest systems cut the bean plant with a sickle bar on the comb...

  2. Root rots of common and tepary beans in Puerto Rico

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Root rots are a disease complex affecting common bean and can be severe in bean growing areas in the tropics and subtropics. The presence of several pathogens makes it difficult to breed for resistance because of the synergistic effect of the pathogens in the host and the interaction of soil factors...

  3. Variability for Biological Nitrogen Fixation Capacity in Beans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As legumes, common beans have the capacity to form a symbiotic relationship with soil bacteria called rhizobia and fix nitrogen from the atmosphere. Common beans however are considered to be poor nitrogen fixers as compared to other legumes. Identification of genetic variability for N fixation capac...

  4. Potato Bean: Potential Forage/Dietary Supplement for Small Ruminants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Potato bean (Apios americana Medikus) is a nitrogen-fixing, perennial, leguminous vine indigenous to the eastern half of the United States. This vine climbs on plants and objects making its foliage accessible to browsing animals. We have observed deer eating potato bean foliage. Both deer and goa...

  5. [Method of isolating isoflavone aglycones from soya beans].

    PubMed

    Levyts'kyĭ, A P; Bohatov, V V

    2002-01-01

    The method of isolating isoflavone aglycones from soya beans has been proposed. The procedure includes the extraction by hot water, glycosides oxidative hydrolysis, aglycones extracting by ethyl acetate and removing the lipophilic substances by means of hexanic extraction. The aglycones outcome is not less than 80%. The preparation obtained contains over 50% of soya bean aglycones.

  6. Ochratoxin A-producing Aspergilli in Vietnamese green coffee beans.

    PubMed

    Leong, S L; Hien, L T; An, T V; Trang, N T; Hocking, A D; Scott, E S

    2007-09-01

    To determine the incidence and severity of infection by ochratoxin A (OA)-producing fungi in Vietnamese green coffee beans. Aspergillus carbonarius, A. niger and yellow Aspergilli (A. ochraceus and related species in section Circumdati) were isolated by direct plating of surface-disinfected Robusta (65 samples) and Arabica (11 samples) coffee beans from southern and central Vietnam. Significantly, more Robusta than Arabica beans were infected by fungi. Aspergillus niger infected 89% of Robusta beans, whereas A. carbonarius and yellow Aspergilli each infected 12-14% of beans. OA was not produced by A. niger (98 isolates) or A. ochraceus (77 isolates), but was detected in 110 of 113 isolates of A. carbonarius, 10 isolates of A. westerdijkiae and one isolate of A. steynii. The maximum OA observed in samples severely infected with toxigenic species was 1.8 microg kg(-1); however, no relationship between extent of infection and OA contamination was observed. Aspergillus niger is the dominant species infecting Vietnamese coffee beans, yet A. carbonarius is the likely source of OA contamination. Vietnamese green coffee beans were more severely infected with fungi than the levels reported for beans from other parts of the world, yet OA contamination appears to be infrequent.

  7. Bean pod mottle virus movement in insect feeding resistant soybeans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) impacts yield and seed quality. BPMV is vectored primarily by the bean leaf beetle (Cerotoma trifurcata) in Ohio. A 2-year experiment was carried out at two locations in Ohio to determine if resistance to insect feeding reduces disease incidence and spread in soybeans....

  8. Astronaut Alan Bean holds Special Environmental Sample Container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot for the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission, holds a Special Environmental Sample Container filled with lunar soil collected during the extravehicular activity (EVA) in which Astronauts Charles Conrad Jr., commander, and Bean participated. Connrad, who took this picture, is reflected in the helmet visor of the lunar module pilot.

  9. Astronaut Owen Garriott trims hair of Astronaut Alan Bean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Owen K. Garriott, Skylab 3 science pilot, trims the hair of Astronaut Alan L. Bean, commander, in this on-board photograph from the Skylab Orbital Workshop (OWS). Bean holds a vacuum hose to gather in loose hair.

  10. Registration of ‘Snowdon’ White Kidney Bean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ‘Snowdon’ white kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (Reg. no. CV- , PI __), developed by Michigan State University AgBioResearch was released in 2012 as an early-mid season, disease-resistant, bush bean cultivar. Snowdon was developed using pedigree breeding method to the F4 generation followed ...

  11. Advances in the improvement of tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Climate change, high temperature and drought are increasingly critical factors affecting agriculture and specifically the production of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray), native to the Sonora desert located in the northern part of Mexico and southwest o...

  12. Evaluation of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) response to charcoal rot

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Charcoal rot in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), caused by Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Gold. (Mph), is an endemic disease in the prevailing hot and dry conditions in southern Puerto Rico. This study evaluated the 120 bean genotypes that compose the BASE 120 panel under screenhouse conditio...

  13. Selection of common bean to broad environmental adaptation in Haiti

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars in Haiti need adaptation to a broad range of environments and resistance to the most important diseases such as Bean Golden Yellow Mosaic Virus. The Legume Breeding Program (LBP), a collaborative effort of the AREA project (USAID funded through IFAS/Univ...

  14. The polyphenolic profiles of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Long-Ze; Harnly, James M.; Pastor-Corrales, Marcial S.; Luthria, Devanand L.

    2013-01-01

    Based on the phenolic profiles obtained by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS), 24 common bean samples, representing 17 varieties and 7 generic off-the-shelf items, belonging to ten US commercial market classes can be organized into six different groups. All of them contained the same hydroxycinnaminic acids, but the flavonoid components showed distinct differences. Black beans contained primarily the 3-O-glucosides of delphinidin, petunidin and malvidin, while pinto beans contained kaempferol and its 3-O-glycosides. Light red kidney bean contained traces of quercetin 3-O-glucoside and its malonates, but pink and dark red kidney beans contained the diglycosides of quercetin and kaempferol. Small red beans contained kaempferol 3-O-glucoside and pelargonidin 3-O-glucoside, while no flavonoids were detected in alubia, cranberry, great northern, and navy beans. This is the first report of the tentative identification of quercetin 3-O-pentosylhexoside and flavonoid glucoside malonates, and the first detailed detection of hydroxycinnamates, in common beans. PMID:25544796

  15. The Genetics of Domestication of the Azuki Bean (Vigna angularis)

    PubMed Central

    Kaga, Akito; Isemura, Takehisa; Tomooka, Norihiko; Vaughan, Duncan A.

    2008-01-01

    Genetic differences between azuki bean (Vigna angularis var. angularis) and its presumed wild ancestor (V. angularis var. nipponensis) were resolved into QTL for traits associated with adaptation to their respective distinct habits. A genetic linkage map constructed using progenies from a cross between Japanese cultivated and wild azuki beans covers 92.8% of the standard azuki bean linkage map. A reciprocal translocation between cultivated and wild azuki bean parents was identified on the basis of the linkage map having a pseudolinkage group and clustering of seed productivity-related QTL with large effect near the presumed breakpoints. In total, 162 QTL were identified for 46 domestication-related traits. Domestication of azuki bean has involved a trade-off between seed number and seed size: fewer but longer pods and fewer but larger seeds on plants with shorter stature in cultivated azuki bean being at the expense of overall seed yield. Genes found related to germination and flowering time in cultivated azuki bean may confer a selective advantage to the hybrid derivatives under some ecological conditions and may explain why azuki bean has evolved as a crop complex in Japan. PMID:18245368

  16. Diversity for cooking time in Andean dry beans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L) are a nutrient dense, low cost food and therefore are an excellent value for consumers (Drewnowski and Rehm, 2013). In spite of this value, long cooking times limit bean consumption. This is true in developing countries where cooking fuel is sometimes scarce and in d...

  17. The polyphenolic profiles of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Lin, Long-Ze; Harnly, James M; Pastor-Corrales, Marcial S; Luthria, Devanand L

    2008-03-01

    Based on the phenolic profiles obtained by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS), 24 common bean samples, representing 17 varieties and 7 generic off-the-shelf items, belonging to ten US commercial market classes can be organized into six different groups. All of them contained the same hydroxycinnaminic acids, but the flavonoid components showed distinct differences. Black beans contained primarily the 3-O-glucosides of delphinidin, petunidin and malvidin, while pinto beans contained kaempferol and its 3-O-glycosides. Light red kidney bean contained traces of quercetin 3-O-glucoside and its malonates, but pink and dark red kidney beans contained the diglycosides of quercetin and kaempferol. Small red beans contained kaempferol 3-O-glucoside and pelargonidin 3-O-glucoside, while no flavonoids were detected in alubia, cranberry, great northern, and navy beans. This is the first report of the tentative identification of quercetin 3-O-pentosylhexoside and flavonoid glucoside malonates, and the first detailed detection of hydroxycinnamates, in common beans.

  18. Evaluation of Genetic Diversity of Castor Bean for Biodiesel Utilization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis L., 2n=20) is a cross-pollinated diploid species belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae instead of the Leguminosae. It is a native of Africa but may have originated in India. Castor bean plants grow as annual or perennial, depending on geographical locations, climate a...

  19. Astronaut Alan Bean with subpackages of the ALSEP during EVA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-11-19

    AS12-46-6807 (19 Nov. 1969) --- Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot, traverses with the two sub packages of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) during the first Apollo 12 extravehicular activity (EVA). Bean deployed the ALSEP components 300 feet from the Lunar Module (LM). The LM and deployed erectable S-band antenna can be seen in the background.

  20. Astronaut Alan Bean participates in lunar surface simulation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-10-29

    S69-56059 (24 Oct. 1969) --- Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot of the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission, participates in lunar surface simulation training in Building 29 at the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC). Bean is strapped to a one-sixth gravity simulator.

  1. Wisconsin - Increased corn silage protein with intercropped lablab bean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Protein supplements for livestock are costly. In recent research in southern WI, lablab bean grown with corn increased forage CP concentration over monoculture corn without compromising forage yield or potential milk production per acre. Corn was intercropped with each of three climbing beans: lab...

  2. The combined effects of CO2 concentration and solar UV-B radiation on faba bean grown in open-top chambers.

    PubMed

    Visser, A J; Tosserams, M; Groen, M W; Magendans, G W; Rozema, J

    1997-01-01

    The response of faba bean seedlings to the combined effects of increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) and solar UV-B irradiance was studied using open-top chambers transparent to UV-B radiation. The purpose of the study was to determine whether effects of increased [CO2] on growth and physiology are modified by the present solar UV-B fluence rate in the Netherlands. Seedlings were exposed to 350 or 700 micromoles mol-1 CO2. At both [CO2], solar UV-B irradiance was either present or reduced using polyester foil opaque to UV-B radiation. To obtain information on the time dependence of increased [CO2] and UV-B radiation effects, three harvests were performed during the experiment. CO2 enrichment resulted in increased biomass production at all harvests. At the final harvest, UV-B radiation did not affect biomass production but a significant decrease was observed after 14 d of treatment. A reduction of the UV-B fluence increased shoot length at both [CO2] throughout the experiment. UV-B radiation slightly altered biomass allocation. Plants grown at reduced levels of UV-B radiation invested less biomass in flowers and more in stem material compared to plants grown at ambient UV-B levels. CO2 enrichment resulted in a stimulation of net photosynthesis after 26 and 38 d of treatment. UV-B reduction did not alter this response. After 26 d of treatment, photosynthetic acclimation to CO2 enrichment was observed, which was probably the result of accumulation of carbohydrates in the leaves. After 38 d, photosynthetic acclimation was no longer present. The UV absorbance of methanolic leaf extracts was increased by CO2 enrichment only. Both CO2 enrichment and solar UV-B reduced the transmittance of radiation through intact attached leaves. Interaction between [CO2] and UV-B radiation was limited to UV-A transmittance of leaves. Under prevalent experimental conditions, UV-B radiation did not affect the measured physiological parameters. Most open-top chambers used for

  3. Identification of expressed resistance gene-like sequences by data mining in 454-derived transcriptomic sequences of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is one of the most important legumes in the world. Several diseases severely reduce bean production and quality; therefore, it is very important to better understand disease resistance in common bean in order to prevent these losses. More than 70 resistance (R) genes which confer resistance against various pathogens have been cloned from diverse plant species. Most R genes share highly conserved domains which facilitates the identification of new candidate R genes from the same species or other species. The goals of this study were to isolate expressed R gene-like sequences (RGLs) from 454-derived transcriptomic sequences and expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of common bean, and to develop RGL-tagged molecular markers. Results A data-mining approach was used to identify tentative P. vulgaris R gene-like sequences from approximately 1.69 million 454-derived sequences and 116,716 ESTs deposited in GenBank. A total of 365 non-redundant sequences were identified and named as common bean (P. vulgaris = Pv) resistance gene-like sequences (PvRGLs). Among the identified PvRGLs, about 60% (218 PvRGLs) were from 454-derived sequences. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis confirmed that PvRGLs were actually expressed in the leaves of common bean. Upon comparison to P. vulgaris genomic sequences, 105 (28.77%) of the 365 tentative PvRGLs could be integrated into the existing common bean physical map. Based on the syntenic blocks between common bean and soybean, 237 (64.93%) PvRGLs were anchored on the P. vulgaris genetic map and will need to be mapped to determine order. In addition, 11 sequence-tagged-site (STS) and 19 cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) molecular markers were developed for 25 unique PvRGLs. Conclusions In total, 365 PvRGLs were successfully identified from 454-derived transcriptomic sequences and ESTs available in GenBank and about 65% of PvRGLs were integrated into the common

  4. Identification of expressed resistance gene-like sequences by data mining in 454-derived transcriptomic sequences of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhanji; Crampton, Mollee; Todd, Antonette; Kalavacharla, Venu

    2012-03-23

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is one of the most important legumes in the world. Several diseases severely reduce bean production and quality; therefore, it is very important to better understand disease resistance in common bean in order to prevent these losses. More than 70 resistance (R) genes which confer resistance against various pathogens have been cloned from diverse plant species. Most R genes share highly conserved domains which facilitates the identification of new candidate R genes from the same species or other species. The goals of this study were to isolate expressed R gene-like sequences (RGLs) from 454-derived transcriptomic sequences and expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of common bean, and to develop RGL-tagged molecular markers. A data-mining approach was used to identify tentative P. vulgaris R gene-like sequences from approximately 1.69 million 454-derived sequences and 116,716 ESTs deposited in GenBank. A total of 365 non-redundant sequences were identified and named as common bean (P. vulgaris = Pv) resistance gene-like sequences (PvRGLs). Among the identified PvRGLs, about 60% (218 PvRGLs) were from 454-derived sequences. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis confirmed that PvRGLs were actually expressed in the leaves of common bean. Upon comparison to P. vulgaris genomic sequences, 105 (28.77%) of the 365 tentative PvRGLs could be integrated into the existing common bean physical map. Based on the syntenic blocks between common bean and soybean, 237 (64.93%) PvRGLs were anchored on the P. vulgaris genetic map and will need to be mapped to determine order. In addition, 11 sequence-tagged-site (STS) and 19 cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) molecular markers were developed for 25 unique PvRGLs. In total, 365 PvRGLs were successfully identified from 454-derived transcriptomic sequences and ESTs available in GenBank and about 65% of PvRGLs were integrated into the common bean genetic map. A total of 30

  5. Biology of the Coconut Bug, Pseudotheraptus wayi, on French Beans

    PubMed Central

    Egonyu, James Peter; Ekesi, Sunday; Kabaru, Jacques; Irungu, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    The coconut bug, Pseudotheraptus wayi Brown (Heteroptera: Coreidae), is a major pest of a wide range of economically important crops in Eastern and Southern Africa. The suitability of French beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabales: Fabaceae) as an alternative food for mass rearing of P. wayi was determined by elucidating its development, survival, and reproduction on French bean pods in the laboratory. Development and survival of immatures on French beans was comparable to what is reported with two hosts previously used for rearing this species, namely coconut and cashew. Adults survived thrice longer and laid almost twice more eggs on the French beans than was reported for the two hosts above. These findings suggest that French beans are more suitable for mass rearing of this species than coconut and cashew, which have been used previously but can be scarce and too costly. PMID:25373191

  6. Evaluation of tolerance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxins among laboratory-reared western bean cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Dyer, Jeanette M; Sappington, Thomas W; Coates, Brad S

    2013-12-01

    The western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a destructive insect pest of dry beans and corn within its native range of western Nebraska and eastern Colorado. However, since the initiation of an eastward range expansion of S. albicosta in the late 1990s, economic damage has been observed in the Midwest, and the species has now reached the Atlantic Coast and Quebec. Economic damage to corn occurs by larval feeding on ears, which is not controlled by commercial transgenic hybrids that express Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1Ab, but partial control is observed by corn varieties that express Cry1 F toxins. Inadequate protocols for laboratory rearing of S. albicosta have hindered controlled efficacy experimentation in the laboratory and field. We report an S. albicosta rearing methodology used to maintain alaboratory colony for 12 continuous generations. Rearing procedures were adapted for Bt toxin diet-overlay assays, revealing that S. albicosta larvae exposed to Bt toxin for 14 d were insensitive to Cry1Ab concentrations up to 25,000 ng/cm2. In contrast, neonates exposed to Cry1 F toxin at > or = 250 ng/cm2, showed reduced developmental rates, with estimated effective concentrations of EC50 = 1,187.5 ng/cm2 and EC95 = 10,000.5 ng/cm2. The ability to mass produce this pest insect will enhance fundamental research, including evaluation of control tactics and toxin susceptibility.

  7. Influence of compost application on arsenic uptake by beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), irrigated with arsenic-contaminated waters at four different concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caporale, A. G.; Pigna, M.; Sommella, A.; Cozzolino, V.; Violante, A.

    2012-04-01

    The presence of arsenic (As) in soils and/or groundwaters, used for agricultural purposes, causes a strong abiotic stress to the cultivated plants, which results in the reduction of biomasses and yields, and the abundance of non-tradable products. It is therefore desirable to identify and develop production techniques capable of limiting the mobility and phyto-availability of As in soil, through the stabilization of the metalloid on the more recalcitrant soil fractions. Incorporation of compost into soil for As immobilization offers various potential advantages over other methods such as low-cost, simple methodology and low environmental impact. We studied the influence of compost application on the mobility and phyto-availability of As in soil, the growth of the bean plants irrigated with As-contaminated waters and their own As uptake. Bean was selected as test plant, because this crop is grown in several As-contaminated areas and suffers As toxicity. Bean plants growth was significantly affected by As and compost treatments. Increasing As concentration in the irrigation water decreased markedly the dry biomass, as a consequence of As phytotoxicity. The influence of compost application on plants growth was also significant, indicating the ability of the compost to alleviate the As phytotoxicity. Arsenic caused a reduction of the photosynthesis rate. By increasing As concentration in irrigation water, in fact, bean leaves showed a decrease in both chlorophyll A and B concentrations in their own mesophylls. However, by increasing level of compost application there was an increase of both chlorophylls concentrations in bean leaves. Arsenic concentration in roots was higher than that in shoots and bean yield. Bean plants showed a typical behavior of the plants sensitive to As toxicity, which usually tend to limit the As translocation from roots to shoots and yield. A low As allocation in bean yield is desirable, because a high As content in edible part of the plants

  8. Developing Your Employee Handbook: Leave Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger; Perreault, Joe

    1988-01-01

    Examines issues and problems related to leave policies in day care centers. Offers recommendations on the formulation and implementation of vacation, sick, and personal leave, leave without pay, jury duty, military leave, and bereavement leave. (RWB)

  9. Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Fava Bean Sprouts.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Koharu; Hosoya, Takahiro; Kawarazaki, Kai; Izawa, Norihiko; Kumazawa, Shigenori

    2016-06-01

    Fava beans are eaten all over the world and recently, marketing for their sprouts began in Japan. Fava bean sprouts contain more polyphenols and l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) than the bean itself. Our antioxidant screening program has shown that fava bean sprouts also possess a higher antioxidant activity than other commercially available sprouts and mature beans. However, the individual constituents of fava bean sprouts are not entirely known. In the present study, we investigated the phenolic compounds of fava bean sprouts and their antioxidant activity. Air-dried fava bean sprouts were treated with 80% methanol and the extract was partitioned in water with chloroform and ethyl acetate. HPLC analysis had shown that the ethyl acetate-soluble parts contained phenolic compounds, separated by preparative HPLC to yield 5 compounds (1-5). Structural analysis using NMR and MS revealed that the compounds isolated were kaempferol glycosides. All isolated compounds had an α-rhamnose at the C-7 position with different sugars attached at the C-3 position. Compounds 1-5 had β-galactose, β-glucose, α-rhamnose, 6-acetyl-β-galactose and 6-acetyl-β-glucose, respectively, at the C-3 position. The amount of l-DOPA in fava bean sprouts was determined by the quantitative (1) H NMR technique. The l-DOPA content was 550.45 mg ± 11.34 /100 g of the raw sprouts. The antioxidant activities of compounds 2-5 and l-DOPA were evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay. l-DOPA showed high antioxidant activity, but the isolated kaempferol glycosides showed weak activity. Therefore, it can be suggested that l-DOPA contributed to the antioxidant activity of fava bean sprouts. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Protective mechanism of the Mexican bean weevil against high levels of alpha-amylase inhibitor in the common bean.

    PubMed

    Ishimoto, M; Chrispeels, M J

    1996-06-01

    Alpha-amylase inhibitor (alpha AI) protects seeds of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) against predation by certain species of bruchids such as the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) and the azuki bean weevil (Callosobruchus chinensis), but not against predation by the bean weevil (Acanthoscelides obtectus) or the Mexican bean weevil (Zabrotes subfasciatus), insects that are common in the Americas. We characterized the interaction of alpha AI-1 present in seeds of the common bean, of a different isoform, alpha AI-2, present in seeds of wild common bean accessions, and of two homologs, alpha AI-Pa present in seeds of the tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius) and alpha AI-Pc in seeds of the scarlet runner bean (Phaseolus coccineus), with the midgut extracts of several bruchids. The extract of the Z. subfasciatus larvae rapidly digests and inactivates alpha AI-1 and alpha AI-Pc, but not alpha AI-2 or alpha AI-Pa. The digestion is caused by a serine protease. A single proteolytic cleavage in the beta subunit of alpha AI-1 occurs at the active site of the protein. When degradation is prevented, alpha AI-1 and alpha AI-Pc do not inhibit the alpha-amylase of Z. subfasciatus, although they are effective against the alpha-amylase of C. chinensis. Alpha AI-2 and alpha AI-Pa, on the other hand, do inhibit the alpha-amylase of Z. subfasciatus, suggesting that they are good candidates for genetic engineering to achieve resistance to Z. subfasciatus.

  11. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) for spectral characterization of regular coffee beans and luwak coffee bean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nufiqurakhmah, Nufiqurakhmah; Nasution, Aulia; Suyanto, Hery

    2016-11-01

    Luwak (civet) coffee refers to a type of coffee, where the cherries have been priorly digested and then defecated by a civet (Paradoxurus Hermaphroditus), a catlike animals typically habited in Indonesia. Luwak will only selectively select ripe cherries, and digesting them by enzymatic fermentation in its digestive system. The defecated beans is then removed and cleaned from the feces. It is regarded as the world's most expensive coffee, Traditionally the quality of the coffee is subjectively determined by a tester. This research is motivated by the needs to study and develop quantitative parameters in determining the quality of coffee bean, which are more objective to measure the quality of coffee products. LIBS technique was used to identify the elemental contents of coffee beans based on its spectral characteristics in the range 200-900 nm. Samples of green beans from variant of arabica and robusta, either regular and luwak, were collected from 5 plantations in East Java. From the recorded spectra, intensity ratio of nitrogen (N), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O) as essential elements in coffee is applied. In general, values extracted from luwak coffee bean is higher with increases 0.03% - 79.93%. A Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA) also applied to identify marker elements that characterize the regular and luwak beans. Elements of Ca, W, Sr, Mg, and H are the ones used to differentiate the regular and luwak beans from arabica variant, while Ca and W are the ones used to differentiate the regular and luwak beans of robusta variant.

  12. Use of white beans instead of red beans may improve iron bioavailability from a Tanzanian complementary food mixture.

    PubMed

    Lung'aho, Mercy G; Glahn, Raymond P

    2010-01-01

    In the study presented, an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell culture model was used to assess the amount of bioavailable iron from a modified Tanzanian complementary food formulation. The main objective of the study was to determine whether a change from red beans to white beans in the complementary food recipe would improve iron bioavailability from the mixture, as recent studies had indicated that iron bioavailability in white beans is significantly higher compared to that in the colored beans. The white beans had a significantly higher (p<0.0001) amount of ferritin formation (13.54 ng/mg) when compared to all other porridge ingredients including the red beans (2.3 ng/mg), and it is plausible that the complementary food formulated with the white beans may be superior to that formulated with the red beans, with reference to iron bioavailability. The results are important as they suggest that substitution of complementary food ingredients with high anti-nutrient concentrations with those that have lower anti-nutrient concentrations may improve iron bioavailability from complementary food home-recipes.

  13. The damage repair role of He-Ne laser on plants exposed to different intensities of ultraviolet-B radiation.

    PubMed

    Qi, Zhi; Yue, Ming; Han, Rong; Wang, Xun-Ling

    2002-06-01

    Light-grown broad bean (Vicia faba L.) seedlings were subjected to different intensities of UV-B radiation (0, 0.05, 0.15, 0.45, 0.90, 1.45 and 1.98 W m(-2)) for 7 h under photosynthetically active radiation (70 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) and then exposed to He-Ne laser (632.8 nm, 5.43 mW mm(-2)) radiation for 5 min or red light radiation for 4 h without ambient light radiation. When He-Ne laser radiated leaves were treated using lower intensity UV-B, the activities of superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1), ascorbate peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.11) and catalase (EC 1.11.1.6) improved significantly. Moreover, the UV-B-injured plants treated with laser light recovered faster from UV-B treatment because the concentration of malondialdehyde and the rate of electrolyte leakage from leaf disks reached control levels (no UV-B or laser treatment) early compared with those exposed only to ambient light or in dark conditions. Laser treatment, however, had no repair effect on seedling damage induced by higher UV-B radiation (1.45 and 1.98 W m(-2)), even with higher laser flux rates and longer laser treatment. In addition, the red light treatment had no repair effect on UV-B-induced damage. Meanwhile, the long-term physiological effect of He-Ne laser treatment on UV-B damaged plants was presented and evaluated. The results showed that the laser had a long-term positive physiological effect on the growth of UV-B-damaged plants. With the exception of the severe damage caused by higher UV-B radiation, a laser with the proper flux rate and treatment time can repair UV-B-induced damage and shorten the recovery time.

  14. 7 CFR 319.56-62 - Fresh beans, shelled or in pods, from Jordan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fresh beans, shelled or in pods, from Jordan. 319.56... Vegetables § 319.56-62 Fresh beans, shelled or in pods, from Jordan. Fresh beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L... Spodoptera littoralis. (a) Packinghouse requirements. The beans must be packed in packing facilities that are...

  15. Registration of PR1146-138 yellow dry bean germplasm line

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The yellow bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important market class in Haiti. However, there have been no previous attempts to genetically improve this seed type for the Caribbean. Landrace varieties of yellow beans in Haiti are susceptible to Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) and bean common...

  16. Development of the yellow common bean germplasm PR1146-138

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The yellow bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important market class in Haiti. There have been, however, no previous attempts to genetically improve this seed type for the Caribbean. Landrace varieties of yellow beans in Haiti are susceptible to Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) and bean commo...

  17. Release of ‘Beniquez’ White Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Cultivar

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV), a whitefly [Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius)]-transmitted begomovirus, can cause significant reductions in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seed yield when susceptible bean cultivars are planted in Central America and the Caribbean. Bean common mosaic virus (BCM...

  18. A New Anthracnose Resistance Gene in Andean Common Bean Cultivar Jalo Listras Pretas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Anthracnose is one of the most widespread and economically important diseases of common bean worldwide. Most anthracnose resistance genes in common bean are from beans of the Mesoamerican gene pool. The resistant reaction of the Andean common bean cultivar Jalo Listras Pretas to races 9, 64, 65 and ...

  19. Comparison of Metabolic Profiles of Three Varieties of Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this study, we compared the amino acid (11), organic acid (3) and sugar (9) profiles of three different varieties of dry beans (black bean (BB), dark red bean (DRB), and cranberry bean (CB)). The efficiency of the two commonly used extraction solvents (water and methanol:chloroform:water (2.5:1:1...

  20. Physical properties and fatty acid profiles of oils from black, kidney, Great Northern, and pinto beans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Four common beans (black bean, kidney bean, great northern, and pinto) were extracted with hexane and found to contain about 2% triglyceride oils. The fatty acids found in these bean oils were mainly linolenic (41.7-46 wt %), linoleic (24.1-33.4 wt %), palmitic (10.7-12.7 wt %) and oleic (5.2-9.5 wt...

  1. Proteomic analysis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The modern cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) has evolved from wild common beans distributed in Central America, Mexico and the Andean region of South America. It has been reported that wild common bean accessions have higher levels of protein content than the domesticated dry bean cultiva...

  2. Biochemical and molecular characterization of PvPAP3, a novel purple acid phosphatase isolated from common bean enhancing extracellular ATP utilization.

    PubMed

    Liang, Cuiyue; Tian, Jiang; Lam, Hon-Ming; Lim, Boon Leong; Yan, Xiaolong; Liao, Hong

    2010-02-01

    Purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) play diverse physiological roles in plants. In this study, we purified a novel PAP, PvPAP3, from the roots of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) grown under phosphate (Pi) starvation. PvPAP3 was identified as a 34-kD monomer acting on the specific substrate, ATP, with a broad pH range and a high heat stability. The activity of PvPAP3 was insensitive to tartrate, indicating that PvPAP3 is a PAP-like protein. Amino acid sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis suggest that PvPAP3 belongs to the group of plant PAPs with low molecular mass. Transient expression of 35S:PvPAP3-green fluorescent protein in onion (Allium cepa) epidermal cells verified that it might anchor on plasma membrane and be secreted into apoplast. Pi starvation led to induction of PvPAP3 expression in both leaves and roots of common bean, and expression of PvPAP3 was strictly dependent on phosphorus (P) availability and duration of Pi starvation. Furthermore, induction of PvPAP3 expression was more rapid and higher in a P-efficient genotype, G19833, than in a P-inefficient genotype, DOR364, suggesting possible roles of PvPAP3 in P efficiency in bean. In vivo analysis using a transgenic hairy root system of common bean showed that both growth and P uptake of bean hairy roots from the PvPAP3 overexpression transgenic lines were significantly enhanced when ATP was supplied as the sole external P source. Taken together, our results suggest that PvPAP3 is a novel PAP that might function in the adaptation of common bean to P deficiency, possibly through enhancing utilization of extracellular ATP as a P source.

  3. Constraints of simultaneous resistance to a fungal pathogen and an insect herbivore in lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.).

    PubMed

    Ballhorn, Daniel J

    2011-02-01

    The existence of tradeoffs among plant defenses is commonly accepted, however, actual evidence for these tradeoffs is scarce. In this study, I analyzed effects of different direct defenses of wild lima bean plants (Phaseolus lunatus) that were simultaneously exposed to a fungal pathogen (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum) and an insect herbivore, the Mexican bean beetle (Epilachna varivestis). Although plants were derived from spatially widely separated populations, I observed a common tradeoff between resistance to pathogens and herbivores. Plants with high levels of anti-herbivore defense (cyanogenesis) showed low levels of resistance to pathogens (polyphenol oxidase activity and phenolic compounds), and vice versa. Competition for resources generally is considered to be the basis for tradeoffs. However, I report direct inhibition of polyphenol oxidase by cyanide, making simultaneous expression of both defenses at high levels impossible. I argue that populations composed of individuals investing in one type of defense have an advantage in environments that periodically favor either pathogen or herbivore plant antagonists.

  4. Molecular cloning and characterization of the ABA-specific glucosyltransferase gene from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Palaniyandi, Sasikumar Arunachalam; Chung, Gyuhwa; Kim, Sang Hyon; Yang, Seung Hwan

    2015-04-15

    Levels of the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) are maintained in homeostasis by a balance of its biosynthesis, catabolism and conjugation. The detailed molecular and signaling events leading to strict homeostasis are not completely understood in crop plants. In this study, we obtained cDNA of an ABA-inducible, ABA-specific UDP-glucosyltransferase (ABAGT) from the bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) involved in conjugation of a glucose residue to ABA to form inactive ABA-glucose ester (ABA-GE) to examine its role during development and abiotic stress in bean. The bacterially expressed PvABAGTase enzyme showed ABA-specific glucosylation activity in vitro. A higher level of the PvABAGT transcript was observed in mature leaves, mature flowers, roots, seed coats and embryos as well as upon rehydration following a period of dehydration. Overexpression of 35S::PvABAGT in Arabidopsis showed reduced sensitivity to ABA compared with WT. The transgenic plants showed a high level of ABA-GE without significant decrease in the level of ABA compared with the wild type (WT) during dehydration stress. Upon rehydration, the levels of ABA and phaseic acid (PA) decreased in the WT and the PvABAGT-overexpressing lines with high levels of ABA-GE only in the transgenic plants. Our findings suggest that the PvABAGT gene could play a role in ABA homeostasis during development and stress responses in bean and its overexpression in Arabidopsis did not alter ABA homeostasis during dehydration stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Leaf movements and photoinhibition in relation to water stress in field-grown beans.

    PubMed

    Pastenes, Claudio; Pimentel, Paula; Lillo, Jacob

    2005-01-01

    Photoinhibition in plants depends on the extent of light energy being absorbed in excess of what can be used in photochemistry and is expected to increase as environmental constraints limit CO2 assimilation. Water stress induces the closure of stomata, limiting carbon availability at the carboxylation sites in the chloroplasts and, therefore, resulting in an excessive excitation of the photosynthetic apparatus, particularly photosystem II (PSII). Mechanisms have evolved in plants in order to protect against photoinhibition, such as non-photochemical energy dissipation, chlorophyll concentration changes, chloroplast movements, increases in the capacity for scavenging the active oxygen species, and leaf movement or paraheliotropism, avoiding direct exposure to sun. In beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), paraheliotropism seems to be an important feature of the plant to avoid photoinhibition. The extent of the leaf movement is increased as the water potential drops, reducing light interception and maintaining a high proportion of open PSII reaction centres. Photoinhibition in water-stressed beans, measured as the capacity to recover F(v)/F(m), is not higher than in well-watered plants and leaf temperature is maintained below the ambient, despite the closure of stomata. Bean leaves restrained from moving, increase leaf temperature and reduce qP, the content of D1 protein and the capacity to recover F(v)/F(m) after dark adaptation, the extent of such changes being higher in water-stressed plants. Data are presented suggesting that even though protective under water stress, paraheliotropism, by reducing light interception, affects the capacity to maintain high CO2 assimilation rates throughout the day in well-watered plants.

  6. Effects of biochar on enhanced nutrient use efficiency of green bean, Vigna radiata L.

    PubMed

    Prapagdee, Songkrit; Tawinteung, Nukoon

    2017-04-01

    Biochar is the carbonized material produced from biomass and is used in several environmental applications. The biochar characteristics depend on the carbonization conditions and feedstock. The suitability of a given biochar for soil improvement depends on the biochar characteristics, soil properties, and target plants. Biochar has been applied at 1-20% (w/w) in the soil, but currently there is a lack of information on what type and concentration of biochar are most suitable for a specific plant and soil quality. Too much biochar will reduce plant growth because of the high alkalinity of biochar, which will cause long-term soil alkalinity. In contrast, too little biochar might be insufficient to enhance plant productivity. In this study, a suitable concentration of cassava stem (an abundant agricultural waste in Thailand) biochar produced at 350 °C was evaluated for green bean (Vigna radiata L.) growth from germination to seed production in pots over 8 weeks. The soil fertility was increased with increasing biochar concentration. At 5% (w/w) biochar, the soil fertility and plant growth were significantly enhanced, while 10% (w/w) biochar significantly enhanced bean growth and bean pod production. The increased biochar concentration in the soil significantly increased the soil total nitrogen and extractable potassium (K) levels but did not affect the amount of available phosphorous. Biochar at 10% (w/w) significantly induced the accumulation of K in the stems, leaves, nut shells, and roots but not in nut seeds. Moreover, biochar not only increased the K concentration in soil but also increased the plant nutrient use efficiency of K, which is important for plant growth. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  7. Development of a QTL-environment-based predictive model for node addition rate in common bean.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Gezan, Salvador A; Eduardo Vallejos, C; Jones, James W; Boote, Kenneth J; Clavijo-Michelangeli, Jose A; Bhakta, Mehul; Osorno, Juan M; Rao, Idupulapati; Beebe, Stephen; Roman-Paoli, Elvin; Gonzalez, Abiezer; Beaver, James; Ricaurte, Jaumer; Colbert, Raphael; Correll, Melanie J

    2017-05-01

    This work reports the effects of the genetic makeup, the environment and the genotype by environment interactions for node addition rate in an RIL population of common bean. This information was used to build a predictive model for node addition rate. To select a plant genotype that will thrive in targeted environments it is critical to understand the genotype by environment interaction (GEI). In this study, multi-environment QTL analysis was used to characterize node addition rate (NAR, node day(- 1)) on the main stem of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L). This analysis was carried out with field data of 171 recombinant inbred lines that were grown at five sites (Florida, Puerto Rico, 2 sites in Colombia, and North Dakota). Four QTLs (Nar1, Nar2, Nar3 and Nar4) were identified, one of which had significant QTL by environment interactions (QEI), that is, Nar2 with temperature. Temperature was identified as the main environmental factor affecting NAR while day length and solar radiation played a minor role. Integration of sites as covariates into a QTL mixed site-effect model, and further replacing the site component with explanatory environmental covariates (i.e., temperature, day length and solar radiation) yielded a model that explained 73% of the phenotypic variation for NAR with root mean square error of 16.25% of the mean. The QTL consistency and stability was examined through a tenfold cross validation with different sets of genotypes and these four QTLs were always detected with 50-90% probability. The final model was evaluated using leave-one-site-out method to assess the influence of site on node addition rate. These analyses provided a quantitative measure of the effects on NAR of common beans exerted by the genetic makeup, the environment and their interactions.

  8. Pyruvate Orthophosphate Dikinase of C3 Seeds and Leaves as Compared to the Enzyme from Maize 1

    PubMed Central

    Aoyagi, Kazuko; Bassham, James A.

    1984-01-01

    Pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK) was found in various immature seeds of C3 plants (wheat, pea, green bean, plum, and castor bean), in some C3 leaves (tobacco, spinach, sunflower, and wheat), and in C4 (maize) kernels. The enzyme in the C3 plants cross-reacts with rabbit antiserum against maize PPDK. Based on protein blot analysis, the apparent subunit size of PPDK from wheat seeds and leaves and from sunflower leaves is about 94 kdaltons, the same as that of the enzyme from maize, but is slightly less (about 90 kdaltons) for the enzyme from spinach and tobacco leaves. The amount of this enzyme per mg of soluble protein in C3 seeds and leaves is much less than in C4 leaves. PPDK is present in kernels of the C4 plant, Zea mays in amounts comparable to those in C4 leaves. Regulatory properties of the enzyme from C3 tissues (wheat) are similar to those of the enzyme from C4 leaves with respect to in vivo light activation and dark inactivation (in leaves) and in vivo cold lability (seeds and leaves). Following incorporation of 14CO2 by illuminated wheat pericarp and adjoining tissue for a few seconds, the labeled metabolites were predominantly products resulting from carboxylation of phosphoenolpyruvate, with lesser labeling of compounds formed by carboxylation of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate and operation of the reductive pentose phosphate cycle of photosynthesis. PPDK may be involved in mechanisms of amino acid interconversions during seed development. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:16663632

  9. 75 FR 75363 - Absence and Leave; Sick Leave

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ... leave for general family care and bereavement purposes is permitted under the law. Section 6311 gives... condition, establishing 13 days of sick leave for general family care and bereavement, and permitting an agency to advance sick leave for general family care and bereavement). Enacted in 1994, the ]...

  10. Study on great northern beans (Phaseolus vulgaris): effect of drum drying process on bean flour properties and effect on gamma radiation on bean starch properties

    SciTech Connect

    Rayas-Solis, P.

    1988-01-01

    Great Northern bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) drum dried flours at native pH of 6.54, pH 6 and 7 showed reduced activities of trypsin inhibitor, ..cap alpha..-amylase inhibitor, hemagglutinating titer, and nitrogen solubility. Electrophoretic analyses showed a slight modification of the native bean proteins, and the presence of at least four trypsin inhibitors. The study of the effect of 2.5-20 kGy irradiation doses on Great Northern beans showed essentially no modification of the electrophoretic mobility of the storage proteins or the trypsin inhibitors. Nitrogen solubility and hemagglutinating activity were essentially unchanged. With the 20 kGy dose, decrease in ..cap alpha..-amylase inhibitor activity, decrease reactive/available lysine content, and decrease cooking time of the irradiated beans after 11 months of storage were observed. Taste panel results indicated that the control and 20 kGy irradiated bean were significantly different at 5% level. At 20 kGy dose, the beans developed a partially water soluble brown color.

  11. Analysis of volatile compounds released during the grinding of roasted coffee beans using solid-phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Masayuki; Murakami, Kazuya; Ohtani, Noboru; Iwatsuki, Keiji; Sotoyama, Kazuyoshi; Wada, Akira; Tokuno, Katsuya; Iwabuchi, Hisakatsu; Tanaka, Kiyofumi

    2003-03-26

    A dynamic solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method to sample fresh headspace volatile compounds released during the grinding of roasted coffee beans was described and the analytical results using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and GC/olfactometry (GC/O) were compared to those of the conventional static SPME sampling methods using ground coffee. Volatile compounds released during the grinding of roasted coffee beans (150 g) were obtained by exposing the SPME fiber (poly(dimethylsiloxane)/divinylbenzene, PDMS/ DVB) for 8 min to nitrogen gas (600 mL/min) discharged from a glass vessel in which the electronic coffee grinder was enclosed. Identification and characterization of volatile compounds thus obtained were achieved by GC/MS and GC/O. Peak areas of 47 typical coffee volatile compounds, separated on total ion chromatogram (TIC), obtained by the dynamic SPME method, showed coefficients of variation less than 5% (n = 3) and the gas chromatographic profile of volatile compounds thus obtained was similar to that of the solvent extract of ground coffee, except for highly volatile compounds such as 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone and 4-ethenyl-2-methoxyphenol. Also, SPME dilution analysis of volatile compounds released during the grinding of roasted coffee beans showed linear plots of peak area versus exposed fiber length (R (2) > 0.89). Compared with those of the headspace volatile compounds of ground coffee using GC/MS and GC/O, the volatile compounds generated during the grinding of roasted coffee beans were rich in nutty- and smoke-roast aromas.

  12. 5 CFR 630.1117 - Procedures for returning unused donated annual leave to emergency leave donors and leave banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... annual leave to emergency leave donors and leave banks. 630.1117 Section 630.1117 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1117 Procedures for returning unused donated annual leave to emergency leave donors...

  13. Employer Provisions for Parental Leave.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meisenheimer, Joseph R., II

    1989-01-01

    Slightly more than one-third of full-time employees in medium and large firms in private industry were covered by maternity- or paternity-leave policies; days off were usually leave without pay. (Author)

  14. Transcriptome Characterization of Developing Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Pods from Two Genotypes with Contrasting Seed Zinc Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Astudillo-Reyes, Carolina; Fernandez, Andrea C.; Cichy, Karen A.

    2015-01-01

    Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds are a rich source of dietary zinc, especially for people consuming plant-based diets. Within P. vulgaris there is at least two-fold variation in seed Zn concentration. Genetic studies have revealed seed Zn differences to be controlled by a single gene in two closely related navy bean genotypes, Albion and Voyager. In this study, these two genotypes were grown under controlled fertilization conditions and the Zn concentration of various plant parts was determined. The two genotypes had similar levels of Zn in their leaves and pods but Voyager had 52% more Zn in its seeds than Albion. RNA was sequenced from developing pods of both genotypes. Transcriptome analysis of these genotypes identified 27,198 genes in the developing bean pods, representing 86% of the genes in the P. vulgaris genome (v 1.0 DOE-JGI and USDA-NIFA). Expression was detected in 18,438 genes. A relatively small number of genes (381) were differentially expressed between Albion and Voyager. Differentially expressed genes included three genes potentially involved in Zn transport, including zinc-regulated transporter, iron regulated transporter like (ZIP), zinc-induced facilitator (ZIF) and heavy metal associated (HMA) family genes. In addition 12,118 SNPs were identified between the two genotypes. Of the gene families related to Zn and/or Fe transport, eleven genes were found to contain SNPs between Albion and Voyager. PMID:26367119

  15. Gene Structures, Evolution and Transcriptional Profiling of the WRKY Gene Family in Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L.).

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhi; Yang, Lifu; Wang, Danhua; Huang, Qixing; Mo, Yeyong; Xie, Guishui

    2016-01-01

    WRKY proteins comprise one of the largest transcription factor families in plants and form key regulators of many plant processes. This study presents the characterization of 58 WRKY genes from the castor bean (Ricinus communis L., Euphorbiaceae) genome. Compared with the automatic genome annotation, one more WRKY-encoding locus was identified and 20 out of the 57 predicted gene models were manually corrected. All RcWRKY genes were shown to contain at least one intron in their coding sequences. According to the structural features of the present WRKY domains, the identified RcWRKY genes were assigned to three previously defined groups (I-III). Although castor bean underwent no recent whole-genome duplication event like physic nut (Jatropha curcas L., Euphorbiaceae), comparative genomics analysis indicated that one gene loss, one intron loss and one recent proximal duplication occurred in the RcWRKY gene family. The expression of all 58 RcWRKY genes was supported by ESTs and/or RNA sequencing reads derived from roots, leaves, flowers, seeds and endosperms. Further global expression profiles with RNA sequencing data revealed diverse expression patterns among various tissues. Results obtained from this study not only provide valuable information for future functional analysis and utilization of the castor bean WRKY genes, but also provide a useful reference to investigate the gene family expansion and evolution in Euphorbiaceus plants.

  16. Gene Structures, Evolution and Transcriptional Profiling of the WRKY Gene Family in Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L.)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qixing; Mo, Yeyong; Xie, Guishui

    2016-01-01

    WRKY proteins comprise one of the largest transcription factor families in plants and form key regulators of many plant processes. This study presents the characterization of 58 WRKY genes from the castor bean (Ricinus communis L., Euphorbiaceae) genome. Compared with the automatic genome annotation, one more WRKY-encoding locus was identified and 20 out of the 57 predicted gene models were manually corrected. All RcWRKY genes were shown to contain at least one intron in their coding sequences. According to the structural features of the present WRKY domains, the identified RcWRKY genes were assigned to three previously defined groups (I–III). Although castor bean underwent no recent whole-genome duplication event like physic nut (Jatropha curcas L., Euphorbiaceae), comparative genomics analysis indicated that one gene loss, one intron loss and one recent proximal duplication occurred in the RcWRKY gene family. The expression of all 58 RcWRKY genes was supported by ESTs and/or RNA sequencing reads derived from roots, leaves, flowers, seeds and endosperms. Further global expression profiles with RNA sequencing data revealed diverse expression patterns among various tissues. Results obtained from this study not only provide valuable information for future functional analysis and utilization of the castor bean WRKY genes, but also provide a useful reference to investigate the gene family expansion and evolution in Euphorbiaceus plants. PMID:26849139

  17. Transcriptome Characterization of Developing Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Pods from Two Genotypes with Contrasting Seed Zinc Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Astudillo-Reyes, Carolina; Fernandez, Andrea C; Cichy, Karen A

    2015-01-01

    Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds are a rich source of dietary zinc, especially for people consuming plant-based diets. Within P. vulgaris there is at least two-fold variation in seed Zn concentration. Genetic studies have revealed seed Zn differences to be controlled by a single gene in two closely related navy bean genotypes, Albion and Voyager. In this study, these two genotypes were grown under controlled fertilization conditions and the Zn concentration of various plant parts was determined. The two genotypes had similar levels of Zn in their leaves and pods but Voyager had 52% more Zn in its seeds than Albion. RNA was sequenced from developing pods of both genotypes. Transcriptome analysis of these genotypes identified 27,198 genes in the developing bean pods, representing 86% of the genes in the P. vulgaris genome (v 1.0 DOE-JGI and USDA-NIFA). Expression was detected in 18,438 genes. A relatively small number of genes (381) were differentially expressed between Albion and Voyager. Differentially expressed genes included three genes potentially involved in Zn transport, including zinc-regulated transporter, iron regulated transporter like (ZIP), zinc-induced facilitator (ZIF) and heavy metal associated (HMA) family genes. In addition 12,118 SNPs were identified between the two genotypes. Of the gene families related to Zn and/or Fe transport, eleven genes were found to contain SNPs between Albion and Voyager.

  18. [Microstructural changes in hardened beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)].

    PubMed

    Mujica, Maria Virginia; Granito, Marisela; Soto, Naudy

    2015-06-01

    (Phaseolus vulgaris). The hardening of Phaseolus vulgaris beans stored at high temperature and high relative humidity is one of the main constraints for consumption. The objective of this research was to evaluate by scanning electron microscopy, structural changes in cotyledons and testa of the hardened beans. The freshly harvested grains were stored for twelve months under two conditions: 5 ° C-34% RH and 37 ° C-75% RH, in order to promote hardening. The stored raw and cooked grains were lyophilized and fractured. The sections of testa and cotyledons were observed in an electron microscope JSM-6390. After twelve months, grains stored at 37 ° C-75% RH increased their hardness by 503%, whereas there were no significant changes in grains stored at 5 ° C-34% RH. At the microstructural level, the cotyledons of the raw grains show clear differences in appearance of the cell wall, into the intercellular space size and texture matrix protein. There were also differences in compaction of palisade and sub-epidermal layer in the testa of raw grains. After cooking, cotyledon cells of the soft grains were well separated while these ofhard grains were seldom separated. In conclusion, the found differences in hard and soft grains showed a significant participation of both structures, cotyledons and testa, in the grains hardening.

  19. Variability of Colletotrichum spp in common bean.

    PubMed

    Mota, S F; Barcelos, Q L; Dias, M A; Souza, E A

    2016-04-07

    The Colletotrichum genus presents large genetic variability, as demonstrated by the occurrence of several pathogenic races and phenotypic traits. The objective of this study was to characterize 22 strains of C. lindemuthianum and Colletotrichum spp recovered from anthracnose lesions and bean scab, and to verify the relationship between species of the Colletotrichum genus, which inhabit anthracnose and scab lesions. Colony morphology, conidium size, the presence of septa, germination, sporulation, and mycelium growth rates, were analyzed in addition to the presence of mating-type genes, IRAP markers, and pathogenicity. Strains of Colletotrichum spp presented wide variation for all evaluated traits, indicating the presence of different species. Pathogenicity tests verified that the severity of the disease caused by strains of Colletotrichum spp must be evaluated 17 days after inoculation. Molecular analysis showed that only the C. lindemuthianum strains were grouped by the IRAP markers. For the physiological traits, we observed that C. lindemuthianum mycelium growth is slower than that of Colletotrichum spp strains. The information generated in this study confirms variability in the evaluated species of Colletotrichum and may direct future basic and applied studies aiming to control these diseases in common bean.

  20. Chemiluminescence of adzuki bean and soybean seedlings.

    PubMed

    Iida, T; Kawane, M; Ashikaga, K; Yoshiki, Y; Okubo, K

    2000-01-01

    The chemiluminescence of extracts from leguminous seedlings (adzuki bean and soybean) was investigated. In an H(2)O(2)/gallic acid/water extract system, the photon intensities of adzuki bean seedlings were increased after germination and in the hypocotyls it reached a maximum level during the first 4 days of germination. On day 4 after germination, chemiluminescence in the primary leaf part exhibited the strongest intensity. Emission spectra showed a main peak at 510 nm, with shoulders at 660 nm. Mechanical injuries to the stems and cotyledons resulted in about a 1.5- and 6.8-fold increase of chemiluminescence, respectively. In an H(2)O(2)/70% EtOH extract/HRP system, photon intensities increased after germination and reached a maximum level during the first 2 days of germination. On day 4 after germination, chemiluminescence in the root and leaf area was stronger than in any other area. Emission spectra showed a main peak at around 570 nm, with shoulders at around 660 nm. The photon intensities of stems and cotyledons after mechanical injuries resulted in about an 0.72-fold decrease and an 8.8-fold increase in the presence of H(2)O(2) and acetaldehyde (MeCHO), respectively.

  1. Characterization of yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus) proteins.

    PubMed

    Morales-Arellano, G Y; Chagolla-López, A; Paredes-López, O; Barba de la Rosa, A P

    2001-03-01

    Seed proteins from Mexican yam bean seeds (Pachyrhizus erosus L.) were sequentially extracted according to the Osborne classification. Albumins were the major fraction (52.1-31.0%), followed by globulins (30.7-27.5%). The minor protein fraction was prolamins (0.8%). Defatting with chloroform/methanol remarkably affected the distribution of protein solubility classes; albumins were the most affected fraction (4.3-17.5%). Electrophoretic patterns of albumins showed bands at 55, 40, 35, and 31 kDa. After reduction of the globulin fraction exhibited two triplets, one from 35 to 31 kDa and the second from 19 to 21 kDa, these could be compared to the acid and basic polypeptides of 11S-like proteins. Prolamins showed one band at 31 kDa, and glutelins after reduction showed three main bands at 52, 27, and 14 kDa. Trypsin inhibitors were assayed in saline extracts; the values found (1232-2608 IU/g of meal) were lower than those of other legumes. In general, yam bean seed proteins showed an excellent balance of all essential amino acids; albumins contain the highest amount of essential amino acids.

  2. Genetic Diversity of Croatian Common Bean Landraces

    PubMed Central

    Carović-Stanko, Klaudija; Liber, Zlatko; Vidak, Monika; Barešić, Ana; Grdiša, Martina; Lazarević, Boris; Šatović, Zlatko

    2017-01-01

    In Croatia, the majority of the common bean production is based on local landraces, grown by small-scale farmers in low input production systems. Landraces are adapted to the specific growing conditions and agro-environments and show a great morphological diversity. These local landraces are in danger of genetic erosion caused by complex socio-economic changes in rural communities. The low profitability of farms and their small size, the advanced age of farmers and the replacement of traditional landraces with modern bean cultivars and/or other more profitable crops have been identified as the major factors affecting genetic erosion. Three hundred accessions belonging to most widely used landraces were evaluated by phaseolin genotyping and microsatellite marker analysis. A total of 183 different multi-locus genotypes in the panel of 300 accessions were revealed using 26 microsatellite markers. Out of 183 accessions, 27.32% were of Mesoamerican origin, 68.31% of Andean, while 4.37% of accessions represented putative hybrids between gene pools. Accessions of Andean origin were further classified into phaseolin type II (“H” or “C”) and III (“T”), the latter being more frequent. A model-based cluster analysis based on microsatellite markers revealed the presence of three clusters in congruence with the results of phaseolin type analysis. PMID:28473842

  3. Salinity Stress Inhibits Bean Leaf Expansion by Reducing Turgor, Not Wall Extensibility 1

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Peter M.; Van Volkenburgh, Elizabeth; Cleland, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    Treatment of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seedlings with low levels of salinity (50 or 100 millimolar NaCl) decreased the rate of light-induced leaf cell expansion in the primary leaves over a 3 day period. This decrease could be due to a reduction in one or both of the primary cellular growth parameters: wall extensibility and cell turgor. Wall extensibility was assessed by the Instron technique. Salinity did not decrease extensibility and caused small increases relative to the controls after 72 hours. On the other hand, 50 millimolar NaCl caused a significant reduction in leaf bulk turgor at 24 hours; adaptive decreases in leaf osmotic potential (osmotic adjustment) were more than compensated by parallel decreases in the xylem tension potential and the leaf apoplastic solute potential, resulting in a decreased leaf water potential. It is concluded that in bean seedlings, mild salinity initially affects leaf growth rate by a decrease in turgor rather than by a reduction in wall extensibility. Moreover, longterm salinization (10 days) resulted in an apparent mechanical adjustment, i.e. an increase in wall extensibility, which may help counteract reductions in turgor and maintain leaf growth rates. PMID:11537440

  4. A growth analysis of waterlogging damage in mung bean (Phaseolus aureus)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musgrave, M. E.; Vanhoy, M. A.

    1989-01-01

    Mung beans (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) were grown for 2 weeks in gravel-vermiculite soilless mix in a growth chamber and subjected to a 1-week waterlogging period followed by a 1-week recovery period. Sequential harvests were made to determine the time course of effects of waterlogging and subsequent recovery on growth parameters by techniques of growth analysis. Root dry matter was the first to be affected, along with an increase in leaf dry matter and specific leaf weight. After a 1-week waterlogging period, specific leaf weight had more than doubled in the stressed plants. Leaf area declined in relation to the control plants as did the ratio of root dry matter to shoot dry matter. During the recovery period there was an increase in the dry matter allocation to the roots relative to the shoot. Specific leaf weight fell to control levels although the rate of leaf area elaboration did not increase during this time, suggesting a redistribution of stored assimilates from the leaves. Net assimilation rate increased during the waterlogging period, probably due to a restriction in root metabolism and reduced translocation out of the leaf rather than to an increase in photosynthesis. Net assimilation rate of waterlogged plants was severely reduced compared with control plants during the recovery period. Both relative growth rate and leaf area duration declined during the waterlogging period and declined further subsequent to the waterlogging treatment. The results illustrate the interrelationships between root and shoot carbon budgets in mung bean during response to the stress of waterlogging.

  5. Hydrogen peroxide induces a rapid production of nitric oxide in mung bean (Phaseolus aureus).

    PubMed

    Lum, H K; Butt, Y K C; Lo, S C L

    2002-03-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has recently been identified as an important signaling molecule in plant immune response. The present study aims to investigate the signaling pathway that leads to NO production. Using the NO specific fluorescent dye DAF-2DA, we observed rapid production of NO in mung bean leaves after the addition of 10 mM hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). NO was probably produced by a NOS-like enzyme in plants, as the NO production was inhibited by l-NAME, a NOS inhibitor. The NOS-like activity in the total leaf protein preparation of mung bean (Phaseolus aureus) was elevated 8.3-fold after 10 mM H(2)O(2) treatment, as demonstrated using the chemiluminescence NOS assay. The NOS-like activity was BH(4) dependent: omitting BH(4) in the reaction mixture of NOS assay reduced the NOS activity by 76%. We also found that the H(2)O(2) induced NO production was mediated via calcium ion flux, as it was blocked in the presence of a calcium ion channel blocker, verapamil. Results from the present study identified H(2)O(2) as an upstream signal that leads to NO production in plants. H(2)O(2) and NO, besides acting as two independent signaling molecules in plant immune response, may interrelate to form an oxidative cell death (OCD) cycle.

  6. TiO2 nanoparticle biosynthesis and its physiological effect on mung bean (Vigna radiata L.).

    PubMed

    Raliya, Ramesh; Biswas, Pratim; Tarafdar, J C

    2015-03-01

    TiO2 nanoparticle (NPs) biosynthesis is a low cost, ecofriendly approach developed using the fungi Aspergillus flavus TFR 7. To determine whether TiO2 NPs is suitable for nutrient, we conducted a two part study; biosynthesis of TiO2 NP and evaluates their influence on mung bean. The characterized TiO2 NPs were foliar sprayed at 10 mgL(-1) concentration on the leaves of 14 days old mung bean plants. A significant improvement was observed in shoot length (17.02%), root length (49.6%), root area (43%), root nodule (67.5%), chlorophyll content (46.4%) and total soluble leaf protein (94%) as a result of TiO2 NPs application. In the rhizosphere microbial population increased by 21.4-48.1% and activity of acid phosphatase (67.3%), alkaline phosphatase (72%), phytase (64%) and dehydrogenase (108.7%) enzyme was observed over control in six weeks old plants owing to application of TiO2 NPs. A possible mechanism has also been hypothesized for TiO2 NPs biosynthesis.

  7. Salinity stress inhibits bean leaf expansion by reducing turgor, not wall extensibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, P. M.; Van Volkenburgh, E.; Cleland, R. E.

    1988-01-01

    Treatment of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seedlings with low levels of salinity (50 or 100 millimolar NaCl) decreased the rate of light-induced leaf cell expansion in the primary leaves over a 3 day period. This decrease could be due to a reduction in one or both of the primary cellular growth parameters: wall extensibility and cell turgor. Wall extensibility was assessed by the Instron technique. Salinity did not decrease extensibility and caused small increases relative to the controls after 72 hours. On the other hand, 50 millimolar NaCl caused a significant reduction in leaf bulk turgor at 24 hours; adaptive decreases in leaf osmotic potential (osmotic adjustment) were more than compensated by parallel decreases in xylem tension potential and the leaf apoplastic solute potential, resulting in a decreased leaf water potential. It is concluded that in bean seedlings, mild salinity initially affects leaf growth rate by a decrease in turgor rather than by a reduction in wall extensibility. Moreover, long-term salinization (10 days) resulted in an apparent mechanical adjustment, i.e. an increase in wall extensibility, which may help counteract reductions in turgor and maintain leaf growth rates.

  8. A growth analysis of waterlogging damage in mung bean (Phaseolus aureus)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musgrave, M. E.; Vanhoy, M. A.

    1989-01-01

    Mung beans (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) were grown for 2 weeks in gravel-vermiculite soilless mix in a growth chamber and subjected to a 1-week waterlogging period followed by a 1-week recovery period. Sequential harvests were made to determine the time course of effects of waterlogging and subsequent recovery on growth parameters by techniques of growth analysis. Root dry matter was the first to be affected, along with an increase in leaf dry matter and specific leaf weight. After a 1-week waterlogging period, specific leaf weight had more than doubled in the stressed plants. Leaf area declined in relation to the control plants as did the ratio of root dry matter to shoot dry matter. During the recovery period there was an increase in the dry matter allocation to the roots relative to the shoot. Specific leaf weight fell to control levels although the rate of leaf area elaboration did not increase during this time, suggesting a redistribution of stored assimilates from the leaves. Net assimilation rate increased during the waterlogging period, probably due to a restriction in root metabolism and reduced translocation out of the leaf rather than to an increase in photosynthesis. Net assimilation rate of waterlogged plants was severely reduced compared with control plants during the recovery period. Both relative growth rate and leaf area duration declined during the waterlogging period and declined further subsequent to the waterlogging treatment. The results illustrate the interrelationships between root and shoot carbon budgets in mung bean during response to the stress of waterlogging.

  9. Salinity stress inhibits bean leaf expansion by reducing turgor, not wall extensibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, P. M.; Van Volkenburgh, E.; Cleland, R. E.

    1988-01-01

    Treatment of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seedlings with low levels of salinity (50 or 100 millimolar NaCl) decreased the rate of light-induced leaf cell expansion in the primary leaves over a 3 day period. This decrease could be due to a reduction in one or both of the primary cellular growth parameters: wall extensibility and cell turgor. Wall extensibility was assessed by the Instron technique. Salinity did not decrease extensibility and caused small increases relative to the controls after 72 hours. On the other hand, 50 millimolar NaCl caused a significant reduction in leaf bulk turgor at 24 hours; adaptive decreases in leaf osmotic potential (osmotic adjustment) were more than compensated by parallel decreases in xylem tension potential and the leaf apoplastic solute potential, resulting in a decreased leaf water potential. It is concluded that in bean seedlings, mild salinity initially affects leaf growth rate by a decrease in turgor rather than by a reduction in wall extensibility. Moreover, long-term salinization (10 days) resulted in an apparent mechanical adjustment, i.e. an increase in wall extensibility, which may help counteract reductions in turgor and maintain leaf growth rates.

  10. Differential regulation of Ku gene expression in etiolated mung bean hypocotyls by auxins.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pei-Feng; Chang, Wen-Chi; Wang, Yung-Kai; Munisamy, Suresh-Babu; Hsu, Shen-Hsing; Chang, Hwan-You; Wu, Shu-Hsing; Pan, Rong-Long

    2007-01-01

    Plant Ku genes were identified very recently in Arabidopsis thaliana, and their roles in repair of double-stranded break DNA and maintenance of telomere integrity were scrutinized. In this study, the cDNAs encoding Ku70 (VrKu70) and Ku80 (VrKu80) were isolated from mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) hypocotyls. Both genes were expressed widely among different tissues of mung bean with the highest levels in hypocotyls and leaves. The VrKu gene expression was stimulated by exogenous auxins in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The stimulation could be abolished by auxin transport inhibitors, N-(1-naphthyl) phthalamic acid and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid implicating that exogenous auxins triggered the effects following their uptake by the cells. Further analysis using specific inhibitors of auxin signaling showed that the stimulation of VrKu expression by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was suppressed by intracellular Ca(2+) chelators, calmodulin antagonists, and calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase inhibitors, suggesting the involvement of calmodulin in the signaling pathway. On the other hand, exogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and alpha-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) stimulated VrKu expression through the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway. Altogether, it is thus proposed that 2,4-D and IAA (or NAA) regulate the expression of VrKu through two distinct pathways.

  11. Arginine and Ornithine Decarboxylases, the Polyamine Biosynthetic Enzymes of Mung Bean Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Altman, Arie; Friedman, Ra'Anan; Levin, Nitsa

    1982-01-01

    General properties and relative activities of l-arginine decarboxylase (ADC) (EC 4.1.1.19) and l-ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) (EC 4.1.1.17), two important enzymes in putrescine and polyamine biosynthesis, were investigated in mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) tissues. Both activities increase linearly with increasing concentrations of crude enzyme, but the increase in ADC activity is considerably greater. The decarboxylation reaction is linear for up to 30 to 60 minutes, and both enzymes have a pH optimum of 7.2. α-Difluoromethyl-ornithine inhibits ODC activity of excised roots, while increasing ADC activity. High specific activity of both enzymes is detected in terminal buds and leaves, while root and hypocotyl activity is low. Different ADC-to-ODC activity ratios are found in various tissues of mung bean plants. Substantial increase in the activity of both enzymes is detected in incubated sections as compared with intact plants. A comparison of several plant species indicates a wide range of ADC-to-ODC activity ratio. It is suggested that both ADC and ODC are active in plant tissues and that their relative contribution to putrescine biosynthesis is dependent upon the type of tissue and growth process. PMID:16662312

  12. Preparation of bean curds from protein fractions of six legumes.

    PubMed

    Cai, R; Klamczynska, B; Baik, B K

    2001-06-01

    Chickpeas, lentils, smooth peas, mung beans, and faba beans were milled into flours and fractionated to protein and starch fractions. Compositions of the seeds, cotyledons, and flours were compared for each legume and the weight and protein recovery of each fraction analyzed. Bean curds were prepared from the protein fractions through heat denaturation of protein milk, followed by coagulation with calcium sulfate or magnesium sulfate. The effect of chickpea protein concentration and coagulant dosage on the texture of bean curds was evaluated using a texture analyzer. Textural analysis indicated that curd prepared at 2.3-3.0% protein concentration and 1.5% CaSO(4) dosage had better yield and better texture than curds prepared under other conditions. Bean curds prepared from chickpeas and faba beans exhibited the second highest springiness and cohesiveness after those from soybeans. Curds of mung beans and smooth peas, on the other hand, had the highest yields and the highest moisture contents. The protein yield of the first and second soluble extracts used for curd preparation accounted for approximately 90% of the total protein of the seeds.

  13. Identification of biochemical features of defective Coffea arabica L. beans.

    PubMed

    Casas, María I; Vaughan, Michael J; Bonello, Pierluigi; McSpadden Gardener, Brian; Grotewold, Erich; Alonso, Ana P

    2017-05-01

    Coffee organoleptic properties are based in part on the quality and chemical composition of coffee beans. The presence of defective beans during processing and roasting contribute to off flavors and reduce overall cup quality. A multipronged approach was undertaken to identify specific biochemical markers for defective beans. To this end, beans were split into defective and non-defective fractions and biochemically profiled in both green and roasted states. A set of 17 compounds in green beans, including organic acids, amino acids and reducing sugars; and 35 compounds in roasted beans, dominated by volatile compounds, organic acids, sugars and sugar alcohols, were sufficient to separate the defective and non-defective fractions. Unsorted coffee was examined for the presence of the biochemical markers to test their utility in detecting defective beans. Although the green coffee marker compounds were found in all fractions, three of the roasted coffee marker compounds (1-methylpyrrole, 5-methyl- 2-furfurylfuran, and 2-methylfuran) were uniquely present in defective fractions. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Pureed cannellini beans can be substituted for shortening in brownies.

    PubMed

    Szafranski, Michele; Whittington, Julianne Allen; Bessinger, Carlton

    2005-08-01

    Studies have shown white beans to be an effective fat replacer in dropped cookies. However, research is needed to determine whether legumes may be an effective replacement for fat in other types of cookies. This study determined the overall acceptability, sensory characteristics, and nutrient content of brownies (bar cookie) made using cannellini beans as a replacement for shortening. Cannellini beans were used to replace 25%, 50%, and 75% of the shortening (by weight) in a control brownie formula. One hundred twenty untrained panelists participated in rating the brownies on a seven-point hedonic scale. Analysis of variance conducted on the acceptability and sensory characteristics indicated a statistically significant effect when replacing fat with beans for acceptability, tenderness, texture, and flavor (P<.05). Post-hoc testing (Scheffe's test) indicated that neither the 25% nor the 50% bean brownies were significantly different from the control in overall acceptability, tenderness, texture, or flavor. Also, the 50% bean brownies, compared with control, had 2.6 g less fat and 21 fewer kcal per 1.4-oz serving. This study demonstrated that pureed cannellini beans can replace as much as 50% of the fat (by weight) in brownies, while yielding an acceptable and more nutritious product.

  15. Is Your Sick Leave Bank in Good Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Sick leave banks are a common staple of teacher contracts. Although these banks may benefit employees, they expose school districts to a variety of complications and unintended consequences, including administrative complexity, potential cash flow implications, cost disparities, increased absenteeism, instructional instability, privacy issues, and…

  16. Is Your Sick Leave Bank in Good Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Sick leave banks are a common staple of teacher contracts. Although these banks may benefit employees, they expose school districts to a variety of complications and unintended consequences, including administrative complexity, potential cash flow implications, cost disparities, increased absenteeism, instructional instability, privacy issues, and…

  17. Diversification and population structure in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Blair, Matthew W; Soler, Alvaro; Cortés, Andrés J

    2012-01-01

    Wild accessions of crops and landraces are valuable genetic resources for plant breeding and for conserving alleles and gene combinations in planta. The primary genepool of cultivated common beans includes wild accessions of Phaseolus vulgaris. These are of the same species as the domesticates and therefore are easily crossable with cultivated accessions. Molecular marker assessment of wild beans and landraces is important for the proper utilization and conservation of these important genetic resources. The goal of this research was to evaluate a collection of wild beans with fluorescent microsatellite or simple sequence repeat markers and to determine the population structure in combination with cultivated beans of all known races. Marker diversity in terms of average number of alleles per marker was high (13) for the combination of 36 markers and 104 wild genotypes that was similar to the average of 14 alleles per marker found for the 606 cultivated genotypes. Diversity in wild beans appears to be somewhat higher than in cultivated beans on a per genotype basis. Five populations or genepools were identified in structure analysis of the wild beans corresponding to segments of the geographical range, including Mesoamerican (Mexican), Guatemalan, Colombian, Ecuadorian-northern Peruvian and Andean (Argentina, Bolivia and Southern Peru). The combined analysis of wild and cultivated accessions showed that the first and last of these genepools were related to the cultivated genepools of the same names and the penultimate was found to be distinct but not ancestral to the others. The Guatemalan genepool was very novel and perhaps related to cultivars of race Guatemala, while the Colombian population was also distinct. Results suggest geographic isolation, founder effects or natural selection could have created the different semi-discrete populations of wild beans and that multiple domestications and introgression were involved in creating the diversity of cultivated beans.

  18. Diversification and Population Structure in Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Matthew W.; Soler, Alvaro; Cortés, Andrés J.

    2012-01-01

    Wild accessions of crops and landraces are valuable genetic resources for plant breeding and for conserving alleles and gene combinations in planta. The primary genepool of cultivated common beans includes wild accessions of Phaseolus vulgaris. These are of the same species as the domesticates and therefore are easily crossable with cultivated accessions. Molecular marker assessment of wild beans and landraces is important for the proper utilization and conservation of these important genetic resources. The goal of this research was to evaluate a collection of wild beans with fluorescent microsatellite or simple sequence repeat markers and to determine the population structure in combination with cultivated beans of all known races. Marker diversity in terms of average number of alleles per marker was high (13) for the combination of 36 markers and 104 wild genotypes that was similar to the average of 14 alleles per marker found for the 606 cultivated genotypes. Diversity in wild beans appears to be somewhat higher than in cultivated beans on a per genotype basis. Five populations or genepools were identified in structure analysis of the wild beans corresponding to segments of the geographical range, including Mesoamerican (Mexican), Guatemalan, Colombian, Ecuadorian-northern Peruvian and Andean (Argentina, Bolivia and Southern Peru). The combined analysis of wild and cultivated accessions showed that the first and last of these genepools were related to the cultivated genepools of the same names and the penultimate was found to be distinct but not ancestral to the others. The Guatemalan genepool was very novel and perhaps related to cultivars of race Guatemala, while the Colombian population was also distinct. Results suggest geographic isolation, founder effects or natural selection could have created the different semi-discrete populations of wild beans and that multiple domestications and introgression were involved in creating the diversity of cultivated beans

  19. Identification of QTL conditioning partial resistance to white mold in kidney bean line VA19 derived from an interspecific population

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Scarlet-runner bean (Phaseolus coccineus L.), a representative species of the secondary gene pool of common bean, is a potential source of white mold resistance for improving dry bean and snap bean. VA19 is a light-red kidney bean line that possesses resistance to white mold putatively derived from...

  20. Field application of safe chemical elicitors induced the expression of some resistance genes against grey mold and cottony rot diseases during snap bean pods storage.

    PubMed

    El-Garhy, Hoda A S; Rashid, Ismail A S; Abou-Ali, Rania M; Moustafa, Mahmoud M A

    2016-01-15

    Phaseolus vulgaris is subjected to serious post-harvest diseases such as grey mold and cottony rot diseases caused by Botrytis cinerea and Pythium aphanidermatum, respectively. In current study, potassium silicate (KSi), potassium thiosulfate (KTS) and potassium sulfate (KS) suppressed moderately the growth of B. cinerea and P. aphanidermatum in vitro. The applied treatments significantly suppressed grey mold and cottony rot of Xera and Valentino snap beans varieties' pods stored at 7 ± 1°C and 90-95% RH for 20 days. Ethylene responsive factor (ERF), polygalacturonase inhibitor protein (PGIP), phosphatase associated to defense (PA) and pathogenesis-related protein (PR1) defense genes were over-expressed in leaves tissue of both bean varieties responding positively to potassium salts field application. The expression of these genes was influenced by plant genotype and environment as it varied by snap bean varieties. Accumulation of ERF, GIP, PA and PR1 genes transcript under KTS at 4000 ppm treatment were the highest in Xera tissues (3.5-, 4.8-, 4- and 4.8-fold, respectively). In conclusion, pre-harvest potassium salt in vivo application could be used as effective safe alternatives to fungicides against grey mold and cottony rot diseases of snap beans during storage for up to 20 days at 7 ± 1°C. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Economic injury levels and sequential sampling plans for Mexican bean beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on dry beans.

    PubMed

    Barrigossi, José A F; Hein, Gary L; Higley, Leon G

    2003-08-01

    Field studies were conducted during the growing seasons of 1995 and 1996, in Scotts-bluff, Nebraska, to determine yield-loss relationships for Mexican bean beetle (Epilachna varivestis Mulsant) on dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Results of those experiments were combined with data from other studies previously conducted to develop economic injury levels (EILs), economic thresholds (ETs), and a sequential sampling program for Mexican bean beetle. Yield loss was regressed against larvae/row-m, and the slope of the linear regression (113 kg/ha per larvae/row-m) was used as the DI (yield loss/insect density) variable in EIL calculations. The EILs calculated in larvae/row-m were converted to egg masses/row-m and adjusted to reflect average survivorship to the adult stage. An example EIL for esfenvalerate at 0.509 (formulation) liter/ha (0.0453 gal/a) and crop value of 0.44 dollars/kg (20 dollars/100 lbs) was 17.78 larvae/row-m. The corresponding ET is 1.04 egg masses/row-m, which reflects an average of 54.6 eggs/egg mass and 33% survival rate from egg to injurious stages. Sequential sampling plans were calculated based on a negative binomial distribution using parameter k estimated from previous research. Because sampling is based on egg masses, growers can make management decisions and take management actions before significant injury occurs. Also, ETs can be adjusted to include the occurrence of natural mortality in the egg and early instars. Analyses demonstrated that relatively minor variation in ETs has substantial impact on sequential sampling plans, including parameters such as average sample number. An interactive spreadsheet was developed that allows users to input economic and other data specific to their situation to calculate Mexican bean beetle EILs, ETs, and sequential sampling plans.

  2. 2-Benzoxazolinone (BOA) induced oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and changes in some antioxidant enzyme activities in mung bean (Phaseolus aureus).

    PubMed

    Batish, D R; Singh, H P; Setia, N; Kaur, S; Kohli, R K

    2006-01-01

    2-Benzoxazolinone (BOA), a well-known allelochemical with strong phytotoxicity, is a potential herbicidal candidate. The aim of the present study was to determine whether phytotoxicity of BOA is due to induction of oxidative stress caused by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the changes in levels of antioxidant enzymes induced in response to BOA. Effect of BOA was studied on electrolyte leakage, lipid peroxidation (LP), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) generation, proline (PRO) accumulation, and activities of antioxidant enzymes-superoxide dismutase (SOD, 1.15.1.1), ascorbate peroxidase (APX, 1.11.1.11), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX, 1.11.1.7), catalase (CAT, 1.11.1.6) and glutathione reductase (GR, 1.6.4.2) in Phaseolus aureus (mung bean). BOA significantly enhanced malondialdehyde (MDA) content, a product of LP, in both leaves and roots of mung bean. The amount of H(2)O(2), a product of oxidative stress, and endogenous PRO increased many-fold in response to BOA. Accumulation of PRO, MDA and H(2)O(2) indicates the cellular damage in the target tissue caused by ROS generated by BOA. In response to BOA, there was a significant increase in the activities of scavenging enzymes SOD, APX, GPX, CAT, and GR in root and leaf tissue of mung bean. At 5 mM BOA, GR activity in roots showed a nearly 22-fold increase over that in control. The present study concludes that BOA induces oxidative stress in mung bean through generation of ROS and upregulation of activities of various scavenging enzymes.

  3. Phytic acid concentration influences iron bioavailability from biofortified beans in Rwandese women with low iron status.

    PubMed

    Petry, Nicolai; Egli, Ines; Gahutu, Jean B; Tugirimana, Pierrot L; Boy, Erick; Hurrell, Richard

    2014-11-01

    The common bean is a staple crop in many African and Latin American countries and is the focus of biofortification initiatives. Bean iron concentration has been doubled by selective plant breeding, but the additional iron is reported to be of low bioavailability, most likely due to high phytic acid (PA) concentrations. The present study evaluated the impact of PA on iron bioavailability from iron-biofortified beans. Iron absorption, based on erythrocyte incorporation of stable iron isotopes, was measured in 22 Rwandese women who consumed multiple, composite bean meals with potatoes or rice in a crossover design. Iron absorption from meals containing biofortified beans (8.8 mg Fe, 1320 mg PA/100 g) and control beans (5.4 mg Fe, 980 mg PA/100 g) was measured with beans containing either their native PA concentration or with beans that were ∼50% dephytinized or >95% dephytinized. The iron concentration of the cooked composite meals with biofortified beans was 54% higher than in the same meals with control beans. With native PA concentrations, fractional iron absorption from the control bean meals was 9.2%, 30% higher than that from the biofortified bean meals (P < 0.001). The quantity of iron absorbed from the biofortified bean meals (406 μg) was 19% higher (P < 0.05) than that from the control bean meals. With ∼50% and >95% dephytinization, the quantity of iron absorbed from the biofortified bean meals increased to 599 and 746 μg, respectively, which was 37% (P < 0.005) and 51% (P < 0.0001) higher than from the control bean meals. PA strongly decreases iron bioavailability from iron-biofortified beans, and a high PA concentration is an important impediment to the optimal effectiveness of bean iron biofortification. Plant breeders should focus on lowering the PA concentration of high-iron beans. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01521273. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Advances in Faba Bean Genetics and Genomics

    PubMed Central

    O'Sullivan, Donal M.; Angra, Deepti

    2016-01-01

    Vicia faba L, is a globally important grain legume whose main centers of diversity are the Fertile Crescent and Mediterranean basin. Because of its small number (six) of exceptionally large and easily observed chromosomes it became a model species for plant cytogenetics the 70s and 80s. It is somewhat ironic therefore, that the emergence of more genomically tractable model plant species such as Arabidopsis and Medicago coincided with a marked decline in genome research on the formerly favored plant cytogenetic model. Thus, as ever higher density molecular marker coverage and dense genetic and even complete genome sequence maps of key crop and model species emerged through the 1990s and early 2000s, genetic and genome knowledge of Vicia faba lagged far behind other grain legumes such as soybean, common bean and pea. However, cheap sequencing technologies have stimulated the production of deep transcriptome coverage from several tissue types and numerous distinct cultivars in recent years. This has permitted the reconstruction of the faba bean meta-transcriptome and has fueled development of extensive sets of Simple Sequence Repeat and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers. Genetics of faba bean stretches back to the 1930s, but it was not until 1993 that DNA markers were used to construct genetic maps. A series of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-based genetic studies mainly targeted at quantitative loci underlying resistance to a series of biotic and abiotic stresses were conducted during the 1990's and early 2000s. More recently, SNP-based genetic maps have permitted chromosome intervals of interest to be aligned to collinear segments of sequenced legume genomes such as the model legume Medicago truncatula, which in turn opens up the possibility for hypotheses on gene content, order and function to be translated from model to crop. Some examples of where knowledge of gene content and function have already been productively exploited are discussed. The

  5. [Faba bean fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum )control and its mechanism in different wheat varieties and faba bean intercropping system].

    PubMed

    Dong, Yan; Dong, Kun; Zheng, Yi; Tang, Li; Yang, Zhi-Xian

    2014-07-01

    Field experiment and hydroponic culture were conducted to investigate effects of three wheat varieties (Yunmai 42, Yunmai 47 and Mianyang 29) and faba bean intercropping on the shoot biomass, disease index of fusarium wilt, functional diversity of microbial community and the amount of Fusarium oxysporum in rhizosphere of faba bean. Contents and components of the soluble sugars, free amino acids and organic acids in the root exudates were also examined. Results showed that, compared with monocropped faba bean, shoot biomass of faba bean significantly increased by 16.6% and 13.4%, disease index of faba bean fusarium wilt significantly decreased by 47.6% and 23.3% as intercropped with Yunmai 42 and Yunmai 47, but no significant differences of both shoot biomass and disease index were found as intercropped with Mianyang 29. Compared with monocropped faba bean, the average well color development (AWCD value) and total utilization ability of carbon sources of faba bean significantly increased, the amount of Fusarium oxysporum of faba bean rhizosphere significantly decreased, and the microbial community structures of faba bean rhizosphere changed as intercropped with YM42 and YM47, while no significant effects as intercropped with MY29. Total contents of soluble sugar, free amino acids and organic acids in root exudates were in the trend of MY29>YM47>YM42. Contents of serine, glutamic, glycine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine, lysine in root exudates of MY29 were significantly higher than that in YM42 and YM47. The arginine was detected only in the root exudates of YM42 and YM47, and leucine was detected only in the root exudates of MY29. Six organic acids of tartaric acid, malic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, fumaric acid, t-aconitic acid were detected in root exudates of MY29 and YM47, and four organic acids of tartaric acid, malic acid, citric acid, fumaric acid were detected in root exudates of YM42. Malic acid content in root exudates of YM47 and MY29 was

  6. Insect pollination reduces yield loss following heat stress in faba bean (Vicia faba L.)

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Jacob; Jones, Hannah Elizabeth; Lukac, Martin; Potts, Simon Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    Global food security, particularly crop fertilization and yield production, is threatened by heat waves that are projected to increase in frequency and magnitude with climate change. Effects of heat stress on the fertilization of insect-pollinated plants are not well understood, but experiments conducted primarily in self-pollinated crops, such as wheat, show that transfer of fertile pollen may recover yield following stress. We hypothesized that in the partially pollinator-dependent crop, faba bean (Vicia faba L.), insect pollination would elicit similar yield recovery following heat stress. We exposed potted faba bean plants to heat stress for 5 days during floral development and anthesis. Temperature treatments were representative of heat waves projected in the UK for the period 2021–2050 and onwards. Following temperature treatments, plants were distributed in flight cages and either pollinated by domesticated Bombus terrestris colonies or received no insect pollination. Yield loss due to heat stress at 30 °C was greater in plants excluded from pollinators (15%) compared to those with bumblebee pollination (2.5%). Thus, the pollinator dependency of faba bean yield was 16% at control temperatures (18–26 °C) and extreme stress (34 °C), but was 53% following intermediate heat stress at 30 °C. These findings provide the first evidence that the pollinator dependency of crops can be modified by heat stress, and suggest that insect pollination may become more important in crop production as the probability of heat waves increases. PMID:26989276

  7. Arsenic Speciation in Phloem and Xylem Exudates of Castor Bean[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Wen-Ling; Wood, B. Alan; Stroud, Jacqueline L.; Andralojc, P. John; Raab, Andrea; McGrath, Steve P.; Feldmann, Jörg; Zhao, Fang-Jie

    2010-01-01

    How arsenic (As) is transported in phloem remains unknown. To help answer this question, we quantified the chemical species of As in phloem and xylem exudates of castor bean (Ricinus communis) exposed to arsenate [As(V)], arsenite [As(III)], monomethylarsonic acid [MMA(V)], or dimethylarsinic acid. In the As(V)- and As(III)-exposed plants, As(V) was the main species in xylem exudate (55%–83%) whereas As(III) predominated in phloem exudate (70%–94%). The ratio of As concentrations in phloem to xylem exudate varied from 0.7 to 3.9. Analyses of phloem exudate using high-resolution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and accurate mass electrospray mass spectrometry coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography identified high concentrations of reduced and oxidized glutathione and some oxidized phytochelatin, but no As(III)-thiol complexes. It is thought that As(III)-thiol complexes would not be stable in the alkaline conditions of phloem sap. Small concentrations of oxidized glutathione and oxidized phytochelatin were found in xylem exudate, where there was also no evidence of As(III)-thiol complexes. MMA(V) was partially reduced to MMA(III) in roots, but only MMA(V) was found in xylem and phloem exudate. Despite the smallest uptake among the four As species supplied to plants, dimethylarsinic acid was most efficiently transported in both xylem and phloem, and its phloem concentration was 3.2 times that in xylem. Our results show that free inorganic As, mainly As(III), was transported in the phloem of castor bean exposed to either As(V) or As(III), and that methylated As species were more mobile than inorganic As in the phloem. PMID:20870777

  8. THE Bct-1 LOCUS FOR RESISTANCE TO BEET CURLY TOP VIRUS IS ASSOCIATED WITH QUANTITATIVE RESISTANCE TO BEAN DWARF MOSAIC VIRUS IN COMMON BEAN

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Host resistance provides effective control of some diseases induced by geminiviruses in common bean. A recessive gene bgm-1 conditions resistance to Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) and is located on linkage group B3 near the bc-12 gene for resistance to Bean common mosaic virus. The dominan...

  9. Dietary soya beans and kidney beans stimulate secretion of cholecystokinin and pancreatic digestive enzymes in 400-day-old Hooded-Lister rats but only soya beans induce growth of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Grant, G; Alonso, R; Edwards, J E; Murray, S

    2000-04-01

    The effects of age on cholecystokinin (CCK) release, pancreatic enzyme secretion, and growth of the pancreas mediated by dietary kidney beans or soya beans were evaluated in trials with 30-, 90-, 250-, and 400-day-old rats. Soya beans increased blood CCK and caused hypersecretion of digestive enzymes and rapid pancreatic growth in all rats. Kidney beans also elevated circulating CCK and stimulated enzyme secretion. However, with 90-, 250-, and 400-day-old rats, the secretory responses were attenuated. Furthermore, kidney beans did not induce pancreatic growth in 250- and 400-day-old rats.

  10. Chloride Accumulation by Mung Bean Root Tips

    PubMed Central

    Gerson, Donald F.; Poole, Ronald J.

    1972-01-01

    Net uptake of Cl− into root tips of mung bean (Phaseolus aureus) increases steadily with increasing external concentrations from 1 to 60 mm. Membrane potentials were measured to determine the equilibrium concentration of Cl− in the tissue which could be due to diffusion. This concentration was readily exceeded in both the relatively nonvacuolate tips (0 to 1 mm) and the vacuolate, mature upper sectons (1 to 11 mm) of the roots. The activity coefficient of both cytoplasmic and vacuolar Cl−, measured with Cl− sensitive microelectrodes, was approximately the same as that of a pure KCl solution of the same concentration. It is concluded that the “second mechanism” of ion uptake involves a large increase in the rate of active transport at the plasmalemma as the external concentration is increased above 1 mm. PMID:16658226

  11. An antifungal peptide from baby lima bean.

    PubMed

    Wang, H X; Ng, T B

    2006-12-01

    A 6-kDa antifungal peptide with inhibitory activity on mycelial growth in Fusarium oxysporum, Mycosphaerella arachidicola, and Physalospora piricola was isolated from baby lima beans. The peptide suppressed growth in M. arachidicola with an IC(50) of 0.87 muM and inhibited activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase with an IC(50) of 4 muM. The peptide exhibited an N-terminal amino acid sequence similar to those of leguminous defensins. The isolation procedure comprised ion exchange chromatography on diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on carboxymethyl (CM)-cellulose, and gel filtration by fast protein liquid chromatography on Superdex 75. The peptide was unadsorbed on DEAE-cellulose and Affi-gel blue gel but was adsorbed on CM-cellulose.

  12. Development of a locust bean processing device.

    PubMed

    Owolarafe, Oseni Kehinde; Adetan, Dare Aderibigbe; Olatunde, Gbenga Adebayo; Ajayi, Adebowale Oladeji; Okoh, Ile Kehinde

    2013-04-01

    A locust bean steaming, dehulling and separating machine was designed in this study by simulating the traditional processing operations. The machine consist of pressure cooking pot (as the cooking device) mounted on a separate stand and equipped with rocker- arm system to facilitate discharge of contents, a hopper made of mild steel sheet, the dehulling unit made of screwed shaft and abrasive barrel, a conical-shaped separating section equipped with paddles (made of aluminum material) and a standing frame to support the whole arrangement. The machine was evaluated by processing seed at cooking times of 30, 45, 60 and 90 min. The result indicated increase in dehulling efficiency with increase in cooking time from 30 to 60 min while it dropped at 90 min. The highest dehulling efficiency of 82% was obtained at cooking time of 60 min. The separation efficiency obtained at this optimal cooking time was 79%.

  13. Apollo 14 Lunar glass fragment known as Genesis bean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A tiny green glass fragment taken from an Apollo 14 core tube sampling. Because of its scientific significance and shape, the fragment has been nicknamed the 'Genesis bean'. The main constituents are iron and magnesium.

  14. Astronaut Alan Bean works on Modular Equipment Stowage Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot for the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission, works at the Modular Equipment Stowage Assembly (MESA) on the Apollo 12 Lunar Module during the mission's first extravehicular activity, EVA-1, on November 19, 1969.

  15. Effects of leupeptin on proteinase and germination of castor beans

    SciTech Connect

    Alpi, A.; Beevers, H.

    1981-10-01

    Leupeptin, tripeptide inhibitor of some proteinases, was shown previously to maintain the stability of several enzymes (isocitrate lyase, fumarase, and catalase) in crude extracts of castor bean endosperm. This reagent is now shown to inhibit the breakdown of water-soluble and crystalloid-storage proteins of the protein bodies isolated from castor beans by the SH-proteinase and it also inhibits the endopeptidase from mung beans. When suitably introduced into the endosperm of dry castor beans it strongly inhibits germination and seedling development. Application of leupeptin to endosperm halves removed from the seed prevents the normal development of enzymes concerned with gluconeogenesis from fat and drastically curtails sugar production. The results suggest that the SH-proteinase is intimately involved in the mobilization of storage proteins.

  16. 7 CFR 457.155 - Processing bean crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.155 Processing bean... harvesting equipment; and (ii) Abnormally hot or cold temperatures that cause an unexpected number of acres...

  17. 7 CFR 457.155 - Processing bean crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.155 Processing bean... harvesting equipment; and (ii) Abnormally hot or cold temperatures that cause an unexpected number of acres...

  18. In vitro root induction of faba bean (Vicia faba L.).

    PubMed

    Ismail, Roba M; Elazab, Heba E M; Hussein, Gihan M H; Metry, Emad A

    2011-01-01

    A major challenge for regeneration of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) plants is the difficulty of in vitro root induction. In the present study, in vitro rooting and its architecture have been studied. Adventitious root formation was successfully induced from regenerated faba bean shoots of four Egyptian cultivars, i.e., Giza 461, Giza 40, Giza 834 and Giza 716 on hormone free MS medium supplemented with 5 mg/l silver nitrate. Among the four cultivars, Giza 461 and Giza 40 were recorded as the highest root formation response (75 % and 65) followed by cultivars Giza716 and Giza843 (20%, and 10%). Anatomical study proved that the produced roots are initiated as the adventitious lateral root (LR) with tri-arch xylem strands as compared with the penta-arch of the primary roots of the intact faba bean seedling. The obtained results overcome the root induction problem in faba bean.

  19. The onset of faba bean farming in the Southern Levant

    PubMed Central

    Caracuta, Valentina; Barzilai, Omry; Khalaily, Hamudi; Milevski, Ianir; Paz, Yitzhak; Vardi, Jacob; Regev, Lior; Boaretto, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Even though the faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is among the most ubiquitously cultivated crops, very little is known about its origins. Here, we report discoveries of charred faba beans from three adjacent Neolithic sites in the lower Galilee region, in the southern Levant, that offer new insights into the early history of this species. Biometric measurements, radiocarbon dating and stable carbon isotope analyses of the archaeological remains, supported by experiments on modern material, date the earliest farming of this crop to ~10,200 cal BP. The large quantity of faba beans found in these adjacent sites indicates intensive production of faba beans in the region that can only have been achieved by planting non-dormant seeds. Selection of mutant-non-dormant stock suggests that the domestication of the crop occurred as early as the 11th millennium cal BP. Plant domestication| Vicia faba L.| Pre-Pottery Neolithic B| radiocarbon dating| Δ13C analysis. PMID:26458981

  20. View towards the northeast of coffee beans drying on the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View towards the northeast of coffee beans drying on the third floor with hopper and drum type dryer in background - Santaella Coffee Processing Site, Highway 139, Kilometer 10.6, Maraguez, Ponce Municipio, PR