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Sample records for bean sprout spoilage

  1. Involvement of Bacterial Quorum-Sensing Signals in Spoilage of Bean Sprouts

    PubMed Central

    Rasch, Maria; Andersen, Jens Bo; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Flodgaard, Lars Ravn; Christensen, Henrik; Givskov, Michael; Gram, Lone

    2005-01-01

    Bacterial communication signals, acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs), were extracted from samples of commercial bean sprouts undergoing soft-rot spoilage. Bean sprouts produced in the laboratory did not undergo soft-rot spoilage and did not contain AHLs or AHL-producing bacteria, although the bacterial population reached levels similar to those in the commercial sprouts, 108 to 109 CFU/g. AHL-producing bacteria (Enterobacteriaceae and pseudomonads) were isolated from commercial sprouts, and strains that were both proteolytic and pectinolytic were capable of causing soft-rot spoilage in bean sprouts. Thin-layer chromatography and liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry revealed the presence of N-3-oxo-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone in spoiled bean sprouts and in extracts from pure cultures of bacteria. During normal spoilage, the pH of the sprouts increased due to proteolytic activity, and the higher pH probably facilitated the activity of pectate lyase. The AHL synthetase gene (I gene) from a spoilage Pectobacterium was cloned, sequenced, and inactivated in the parent strain. The predicted amino acid sequence showed 97% homology to HslI and CarI in Erwinia carotovora. Spoilage of laboratory bean sprouts inoculated with the AHL-negative mutant was delayed compared to sprouts inoculated with the wild type, and the AHL-negative mutant did not cause the pH to rise. Compared to the wild-type strain, the AHL-negative mutant had significantly reduced protease and pectinase activities and was negative in an iron chelation (siderophore) assay. This is the first study demonstrating AHL regulation of iron chelation in Enterobacteriaceae. The present study clearly demonstrates that the bacterial spoilage of some food products is influenced by quorum-sensing-regulated phenotypes, and understanding these processes may be useful in the development of novel food preservation additives that specifically block the quorum-sensing systems. PMID:15933035

  2. Microbial hazards associated with bean sprouting.

    PubMed

    Andrews, W H; Mislivec, P B; Wilson, C R; Bruce, V R; Poelma, P L; Gibson, R; Trucksess, M W; Young, K

    1982-03-01

    The behaviour of microorganisms was studied in mung beans and alfalfa seeds before and after germination in modified, commercially available bean-sprouting kits. The microorganism were enumerated by the aerobic plate count (APC) and by total yeast and mold count procedures. Salmonella species were artificially inoculated into selected samples and were enumerated by the most probable number (MPN) method. After germination of the beans or seeds into mature sprouts, significant increases were noted in APCs and in MPN values of Salmonella species. Although counts of yeasts and molds did not increase significantly after germination, these samples show an increase in toxic Aspergillus flavus and potentially toxic Alternaria species. The presence of toxic Penicillium cyclopium molds also increase substantially in 5 samples of a single brand of mung beans. Analysis of selected sprout samples, however, showed no presence of aflatoxin.

  3. Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Fava Bean Sprouts.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Koharu; Hosoya, Takahiro; Kawarazaki, Kai; Izawa, Norihiko; Kumazawa, Shigenori

    2016-06-01

    Fava beans are eaten all over the world and recently, marketing for their sprouts began in Japan. Fava bean sprouts contain more polyphenols and l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) than the bean itself. Our antioxidant screening program has shown that fava bean sprouts also possess a higher antioxidant activity than other commercially available sprouts and mature beans. However, the individual constituents of fava bean sprouts are not entirely known. In the present study, we investigated the phenolic compounds of fava bean sprouts and their antioxidant activity. Air-dried fava bean sprouts were treated with 80% methanol and the extract was partitioned in water with chloroform and ethyl acetate. HPLC analysis had shown that the ethyl acetate-soluble parts contained phenolic compounds, separated by preparative HPLC to yield 5 compounds (1-5). Structural analysis using NMR and MS revealed that the compounds isolated were kaempferol glycosides. All isolated compounds had an α-rhamnose at the C-7 position with different sugars attached at the C-3 position. Compounds 1-5 had β-galactose, β-glucose, α-rhamnose, 6-acetyl-β-galactose and 6-acetyl-β-glucose, respectively, at the C-3 position. The amount of l-DOPA in fava bean sprouts was determined by the quantitative (1) H NMR technique. The l-DOPA content was 550.45 mg ± 11.34 /100 g of the raw sprouts. The antioxidant activities of compounds 2-5 and l-DOPA were evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay. l-DOPA showed high antioxidant activity, but the isolated kaempferol glycosides showed weak activity. Therefore, it can be suggested that l-DOPA contributed to the antioxidant activity of fava bean sprouts. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Effect of germination on phytochemical profiles and antioxidant activity of mung bean sprouts (Vigna radiata).

    PubMed

    Guo, Xinbo; Li, Tong; Tang, Kexuan; Liu, Rui Hai

    2012-11-07

    Epidemiological studies have shown that regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases. It is recommended to increase consumption of fruits and vegetables to prevent chronic diseases related to free radical-induced oxidative stress. Different varieties of fruits and vegetables provide different vitamins, phenolics, flavonoids, minerals, and dietary fibers for optimal health benefits. Mung bean sprouts are one of the major vegetables in human diet. However, the profiles of phytochemicals and effect of germination on phytochemical content and antioxidant activity of mung bean sprouts have not been studied. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of germination on phytochemical profiles and antioxidant activity of mung bean sprouts. Germination of mung beans dramatically increased vitamin C content in mung bean sprouts in a time-dependent manner and reached the peak on day 8 of germination up to 285 mg/100 g DW, almost 24 times higher than the initial concentration in mung bean seeds (p < 0.05). On fresh weight basis, one serving of mung bean sprouts (about 104 g) provides 21.6 mg of vitamin C, which could meet 36% of Daily Value (DV). In addition, the germination dramatically increased total phenolic compounds and total flavonoids in mung bean sprouts in a time-dependent manner, up to 4.5 and 6.8 times higher than the original concentration of mung bean seeds, respectively. Quercetin-3-O-glucoside content was significantly increased in mung bean sprouts after germination. The total antioxidant activity of mung bean sprouts was increased by 6 times higher than that of mung bean seeds. Therefore, the germination of mung bean sprouts significantly increased phytochemical content, vitamin C content, and antioxidant activity.

  5. Internalization of bioluminescent Escherichia coli and Salmonella Montevideo in growing bean sprouts.

    PubMed

    Warriner, K; Spaniolas, S; Dickinson, M; Wright, C; Waites, W M

    2003-01-01

    Investigate the interaction of bioluminescent Escherichia coli and Salmonella Montevideo with germinating mung bean sprouts. E. coli or Salm. Montevideo introduced on mung beans became established both internally and externally on sprouts after the initial 24 h germinating period. In both cases the inoculated bacterium formed the predominant microflora on the sprouted beans throughout. From the bioluminescent profile of inoculated sprouting beans, bacterial growth was found to be in close proximity to the roots but not on the hypocotyls. Clumps (biofilms) of cells with low viability were observed within the grooves between epidermal cells on hypocotyls. Treatment with 20,000 ppm sodium hypochlorite removed the majority of bacteria from the surface of hypocotyls although nonviable single cells were occasionally observed. However, viable bacteria were recovered from the apoplastic fluid, and extracts of surface-sterilized sprouts indicating that the internal bacterial populations had been protected. This was confirmed using in situ beta-glucuronidase staining of surface-sterilized sprouts where cleaved enzyme substrate (by the action of internalized E. coli) was visualized within the plant vascular system. E. coli or Salmonella present on seeds become internalized within the subsequent sprouts and cannot be removed by postharvest biocidal washing. Mung bean production should be carefully controlled to prevent contamination occurring in order to minimize the health risk associated with raw bean sprouts.

  6. Free cyclitol, soluble carbohydrate and protein contents in Vigna unguiculata and Phaseolus vulgaris bean sprouts.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Elane da Silva; Centeno, Danilo da Cruz; Figueiredo-Ribeiro, Rita de Cássia; Fernandes, Kátia Valevski Sales; Xavier-Filho, José; Oliveira, Antônia Elenir Amancio

    2011-04-27

    Seeds sprouts have been used as a good source of basic nutrients and nutraceutical compounds. The high nutritional value of seeds derives from the deposition of compounds during development. However some of these molecules are used in metabolic processes like germination, which leads to a considerable variation in their concentrations once these events are completed. In this work, we investigate the levels of inositols (myo-inositol, D-pinitol and ononitol), soluble carbohydrates and proteins in cotyledons of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna unguiculata sprouts. Sprouting increased myo-inositol and glucose content and reduction of raffinose and ononitol was observed. The protein levels increased in P. vulgaris and decreased in V. unguiculata sprouting. The level of sucrose was maintained in both sprouts. D-Pinitol was detected only in quiescent seeds. Our results suggested that bean sprout is an important source of proteins, sucrose, glucose and myo-inositol. Additionally, bean sprouts have low levels of raffinose, an antinutritional compound.

  7. Intake of bean sprouts influences melatonin and antioxidant capacity biomarker levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Yolanda; Rebollo-Hernanz, Miguel; Herrera, Teresa; Cayuelas, L Tábata; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Pilar; de Pablo, Ángel L López; Arribas, Silvia M; Martin-Cabrejas, María A

    2016-03-01

    Melatonin is an endogenous antioxidant hormone, which reduces with ageing and the low levels are associated with some chronic diseases. Germination of legumes increases the plant levels of melatonin, making sprouts a suitable food source of this hormone. However, information on its bioavailability after consumption is lacking. We aimed to evaluate in rats the effect of kidney bean sprout intake on the plasma levels of melatonin and metabolically related compounds (serotonin, 6-sulfatoxymelatonin), total phenolic compounds and total antioxidant capacity. In addition, we compared the plasma bioavailability derived from kidney bean sprouts versus synthetic melatonin intake. Kidney beans were germinated for 6 days and an extract was prepared in water. Male young Sprague Dawley rats were used; blood and urine samples were obtained before and after 90 min of administration of kidney bean sprout extract via a gavage. The plasmatic melatonin levels increased after sprout ingestion (16%, p < 0.05). This increment correlated with the urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin content, the principal biomarker of plasmatic melatonin levels (p < 0.01). Nevertheless, the phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity levels did not exhibit any significant variation. The comparison of the bioavailability between the melatonin contained in the kidney bean sprouts and in a synthetic solution evidenced slightly higher levels of plasmatic melatonin (17%) in rats fed with the solution of synthetic melatonin. We conclude that kidney bean sprouts could be a good source of dietary melatonin and other bioactive compounds known to have health benefits.

  8. Antioxidant activity in mung bean sprouts and safety of extracts for cosmetic use.

    PubMed

    Dongyan, Tang; Yinmao, Dong; Li, Li; Yueheng, Liu; Congfen, He; Jixiang, Lai

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of mung bean sprouts was studied in this research. Active ingredients in different lengths of mung bean sprouts were extracted with water. Concentrations of the main proteins and polyphenols were determined. Antioxidizing capacities of the extracts were measured in vitro using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging test, ferric reducing antioxidant power method, and chelation abilities of ferrous ion. The safety of the extracts was determined using the red blood cell (RBC) test, chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay, and human skin patch test. Results show that DPPH radical scavenging rates at different shoot lengths were all greater than 85%, while the total antioxidant capacity of the extracts reached more than 4.0 and the chelation abilities of first-day sprout extract is nearly 80%, indicating that mung bean sprouts have excellent anti-oxygenic property. Results of RBC (hemolysis ratio), CAM (vascular morphological), and human skin patch tests (changed subjects) illustrated extracts of mung bean sprouts are safe and can be used as additives in antiaging cosmetic products.

  9. Effect of mung bean and sprouted mung bean (Vigna radiata) powder on chicken breast meat tenderness, microbial and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Yogesh, K; Ali, Jamshed

    2014-07-01

    Effect of mung bean and sprouted mung bean (Vigna radiata) was investigated on meat tenderness, microbial and sensory characteristics. Results showed that treatment of aqueous extract obtained from sprouted mung powder and mung powder have beneficial effect (P < 0.05) on tenderness of chicken breast meat. These extracts also showed (P < 0.05) antibacterial activity for meat bacteria; values of TPC and PPC (log cfu/gm) at 24 h of marination were also lower than initial values in SMP and MP groups thus SMP and MP may contain some antibacterial substances which have beneficial effect on meat bacterial count. There was better (P < 0.05) cooking and sensory scores observed for marinated meat samples than control groups.

  10. An outbreak of Salmonella Newport associated with mung bean sprouts in Germany and the Netherlands, October to November 2011.

    PubMed

    Bayer, C; Bernard, H; Prager, R; Rabsch, W; Hiller, P; Malorny, B; Pfefferkorn, B; Frank, C; de Jong, A; Friesema, I; Stark, K; Rosner, Bm

    2014-01-09

    The largest Salmonella enterica serovar Newport outbreak (n=106) ever reported in Germany occurred in October and November 2011. Twenty associated cases were reported in the Netherlands. The outbreak investigation included an analytical epidemiological study, molecular typing of human and food isolates and food traceback investigations. Unspecified Salmonella had been detected in samples of mung bean sprouts at a sprout producer (producer A) in the Netherlands and mung bean sprouts contaminated with S. Newport had been found during routine sampling at a sprout distributor in Germany. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis of sprouts being the infection vehicle. In a case-control study, we compared 50 notified adult S. Newport cases with 45 Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis cases regarding their food consumption in the three days before illness. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, only sprout consumption was significantly associated with S. Newport infection (odds ratio: 18.4; 95% confidence interval: 2.2-150.2). Molecular typing patterns of human isolates were indistinguishable from a mung bean sprouts isolate. Traceback of sprouts led to distributors and producer A in the Netherlands. Since sprouts are frequently contaminated with microorganisms, consumers need to be aware that consumption of raw or insufficiently cooked sprouts may pose a health risk.

  11. Metabolomic analysis of the polyphenols in germinating mung beans (Vigna radiata) seeds and sprouts.

    PubMed

    Tang, Dongyan; Dong, Yinmao; Guo, Na; Li, Li; Ren, Hankun

    2014-06-01

    The mung bean (Vigna radiata) is a key food crop in much of Asia and contains plentiful biological activities to prevent human disease. Mung bean sprouts have more plentiful metabolites and activities after germination. The metabolite profile of polyphenols in the germination process was described using the methods of ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry and partial least squares discriminant analysis. Sprouts from different periods were clearly discriminated from each other. Eight flavonoids - vitexin, isovitexin, rutin, kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside, isoquercitrin, genistein, daidzein and isorhamnetin - and two phenolic acids - shikimic acid and caffeic acid - were thought to be chemical markers of the sprouts. The method of high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection was established to quantitatively analyze the eight chemical markers of flavonoids, and provides good linearity, repeatability, intra- and inter-day precision, accuracy and recovery. The main metabolic and transformation pathways of the polyphenols in the germination process were discussed. The proposed method is sensitive, rapid and robust. Understanding the complete profile of polyphenol metabolites in the germination process may be useful for better utilizing mung beans sprouts as the raw materials of functional food, health products and cosmetics. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Effects of sprouting and postharvest storage under cool temperature conditions on starch content and antioxidant capacity of green pea, lentil and young mung bean sprouts.

    PubMed

    Świeca, Michał; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2015-10-15

    The effects of germination of selected legumes and further storage of sprouts under cool conditions on the phenolics, antioxidant activity and starch content and their potential bioaccessibility were elucidated. In green pea and mung bean sprouts a slight increase of chemically extractable phenolics (including flavonoids) during the first 4 days of sprouting was observed. Digestion in vitro released phenolics; however, flavonoids were poorly bioaccessible. Storage of green pea sprouts decreased reducing power and increased the antiradical ability. Reducing potential of potentially bioaccessible fraction of stored lentil sprouts was elevated of 40%, 31% and 23% in 3-, 4- and 5-day-old sprouts, respectively. Postharvest storage significantly increases the starch digestibility and values of expected glycemic index (eGI)--the highest eGIs were determined for 5-day-old stored sprouts; 75.17-green pea, 83.18-lentil and 89.87-mung bean. Bioactivity and nutritional quality of legumes is affected by sprouting and further storage at low temperatures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Salmonella internalization in mung bean sprouts and pre- and postharvest intervention methods in a hydroponic system.

    PubMed

    Ge, Chongtao; Rymut, Susan; Lee, Cheonghoon; Lee, Jiyoung

    2014-05-01

    Mung bean sprouts, typically consumed raw or minimally cooked, are often contaminated with pathogens. Internalized pathogens pose a high risk because conventional sanitization methods are ineffective for their inactivation. The studies were performed (i) to understand the potential of internalization of Salmonella in mung bean sprouts under conditions where the irrigation water was contaminated and (ii) to determine if pre- and postharvest intervention methods are effective in inactivating the internalized pathogen. Mung bean sprouts were grown hydroponically and exposed to green fluorescence protein-tagged Salmonella Typhimurium through maturity. One experimental set received contaminated water daily, while other sets received contaminated water on a single day at different times. For preharvest intervention, irrigation water was exposed to UV, and for postharvest intervention-contaminated sprouts were subjected to a chlorine wash and UV light. Harvested samples were disinfected with ethanol and AgNO3 to differentiate surface-associate pathogens from the internalized ones. The internalized Salmonella Typhimurium in each set was quantified using the plate count method. Internalized Salmonella Typhimurium was detected at levels of 2.0 to 5.1 log CFU/g under all conditions. Continuous exposure to contaminated water during the entire period generated significantly higher levels of Salmonella Typhimurium internalization than sets receiving contaminated water for only a single day (P < 0.05). Preintervention methods lowered the level of internalized Salmonella by 1.84 log CFU/g (P < 0.05), whereas postintervention methods were ineffective in eliminating internalized pathogens. Preintervention did not completely inactivate bacteria in sprouts and demonstrated that the remaining Salmonella Typhimurium in water became more resistant to UV. Because postharvest intervention methods are ineffective, proper procedures for maintaining clean irrigation water must be followed

  14. A review of phytochemistry, metabolite changes, and medicinal uses of the common food mung bean and its sprouts (Vigna radiata)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The seeds and sprouts of mung bean (Vigna radiata), a common food, contain abundant nutrients with biological activities. This review provides insight into the nutritional value of mung beans and its sprouts, discussing chemical constituents that have been isolated in the past few decades, such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, organic acids, amino acids, carbohydrates, and lipids. Moreover, we also summarize dynamic changes in metabolites during the sprouting process and related biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, lipid metabolism accommodation, antihypertensive, and antitumor effects, etc., with the goal of providing scientific evidence for better application of this commonly used food as a medicine. PMID:24438453

  15. A review of phytochemistry, metabolite changes, and medicinal uses of the common food mung bean and its sprouts (Vigna radiata).

    PubMed

    Tang, Dongyan; Dong, Yinmao; Ren, Hankun; Li, Li; He, Congfen

    2014-01-17

    The seeds and sprouts of mung bean (Vigna radiata), a common food, contain abundant nutrients with biological activities. This review provides insight into the nutritional value of mung beans and its sprouts, discussing chemical constituents that have been isolated in the past few decades, such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, organic acids, amino acids, carbohydrates, and lipids. Moreover, we also summarize dynamic changes in metabolites during the sprouting process and related biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, lipid metabolism accommodation, antihypertensive, and antitumor effects, etc., with the goal of providing scientific evidence for better application of this commonly used food as a medicine.

  16. Application of electrolyzed water on reducing the microbial populations on commercial mung bean sprouts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Yu, Zhang-Long

    2017-03-01

    The efficacy of acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) for reducing total bacteria, coliforms, yeast and mold counts on commercial mung bean sprouts was investigated. The impact of pH, available chlorine concentration (ACC) and the cleaning method on antimicrobial efficacy of AEW was studied. AEW with a pH of 4.47 reduced the total bacterial, coliform, and yeast and mold counts on mung bean sprouts by 1.23, 1.42 and 1.25 log CFU/g, respectively. The efficacy of AEW increased with increasing ACC, and further studies showed that its antimicrobial ability was based on a combination of pH and ACC values. Cleaning using ultrasonic waves enhanced the antimicrobial activity of electrolyzed water, achieving reduction of 2.46, 2.13 and 2.92 log CFU/g for total bacterial, yeast and mold, and coliform counts, respectively. These results have indicated that using ultrasonic waves as a cleaning method, combined with AEW, could be a promising way to reduce the microbial populations on mung bean sprouts.

  17. The effects of sprouting times on nutritive value of two varieties of African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa).

    PubMed

    Obizoba, I C; Nnam, N

    1992-10-01

    Forty-eight rats (80-125 g) were used to determine the nutritive value of two sprouted varieties of African yam bean. The cream and brown varieties were each sprouted for 36, 48 and 72 h and blended with corn in a 70:30 ratio (protein basis) to provide 1.6 g N/100 g diet for the entire study period. Sprouting for 48 h caused an increase in most of the parameters tested for both varieties. Sprouting increased natural enhancement of nutrients.

  18. iTRAQ analysis of low-phytate mung bean sprouts treated with sodium citrate, sodium acetate and sodium tartrate.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiaolin; Yang, Runqiang; Guo, Liping; Wang, Xinkun; Yan, Xiaokun; Gu, Zhenxin

    2017-03-01

    The effects of sodium citrate (SC), sodium acetate (SA) and sodium tartrate (ST) spraying on mung bean germination were investigated. Exogenous SC, ST and SA treatments significantly reduced the phytic acid content and increased the antioxidant enzyme activities. In this study, an iTRAQ-based proteomic approach was employed to explore the proteomes of mung bean sprouts, and 81, 101 and 90 differentially expressed proteins were identified in 4-day-old SC-, SA- and ST-treated mung bean sprouts, with 38 proteins present in all samples. Functional classification analysis showed that most of the differentially expressed proteins in mung bean sprouts subjected to the three treatments were involved in carbohydrate and energy metabolism. The inhibitory effect of the SA treatment was probably due to impairments in protein biosynthesis, whereas enhanced energy metabolism, accelerated reserve hydrolysis and protein processing were very important strategies for growth stimulation in response to ST and SC treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of a method for the analysis of four plant growth regulators (PGRs) residues in soybean sprouts and mung bean sprouts by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fengzu; Zhao, Pengyue; Shan, Weili; Gong, Yong; Jian, Qiu; Pan, Canping

    2012-09-01

    A method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of four plant growth regulators (PGRs) residues in soybean sprouts and mung bean sprouts. The sample preparation procedure was based on a QuEChERS method. The method showed excellent linearity (r(2) ≥ 0.9985) and precision (RSDs ≤ 13.0%). Average recoveries of four PGRs ranged between 74.9% and 106.3% at spiking levels 0.05, 0.5 and 1 mg kg(-1). The LODs and LOQs were in the ranges of 0.27-9.3 μg kg(-1) and 0.90-31 μg kg(-1), respectively. The procedure was applied to 18 bean sprout samples, and benzyladenine was found in some of the analyzed samples.

  20. The occurrence of Salmonella in raw and ready-to-eat bean sprouts and sprouted seeds on retail sale in England and Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Sadler-Reeves, L; Aird, H; de Pinna, E; Elviss, N; Fox, A; Kaye, M; Jorgensen, F; Lane, C; Willis, C; McLauchlin, J

    2016-02-01

    A total of 554 samples of bean sprouts or other sprouted seeds were collected at retail sale and submitted to nine Official Control Laboratories in England and Northern Ireland during January to March 2011. Samples (100 g) were tested for the presence of Salmonella using the EN ISO 6579:2002 method. Products labelled as ready-to-eat comprised 23% of the samples and 61% were labelled as raw or to-cook: the remaining 12% had no indication if the food was intended as ready-to-eat or ready-to-cook, and 4% were not recorded. Salmonella spp. were detected from four samples of mung-bean sprouts (0·7% of all the 554 samples) and all four isolates were confirmed as Salmonella enterica serovar Abaetetuba (11 : k : 1,5). Two of the samples where Salmonella was detected were sold as ready-to-eat (labelled 'rinse and serve' only): The remaining two were from samples labelled as ready-to-cook. Consumption of sprouted seeds have been associated with infections from a range of foodborne pathogens, particularly Salmonella and shigatoxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC). However, there is limited data (including that from EU monitoring) on foodborne pathogens in samples of this food type which are not associated with outbreaks of infection. Out of 554 raw and ready-to-eat bean sprouts and sprouted seeds sampled at retail, Salmonella spp. was detected from four samples. This study illustrated the potential of this product to be contaminated with a human pathogen and the importance of considering the intended use and preparation of specific food in assessing microbiological risks. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Effects of ultraviolet irradiation, pulsed electric field, hot water and ethanol vapours treatment on functional properties of mung bean sprouts.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Ankit; Siddiqui, Saleem; Upadhyay, Neelam; Soni, Jyoti

    2014-04-01

    The present investigation was conducted with the objective to study the effects of various treatments and storage conditions on ascorbic acid, total phenols, antioxidant activity and polyphenol oxidase activity of mung bean sprouts. The sprouts subjected to various treatments viz., pulsed electric field (PEF) (10,000 V for 10 s), hot water dip (HWD) (50 °C for 2 min), ethanol vapours (1 h) and UV-Irradiation (10 kJm(-2) in laminar flow chamber for 1 h); and then stored at room (25 ± 1 °C) and low (7 ± 1 °C) temperature conditions. The sprouts were analyzed regularly at 24 h interval till end of shelf life. Different treatments given to sprouts resulted in differential effect on various parameters. The ascorbic acid, total phenols and antioxidant activity were highest in ethanol vapours treated sprouts. There was a general decrease in polyphenol oxidase activity by various treatments. During storage ascorbic acid, total phenols and antioxidant activity of sprouts first increased and then decreased significantly, however, for polyphenol oxidase activity a progressive increase with increase in storage period was observed. The trends were similar at room and low temperature storage conditions. Thus, it can be concluded that the ethanol vapours significantly improved the ascorbic acid content, total phenols and antioxidant activity of mung bean sprouts, both at room as well as low temperature conditions of storage.

  2. Ca(2+) influxes and transmembrane transport are essential for phytic acid degradation in mung bean sprouts.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ting; Wang, Pei; Yang, Runqiang; Wang, Xinyue; Gu, Zhenxin

    2017-09-19

    Phytic acid is considered as an antinutrient. Ca(2+) addition during germination has been proved to be an effective method for reducing phytic acid content in seeds. In this study, mung bean sprouts were treated with LaCl3 (La), verapamil (VP), ruthenium red (RR) and CaCl2 to explore the effect of Ca(2+) influxes on phytic acid degradation. 6 mM CaCl2 significantly improved extracellular and intracellular calcium precipitates and calcium content, elevated phytase and acid phosphatase activity and further enhanced phytic acid degradation. Conversely, La, VP or RR induced the opposite results. Among them, RR exhibited the most significant inhibitory effect. Decreased PA, PAP, MIPP and ALP gene expression after VP or RR treatment was also observed. Enhanced or weakened extracellular Ca(2+) influx or intracellular Ca(2+) efflux was detected with increased or decreased calcium precipitates distributed in different compartments. However, CaCl2 addition differentially reversed the inhibitory effects of all channel blockers. CaCl2 enhanced Ca(2+) influxes and accumulation in cells, which contributed to the regulation of phytic acid degradation. This study demonstrated that calcium channels played an essential role in mediating phytic acid degradation in mung bean sprouts and both extracellular and intracellular Ca(2+) -regulation were involved in phytic acid degradation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. [Rapid detection of 6-benzylaminopurine residues in sprout beans by surface-enhanced raman spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ping; Zheng, Da-wei; Liu, Jing; Zhong, Ru-gang; Liu, Chun-wei; Guo, Xun; Wang, Hong

    2012-05-01

    New method for rapid and quantitative analysis of 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) residues in sprout beans was studied by using FAST-SPE and portable surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). With homemade sprout bean samples as blank control, 6-BA solutions extracted from inserted-treatment samples showed typical characteristic Raman peaks at 1002 cm(-1) tested by SERS, and normalized 1002 cm(-1) intensities had a good linear relationship with gradient concentrations of 6-BA insert-standard solutions. The high concentration linear range was 0.5-14 microg x mL(-1), and the low one was 0. 1-2 microg x mL(-1). The quantitative detection limit was down to 0.02 mg x kg(-1) that was below the maximum allowable residues (MAL) of 0. 2 mg kg(-1) in related National Standard. The recoveries were 82.3%-95.1% and the RSD was below 5%. This method with portable equipment and simple pre-treatment showed good reproducibility, short test time-consuming and easy operating, and thus it would provide efficient and sensitive solutions for large-scale on-site and rapid detections.

  4. Characterization and quantification of saponins and flavonoids in sprouts, seed coats and cotyledons of germinated black beans.

    PubMed

    Guajardo-Flores, D; García-Patiño, M; Serna-Guerrero, D; Gutiérrez-Uribe, J A; Serna-Saldívar, S O

    2012-10-01

    Saponins, flavonols and isoflavones were quantified in sprouts, cotyledons and seed coats of black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) subjected to germination over five days. Sprouts had a higher concentration of saponins compared to cotyledons or seed coats (p<0.05). The saponins concentration in hilum increased 2.3-fold after soaking. After the first day of germination, the saponin concentration in sprouts and cotyledons increased 1.9 and 2.1-fold, respectively. Additional germination days decreased the amount of the most abundant soyasaponins in black bean sprouts. Flavonols and isoflavones were associated with seed coats and less than one third of the initial amount remained after the soaking process. The concentrations of flavonols were also reduced during germination process. Aglycones were detected only after soaking and their concentration remained unchanged during germination. Genistein was detected only after three days of germination. In general, one-day germinated black beans could be recommended for increasing the concentration of saponins and non-glycosylated flavonols in sprouts and seed coats, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Winter Sprout Garden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hy

    1985-01-01

    Illustrates a method by which individual students or small groups can make a compact, self-sufficient system supplying all the growth needs for bean sprouts. Outlines several activities that can be completed while the bean sprouts are growing. (DH)

  6. A Winter Sprout Garden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hy

    1985-01-01

    Illustrates a method by which individual students or small groups can make a compact, self-sufficient system supplying all the growth needs for bean sprouts. Outlines several activities that can be completed while the bean sprouts are growing. (DH)

  7. Irradiation to kill Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on ready-to-eat radish and mung bean sprouts.

    PubMed

    Bari, M L; Al-Haq, Muhammad Imran; Kawasaki, T; Nakauma, M; Todoriki, S; Kawamoto, S; Isshikii, K

    2004-10-01

    A study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of ionizing radiation in eliminating Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on commercial ready-to-eat radish and mung bean sprouts and to assess the chemical and physical quality of these sprouts. The use of ionizing radiation was investigated as a means of reducing or totally inactivating these pathogens, if present, on the sprouts. Treatment of mung bean and radish sprouts with a dose of 1.5 and 2.0 kGy, respectively, significantly reduced E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella to nondetectable limits. The total vitamin C content was gradually reduced with the increase in irradiation dose (P < 0.0001). However, the effect of storage interval on the loss of vitamin C was nonsignificant for radish sprouts and significant for mung bean sprouts (P < 0.04). The color, firmness, and overall visual quality of the tested sprouts were acceptable when effective doses were applied to both radish and mung bean sprouts. Therefore, ionizing radiation could be useful in reducing the population of pathogens on sprouts and yet retain acceptable quality parameters.

  8. Effect of soaking and sprouting on iron and zinc availability in green and white faba bean (Vicia faba L.).

    PubMed

    Luo, Yuwei; Xie, Weihua

    2014-12-01

    The changes in phytate, phytase activity and in vitro availability of iron and zinc during soaking and sprouting of green and white faba bean (Vicia faba L.) were investigated. Faba bean were soaked for 24 h and germinated for 72 h after soaking for 24 h to reduce phytate content and increase iron and zinc in vitro availability. The results revealed that iron and zinc content was significantly reduced from 28.2 to 39.8 % and 12.5 to 27.6 % for soaking treatment and 38.2 to 38.9 % and 24.5 to 29.2 % for sprouting treatment, respectively. Phytate content was significantly reduced from 26.9 to 32.5 % for soaking treatment and 28.0 to 34.9 % for sprouting treatment, respectively. The results proved that the main distinct point is the change of phytase activity as well as specific activity during different treatment which showed no significant differences between the green and white faba bean. The in vitro availability of iron and zinc were significantly improved as a result of soaking and sprouting treatments.

  9. Biocontrol of the internalization of Salmonella enterica and Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli in mung bean sprouts with an endophytic Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhenyu; Mustapha, Azlin; Lin, Mengshi; Zheng, Guolu

    2017-06-05

    Internalization of Salmonella enterica and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) in seed sprouts poses a health risk to consumers, and the conventional sanitization methods are not always effective to reduce this risk. This study initiated a biocontrol approach to limit the internalization using endophytic Bacillus subtilis strains, which were isolated from the inner tissue of mung bean seeds or lettuce stems. By using the deferred agar method, 12 strains of B. subtilis out of 94 putative Bacillus isolates displayed inhibitory activity against at least one of the pathogenic indicators, S. enterica Typhimurium ATCC 14028 and E. coli O157:H7 505B. Two B. subtilis isolates (LCA1 and M24) showed a broad inhibitory spectrum against multiple strains of S. enterica and EHEC, Staphylococcus aureus sp., Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 700603, and Listeria monocytogenes Scott A, while the laboratory B. subtilis strain 168 was only moderately inhibitory against L. monocytogenes. To facilitate the tracking of the three B. subtilis strains (LCA1, M24, and 168) in the mung bean sprouts, the three strains were genetically engineered to carry the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat), generating the strains LCA1-cat, M24-cat, and 168-cat, respectively. Data of the study using the cat-tagged strains demonstrated that both the two vegetable-associated and the laboratory B. subtilis strains could internalize in mung bean sprouts during the sprouting, but the latter displayed about 1.2 lg CFU/g of seeds lower in internalization. Overall, the presence of the three B. subtilis strains could significantly reduce the internalization of S. enterica or EHEC cocktail in mung bean sprouts during the sprouting. Among them, LCA1 showed the greatest inhibition against the EHEC cocktails with a reduction of about 2.0lg CFU/g of seeds by the end of sprouting (day 5), while 168 had the smallest reduction at about 0.6lg CFU/g of seeds. In addition, the three strains demonstrated a similar

  10. Spatial distribution of Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and other bacterial populations in commercial and laboratory-scale sprouting mung bean beds.

    PubMed

    Hora, R; Kumar, M; Garcia, L; Schumacher, B; Odumeru, J; Warriner, K

    2005-12-01

    The reliability of testing spent irrigation water to assess the microbiological status of sprouting mung bean beds has been investigated. In commercial trials, the distribution of opportunistic contaminants within 32 bean sprout beds (25 kg of mung beans per bin) was assessed 48 h after germination. The prevalence of generic Escherichia coli, thermotolerant coliforms, and Aeromonas in sprouts (n = 288) was 5, 11, and 39%, respectively, and 57, 70, and 79% in the corresponding spent irrigation water samples (n = 96). Contamination was heterogeneously distributed within the seedbed. In laboratory trials, beans inoculated with a five-strain cocktail of either Salmonella or E. coli O157:H7 (10(3) to 10(4) CFU/g) were introduced (1 g/500 g of noninoculated seeds) at defined locations (top, middle, or base), and the beans were then sprouted for 48 h. When seeds inoculated with pathogens were introduced at the base or top of the seedbed, the pathogens were typically restricted to these sites and resulted in 44% of the spent irrigation water samples returning false-negative results. Introducing inoculated beans into the middle or at the presoak stage enhanced the distribution of both pathogens within the subsequent sprout bed and resulted in comparable levels recovered in spent irrigation water. The study demonstrated that even though screening a single sample of spent irrigation water is more reliable than testing sprouts directly, it does not provide an accurate assessment of the microbiological status of sprouting mung bean beds. Such limitations may be addressed by ensuring that bean batches are mixed prior to use and by taking spent irrigation water samples from multiple sites at the latter stages of the sprouting process.

  11. Effects of different media on the enrichment of low numbers of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in mung bean sprouts and on the development of the sprout microbiome.

    PubMed

    Margot, H; Tasara, T; Zwietering, M H; Joosten, H; Stephan, R

    2016-09-02

    Sprouted seeds have been implicated in a number of serious outbreaks caused by Salmonella and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. Sprouts pose a very complex challenge to bacterial pathogen enrichment and detection since they naturally contain high levels of background microflora including members of the Enterobacteriaceae. As such, the currently used method cannot ensure reliable detection of STEC in sprouts. In this study, we compared different media for the enrichment of Enterobacteriaceae in their ability to promote the growth of stressed STEC at 37°C and 42°C. Mung bean sprouts were spiked with low levels of STEC and their growth was recorded over time. In addition, the microbiome of mung bean sprouts was analysed before and after enrichment. Our results indicate that the growth of dry-stressed STEC is comparable in all of the tested enrichment media except for mTSB+Novobiocin and not influenced by the incubation temperature. Low levels of STEC spiked into the sprouts resuspended in media only grew to levels of around 4logcfu/ml during enrichment, which could reduce the probability of detection. Proteobacteria was the dominant phylum detected within the microbiome of non-enriched mung bean sprouts. During enrichment in EE-broth, Proteobacteria remained the most abundant phylum. In contrast, during enrichment in BPW the relative abundance of Proteobacteria decreased whereas Firmicutes increased when compared to the non-enriched mung bean sprout microbiome. The microbiome composition was not significantly influenced by the incubation temperature during enrichment in both BPW and EE-broth. This is the first study to examine the microbiome on sprouted mung bean seeds during BPW and EE enrichment and relates the bacterial community composition changes to the enrichment of pathogens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Mungo bean sprout microbiome and changes associated with culture based enrichment protocols used in detection of Gram-negative foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Margot, Heike; Stephan, Roger; Tasara, Taurai

    2016-09-06

    Fresh sprouted seeds have been associated with a number of large outbreaks caused by Salmonella and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli. However, the high number of commensal bacteria found on sprouted seeds hampers the detection of these pathogens. Knowledge about the composition of the sprout microbiome is limited. In this study, the microbiome of mungo bean sprouts and the impact of buffered peptone water (BPW) and Enterobacteriaceae enrichment broth (EE-broth)-based enrichment protocols on this microbiome were investigated. Assessments based on aerobic mesophilic colony counts showed similar increases in mungo bean sprout background flora levels independent of the enrichment protocol used. 16S rRNA sequencing revealed a mungo bean sprout microbiome dominated by Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. EE-broth enrichment of such samples preserved and increased Proteobacteria dominance while reducing Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes relative abundances. BPW enrichment, however, increased Firmicutes relative abundance while decreasing Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes levels. Both enrichments also lead to various genus level changes within the Protobacteria and Firmicutes phyla. New insights into the microbiome associated with mungo bean sprout and how it is influenced through BPW and EE-broth-based enrichment strategies used for detecting Gram-negative pathogens were generated. BPW enrichment leads to Firmicutes and Proteobacteria dominance, whereas EE-broth enrichment preserves Proteobacteria dominance in the mungo bean sprout samples. By increasing the relative abundance of Firmicutes, BPW also increases the abundance of Gram-positive organisms including some that might inhibit recovery of Gram-negative pathogens. The use of EE-broth, although preserving and increasing the dominance of Proteobacteria, can also hamper the detection of lowly abundant Gram-negative target pathogens due to outgrowth of such organisms by the highly abundant non-target Proteobacteria genera

  13. Growth of healthy and sanitizer-injured Salmonella cells on mung bean sprouts in different commercial enrichment broths.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qianwang; Mikš-Krajnik, Marta; D'Souza, Craig; Yang, Yishan; Heo, Da-Jeong; Kim, Si-Kyung; Lee, Seung-Cheol; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun

    2015-12-01

    The ability of nine commercial broths to enrich healthy and 90% sanitizer-injured Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella cocktail on mung bean sprouts was evaluated to select an optimum broth for detection. Results showed that S. Typhimurium multiplied faster and reached a higher population in buffered peptone water (BPW), Salmonella AD media (AD) and ONE broth-Salmonella (OB), compared with other broths. Healthy and 90% sanitizer-injured Salmonella at low concentrations increased by 4.0 log CFU/ml in these three broths. However, no Salmonella growth was observed in lactose broth (LB). Further investigation showed that during incubation, pH of LB dropped from 6.7 to 4.2, due to production of lactic (66 mM) and acetic acids (62 mM) by lactic acid bacteria that were identified as dominant microbiota in bean sprouts. Though no cell membrane damage was detected by propidium monoazide combined with real-time PCR, it was found that LB inhibited Salmonella growth, especially from low inoculum levels. This study suggests that in consideration of effectiveness and cost, BPW would be a suitable enrichment broth to use for isolating and detecting Salmonella on mung bean sprouts, while using LB might cause false negative results in Salmonella detection by either PCR or standard cultural method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Simultaneous determination of plant growth regulator and pesticides in bean sprouts by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang-Gon; Park, Duck-Woong; Kang, Gyung-Ri; Kim, Tae-Sun; Yang, Yongshik; Moon, Su-Jin; Choi, Eun-Ah; Ha, Dong-Ryong; Kim, Eun-Sun; Cho, Bae-Sik

    2016-10-01

    A simple and sensitive analytical method based on QuEChERS approach using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated for the determination of 6-benzylaminopurine, carbendazim and thiabendazole in bean sprouts. Sodium chloride and sodium acetate were used for salting-out step and magnesium sulfate for clean-up. The validation of optimized method was satisfactory with recoveries, between 89.5% and 103.2% for the three compounds, and relative standard deviation (RSD) values less than 3.3% at 20 and 40ng/g fortification levels (n=5). Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) was 2.1-3.7ng/g and 6.3-11.1ng/g, respectively. Monitoring of 126 bean sprout samples collected from local markets was performed to verify the adaptability in real samples. No pesticides were detected but 6-benzylaminopurine was found in 3 samples at the level of 15-20ng/g. The optimized method should be applicable for monitoring of 6-benzylaminopurine, carbendazim and thiabendazole in bean sprouts in short time.

  15. Effect of ascorbic acid postharvest treatment on enzymatic browning, phenolics and antioxidant capacity of stored mung bean sprouts.

    PubMed

    Sikora, Małgorzata; Świeca, Michał

    2018-01-15

    Enzymatic browning limits the postharvest life of minimally processed foods, thus the study selected the optimal inhibitors of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and evaluated their effect on enzymatic browning, phenolics and antioxidant capacity of stored mung bean sprouts. The sprouts treated with 2mM and 20mM ascorbic acid had a lowered PPO activity; compared to the control by 51% and 60%, respectively. The inhibition was reflected in a significant decrease in enzymatic browning. The sprouts treated with 20mM ascorbic acid had 22% and 23% higher phenolic content after 3 and 7days of storage, respectively. Both storage and ascorbic acid treatment increased potential bioaccessibility of phenolics. Generally, there was no effect of the treatments on the antioxidant capacity; however, a significant increase in the reducing potential was determined for the sprouts washed with 20mM ascorbic acid. In conclusion, ascorbic acid treatments may improve consumer quality of stored sprouts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of Listeria monocytogenes recoveries from spiked mung bean sprouts by the enrichment methods of three regulatory agencies.

    PubMed

    Cauchon, Kaitlin E; Hitchins, Anthony D; Smiley, R Derike

    2017-09-01

    Three selective enrichment methods, the United States Food and Drug Administration's (FDA method), the United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety Inspection Service's (USDA method), and the EN ISO 11290-1 standard method, were assessed for their suitability for recovery of Listeria monocytogenes from spiked mung bean sprouts. Three parameters were evaluated; the enrichment L. monocytogenes population from singly-spiked sprouts, the enrichment L. monocytogenes population from doubly-spiked (L. monocytogenes and Listeria innocua) sprouts, and the population differential resulting from the enrichment of doubly-spiked sprouts. Considerable L. monocytogenes inter-strain variation was observed. The mean enrichment L. monocytogenes populations for singly-spiked sprouts were 6.1 ± 1.2, 4.9 ± 1.2, and 6.9 ± 2.3 log CFU/mL for the FDA, USDA, and EN ISO 11290-1 methods, respectively. The mean L. monocytogenes populations for doubly-spiked sprouts were 4.7 ± 1.1, 5.5 ± 1.3, and 4.6 ± 1.4 log CFU/mL for the FDA, USDA, and ISO 11290-1 enrichment methods, respectively. The corresponding mean population differentials were 2.8 ± 1.1, 3.3 ± 1.3, and 3.6 ± 1.4 Δlog CFU/mL for the same three enrichment methods, respectively. The presence of L. innocua and resident microorganisms on the sprouts negatively impacted final levels of L. monocytogenes with all three enrichment methods. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Green synthesis of soya bean sprouts-mediated superparamagnetic Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yan; Shen, Yuhua; Xie, Anjian; Li, Shikuo; Wang, Xiufang

    2010-10-01

    Superparamagnetic Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles were first synthesized via soya bean sprouts (SBS) templates under ambient temperature and normal atmosphere. The reaction process was simple, eco-friendly, and convenient to handle. The morphology and crystalline phase of the nanoparticles were determined from scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra. The effect of SBS template on the formation of Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles was investigated using X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results indicate that spherical Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles with an average diameter of 8 nm simultaneously formed on the epidermal surface and the interior stem wall of SBS. The SBS are responsible for size and morphology control during the whole formation of Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles. In addition, the superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) results indicate the products are superparamagnetic at room temperature, with blocking temperature ( TB) of 150 K and saturation magnetization of 37.1 emu/g.

  18. Evaluation and control of the risk of food borne pathogens and spoilage bacteria present in “Awa-Uirou”, a sticky rice cake containing sweet red bean paste

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The potential for growth of food poisoning or spoilage bacteria in “Awa-Uirou”, a sticky rice cake containing sweet red bean paste was evaluated. The water activity (aw 0.92) was in the range suitable for the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis. The viable cell cou...

  19. Pulsed light decontamination of endive salad and mung bean sprouts and impact on color and respiration activity.

    PubMed

    Kramer, B; Wunderlich, J; Muranyi, P

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was the determination of the efficiency of pulsed light (PL) treatments for the decontamination of endive salad and mung bean sprouts, as well as the assessment of quality changes in relation to discoloration and alteration of respiration activity. Produce samples were artificially inoculated with two bacterial test strains Escherichia coli (DSM 498) and Listeria innocua (DSM 20649) and exposed to PL at different energy doses. The inactivation efficiency with regard to the naturally occurring microbiota was also investigated. Besides microbiological investigations, color changes were determined as well as the produce respiration during chilled storage. The results indicated that inactivation of more than 2 log was possible with one flash in the case of fresh-cut salad, while the reduction on mung bean sprouts was limited to approximately 1.6 log with one flash, irrespective if the natural flora or inoculated E. coli or L. innocua were considered. The UV part of the PL proved to be exclusively responsible for the inactivation of microorganisms. Significant lower levels of microbial counts of treated compared with untreated samples were maintained for up to 6 days. In the case of endive salad, a dose-dependent progressive discoloration and increase in respiration was diminished by applying optical bandpass filters, which only slightly affected the inactivation efficiency. In contrast, PL treatments showed a positive effect on color and general appearance of mung bean sprouts, while the respiration was almost unaffected. However, care must be taken with regard to efficiency-limiting matrix effects and impact on food quality. These aspects have to be assessed for each treated product. The integration of PL in industrial food processing plants could be an alternative way to improve the microbial quality of fresh produce, and therefore have a positive impact on public health by reducing the risk of contaminations with pathogenic bacteria.

  20. Control of Salmonella on sprouting mung bean and alfalfa seeds by using a biocontrol preparation based on antagonistic bacteria and lytic bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jianxiong; Kostrzynska, Magdalaena; Dunfield, Kari; Warriner, Keith

    2010-01-01

    The following reports on the application of a combination of antagonistic bacteria and lytic bacteriophages to control the growth of Salmonella on sprouting mung beans and alfalfa seeds. Antagonistic bacteria were isolated from mung bean sprouts and tomatoes by using the deferred plate assay to assess anti-Salmonella activity. From the isolates screened, an Enterobacter asburiae strain (labeled "JX1") exhibited stable antagonistic activity against a broad range of Salmonella serovars (Agona, Berta, Enteritidis, Hadar, Heidelberg, Javiana, Montevideo, Muenchen, Newport, Saint Paul, and Typhimurium). Lytic bacteriophages against Salmonella were isolated from pig or cattle manure effluent. A bacteriophage cocktail prepared from six isolates was coinoculated with E. asburiae JX1 along with Salmonella in broth culture. The combination of E. asburiae JX1 and bacteriophage cocktail reduced the levels of Salmonella by 5.7 to 6.4 log CFU/ml. Mung beans inoculated with Salmonella and sprouted over a 4-day period attained levels of 6.72 + or - 0.78 log CFU/g. In contrast, levels of Salmonella were reduced to 3.31 + or - 2.48 or 1.16 + or - 2.14 log CFU/g when the pathogen was coinoculated with bacteriophages or E. asburiae JX1, respectively. However, by using a combination of E. asburiae JX1 and bacteriophages, the levels of Salmonella associated with mung bean sprouts were only detected by enrichment. The biocontrol preparation was effective at controlling the growth of Salmonella under a range of sprouting temperatures (20 to 30 degrees Celsius) and was equally effective at suppressing the growth of Salmonella on sprouting alfalfa seeds. The combination of E. asburiae JX1 and bacteriophages represents a promising, chemical-free approach for controlling the growth of Salmonella on sprouting seeds.

  1. Inactivation of escherichia coli 0157:H7 and Salmonella on mung beans, alfalfa, and other seed types destined for sprout production by using an oxychloro-based sanitizer.

    PubMed

    Kumar, M; Hora, R; Kostrzynska, M; Waites, W M; Warriner, K

    2006-07-01

    The efficacy of a stabilized oxychloro-based food grade sanitizer to decontaminate seeds destined for sprout production has been evaluated. By using mung bean seeds as a model system, it was demonstrated that the sanitizer could be used to inactivate a five-strain cocktail of Escherichia coli O157:H7 or Salmonella introduced onto beans at 10(3) to 10(4) CFU/g. Salmonella was more tolerant to stabilized oxychloro than was E. coli O157:H7, with sanitizer levels of >150 and >50 ppm, respectively, being required to ensure pathogen-free sprouts. The decontamination efficacy was also found to be dependent on treatment time (>8 h optimal) and the seed-to-sanitizer ratio (>1:4 optimal). Stabilized oxychloro treatment did not exhibit phytotoxic effects, as germination and sprout yields were not significantly (P > 0.05) different as compared with untreated controls. Although human pathogens could be effectively eliminated from mung beans, the aerobic plate count of native microflora on sprouts grown from treated seed was not significantly (P > 0.05) different from the controls. The diversity of microbial populations (determined through 16S rRNA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis) associated with bean sprouts was not significantly affected by the sanitizer treatment. However, it was noted that Klebsiella and Herbasprillum (both common plant endophytes) were absent in sprouts derived from decontaminated seed but were present in control sprouts. When a further range of seed types was evaluated, it was found that alfalfa, cress, flax, and soybean could be decontaminated with the stabilized oxychloro sanitizer. However, the decontamination efficacy with other seed types was less consistent. It appears that the rate of seed germination and putative activity of sanitizer sequestering system(s), in addition to other factors, may limit the efficacy of the decontamination method.

  2. Detection and differentiation of foodborne pathogenic bacteria in mung bean sprouts using field deployable label-free SERS devices.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaomeng; Xu, Chao; Tripp, Ralph A; Huang, Yao-wen; Zhao, Yiping

    2013-05-21

    Vancomycin functionalized silver nanorod arrays substrates were used to obtain the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signals of six foodborne pathogenic bacteria in mung bean sprouts samples using both a portable and a handheld Raman system. The silver nanorod arrays substrates were optimized to facilitate quantitative, rapid, and sensitive detection of Salmonella enterica serotype Anatum, Salmonella enterica serotype Cubana, Salmonella enterica serotype Stanley, Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Substrate optimization was achieved by varying the nanorod length and vancomycin incubation concentration. By combining these substrates with a two-step filtration process we found that the foodborne pathogenic bacteria used in this study can be identified in mung bean sprouts with a limit of detection as low as 100 CFU ml(-1) in less than 4 h using both portable and handheld Raman systems. The results show that SERS spectra can be used to differentiate between bacterial species and serotypes when chemometric methods are employed. The low detection limit and rapid detection time of this biosensing platform for foodborne pathogenic bacteria could be a valuable field detection method for the fresh produce and food processing industries.

  3. Quantification of the In Vitro Radiosensitivity of Mung Bean Sprout Elongation to 6MV X-Ray: A Revised Target Model Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tzu Hwei; Kittipayak, Samrit; Lin, Yu Ting; Lin, Cheng Hsun; Pan, Lung Kwang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a revised target model for quantifying the in vitro radiosensitivity of mung bean sprout elongation to 6-MV X-rays was developed. The revised target model, which incorporated the Poisson prediction for a low probability of success, provided theoretical estimates that were highly consistent with the actual data measured in this study. The revised target model correlated different in vitro radiosensitivities to various effective target volumes and was successfully confirmed by exposing mung beans in various elongation states to various doses of 6-MV X-rays. For the experiment, 5,000 fresh mung beans were randomly distributed into 100 petri dishes, which were randomly divided into ten groups. Each group received an initial watering at a different time point prior to X-ray exposure, resulting in different effective target volumes. The bean sprouts were measured 70 hr after X-ray exposure, and the average length of the bean sprouts in each group was recorded as an index of the mung bean in vitro radiosensitivity. Mung beans that received an initial watering either six or sixteen hours before X-ray exposure had the shortest sprout length, indicating that the maximum effective target volume was formed within that specific time period. The revised target model could be also expanded to interpret the "two-hit" model of target theory, although the experimental data supported the "one-hit" model. If the "two-hit" model was sustained, theoretically, the target size would be 2.14 times larger than its original size to produce the same results.

  4. Quantification of the In Vitro Radiosensitivity of Mung Bean Sprout Elongation to 6MV X-Ray: A Revised Target Model Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tzu Hwei; Kittipayak, Samrit; Lin, Yu Ting; Lin, Cheng Hsun; Pan, Lung Kwang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a revised target model for quantifying the in vitro radiosensitivity of mung bean sprout elongation to 6-MV X-rays was developed. The revised target model, which incorporated the Poisson prediction for a low probability of success, provided theoretical estimates that were highly consistent with the actual data measured in this study. The revised target model correlated different in vitro radiosensitivities to various effective target volumes and was successfully confirmed by exposing mung beans in various elongation states to various doses of 6-MV X-rays. For the experiment, 5,000 fresh mung beans were randomly distributed into 100 petri dishes, which were randomly divided into ten groups. Each group received an initial watering at a different time point prior to X-ray exposure, resulting in different effective target volumes. The bean sprouts were measured 70 hr after X-ray exposure, and the average length of the bean sprouts in each group was recorded as an index of the mung bean in vitro radiosensitivity. Mung beans that received an initial watering either six or sixteen hours before X-ray exposure had the shortest sprout length, indicating that the maximum effective target volume was formed within that specific time period. The revised target model could be also expanded to interpret the “two-hit” model of target theory, although the experimental data supported the “one-hit” model. If the “two-hit” model was sustained, theoretically, the target size would be 2.14 times larger than its original size to produce the same results. PMID:26053016

  5. Evaluation of real-time PCR coupled with immunomagnetic separation or centrifugation for the detection of healthy and sanitizer-injured Salmonella spp. on mung bean sprouts.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qianwang; Mikš-Krajnik, Marta; Yang, Yishan; Lee, Sang-Myun; Lee, Seung-Cheol; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun

    2016-04-02

    Fresh mung bean sprouts have been identified as a source of many Salmonella outbreaks worldwide. The aim of this study was to develop a rapid and accurate detection methodology for low levels of healthy and sanitizer-injured Salmonella on mung bean sprouts using real-time PCR coupled with either immunomagnetic separation (PCR-IMS) or centrifugation (PCR-cen). Initially, three parameters of IMS; specificity/sensitivity, bacterial concentration and bead incubation time were optimized. Secondly, limit of detection (LOD) was determined for the optimized PCR-IMS and PCR-cen. These two methods were compared against PCR alone (PCR) and the standard culture method (ISO) for their ability to detect Salmonella using inoculated and uninoculated sprouts. Under optimum IMS conditions (10(5)CFU/ml for 30 min), capture efficiency of Salmonella in sprout suspensions was lower than 40%, most probably due to the non-specific binding of the background microbiota. PCR-IMS and PCR-cen had a similar LOD at 10(3)CFU/ml, which was one log unit lower than PCR. Enrichment of 10h was sufficient to detect 100% of the inoculated sprouts with both PCR-IMS and PCR-cen, which was significantly faster compared to PCR and the ISO method. Moreover, the validation study using uninoculated sprouts revealed that PCR-IMS and PCR-cen were equally effective on Salmonella detection, showing 98.3% accuracy. These results suggest that PCR-cen would be the effective and less costly method for the detection of both healthy and sanitizer-injured Salmonella on mung bean sprouts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Novel molecular, cytotoxical, and immunological study on promising and selective anticancer activity of Mung bean sprouts

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The anticancer and immunomodulatory activity of mung bean sprouts (MBS) and the underlying mechanisms against human cervical and hepatocarcinoma cancer cells were explored. Methods MBS cytotoxicity and MBS-induced anticancer cytokines, TNF-α and IFN-β from cancer cells, and immunological cytokines, IL-4, IFN-γ, and IL-10 from peripheral mononuclear cells (PMNC) were assessed by MTS and ELISA assays. Apoptotic cells were investigated by flow cytometry. The expression level of apoptotic genes (Bax, BCL-2, Capsases 7–9) and cell cycle regulatory genes (cyclin D, E, and A) and tumor suppressor proteins (p27, p21, and p53) was assessed by real-time qPCR in the cancer cells treated with extract IC50. Results The cytotoxicity on normal human cells was significantly different from HeLa and HepG2 cells, 163.97 ± 5.73, 13.3 ± 0.89, and 14.04 ± 1.5 mg/ml, respectively. The selectivity index (SI) was 12.44 ± 0.83 for HeLa and 11.94 ± 1.2 for HepG2 cells. Increased levels of TNF-α and IFN-β were observed in the treated HeLa and HepG2 culture supernatants when compared with untreated cells. MBS extract was shown to be an immunopolarizing agent by inducing IFNγ and inhibiting IL-4 production by PBMC; this leads to triggering of CMI and cellular cytotoxicity. The extract induced apoptosis, in a dose and time dependent manner, in treated HeLa and HepG2, but not in untreated, cells (P < 0.05). The treatment significantly induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 in HeLa cells. The percentage of cells in G0/G1 phase of the treated HeLa cells increased from 62.87 ± 2.1%, in untreated cells, to 80.48 ± 2.97%. Interestingly, MBS IC50 induced the expression of apoptosis and tumor suppressor related genes in both HeLa and HepG2 cells. MBS extract succeeded in inducing cdk-inhibitors, p21, p53, and p27 in HeLa cells while it induced only p53 in HepG2 cells (P < 0.05). This is a clue for the cell type- specific interaction of the studied extract. These proteins inhibit

  7. Biological effect of audible sound control on mung bean (Vigna radiate) sprout.

    PubMed

    Cai, W; He, H; Zhu, S; Wang, N

    2014-01-01

    Audible sound (20-20000 Hz) widely exists in natural world. However, the interaction between audible sound and the growth of plants is usually neglected in biophysics research. Not much effort has been put forth in studying the relation of plant and audible sound. In this work, the effect of audible sound on germination and growth of mung bean (Vigna radiate) was studied under laboratory condition. Audible sound ranging 1000-1500 Hz, 1500-2000 Hz, and 2000-2500 Hz and intensities [80 dB (A), 90 dB (A), 100 dB (A)] were used to stimulate mung bean for 72 hours. The growth of mung bean was evaluated in terms of mean germination time, total length, and total fresh weight. Experimental results indicated that the sound wave can reduce the germination period of mung bean and the mung bean under treatments of sound with intensity around 90 dB and frequency around 2000 Hz and significant increase in growth. Audible sound treatment can promote the growth of mung bean differently for distinct frequency and intensity. The study provides us with a way to understand the effects and rules of sound field on plant growth and a new way to improve the production of mung bean.

  8. Biological Effect of Audible Sound Control on Mung Bean (Vigna radiate) Sprout

    PubMed Central

    Cai, W.; He, H.; Zhu, S.; Wang, N.

    2014-01-01

    Audible sound (20–20000 Hz) widely exists in natural world. However, the interaction between audible sound and the growth of plants is usually neglected in biophysics research. Not much effort has been put forth in studying the relation of plant and audible sound. In this work, the effect of audible sound on germination and growth of mung bean (Vigna radiate) was studied under laboratory condition. Audible sound ranging 1000–1500 Hz, 1500–2000 Hz, and 2000–2500 Hz and intensities [80 dB (A), 90 dB (A), 100 dB (A)] were used to stimulate mung bean for 72 hours. The growth of mung bean was evaluated in terms of mean germination time, total length, and total fresh weight. Experimental results indicated that the sound wave can reduce the germination period of mung bean and the mung bean under treatments of sound with intensity around 90 dB and frequency around 2000 Hz and significant increase in growth. Audible sound treatment can promote the growth of mung bean differently for distinct frequency and intensity. The study provides us with a way to understand the effects and rules of sound field on plant growth and a new way to improve the production of mung bean. PMID:25170517

  9. Effect of chemical stress on germination of cv Dalia bean (Phaseolus vularis L.) as an alternative to increase antioxidant and nutraceutical compounds in sprouts.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Sánchez, Magdalena; Guevara-González, Ramón G; Castaño-Tostado, Eduardo; Mercado-Silva, Edmundo M; Acosta-Gallegos, Jorge A; Rocha-Guzmán, Nuria E; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalía

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of chitosan (CH), salicylic acid (SA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at different concentrations on the antinutritional and nutraceutical content, as well as the antioxidant capacity of bean sprouts (cv Dalia). All elicitors at medium and high concentrations reduced the antinutritional content of lectins (48%), trypsin inhibitor (57%), amylase inhibitor (49%) and phytic acid (56%). Sprouts treated with CH, SA and H2O2 (7μM; 1 and 2mM, and 30mM respectively) increased the content of phenolic compounds (1.8-fold), total flavonoids (3-fold), saponins (1.8-fold) and antioxidant capacity (37%). Furthermore, the UPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis showed an increase of several nutraceutical compounds in bean sprouts treated with SA such as coumaric (8.5-fold), salicylic (115-fold), gallic (25-fold) and caffeic (1.7-fold) acids, as well as epigallocatechin (63-fold), rutin (41-fold) and quercetin (16.6-fold) flavonoids. The application of elicitors in bean seed during sprouting enhances their nutraceutical properties.

  10. Effects of ultraviolet irradiation, pulsed electric field, hot water dip and ethanol vapours treatment on keeping and sensory quality of mung bean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) sprouts.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Ankit; Siddiqui, Saleem

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this research work was to evaluate the effects of UV- irradiation, pulsed electric field (PEF), hot water dip (HWD) and ethanol vapours on the quality and storage life of mung bean sprouts (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek). The sprouts were subjected to various treatments viz., UV-Irradiation (10 kJm(-2) in laminar flow chamber for 1 h), PEF (10,000 V for 10s), HWD (50 °C for 2 min) and ethanol vapours (1 h); and then stored in thermocol cups wrapped with perforated cling films at room (25 ± 1 °C) and low (7 ± 1 °C) temperature conditions. The sprouts were analyzed regularly at 24 h interval for sprout length, sprout weight, total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity, non-enzymatic browning, total plate count and overall acceptability. Sprout length and weight increased during storage. There was no significant effect of various treatments on sprout length and weight, except in ethanol treatment, where suppression was observed. HWD showed higher TSS and acidity than that of control. The least browning was observed in ethanol treatment. The total plate count was not significantly affected by various treatments. Overall acceptability under various treatments decreased during storage period both at room and low temperature. Hot water and ethanol vapour treated sprouts showed higher acceptability than other treatments. However, the acceptability scores for sprouts remained within the acceptable range (≥6) up to 72 h at room temperature and 120 h at low temperature conditions.

  11. Engineering analysis of the high-density heterotrophic cultivation of mung bean sprouts.

    PubMed

    Tamate, Haruka; Nakai, Ran; Nakamori, Yasuyuki; Esashi, Masahiro; Iwamoto, Yasushi; Tsukada, Yoshihiro; Saito, Mika; Ishikawa, Daitaro; Fujii, Tomoyuki

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the heterotrophic growth behavior of mung beans cultivated in an individual bed under water supply. The fresh weight of mung beans in the bed was estimated, and changes in temperature, and oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations were recorded during the cultivation period. The specific growth rate, oxygen uptake rate, and carbon dioxide evolution rate, based on the fresh weight in the bed, were calculated. Growth under heterotrophic cultivation can be classified into the following three stages. Reductions in specific oxygen uptake rate, specific carbon dioxide evolution rate, and specific energy production rate corresponded to that of specific growth rate. Indicators of biological activity related to oxygen and carbon dioxide were evaluated quantitatively for beds under high-density heterotrophic cultivation. Moreover, the results obtained from this study successfully demonstrate that there is a relationship between the growth of mung beans and indicators of biological activity.

  12. Ionic Liquid-Hybrid Molecularly Imprinted Material-Filter Solid-Phase Extraction Coupled with HPLC for Determination of 6-Benzyladenine and 4-Chlorophenoxyacetic Acid in Bean Sprouts.

    PubMed

    Han, Yehong; Yang, Chunliu; Zhou, Yang; Han, Dandan; Yan, Hongyuan

    2017-03-01

    A new method involving ionic liquid-hybrid molecularly imprinted material-filter solid-phase extraction coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography (IL-HIM-FSPE-HPLC) was developed for the simultaneous isolation and determination of 6-benzyladenine (6-BA) and 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (4-CPA) in bean sprouts. Sample preconcentration was performed using a modified filter, with the new IL-HIM as the adsorbent, which shows double adsorption. The first adsorption involves special recognition of molecular imprinting, and the second involves ion exchange and electrostatic attraction caused by the ionic liquid. This method combines the advantages of ionic liquids, hybrid materials, and molecularly imprinted polymers and was successfully applied to determine 6-BA and 4-CPA in bean sprouts. The adsorption of 6-BA to IL-HIM is based on selective imprinted recognition, whereas the adsorption of 4-CPA is mainly dependent on ion-exchange interactions.

  13. Behavior of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli, non-O157-shiga toxin-producing E. coli, enteroinvasive E. coli, enteropathogenic E. coli and enterotoxigenic E. coli strains on mung bean seeds and sprout.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Rangel-Vargas, Esmeralda; Bautista-De León, Haydee; Vázquez-Barrios, Ma Estela; Gordillo-Martínez, Alberto J; Castro-Rosas, Javier

    2013-09-16

    The behavior of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC), non-O157 shiga toxin-producing E. coli (non-O157-STEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) on mung bean seeds at 25±2 °C and during germination and sprouting of mung bean seeds at 20±2 ° and 30±2 °C and on mung bean sprouts at 3±2 °C was determined. When mung bean seeds were inoculated with EAEC, non-O157 STEC, EIEC, EPEC or ETEC strains, all these diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes (DEPs) survived at least 90 days on mung bean seeds at 25±2 °C. All DEPs grew during germination and sprouting of seeds, reaching counts of approximately 5 Log and 7 Log CFU/g after 2 days at 20±2 ° and 30±2 °C, respectively. However, when the sprouts were inoculated after 1 day of seeds germination and stored at 20±2 ° or 30±2 °C, no growth was observed for any DEPs during sprouting at 20±2 °C per 9 d; however, a significant increase in the concentration of DEPs of approximately 0.7 log CFU/g was observed during sprouting at 30±2 °C after 1 day of sprout contamination. Refrigeration reduced the number of viable DEPs strains on sprouts after 10 days in storage; nevertheless, these decreases have no practical significance in the safety of the sprouts. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficacy of chlorine and peroxyacetic acid on reduction of natural microflora, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocyotgenes and Salmonella spp. on mung bean sprouts.

    PubMed

    Neo, Shan Yu; Lim, Pei Yan; Phua, Li Kai; Khoo, Gek Hoon; Kim, Su-Jung; Lee, Seung-Cheol; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun

    2013-12-01

    Sprouts-related outbreaks have risen due to increased raw sprouts consumption. To minimize such cases, chemical sanitations are applied. While chlorine is commonly used, concerns with its effectiveness and health implication have prompted researchers to seek alternatives. Peroxyacetic acid (PAA) has shown efficacy in inactivating foodborne pathogens on fresh vegetables, and hence could be considered as an alternative. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of chlorine and PAA in inactivating Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., and natural microflora on mung bean sprouts. Resistance of non- and acid-adapted pathogens to these sanitizer treatments was also evaluated. Un-inoculated and inoculated sprouts were treated with chlorine at 106, 130 and 170 ppm and PAA at 25, 51 and 70 ppm for 90 and 180 s at room temperature. Overall, the greater log reductions were obtained with the increase in the sanitizer concentration. For 180 s, chlorine treatment at 170 ppm reduced 2.0, 1.3, 1.5, 0.9-logs and PAA treatment at 70 ppm resulted in 2.3, 1.8, 2.1, 1.1-log reductions for non-adapted E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., and natural microflora, respectively. These results revealed that the efficacy of PAA was significantly better than or similar to that of chlorine. For acid-adapted cells, these sanitizer treatments were less effective with the ranges of 1.0-1.2-log reductions for chlorine and 1.1-1.6-log reductions for PAA compared to non-adapted cells, indicating that acid-adapted cells were more resistant to the sanitizing treatment. These data suggest that PAA may replace chlorine in the disinfection of mung bean sprouts and that acid-adapted pathogens should be used to design an effective sanitizing strategy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Spoilage of an acid food product by Clostridium perfringens, C. barati and C. butyricum.

    PubMed

    de Jong, J

    1989-05-01

    Spoilage of canned pasteurized brined mung bean sprouts, acidified with citric acid to pH 4.0-4.5, was found to be caused by acid tolerant Clostridium spp. including the species barati, perfringens and butyricum. The pH limit for growth in the brine used were estimated 3.7, 3.7 and 4.0 respectively. Some of the isolated C. perfringens strains produced enterotoxins in sporulation media. The spores of the isolated anaerobes appeared to originate from mung beans, but C. barati and C. perfringens strains freshly isolated from dry beans, were unable to grow in acidified brine. During germination and sprouting of mung beans, the oxygen concentration decreased, while carbon dioxide concentration increased considerably, due to respiration of the sprouts and actively growing Enterobacteriaceae and lactobacilli. It was assumed that this allowed C. barati and C. perfringens strains to grow and acquire the observed unusual acid tolerance. After increasing aerobicity during sprouting, no growth of Clostridium spp. was observed, substantiating the assumption.

  16. Mung bean sprout (Phaseolus aureus) nuclease and its biological and antitumor effects.

    PubMed

    Soucek, J; Skvor, J; Poucková, P; Matousek, J; Slavík, T; Matousek, J

    2006-01-01

    Bovine seminal ribonuclease (BS RNase), a dimeric homolog of bovine pancreatic ribonuclease (RNase A), is known to display special biological activities namely cytotoxicity for human tumor cells. Because some plant ribonucleases have a similar mass weight and structure as the animal ribonuclease, effects of a commercial product of Mung bean (Phaseolus aureus) nuclease (PhA) were studied on proliferation of ML-2 human tumor cells, as well as it's aspermatogenic, embryotoxic, immunogenic, and immunosuppressive activity, and therapeutic efficiency in athymic mice bearing human melanoma tumor. Concerning the antiproliferative activity, PhA nuclease was almost non-effective in vitro on ML-2 cells and also immunosuppressive activity on human lymphocyte in mixed culture was very low compared to that of BS RNase. However, significant antitumor activity was detected on human melanoma tumor after intratumoral or intraperitoneal administration into the mice. Furthermore conjugate of PhA nuclease with polyethylene glycol (PEG) injected seven times at the dose of 10 microg intraperitoneally showed identical antitumor activity as that of bovine seminal ribonuclease (BS RNase) injected by the same way at ten times higher dose. Both PhA and BS RNases exerted strong aspermatogenic effect on the width of spermatogenic layers while RNase A administration at ten times higher concentration was ineffective. PhA nuclease when compared by means of antibody cross reaction with RNase A, BS RNase and wheat leaf neutral RNase (WLN-RNase) was found to be immunologically similar to RNase A and WLN-RNase, meanwhile BS RNase showed much higher antigenicity in comparison with them.

  17. Vig r 6, the cytokinin-specific binding protein from mung bean (Vigna radiata) sprouts, cross-reacts with Bet v 1-related allergens and binds IgE from birch pollen allergic patients’ sera

    PubMed Central

    Guhsl, Eva Elisabeth; Hofstetter, Gerlinde; Hemmer, Wolfgang; Ebner, Christof; Vieths, Stefan; Vogel, Lothar; Breiteneder, Heimo; Radauer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Scope Birch pollen associated allergy to mung bean sprouts is caused by cross-reactivity between the birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 and the mung bean allergen Vig r 1. We aimed to determine the allergenicity of the cytokinin-specific binding protein from mung bean (Vig r 6), another allergen related to Bet v 1 with only 31% sequence identity. Methods and results Bet v 1, Gly m 4, Vig r 1, and Vig r 6 were produced in Escherichia coli. In an ELISA, 73 and 32% of Bet v 1-sensitized birch-allergic patients’ sera (n = 60) showed IgE binding to Vig r 1 and Vig r 6, respectively. Of 19 patients who reported allergic reactions or had positive prick-to-prick tests to mung bean sprouts, 79% showed IgE binding to Vig r 1 and 63% showed IgE binding to Vig r 6. Bet v 1 completely inhibited IgE binding to both mung bean allergens. Vig r 6 showed partial cross-reactivity with Vig r 1 and activated basophils sensitized with mung bean allergic patients’ sera. Conclusion We demonstrated IgE cross-reactivity despite low sequence identity between Vig r 6 and other Bet v 1-related allergens. Thus, IgE binding to Vig r 6 may contribute to birch pollinosis-associated mung bean sprout allergy. PMID:23996905

  18. Vig r 6, the cytokinin-specific binding protein from mung bean (Vigna radiata) sprouts, cross-reacts with Bet v 1-related allergens and binds IgE from birch pollen allergic patients' sera.

    PubMed

    Guhsl, Eva Elisabeth; Hofstetter, Gerlinde; Hemmer, Wolfgang; Ebner, Christof; Vieths, Stefan; Vogel, Lothar; Breiteneder, Heimo; Radauer, Christian

    2014-03-01

    Birch pollen associated allergy to mung bean sprouts is caused by cross-reactivity between the birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 and the mung bean allergen Vig r 1. We aimed to determine the allergenicity of the cytokinin-specific binding protein from mung bean (Vig r 6), another allergen related to Bet v 1 with only 31% sequence identity. Bet v 1, Gly m 4, Vig r 1, and Vig r 6 were produced in Escherichia coli. In an ELISA, 73 and 32% of Bet v 1-sensitized birch-allergic patients' sera (n = 60) showed IgE binding to Vig r 1 and Vig r 6, respectively. Of 19 patients who reported allergic reactions or had positive prick-to-prick tests to mung bean sprouts, 79% showed IgE binding to Vig r 1 and 63% showed IgE binding to Vig r 6. Bet v 1 completely inhibited IgE binding to both mung bean allergens. Vig r 6 showed partial cross-reactivity with Vig r 1 and activated basophils sensitized with mung bean allergic patients' sera. We demonstrated IgE cross-reactivity despite low sequence identity between Vig r 6 and other Bet v 1-related allergens. Thus, IgE binding to Vig r 6 may contribute to birch pollinosis-associated mung bean sprout allergy. © 2013 The Authors. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Concentration and detection of Salmonella in mung bean sprout spent irrigation water by use of tangential flow filtration coupled with an amperometric flowthrough enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    McEgan, R; Fu, T J; Warriner, K

    2009-03-01

    The development of a culture-free method for Salmonella screening of spent irrigation water derived from sprouting mung bean beds is described. The system used tangential flow filtration (TFF) to nonspecifically concentrate cells from large (2- to 10-liter) sample volumes. The retentate (100 ml) from the TFF was then flowed over an anti-Salmonella antibody-modified cellulose acetate membrane. The captured Salmonella was detected by reacting with a secondary anti-Salmonella and goat anti-rabbit biotin labeled antibody, followed by avidin-tagged glucose oxidase. The hydrogen peroxide generated from the enzymic oxidation of glucose was amperometrically detected at an underlying platinum electrode. It was found that 10 liters of Salmonella suspensions of 2 log CFU/ml could be concentrated to 4 log CFU/ml with 60% recovery regardless of the flow rate (112 to 511 ml/min) or transmembrane pressure (0 to 20 lb/in2) applied. The solids content of spent irrigation water negatively affected the filtration rate of TFE. This was most evident in spent irrigation water collected in the initial 24 h of the sprouting period, where the solids content was high (4,170 mg/liter) compared with samples collected at 96 h (560 mg/ liter). Trials were performed using mung bean beds inoculated with different Salmonella levels (1.3 to 3.3 log CFU/g). By using the optimized TFF and flowthrough immunoassay it was possible to detect Salmonella in spent irrigation water at levels of 2.43 log CFU/ml within 4 h. The integrated concentration and detection system will provide a useful tool for sprout producers to perform in-house pathogen screening of spent irrigation water.

  20. Quantitative assessment of the risk of microbial spoilage in foods. Prediction of non-stability at 55 °C caused by Geobacillus stearothermophilus in canned green beans.

    PubMed

    Rigaux, Clémence; André, Stéphane; Albert, Isabelle; Carlin, Frédéric

    2014-02-03

    Microbial spoilage of canned foods by thermophilic and highly heat-resistant spore-forming bacteria, such as Geobacillus stearothermophilus, is a persistent problem in the food industry. An incubation test at 55 °C for 7 days, then validation of biological stability, is used as an indicator of compliance with good manufacturing practices. We propose a microbial risk assessment model predicting the percentage of non-stability due to G. stearothermophilus in canned green beans manufactured by a French company. The model accounts for initial microbial contaminations of fresh unprocessed green beans with G. stearothermophilus, cross-contaminations in the processing chain, inactivation processes and probability of survival and growth. The sterilization process is modeled by an equivalent heating time depending on sterilization value F₀ and on G. stearothermophilus resistance parameter z(T). Following the recommendations of international organizations, second order Monte-Carlo simulations are used, separately propagating uncertainty and variability on parameters. As a result of the model, the mean predicted non-stability rate is of 0.5%, with a 95% uncertainty interval of [0.1%; 1.2%], which is highly similar to data communicated by the French industry. A sensitivity analysis based on Sobol indices and some scenario tests underline the importance of cross-contamination at the blanching step, in addition to inactivation due to the sterilization process.

  1. [Determination of three exogenous plant hormone residues in bean sprout by high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Xie, Hanbing; Zhou, Mingying; Zhao, Haifeng; Wang, Yigang; Jiang, Wanfeng; Zhao, Shan

    2014-05-01

    This study was aimed to the establishment of an analytical method for the determination of three exogenous plant hormone residues in bean sprout by high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-Q-TOF-MS). The target compounds were gibberellins, 6-benzylaminopurine and parachlorophenoxyacetic acid. The QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) method was used for sample preparation. The analytes were extracted with a solution containing 1% (v/v, if not specified) acetic, 50% ethanol, 49% acetonitrile, and cleaned-up by dispersive solid-phase extraction with diatomite dispersant, then degreased by hexane. The three target compounds were separated on an Eclipse Plus C18 column (100 mm x 3.0 mm, 1.8 microm) with mobile phases A (water containing 0.1% formic acid) and B (methanol) by gradient elution within 15 min, and detected under negative electrospray ionization (ESI) mode. The quantitative analysis was carried out by extracting the peak area with accurate mass. The confirmatory analysis of the target compounds was performed with the qualitative fragments. The results showed that the limits of quantification (LOQs, S/N = 10) for the three target compounds were from 5.0 microg/kg to 10 microg/kg. The respective mean recoveries were found to be in the range of 79.1%-96.1%, and the RSDs were 5.7%-10.4%. It was applicable to the analysis of the three exogenous plant hormones in bean sprout samples. This method is simple, fast and efficient.

  2. Power sprouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, M. M. J.

    2014-05-01

    This paper explains how a large number of sprouts were used as a battery of cells and connected together to power a set of LED Christmas lights. All relevant calculations to find the number of sprouts needed, their arrangement in series and parallel, the charge stored on the required capacitor and the capacitor charging time are illustrated.

  3. Biogenic amines and microbial quality of sprouts.

    PubMed

    Simon-Sarkadi, L; Holzapfel, W H

    1995-04-01

    Changes in the biogenic amine content relative to microbial activities in mung bean, lentil and radish sprouts were investigated in prepacked and "home-grown" products. Biogenic amines were determined by ion-exchange chromatography. The major groups of micro-organisms were enumerated by aerobic plate count procedures, using universal and selective media. Putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, agmatine and spermine were detected in different concentrations, depending on the type of sprouts. In prepacked retail products the total biogenic amine content was higher than in home-grown samples (mung bean 106 micrograms/g compared to 87 micrograms/g; lentil 316 micrograms/g compared to 181 micrograms/g; radish 1486 micrograms/g compared to 252 micrograms/g). It is concluded that sprouting time and storage conditions play a major part in the hygienic quality of legume sprouts.

  4. Composition and physiological profiling of sprout-associated microbial communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matos, Anabelle; Garland, Jay L.; Fett, William F.

    2002-01-01

    The native microfloras of various types of sprouts (alfalfa, clover, sunflower, mung bean, and broccoli sprouts) were examined to assess the relative effects of sprout type and inoculum factors (i.e., sprout-growing facility, seed lot, and inoculation with sprout-derived inocula) on the microbial community structure of sprouts. Sprouts were sonicated for 7 min or hand shaken with glass beads for 2 min to recover native microfloras from the surface, and the resulting suspensions were diluted and plated. The culturable fraction was characterized by the density (log CFU/g), richness (e.g., number of types of bacteria), and diversity (e.g., microbial richness and evenness) of colonies on tryptic soy agar plates incubated for 48 h at 30 degrees C. The relative similarity between sprout-associated microbial communities was assessed with the use of community-level physiological profiles (CLPPs) based on patterns of utilization of 95 separate carbon sources. Aerobic plate counts of 7.96 +/- 0.91 log CFU/g of sprout tissue (fresh weight) were observed, with no statistically significant differences in microbial cell density, richness, or diversity due to sprout type, sprout-growing facility, or seed lot. CLPP analyses revealed that the microbial communities associated with alfalfa and clover sprouts are more similar than those associated with the other sprout types tested. Variability among sprout types was more extensive than any differences between microbial communities associated with alfalfa and clover sprouts from different sprout-growing facilities and seed lots. These results indicate that the subsequent testing of biocontrol agents should focus on similar organisms for alfalfa and clover, but alternative types may be most suitable for the other sprout types tested. The inoculation of alfalfa sprouts with communities derived from various sprout types had a significant, source-independent effect on microbial community structure, indicating that the process of

  5. Composition and physiological profiling of sprout-associated microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Matos, Anabelle; Garland, Jay L; Fett, William F

    2002-12-01

    The native microfloras of various types of sprouts (alfalfa, clover, sunflower, mung bean, and broccoli sprouts) were examined to assess the relative effects of sprout type and inoculum factors (i.e., sprout-growing facility, seed lot, and inoculation with sprout-derived inocula) on the microbial community structure of sprouts. Sprouts were sonicated for 7 min or hand shaken with glass beads for 2 min to recover native microfloras from the surface, and the resulting suspensions were diluted and plated. The culturable fraction was characterized by the density (log CFU/g), richness (e.g., number of types of bacteria), and diversity (e.g., microbial richness and evenness) of colonies on tryptic soy agar plates incubated for 48 h at 30 degrees C. The relative similarity between sprout-associated microbial communities was assessed with the use of community-level physiological profiles (CLPPs) based on patterns of utilization of 95 separate carbon sources. Aerobic plate counts of 7.96 +/- 0.91 log CFU/g of sprout tissue (fresh weight) were observed, with no statistically significant differences in microbial cell density, richness, or diversity due to sprout type, sprout-growing facility, or seed lot. CLPP analyses revealed that the microbial communities associated with alfalfa and clover sprouts are more similar than those associated with the other sprout types tested. Variability among sprout types was more extensive than any differences between microbial communities associated with alfalfa and clover sprouts from different sprout-growing facilities and seed lots. These results indicate that the subsequent testing of biocontrol agents should focus on similar organisms for alfalfa and clover, but alternative types may be most suitable for the other sprout types tested. The inoculation of alfalfa sprouts with communities derived from various sprout types had a significant, source-independent effect on microbial community structure, indicating that the process of

  6. Microbiological analysis of seed sprouts in Norway.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Lucy J; Johannessen, Gro S; Gjerde, Bjørn K; Loncarevic, Semir

    2002-05-05

    As part of larger survey of microbial contamination of fruits and vegetables in Norway, four different sprouted seed products were analysed for bacterial and parasitic contaminants (n = 300 for bacterial analyses and n = from 17 to 171 for parasite analyses, depending on parasite). Escherichia coli O157, Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, Cyclospora oocysts, Ascaris eggs and other helminth parasites were not detected in any of the sprout samples. Thermotolerant coliform bacteria (TCB) were isolated from approximately 25% of the sprout samples, with the highest percentage of TCB positive samples in alfalfa sprouts. Most TCB were Enterobacter spp. and Klebsiella. E. coli was isolated from 8 of 62 TCB positive mung bean sprout samples. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in 8% of the sprout samples and Giardia cysts were detected in 2% of the samples. All the Cryptosporidium positive samples, and most of the Giardia positive samples, were mung bean sprouts. Parasite concentrations in positive samples were low (between 1 and 3 oocysts/cysts per 50 g sprouts). Sprout irrigation water was also analysed for microbial contaminants. E. coli O157 and L. monocytogenes were not detected. TCB were isolated from approximately 40% of the water samples. Salmonella reading was isolated from three samples of spent irrigation water on 3 consecutive days. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were also isolated from spent irrigation water. Additionally, eight samples of unsprouted mung bean seed were analysed for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts. One or both of these parasites were detected in six of the unsprouted seed samples at concentrations of between 1 and 5 oocysts/cysts per 100 g unsprouted seed. Whilst our results support spent irrigation water as the most suitable matrix for testing for bacteria, unsprouted seed is considered the more useful matrix for analysing for parasite contaminants.

  7. Epicormic sprouting

    Treesearch

    Richard M. Godman

    1992-01-01

    Thin too much the first time and you are likely to get a surge of epicormic sprouts. These small branches that can mar a clean bole and cause serious degrade often develop profusely in pole and small sawtimber before and after initial thinning, particularly under even-age management.

  8. Evaluation of chlorine dioxide gas treatment to inactivate Salmonella enterica on mungbean sprouts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although fresh-sprouted beans and grains are considered a good source of nutrients, they have been associated with foodborne outbreaks. Sprouts provide a good matrix for microbial localization and growth due to optimal conditions of temperature and humidity while sprouting. Also, the lack of a kill...

  9. Efficacy of the combined application of chitosan and Locust Bean Gum with different citrus essential oils to control postharvest spoilage caused by Aspergillus flavus in dates.

    PubMed

    Aloui, Hajer; Khwaldia, Khaoula; Licciardello, Fabio; Mazzaglia, Agata; Muratore, Giuseppe; Hamdi, Moktar; Restuccia, Cristina

    2014-01-17

    This study reports the efficacy of the combined application of chitosan (CH) and Locust Bean Gum (LBG) in combination with different citrus essential oils (EOs) to inhibit Aspergillus flavus in vitro and on artificially infected dates for a storage period of 12 days. The effect of these treatments on the fruits' sensory characteristics was evaluated to verify the complete absence of off-odours and off-flavours. Bergamot EO was the most effective in reducing mycelial growth, followed by bitter orange EO. Both bergamot and bitter orange oils significantly reduced conidial germination and a complete inhibition was obtained at concentrations higher than 2%. The mixtures based on CH-2% (v/v) bergamot EO or CH-2% (v/v) bitter orange EO proved to be the most effective coatings to reduce conidial germination resulting in an 87-90% inhibition compared with the control. In fruit decay assays coatings based on CH incorporating citrus oils were able to reduce fungal decay in the range of 52-62% at day 12. The study results and the complete absence of off-flavours and off-odours demonstrate the potential of CH coatings carrying citrus EOs at sub-inhibitory concentrations to control postharvest growth of A. flavus in dates.

  10. A Simple and Selective Fluorescent Sensor Chip for Indole-3-Butyric Acid in Mung Bean Sprouts Based on Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Coatings.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jiahua; Bahethan, Bota; Muhammad, Turghun; Yakup, Burabiye; Abbas, Mamatimin

    2017-08-24

    In this paper, we report the preparation of molecularly imprinted polymer coatings on quartz chips for selective solid-phase microextraction and fluorescence sensing of the auxin, indole-3-butyric acid. The multiple copolymerization method was used to prepare polymer coatings on silylated quartz chips. The polymer preparation conditions (e.g., the solvent, monomer, and cross-linker) were investigated systemically to enhance the binding performance of the imprinted coatings. Direct solid-phase fluorescence measurements on the chips facilitated monitoring changes in coating performance. The average binding capacity of an imprinted polymer coated chip was approximately 152.9 µg, which was higher than that of a non-imprinted polymer coated chip (60.8 µg); the imprinted coatings showed the highest binding to IBA among the structural analogues, indicating that the coatings possess high selectivity toward the template molecule. The developed method was used for the determination of the auxin in mung bean extraction, and the recovery was found to be in the range of 91.5% to 97.5%, with an RSD (n = 3) of less than 7.4%. Thus, the present study provides a simple method for fabricating a fluorescent sensor chip for selective analysis.

  11. A Simple and Selective Fluorescent Sensor Chip for Indole-3-Butyric Acid in Mung Bean Sprouts Based on Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Coatings

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jiahua; Bahethan, Bota; Muhammad, Turghun; Yakup, Burabiye; Abbas, Mamatimin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we report the preparation of molecularly imprinted polymer coatings on quartz chips for selective solid-phase microextraction and fluorescence sensing of the auxin, indole-3-butyric acid. The multiple copolymerization method was used to prepare polymer coatings on silylated quartz chips. The polymer preparation conditions (e.g., the solvent, monomer, and cross-linker) were investigated systemically to enhance the binding performance of the imprinted coatings. Direct solid-phase fluorescence measurements on the chips facilitated monitoring changes in coating performance. The average binding capacity of an imprinted polymer coated chip was approximately 152.9 µg, which was higher than that of a non-imprinted polymer coated chip (60.8 µg); the imprinted coatings showed the highest binding to IBA among the structural analogues, indicating that the coatings possess high selectivity toward the template molecule. The developed method was used for the determination of the auxin in mung bean extraction, and the recovery was found to be in the range of 91.5% to 97.5%, with an RSD (n = 3) of less than 7.4%. Thus, the present study provides a simple method for fabricating a fluorescent sensor chip for selective analysis. PMID:28837081

  12. Thinning sprout clumps

    Treesearch

    Robert Rogers; Paul S. Johnson

    1989-01-01

    Only stump sprouts originating in clearcuts or extremely heavily thinned stands have significant potential for developing into good trees. Stump sprouts can account for as many as half the stems after a clearcut of central hardwoods.

  13. Novel antiviral activity of mung bean sprouts against respiratory syncytial virus and herpes simplex virus -1: an in vitro study on virally infected Vero and MRC-5 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Hafidh, Rand R; Abdulamir, Ahmed S; Abu Bakar, Fatimah; Sekawi, Zamberi; Jahansheri, Fatemeh; Jalilian, Farid Azizi

    2015-06-11

    New sources for discovering novel antiviral agents are desperately needed. The current antiviral products are both expensive and not very effective. The antiviral activity of methanol extract of mung bean sprouts (MBS), compared to Ribavarin and Acyclovir, on respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and Herpes Simplex virus -1 (HSV-1) was investigated using cytotoxicity, virus yield reduction, virucidal activity, and prophylactic activity assays on Vero and MRC-5 cell lines. Moreover, the level of antiviral cytokines, IFNβ, TNFα, IL-1, and IL-6 was assessed in MBS-treated, virally infected, virally infected MBS-treated, and control groups of MRC-5 cells using ELISA. MBS extract showed reduction factors (RF) 2.2 × 10 and 0.5 × 10(2) for RSV and HSV-1, respectively. The 2 h incubation virucidal and prophylactic selectivity indices (SI) of MBS on RSV were 14.18 and 12.82 versus Ribavarin SI of 23.39 and 21.95, respectively, and on HSV-1, SI were 18.23 and 10.9 versus Acyclovir, 22.56 and 15.04, respectively. All SI values were >10 indicating that MBS has a good direct antiviral and prophylactic activities on both RSV and HSV-1. Moreover, interestingly, MBS extract induced vigorously IFNβ, TNFα, IL-1, and IL-6 cytokines in MRC-5 infected-treated group far more than other groups (P < 0.05) and induced TNFα and IL-6 in treated group more than infected group (P < 0.05). MBS extract has potent antiviral and to a lesser extent, prophylactic activities against both RSV and HSV-1, and in case of HSV-1, these activities were comparable to Acyclovir. Part of the underlying mechanism(s) of these activities is attributed to MBS potential to remarkably induce antiviral cytokines in human cells. Hence, we infer that MBS methanol extract could be used as such or as purified active component in protecting and treating RSV and HSV-1 infections. More studies are needed to pinpoint the exact active components responsible for the MBS antiviral activities.

  14. Post harvest spoilage of sweetpotato in tropics and control measures.

    PubMed

    Ray, R C; Ravi, V

    2005-01-01

    Sweetpotato storage roots are subjected to several forms of post harvest spoilage in the tropical climate during transportation from farmers' field to market and in storage. These are due to mechanical injury, weight loss, sprouting, and pests and diseases. Sweetpotato weevil is the single most important storage pest in tropical regions for which no control measures or resistant variety are yet available. Several microorganisms (mostly fungi) have been found to induce spoilage in stored sweetpotatoes. The most important among them are Botryodiplodia theobromae, Ceratocystis fimbriata, Fusarium spp., and Rhizopus oryzae. The other less frequently occurring spoilage microorganisms include Cochliobolus lunatus (Curvularia lunata), Macrophomina phaseolina, Sclerotium rolfsii, Rhizoctonia solani, Plenodomus destruens. Microbial spoilage of sweetpotato is found associated with decrease in starch, total sugar, organic acid (ascorbic acid and oxalic acid) contents with concomitant increase in polyphenols, ethylene, and in some instances phytoalexins. Several methods are used to control microbial spoilage. Curing to promote wound healing is found as the most suitable method to control microbial spoilage. Curing naturally occurs in tropical climates where mean day temperature during sweetpotato harvesting season (February-April) invariably remains at 32-35 degrees C and relative humidity at 80-95%. Sweetpotato varieties varied in their root dry matter content, and low root dry matter content attributed for their high curing efficiency. Curing efficiency of varieties also differed in response to curing periods. Fungicide treatment, bio-control, gamma irradiation, hydro warming, and storage in sand and saw dust were found to have intermediate impacts in controlling spoilage and enhancing shelf life of sweetpotato roots. Breeding program has to be chalked out to develop new varieties suitable to curing under tropical conditions in addition to developing varieties having multi

  15. Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity in selected seeds and sprouts.

    PubMed

    Pająk, Paulina; Socha, Robert; Gałkowska, Dorota; Rożnowski, Jacek; Fortuna, Teresa

    2014-01-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of germination on the phenolic acids and flavonoids profile, as well as antioxidant activity (AA), in selected edible seeds of mung beans, radish, broccoli and sunflower. Germination increased the total phenolic (TP) and flavonoid (TF) levels, as well as the AA of the seeds, and influenced the profile of free and bound phenolic compounds. Among the samples, mung bean was characterised by lowest levels of TP and TF, as well as AA, evaluated using ABTS, DPPH and FRAP assays. Sunflower and radish sprouts were the most rich in phenolic compounds. Insignificant amounts of free phenolic acids were found in the free phenolic acid fraction; alkaline hydrolysis of the seeds and sprouts extracts provided the majority of the phenolic acids. The amounts of free and bound flavonoids were inconsiderable both for seeds and sprouts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sprouting Interest in Photosynthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doughty, Janet

    1997-01-01

    Describes an alternative approach to the familiar paper cup and seed project in which students make grass heads out of nylon mesh stockings, sawdust, wire, rubber bands, plastic eyes, and grass seed. Students can observe the effects of light, sprouting rates, and the height and color of the sprouts on these grass heads. This creative activity is…

  17. Sprouting Interest in Photosynthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doughty, Janet

    1997-01-01

    Describes an alternative approach to the familiar paper cup and seed project in which students make grass heads out of nylon mesh stockings, sawdust, wire, rubber bands, plastic eyes, and grass seed. Students can observe the effects of light, sprouting rates, and the height and color of the sprouts on these grass heads. This creative activity is…

  18. Unusual decline of tanoak sprouts

    Treesearch

    Philip M. McDonald; Detlev R. Vogler; Dennis Mayhew

    1988-01-01

    Comparisons between abnormal and normal sprout clumps of tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus [Hook. & Am.] Rehd.) in northern California indicated that sprouts in abnormal clumps had about five times the number of sprouts per dump, were three times as wide, and only one-fifth as tall. Stunted and chlorotic sprouts were examined for virus and disease...

  19. Automatic Sprout Grower

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard L.; Scheld, H. W.; Magnuson, J. W.

    1989-01-01

    Self-contained seed-sprouting system provides environment for sprouting seeds quickly and easily. Sprouting container standard 6-oz package for dehydrated food and drink mixes in Space Shuttle. About 4 g of dry alfalfa or radish seeds vacuum-sealed in each cup, like freeze-dried foods. Sixteen cups suspended in tray. Air-and-water inlet tube links each cup to system of tubes and solenoid valves alternately furnish air and water and remove stale air. Peristaltic pump supplies water from vinyl medical-fluid bag. Small diaphragm pump supplies and exhausts air. Small circuit board times movements of air and water. Kit offers advantages to home gardeners. Apartment dwellers use it for steady production of homegrown sprouts even though they have no garden space.

  20. Automatic Sprout Grower

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard L.; Scheld, H. W.; Magnuson, J. W.

    1989-01-01

    Self-contained seed-sprouting system provides environment for sprouting seeds quickly and easily. Sprouting container standard 6-oz package for dehydrated food and drink mixes in Space Shuttle. About 4 g of dry alfalfa or radish seeds vacuum-sealed in each cup, like freeze-dried foods. Sixteen cups suspended in tray. Air-and-water inlet tube links each cup to system of tubes and solenoid valves alternately furnish air and water and remove stale air. Peristaltic pump supplies water from vinyl medical-fluid bag. Small diaphragm pump supplies and exhausts air. Small circuit board times movements of air and water. Kit offers advantages to home gardeners. Apartment dwellers use it for steady production of homegrown sprouts even though they have no garden space.

  1. Thinning sprout clumps

    Treesearch

    Richard M. Godman

    1992-01-01

    How do you deal with stump sprouts in second-growth hardwood stands? Although thinning them takes special effort to avoid causing decay, stump sprouts are the only way to regenerate certain species such as basswood. Generally, you should thin them early and preferably when potential crop stems are 3 inches d.b.h. or less. But if you delay thinning until they are pole-...

  2. Characterization of the cultivable microbiota of sprouts and their potential for application as protective cultures.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Alexander; Hertel, Christian; Grothe, Silke; Ha, Diep; Hammes, Walter P

    2007-09-01

    The microbiota of ten seeds and ready-to-eat sprouts produced thereof was characterized by bacteriological culture and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of amplified DNA fragments of the 16S rRNA gene. The predominant bacterial biota of hydroponically grown sprouts mainly consisted of enterobacteria, pseudomonades and lactic acid bacteria (LAB). For adzuki, alfalfa, mung bean, radish, sesame and wheat, the ratio of these bacterial groups changed strongly in the course of germination, whereas for broccoli, red cabbage, rye and green pea the ratio remained unchanged. Within the pseudomonades, Pseudomonas gesardii and Pseudomonas putida have been isolated and strains of the potentially pathogenic species Enterobacter cancerogenes and Pantoea agglomerans were found as part of the main microbiota on hydroponically grown sprouts. In addition to the microbiota of the whole seedlings, the microbiota of root, hypocotyl and seed leafs were examined for alfalfa, radish and mung bean sprouts. The highest and lowest total counts for aerobic bacteria were found on seed leafs and hypocotyls, respectively. On the other hand, the highest numbers for LAB on sprouts were found on the hypocotyl. When sprouting occurred under the agricultural conditions, e.g. in soil, the dominating microbiota changed from enterobacteria to pseudomonades for mung beans and alfalfa sprouts. No pathogenic enterobacteria have been isolated from these sprout types. Within the pseudomonades group, Pseudomonas jessenii and Pseudomonas brassicacearum were found as dominating species on all seedling parts from soil samples. In practical experiments, a strain of P. jessenii was found to exhibit a potential for use as protective culture, as it suppresses the growth of pathogenic enterobacteria on ready-to-eat sprouts.

  3. Healthy food trends -- brussels sprouts

    MedlinePlus

    ... the vitamin C is lost with this cooking method. Where to Find Brussels Sprouts Brussels sprouts are ... with the sauce. Source: United States Department of Agriculture Alternative Names Healthy food trends - Brussels cabbage; Healthy ...

  4. Analysis and enhancement of nutritional and antioxidant properties of Vigna aconitifolia sprouts.

    PubMed

    Kestwal, Rakesh M; Bagal-Kestwal, Dipali; Chiang, Been-Huang

    2012-06-01

    Vigna aconitifolia sprouts (Moth bean sprouts, MBS) were analyzed for their nutritional and antioxidant properties during sprouting. Sprouting for six days led to a 7.0 fold increase in fresh weight, 2.4 fold increase in soluble proteins, 3.0 fold increase in carbohydrates, and a 5.5 fold increase in mineral content. Phenolic content also increased by 28% during germination. Caffeic acid, ferulic acid, cinnamic acid and kaempferol were the predominant phenolic compounds detected in the ethanolic extracts of MBS by HPLC. Following supplementation with metal ions (200 μg ml⁻¹), the sprouts demonstrated a considerable increase in metal ion uptake, with improved phenolic content. MBS ethanolic extracts also reduced intracellular oxidative stress in HepG2 cells.

  5. Microbiological Spoilage of Cereal Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Frederick K.; Johnson, Billie L.

    A wide range of cereal products, including bakery items, refrigerated dough, fresh pasta products, dried cereal products, snack foods, and bakery mixes, are manufactured for food consumption. These products are subject to physical, chemical, and microbiological spoilage that affects the taste, aroma, leavening, appearance, and overall quality of the end consumer product. Microorganisms are ubiquitous in nature and have the potential for causing food spoilage and foodborne disease. However, compared to other categories of food products, bakery products rarely cause food poisoning. The heat that is applied during baking or frying usually eliminates pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, and low moisture contributes to product stability. Nevertheless, microbiological spoilage of these products occurs, resulting in substantial economic losses.

  6. Brussels Sprout Decapitation Yields Larger Sprouts of Superior Quality.

    PubMed

    Jakopic, Jerneja; Weber, Nika; Cunja, Vlasta; Veberic, Robert; Slatnar, Ana

    2016-10-12

    A common technological practice in Brussels sprouts (Brassica oleracea L. var. gemmifera) production is the removal of apical plant section a few weeks before harvest in order to promote the development of auxiliary buds (sprouts) and ensure higher yields. It is well-known that this measure positively influences the size of the sprouts, but until now no study has focused on the effect of decapitation on the content of primary and secondary metabolites in Brussels sprouts. Plants were decapitated one month before harvest, and sprouts were sampled from three sections along the stem (basal, middle, top) of each plant. The sprouts were harvested, weighed, and chemically analyzed. The content of individual sugars was assessed by HPLC and the content of individual phenolics and glucosinolates by HPLC-MS. Significant interactions between the decapitation and different stem sections were detected in the weight of the sprouts, as well as in their sugar levels. The highest sugar content was determined in basal sprouts collected from decapitated plants. Conversely, basal sprouts from nondecapitated plants were characterized by the lowest sugar content. No interaction between the decapitation and stem sections was detected in the level of phenolics or glucosinolates. Decapitation promoted the accumulation of all glucosinolates and hydroxycinnamic acids. Moreover, the content of glucosinolates and flavonoids was always highest in the sprouts from the top stem section.

  7. Prevention of oxidative DNA damage in rats by brussels sprouts.

    PubMed

    Deng, X S; Tuo, J; Poulsen, H E; Loft, S

    1998-03-01

    The alleged cancer preventive effects of cruciferous vegetables could be related to protection from mutagenic oxidative DNA damage. We have studied the effects of Brussels sprouts, some non-cruciferous vegetables and isolated glucosinolates on spontaneous and induced oxidative DNA damage in terms of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) in groups of 6-8 male Wistar rats. Excess oxidative DNA damage was induced by 2-nitropropane (2-NP 100 mg/kg). Four days oral administration of 3 g of cooked Brussels sprouts homogenate reduced the spontaneous urinary 8-oxodG excretion by 31% (p<0.05) whereas raw sprouts, beans and endive (1:1), isolated indolyl glucosinolates and breakdown products had no significant effect. An aqueous extract of cooked Brussels sprouts (corresponding to 6.7 g vegetable per day for 4 days) decreased the spontaneous 8-oxodG excretion from 92 +/- 12 to 52 +/- 15 pmol/24 h (p<0.05). After 2-NP administration the 8-oxodG excretion was increased to 132 +/- 26 pmol/24 h (p<0.05) whereas pretreatment with the sprouts extract reduced this to 102 +/- 30 pmol/24 h (p<0.05). The spontaneous level of 8-oxodG in nuclear DNA from liver and bone marrow was not significantly affected by the sprouts extract whereas the level decreased by 27% in the kidney (p<0.05). In the liver 2-NP increased the 8-oxodG levels in nuclear DNA 8.7 and 3.8 times (p<0.05) 6 and 24 h after dose, respectively. The sprouts extract reduced this increase by 57% (p<0.05) at 6 h whereas there was no significant effect at 24 h. In the kidneys 2-NP increased the 8-oxodG levels 2.2 and 1.2 times (p<0.05) 6 and 24 h after dose, respectively. Pretreatment with the sprouts extract abolished these increases (p<0.05). Similarly, in the bone marrow the extract protected completely (p<0.05) against a 4.9-fold 2-NP induced increase (p<0.05) in the 8-oxodG level. These findings demonstrate that cooked Brussels sprouts contain bioactive substance(s) with a potential for reducing the physiological

  8. Nutritional and health benefits of dried beans.

    PubMed

    Messina, Virginia

    2014-07-01

    Dried beans (often referred to as grain legumes) may contribute to some of the health benefits associated with plant-based diets. Beans are rich in a number of important micronutrients, including potassium, magnesium, folate, iron, and zinc, and are important sources of protein in vegetarian diets. In particular, they are among the only plant foods that provide significant amounts of the indispensable amino acid lysine. Commonly consumed dried beans are also rich in total and soluble fiber as well as in resistant starch, all of which contribute to the low glycemic index of these foods. They also provide ample amounts of polyphenols, many of which are potent antioxidants. Intervention and prospective research suggests that diets that include beans reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, favorably affect risk factors for metabolic syndrome, and reduce risk of ischemic heart disease and diabetes. The relatively low bean intakes of North Americans and northern Europeans can be attributed to a negative culinary image as well as to intestinal discomfort attributable to the oligosaccharide content of beans. Cooking practices such as sprouting beans, soaking and discarding soaking water before cooking, and cooking in water with a more alkaline pH can reduce oligosaccharide content. Promotional efforts are needed to increase bean intake. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. A generic model for spoilage of acidic emulsified foods: combining physicochemical data, diversity and levels of specific spoilage organisms.

    PubMed

    Manios, Stavros G; Lambert, Ronald J W; Skandamis, Panagiotis N

    2014-01-17

    The spoilage pattern of three emulsified, vegetable-based spreads of low pH (3.90-4.15) adjusted with acetic acid was characterized by correlating the growth of spoilage flora with the organoleptic and physicochemical changes, as well as the changes in the species composition of the dominant microflora during storage under isothermal conditions. In a further step, a generic (hereafter called 'unified') model was developed to describe the maximum specific growth rate of the specific spoilage organisms (SSOs) in all acetic acid acidified products, including literature data and additional in-house data from similar products, as a function of the storage temperature, pH (3.61-4.25) and initial concentration of the undissociated acetic acid in each product. The predictions of the unified model were compared with those of product-specific models, with temperature as the sole predictor variable. Two independent batches of commercially prepared pepper- (PS), fava beans- (FS) and eggplant-based (ES) spreads were stored at 4, 7, 10, 12, 15, 18, 20 and 25°C. The growth of lactic acid bacteria (SSOs; LAB) was correlated with changes in pH, titratable acidity and organic acids concentration, as well as sensory characteristics, in order to define the shelf-life of the products. Isolates from each spread and storage temperature were grouped with SDS-PAGE and were identified with 16S rRNA, determining the association between spoilage and species diversity. Product-specific models were developed using the square root model, while a polynomial and the Ratkowsky model were used for the development of the unified model. Products with lower pH and/or higher acetic acid content showed higher microbial stability. Lactobacillus plantarum or Lactobacillus brevis dominated the LAB association in all three spreads, although their relative percentage at the beginning of storage varied significantly. These facultative or obligate hetero-fermentative bacteria increased lactic acid and

  10. Stump sprouting of Pacific yew.

    Treesearch

    Don Minore; Howard G. Weatherly

    1996-01-01

    Large numbers of Pacific yew (Taxus brevifolia Nutt.) trees have been cut to supply bark for taxol production, and replacement of those trees may depend on their ability to sprout from the stump. Stump characteristics were related to the initiation and survival of epicormic branches (sprouts) on 100 yew stumps in each of 11 recently harvested...

  11. Irradiation of seeds and sprouts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Consumption of raw sprouts has gained popularity due to their high nutrient and low caloric value. During the sprouting of the seeds, the conditions are favorable for the growth of bacteria, including pathogens which can cause foodborne illnesses. This chapter discusses the bacterial pathogens ide...

  12. Outbreaks caused by sprouts, United States, 1998-2010: lessons learned and solutions needed.

    PubMed

    Dechet, Amy M; Herman, Karen M; Chen Parker, Cary; Taormina, Peter; Johanson, Joy; Tauxe, Robert V; Mahon, Barbara E

    2014-08-01

    After a series of outbreaks associated with sprouts in the mid-1990s, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published guidelines in 1999 for sprouts producers to reduce the risk of contamination. The recommendations included treating seeds with an antimicrobial agent such as calcium hypochlorite solution and testing spent irrigation water for pathogens. From 1998 through 2010, 33 outbreaks from seed and bean sprouts were documented in the United States, affecting 1330 reported persons. Twenty-eight outbreaks were caused by Salmonella, four by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, and one by Listeria. In 15 of the 18 outbreaks with information available, growers had not followed key FDA guidelines. In three outbreaks, however, the implicated sprouts were produced by firms that appeared to have implemented key FDA guidelines. Although seed chlorination, if consistently applied, reduces pathogen burden on sprouts, it does not eliminate the risk of human infection. Further seed and sprouts disinfection technologies, some recently developed, will be needed to enhance sprouts safety and reduce human disease. Improved seed production practices could also decrease pathogen burden but, because seeds are a globally distributed commodity, will require international cooperation.

  13. Regulation of Blood Vessel Sprouting

    PubMed Central

    Chappell, John C; Wiley, David M; Bautch, Victoria L

    2012-01-01

    Blood vessels are essential conduits of nutrients and oxygen throughout the body. The formation of these vessels involves angiogenic sprouting, a complex process entailing highly integrated cell behaviors and signaling pathways. In this review, we discuss how endothelial cells initiate a vessel sprout through interactions with their environment and with one another, particularly through lateral inhibition. We review the composition of the local environment, which contains an initial set of guidance cues to facilitate the proper outward migration of the sprout as it emerges from a parent vessel. The long-range guidance and sprout stability cues provided by soluble molecules, extracellular matrix components, and interactions with other cell types are also discussed. We also examine emerging evidence for mechanisms that govern sprout fusion with its target and lumen formation. PMID:22020130

  14. Microbiological Spoilage of Fruits and Vegetables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, Margaret; Hankinson, Thomas R.; Zhuang, Hong; Breidt, Frederick

    Consumption of fruit and vegetable products has dramatically increased in the United States by more than 30% during the past few decades. It is also estimated that about 20% of all fruits and vegetables produced is lost each year due to spoilage. The focus of this chapter is to provide a general background on microbiological spoilage of fruit and vegetable products that are organized in three categories: fresh whole fruits and vegetables, fresh-cut fruits and vegetables, and fermented or acidified vegetable products. This chapter will address characteristics of spoilage microorganisms associated with each of these fruit and vegetable categories including spoilage mechanisms, spoilage defects, prevention and control of spoilage, and methods for detecting spoilage microorganisms.

  15. Modeling food spoilage in microbial risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Koutsoumanis, Konstantinos

    2009-02-01

    In this study, I describe a systematic approach for modeling food spoilage in microbial risk assessment that is based on the incorporation of kinetic spoilage modeling in exposure assessment by combining data and models for the specific spoilage organisms (SSO: fraction of the total microflora responsible for spoilage) with those for pathogens. The structure of the approach is presented through an exposure assessment application for Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef. The proposed approach allows for identifying spoiled products at the time of consumption by comparing the estimated level of SSO (pseudomonads) with the spoilage level (level of SSO at which spoilage is observed). The results of the application indicate that ignoring spoilage in risk assessment could lead to significant overestimations of risk.

  16. Microbial Evaluation of Fresh, Minimally-processed Vegetables and Bagged Sprouts from Chain Supermarkets

    PubMed Central

    Jeddi, Maryam Zare; Yunesian, Masud; Gorji, Mohamad Es'haghi; Noori, Negin; Pourmand, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the bacterial and fungal quality of minimally-processed vegetables (MPV) and sprouts. A total of 116 samples of fresh-cut vegetables, ready-to-eat salads, and mung bean and wheat sprouts were randomly collected and analyzed. The load of aerobic mesophilic bacteria was minimum and maximum in the fresh-cut vegetables and fresh mung bean sprouts respectively, corresponding to populations of 5.3 and 8.5 log CFU/g. E. coli O157:H7 was found to be absent in all samples; however,  other E. coli strains were detected in 21 samples (18.1%), and Salmonella spp. were found in one mung bean (3.1%) and one ready-to-eat salad sample (5%). Yeasts were the predominant organisms and were found in 100% of the samples. Geotrichum, Fusarium, and Penicillium spp. were the most prevalent molds in mung sprouts while Cladosporium and Penicillium spp. were most frequently found in ready-to-eat salad samples. According to results from the present study, effective control measures should be implemented to minimize the microbiological contamination of fresh produce sold in Tehran, Iran. PMID:25395902

  17. Microbial evaluation of fresh, minimally-processed vegetables and bagged sprouts from chain supermarkets.

    PubMed

    Jeddi, Maryam Zare; Yunesian, Masud; Gorji, Mohamad Es'haghi; Noori, Negin; Pourmand, Mohammad Reza; Khaniki, Gholam Reza Jahed

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bacterial and fungal quality of minimally-processed vegetables (MPV) and sprouts. A total of 116 samples of fresh-cut vegetables, ready-to-eat salads, and mung bean and wheat sprouts were randomly collected and analyzed. The load of aerobic mesophilic bacteria was minimum and maximum in the fresh-cut vegetables and fresh mung bean sprouts respectively, corresponding to populations of 5.3 and 8.5 log CFU/g. E. coli O157:H7 was found to be absent in all samples; however,  other E. coli strains were detected in 21 samples (18.1%), and Salmonella spp. were found in one mung bean (3.1%) and one ready-to-eat salad sample (5%). Yeasts were the predominant organisms and were found in 100% of the samples. Geotrichum, Fusarium, and Penicillium spp. were the most prevalent molds in mung sprouts while Cladosporium and Penicillium spp. were most frequently found in ready-to-eat salad samples. According to results from the present study, effective control measures should be implemented to minimize the microbiological contamination of fresh produce sold in Tehran, Iran.

  18. The effects of Mg enrichment of vegetable sprouts on Mg concentration, yield and ROS generation.

    PubMed

    Przybysz, Arkadiusz; Wrochna, Mariola; Małecka-Przybysz, Monika; Gawrońska, Helena; Gawroński, Stanisław W

    2016-08-01

    Two-thirds of the world's population do not consume the recommended amount of Mg, hence the demand for the production of Mg-enriched plants. Sprouts represent promising targets for enrichment. This study evaluated the effects of enriching broccoli, radish, alfalfa and mung bean sprouts with Mg (50-300 mg L(-1) ) on (i) the concentration of Mg and other ions, (ii) biomass accumulation, (iii) levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and (iv) the activity/content of enzymatic and non-enzymatic components of antioxidative systems. Enrichment of sprouts with Mg led to a significant increase in Mg concentration, especially in alfalfa (increase of 23-152 %), without depletion of other ions. A higher Mg concentration had a minor effect on biomass accumulation, but increased, often significantly, ROS generation and affected enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidative systems. The level of O2 (•-) increased most in broccoli, by 59-158%, while OH(•) increased most in radish, by 200-350%. Enrichment of sprouts with Mg is possible, but attention must be paid to elevated ROS levels in food. Mung bean sprouts are best suited to enrichment as they make a considerable contribution to the daily supplementation of Mg, at still low levels of ROS in enriched plants. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Microbiological Spoilage of Dairy Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledenbach, Loralyn H.; Marshall, Robert T.

    The wide array of available dairy foods challenges the microbiologist, engineer, and technologist to find the best ways to prevent the entry of microorganisms, destroy those that do get in along with their enzymes, and prevent the growth and activities of those that escape processing treatments. Troublesome spoilage microorganisms include aerobic psychrotrophic Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts, molds, heterofermentative lactobacilli, and spore-forming bacteria. Psychrotrophic bacteria can produce large amounts of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes, and the extent of recontamination of pasteurized fluid milk products with these bacteria is a major determinant of their shelf life. Fungal spoilage of dairy foods is manifested by the presence of a wide variety of metabolic by-products, causing off-odors and flavors, in addition to visible changes in color or texture.

  20. A comparison of the retention of pathogenic Escherichia coli O157 by sprouts, leaves and fruits

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, Stephanie L; Smith, Rachel B; Matthysse, Ann G

    2014-01-01

    The retention (binding to or association with the plant) of Escherichia coli by cut leaves and fruits after vigorous water washing was compared with that by sprouts. Retention by fruits and leaves was similar but differed from retention by sprouts in rate, effect of wounding and requirement for poly-β,1-6-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. Escherichia coli was retained by cut ends of lettuce leaves within 5 min while more than 1 h was required for retention by the intact epidermis of leaves and fruits, and more than 1 day for sprouts. Retention after 5 min at the cut leaf edge was specific for E. coli and was not shown by the plant-associated bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Sinorhizobium meliloti. Escherichia coli was retained by lettuce, spinach, alfalfa, bean, tomato, Arabidopsis thaliana, cucumber, and pepper leaves and fruits faster than by sprouts. Wounding of leaves and fruits but not sprouts increased bacterial retention. Mutations in the exopolysaccharide synthesis genes yhjN and wcaD reduced the numbers of bacteria retained. PgaC mutants were retained by cut leaves and fruits but not by sprouts. There was no significant difference in the retention of an O157 and a K12 strain by fruits or leaves. However, retention by sprouts of O157 strains was significantly greater than K12 strains. These findings suggest that there are differences in the mechanisms of E coli retention among sprouts, and leaves and fruits. PMID:25351040

  1. Solving Microbial Spoilage Problems in Processed Foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clavero, Rocelle

    This chapter surveys common microbial food spoilage processes. The chapter is organized by food products and includes sections addressing spoilage in meat, poultry, fish; dairy products (milk, butter, cheese); beverage products; bakery products; canned foods; fruit and confectionery products; and emulsions. It addresses the isolation and identification of spoilage organisms and provides several case studies as examples. It introduces various organisms responsible for spoilage including Gram-positive lactic acid bacteria, Gram-negative aerobic bacteria, yeasts, molds, and fungal contaminants. Throughout the chapter, attention is given to when, where, and how spoilage organisms enter the food processing chain. Troubleshooting techniques are suggested. The effect (or lack of effect) of heating, dehydration, pH change, cooling, and sealing on various organisms is explained throughout. The chapter contains four tables that connect specific organisms to various spoilage manifestations in a variety of food products.

  2. Industry practices and compliance with U.S. Food and Drug Administration guidelines among California sprout firms.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jennifer L; Palumbo, Mary S; Farrar, Jeff A; Farver, Thomas B; Cliver, Dean O

    2003-07-01

    Since 1995, raw vegetable sprouts have been implicated as the vehicle of infection in 15 foodborne outbreaks involving Salmonella and 2 foodborne outbreaks involving Escherichia coli O157:H7. To reduce the numbers of sprout-related outbreaks, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published Guidance for Industry: Reducing Microbial Food Safety Hazards for Sprouting Seeds in 1999. Between October 2000 and April 2001, 61.5% (16 of 26) of the known commercial sprout firms in California were enrolled in a survey to evaluate the industry practices of California sprouting operations and to determine compliance with FDA guidelines. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect data on firm demographics and seed disinfection practices. Additionally, free chlorine levels in seed disinfection solutions were measured, and 48-h spent irrigation water samples were collected from each firm. The irrigation water was screened for Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 with FDA-recommended test kits. Free chlorine levels in the treatment solutions ranged from 50 to 35,000 mg/liter (ppm), with a median of 14,000 mg/liter (ppm). Free chlorine levels were higher for firms producing alfalfa sprouts than for those producing only mung bean or soybean sprouts (P=0.03). Levels of free chlorine tended to be higher for firms using a calcium hypochlorite treatment solution than for firms using a sodium hypochlorite treatment solution (P=0.067). All 32 irrigation water samples screened for Salmonella tested negative. Of the irrigation water samples tested for E. coil O157:H7, 75% (24 of 32) tested negative, and 25% (8 of 32) tested presumptive positive. The eight presumptive positive samples were found to be negative after further testing. These results indicate that producers of alfalfa sprouts are generally achieving the FDA-recommended calcium hypochlorite level of 20,000 mg/liter (ppm), whereas mung bean sprout producers are not.

  3. Genetic characterization of non-spoilage variant isolated from beer-spoilage Lactobacillus brevis ABBC45.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, K; Koyanagi, M; Yamashita, H

    2004-01-01

    To characterize the non-spoilage variant obtained from beer-spoilage Lactobacillus brevis ABBC45C and to identify a potential genetic marker capable of discriminating beer-spoilage L. brevis strains from non-spoilers. A non-spoilage variant was obtained from beer-spoilage L. brevis ABBC45C by repeatedly subculturing the strain at 37 degrees C. Genetic characterization of the variant revealed that 12,605 bp portion of one plasmid, designated pRH45II, was lost in the variant. The sequence analysis indicates the presence of 12 ORFs in the deleted region of pRH45II. The PCR and Southern hybridization study revealed that the homologues of ORF5 found in the deleted region were present in all of the beer-spoilage L. brevis strains examined in this study. In contrast, the homlogues appeared to be absent in non-spoilage L. brevis strains. The presence or absence of ORF5 homologues was found to be highly correlated with the beer-spoilage ability of L. brevis strains, indicating this ORF is potentially a useful genetic marker capable of differentiating beer-spoilage strains among L. brevis. A non-spoilage variant was successfully isolated from beer-spoilage L. brevis ABBC45C. This study could facilitate the understanding of mechanisms underlying beer-spoilage ability of L. brevis.

  4. Flavonoid analysis of buckwheat sprouts.

    PubMed

    Nam, Tae-Gyu; Lee, Sun Mi; Park, Ji-Hae; Kim, Dae-Ok; Baek, Nam-in; Eom, Seok Hyun

    2015-03-01

    It is known that common buckwheat sprouts contain several flavonoids, including orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, isovitexin, rutin, and quercetrin, whereas tartary buckwheat sprouts contain only rutin. In this study, we evaluated flavonoids present in buckwheat sprouts and identified a previously unreported flavonoid. Simultaneous detection by HPLC was used to separate rutin and a compound that was not separated in previous studies. We used a novel HPLC elution gradient method to successfully separate rutin and the previously unidentified compound, for which we performed structural analysis. The identification of six flavonoids by HPLC was confirmed using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. The newly identified compound, [M+H](+) =611.17, was identified by NMR as the rutin epimer quercetin-3-O-robinobioside. Unlike common buckwheat sprout, tartary buckwheat sprout contained rutin as a main flavonoid, whereas other flavonoids appeared only in trace amounts or were not detected. Quercetin-3-O-robinobioside was not detected in tartary buckwheat sprout. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The effects of varying sprouting periods on the nutritional quality of normal yellow corn (Zea mays).

    PubMed

    Obizoba, I C

    1990-01-01

    Weanling male albino rats (45-60 g) were used to study the effects of varying sprouting periods on the nutritional quality of normal yellow corn. The yellow corn (YC) was sprouted for 24, 36 and 48 h (SYC24, SYC36, SYC48). The unsprouted corn (UYC) and casein (CA 100) served as negative and positive controls. African yam bean (AYB) was sprouted for 48 h and blended with the corn in a 70:30 (protein basis). Sprouting for 48 h caused decreases in most of the parameters tested except for the liver weight and N and calcium (CA) balance. The 24 h sprouting produced increases except for weight gain and PER, liver weight and N, phosphorus (P) and Ca intake and retention. The UYC produced increases higher than those of the test groups except for digested N, NPU, liver moisture, Fe intake and absorption. Casein significantly increased all parameters than for the test groups except for digested and retained N, P and Fe intakes. The advantages of sprouting for 24 or 36 h out-weighed those of 48 h.

  6. Reduction of the native microflora on alfalfa sprouts during propagation by addition of antimicrobial compounds to the irrigation water.

    PubMed

    Fett, William F

    2002-01-30

    Alfalfa and other types of sprouts are known to harbor large populations of native microorganisms. As some of these microbes may be causes of reduced shelf life of the product (plant pathogens and other spoilage organisms) and sprouts may, on occasion, harbor bacteria pathogenic towards humans, the addition of antimicrobial compounds to the irrigation water may be warranted. In this study, we tested the efficacy of several antimicrobial compounds for reducing the native microbial populations on alfalfa sprouts during propagation. These compounds included H2O2, peroxyacetic acid+hydrogen peroxide (Tsunami 100), acidified NaClO2, NaClO2 (Aquatize), EDTA, Na3PO4 and NaOCl. When added to the irrigation water at vanous concentrations, none of the antimicrobial compounds reduced the levels of any class of native microflora by more than 1 log10 without evidence of phytotoxicity.

  7. Replacing corn with pearl millet (raw and sprouted) with and without enzyme in chickens' diet.

    PubMed

    Afsharmanesh, M; Ghorbani, N; Mehdipour, Z

    2016-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare a commercial corn-soya bean meal diet with a pearl millet (raw and sprouted) diet containing less soya bean meal, alone or in combination with exogenous enzyme, on growth performance and ileal villus development of chicks. Two-hundred-and-forty-one-day-old male broilers (10/pen) were randomly allocated to one of the following dietary treatments: (i) a standard corn-soya bean meal control diet (CTL); (ii) a raw pearl millet-soya bean meal diet (PM); (iii) a sprouted pearl millet-soya bean meal diet (SPM); (iv) CTL + exogenous enzymes (CE); (v) PM + exogenous enzymes (PE); and (vi) SPM + exogenous enzymes (SPE) with four replicate pens/treatment. Body weight of birds at day 21 did not differ between those fed the CTL, and SPM and PE diets. In comparison with feeding broilers the CTL diet, feeding the PE and SPM diets caused significant decrease in feed intake, but with equivalent growth and feed efficiency. However, at day 21, feed conversion ratio did not differ between birds fed the CTL diet and those fed the PM, PE and SPM diets. At day 21, broilers fed the PM and PE diets had longer villi (p < 0.05) than those fed the CTL diet. At day 21, villi width was reduced (p < 0.05) by raw pearl millet supplementation than CTL diet. It is concluded that, in comparison with corn, broiler diets formulated with sprouted pearl millet or pearl millet with enzyme require less soya bean meal and can be used to improve growth performance traits and villus development.

  8. Regulation of potato tuber sprouting.

    PubMed

    Sonnewald, Sophia; Sonnewald, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Following tuber induction, potato tubers undergo a period of dormancy during which visible bud growth is inhibited. The length of the dormancy period is under environmental, physiological and hormonal control. Sucrose availability is one prerequisite for bud break. In the absence of sucrose, no bud break occurs. Thus, sucrose is likely to serve as nutrient and signal molecule at the same time. The mode of sucrose sensing is only vaguely understood, but most likely involves trehalose-6-phosphate and SnRK1 signalling networks. This conclusion is supported by the observation that ectopically manipulation of trehalose-6-phosphate levels influences the length of the dormancy period. Once physiological competence is achieved, sprouting is controlled by the level of phytohormones. Two phytohormones, ABA and ethylene, are supposed to suppress tuber sprouting; however, the exact role of ethylene remains to be elucidated. Cytokinins and gibberellins are required for bud break and sprout growth, respectively. The fifth classical phytohormone, auxin, seems to play a role in vascular development. During the dormancy period, buds are symplastically isolated, which changes during bud break. In parallel to the establishment of symplastic connectivity, vascular tissue develops below the growing bud most likely to support the outgrowing sprout with assimilates mobilised in parenchyma cells. Sprouting leads to major quality losses of stored potato tubers. Therefore, control of tuber sprouting is a major objective in potato breeding. Although comparative transcriptome analysis revealed a large number of genes differentially expressed in growing versus dormant buds, no master-regulator of potato tuber sprouting has been identified so far.

  9. Evaluation of chlorine dioxide gas treatment to inactivate Salmonella enterica on mungbean sprouts.

    PubMed

    Prodduk, Vara; Annous, Bassam A; Liu, Linshu; Yam, Kit L

    2014-11-01

    Although freshly sprouted beans and grains are considered to be a source of nutrients, they have been associated with foodborne outbreaks. Sprouts provide good matrices for microbial localization and growth due to optimal conditions of temperature and humidity while sprouting. Also, the lack of a kill step postsprouting is a major safety concern. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of chlorine dioxide gas treatment to reduce Salmonella on artificially inoculated mungbean sprouts. The effectiveness of gaseous chlorine dioxide (0.5 mg/liter of air) with or without tumbling (mechanical mixing) was compared with an aqueous chlorine (200 ppm) wash treatment. Tumbling the inoculated sprouts during the chlorine dioxide gas application for 15, 30, and 60 min reduced Salmonella populations by 3.0, 4.0, and 5.5 log CFU/g, respectively, as compared with 3.0, 3.0, and 4.0 log CFU/g reductions obtained without tumbling, respectively. A 2.0 log CFU/g reduction in Salmonella was achieved with an aqueous chlorine wash. The difference in microbial reduction between chlorine dioxide gas versus aqueous chlorine wash points to the important role of surface topography, pore structure, bacterial attachment, and/or biofilm formation on sprouts. These data suggested that chlorine dioxide gas was capable of penetrating and inactivating cells that are attached to inaccessible sites and/or are within biofilms on the sprout surface as compared with an aqueous chlorine wash. Consequently, scanning electron microscopy imaging indicated that chlorine dioxide gas treatment was capable of penetrating and inactivating cells attached to inaccessible sites and within biofilms on the sprout surfaces.

  10. Disinfection of seeds and sprout inhibition of potatoes with low energy electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todoriki, Setsuko; Hayashi, Toru

    2000-03-01

    Electrons at acceleration voltages of 170-190 kV reduced microbial count of seeds of adzuki bean, pot herb mustered and black gram to undetectable levels without any detrimental effects on the germination ability. However, electrons at 200 kV or higher affected the growing of black gram sprouts. The energies of electrons at the surface of seed (15 cm distance from the accelerator's window) at acceleration voltages of 170-190 kV were estimated to be 60-90 kV, based on the stopping powers of titanium and air. Electrons at acceleration voltages of 250 kV or higher inhibited sprouting of potato tubers of various cultivars. The results suggest the efficacy of low energy electron treatment for disinfection of seeds and sprout inhibition of potatoes.

  11. Bean Sprouts: A Television Series about Chinese-American Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinese for Affirmative Action, San Francisco, CA. Chinese Media Committee.

    This teaching guide accompanies a series of five half-hour television programs for children 7 through 12 years of age that depict Chinese American children in a variety of situations that foster a sense of group and individual identity. The emphasis of the series is on affective learning. The following issues are dealt with: (1) the ramifications…

  12. Abundance, diversity and community composition of free-living protozoa on vegetable sprouts.

    PubMed

    Chavatte, N; Lambrecht, E; Van Damme, I; Sabbe, K; Houf, K

    2016-05-01

    Interactions with free-living protozoa (FLP) have been implicated in the persistence of pathogenic bacteria on food products. In order to assess the potential involvement of FLP in this contamination, detailed knowledge on their occurrence, abundance and diversity on food products is required. In the present study, enrichment and cultivation methods were used to inventory and quantify FLP on eight types of commercial vegetable sprouts (alfalfa, beetroot, cress, green pea, leek, mung bean, red cabbage and rosabi). In parallel, total aerobic bacteria and Escherichia coli counts were performed. The vegetable sprouts harbored diverse communities of FLP, with Tetrahymena (ciliate), Bodo saltans and cercomonads (flagellates), and Acanthamoeba and Vannella (amoebae) as the dominant taxa. Protozoan community composition and abundance significantly differed between the sprout types. Beetroot harbored the most abundant and diverse FLP communities, with many unique species such as Korotnevella sp., Vannella sp., Chilodonella sp., Podophrya sp. and Sphaerophrya sp. In contrast, mung bean sprouts were species-poor and had low FLP numbers. Sampling month and company had no significant influence, suggesting that seasonal and local factors are of minor importance. Likewise, no significant relationship between protozoan community composition and bacterial load was observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of combined traditional processing methods on the nutritional quality of beans.

    PubMed

    Nakitto, Aisha M; Muyonga, John H; Nakimbugwe, Dorothy

    2015-05-01

    Consumption of dry beans is limited by long cooking times thus high fuel requirement. The bioavailability of nutrients in beans is also limited due to presence of antinutrients such as phytates and tannins. Little research has been done on combined processing methods for production of nutritious fast cooking bean flour and the effect of combined treatments on nutritional quality of beans has not previously determined. The aim of this study was to reduce cooking time and enhance the nutritional value of dry beans. Specifically to: develop protocols for production of fast cooking bean flours and assess the effect of processing on the nutritional characteristics of the flours. Dry beans (K131 variety) were soaked for 12 h; sprouted for 48 h; dehulled and steamed for 25 and 15 min for whole and dehulled beans respectively or roasted at 170°C for 45 and 15 min for whole and dehulled beans respectively. Dehulling eliminated phytates and tannins and increased protein digestibility. In vitro protein digestibility and mineral (iron and zinc) extractability were negatively correlated with tannin and phytate content. Total available carbohydrates were highest in moist heat-treated bean flours. Overall, combined processing of beans improved the nutritional quality of dry beans and the resulting precooked flours need less cooking time compared to whole dry beans.

  14. Effects of combined traditional processing methods on the nutritional quality of beans

    PubMed Central

    Nakitto, Aisha M; Muyonga, John H; Nakimbugwe, Dorothy

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of dry beans is limited by long cooking times thus high fuel requirement. The bioavailability of nutrients in beans is also limited due to presence of antinutrients such as phytates and tannins. Little research has been done on combined processing methods for production of nutritious fast cooking bean flour and the effect of combined treatments on nutritional quality of beans has not previously determined. The aim of this study was to reduce cooking time and enhance the nutritional value of dry beans. Specifically to: develop protocols for production of fast cooking bean flours and assess the effect of processing on the nutritional characteristics of the flours. Dry beans (K131 variety) were soaked for 12 h; sprouted for 48 h; dehulled and steamed for 25 and 15 min for whole and dehulled beans respectively or roasted at 170°C for 45 and 15 min for whole and dehulled beans respectively. Dehulling eliminated phytates and tannins and increased protein digestibility. In vitro protein digestibility and mineral (iron and zinc) extractability were negatively correlated with tannin and phytate content. Total available carbohydrates were highest in moist heat-treated bean flours. Overall, combined processing of beans improved the nutritional quality of dry beans and the resulting precooked flours need less cooking time compared to whole dry beans. PMID:25987998

  15. Aspen sprout production and water use

    Treesearch

    Robert S. Johnston

    1969-01-01

    Sprouting response and soil moisture depletion on aspen plots were compared under four experimental conditions: (a) clearcut, (b) clearcut, stumps sprayed with sodium arsenite, (c) basal injection of sodium arsenite, and (d) control. Nunbers of sprouts varied with treatment for 2 years, but after 4 years the nunbers of sprouts on all plots were about equal....

  16. Potato tuber dormancy and postharvest sprout control

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    For an indeterminate period of time following harvest, potatoes will not sprout and are physiologically dormant. Dormancy is gradually lost during postharvest storage and the resultant sprouting is detrimental to the nutritional and processing qualities of potatoes. Because of this, sprouting resu...

  17. Microbiological Spoilage of Meat and Poultry Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerveny, John; Meyer, Joseph D.; Hall, Paul A.

    Humankind has consumed animal protein since the dawn of its existence. The archaeological record shows evidence of animal protein consumption as early as 12,500 BC (Mann, 2005). Raw meat and poultry are highly perishable commodities subject to various types of spoilage depending on handling and storage conditions. Because of this high potential for spoilage, the historical record reveals that early civilizations used techniques such as salting, smoking, and drying to preserve meat (Mack, 2001; Bailey, 1986). Today, more than ever, because of the globalization of the food supply, and increasing demands from exacting consumers, the control of meat and poultry spoilage is essential.

  18. An ultrasensitive fluorescence method suitable for quantitative analysis of mung bean nuclease and inhibitor screening in vitro and vivo.

    PubMed

    Peng, Lan; Fan, Jialong; Tong, Chunyi; Xie, Zhenhua; Zhao, Chuan; Liu, Xuanming; Zhu, Yonghua; Liu, Bin

    2016-09-15

    Mung bean nuclease is a single stranded specific DNA and RNA endonuclease purified from mung bean sprouts. It yields 5'-phosphate terminated mono- and oligonucleotides. The activity level of this nuclease can act as a marker to monitor the developmental process of mung bean sprouts. In order to facilitate the activity and physiological analysis of this nuclease, we have developed a biosensing assay system based on the mung bean nuclease-induced single-stranded DNA scission and the affinity difference of graphene oxide for single-stranded DNA containing different numbers of bases. This end-point measurement method can detect mung bean nuclease in a range of 2×10(-4) to 4×10(-2) with a detection limit of 1×10(-4) unit/mL. In addition, we demonstrate the utility of the assay for screening chemical antibiotics and metal ions, resulting in the identification of several inhibitors of this enzyme in vitro. Furthermore, we firstly report that inhibiting mung bean nuclease by gentamycin sulfate and kanamycin in vivo can suppress mung bean sprouts growth. In summary, this method provides an alternative tool for the biochemical analysis for mung bean nuclease and indicates the feasibility of high-throughput screening specific inhibitors of this nuclease in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization of bioactive agents in five types of marketed sprouts and comparison of their antihypertensive, antihyperlipidemic, and antidiabetic effects in fructose-loaded SHRs.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kozo; Koyama, Masahiro; Ishida, Ryuya; Kitahara, Takashi; Nakajima, Takero; Aoyama, Toshifumi

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes are important precursors of cardiovascular disease. Here, we evaluated the antihypertensive, antihyperlipidemic, and antidiabetic potential of five types of sprouts in fructose-loaded spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Powdered sprouts (PSs) were produced from mung bean, broccoli, radish, and buckwheat sprouts and germinated soybeans by lyophilization. The PSs were analyzed for nutritional composition and bioactive agents (γ-aminobutyric acid [GABA], coenzyme Q10 [CoQ10], rutin, and myo-inositol-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate [IP6]) and functionally tested in SHRs given water containing 25 % fructose and diets containing 30 % PS for 46 days. All PSs were nutritionally rich in protein and dietary fiber. CoQ10, GABA/rutin, and GABA/IP6 were abundant in broccoli, buckwheat, and germinated soybean PSs, respectively. Mung bean, broccoli, and buckwheat PSs caused significant reductions in heart rates and/or serum triglycerides. Mung bean PS also significantly reduced serum total cholesterol. These data supported the antihypertensive and antihyperlipidemic potential of mung bean, broccoli, and buckwheat sprouts.

  20. Microbiological Spoilage of Canned Foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evancho, George M.; Tortorelli, Suzanne; Scott, Virginia N.

    Nicolas Appert (1749-1841) developed the first commercial process that kept foods from spoiling in response to an offer from the French government for a method of preserving food for use by the army and navy. Appert, a confectioner and chef, began to experiment in his workshop in Massy, near Paris, but since little was known about bacteriology and the causes of spoilage (Louis Pasteur had yet to formulate the germ theory), much of his work involved trial and error. In 1810, after years of experimenting, he was awarded the prize of 12,000 francs for his method of preservation, which involved cooking foods in sealed jars at high temperatures. He described his method of preserving food in a book published in 1811, "L'Art De Conserver, Pendant Plusiers Annes, Toutes les Substances Animales et Végétales," which translated means "The Art of Preserving All Kinds of Animal and Vegetable Substances for Several Years." He later built a bottling factory and began to produce preserved foods for the people of France and is credited with being the "Father of Canning."

  1. Predicting oak stump sprouting and sprout development in the Missouri Ozarks.

    Treesearch

    Paul S. Johnson

    1977-01-01

    An application section provides tables for easy prediction of the proportion of oak stumps of various species having codominant-or-larger sprouts 5 years after clearcutting. A documentation section gives details of sprout development and equations for estimating sprouting of white, black, scarlet, post, and blackjack oaks.

  2. Cereal sprouts: composition, nutritive value, food applications.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, K

    1980-01-01

    The practice of sprouting of cereal grains has become popular in the western world. Sprouted grains are thought of as having exceptional nutritive value. Sprouting is easy and can be done without sophisticated equipment. Untreated seeds of good quality and high germination percentage are placed in an environment of adequate water, a desirable temperature, and a certain composition of gases in the atmosphere for several days for sprouting. The sprouts can be kept for a few days to over a week under refrigeration. They can be used in many different foods including breakfast items, salads, soups, casseroles, pasta, and baked products. Sprouting of grains causes increased enzyme activity, a loss of total dry matter, an increase in total protein, a change in amino acid composition, a decrease in starch, increases in sugars, a slight increase in crude fat and crude fiber, and slightly higher amounts of certain vitamins and minerals. Most of the increases in nutrients are not true increases, however. They simply reflect the loss of dry matter, mainly in the form of carbohydrates, due to respiration during sprouting. As total carbohydrates decreases, the percentage of other nutrients increases. There are no nutritional evaluations of cereal sprouts in humans. Animal studies with cattle, pigs, chickens, and rats have failed to show a superior nutritive value of sprouted grains over ungerminated grains. Studies with humans are not likely to produce more encouraging results.

  3. Practical evaluation of Mung bean seed pasteurization method in Japan.

    PubMed

    Bari, M L; Enomoto, K; Nei, D; Kawamoto, S

    2010-04-01

    The majority of the seed sprout-related outbreaks have been associated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella. Therefore, an effective method for inactivating these organisms on the seeds before sprouting is needed. The current pasteurization method for mung beans in Japan (hot water treatment at 85 degrees C for 10 s) was more effective for disinfecting inoculated E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and nonpathogenic E. coli on mung bean seeds than was the calcium hypochlorite treatment (20,000 ppm for 20 min) recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Hot water treatment at 85 degrees C for 40 s followed by dipping in cold water for 30 s and soaking in chlorine water (2,000 ppm) for 2 h reduced the pathogens to undetectable levels, and no viable pathogens were found in a 25-g enrichment culture and during the sprouting process. Practical tests using a working pasteurization machine with nonpathogenic E. coli as a surrogate produced similar results. The harvest yield of the treated seed was within the acceptable range. These treatments could be a viable alternative to the presently recommended 20,000-ppm chlorine treatment for mung bean seeds.

  4. A comparison of the retention of pathogenic Escherichia coli O157 by sprouts, leaves and fruits.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Stephanie L; Smith, Rachel B; Matthysse, Ann G

    2014-11-01

    The retention (binding to or association with the plant) of Escherichia coli by cut leaves and fruits after vigorous water washing was compared with that by sprouts. Retention by fruits and leaves was similar but differed from retention by sprouts in rate, effect of wounding and requirement for poly-β,1-6-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. Escherichia coli was retained by cut ends of lettuce leaves within 5 min while more than 1 h was required for retention by the intact epidermis of leaves and fruits, and more than 1 day for sprouts. Retention after 5 min at the cut leaf edge was specific for E. coli and was not shown by the plant-associated bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Sinorhizobium meliloti. Escherichia coli was retained by lettuce, spinach, alfalfa, bean, tomato, Arabidopsis thaliana, cucumber, and pepper leaves and fruits faster than by sprouts. Wounding of leaves and fruits but not sprouts increased bacterial retention. Mutations in the exopolysaccharide synthesis genes yhjN and wcaD reduced the numbers of bacteria retained. PgaC mutants were retained by cut leaves and fruits but not by sprouts. There was no significant difference in the retention of an O157 and a K12 strain by fruits or leaves. However, retention by sprouts of O157 strains was significantly greater than K12 strains. These findings suggest that there are differences in the mechanisms of E  coli retention among sprouts, and leaves and fruits. © 2014 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Alicyclobacillus spoilage and isolation--a review.

    PubMed

    Smit, Yvette; Cameron, Michelle; Venter, Pierre; Witthuhn, R Corli

    2011-05-01

    Until recently, acidic products such as fruit juice and fruit based products were generally thought to be susceptible to spoilage by yeasts, mycelia fungi and lactic acid bacteria, as the low pH of these products acts as natural control measures against spoilage by most bacteria. Alicyclobacillus seem to be prevalent in fruit based products as they survive the acidic fruit juice environment, even when they are exposed to pasteurisation temperatures during production. In this review the historical background of the discovery of these bacteria is summarised. The bacterial characteristics and the reported spoilage incidences caused by members of this genus are discussed. As the isolation methods for these bacteria are controversial, this review includes a discussion of the various media that have been reported in the literature for the use in the isolation and enumeration of members of the genus Alicyclobacillus. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Undergraduate Laboratory Exercises Specific to Food Spoilage Microbiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Abigail B.; Worobo, Randy W.; Orta-Ramirez, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    Food spoilage has an enormous economic impact, and microbial food spoilage plays a significant role in food waste and loss; subsequently, an equally significant portion of undergraduate food microbiology instruction should be dedicated to spoilage microbiology. Here, we describe a set of undergraduate microbiology laboratory exercises that focus…

  7. Undergraduate Laboratory Exercises Specific to Food Spoilage Microbiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Abigail B.; Worobo, Randy W.; Orta-Ramirez, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    Food spoilage has an enormous economic impact, and microbial food spoilage plays a significant role in food waste and loss; subsequently, an equally significant portion of undergraduate food microbiology instruction should be dedicated to spoilage microbiology. Here, we describe a set of undergraduate microbiology laboratory exercises that focus…

  8. Simultaneous determination of levodopa and carbidopa from fava bean, green peas and green beans by high performance liquid gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Mehran S M, Mohseni; B, Golshani

    2013-06-01

    According to many studies, sprouted fava beans are a rich source of levo-dihydroxy phenylalanine (L-dopa) the precursor of dopamine, and they are now being investigated for use in the management of Parkinson's disease. The addition of Carbidopa (C-dopa) can reduce the daily use of the L-dopa dosage requirements and it can also reduce the side effects which are associated with the L-dopa administration. The present research was conducted to find the levo-dihydroxy phenylalanine (L-dopa) and Carbidopa (C-dopa) in fava beans, green peas and green beans by High Performance Gas Chromatography (HPLC). Carbidopa (C-dopa) is a peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor. As a substitution therapy, it used in combination to treat Parkinson's disease. We obtained L-dopa and C-dopa from fava beans which were in the fresh and dry sprouted form, whose concentrations were 1.4,1.5 and 2.6,2.4 mg/ml respectively. The maximal stimulation of the L-DOPA content was seen on day 8 for the fava beans, which was 100% higher than that of the control level. The results of this study indicate that faba beans are a good source of natural L-dopa and C-dopa. The quantification of this capacity according to the stage and the plant part could be suitable for applications in the food industry and in plant medicine. The consumption of fava beans can increase the levels of L-dopa and C-dopa in the blood, with a marked improvement in the motor performance of the patients with parkinson disease, without any side effects.

  9. Simultaneous Determination of Levodopa and Carbidopa from Fava Bean, Green Peas and Green Beans by High Performance Liquid Gas Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Mehran S.M., Mohseni; B., Golshani

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: According to many studies, sprouted fava beans are a rich source of levo-dihydroxy phenylalanine (L-dopa) the precursor of dopamine, and they are now being investigated for use in the management of Parkinson’s disease. The addition of Carbidopa (C-dopa) can reduce the daily use of the L-dopa dosage requirements and it can also reduce the side effects which are associated with the L-dopa administration. Material and Methods: The present research was conducted to find the levo-dihydroxy phenylalanine (L-dopa) and Carbidopa (C-dopa) in fava beans, green peas and green beans by High Performance Gas Chromatography (HPLC). Carbidopa (C-dopa) is a peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor. As a substitution therapy, it used in combination to treat Parkinson’s disease. Result: We obtained L-dopa and C-dopa from fava beans which were in the fresh and dry sprouted form, whose concentrations were 1.4,1.5 and 2.6,2.4 mg/ml respectively. The maximal stimulation of the L-DOPA content was seen on day 8 for the fava beans, which was 100% higher than that of the control level. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that faba beans are a good source of natural L-dopa and C-dopa. The quantification of this capacity according to the stage and the plant part could be suitable for applications in the food industry and in plant medicine. The consumption of fava beans can increase the levels of L-dopa and C-dopa in the blood, with a marked improvement in the motor performance of the patients with parkinson disease, without any side effects. PMID:23905090

  10. Evaluating the impact of sprouting conditions on the glucosinolate content of Brassica oleracea sprouts.

    PubMed

    Vale, A P; Santos, J; Brito, N V; Fernandes, D; Rosa, E; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2015-07-01

    The glucosinolates content of brassica plants is a distinctive characteristic, representing a healthy advantage as many of these compounds are associated to antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic properties. Brassica sprouts are still an underutilized source of these bioactive compounds. In this work, four varieties of brassica sprouts (red cabbage, broccoli, Galega kale and Penca cabbage), including two local varieties from the North of Portugal, were grown to evaluate the glucosinolate profile and myrosinase activity during the sprouting. Also the influence of light/darkness exposure during sprouting on the glucosinolate content was assessed. Glucosinolate content and myrosinase activity of the sprouts was evaluated by HPLC methods. All sprouts revealed a higher content of aliphatic glucosinolates than of indole glucosinolates, contrary to the profile described for most of brassica mature plants. Galega kale sprouts had the highest glucosinolate content, mainly sinigrin and glucoiberin, which are recognized for their beneficial health effects. Penca cabbage sprouts were particularly richer in glucoraphanin, who was also one of the major compounds in broccoli sprouts. Red cabbage showed a higher content of progoitrin. Regarding myrosinase activity, Galega kale sprouts showed the highest values, revealing that the use of light/dark cycles and a sprouting phase of 7-9 days could be beneficial to preserve the glucosinolate content of this variety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Update: intervention strategies for producing safe sprouts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There are still foodborne illness outbreaks and product recalls due to pathogen contaminated sprouts. Contaminated seeds, used for sprouting, are considered the main source of the problem. A review of seed contamination strategies, both chemical and non-thermal, will be presented. The chemical in...

  12. Fluid shear stress threshold regulates angiogenic sprouting.

    PubMed

    Galie, Peter A; Nguyen, Duc-Huy T; Choi, Colin K; Cohen, Daniel M; Janmey, Paul A; Chen, Christopher S

    2014-06-03

    The density and architecture of capillary beds that form within a tissue depend on many factors, including local metabolic demand and blood flow. Here, using microfluidic control of local fluid mechanics, we show the existence of a previously unappreciated flow-induced shear stress threshold that triggers angiogenic sprouting. Both intraluminal shear stress over the endothelium and transmural flow through the endothelium above 10 dyn/cm(2) triggered endothelial cells to sprout and invade into the underlying matrix, and this threshold is not impacted by the maturation of cell-cell junctions or pressure gradient across the monolayer. Antagonizing VE-cadherin widened cell-cell junctions and reduced the applied shear stress for a given transmural flow rate, but did not affect the shear threshold for sprouting. Furthermore, both transmural and luminal flow induced expression of matrix metalloproteinase 1, and this up-regulation was required for the flow-induced sprouting. Once sprouting was initiated, continuous flow was needed to both sustain sprouting and prevent retraction. To explore the potential ramifications of a shear threshold on the spatial patterning of new sprouts, we used finite-element modeling to predict fluid shear in a variety of geometric settings and then experimentally demonstrated that transmural flow guided preferential sprouting toward paths of draining interstitial fluid flow as might occur to connect capillary beds to venules or lymphatics. In addition, we show that luminal shear increases in local narrowings of vessels to trigger sprouting, perhaps ultimately to normalize shear stress across the vasculature. Together, these studies highlight the role of shear stress in controlling angiogenic sprouting and offer a potential homeostatic mechanism for regulating vascular density.

  13. Plasma inactivation of microorganisms on sprout seeds in a dielectric barrier discharge.

    PubMed

    Butscher, Denis; Van Loon, Hanne; Waskow, Alexandra; Rudolf von Rohr, Philipp; Schuppler, Markus

    2016-12-05

    Fresh produce is frequently contaminated by microorganisms, which may lead to spoilage or even pose a threat to human health. In particular sprouts are considered to be among the most risky foods sold at retail since they are grown in an environment practically ideal for growth of bacteria and usually consumed raw. Because heat treatment has a detrimental effect on the germination abilities of sprout seeds, alternative treatment technologies need to be developed for microbial inactivation purposes. In this study, non-thermal plasma decontamination of sprout seeds is evaluated as a promising option to enhance food safety while maintaining the seed germination capabilities. In detail, investigations focus on understanding the efficiency of non-thermal plasma inactivation of microorganisms as influenced by the type of microbial contamination, substrate surface properties and moisture content, as well as variations in the power input to the plasma device. To evaluate the impact of these parameters, we studied the reduction of native microbiota or artificially applied E. coli on alfalfa, onion, radish and cress seeds exposed to non-thermal plasma in an atmospheric pressure pulsed dielectric barrier discharge streamed with argon. Plasma treatment resulted in a maximum reduction of 3.4 logarithmic units for E. coli on cress seeds. A major challenge in plasma decontamination of granular food products turned out to be the complex surface topology, where the rough surface with cracks and crevices can shield microorganisms from plasma-generated reactive species, thus reducing the treatment efficiency. However, improvement of the inactivation efficiency was possible by optimizing substrate characteristics such as the moisture level and by tuning the power supply settings (voltage, frequency) to increase the production of reactive species. While the germination ability of alfalfa seeds was considerably decreased by harsh plasma treatment, enhanced germination was observed under

  14. Heat treatments to enhance the safety of mung bean seeds.

    PubMed

    Hu, Haijing; Churey, John J; Worobo, Randy W

    2004-06-01

    Salmonella enterica serovars and Escherichia coli O157:H7 have been associated with contaminated seed sprout outbreaks. The majority of these outbreaks have been traced to sprout seeds contaminated with low levels of pathogens. E. coli O157:H7 strains can grow an average of 2.3 log CFU/g over 2 days during seed germination, and Salmonella can achieve an average growth of 3.7 log CFU/g. Therefore, it is important to find an effective method to reduce possible pathogenic bacterial populations on the seeds prior to sprouting. Our objective was to assess the effectiveness of various dry heat treatments on reducing E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella populations on mung beans intended for sprout production and to determine the effect of these treatments on seed germination. Mung beans were inoculated with five-strain cocktails of E. coli O157:H7 and of Salmonella serovars harboring the green fluorescent protein gene and then air dried overnight. Heat treatments were performed by incubating the seeds at 55 degrees C for various periods of time. Heat-treated seeds were then assessed for the efficacy of the heat treatment and the effects of heat treatment on germination rates. After inoculation and drying, 6 log CFU/g E. coli O157:H7 and 4 log CFU/g Salmonella were detected on the seeds. Following heat treatment, pathogenic bacterial populations on the seeds were below detectable levels (<1 log CFU/g), but the germination rate of the seed was not affected. Thus, the risk of contamination and the presence of pathogens in the finished sprouts were greatly reduced via the seed heat treatment process.

  15. Spoilage yeasts in the wine industry.

    PubMed

    Loureiro, V; Malfeito-Ferreira, M

    2003-09-01

    Yeasts play a central role in the spoilage of foods and beverages, mainly those with high acidity and reduced water activity (a(w)). A few species are capable of spoiling foods produced according to good manufacturing practices (GMPs). These can survive and grow under stress conditions where other microorganisms are not competitive. However, many of the aspects determining yeast spoilage have yet to be clarified. This critical review uses the wine industry as a case study where serious microbiological problems are caused by yeasts. First, the limitations of the available tools to assess the presence of spoilage yeasts in foods are discussed. Next, yeasts and factors promoting their colonisation in grapes and wines are discussed from the ecological perspective, demonstrating that a deeper knowledge of vineyard and winery ecosystems is essential to establish the origin of wine spoilage yeasts, their routes of contamination, critical points of yeast infection, and of course, their control. Further, zymological indicators are discussed as important tools to assess the microbiological quality of wines, although they are rarely used by the wine industry. The concepts of the susceptibility of wine to spoilage yeasts and wine stability are addressed based on scientific knowledge and industrial practices for monitoring yeast contamination. A discussion on acceptable levels of yeasts and microbiological criteria in the wine industry is supported by data obtained from wineries, wholesalers, and the scientific literature.Finally, future directions for applied research are proposed, involving collaboration between scientists and industry to improve the quality of wine and methods for monitoring the presence of yeast.

  16. Lesions of potato sprout and extracted potato sprout alkaloid toxicity in Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Baker, D; Keeler, R; Gaffield, W

    1987-01-01

    Hamsters were gavaged either dried potato sprout material, alkaloid extract of potato sprouts, or the marc from which the alkaloid fraction was extracted and then were examined for gross and microscopic lesions. Nine of 10 hamsters receiving dried potato sprout material and 3 of 5 hamsters receiving alkaloid extract had severe gastric and intestinal mucosal necrosis which was most severe in the glandular stomach, duodenum and proximal jejunum. All control hamsters gavaged with water and all hamsters gavaged with the potato sprout marc survived to the time of euthanasia and did not have gross or microscopic lesions.

  17. Toxicity Assessment of Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Widely Consumed by Tunisian Population.

    PubMed

    Nciri, Nader; Cho, Namjun; El Mhamdi, Faiçal; Ben Ismail, Hanen; Ben Mansour, Abderraouf; Sassi, Fayçal Haj; Ben Aissa-Fennira, Fatma

    2015-09-01

    This research aimed at assessing the content and the functional properties of phytohemagglutinin (PHA) in different varieties of beans widely consumed in Tunisia through soaking, cooking, autoclaving, germination, and their combinations. This study was carried out on three varieties of white beans grown in different localities of Tunisia, namely Twila, Coco, and Beldia, as well as on imported and local canned beans. All bean samples underwent biochemical and immunological evaluation by employing several techniques such as indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), hemagglutinating assay, Ouchterlony double immunodiffusion, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Biochemical and immunological analyses indicated that raw dry beans contained a considerable amount of proteins and PHAs. ELISA demonstrated that soaking, either in plain water or in alkaline solution, caused an increase in the concentration of PHA. A slight increase of PHA was produced equally by germination during 4 days in all bean varieties. Cooking or autoclaving of presoaked beans resulted in a complete disappearance of PHA. ELISA test also proved that both imported and local canned beans contained fingerprints of PHA. Hemagglutination assays showed that not only cooked and autoclaved presoaked beans lacked the ability to agglutinate red blood cells but also autoclaved unsoaked beans did. In agar gel immunodiffusion using rabbit anti-PHA serum, raw, soaked, cooked unsoaked, and sprouted beans gave precipitin arc reactions, indicating that PHA existed in immunoreactive form in the tested seeds. SDS-PAGE electrophoretograms showed protein isolates of Twila and Beldia beans to have different profiles through soaking, cooking, and autoclaving processes. This work revealed that the combination of soaking and cooking/autoclaving was the best way in reducing PHA content and its activity in all bean varieties when compared with germination.

  18. Microbiological Spoilage of High-Sugar Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Sterling

    The high-sugar products discussed in this chapter are referred to as chocolate, sugar confectionery (non-chocolate), liquid sugars, sugar syrups, and honey. Products grouped in the sugar confectionery category include hard candy, soft/gummy candy, caramel, toffee, licorice, marzipan, creams, jellies, and nougats. A common intrinsic parameter associated with high-sugar products is their low water activity (a w), which is known to inhibit the growth of most spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. However, spoilage can occur as a result of the growth of osmophilic yeasts and xerophilic molds (Von Richter, 1912; Anand & Brown, 1968; Brown, 1976). The a w range for high-sugar products is between 0.20 and 0.80 (Banwart, 1979; Richardson, 1987; Lenovich & Konkel, 1992; ICMSF, 1998; Jay, Loessner, & Golden, 2005). Spoilage of products, such as chocolate-covered cherries, results from the presence of yeasts in the liquid sugar brine or the cherry. Generally, the spoiled product will develop leakers. The chocolate covering the cherry would not likely be a source of yeast contamination.

  19. Beer spoilage bacteria and hop resistance.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Kanta; Konings, Wil N

    2003-12-31

    For brewing industry, beer spoilage bacteria have been problematic for centuries. They include some lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus lindneri and Pediococcus damnosus, and some Gram-negative bacteria such as Pectinatus cerevisiiphilus, Pectinatus frisingensis and Megasphaera cerevisiae. They can spoil beer by turbidity, acidity and the production of unfavorable smell such as diacetyl or hydrogen sulfide. For the microbiological control, many advanced biotechnological techniques such as immunoassay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have been applied in place of the conventional and time-consuming method of incubation on culture media. Subsequently, a method is needed to determine whether the detected bacterium is capable of growing in beer or not. In lactic acid bacteria, hop resistance is crucial for their ability to grow in beer. Hop compounds, mainly iso-alpha-acids in beer, have antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. They act as ionophores which dissipate the pH gradient across the cytoplasmic membrane and reduce the proton motive force (pmf). Consequently, the pmf-dependent nutrient uptake is hampered, resulting in cell death. The hop-resistance mechanisms in lactic acid bacteria have been investigated. HorA was found to excrete hop compounds in an ATP-dependent manner from the cell membrane to outer medium. Additionally, increased proton pumping by the membrane bound H(+)-ATPase contributes to hop resistance. To energize such ATP-dependent transporters hop-resistant cells contain larger ATP pools than hop-sensitive cells. Furthermore, a pmf-dependent hop transporter was recently presented. Understanding the hop-resistance mechanisms has enabled the development of rapid methods to discriminate beer spoilage strains from nonspoilers. The horA-PCR method has been applied for bacterial control in breweries. Also, a discrimination method was developed based on ATP pool measurement in lactobacillus cells. However

  20. Sprouting of old-growth redwood stumps...first year after logging

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Neal

    1967-01-01

    A survey of 104 old-growth stumps on the Redwood Experimental Forest, in northern California showed that (a) probability of a stump sprouting varied inversely with its diameter; (b) number of sprouts per sprouting stump and height of tallest sprout were not related to stump diameter; (c) lower portions of stumps sprouted more often and produced more sprouts than did...

  1. Preventing spoilage of poultry meat: focus on spoilage microorganisms and their control

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The shelf-life of fresh poultry meat is determined by the level of contamination of processed meat by spoilage microorganisms, storage temperature and storage atmosphere. This chapter looks at the various ways by which to extend the shelf-life of poultry meat: vacuum and modified atmosphere packagin...

  2. Growth dynamics of specific spoilage organisms and associated spoilage biomarkers in chicken breast stored aerobically

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was performed to identify and quantify selected volatile spoilage biomarkers in a headspace over chicken breast using solid phase microextraction (SPME) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-flame ionization detectors (GC-MS/FID). The chicken breast samples were aerobically s...

  3. Infections associated with eating seed sprouts: an international concern.

    PubMed Central

    Taormina, P. J.; Beuchat, L. R.; Slutsker, L.

    1999-01-01

    Recent outbreaks of Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections associated with raw seed sprouts have occurred in several countries. Subjective evaluations indicate that pathogens can exceed 107 per gram of sprouts produced from inoculated seeds during sprout production without adversely affecting appearance. Treating seeds and sprouts with chlorinated water or other disinfectants fails to eliminate the pathogens. A comprehensive approach based on good manufacturing practices and principles of hazard analysis and critical control points can reduce the risk of sprout-associated disease. Until effective measures to prevent sprout-associated illness are identified, persons who wish to reduce their risk of foodborne illness from raw sprouts are advised not to eat them; in particular, persons at high risk for severe complications of infections with Salmonella or E. coli O157:H7, such as the elderly, children, and those with compromised immune systems, should not eat raw sprouts. PMID:10511518

  4. Biofortification of soybean sprouts with zinc and bioaccessibility of zinc in the sprouts.

    PubMed

    Zou, Tao; Xu, Na; Hu, Guanglin; Pang, Jinwei; Xu, Hangdan

    2014-11-01

    Soybean sprouts are a very popular vegetable in Southeast Asian countries and regions. Zinc-rich soybean sprouts can help to improve Zn deficiency in humans. The aim of this study was to prepare Zn-enriched soybean sprouts through agronomic biofortification (germination with ZnSO4 solution) in order to provide consumers with a dietary material for Zn supplementation. A suitable Zn concentration in ZnSO4 solution used for cultivation of Zn-enriched soybean sprouts was found to be less than or equal to 20 µg mL(-1) . Upon biofortification with 10 and 20 µg Zn mL(-1) ZnSO4 solutions, Zn content (102 and 163 vs 32 mg kg(-1) dry weight (DW)), bioaccessible Zn content (3.86 and 8.53 vs 1.11 mg kg(-1) DW) and Zn bioaccessibility (3.8 and 5.2 vs 3.5%) in edible portions of Zn-enriched soybean sprouts were significantly enhanced compared with those of water-germinated soybean sprouts. Meanwhile, no significant differences were observed in Fe, Mn and Cu contents of edible portions of soybean sprouts between ZnSO4 solution and water germinations, although soaking leakages of minerals (Fe, Mn and Cu) from soybean seeds to steeping media occurred to some degree. Soybean sprouts biofortified with ZnSO4 solution at 10 or 20 µg Zn mL(-1) contained appreciable quantities of Zn and had good Zn bioaccessibility, indicating that Zn-enriched soybean sprouts may serve as a suitable dietary Zn source to improve the Zn intake of Zn-deficient populations. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Development of water oak stump sprouts under a partial overstory

    Treesearch

    Emile S. Gardiner; Lisa M. Helmig

    1997-01-01

    A 28-year-old water oak (Quercus nigra L.) plantation was thinned from below to either 254 or 462 stems per hectare to determine the influence of a partial canopy on oak stump sprout development. Sprout clump survival, number of living sprouts in a clump, and height and DBH of the dominant sprout in a clump were measured in years l-5 and 7 after harvest. By year 7,...

  6. Microbiological Spoilage of Acidified Specialty Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperber, William H.

    Acidified specialty products or condiments are among the most microbiologically stable and safe food products. Often formulated, packaged, and distributed without heat treatments, they are microbiologically stable indefinitely at ambient temperatures in unopened containers. The packaged, acidified products are often intended for multiple uses, exposing them at the points of consumption to numerous opportunities for contamination with microorganisms. Nonetheless, they remain resistant to microbiological spoilage for many months, often under refrigerated conditions that are used to retard chemical reactions, flavor changes, and yeast growth.

  7. Microbiological Spoilage of Fish and Seafood Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gram, Lone

    Fish and seafood products are some of the most important protein sources in human nutrition. At the same time, these products are perishable and, if left unpreserved, spoil rapidly. Some fish products are heavily cured (salted, dried) and shelf stable at ambient temperature. An increasing number of fish products are preserved by low levels of salt, cooling, packaging in modified atmosphere, and/or addition of low levels of preservatives. The microflora of these products is often complex; however, spoilage is mostly caused by microbial action.

  8. Long-term success of stump sprout regeneration in baldcypress

    Treesearch

    Richard F. Keim; Jim L. Chambers; Melinda S. Hughes; Emile S. Gardiner; William H. Conner; John W. Day; Stephen P. Faulkner; Kenneth W. McLeod; Craig A. Miller; J. Andrew Nyman; Gary P. Shaffer; Luben D. Dimov

    2006-01-01

    Baldcypress [Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.] is one of very few conifers that produces stump sprouts capable of becoming full-grown trees. Previous studies have addressed early survival of baldcypress stump sprouts but have not addressed the likelihood of sprouts becoming an important component of mature stands. We surveyed stands throughout south...

  9. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout... prescribed conditions: (a) The additive is produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived...

  10. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590... Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout extract, as described in this section, may... produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived from Saccharomyces cereviseae,...

  11. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout... prescribed conditions: (a) The additive is produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived...

  12. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout... prescribed conditions: (a) The additive is produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived...

  13. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout... prescribed conditions: (a) The additive is produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived...

  14. Biodiversity of spoilage lactobacilli: phenotypic characterisation.

    PubMed

    Sanders, J W; Oomes, S J C M; Membré, J-M; Wegkamp, A; Wels, M

    2015-02-01

    Preventing food spoilage is a challenge for the food industry, especially when applying mild preservation methods and when avoiding the use of preservatives. Therefore, it is essential to explore the boundaries of preservation by better understanding the causative microbes, their phenotypic behaviour and their genetic makeup. Traditionally in food microbiology, single strains or small sets of selected strains are studied. Here a collection of 120 strains of 6 different spoilage related Lactobacillus species and a multitude of sources was prepared and their growth characteristics determined in 384-well plates by optical density measurements (OD) over 20 days, for 20 carbon source-related phenotypic parameters and 25 preservation-related phenotypic parameters. Growth under all conditions was highly strain specific and there was no correlation of phenotypes at the species level. On average Lactobacillus brevis strains were amongst the most robust whereas Lactobacillus fructivorans strains had a much narrower growth range. The biodiversity data allowed the definition of preservation boundaries on the basis of the number of Lactobacillus strains that reached a threshold OD, which is different from current methods that are based on growth ability or growth rate of a few selected strains. Genetic information on these microbes and a correlation study will improve the mechanistic understanding of preservation resistance and this will support the future development of superior screening and preservation methods.

  15. Origin of buds, branches, and sprouts

    Treesearch

    Kevin T. Smith

    2014-01-01

    Recent research shows that survivor trees in rural, managed forests rebuild broken crowns with new branches and foliage after ice storm injury (Shortle et al. 2014). Veteran trees in historic parks and landscapes show repeated cycles of crown loss and recovery (Fay 2002). Crown rebuilding or reiteration from sprouts is a physiological response with architectural...

  16. Profitability of precommercially thinning oak stump sprouts

    Treesearch

    John P. Dwyer; Daniel C. Dey; William B. Kurtz

    1993-01-01

    Thinning oak stump sprouts to a single stem at an early age will increase diameter growth of the released stem. However, precommercial thinning represents a substantial investment which must be carried for many years before any returns are realized. We estimated the incremental gains in yield and the present net worth for five crop-tree release treatments of 5-year-old...

  17. Sprouting of dormant buds on border trees

    Treesearch

    G.R., Jr. Trimble; H. Clay Smith; H. Clay Smith

    1970-01-01

    As part of an evaluation of silvicultura1 systems used in managing Appalachian hardwoods, we are studying degrade of border trees surrounding harvest-cut openings made in the patch cutting and group selection systems. One facet of this research dealt with determining what portion of visually evident dormant buds on border tree boles sprouted when the openings were cut...

  18. Profitability of Precommericially Thinning Oak Stump Sprouts

    Treesearch

    John P. Dwyer; Daniel C. Dey; William B. Kurtz

    1993-01-01

    Thinning oak stump sprouts to a single stem at an early age will increase diameter growth of the released stem. However, percommercial thinning represents a substantial investment which must be carried for many years before any returns are realized. We estimated the incremental gains in yield and the present net worth for five crop-tree release treatments of 5-yr-old...

  19. Field and Greenhouse Performance of Potato Sprouts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The use of potato sprouts as a seed source is an innovative idea that has gained international recognition in recent years. The potato industry in Alaska currently relies on freshpack for the majority of sales. A low level of disease pressure on potato seed production in Alaska suggests high quality...

  20. Potato poisoning - green tubers and sprouts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tools About MedlinePlus Show Search Search MedlinePlus GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Potato plant poisoning - green tubers and sprouts URL of this page: //medlineplus. ...

  1. Chemical components with health implications in wild and cultivated Mexican common bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Díaz-Batalla, Luis; Widholm, Jack M; Fahey, George C; Castaño-Tostado, Eduardo; Paredes-López, Octavio

    2006-03-22

    Common bean effects on health have been related to its dietary fiber content and other active compounds. This study assessed the content of flavonoids, coumestrol, phenolic acids, galactooligosaccharides, and phytic acid in wild and cultivated Mexican common bean seeds (raw and cooked) and that of flavonoids, coumestrol, and phenolic acids in germinated bean seeds. The presence of isoflavones in raw bean seeds was not confirmed by the UV spectra. Quercetin, kaempferol, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and vanillic acid mean contents were 10.9, 52.3, 10.1, 9.6, 5.4, and 18.2 microg/g, respectively; raffinose, stachyose, verbascose, and phytic acid mean contents were 8.5, 56.3, 5.5, and 11.5 mg/g, respectively, in raw seeds. All compounds were affected by autoclaving, and germination resulted in a de novo synthesis of flavonols, phytoestrogens, and phenolic acids. The impact on health of common bean seed is affected by dietary burden, specific compounds content, and processing. On the other hand, germinated bean seed or beans sprouts may be sources of antioxidants and phytoestrogens.

  2. Alan Bean Art Exhibit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-19

    NASA Apollo 12 Astronaut and Artist Alan Bean gives remarks at the opening of the exhibit "Alan Bean: Painting Apollo, First Artist on Another World" at the National Air and Space Museum, Monday, July 20, 2009 in Washington. The show opening coincided with the 40th anniversary celebration of Apollo. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  3. Alan Bean Art Exhibit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-19

    Guest view works of art by NASA Apollo 12 Astronaut and Artist Alan Bean during the opening of the show "Alan Bean: Painting Apollo, First Artist on Another World" at the National Air and Space Museum, Monday, July 20, 2009 in Washington. The show opening coincided with the 40th anniversary celebration of Apollo. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  4. Stump sprouting of Pacific yew. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Minore, D.; Weatherly, H.G.

    1996-09-01

    Large numbers of Pacific yew (Taxus brevifolia Nutt.) trees have been cut to supply bark for taxol production, and replacement of those trees may depend on their ability to sprout from the stump. Stump characteristics were related to the initiation and survival of epicormic branches (sprouts) on 100 yew stumps in each of 11 recently harvested stands during 1992. Half of the stumps were artificially shaded and all were remeasured in 1993. The number of living stumps in each stand was positively correlated with average stump height and average percentage of bark retained. Postharvest sprouting was most abundant on stumps with established sprouts or live branches. For individual stumps, the number and length of preharvest sprouts were the only variables consistently related to number of postharvest sprouts. Artificial shading did not promote sprouting.

  5. Light influence in the nutritional composition of Brassica oleracea sprouts.

    PubMed

    Vale, A P; Santos, J; Brito, N V; Peixoto, V; Carvalho, Rosa; Rosa, E; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2015-07-01

    Brassica sprouts are considered a healthy food product, whose nutritional quality can be influenced by several factors. The aim of this work was to monitor the nutritional composition changes promoted by different sprouting conditions of four varieties of Brassica oleracea (red cabbage, broccoli, Galega kale and Penca cabbage). Sprouts were grown under light/darkness cycles and complete darkness. Standard AOAC methods were applied for nutritional value evaluation, while chromatographic methods with UV-VIS and FID detection were used to determine the free amino acids and fatty acids, respectively. Mineral content was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Sprouts composition revealed them as an excellent source of protein and dietary fiber. Selenium content was one of the most distinctive feature of sprouts, being the sprouting conditions determinant for the free amino acid and fatty acids profile. The use of complete darkness was beneficial to the overall nutritional quality of the brassica sprouts studied. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Insights into the role of quorum sensing in food spoilage.

    PubMed

    Ammor, Mohammed Salim; Michaelidis, Christos; Nychas, George-John E

    2008-07-01

    Food spoilage is a consequence of the degrading enzymatic activity of some food-associated bacteria. Several proteolytic, lipolytic, chitinolytic, and pectinolytic activities associated with the deterioration of goods are regulated by quorum sensing, suggesting a potential role of such cell-to-cell communication in food spoilage. Here we review quorum sensing signaling molecules and methods of their detection and quantification, and we provide insights into the role of quorum sensing in food spoilage and address potential quorum sensing inhibitors that might be used as biopreservatives.

  7. Scale-up seed decontamination process to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Enteritidis on mung bean seeds.

    PubMed

    Bari, Latiful; Enomoto, Katsuyoshi; Nei, Daisuke; Kawamoto, Shinnichi

    2010-01-01

    A majority of the seed sprout-related outbreaks have been associated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. Therefore, it is necessary to find an effective method to inactivate these microorganisms on the seeds before sprouting. When treatment with hot water at 85 degrees C for 40 sec followed by dipping in cold water for 30 sec and soaking into chlorine water (2000 ppm) for 2 h was performed, no viable pathogens were found in the enrichment medium and during the sprouting process. The germination yield of the seed was not affected significantly (p > 0.05). Therefore, these treatments could be useful for the decontamination method of mung bean seeds intended for sprout production.

  8. Exogenous ethylene inhibits sprout growth in onion bulbs

    PubMed Central

    Bufler, Gebhard

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Exogenous ethylene has recently gained commercial interest as a sprouting inhibitor of onion bulbs. The role of ethylene in dormancy and sprouting of onions, however, is not known. Methods A cultivar (Allium cepa ‘Copra’) with a true period of dormancy was used. Dormant and sprouting states of onion bulbs were treated with supposedly saturating doses of ethylene or with the ethylene-action inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). Initial sprouting was determined during storage at 18 °C by monitoring leaf blade elongation in a specific size class of leaf sheaths. Changes in ATP content and sucrose synthase activity in the sprout leaves, indicators of the sprouting state, were determined. CO2 and ethylene production of onion bulbs during storage were recorded. Key results Exogenous ethylene suppressed sprout growth of both dormant and already sprouting onion bulbs by inhibiting leaf blade elongation. In contrast to this growth-inhibiting effect, ethylene stimulated CO2 production by the bulbs about 2-fold. The duration of dormancy was not significantly affected by exogenous ethylene. However, treatment of dormant bulbs with 1-MCP caused premature sprouting. Conclusions Exogenous ethylene proved to be a powerful inhibitor of sprout growth in onion bulbs. The dormancy breaking effect of 1-MCP indicates a regulatory role of endogenous ethylene in onion bulb dormancy. PMID:18940850

  9. Growth characteristics of mung beans and water convolvuluses exposed to 425-MHz electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Jinapang, Peeraya; Prakob, Panida; Wongwattananard, Pongtorn; Islam, Naz E; Kirawanich, Phumin

    2010-10-01

    Effects of high-frequency, continuous wave (CW) electromagnetic fields on mung beans (Vigna radiata L.) and water convolvuluses (Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.) were studied at different growth stages (pre-sown seed and early seedling). Specifically, the effects of the electromagnetic source's power and duration (defined as power-duration level) on the growth of the two species were studied. Mung beans and water convolvuluses were exposed to electromagnetic fields inside a specially designed chamber for optimum field absorption, and the responses of the seeds to a constant frequency at various power levels and durations of exposure were monitored. The frequency used in the experiments was 425 MHz, the field strengths were 1 mW, 100 mW, and 10 W, and the exposure durations were 1, 2, and 4 h. Results show that germination enhancement is optimum for the mung beans at 100 mW/1 h power-duration level, while for water convolvuluses the optimum germination power-duration level was 1 mW/2 h. When both seed types were exposed at the early sprouting phase with their respective optimum power-duration levels for optimum seed growth, water convolvuluses showed growth enhancement while mung bean sprouts showed no effects. Water content analysis of the seeds suggests thermal effects only at higher field strength.

  10. Microbiological Spoilage of Spices, Nuts, Cocoa, and Coffee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkas, Joan M.; Battista, Karen; Morille-Hinds, Theodora

    Spices, nuts, cocoa, and coffee are raw materials that may be used alone or as ingredients in the manufacture of processed food products. The control of microbiological spoilage of these raw materials at the ingredient stage will enable the food processor to better assure the production of high-quality foods with an acceptable shelf life. While this chapter is limited to four materials, many of the spoilage control procedures recommended can also be applied to other raw materials of a similar nature.

  11. Effect of Equilibrated pH and Indigenous Spoilage Microorganisms on the Inhibition of Proteolytic Clostridium botulinum Toxin Production in Experimental Meals under Temperature Abuse.

    PubMed

    Golden, Max C; Wanless, Brandon J; David, Jairus R D; Lineback, D Scott; Talley, Ryan J; Kottapalli, Bala; Glass, Kathleen A

    2017-08-01

    Clostridium botulinum is a foreseeable biological hazard in prepared refrigerated meals that needs to be addressed in food safety plans. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of product composition and storage temperature on the inhibition of botulinum toxin formation in nine experimental meals (meat, vegetable, or carbohydrate based). Treatments were inoculated with proteolytic C. botulinum, vacuum packaged, cooked at 90°C for 10 min, and assayed for botulinum toxin in samples stored at 25°C for up to 96 h for phase 1, or at 25°C for 12 h and then transferred to 12.5°C for up to 12 and 6 weeks in phases 1 and 2, respectively. For phase 1, none of the treatments (equilibrated pH 5.8) supported toxin production when stored at 25°C for 48 h, but toxin production was observed in all treatments at 72 h. For the remaining experiments with storage at 12.5°C, toxin production was dependent on equilibrated pH, storage time, and growth of indigenous spoilage microorganisms. In phase 1, no gross spoilage and no botulinum toxin was detected for any treatment (pH ≤5.8) stored at 12.5°C for 12 weeks. In phase 2, gross spoilage varied by commodity, with the brussels sprouts meal with pH 6.5 showing the most rapid spoilage within 2 weeks and botulinum toxin detected at 5 and 6 weeks for the control and cultured celery juice treatments, respectively. In contrast, spoilage microbes decreased the pH of a pH 5.9 beef treatment by 1.0 unit, potentially inhibiting C. botulinum through 6 weeks at 12.5°C. None of the other treatments with pH 5.8 or below supported toxin production or spoilage. This study provides validation for preventive controls in refrigerated meals. These include equilibrated product pH and storage temperature and time to inhibit toxin formation by proteolytic C. botulinum, but the impact of indigenous microflora on safety and interpretation of challenge studies is also highlighted.

  12. Protecting beans from ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.

    1983-03-01

    A chemical treatment to protect navy beans from ozone damage increased yields by an average of more than 20% in 3 years of tests. An experimental antioxidant chemical, EDU, made by the DuPont company was tested as soil applications and sprays on several varieties and under a variety of soil and planting conditions. The average yield increases were between 16 and 24%. Chemical treatment also increased snap bean pod production by 12%.

  13. Alan Bean Art Exhibit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-19

    NASA Apollo 7 Astronaut Walt Cunningham, left, and NASA STS-125 Mission Specialist Michael Massimino talk with another guest during the opening of "Alan Bean: Painting Apollo, First Artist on Another World" by NASA Apollo 12 Astronaut and Artist Alan Bean at the National Air and Space Museum, Monday, July 20, 2009 in Washington. The show opening coincided with the 40th anniversary celebration of Apollo. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  14. Pathogen detection, testing, and control in fresh broccoli sprouts

    PubMed Central

    Fahey, Jed W; Ourisson, Philippe J; Degnan, Frederick H

    2006-01-01

    Background The recent increased interest in consuming green vegetable sprouts has been tempered by the fact that fresh sprouts can in some cases be vehicles for food-borne illnesses. They must be grown according to proper conditions of sanitation and handled as a food product rather than as an agricultural commodity. When sprouts are grown in accordance with the criteria proposed from within the sprout industry, developed by regulatory agencies, and adhered to by many sprouters, green sprouts can be produced with very low risk. Contamination may occur when these guidelines are not followed. Methods A one year program of microbial hold-and-release testing, conducted in concert with strict seed and facility cleaning procedures by 13 U.S. broccoli sprout growers was evaluated. Microbial contamination tests were performed on 6839 drums of sprouts, equivalent to about 5 million consumer packages of fresh green sprouts. Results Only 24 (0.75%) of the 3191 sprout samples gave an initial positive test for Escherichia coli O157:H7 or Salmonella spp., and when re-tested, 3 drums again tested positive. Composite testing (e.g., pooling up to 7 drums for pathogen testing) was equally sensitive to single drum testing. Conclusion By using a "test-and-re-test" protocol, growers were able to minimize crop destruction. By pooling drums for testing, they were also able to reduce testing costs which now represent a substantial portion of the costs associated with sprout growing. The test-and-hold scheme described herein allowed those few batches of contaminated sprouts to be found prior to packaging and shipping. These events were isolated, and only safe sprouts entered the food supply. PMID:16630354

  15. Microbiological examination of vegetable seed sprouts in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hoikyung; Lee, Youngjun; Beuchat, Larry R; Yoon, Bong-June; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

    2009-04-01

    Sprouted vegetable seeds used as food have been implicated as sources of outbreaks of Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections. We profiled the microbiological quality of sprouts and seeds sold at retail shops in Seoul, Korea. Ninety samples of radish sprouts and mixed sprouts purchased at department stores, supermarkets, and traditional markets and 96 samples of radish, alfalfa, and turnip seeds purchased from online stores were analyzed to determine the number of total aerobic bacteria (TAB) and molds or yeasts (MY) and the incidence of Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, and Enterobacter sakazakii. Significantly higher numbers of TAB (7.52 log CFU/g) and MY (7.36 log CFU/g) were present on mixed sprouts than on radish sprouts (6.97 and 6.50 CFU/g, respectively). Populations of TAB and MY on the sprouts were not significantly affected by location of purchase. Radish seeds contained TAB and MY populations of 4.08 and 2.42 log CFU/g, respectively, whereas populations of TAB were only 2.54 to 2.84 log CFU/g and populations of MY were 0.82 to 1.69 log CFU/g on alfalfa and turnip seeds, respectively. Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 were not detected on any of the sprout and seed samples tested. E. sakazakii was not found on seeds, but 13.3% of the mixed sprout samples contained this potentially pathogenic bacterium.

  16. Hot water treatments to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in mung bean seeds.

    PubMed

    Bari, M L; Inatsu, Y; Isobe, S; Kawamoto, S

    2008-04-01

    The majority of the seed sprout-related outbreaks have been associated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella. Therefore, an effective method is needed to inactivate these organisms on the seeds before they are sprouted. This study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of various hot water treatments to inactivate E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella populations on mung beans seeds intended for sprout production and to determine the effect of these treatments on seed germination after the seeds were dipped in chilled water for 30 s. Mung bean seed inoculated with four-strain cocktails of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella were soaked into hot water at 80 and 90 degrees C with shaking for various periods and then dipped in chilled water for 30 s. The treated seeds were then assessed for the efficacy of the treatment for reducing populations of the pathogens and the effects of the treatment on germination. After inoculation and air drying, 6.08 +/- 0.34 log CFU/g E. coli O157:H7 and 5.34 +/- 0.29 log CFU/g Salmonella were detected on the seeds. After hot water treatment at 90 degrees C for 90 s followed by dipping in chilled water for 30 s, no viable pathogens were found and no survivors were found in the enrichment medium and during the sprouting process. The germination yield of the seed was not affected significantly. Therefore, hot water treatment followed by dipping in chilled water for 30 s could be an effective seed decontamination method for mung bean seeds intended for sprout production.

  17. Characterization of the bacterial spoilage flora in marinated pork products.

    PubMed

    Schirmer, B C; Heir, E; Langsrud, S

    2009-06-01

    To investigate the microbiota in marinated, vacuum-packed pork and to characterize isolated bacteria with regard to their spoilage potential. Laboratory marinated pork meat and commercial products from three Norwegian producers were examined. Lactic acid bacteria dominated in all products at the expiration date. The flora in marinated products was similar only for products from the same plant. Strains of Lactobacillus algidus, Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus curvatus, Carnobacterium divergens, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Leuconostoc carnosum and Leuconostoc sp. were isolated and tested for their spoilage potential. Samples inoculated with Lact. algidus or Leuc. mesenteroides were rated as most unpleasant by randomly selected people. A sensory panel scored samples with Lact. algidus highest for sour and intense odour. Lactobacillus algidus was found in products from two out of three production plants. Culture-independent DNA isolation confirmed that cultivation on Blood agar at 20 degrees C yielded a representative picture of the total flora in marinated flintsteak. Lactobacillus algidus may be an important, but underestimated, spoilage organism that needs to be focused on more when spoilage of vacuum-packed meat is considered. Routine microbial testing may have to be revised in order to detect spoilage LAB that are unable to grow under currently used conditions.

  18. Visualisation in the SPROUT molecular design program.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A P; Zsoldos, Z

    1996-01-01

    SPROUT is an interactive computer system for structure based molecular design. The system consists of several modules that address the different subproblems of structure based drug design. This paper describes the visualisation techniques applied in the program: the display of the novel (geometric region) representation of the interaction sites and the molecular surface display based on a 3D grid representation of the cavity. The hydrogen bonding regions are represented by set operations (subtraction and intersection) of simple spherical and conical 3D objects (with given radii and opening angle) Some complex hydrogen bonding regions are represented by intersections of six or more basic objects. A method for calculating a triangular mesh representation (with normal vectors) of the analytical surfaces of the objects, that have sharp edges and corners because of the intersections, is presented in the paper. The geometric parameters of the interaction regions can be changed interactively in which case the surface display is updated real-time. The volume of space that is available for ligand generation (the cavity of the receptor site) is represented on a 3D grid within SPROUT. The surface of the available space is visualised using an algorithm presented in the paper, that generates a polygonial mesh of the grid points. The grid is also used to cut out stericaly forbidden parts of the interaction site regions. The surface of the reduced object is also visualised using further sphere subtractions. The presented algorithms are fast, aplicable in interactive visualisation programs. Result images of the rendering of the surfaces, calculated by the algorithms, are demonstrated on examples taken from applications of SPROUT to practical ligand design problems.

  19. Laminar flow downregulates Notch activity to promote lymphatic sprouting.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dongwon; Park, Eunkyung; Jung, Eunson; Seong, Young Jin; Yoo, Jaehyuk; Lee, Esak; Hong, Mingu; Lee, Sunju; Ishida, Hiroaki; Burford, James; Peti-Peterdi, Janos; Adams, Ralf H; Srikanth, Sonal; Gwack, Yousang; Chen, Christopher S; Vogel, Hans J; Koh, Chester J; Wong, Alex K; Hong, Young-Kwon

    2017-04-03

    The major function of the lymphatic system is to drain interstitial fluid from tissue. Functional drainage causes increased fluid flow that triggers lymphatic expansion, which is conceptually similar to hypoxia-triggered angiogenesis. Here, we have identified a mechanotransduction pathway that translates laminar flow-induced shear stress to activation of lymphatic sprouting. While low-rate laminar flow commonly induces the classic shear stress responses in blood endothelial cells and lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs), only LECs display reduced Notch activity and increased sprouting capacity. In response to flow, the plasma membrane calcium channel ORAI1 mediates calcium influx in LECs and activates calmodulin to facilitate a physical interaction between Krüppel-like factor 2 (KLF2), the major regulator of shear responses, and PROX1, the master regulator of lymphatic development. The PROX1/KLF2 complex upregulates the expression of DTX1 and DTX3L. DTX1 and DTX3L, functioning as a heterodimeric Notch E3 ligase, concertedly downregulate NOTCH1 activity and enhance lymphatic sprouting. Notably, overexpression of the calcium reporter GCaMP3 unexpectedly inhibited lymphatic sprouting, presumably by disturbing calcium signaling. Endothelial-specific knockouts of Orai1 and Klf2 also markedly impaired lymphatic sprouting. Moreover, Dtx3l loss of function led to defective lymphatic sprouting, while Dtx3l gain of function rescued impaired sprouting in Orai1 KO embryos. Together, the data reveal a molecular mechanism underlying laminar flow-induced lymphatic sprouting.

  20. Early Sprouts: Cultivating Healthy Food Choices in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalich, Karrie; Bauer, Dottie; McPartlin, Deirdre

    2009-01-01

    Plant lifelong healthy eating concepts in young children and counteract the prevalence of childhood obesity with "Early Sprouts." A research-based early childhood curriculum, this "seed-to-table" approach gets children interested in and enjoying nutritious fruits and vegetables. The "Early Sprouts" model engages…

  1. Regulation of sprout growth in potato tubers during storage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The commercial storage of potato tubers is largely dependent on the natural process of meristem dormancy and the application of growth suppressants or sprout inhibitors. Currently there are a limited number of compounds that can be applied to potato tubers to prevent sprouting. One of the most commo...

  2. Early Sprouts: Cultivating Healthy Food Choices in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalich, Karrie; Bauer, Dottie; McPartlin, Deirdre

    2009-01-01

    Plant lifelong healthy eating concepts in young children and counteract the prevalence of childhood obesity with "Early Sprouts." A research-based early childhood curriculum, this "seed-to-table" approach gets children interested in and enjoying nutritious fruits and vegetables. The "Early Sprouts" model engages…

  3. Stump sprouting of blue oaks ten years after harvest

    Treesearch

    Douglas McCreary; William D. Tietje; William Frost

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted at five sites throughout California to determine how the sprouting of harvested blue oak (Quercus douglasii) is affected by the date the trees are cut down, the height of the residual stumps, and whether stumps are protected by fencing or not. After 10 years, 34 percent of the stumps had viable sprouts. The greatest effects were...

  4. Sprouted barley for dairy cows: Nutritional composition and digestibility

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A 4-unit dual-flow continuous culture fermentor system was used to assess the effect of supplementing 7-d sprouted barley or barley grain with an haylage or pasture diet on nutrient digestibility and methane output. Barley grain was sprouted in climate controlled growth chambers, to be used as part ...

  5. Control of sprouting of tanoak and madrone stumps

    Treesearch

    G. H. Schubert

    1950-01-01

    In part of the high-site-quality pine and fir types of California, stand improvement cuttings are made especially difficult by the sprouting habit of tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflora Hook. and Arn. ) and madrone (Arbutus menziesii Pursh.). The stumps of these species sprout so vigorously that release of the favored crop trees is...

  6. Control of sprouting of tanoak and madone stumps

    Treesearch

    G. H. Schubert

    1950-01-01

    In part of the high- site-quality pine and fir types of California, stand improvement cuttings are made especially difficult by the sprouting habit of tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflora Hook . and Arn . ) and madrone (Arbutus menziesii Pursh.). The stumps of these species sprout so vigorously that release of the favored crop trees...

  7. Acetic acid bacteria spoilage of bottled red wine -- a review.

    PubMed

    Bartowsky, Eveline J; Henschke, Paul A

    2008-06-30

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are ubiquitous organisms that are well adapted to sugar and ethanol rich environments. This family of Gram-positive bacteria are well known for their ability to produce acetic acid, the main constituent in vinegar. The oxidation of ethanol through acetaldehyde to acetic acid is well understood and characterised. AAB form part of the complex natural microbial flora of grapes and wine, however their presence is less desirable than the lactic acid bacteria and yeast. Even though AAB were described by Pasteur in the 1850s, wine associated AAB are still difficult to cultivate on artificial laboratory media and until more recently, their taxonomy has not been well characterised. Wine is at most risk of spoilage during production and the presence of these strictly aerobic bacteria in grape must and during wine maturation can be controlled by eliminating, or at least limiting oxygen, an essential growth factor. However, a new risk, spoilage of wine by AAB after packaging, has only recently been reported. As wine is not always sterile filtered prior to bottling, especially red wine, it often has a small resident bacterial population (<10(3) cfu/mL), which under conducive conditions might proliferate. Bottled red wines, sealed with natural cork closures, and stored in a vertical upright position may develop spoilage by acetic acid bacteria. This spoilage is evident as a distinct deposit of bacterial biofilm in the neck of the bottle at the interface of the wine and the headspace of air, and is accompanied with vinegar, sherry, bruised apple, nutty, and solvent like off-aromas, depending on the degree of spoilage. This review focuses on the wine associated AAB species, the aroma and flavour changes in wine due to AAB metabolism, discusses the importance of oxygen ingress into the bottle and presents a hypothesis for the mechanism of spoilage of bottled red wine.

  8. Laxative effect of peanut sprout extract

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Ji Yeon; Kim, Seong Soon; Kim, Hyo Jung; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon; Lee, Hak-Yong

    2013-01-01

    Certain phenolic compounds are known to exhibit laxative properties. Seed sprouts, such as those of peanut, are known to promote de novo biosynthesis of phenolic compounds. This study was conducted to examine the potential laxative properties of 80% (v/v) ethanolic extract of peanut sprout (PSE), which contains a high concentration of phenolic compounds such as resveratrol. For this, SD rats were orally administered PSE while a control group was incubated with saline. Laxative effects were examined in both groups of rats. Constipation induced by loperamide in SD rats was improved by administration of PSE. Constipated rats showed increased intestinal movement of BaSO4 upon administration of PSE compared to the control, and the groups administered 100 or 1,000 mg PSE/kg bw were not significantly different in transit time of the indicator. However, colon length was not statistically different among the experimental groups, although it was longer in the group incubated with 1 g PSE/kg bw compared to other groups. Further, there was no significant difference in stool number among the experimental groups. Taken together, these findings show that PSE has a laxative effect in a rat model of loperamide-induced constipation. PMID:23964312

  9. Laxative effect of peanut sprout extract.

    PubMed

    Seo, Ji Yeon; Kim, Seong Soon; Kim, Hyo Jung; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon; Lee, Hak-Yong; Kim, Jong-Sang

    2013-08-01

    Certain phenolic compounds are known to exhibit laxative properties. Seed sprouts, such as those of peanut, are known to promote de novo biosynthesis of phenolic compounds. This study was conducted to examine the potential laxative properties of 80% (v/v) ethanolic extract of peanut sprout (PSE), which contains a high concentration of phenolic compounds such as resveratrol. For this, SD rats were orally administered PSE while a control group was incubated with saline. Laxative effects were examined in both groups of rats. Constipation induced by loperamide in SD rats was improved by administration of PSE. Constipated rats showed increased intestinal movement of BaSO4 upon administration of PSE compared to the control, and the groups administered 100 or 1,000 mg PSE/kg bw were not significantly different in transit time of the indicator. However, colon length was not statistically different among the experimental groups, although it was longer in the group incubated with 1 g PSE/kg bw compared to other groups. Further, there was no significant difference in stool number among the experimental groups. Taken together, these findings show that PSE has a laxative effect in a rat model of loperamide-induced constipation.

  10. Nutritional composition, processing, and utilization of horse gram and moth bean.

    PubMed

    Kadam, S S; Salunkhe, D K

    1985-01-01

    Horse gram and moth bean are the unexploited legumes of the tropics and subtropics grown mostly under dry-land agriculture. The chemical composition is comparable with commonly cultivated legumes. Like other legumes, these are deficient in methionine and tryptophan. Horse gram is an excellent source of iron and molybdenum. Comparatively, horse gram seeds have higher trypsin inhibitor and hemagglutinin activities and polyphenols than moth bean seeds. Dehusking, germination, cooking, and roasting have been shown to produce beneficial effects on nutritional quality of both the legumes. Both the legumes require prolonged cooking to obtain product of acceptable nature. A soak solution (1.5% NaHCO3 + 0.5% Na2CO3 + 0.75% citric acid) treatment has been shown to reduce cooking time and improve protein quality. Moth bean is mostly consumed as dhal or sprouts. The whole seeds of horse gram are generally utilized as cattle feed. However, it is consumed as a whole seed, sprouts, or whole meal by a large population in rural areas of southern India. Medical uses of these legumes have been discussed.

  11. Spoilage of chicken skin at 2 degrees C: electron microscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, C J; McMeekin, T A

    1981-01-01

    Microscopic techniques were used in conjunction with normal microbiological procedures to examine the development of the spoilage microflora on the skin of chicken carcasses held at 2 degrees C. Pigmented and nonpigmented psychrotrophic pseudomonads were the major spoilage bacteria isolated at all stages of storage examined. The spoilage microflora grow within a liquid film covering the skin surface, as well as in feather follicle shafts. Penetration and disruption of skin tissue were not observed even after onset of organoleptic spoilage. Bacteria were not attached to the skin by extracellular bridging substances. These data suggest a nonspecific histological-microbiological relationship between he spoilage association and the skin substrate. Images PMID:7195190

  12. Sharing Beans with Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Clare V.

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and researchers have known for decades that the use of storybooks can have a positive impact on students' experiences with mathematics. This article describes how first graders in an urban public school actively engage with mathematics by using the story "Bean Thirteen" as a context for developing number sense. This…

  13. "The Bean Files."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haq, Krystyna; Longnecker, Nancy; Hickey, Ruth

    1999-01-01

    Describes classroom use and effectiveness of "The Bean Files," an internet package that uses humorous stories to introduce students to life on a wheat-sheep farm in the Mediterranean climate areas of Australia. The focus of the program is on the role of legume-cereal rotations in the farming system and the science underpinning this…

  14. "The Bean Files."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haq, Krystyna; Longnecker, Nancy; Hickey, Ruth

    1999-01-01

    Describes classroom use and effectiveness of "The Bean Files," an internet package that uses humorous stories to introduce students to life on a wheat-sheep farm in the Mediterranean climate areas of Australia. The focus of the program is on the role of legume-cereal rotations in the farming system and the science underpinning this…

  15. Sharing Beans with Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Clare V.

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and researchers have known for decades that the use of storybooks can have a positive impact on students' experiences with mathematics. This article describes how first graders in an urban public school actively engage with mathematics by using the story "Bean Thirteen" as a context for developing number sense. This…

  16. Full of Beans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, David H.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a genetics activity illustrating genetic variation, mutation, and influence of environmental factors on genotypic expression. Irridiated bean seeds are planted and observed (x-rayed by dentist's x-ray machine at different exposures and for different times). Questions to extend the activity are discussed. (Author/JN)

  17. Alan Bean Art Exhibit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-19

    Former NASA Astronaut and U.S. Senator John Glenn is seen at the opening of the exhibit "Alan Bean: Painting Apollo, First Artist on Another World" at the National Air and Space Museum, Monday, July 20, 2009 in Washington. The show opening coincided with the 40th anniversary celebration of Apollo. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  18. The effect of pristine carbon-based nanomaterial on the growth of green gram sprouts and pH of water

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We examined the toxicity of four carbon-based nanomaterials (unmodified) by using carbon quantum dots (CQDs), graphene quantum dots (GQDs), graphene oxide (GO), and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) to cultivate bean sprout. Results showed that the toxicity of these four carbon nanomaterials increases with the increasing of concentration and cultivating time. In addition, pH test was applied to study the effect of carbon-based nanomaterials on water. pH of culture solution displayed unconspicuous dose-dependent, but nanomaterials indeed have a considerable impact on the pH even at low concentration. PMID:25346649

  19. The effect of pristine carbon-based nanomaterial on the growth of green gram sprouts and pH of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaolin; Zhou, Zhihua; Lu, Dejiong; Dong, Xinwei; Xu, Minghan; Wei, Liangming; Zhang, Yafei

    2014-10-01

    We examined the toxicity of four carbon-based nanomaterials (unmodified) by using carbon quantum dots (CQDs), graphene quantum dots (GQDs), graphene oxide (GO), and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) to cultivate bean sprout. Results showed that the toxicity of these four carbon nanomaterials increases with the increasing of concentration and cultivating time. In addition, pH test was applied to study the effect of carbon-based nanomaterials on water. pH of culture solution displayed unconspicuous dose-dependent, but nanomaterials indeed have a considerable impact on the pH even at low concentration.

  20. Trunk and root sprouting on residual trees after thinning a Quercus chrysolepis stand

    Treesearch

    Timothy E. Paysen; Marcia G. Narog; Robert G. Tissell; Melody A. Lardner

    1991-01-01

    Canyon live oak (Quercus chrysolepis Liebm.) showed sprouting patterns on root and trunk zones foUowing forest thinning. Root sprouting was heaviest on north and east (downhill) sides of residual trees; bole sprouts were concentrated on the south and west (uphill). Root and bole sprouting appeared to be responding to different stimuli, or...

  1. 7 CFR 319.56-54 - French beans and runner beans from Kenya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false French beans and runner beans from Kenya. 319.56-54... § 319.56-54 French beans and runner beans from Kenya. French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and runner beans (Phaseolus coccineus L.) may be imported into the United States from Kenya only under the...

  2. 7 CFR 319.56-54 - French beans and runner beans from Kenya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false French beans and runner beans from Kenya. 319.56-54... § 319.56-54 French beans and runner beans from Kenya. French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and runner beans (Phaseolus coccineus L.) may be imported into the United States from Kenya only under the...

  3. 7 CFR 319.56-54 - French beans and runner beans from Kenya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false French beans and runner beans from Kenya. 319.56-54... § 319.56-54 French beans and runner beans from Kenya. French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and runner beans (Phaseolus coccineus L.) may be imported into the United States from Kenya only under the...

  4. Chrysosporium species, potential spoilage organisms of chocolate.

    PubMed

    Kinderlerer, J L

    1997-12-01

    Standard methods of analysing foods for the presence of moulds are inadequate for the detection of genera such as Chrysosporium which do not grow at the high water activities of most mycological media. The use of malt, yeast, 50% glucose agar (MY50G) in sealed containers as an enrichment medium allowed time for germination and growth of heat-stressed spores. Three Chrysosporium spp., C. xerophilum Pitt, C. inops (Carmichael) and C. farinicola (Burnside) Skou, were isolated from commercial chocolate bars with a water activity (aw) of approximately 0.28. Chrysosporium inops was isolated from commercial milk crumb and a new Chrysosporium sp. was isolated from Ghanaian cocoa beans. In chocolates made by coating MY50G agar (aw = 0.89) with chocolate (aw = 0.27) containing C. inops arthroconidia, two types of deterioration were seen after storage. The first was fat bloom due to recrystallization of the cocoa butter on the outer and inner chocolate surface. The second was growth of C. inops which occurred on the inside chocolate surface adjacent to the MY50G agar filling and on the outside surface after holding at 92% equilibrium relative humidity (erh) for 12 d. There was some evidence that C. inops could grow on the outside of chocolates held at 5.7% erh after 4 months' storage at 25 degrees C. The appearance of the white fungal growth was not unlike fat bloom to the naked eye but was clearly different with the electron microscope.

  5. Characteristics of spoilage-associated secondary cucumber fermentation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Secondary fermentations during the bulk storage of fermented cucumbers can result in spoilage that causes a total loss of the fermented product, at an estimated cost of $6,000 to $15,000 per affected tank. Previous research has suggested that such fermentations are the result of microbiological util...

  6. Metabolic strategies of beer spoilage lactic acid bacteria in beer.

    PubMed

    Geissler, Andreas J; Behr, Jürgen; von Kamp, Kristina; Vogel, Rudi F

    2016-01-04

    Beer contains only limited amounts of readily fermentable carbohydrates and amino acids. Beer spoilage lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have to come up with metabolic strategies in order to deal with selective nutrient content, high energy demand of hop tolerance mechanisms and a low pH. The metabolism of 26 LAB strains of 6 species and varying spoilage potentialwas investigated in order to define and compare their metabolic capabilities using multivariate statistics and outline possible metabolic strategies. Metabolic capabilities of beer spoilage LAB regarding carbohydrate and amino acids did not correlate with spoilage potential, but with fermentation type (heterofermentative/homofermentative) and species. A shift to mixed acid fermentation by homofermentative (hof) Pediococcus claussenii and Lactobacillus backii was observed as a specific feature of their growth in beer. For heterofermentative (hef) LAB a mostly versatile carbohydrate metabolism could be demonstrated, supplementing the known relevance of organic acids for their growth in beer. For hef LAB a distinct amino acid metabolism, resulting in biogenic amine production, was observed, presumably contributing to energy supply and pH homeostasis.

  7. Rapid measurement of meat spoilage using fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Binlin; Dahlberg, Kevin; Gao, Xin; Smith, Jason; Bailin, Jacob

    2017-02-01

    Food spoilage is mainly caused by microorganisms, such as bacteria. In this study, we measure the autofluorescence in meat samples longitudinally over a week in an attempt to develop a method to rapidly detect meat spoilage using fluorescence spectroscopy. Meat food is a biological tissue, which contains intrinsic fluorophores, such as tryptophan, collagen, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) etc. As meat spoils, it undergoes various morphological and chemical changes. The concentrations of the native fluorophores present in a sample may change. In particular, the changes in NADH and FAD are associated with microbial metabolism, which is the most important process of the bacteria in food spoilage. Such changes may be revealed by fluorescence spectroscopy and used to indicate the status of meat spoilage. Therefore, such native fluorophores may be unique, reliable and nonsubjective indicators for detection of spoiled meat. The results of the study show that the relative concentrations of all above fluorophores change as the meat samples kept in room temperature ( 19° C) spoil. The changes become more rapidly after about two days. For the meat samples kept in a freezer ( -12° C), the changes are much less or even unnoticeable over a-week-long storage.

  8. Controlling Blown Pack Spoilage Using Anti-Microbial Packaging.

    PubMed

    Reid, Rachael; Bolton, Declan; Tiuftin, Andrey A; Kerry, Joe P; Fanning, Séamus; Whyte, Paul

    2017-08-12

    Active (anti-microbial) packaging was prepared using three different formulations; Auranta FV; Inbac-MDA and sodium octanoate at two concentrations (2.5 and 3.5 times their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, the lowest concentration that will inhibit the visible growth of the organisms) against Clostridium estertheticum, DSMZ 8809). Inoculated beef samples were packaged using the active packaging and monitored for 100 days storage at 2 °C for blown pack spoilage. The time to the onset of blown pack spoilage was significantly (p < 0.01) increased using Auranta FV and sodium octanoate (caprylic acid sodium salt) at both concentrations. Moreover, sodium octanoate packs had significantly (p < 0.01) delayed blown pack spoilage as compared to Auranta FV. It was therefore concluded that Auranta FV or sodium octanoate, incorporated into the packaging materials used for vacuum packaged beef, would inhibit blown pack spoilage and in the case of the latter, well beyond the 42 days storage period currently required for beef primals.

  9. Simplified qualitative method for canavanine in seeds and sprouts.

    PubMed

    Rajkowski, Kathleen T

    2004-01-01

    The major stored nitrogen compound in alfalfa seeds is canavanine. To identify this nonprotein amino acid from seed extract and sprout water, a qualitative micro-thin-layer chromatography method was developed. Successful separation and identification was achieved using microsilica plates, a 70:30 ethyl alcohol-water solvent system, and 1% ammonium disodium pentacyanoammineferrate II for color development. This quick method was used to identify canavanine (sensitivity 50 microg) from irradiated and nonirradiated alfalfa and clover seed extracts and alfalfa sprout water. Broccoli and radish seed extracts were negative for canavanine. This simple method is useful to track the release and decrease of canavanine in the sprout water.

  10. SPROUT: A program for structure generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillet, Valerie; Johnson, A. Peter; Mata, Pauline; Sike, Sandor; Williams, Philip

    1993-04-01

    SPROUT is a new computer program for constrained structure generation that is designed to generate molecules for a range of applications in molecular recognition. It uses artificial intelligence techniques to moderate the combinatorial explosion that is inherent in structure generation. The program is presented here for the design of enzyme inhibitors. Structure generation is divided into two phases: (i) primary structure generation to produce molecular graphs to fit the steric constraints; and (ii) secondary structure generation which is the process of introducing appropriate functionality to the graphs to produce molecules that satisfy the secondary constraints, e.g., electrostatics and hydrophobicity. Primary structure generation has been tested on two enzyme receptor sites; the p-amidino-phenyl-pyruvate binding site of trypsin and the acetyl pepstatin binding site of HIV-1 protease. The program successfully generates structures that resemble known substrates and, more importantly, the predictive power of the program has been demonstrated by its ability to suggest novel structures.

  11. Functional compounds in fermented buckwheat sprouts.

    PubMed

    Maejima, Yasunori; Nakatsugawa, Hiroki; Ichida, Daiki; Maejima, Mayumi; Aoyagi, Yasuo; Maoka, Takashi; Etoh, Hideo

    2011-01-01

    Fermented buckwheat sprouts (FBS) are used as multifunctional foods. Their production process includes fermentation with lactic acid bacteria. The major strains were found to include Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, and Pediococcus pentosaceus in an investigation of the lactic acid bacteria. We searched for the functional components, and nicotianamine (NA) and 2″-hydroxynicotianamine (HNA) were identified as angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. NA and HNA increased during fermentation. Indole-3-ethanol was identified as an antioxidant (a SOD active substance), and may have been generated from tryptophan during fermentation because it was not contained in green buckwheat juice. A safety test demonstrated that FBS contained were safe functional food components, showing negative results in buckwheat allergy tests. Any buckwheat allergy substances might have been degraded during the fermentation process.

  12. Sprouting Magic Beans: Exploring Literature through Creative Questioning and Cooperative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baloche, Lynda; Platt, Thomas J.

    1993-01-01

    Focuses primarily on the cooperative learning model of David and Roger Johnson. Uses a scenario involving cooperative learning strategies in use in an elementary classroom to illustrate key concepts for the classroom teacher. (RS)

  13. Sprouting Magic Beans: Exploring Literature through Creative Questioning and Cooperative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baloche, Lynda; Platt, Thomas J.

    1993-01-01

    Focuses primarily on the cooperative learning model of David and Roger Johnson. Uses a scenario involving cooperative learning strategies in use in an elementary classroom to illustrate key concepts for the classroom teacher. (RS)

  14. Occurrence of phytoplasma phyllody and witches' broom disease of faba bean in Bihar.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anil K; Bhatt, B P; Manibhushan

    2013-09-01

    Faba bean (Vicio faba) plants showed symptoms of shoe stringed leaves, phyllody and flower abortion in experimental field. The first symptoms consisted of phyllody mild yellowing, vein clearing and slightly inward folding of newly formed leaves in the apical region of the plant. The disease was characterized by a series of floral abnormalities including virescence, phyllody and proliferation of sprouts together with other abnormalities, such as loss of apical dominance, vivipary and enhanced vegetative growth. Ambient temperature found to be contributing positively on disease development. Under climate change condition there may be every possible chance for speedy spread of this very economic important disease to the earlier not known regions.

  15. Development of Combined Dry Heat and Chlorine Dioxide Gas Treatment with Mechanical Mixing for Inactivation of Salmonella enterica Serovar Montevideo on Mung Bean Seeds.

    PubMed

    Annous, Bassam A; Burke, Angela

    2015-05-01

    Foodborne outbreaks have been associated with the consumption of fresh sprouted beans. The sprouting conditions of mung bean seeds provide optimal conditions of temperature and relative humidity for any potential pathogenic contaminant on the seeds to grow. The lack of a kill step postsprouting is a major safety concern. Thus, the use of a kill step on the seeds prior to a sprouting step would enhance the safety of fresh sprouts. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of the combined thermal and chlorine dioxide gas (3.5 mg/liter of air) treatment with mechanical mixing (tumbling) to eliminate Salmonella on artificially inoculated mung bean seeds. Although no viable Salmonella was recovered from seeds treated in hot water at 60°C for 2 h, these treated seeds failed to germinate. Dry heat treatments (55, 60, or 70°C) for up to 8 h reduced Salmonella populations in excess of 3 log CFU/g. The use of tumbling, while treating the seeds, resulted in up to 1.6 log CFU/g reduction in Salmonella populations compared with no tumbling. Dry heat treatment at 65°C for 18 h with tumbling resulted in a complete inactivation of Salmonella populations on inoculated seeds with low inoculum levels (2.83 log CFU/g) as compared with high inoculum levels (4.75 log CFU/g). The increased reductions in pathogenic populations on the seeds with the use of tumbling could be attributed to increased uniformity of heat transfer and exposure to chlorine dioxide gas. All treated seeds were capable of germinating, as well as the nontreated controls. These results suggest that this combined treatment would be a viable process for enhancing the safety of fresh sprouts.

  16. Characterization and control of Mucor circinelloides spoilage in yogurt.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Abigail B; Churey, John J; Worobo, Randy W

    2016-07-02

    Consumer confidence in the food industry is severely affected by large-scale spoilage incidents. However, relatively little research exists on spoilage potential of members of the fungal subphylum Mucormycotina (e.g. Mucor), which includes dimorphic spoilage organisms that can switch between a yeast-like and hyphal phase depending on environmental conditions. The presence of Mucor circinelloides in yogurt may not cause spoilage, but growth and subsequent changes in quality (e.g. container bloating) can cause spoilage if not controlled. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects on M. circinelloides of pasteurization regimen, natamycin concentrations, and storage temperature in yogurt production, as measured by fungal proliferation and carbon dioxide production. A strain of M. circinelloides isolated from commercially spoiled yogurt showed greater yogurt-spoilage potential than clinical isolates and other industrial strains. D-values and z-values were determined for the spoilage isolate in milk as an evaluation of the fungus' ability to survive pasteurization. Natamycin was added to yogurt at 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20ppm (μg/ml) to determine its ability to inhibit M. circinelloides over the course of month-long challenge studies at 4°C, 15°C, and 25°C. Survivors were recovered on acidified PDA and carbon dioxide levels were recorded. The D-values at 54°C, 56°C, and 58°C for hyphae/sporangiospores were (in min) 38.31±0.02, 10.17±0.28, and 1.94±0.53, respectively, which yielded a z-value of 3.09°C. The D-values at 51°C, 53°C, and 55°C for yeast-like cells were (in min) 14.25±0.12, 6.87±1.19, and 2.44±0.35, respectively, which yielded a z-value of 0.34°C. These results indicated that M. circinelloides would not survive fluid milk pasteurization if contamination occurred prior to thermal treatment. CO2 production was only observed when M. circinelloides was incubated under low-oxygen conditions, and occurred only at temperatures above 4

  17. Appalachian hardwood stump sprouts are potential sawlog crop trees

    Treesearch

    Neil I. Lamson

    1976-01-01

    A survey of 8- and 12-year-old hardwood stump sprouts was made in north-central West Virginia. Species surveyed were yellow-poplar, black cherry, red oak, red maple, and basswood. Of the stumps cut 12 years ago, 66 percent produced at least one dominant or codominant sprout that originated at groundline and was free from forks in the lower 25 feet of the bole. The...

  18. Combination treatments for killing Escherichia coli O157:H7 on alfalfa, radish, broccoli, and mung bean seeds.

    PubMed

    Bari, M L; Nei, D; Enomoto, K; Todoriki, S; Kawamoto, S

    2009-03-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of prolonged dry-heat treatment (50 degrees C) alone or in combination with chemical treatments (1% oxalic acid, 0.03% phytic acid, 50% ethanol, electrolyzed acidic water, and electrolyzed alkaline water) in eliminating Escherichia coli O157:H7 on laboratory-inoculated alfalfa, radish, broccoli, and mung bean seeds was compared with that of dry-heat treatment in combination with irradiation treatment. Dry-heat treatment for 17 or 24 h alone could reduce E. coli O157:H7 numbers to below detectable levels in radish, broccoli, and alfalfa seeds, but was unable to reduce the pathogen numbers to below the detectable level in mung bean seeds. In addition, dry-heat treatment for 17 h plus sanitizer treatments were effective in greatly reducing pathogen populations on radish, broccoli, and alfalfa seeds, without compromising the quality of the sprouts, but these treatments did not eliminate the pathogen from radish and alfalfa seeds. Seventeen hours of dry heat followed by a 1.0-kGy dose of irradiation completely eliminated E. coli O157:H7 from radish and mung bean seeds, whereas only a minimum radiation dose of 0.25 kGy was required to completely eliminate the pathogen from broccoli and alfalfa seeds. Dry heat in combination with radiation doses of up to 1.0 kGy did not negatively impact the seed germination rate or length of alfalfa, broccoli, and radish seeds or the length of alfalfa, broccoli, and radish sprouts, but did decrease the length of mung bean sprouts.

  19. Development of detection medium for hard-to-culture beer-spoilage lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, K; Asano, S; Iijima, K; Kuriyama, H; Kitagawa, Y

    2008-05-01

    To develop a detection medium for hard-to-culture beer-spoilage lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Four hard-to-culture beer-spoilage strains of LAB, belonging to Lactobacillus paracollinoides and Lactobacillus lindneri, have been obtained by repeatedly subculturing the wild-type strains in beer. To develop a countermeasure against these hard-to-culture beer-spoilage LAB, a beer-based medium was modified. As a consequence, the supplementation of a small amount of de Man Rogosa Sharpe medium was found to enhance the growth of hard-to-culture beer-spoilage LAB strains obtained in this study. In addition, sodium acetate was shown to improve the selectivity of this beer-based medium. Further comparative study was performed with five other media widely used for the detection of beer-spoilage LAB in the brewing industry. This study revealed that the newly developed medium, designated advanced beer-spoiler detection (ABD) medium, possessed superior sensitivity for hard-to-culture beer-spoilage LAB and comparable sensitivity with easy-to-culture beer-spoilage LAB. Moreover, ABD medium was found to suppress the growth of nonspoilage micro-organisms, and thereby allow the selective growth of beer-spoilage LAB. Advanced beer-spoiler detection medium is considered as an effective tool for comprehensive detection of beer-spoilage LAB in breweries. The detection by ABD medium can be used as an indicator for differentiating the beer-spoilage ability of LAB without further confirmatory tests in breweries.

  20. Human iPSC-Derived Endothelial Cell Sprouting Assay in ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Activation of vascular endothelial cells (ECs) by growth factors initiates a cascade of events in vivo consisting of EC tip cell selection, sprout formation, EC stalk cell proliferation, and ultimately vascular stabilization by support cells. Although EC functional assays can recapitulate one or more aspects of angiogenesis in vitro, they are often limited by a lack of definition to the substratum and lack of dependence on key angiogenic signaling axes. Here, we designed and characterized a chemically-defined model of endothelial sprouting behavior in vitro using human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived endothelial cells (iPSC-ECs). Thiol-ene photopolymerization was used to rapidly encapsulate iPSC-ECs at high density in poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel spheres and subsequently to rapidly encapsulate iPSC-EC-containing hydrogel spheres in a cell-free over-layer. The hydrogel sprouting array here maintained pro-angiogenic phenotype of iPSC-ECs and supported growth factor-dependent proliferation and sprouting behavior. The sprouting model responded appropriately to several reference pharmacological angiogenesis inhibitors, which suggests the functional role of vascular endothelial growth factor, NF-κB, matrix metalloproteinase-2/9, protein kinase activity, and β-tubulin in endothelial sprouting. A blinded screen of 38 putative vascular disrupting compounds (pVDCs) from the US Environmental Protection Agency’s ToxCast library identified five compounds th

  1. Radioprotective effects of lentil sprouts against X-ray radiation

    PubMed Central

    Haghparast, Abbas; Mansouri, Kamran; Moradi, Samane; Dadashi, Fatemeh; Eliasi, Saeed; Sobhani, Mahdi; Varmira, Kambiz

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the radioprotective efficacy of lentil (Lens culinaris) sprouts against X-ray radiation-induced cellular damage. Lentil seeds were dark germinated at low temperature and the sprout extract was prepared in PBS. Free radical scavenging of extract was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and then the radioprotective potency of extract (0 to 1000 μg/mL) on the lymphocyte cells was determined by lactate dehydrogenases assay. Moreover, micronuclei assay was assessed using the cytokinesis-block technique. The irradiations were performed using 6 MV X-ray beam. The value of IC50 for DPPH assay was 250 μg/mL. The median lethal dose for radiation was determinate at 5.37 Gy. Pretreatment with lentil sprout extract at 1000 μg/mL reduced cytotoxicity at 6 Gy total concentration from 70% to 50%. The results of micronuclei assay indicated that cells were resistant to radiation at concentrations of 500–1000 μg/mL of exogenous lentil sprout extract. The value of median effective concentration for micronuclei assay was 500 μg/mL. The results indicated that lentil sprout extract showed actually somewhat radioprotective effect on lymphocyte cell. In addition, the obtained results suggest that extract of total lentil sprout have more antioxidant activity than radicle part. PMID:28255312

  2. Profiling of flavonols in seeds and sprouts of Luffa cylindrical.

    PubMed

    Shim, Soon-Mi; Park, Tae-Sik

    2014-11-01

    Seeds of Luffa cylindrica (Luffa) have been considered as agricultural wastes. However, we hypothesized that the seeds and its sprouts may provide bioactive components that could provide health benefits for humans. The current study profiled the bioactive components in both seeds and sprouts of Luffa by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MSn). Apigenin was identified as a major component in the seeds of Luffa, with a concentration of 2.89 mg from 1 g fresh weight. The bioactive components in the sprouts were myricetin, luteolin, and quercetin, with concentrations of 32.4, 12.5, and 32.5 μg from 1 g fresh weight, respectively. Apigenin metabolites, such as apigenin-glucuronic acid and apigenin-acetyl glucuronic acid, were also identified in the sprouts. This implied that apigenin in the seeds, when sprouting, was changed to other flavonols having a flavone backbone. Results from the current study suggest that both seeds and sprouts of Luffa could be a bio-resource for health-promoting food materials.

  3. Volatiles produced by microorganisms isolated from refrigerated chicken at spoilage.

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, L R; Silverman, G J; Angelini, P; Merritt, C; Esselen, W B

    1976-01-01

    Volatile components present at spoilage of refrigerated chicken breasts were identified using high-vacuum-low-temperature distillation techniques followed by analysis with combined temperature-programmed gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. A comparison was made of the compounds detected from both irradiated and non-irradiated muscle stored at 2 and 10 degrees C under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Isolates were randomly selected from the spoiled poultry, identified, and evaluated for their ability to produce volatile spoilage noted when grown on radiation-sterilized chicken. Several isolates that produced off-odors on sterile chicken breasts were examined. Twenty-two compounds were associated with spoilage. Some of the compounds found on both irradiated and unirradiated samples were considered to play only a minor role in the spoilage aroma or were present in low concentrations, since the aroma of spoiled irradiated chicken lacked the harsh odor notes typical of spoiled unirradiated chicken. Fifteen of the 22 compounds were considered to be unique to unirradiated, aerobically spoiled samples. Nine of these compounds, hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, heptadiene, methanol, and ethanol, were found on chicken spoiled at both 2 and 10 degrees C. xylene, benzaldehyde, and 2,3-dithiahexane were detected only in samples stored at 2 degrees C and methyl thiolacetate, 2-butanone, and ethyl propionate were associated with 10 degrees C spoilage. Fifty-eight isolates randomly selected from fresh, radiation-pasteurized, and unirradiated spoiled poultry were classified taxonomically, and 10 of them, which produced spoilage odors on sterilized chicken breasts, were selected for subsequent analysis of their volatiles. Isolates identified as Pseudomonas putrefaciens and Pseudomonas species that were members of groups I and II of Shewan's classification, as well as Flavobacterium and oxidative

  4. Garlic sprouting is associated with increased antioxidant activity and concomitant changes in the metabolite profile.

    PubMed

    Zakarova, Alexandra; Seo, Ji Yeon; Kim, Hyang Yeon; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Shin, Jung-Hye; Cho, Kye Man; Lee, Choong Hwan; Kim, Jong-Sang

    2014-02-26

    Although garlic (Allium sativum) has been extensively studied for its health benefits, sprouted garlic has received little attention. We hypothesized that sprouting garlic would stimulate the production of various phytochemicals that improve health. Ethanolic extracts from garlic sprouted for different periods had variable antioxidant activities when assessed with in vitro assays, including the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity assay and the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay. Extracts from garlic sprouted for 5 days had the highest antioxidant activity, whereas extracts from raw garlic had relatively low antioxidant activity. Furthermore, sprouting changed the metabolite profile of garlic: the metabolite profile of garlic sprouted for 5-6 days was distinct from the metabolite profile of garlic sprouted for 0-4 days, which is consistent with the finding that garlic sprouted for 5 days had the highest antioxidant activity. Therefore, sprouting may be a useful way to improve the antioxidant potential of garlic.

  5. Chemical and irradiation treatments for killing Escherichia coli O157:H7 on alfalfa, radish, and mung bean seeds.

    PubMed

    Bari, M L; Nazuka, E; Sabina, Y; Todoriki, S; Isshiki, K

    2003-05-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of dry-heat treatment in combination with chemical treatments (electrolyzed oxidizing [EO] water, califresh-S, 200 ppm of active chlorinated water) with and without sonication in eliminating Escherichia coli O157:H7 on laboratory-inoculated alfalfa, radish, and mung bean seeds was compared with that of dry-heat treatment in combination with irradiation treatment. The treatment of mung bean seeds with EO water in combination with sonication followed by a rinse with sterile distilled water resulted in reductions of approximately 4.0 log10 CFU of E. coli O157:H7 per g. whereas reductions of ca. 1.52 and 2.64 log10 CFU/g were obtained for radish and alfalfa seeds. The maximum reduction (3.70 log10 CFU/g) for mung bean seeds was achieved by treatment with califresh-S and chlorinated water (200 ppm) in combination with sonication and a rinse. The combination of dry heat, hot EO water treatment, and sonication was able to eliminate pathogen populations on mung bean seeds but was unable to eliminate the pathogen on radish and alfalfa seeds. Other chemical treatments used were effective in greatly reducing pathogen populations on radish and alfalfa seeds without compromising the quality of the sprouts, but these treatments did not result in the elimination of pathogens from radish and alfalfa seeds. Moreover, a combination of dry-heat and irradiation treatments was effective in eliminating E. coli O157:H7 on laboratory-inoculated alfalfa, radish, and mung bean seeds. An irradiation dose of 2.0 kGy in combination with dry heat eliminated E. coli O157:H7 completely from alfalfa and mung bean seeds, whereas a 2.5-kGy dose of irradiation was required to eliminate the pathogen completely from radish seeds. Dry heat in combination with irradiation doses of up to 2.0 kGy did not unacceptably decrease the germination percentage for alfalfa seeds or the length of alfalfa sprouts but did decrease the lengths of radish and mung bean sprouts.

  6. A new cause of spoilage in goose sausages.

    PubMed

    Iacumin, Lucilla; Manzano, Marisa; Panseri, Sara; Chiesa, Luca; Comi, Giuseppe

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the microorganisms present and to investigate their metabolites that cause spoilage of many goose sausages produced in Friuli, a northeast region of Italy. The defect was observed by sensorial analysis using the "needle probing" technique; the spoiled sausages were unsafe and not marketable. Despite the addition of starter, the microorganisms, particularly enterococci and Enterobacteriaceae, grew during ripening and produced a large amount of biogenic amines; therefore, these sausages represented a risk to consumers. The production of those compounds was confirmed in vitro. Furthermore, a second cause of spoilage was attributed to moulds that grew during ripening; the fungi grew between the meat and casing, producing a large amount of total volatile nitrogen, and consequently an ammonia smell was present either in the ripening area or in the sausages. This is the first description of this type of defect in goose sausages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Identification of beer spoilage microorganisms using the MALDI Biotyper platform.

    PubMed

    Turvey, Michelle Elizabeth; Weiland, Florian; Meneses, Jon; Sterenberg, Nick; Hoffmann, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Beer spoilage microorganisms present a major risk for the brewing industry and can lead to cost-intensive recall of contaminated products and damage to brand reputation. The applicability of molecular profiling using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in combination with Biotyper software was investigated for the identification of beer spoilage microorganisms from routine brewery quality control samples. Reference mass spectrum profiles for three of the most common bacterial beer spoilage microorganisms (Lactobacillus lindneri, Lactobacillus brevis and Pediococcus damnosus), four commercially available brewing yeast strains (top- and bottom-fermenting) and Dekkera/Brettanomyces bruxellensis wild yeast were established, incorporated into the Biotyper reference library and validated by successful identification after inoculation into beer. Each bacterial species could be accurately identified and distinguished from one another and from over 5600 other microorganisms present in the Biotyper database. In addition, wild yeast contaminations were rapidly detected and distinguished from top- and bottom-fermenting brewing strains. The applicability and integration of mass spectrometry profiling using the Biotyper platform into existing brewery quality assurance practices within industry were assessed by analysing routine microbiology control samples from a local brewery, where contaminating microorganisms could be reliably identified. Brewery-isolated microorganisms not present in the Biotyper database were further analysed for identification using LC-MS/MS methods. This renders the Biotyper platform a promising candidate for biological quality control testing within the brewing industry as a more rapid, high-throughput and cost-effective technology that can be tailored for the detection of brewery-specific spoilage organisms from the local environment.

  8. Predicting and preventing mold spoilage of food products.

    PubMed

    Dagnas, Stéphane; Membré, Jeanne-Marie

    2013-03-01

    This article is a review of how to quantify mold spoilage and consequently shelf life of a food product. Mold spoilage results from having a product contaminated with fungal spores that germinate and form a visible mycelium before the end of the shelf life. The spoilage can be then expressed as the combination of the probability of having a product contaminated and the probability of mold growth (germination and proliferation) up to a visible mycelium before the end of the shelf life. For products packed before being distributed to the retailers, the probability of having a product contaminated is a function of factors strictly linked to the factory design, process, and environment. The in-factory fungal contamination of a product might be controlled by good manufacturing hygiene practices and reduced by particular processing practices such as an adequate air-renewal system. To determine the probability of mold growth, both germination and mycelium proliferation can be mathematically described by primary models. When mold contamination on the product is scarce, the spores are spread on the product and more than a few spores are unlikely to be found at the same spot. In such a case, models applicable for a single spore should be used. Secondary models can be used to describe the effect of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on either the germination or proliferation of molds. Several polynomial models and gamma-type models quantifying the effect of water activity and temperature on mold growth are available. To a lesser extent, the effect of pH, ethanol, heat treatment, addition of preservatives, and modified atmospheres on mold growth also have been quantified. However, mold species variability has not yet been properly addressed, and only a few secondary models have been validated for food products. Once the probability of having mold spoilage is calculated for various shelf lives and product formulations, the model can be implemented as part of a risk management

  9. Registration of 'Croissant' pinto bean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ‘Croissant’ (Reg. No. CV-299, PI 656597), a new medium-maturity (94–98 d) pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivar was released by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station to provide dry bean producers in the USA with a high-yielding cultivar that combines resistance to rust [caused by Uromyc...

  10. Modification of whole flours of navy bean, pinto bean, black bean and chickpea by steam jet cooking and drum drying

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Whole bean flours of navy bean, pinto bean, black bean and chickpea were processed by excess steam jet cooking, drum drying, and milling to a state resembling the raw flours. Analysis of the structure and size of the particles, color, solubility and pasting characteristics, dietary fiber, and protei...

  11. Comparison in accumulation of lanthanide elements among three Brassicaceae plant sprouts.

    PubMed

    Anan, Yasumi; Awaya, Yumi; Ogihara, Yurie; Yoshida, Miyuki; Yawata, Ayako; Ogra, Yasumitsu

    2012-07-01

    Three kinds of sprouts in the Brassicaceae family of plants, namely, pink kale, radish and mustard were evaluated for the possibility of phytoremediation of lanthanides. The mustard sprout more efficiently accumulated lanthanides (e.g. 0.26 nmol La/g) than other Brassicaceae family plant sprouts (0.16 nmol La/g in the radish), however the radish sprout showed the fastest growth among three sprouts. Faster growth compensated for less efficiency in lanthanide accumulation (28 pmol La in the radish vs. 12 pmol La in the mustard) indicating that the radish is the most preferable sprout for the phytoremediation of lanthanides.

  12. Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Antioxidants from the Mung Bean Coat.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Jie; Gan, Ren-You; Zhou, Tong; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2017-04-15

    Mung bean (Vigna radiata) sprout is commonly consumed as a vegetable, while the coat of the germinated mung bean is a waste. In this paper, an ultrasound-assisted extraction method has been developed to extract natural antioxidants from the seed coat of mung bean. Several experimental parameters-which included ethanol concentration, solvent/material ratio, ultrasound extraction time, temperature, and power-were studied in single-factor experiments. The interaction of three key experimental parameters (ethanol concentration, solvent/material ratio, and ultrasonic extraction time) was further investigated by response surface method. Besides, traditional extracting methods, including maceration and Soxhlet extraction methods, were also carried out for comparison. The results suggested that the best extracting condition was 37.6% (v/v) of ethanol concentration, 35.1:1 mL/g of solvent/material ratio and ultrasonic extraction of 46.1 min at 70 °C under 500 W ultrasonic irradiation. The antioxidant capacity (178.28 ± 7.39 µmol Trolox/g DW) was much stronger than those obtained by the maceration extraction process (158.66 ± 4.73 µmol Trolox/g DW) and the Soxhlet extraction process (138.42 ± 3.63 µmol Trolox/g DW). In addition, several antioxidant components in the extract were identified and quantified. This study is helpful for value-added utilization of the waste from germinated mung bean.

  13. Characterization and structural analyses of nonspecific lipid transfer protein 1 from mung bean.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ku-Feng; Liu, Yu-Nan; Hsu, Shang-Te D; Samuel, Dharmaraj; Cheng, Chao-Sheng; Bonvin, Alexandre M J J; Lyu, Ping-Chiang

    2005-04-19

    Plant nonspecific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs) are thermal stable proteins that are capable of transferring lipid molecules between bilayers in vitro. This family of proteins, abundant in plants, is proposed to be involved in defense, pollination, and germination; the in vivo biological function remains, however, elusive. Here we report the purification and sequencing of an nsLTP1 from mung bean sprouts. We have also determined the solution structure of this nsLTP1, which represents the first 3D structure of the dicotyledonous nsLTP1 family. The global fold of mung bean nsLTP1 is similar to those of the monocotyledonous nsLTP1 structures and consists of four alpha-helices stabilized by four disulfide bonds. There are, however, some notable differences in the C-terminal tails and internal hydrophobic cavities. Circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy were used to compare the thermodynamics and lipid transfer properties of mung bean nsLTP1 with those of rice nsLTP1. Docking of a lipid molecule into the solution structure of mung bean nsLTP1 reveals similar binding cavities and hydrophobic interactions as in rice nsLTP1, consistent with their comparable lipid transfer properties measured experimentally.

  14. Estimation of bacteriological spoilage of pork cutlets by electronic nose.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Kinga M; Seregély, Zs; Dalmadi, I; Andrássy, Eva; Farkas, J

    2007-06-01

    The utility of chemosensor array (EN) signals of head-space volatiles of aerobically stored pork cutlets as a non-invasive technique for monitoring their microbiological load was studied during storage at 4, 8 and 12 degrees C, respectively. The bacteriological quality of the meat samples was determined by standard total aerobic plate counts (TAPC) and colony count of selectively estimated Pseudomonas (PS) spp., the predominant aerobic spoilage bacteria. Statistical analysis of the electronic nose measurements were principal component analysis (PCA), and canonical discriminant analysis (CDA). Partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to model correlation between microbial loads and EN signal responses, the degree of bacteriological spoilage, independently of the temperature of the refrigerated storage. Sensor selection techniques were applied to reduce the dimensionality and more robust calibration models were computed by determining few individual sensors having the smallest cross correlations and highest correlations with the reference data. Correlations between the predicted and "real" values were given on cross-validated data from both data reduced models and for full calibrations using the 23 sensor elements. At the same time, sensorial quality of the raw cutlets was noted subjectively on faultiness of the odour and colour, and drip formation of the samples. These preliminary studies indicated that the electronic nose technique has a potential to detect bacteriological spoilage earlier or at the same time as olfactory quality deterioration.

  15. Bacterial populations and the volatilome associated to meat spoilage.

    PubMed

    Casaburi, Annalisa; Piombino, Paola; Nychas, George-John; Villani, Francesco; Ercolini, Danilo

    2015-02-01

    Microbial spoilage of meat is a complex event to which many different bacterial populations can contribute depending on the temperature of storage and packaging conditions. The spoilage can derive from microbial development and consumption of meat nutrients by bacteria with a consequent release of undesired metabolites. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are generated during meat storage can have an olfactory impact and can lead to rejection of the product when their concentration increase significantly as a result of microbial development. The VOCs most commonly identified in meat during storage include alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, fatty acids, esters and sulfur compounds. In this review, the VOCs found in fresh meat during storage in specific conditions are described together with the possible bacterial populations responsible of their production. In addition, on the basis of the data available in the literature, the sensory impact of the VOCs and their dynamics during storage is discussed to highlight their possible contribution to the spoilage of meat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Leuconostoc spoilage of vacuum-packaged vegetable sausages.

    PubMed

    Vihavainen, Elina J; Murros, Anna E; Björkroth, K Johanna

    2008-11-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the role of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in spoilage of a vacuum-packaged vegetable sausage product. This spoilage problem was characterized by formation of gas and slime, and was limiting the shelf life of the product. To investigate the LAB populations, LAB were enumerated in vegetable sausages graded as either spoiled or acceptable. From these vegetable sausages, 110 prevailing LAB isolates were recovered and identified using an LAB ribotyping database, which uses HindIII restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns of the 16S and 23S rRNA genes as operational taxonomic units. Finally, to determine the effects of the prevailing LAB on the sensory properties of the product, fresh vegetable sausages were inoculated with six LAB strains. The results revealed that Leuconostoc gelidum, Leuconostoc gasicomitatum, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides were the predominant LAB in the commercial vegetable sausages. The inoculation of these LAB onto vegetable sausages resulted in the formation of gas, slime, and a sour off-odor. Based on these findings, L. gelidum, L gasicomitatum, and L. mesenteroides were responsible for spoilage of the vegetable sausage product.

  17. Changes in phenols contents from buckwheat sprouts during growth stage.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Masahiro; Nakamura, Chiho; Nakamura, Kozo

    2013-02-01

    Germinated buckwheat is buckwheat seeds soaked in water just until it begins to bud. Buckwheat sprouts are seedling plants of buckwheat grown up to 10-15 cm. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal growth period for accumulating the most abundant functional phenol(s) in germinated buckwheat that had been soaked in darkness and buckwheat sprouts cultivated by hydroponic culture. The rutin contained in germinated buckwheat was analyzed by CE (capillary electrophoresis). Phenols, including isoorientin, orientin, isovitexin, vitexin, and rutin were separated from buckwheat sprouts by HPLC and identified by LC-MS. The highest rutin content in germinated buckwheat was found to be 15.8 mg/100 g DW at 20 h after germination. Buckwheat sprouts contained five kinds of major phenols. The highest amounts of isoorientin, orientin, isovitexin, and vitexin were measured at day 3, with the exception of rutin, and then a gradual decrease was observed as the sprouts grew. The quantities of isoorientin, orientin, isovitexin, and vitexin at day 3 were 5.8, 11.7, 26.2, and 28.9 mg/100 g FW, respectively. The rutin content rapidly increased to 109.0 mg/100 g FW until day 6. The highest total phenols in buckwheat sprouts were 162.9 mg/100 g FW at day 6. Germinated buckwheat soaked for 20 h and buckwheat sprouts cultivated for 6 days were rich in dietary phenol(s), which makes these plants a valuable functional food for human consumption.

  18. Spinal irradiation does not inhibit distal axonal sprouting

    SciTech Connect

    Pamphlett, R.S.

    1988-05-01

    In an attempt to determine the relative importance of the nerve cell body and of the axon in initiating and controlling axonal regeneration, nerve cell bodies were irradiated and the ability of the distal axon to sprout was examined. Mice were subjected to either 25 or 50 Gray (Gy) of x-irradiation localized to the lumbar spinal cord. After times varying from 1 day to 6 months after irradiation, a sublethal dose of botulinum toxin (BoTx) was injected into the calf muscles of one leg. The soleus muscle was examined histologically after times varying from 1 week to 6 months after injection, and BoTx-induced ultraterminal axonal sprouting was assessed by the number of motor endplates showing sprouts, the length of the sprouts, and the long term endplate morphology. Apart from some irradiated subgroups having slightly shorter sprout lengths, no significant differences were found between irradiated and nonirradiated groups. The results suggest either that the processes in the nerve cell body responsible for initiating and supporting axonal growth are resistant to large doses of irradiation, or that growth regulatory mechanisms in the distal axon are under local control.

  19. Cdc42 regulates branching in angiogenic sprouting in vitro.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duc-Huy T; Gao, Lin; Wong, Alec; Chen, Christopher S

    2017-07-01

    The morphogenetic events that occur during angiogenic sprouting involve several members of the Rho family of GTPases, including Cdc42. However, the precise roles of Cdc42 in angiogenic sprouting have been difficult to elucidate owing to the lack of models to study these events in vitro. Here, we aim to identify the roles of Cdc42 in branching morphogenesis in angiogenesis. Using a 3D biomimetic model of angiogenesis in vitro, where endothelial cells were seeded inside a cylindrical channel within collagen gel and sprouted from the channel in response to a defined biochemical gradient of angiogenic factors, we inhibited Cdc42 activity with a small molecule inhibitor ML141 and examined the effects of Cdc42 on the morphogenetic processes of angiogenic sprouting. We find that partial inhibition of Cdc42 had minimal effects on directional migration of endothelial cells, but led to fewer branching events without affecting the length of these branches. We also observed that antagonizing Cdc42 reduced collective migration in favor of single cell migration. Additionally, Cdc42 also regulated the initiation of filopodial extensions in endothelial tip cells. Our findings suggest that Cdc42 can affect multiple morphogenetic processes during angiogenic sprouting and ultimately impact the architecture of the vasculature. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Mass-based metabolomic analysis of soybean sprouts during germination.

    PubMed

    Gu, Eun-Ji; Kim, Dong Wook; Jang, Gwang-Ju; Song, Seong Hwa; Lee, Jae-In; Lee, Sang Bong; Kim, Bo-Min; Cho, Yeongrae; Lee, Hyeon-Jeong; Kim, Hyun-Jin

    2017-02-15

    We investigated the metabolite profile of soybean sprouts at 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4days after germination using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-MS (LC-MS) to understand the relationship between germination and nutritional quality. Data were analyzed by partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and sprout samples were separated successfully using their PLS-DA scores. Fifty-eight metabolites, including macromolecular derivatives related to energy production, amino acids, myo-inositol metabolites, phytosterols, antioxidants, isoflavones, and soyasaponins, contributed to the separation. Amino acids, myo-inositol metabolites, isoflavone aglycones, B soyasaponins, antioxidants, and phytosterols, associated with health benefits and/or taste quality, increased with germination time while isoflavone glycosides and DDMP soyasaponins decreased. Based on these metabolites, the metabolomic pathway associated with energy production in soybean sprouts is suggested. Our data suggest that sprouting is a useful processing step to improve soybean nutritional quality, and metabolomic analysis is useful in understanding nutritional change during sprouting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Interaction of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium and mung bean (Phaseolus aureus) plants.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bhoj Raj; Chandra, Mudit; Agarwal, Ravikant

    2005-03-01

    The effect of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium, a zoonotic serovar, on mung bean (Phaseolus aureus) cultivar Pant Mung-3 plants was studied. Inoculation of mung bean seeds with Salmonella Typhimurium (7.2 x 10(5) CFU/ml) reduced sprouting rate (P < 0.07). This effect was more pronounced at higher levels of contamination. In the soil inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium (7.2 x 10(6) CFU/g), germination was retarded and the number of defective sprouts was also significantly higher (P < 0.002). Salmonella Typhimurium grew inside germinating seeds and plant tissues and persisted in seedlings, adult plants, and harvested seedlings dried and stored at room temperature (30 degrees C) up to 45 days. Phaseolus aureus plants grown in sterile soil was resistant to Salmonella Typhimurium infection at 15 days of age and cleared Salmonella from all the aerial parts within 3 h of infection. However, Salmonella Typhimurium could be reisolated from the basal area of the stem and from soil even after 45 days of exposure to the pathogen.

  2. Effects of cultivar and culture conditions on gamma-aminobutyric acid accumulation in germinated fava beans (Vicia faba L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Bai, Qingyun; Jin, Xinjiang; Wen, Huanbin; Gu, Zhenxin

    2010-01-15

    High levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulate in plant tissues under various stresses. GABA accumulation is also influenced by cultivar. This aim of this study was to select the most promising cultivar of fava bean for GABA accumulation and to optimise the culture conditions for GABA production in germinated fava beans by response surface methodology based on central composite design (CCD). GABA content and glutamate decarboxylase activity in germinated seeds of cultivar S2 were significantly higher than those in other cultivars (P < 0.05). A significant negative correlation (r = -0.765, P < 0.05) between germination percentage and 1000-kernel weight was observed. There was a linear relationship between GABA content and sprout length (R(2) = 0.816). The regression model fitted to the experimental data of CCD was valid in predicting GABA production in germinated fava beans. Temperature and pH value of the culture solution had significant effects on GABA content in germinated fava beans. Under optimal culture conditions (33.6 degrees C, pH 3.19 and an air flow rate of 1.19 L min(-1)), GABA content reached up to 2.41 g kg(-1) dry weight, about 48 times that in raw seeds. Germinated fava bean is a good resource of GABA-rich food. Both cultivar and culture conditions have significant effects on GABA production. Copyright (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Antinutrients in amphidiploids (black gram x Mung bean): varietal differences and effect of domestic processing and cooking.

    PubMed

    Kataria, A; Chauhan, B M; Punia, D

    1989-09-01

    Phytic acid, saponin and polyphenol contents in grains of various varieties of black gram (Vigna mungo) Mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) amphidiploids ranged from 697 to 750, 2746 to 2972 and 702 to 783 mg/100 g, respectively. Domestic processing and cooking methods including soaking, ordinary and pressure cooking of soaked and unsoaked seeds, and sprouting significantly lowered phytic acid, saponin and polyphenol contents of the amphidiploid seeds. Soaking for 18 h removed 31 to 37% of the phytic acid; the extent of removal was higher with long periods of soaking. Saponins and polyphenols were relatively less affected. Loss of the antinutrients was greater when soaked instead of unsoaked seeds were cooked. Pressure cooking had a greater effect than ordinary cooking. Antinutrient concentrations declined following sprouting; the longer the period of germination the greater was the reduction.

  4. Effect of Pre-Harvest Sprouting on Physicochemical Properties of Starch in Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Simsek, Senay; Ohm, Jae-Bom; Lu, Haiyan; Rugg, Mory; Berzonsky, William; Alamri, Mohammed S.; Mergoum, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) occurs when physiologically mature kernels begin germinating in the spike. The objective of this study was to provide fundamental information on physicochemical changes of starch due to PHS in Hard Red Spring (HRS) and Hard White Spring (HWS) wheat. The mean values of α-amylase activity of non-sprouted and sprouted wheat samples were 0.12 CU/g and 2.00 CU/g, respectively. Sprouted samples exhibited very low peak and final viscosities compared to non-sprouted wheat samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that starch granules in sprouted samples were partially hydrolyzed. Based on High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC) profiles, the starch from sprouted samples had relatively lower molecular weight than that of non-sprouted samples. Overall, high α-amylase activity caused changes to the physicochemical properties of the PHS damaged wheat. PMID:28234313

  5. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

  6. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

  7. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

  8. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

  9. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

  10. The effect of essential oil formulations for potato sprout suppression.

    PubMed

    Owolabi, Moses S; Lajide, Labunmi; Oladimeji, Matthew O; Setzer, William N

    2010-04-01

    The concerns over safety and environmental impact of synthetic pesticides such as chlorpropham (CIPC) has stimulated interest in finding environmentally benign, natural sprout suppressants, including essential oils. The effects of Chenopodium ambrosioides and Lippia multiflora essential oils on sprout growth and decay of stored potatoes has been investigated. Formulations of essential oils with alumina, bentonite, or kaolin, both with and without Triton X-100 additive, were tested. These formulations have been compared to the pulverized plant materials themselves as well as wick-volatilized essential oils. The results showed that the tested oils possess compositions that make them suitable for application as sprout suppressants. Additionally, the formulation seems to be able to reduce the volatility of the essential oil and artificially extend dormancy of stored potatoes.

  11. Food safety evaluation of broccoli and radish sprouts.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Frías, Juana; Gulewicz, Piotr; Gulewicz, Krzysztof; Vidal-Valverde, Concepción

    2008-05-01

    Three cultivars of broccoli seeds (Brassica oleracea var. italica), cv. Tiburon, cv. Belstar and cv. Lucky, and two cultivars of radish seeds (Raphanus sativus), cv. Rebel and cv. Bolide, were germinated for three and five days and safety aspects such as microbiological counts and biogenic amines were investigated. Cytotoxicity evaluation was also carried out. Broccoli and radish sprouts contained numbers of mesophilic, psychrotrophic, total and faecal coliform bacteria which are the usual counts for minimally processed germinated seeds. Putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine increased during sprout production although these levels were below those permitted by legislation (5 mg/100 g of edible food). Broccoli and radish sprouts demonstrated no toxic effects on proliferation and viability of HL-60 cells and should be included in our diets as healthy and safe fresh foods.

  12. Stump sprout growth and quality of several Appalachian hardwood species after clearcutting

    Treesearch

    G. W. Wendel

    1975-01-01

    Results of a 10-year study showed that stumps from 50- to 60-year-old red oak, black cherry, yellow-poplar, white oak, and chestnut oak trees sprouted vigorously. A high percentage of the dominant sprouts had good stem form, and many had excellent height and diameter growth. For all species, we found that the proportion of stumps sprouting, number of sprouts per stump...

  13. Tartary buckwheat sprout powder lowers plasma cholesterol level in rats.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Tomoko; Han, Kyu-Ho; Hashimoto, Naoto; Yamauchi, Hiroaki; Shimada, Ken-Ichiro; Sekikawa, Mitsuo; Fukushima, Michihiro

    2007-12-01

    We examined the effects of different types of buckwheat sprouts on the plasma cholesterol concentration, fecal steroid excretion and hepatic mRNA expression related to cholesterol metabolism in rats. Rats were fed a cholesterol-free diet with 5 g of Kitawasesoba common buckwheat sprout powder (KS)/100 g, 5 g of Hokkai T no. 8 tartary buckwheat sprout powder (HS-8)/100 g or 5 g of Hokkai T no. 9 tartary buckwheat sprout powder (HS-9)/100 g of diet for 4 wk. Control rats were fed a diet with alpha-cornstarch instead of sprout powder for 4 wk. There were no significant differences in food intake, body weight, liver weight or cecal contents among the groups. Plasma total cholesterol concentrations in the HS-8 and HS-9 groups were significantly lower than in the control group, whereas there was no significant difference between the KS and control groups. Fecal bile acid excretion and cecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations in the KS, HS-8 and HS-9 groups were significantly greater than in the control group. Furthermore, fecal matter excretion in the KS, HS-8 and HS-9 groups tended to be increased compared to the control group, with that in the HS-8 group being significantly higher than in the control group. Hepatic cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase mRNA expression in the KS, HS-8 and HS-9 groups and hepatic HMG-CoA reductase mRNA expression in the HS-9 group were significantly higher than in the control group. The results suggest that tartary buckwheat sprout powder has a serum cholesterol-lowering function by enhancing fecal bile acid excretion through increased fecal matter excretion or the upregulation of hepatic cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase mRNA expression in rats.

  14. Stump Sprouting 2 Years After Thinning in a Cherrybark Oak Plantation

    Treesearch

    Brian Roy Lockhart; Jim L. Chambers; Kristi L. Wharton

    2002-01-01

    Stump sprouts are considered an important regeneration source in hardwood management, especially in upland oak-dominated forests. Less is known about stump sprouting in bottomland oak forests. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the success and growth of stump sprouts following 2 thinning levels, 70-75 percent of initial stocking (light thinning)...

  15. Early stump sprouting after clearcutting in a northern Missouri bottomland hardwood forest

    Treesearch

    Matthew G. Olson; Benjamin O. Knapp

    2017-01-01

    Midwestern bottomland hardwood forests are often composed of species that are capable of sprouting vigorously, yet relatively little is known about sprout development within these mixed-species systems. This study describes stump sprouting of midwestern bottomland hardwood species in the first 3 growing seasons after a clearcutting with reserves (∼2.0 m2...

  16. Beech root sprouts can be damaged by sodium arsenite treatment of parent tree

    Treesearch

    Frederick H. Berry

    1956-01-01

    American beech (Fagus grandifolia) can produce an abundance of root sprouts. In some cut-over woodlands, the sprouts occupy space that could be utilized by more desirable tree species. Therefore it seemed desirable to explore methods of destroying beech root sprouts.

  17. Sprouting capability of shortleaf pine seedlings following clipping and burning: first-year results

    Treesearch

    David C. Clabo; Wayne K. Clatterbuck

    2015-01-01

    Shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) is one of the few southern pine species with the ability to sprout after disturbance during the seedling age range, but little is known about sprouting success based on the type of disturbance. This study evaluates sprouting success after controlled burning conditions or manually clipping as compared to untreated controls of...

  18. Growth and quality of soybean sprouts (Glycine max L. Merrill) as affected by gamma irradiation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soybean sprouts are considered as natural and healthy food by Asian consumers. However, sprouts are often associated with outbreaks of foodborne illnesses and recalls due to contamination of seeds with human pathogens. Irradiation may be used to inactivate pathogens on seeds and sprouts. In this stu...

  19. Effect of pre-harvest sprouting on physicochemical changes of proteins in wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    High moisture before harvest can cause sprouting of the wheat kernel, which is termed as pre-harvest sprouting (PHS). The aim of this study was to examine the variation in physicochemical properties of proteins and free asparagine concentration in PHS damaged (sprouted) hard red and white spring whe...

  20. Metabolic footprinting of Lactobacillus buchneri strain LA1147 during anaerobic spoilage of fermented cucumbers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lactobacillus buchneri has recently been associated with anaerobic spoilage of fermented cucumbers due to its ability to metabolize lactic acid into acetic acid and 1,2-propanediol. However, we have limited knowledge of other chemical components in fermented cucumber that may be related to spoilage ...

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of the Beer Spoilage Bacterium Megasphaera cerevisiae Strain PAT 1T

    PubMed Central

    Kutumbaka, Kirthi K.; Pasmowitz, Joshua; Mategko, James; Reyes, Dindo; Friedrich, Alex; Han, Sukkyun; Martens-Habbena, Willm; Neal-McKinney, Jason; Janagama, Harish K.; Nadala, Cesar

    2015-01-01

    The genus Megasphaera harbors important spoilage organisms that cause beer spoilage by producing off flavors, undesirable aroma, and turbidity. Megasphaera cerevisiae is mainly found in nonpasteurized low-alcohol beer. In this study, we report the draft genome of the type strain of the genus, M. cerevisiae strain PAT 1T. PMID:26358606

  2. Characteristics of Spoilage-Associated Secondary Cucumber Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Wendy; Johanningsmeier, Suzanne D.; McFeeters, Roger F.

    2012-01-01

    Secondary fermentations during the bulk storage of fermented cucumbers can result in spoilage that causes a total loss of the fermented product, at an estimated cost of $6,000 to $15,000 per affected tank. Previous research has suggested that such fermentations are the result of microbiological utilization of lactic acid and the formation of acetic, butyric, and propionic acids. The objectives of this study were to characterize the chemical and environmental conditions associated with secondary cucumber fermentations and to isolate and characterize potential causative microorganisms. Both commercial spoilage samples and laboratory-reproduced secondary fermentations were evaluated. Potential causative agents were isolated based on morphological characteristics. Two yeasts, Pichia manshurica and Issatchenkia occidentalis, were identified and detected most commonly concomitantly with lactic acid utilization. In the presence of oxygen, yeast metabolic activities lead to lactic acid degradation, a small decline in the redox potential (Eh, Ag/AgCl, 3 M KCl) of the fermentation brines, and an increase in pH to levels at which bacteria other than the lactic acid bacteria responsible for the primary fermentation can grow and produce acetic, butyric, and propionic acids. Inhibition of these yeasts by allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) resulted in stabilization of the fermented medium, while the absence of the preservative resulted in the disappearance of lactic and acetic acids in a model system. Additionally, three Gram-positive bacteria, Lactobacillus buchneri, a Clostridium sp., and Pediococcus ethanolidurans, were identified as potentially relevant to different stages of the secondary fermentation. The unique opportunity to study commercial spoilage samples generated a better understanding of the microbiota and environmental conditions associated with secondary cucumber fermentations. PMID:22179234

  3. Diversity of spoilage fungi associated with various French dairy products.

    PubMed

    Garnier, Lucille; Valence, Florence; Pawtowski, Audrey; Auhustsinava-Galerne, Lizaveta; Frotté, Nicolas; Baroncelli, Riccardo; Deniel, Franck; Coton, Emmanuel; Mounier, Jérôme

    2017-01-16

    Yeasts and molds are responsible for dairy product spoilage, resulting in significant food waste and economic losses. Yet, few studies have investigated the diversity of spoilage fungi encountered in dairy products. In the present study, 175 isolates corresponding to 105 from various spoiled dairy products and 70 originating from dairy production environments, were identified using sequencing of the ITS region, the partial β-tubulin, calmodulin and/or EFα genes, and the D1-D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene for filamentous fungi and yeasts, respectively. Among the 41 species found in spoiled products, Penicillium commune and Penicillium bialowiezense were the most common filamentous fungi, representing around 10% each of total isolates while Meyerozyma guilliermondii and Trichosporon asahii were the most common yeasts (4.8% each of total isolates). Several species (e.g. Penicillium antarcticum, Penicillium salamii and Cladosporium phyllophilum) were identified for the first time in dairy products or their environment. In addition, numerous species were identified in both spoiled products and their corresponding dairy production environment suggesting that the latter acts as a primary source of contamination. Secondly, the resistance to chemical preservatives (sodium benzoate, calcium propionate, potassium sorbate and natamycin) of 10 fungal isolates representative of the observed biodiversity was also evaluated. Independently of the fungal species, natamycin had the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (expressed in gram of preservative/l), followed by potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate and calcium propionate. In the tested conditions, Cladosporium halotolerans and Didymella pinodella were the most sensitive fungi while Yarrowia lipolytica and Candida parapsilosis were the most resistant towards the tested preservatives. This study provides interesting information on the occurrence of fungal contaminants in dairy products and environments that may help developing

  4. Evaluation of PCR detection of Salmonella in alfalfa sprouts and spent irrigation water collected during sprouting of naturally contaminated seed.

    PubMed

    Maks, Nicole; Fu, Tong-Jen

    2013-02-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a PCR-based system (DuPont Qualicon BAX) for detection of Salmonella in sprouts and spent irrigation water collected during sprouting of seeds naturally contaminated with Salmonella. Alfalfa seeds were grown in Mason jars at 20 and 30°C for 3 days. Levels of Salmonella present in the water and sprouts were determined by most-probable-number (MPN) analysis. Background microflora levels were also determined. Samples of spent irrigation water and sprouts were enriched overnight individually in tetrathionate broth and in buffered peptone water with novobiocin at 42°C and then run in the BAX system. Samples were also enriched according to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA BAM) method for Salmonella as a comparison. Salmonella levels were lower at 20°C compared with 30°C for some trials, and background microflora levels ranged from 10(7) to 10(8) CFU/g or ml at 20°C and 10(8) to 10(9) CFU/g or ml at 30°C. In trials with a Salmonella level >1.1 MPN/g or ml, both the BAX and FDA BAM methods were able to detect Salmonella in all samples. In trials with lower levels (0.21 MPN/g or ml or lower) of Salmonella, BAX was able to detect more positive samples than FDA BAM. For one trial with <0.003 MPN/g or ml of Salmonella, the presence of the pathogen was not indicated by either the BAX or the FDA BAM method. The results suggest that PCR detected low levels of Salmonella in sprouts or spent irrigation water collected from sprouting of naturally contaminated seeds.

  5. Effectiveness of a novel spontaneous carvacrol nanoemulsion against Salmonella enterica Enteritidis and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on contaminated mung bean and alfalfa seeds.

    PubMed

    Landry, Kyle S; Chang, Yuhua; McClements, David Julian; McLandsborough, Lynne

    2014-09-18

    Outbreaks of foodborne illness from consumption of sprouts have been linked to contaminated seeds prior to germination. Due to the long sprouting period at ambient temperatures and high humidity, germinating seeds contaminated with low pathogen levels (0.1logCFU/g) can result in sprouts with high numbers (≥10(8)CFU/g) of pathogens. Currently, the recommended treatment method involves soaking seeds in 20,000ppm (2%) calcium hypochlorite prior to germination. In this study, an alternative treatment involving soaking seeds in a carvacrol nanoemulsion was tested for its efficacy against Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Enteritidis (ATCC BAA-1045) or EGFP expressing E. coli O157:H7 (ATCC 42895) contaminated mung bean and alfalfa seeds. The antimicrobial treatment was performed by soaking inoculated seed batches in the spontaneous nanoemulsion (4000 or 8000ppm) for 30 or 60min. The spontaneous nanoemulsion was formed by titrating the oil phase (carvacrol and medium chain triglycerides) and water-soluble surfactant (Tween 80®) into sodium citrate buffer. Following treatment, the numbers of surviving cells were determined by suspending the seeds in TSB and performing plate counts and/or Most Probable Number (MPN) enumeration. Treated seeds were sprouted and tested for the presence of the appropriate pathogen. This treatment successfully inactivated low levels (2 and 3logCFU/g) of S. Enteritidis and E. coli on either seed types when soaked for either 30 or 60min at nanoemulsion concentrations corresponding to 4000 (0.4%) or 8000 (0.8%) ppm carvacrol. Inoculated alfalfa seeds treated with 4000ppm nanoemulsion, required a 60min treatment time to show a similar 2-3 log reduction. Complete inactivation was confirmed by germinating treated seeds and performing microbiological testing. Total sprout yield was not compromised by any of the tested treatments. These results show that carvacrol nanoemulsions may be an alternative antimicrobial treatment method for

  6. Characterization by volatile compounds of microbial deep spoilage in Iberian dry-cured ham.

    PubMed

    Martín, Alberto; Benito, María J; Aranda, Emilio; Ruiz-Moyano, Santiago; Córdoba, Juan J; Córdoba, María G

    2010-08-01

    In the present study, volatile compounds of spoiled dry-cured Iberian ham with deep spoilage or "bone taint" were analyzed and correlated with level of spoilage and the microorganisms detected. Volatile compounds extracted by a solid phase micro-extraction technique were assayed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The spoiled hams were evaluated sensorially, and the correlations among volatile compounds, spoilage level, and microbial counts were studied. The spoiled hams had higher concentrations of hydrocarbons, alcohols, acids, esters, pyrazines, sulfur compounds, and other minor volatile compounds than unspoiled hams. The sensorial analysis showed that the spoilage level of hams correlated with several volatile compounds, most of them associated with Gram-positive catalase positive cocci and Enterobacteriaceae counts. Cyclic compounds such as cyclohexanone, some ethers, and pyrazines should be considered as indicators to monitor incipient microbial deep spoilage in the elaboration of this meat product.

  7. Evaluation of rotational effect of bean in large-scale rice-bean rotation using satellite remote sensing experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ling; Zhu, Zesheng

    2017-06-01

    A large-scale rice-bean rotation experiment was examined to analyze the rotational effect of bean by using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of bean on satellite remote sensing image. The experiment was undertaken at Rudong County of China from 2009 to 2010. The difference between the bean NDVIs of bean-bean monoculture and rice-bean rotation was used to evaluate the rotational effect of bean. The results show that the NDVI of rice-bean rotation is obviously larger than one of bean-bean monoculture in such large-scale experiment. Thus, we have also found the compelling evidence that the bean yield of rice-bean rotation is greater than the bean yield of bean-bean monoculture.

  8. Seed sprout production: Consumables and a foundation for higher plant growth in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, Michelle; Thomas, Terri; Johnson, Steve; Luttges, Marvin

    1990-01-01

    Seed sprouts can be produced as a source of fresh vegetable materials and as higher plant seedlings in space. Sprout production was undertaken to evaluate the mass accumulations possible, the technologies needed, and the reliability of the overall process. Baseline experiments corroborated the utility of sprout production protocols for a variety of seed types. The automated delivery of saturated humidity effectively supplants labor intensive manual soaking techniques. Automated humidification also lend itself to modest centrifugal sprout growth environments. A small amount of ultraviolet radiation effectively suppressed bacterial and fungal contamination, and the sprouts were suitable for consumption.

  9. Nutritional quality of sous vide cooked carrots and brussels sprouts.

    PubMed

    Chiavaro, Emma; Mazzeo, Teresa; Visconti, Attilio; Manzi, Chiara; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Pellegrini, Nicoletta

    2012-06-13

    Phytochemicals (carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and ascorbic acid) and antioxidant capacity (measured by TEAC, FRAP, and TRAP assays) were evaluated on carrots and Brussels sprouts sous vide processed and then stored refrigerated for 1, 5, and 10 days and compared with the corresponding raw and oven-steamed products. Data showed that sous vide cooked carrots had higher amounts of carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and ascorbic acid than steamed products, and only a slight decrease of phenolic compounds was recorded during sous vide storage. Contrasting results were obtained on sous vide processed Brussels sprouts: higher carotenoid amounts and TEAC and TRAP values and lower phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, and FRAP values were exhibited by sous vide in comparison with steamed samples. Phytochemicals and TAC also decreased during Brussels sprout sous vide storage with the exception of carotenoids. The results of this study demonstrated that sous vide preparation can preserve and/or enhance the nutritional quality of carrots, which remain a good source of carotenoids also after long refrigerated storage, whereas the same treatment could be recommended as an alternative to oven-steaming in the preparation of Brussels sprouts for short-term maintenance to avoid a large ascorbic acid depletion.

  10. Photosynthate distribution patterns in cherrybark oak seedling sprouts

    Treesearch

    Brian Roy Lockhart; John D. Hodges; Emile S. Gardiner; Andrew W. Ezell

    2003-01-01

    Summary We used 14C tracers to determine photosynthate distribution in cherrybark oak (Quercus pagoda Raf.) seedling sprouts following release from competing mid-story vegetation. Fall acquisition of labeled photosynthates by seedlings followed expected source--sink patterns, with root and basal stem tissues...

  11. Growth and Survival of Northern Hardwood Sprouts After Burning

    Treesearch

    Donald A. Perala

    1974-01-01

    Root collar sprouting of nine hardwoods was measured annually after a prescribed burn. Basswood, red oak, and paper birch were the most vigorous sprouters; sugar maple and yellow birch the least; and American elm, bur oak, ironwood and red maple were intermediate. Parent tree diameter influenced spreading.

  12. Metabolic Activity of Radish Sprouts Derived Isothiocyanates in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Baenas, Nieves; Piegholdt, Stefanie; Schloesser, Anke; Moreno, Diego A.; García-Viguera, Cristina; Rimbach, Gerald; Wagner, Anika E.

    2016-01-01

    We used Drosophila melanogaster as a model system to study the absorption, metabolism and potential health benefits of plant bioactives derived from radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus cv. Rambo), a Brassicaceae species rich in glucosinolates and other phytochemicals. Flies were subjected to a diet supplemented with lyophilized radish sprouts (10.6 g/L) for 10 days, containing high amounts of glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin, which can be hydrolyzed by myrosinase to the isothiocyanates sulforaphene and raphasatin, respectively. We demonstrate that Drosophila melanogaster takes up and metabolizes isothiocyanates from radish sprouts through the detection of the metabolite sulforaphane-cysteine in fly homogenates. Moreover, we report a decrease in the glucose content of flies, an upregulation of spargel expression, the Drosophila homolog of the mammalian PPARγ-coactivator 1 α, as well as the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro. Overall, we show that the consumption of radish sprouts affects energy metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster which is reflected by lower glucose levels and an increased expression of spargel, a central player in mitochondrial biogenesis. These processes are often affected in chronic diseases associated with aging, including type II diabetes mellitus. PMID:26901196

  13. Chemical control of bigleaf maple trees and stump sprouts.

    Treesearch

    Carl M. Berntsen

    1960-01-01

    Control of bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum) has become an important consideration in many western Oregon areas that are managed primarily for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and associated conifers. The problem is acute on areas where damaged and defective maples are left after harvest of commercial timber. They sprout...

  14. Delta Healthy Sprouts: Participants' Diet and Food Environment at Baseline

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Local food environments influence the nutrition and health of area residents. This baseline analysis focuses on the food environments of women who participated in the Delta Healthy Sprouts project, a randomized, controlled, comparative trial designed to test the efficacy of two Maternal, Infant, an...

  15. Sprouted barley for dairy cows: Is it worth it

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sprouted grains have gained renewed interest among grazing dairy farmers in response to high grain prices, grain scarcity (in the organic dairy sector) and challenges in producing high-quality forages. This interest has been spurred by high-profile advertising by companies selling the systems, as we...

  16. Metabolic Activity of Radish Sprouts Derived Isothiocyanates in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Baenas, Nieves; Piegholdt, Stefanie; Schloesser, Anke; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina; Rimbach, Gerald; Wagner, Anika E

    2016-02-18

    We used Drosophila melanogaster as a model system to study the absorption, metabolism and potential health benefits of plant bioactives derived from radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus cv. Rambo), a Brassicaceae species rich in glucosinolates and other phytochemicals. Flies were subjected to a diet supplemented with lyophilized radish sprouts (10.6 g/L) for 10 days, containing high amounts of glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin, which can be hydrolyzed by myrosinase to the isothiocyanates sulforaphene and raphasatin, respectively. We demonstrate that Drosophila melanogaster takes up and metabolizes isothiocyanates from radish sprouts through the detection of the metabolite sulforaphane-cysteine in fly homogenates. Moreover, we report a decrease in the glucose content of flies, an upregulation of spargel expression, the Drosophila homolog of the mammalian PPARγ-coactivator 1 α, as well as the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro. Overall, we show that the consumption of radish sprouts affects energy metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster which is reflected by lower glucose levels and an increased expression of spargel, a central player in mitochondrial biogenesis. These processes are often affected in chronic diseases associated with aging, including type II diabetes mellitus.

  17. Breeding Beans with Bruchid and Multiple Virus Resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) are worldwide threats to dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production. Beans planted in the lowlands of Central America and the Caribbean also need resistance to Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV). The common bean weev...

  18. Cherrybark oak stump sprout survival and development five years following plantation thinning in the lower Mississippi alluvial valley, USA

    Treesearch

    Brian Roy Lockhart; Jim L. Chambers

    2007-01-01

    Cherrybark oak (Quercus pagoda Raf.) stump sprouts were studied for 5 years in a 30-year-old plantation thinned to 70–75% stocking (light thinning) and 45–50% stocking (heavy thinning). Sprouting success, survival, number of sprouts per stump, and sprout height differed little between thinning treatments throughout the 5-year study period. Pre-...

  19. The water factor in harvest-sprouting of hard red spring wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, A.; Black, A. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    Sprouting in unthreshed, ripe, hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is induced by rain, but sprouting does not necessarily occur because the crop is wetted. The spike and grain water conditions conducive to sprouting were determined in a series of laboratory experiments. Sprouting did not occur in field growing wheat wetted to 110% water concentration until the spike water concentration was reduced to 12% and maintained at this concentration for 2 days before wetting. When cut at growth stage 11.3, Feekes scale, Saratovskaya 20 (USSR) sprouted after 4 days drying, Olaf and Alex between 7 and 15 days drying and Columbus, recognized for its resistance to harvest time sprouting, after more than 15 days drying. Sprouting potential was enhanced after 4 wetting drying cycles in which any wetted interval was too brief to permit sufficient water imbibition to initiate sprouting. At harvest ripeness, grain water concentration exceeded spike water concentration by 0.7 percentage units. Following 6 months storage, 20% of the kernels in 300 spike bundles (simulating windrows) sprouted within 28 hrs after initiation of wetting to saturation (150% water concentration). Ninety percent sprouting occurred within 8 days in bundles maintained at 75% water concentration and higher, but less sprouting occurred in bundles dried to 50% water concentration before resaturation.

  20. Passive recruitment of circulating leukocytes into capillary sprouts from existing capillaries in a microfluidic system.

    PubMed

    Forouzan, Omid; Burns, Jennie M; Robichaux, Jennifer L; Murfee, Walter L; Shevkoplyas, Sergey S

    2011-06-07

    Recent evidence implicating leukocytes in angiogenesis raises the question of whether leukocytes and other cells circulating with the blood in microvascular networks can home to capillary sprouts intraluminally. This study describes an investigation of leukocyte trafficking in sprouting capillaries fabricated using soft lithography. The leukocytes passing with whole blood through existing capillaries were able to enter microfabricated capillary sprouts of variable length and sprouting angle due to the mechanical interaction with red blood cells (RBCs) at the sprouting bifurcation, in spite of the complete absence of blood flow through the blind-ended sprouts or any chemoattractants. The RBCs formed "comet tails" (the densely packed cellular trains forming behind leukocytes as they move through narrow capillaries) and effectively pushed leukocytes into the microfabricated sprouts while bypassing them at the sprouting bifurcation. Individual sprouts filled with several leukocytes, as wells as RBCs and platelets, were observed. The results of this study suggest that (i) blood cells are likely present in capillary sprouts throughout their development, (ii) leukocytes and other circulating cells may use this mechanism to home to capillary sprouts intraluminally for direct engraftment, and (iii) tissues may use this phenomenon as another mechanism for local recruitment of leukocytes from the blood stream.

  1. Antimicrobial action of synthetic peptides towards wine spoilage yeasts.

    PubMed

    Enrique, María; Marcos, Jose F; Yuste, María; Martínez, Mireia; Vallés, Salvador; Manzanares, Paloma

    2007-09-30

    The antimicrobial action of selected short synthetic peptides against wine spoilage yeasts such as Cryptococcus albidus, Dekkera bruxellensis, Pichia membranifaciens, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Zygosaccharomyces bailii and Zygosaccharomyces bisporus has been examined. Peptides analyzed include nine sequence-related antifungal hexapeptides (PAFs) previously developed by a combinatorial approach, and two representative lactoferricin B (LfcinB)-derived peptides. Different peptides had distinct activity profiles. In vitro assays identified the peptides PAF26, PAF36, and LfcinB(17-31), as having growth inhibitory properties towards several of the yeasts at low micromolar concentrations. Z. bailii and Z. bisporus were the most sensitive yeasts. In addition to their fungistatic activity, the three peptides showed fungicidal properties towards Z. bailii, Z. bisporus, and S. cerevisiae in laboratory growth medium. Remarkably, only LfcinB(17-31) against Z. bisporus had inhibitory and fungicidal properties in wine at the concentrations assayed, showing that the antimicrobial action of each peptide is dependent on both the food matrix and the target micro-organism. Lack of fungicidal activity of peptides against Z. bailii in wine is related to the presence of salt ions other than divalent cations. On the contrary, fungicidal activity of LfcinB(17-31) towards Z. bisporus was not significantly affected by wine salts. Our data identify a bioactive peptide from natural origin with potential use against the food spoilage yeast Z. bisporus, and indicate that the application of antimicrobial peptides in wine preservation deserves further investigation.

  2. Molecular characterization of lactic acid populations associated with wine spoilage.

    PubMed

    Beneduce, L; Spano, G; Vernile, A; Tarantino, D; Massa, S

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated the prevalence of spoilage lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in table wines produced in the Apulia region. The occurrence of LAB was evaluated in wines produced with low sulphur dioxide doses and not supplemented with selected malolactic starters such as Oenococcus oeni. About 150 strains were isolated from wine must and a molecular characterization was performed using PCR-based techniques. Most of the strains analysed belonged to Lactobacillus plantarum species. However, some of the strains were identified as Pediococcus damnosus and Leuconostoc sp. The amplified fragments of Pediococcus damnosus were cloned and sequenced. The coding sequence was highly homologous to that of the ropy plasmid confirming that the isolated strain was a ropy(+) Pediococcus damnosus. In all the samples analysed, the final must pH value reached was relatively high (from 3.78 to 3.90). The high pH values had probably negatively influenced (counteracted) the activity of sulphur dioxide added, allowing proliferation of spoilage wine microorganisms.

  3. Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Sprouting Angiogenesis: Proteases Pave the Way.

    PubMed

    Laurenzana, A; Fibbi, G; Margheri, F; Biagioni, A; Luciani, C; Del Rosso, M; Chillà, A

    2015-01-01

    Sprouting angiogenesis consists of the expansion and remodelling of existing vessels, where the vascular sprouts connect each other to form new vascular loops. Endothelial Progenitor Cells (EPCs) are a subtype of stem cells, with high proliferative potential, able to differentiate into mature Endothelial Cells (ECs) during the neovascularization process. In addition to this direct structural role EPCs improve neovascularization, also secreting numerous pro-angiogenic factors able to enhance the proliferation, survival and function of mature ECs, and other surrounding progenitor cells. While sprouting angiogenesis by mature ECs involves resident ECs, the vasculogenic contribution of EPCs is a high hurdle race. Bone marrowmobilized EPCs have to detach from the stem cell niche, intravasate into bone marrow vessels, reach the hypoxic area or tumour site, extravasate and incorporate into the new vessel lumen, thus complementing the resident mature ECs in sprouting angiogenesis. The goal of this review is to highlight the role of the main protease systems able to control each of these steps. The pivotal protease systems here described, involved in vascular patterning in sprouting angiogenesis, are the matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs), the serineproteinases urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) associated with its receptor (uPAR) and receptorassociated plasminogen/plasmin, the neutrophil elastase and the cathepsins. Since angiogenesis plays a critical role not only in physiological but also in pathological processes, such as in tumours, controlling the contribution of EPCs to the angiogenic process, through the regulation of the protease systems involved, could yield new opportunities for the therapeutic prospect of efficient control of pathological angiogenesis.

  4. Analysis of variation for white mold resistance in the BeanCAP snap bean panel

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    White mold disease caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Lib. de Bary, is one of the most devastated diseases that infect snap and dry beans (Miklas et al. 2013). The USDA-NIFA supported Bean Coordinated Agricultural Project (CAP) has assembled and genotyped dry and a snap bean panels. The snap bean pa...

  5. Healthy food trends -- beans and legumes

    MedlinePlus

    ... large, fleshy, colorful plant seeds. Beans, peas, and lentils are all types of legumes. Vegetables such as ... in healthy diets and have many benefits. Beans, lentils, and peas come in many options, cost little ...

  6. [Determination of chlorinated hydrocarbons in coffee beans].

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, Jolanta; Czyrska, Regina; Wieczorek, Zbigniew; Smoczyńska, Krystyna

    2002-01-01

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons (gamma-HCH, DDT and their analogous metabolites) were determined in coffee beans. Four sorts of green coffee beans and 18 sorts of burnt coffee beans were used in the research. The method was based on extraction of fat and its destruction with concentrated sulphuric acid. Chlorinated hydrocarbons were extracted with n-hexane, separated and quantitatively determined by gas chromatography. The presence of chlorinated hydrocarbons was detected in green coffee beans and, in smaller quantities, in burnt coffee beans. The concentration of chlorinated hydrocarbons was lower in medium and darkly burnt coffee beans than lightly burnt coffee. The level of DDT and its metabolites in final product decreased after coffee burning at higher temperatures. After brewing the grind coffee beans the remains of chlorinated hydrocarbons were detected in coffee-grounds at concentration to those found in coffee beans. Drinking of natural coffee does not influence an increase of intake the chlorinated hydrocarbons by human beings.

  7. Growth characteristics and biofilm formation of various spoilage bacteria isolated from fresh produce.

    PubMed

    Bae, Young-Min; Zheng, Ling; Hyun, Jeong-Eun; Jung, Kyu-Seok; Heu, Sunggi; Lee, Sun-Young

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the characteristics of spoilage bacteria isolated from fresh produce including growth at various temperatures, biofilm formation, cell hydrophobicity, and colony spreading. The number of spoilage bacteria present when stored at 35 °C was significantly greater than when stored at lower temperatures, and maximum population size was achieved after 10 h. However, Bacillus pumilus, Dickeya zeae, Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. Carotovorum Pcc21, and Bacillus pumilus (RDA-R) did not grow at the storage temperature of 5 °C. The biofilm formation by Clavibacter michiganensis, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, and A. calcoaceticus (RDA-R) are higher than other spoilage bacteria. Biofilm formation showed low correlation between hydrophobicity, and no significant correlation with colony spreading. These results might be used for developing safe storage guidelines for fresh produce at various storage temperatures, and could be basic information on the growth characteristics and biofilm formation properties of spoilage bacteria from fresh produce. Growth of spoilage bacteria was different depending on the bacteria strains and storage temperature. Between biofilm formation and cell hydrophobicity was low correlation on spoilage bacteria. Therefore, growth characteristics and biofilm formation of spoilage bacteria might be used for developing safe storage guidelines for fresh produce at various storage temperatures. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. 46 CFR 148.235 - Castor beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Castor beans. 148.235 Section 148.235 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.235 Castor beans. (a) This part applies only to the stowage and transportation of whole castor beans. Castor meal, castor...

  9. 46 CFR 148.235 - Castor beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Castor beans. 148.235 Section 148.235 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.235 Castor beans. (a) This part applies only to the stowage and transportation of whole castor beans. Castor meal, castor...

  10. 46 CFR 148.235 - Castor beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Castor beans. 148.235 Section 148.235 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.235 Castor beans. (a) This part applies only to the stowage and transportation of whole castor beans. Castor meal, castor...

  11. 46 CFR 148.235 - Castor beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Castor beans. 148.235 Section 148.235 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.235 Castor beans. (a) This part applies only to the stowage and transportation of whole castor beans. Castor meal, castor...

  12. Registration of ‘Krimson’ cranberry bean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cranberry is an important dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) market class grown in the United States and Canada. Beet curly top virus (BCTV) plagues cranberry bean production in the western U.S. (CA, ID, OR, WA). ‘Krimson’ (Reg. No. CV PI 663911 ) cranberry bean released by the USDA-ARS in 2009, ...

  13. Phytohemagglutination Activity in Extruded Dry Bean Powder

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dry beans are a highly nutritious food. Besides making beans palatable, cooking is required to denature lectin, a protein found in beans. If consumed raw or undercooked, lectin poisoning can occur. Symptoms of lectin poisoning include vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain, and occur within hours of...

  14. Cacao bean shell poisoning in a dog.

    PubMed

    Drolet, R; Arendt, T D; Stowe, C M

    1984-10-15

    Cacao bean shells contain potentially toxic quantities of theobromine, a xanthine compound similar in effects to caffeine and theophylline. A dog, which ingested a lethal quantity of garden mulch made from cacao bean shells, developed severe convulsions and died 17 hours later. Analysis of the stomach contents and the ingested cacao bean shells revealed the presence of lethal amounts of theobromine.

  15. Lactic acid bacteria and their controversial role in fresh meat spoilage.

    PubMed

    Pothakos, Vasileios; Devlieghere, Frank; Villani, Francesco; Björkroth, Johanna; Ercolini, Danilo

    2015-11-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) constitute a heterogeneous group that has been widely associated with fresh meat and cooked meat products. They represent a controversial cohort of microbial species that either contribute to spoilage through generation of offensive metabolites and the subsequent organoleptic downgrading of meat or serve as bioprotective agents with strains of certain species causing unperceivable or no alterations. Therefore, significant distinction among biotypes is substantiated by studies determining spoilage potential as a strain-specific trait corroborating the need to revisit the concept of spoilage.

  16. Advances in the control of wine spoilage by Zygosaccharomyces and Dekkera/Brettanomyces.

    PubMed

    Zuehlke, J M; Petrova, B; Edwards, C G

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the characteristics of yeast spoilage, as well as the available control technologies, is vital to producing consistent, high-quality wine. Zygosaccharomyces bailii contamination may result in refermentation and CO2 production in sweet wines or grape juice concentrate, whereas Brettanomyces bruxellensis spoilage often contributes off-odors and flavors to red wines. Early detection of these yeasts by selective/differential media or genetic methods is important to minimize potential spoilage. More established methods of microbial control include sulfur dioxide, dimethyl dicarbonate, and filtration. Current research is focused on the use of chitosan, pulsed electric fields, low electric current, and ultrasonics as means to protect wine quality.

  17. Repeated quick hot-and-chilling treatments for the inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in mung bean and radish seeds.

    PubMed

    Bari, Md Latiful; Sugiyama, Jun; Kawamoto, Shinnichi

    2009-01-01

    The majority of the seed sprout-related outbreaks have been associated with Escherichia coli O157:H7. Therefore, it is necessary to find an effective method to inactivate these organisms on the seeds prior to sprouting. This study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of repeated quick hot-and-chilling treatments with various chemicals to inactivate E. coli O157:H7 populations inoculated onto mung bean and radish seeds intended for sprout production and to determine the effect of these treatments on seed germination. The treatment time was 20 sec for quick hot and 20 sec for quick chilling in one repeat. Likewise up to five repeats were done throughout the experiments. The chemicals used for this study were electrolyzed acidic (EO) water, phytic acid (0.05%), oxalic acid (3%), surfcera(R), and alpha-torino water(R), and distilled water was used as control. The quick hot treatment was done with 75 degrees C, 70 degrees C, and 60 degrees C, and the chilling temperature was 0 degrees C. The treated seeds were then assessed for the efficacy of this treatment in reducing populations of the pathogens and the effects of repeated quick hot-and-chilling treatments on germination yield. It was found that repeating treatment at 75 degrees C for two or three repeats with phytic acid and oxalic acid could reduce 4.38-log colony-forming unit (CFU)/g of E. coli O157:H7 in mung bean seeds. EO water and distilled water were found equally effective at 75 degrees C for four or five repeats to inactivate E. coli O157:H7 in mung bean seeds. However, alpha-torino water(R) and surfcera(R) were not found effective in comparison to other sanitizers used in this experiment. Irrespective of sanitizer used, the germination yield of the mung bean seed was not affected significantly. On the other hand, distilled water, EO water, and alpha-torino water(R) at 75 degrees C for five repeats were found effective in reducing 5.80-log CFU/g of E. coli O157:H7 in radish seeds; however, the

  18. Infection with Rhizoctonia solani induces defense genes and systemic resistance in potato sprouts grown without light.

    PubMed

    Lehtonen, M J; Somervuo, P; Valkonen, J P T

    2008-11-01

    Rhizoctonia solani is an important soilborne and seedborne fungal pathogen of potato (Solanum tuberosum). The initial infection of sprouts prior to emergence causes lesions and may be lethal to the sprout or sprout tip, which results in initiation and compensatory growth of new sprouts. They emerge successfully and do not suffer significant damage. The mechanism behind this recovery phenomenon is not known. It was hypothesized that infection may induce pathogen defense in sprouts, which was investigated in the present study. Tubers were sprouted in cool and moist conditions in darkness to mimic conditions beneath soil. The basal portion of the sprout was isolated from the apical portion with a soft plastic collar and inoculated with highly virulent R. solani. Induction of defense-related responses was monitored in the apical portion using microarray and quantitative polymerase chain reaction techniques at 48 and 120 h postinoculation (hpi) and by challenge-inoculation with R. solani in two experiments. Differential expression of 122 and 779 genes, including many well-characterized defense-related genes, was detected at 48 and 120 hpi, respectively. The apical portion of the sprout also expressed resistance which inhibited secondary infection of the sprouts. The observed systemic induction of resistance in sprouts upon infection with virulent R. solani provides novel information about pathogen defense in potato before the plant emerges and becomes photosynthetically active. These results advance our understanding of the little studied subject of pathogen defense in subterranean parts of plants.

  19. Differences in Growth of Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on Alfalfa Sprouts

    PubMed Central

    Charkowski, A. O.; Barak, J. D.; Sarreal, C. Z.; Mandrell, R. E.

    2002-01-01

    Sprout producers have recently been faced with several Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreaks. Many of the outbreaks have been traced to sprout seeds contaminated with low levels of human pathogens. Alfalfa seeds were inoculated with S. enterica and E. coli O157:H7 strains isolated from alfalfa seeds or other environmental sources and sprouted to examine growth of these human pathogens in association with sprouting seeds. S. enterica strains grew an average of 3.7 log10 on sprouting seeds over 2 days, while E. coli O157:H7 strains grew significantly less, an average of 2.3 log10. The initial S. enterica or E. coli O157:H7 inoculum dose and seed-sprouting temperature significantly affected the levels of both S. enterica and E. coli O157:H7 on the sprouts and in the irrigation water, while the frequency of irrigation water replacement affected only the levels of E. coli O157:H7. Colonization of sprouting alfalfa seeds by S. enterica serovar Newport and E. coli O157:H7 strains transformed with a plasmid encoding the green fluorescent protein was examined with fluorescence microscopy. Salmonella serovar Newport colonized both seed coats and sprout roots as aggregates, while E. coli O157:H7 colonized only sprout roots. PMID:12039774

  20. Spoilage fungi and their mycotoxins in commercially marketed chestnuts.

    PubMed

    Overy, David P; Seifert, Keith A; Savard, Marc E; Frisvad, Jens C

    2003-11-15

    A nationwide survey was carried out to assess mould spoilage of Castanea sativa nuts sold in Canadian grocery stores in 1998-99. Morphological and cultural characters, along with secondary metabolite profiles derived from thin-layer chromatography, were used to sort and identify fungi cultured from nut tissue. Three mycotoxigenic fungi dominated (Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium glabrum/spinulosum and Penicillium discolor) and were isolated at frequencies of 67.1%, 18.6% and 17.7%, respectively, from a total sample size of 350 nuts. Another mycotoxin producer, Aspergillus ochraceus was also isolated, but at a much lower frequency. HPLC and diode array detection were used to confirm the suspected presence of the mycotoxins penitrem A, chaetoglobosin A and C, emodin and ochratoxin A in extracts prepared from naturally infected nut tissue. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time emodin has been found in a naturally contaminated food source.

  1. The transcriptome of common bean: nodules to beans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) is one of the most important grain legumes for direct human consumption. It comprises 50% of the grain legumes consumed worldwide and is important as a primary source of dietary protein in developing countries. We performed next generation sequencing (RNAseq) on five...

  2. Hibernating myocardium results in partial sympathetic denervation and nerve sprouting

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Stanley F.; Ovchinnikov, Vladislav; Canty, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Hibernating myocardium due to chronic repetitive ischemia is associated with regional sympathetic nerve dysfunction and spontaneous arrhythmic death in the absence of infarction. Although inhomogeneity in regional sympathetic innervation is an acknowledged substrate for sudden death, the mechanism(s) responsible for these abnormalities in viable, dysfunctional myocardium (i.e., neural stunning vs. sympathetic denervation) and their association with nerve sprouting are unknown. Accordingly, markers of sympathetic nerve function and nerve sprouting were assessed in subendocardial tissue collected from chronically instrumented pigs with hibernating myocardium (n = 18) as well as sham-instrumented controls (n = 7). Hibernating myocardium exhibited evidence of partial sympathetic denervation compared with the normally perfused region and sham controls, with corresponding regional reductions in tyrosine hydroxylase protein (−32%, P < 0.001), norepinephrine uptake transport protein (−25%, P = 0.01), and tissue norepinephrine content (−45%, P < 0.001). Partial denervation induced nerve sprouting with regional increases in nerve growth factor precursor protein (31%, P = 0.01) and growth associated protein-43 (38%, P < 0.05). All of the changes in sympathetic nerve markers were similar in animals that developed sudden death (n = 9) compared with electively terminated pigs with hibernating myocardium (n = 9). In conclusion, sympathetic nerve dysfunction in hibernating myocardium is most consistent with partial sympathetic denervation and is associated with regional nerve sprouting. The extent of sympathetic remodeling is similar in animals that develop sudden death compared with survivors; this suggests that sympathetic remodeling in hibernating myocardium is not an independent trigger for sudden death. Nevertheless, sympathetic remodeling likely contributes to electrical instability in combination with other factors. PMID:23125211

  3. Grape and apple wines volatile fermentation products and possible relation to spoilage.

    PubMed

    Polychroniadou, E; Kanellaki, M; Iconomopoulou, M; Koutinas, A A; Marchant, R; Banat, I M

    2003-05-01

    The main volatile by-products of the alcoholic fermentation of grape wine, cider and apple pulp wine were investigated to determine if any correlated with spoilage resistance in the latter two. Spoilage was visually detected after seven days in low-alcohol grape wine in comparison to 11 and 16 days in cider and apple pulp wine, respectively. Acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, methanol, propanol, isobutanol and amyl alcohols were the main fermentation by-products detected in all three wines. There were highest concentrations of acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, methanol and propanol in grape wine and, therefore, these by-products could not be implicated in spoilage resistance in apple wines. Increased concentrations of isobutanol and amyl alcohols, however, in cider and apple pulp wine in comparison to grape wine might have been the reason for spoilage resistance in the apple wines.

  4. Lactobacilli and tartrazine as causative agents of red-color spoilage in cucumber pickle products.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Díaz, I M; Kelling, R E; Hale, S; Breidt, F; McFeeters, R F

    2007-09-01

    The cucumber pickling industry has sporadically experienced spoilage outbreaks in pickled cucumber products characterized by development of red color on the surface of the fruits. Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus paracasei were isolated from 2 outbreaks of this spoilage that occurred about 15 y apart during the last 3 decades. Both organisms were shown to produce this spoilage when inoculated into pickled cucumbers while concomitantly degrading the azo dye tartrazine (FD&C yellow nr 5). This food dye is used as a yellow coloring in the brine cover solutions of commercial pickled cucumber products. The red color does not occur in the absence of tartrazine, nor when turmeric is used as a yellow coloring in the pickles. Addition of sodium benzoate to the brine cover solutions of a pickled cucumber product, more specifically hamburger dill pickles, prevented growth of these lactic acid bacteria and the development of the red spoilage.

  5. Analyzing Strawberry Spoilage via its Volatile Compounds Using Longpath Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Daming; Zhao, Chunjiang; Zheng, Wengang; Wang, Wenzhong; Zhao, Xiande; Jiao, Leizi

    2013-01-01

    The volatile compounds from fruits vary based on the spoilage stage. We used FTIR spectroscopy to analyze and to attempt to identify the spoilage process of strawberries. To enhance the sensitivity of the measuring system, we increased the optical pathlength by using multi-reflecting mirrors. The volatile compounds that were vaporized from strawberries in different spoilage stages were tested. We analyzed the spectra and found that the concentrations of esters, alcohols, ethylene, and similar compounds changed with deterioration. The change patterns of the infrared spectra for the volatiles were further examined using 2D correlation spectroscopy. We analyzed the spectral data using PCA and were able to distinguish the fresh, slightly spoiled strawberries from the seriously spoiled strawberries. This study demonstrates that FTIR is an effective tool for monitoring strawberry spoilage and for providing status alerts. PMID:24002611

  6. Bioavailability and new biomarkers of cruciferous sprouts consumption.

    PubMed

    Baenas, Nieves; Suárez-Martínez, Clara; García-Viguera, Cristina; Moreno, Diego A

    2017-10-01

    The evaluation of the bioavailability of bioactive compounds from cruciferous foods is one challenge in the design of clinical trials for studying their functionality. Currently, studies of bioavailability are mainly based of the analysis of total isothiocyanates and indoles, and sulforaphane metabolites after broccoli consumption. However, as far as we are aware, there are not any biomarkers studied or established for the intake of radish sprouts. In this work, a 7-days-cross-over study with fourteen women was undertaken to compare the bioavailability of glucosinolates from broccoli and radish sprouts. The urinary excretion of isothiocyanates, indoles and their metabolites was analysed by UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS. For the first time, sulforaphene, sulforaphane-N-acetyl-l-cysteine (SFN-NAC) and 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM), were studied as biomarkers of dietary exposure to radish. The SFN-NAC and DIM were already considered biomarkers of broccoli consumption. Higher excretion of conjugated isothiocyanates and constant excretion of indoles were found during the first 12h after ingestion. Metabolites were excreted homogeneously during the study, suggesting no accumulation. The different urinary biomarker profiles provided new information to distinguish between the consumption of broccoli or radish sprouts. The results provide valuable information to better understand the bioavailability of cruciferous bioactives. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Effects of sulfur fertilization on the accumulation of health-promoting phytochemicals in radish sprouts.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chenguang; Zhu, Yi; Luo, Yunbo

    2013-08-07

    The effects of sulfur fertilization on the growth profile, the contents of glucosinolates, anthocyanins, vitamin C, carotenoids, chlorophylls, total phenolics, and the FRAP value in radish seeds and sprouts were investigated. The concentrations of glucosinolates and antioxidants in sprouts were strongly influenced by the process of germination. Sulfur fertilization induced significant increases in the contents of individual glucosinolates, carotenoids, chlorophylls, and total phenolics. The phenolic contents in sprouts cultivated using 20, 60, or 100 mg/L sulfate were 20.7%, 40.4%, and 40.8% higher, respectively, than those of 7-day-old control sprouts. No detectable effects were observed on the contents of 4-methoxy-glucobrassicin and vitamin C. In addition, the accumulation of anthocyanins in 7-day-old sprouts decreased by 14.8-39.3% upon sulfur fertilization. These findings indicated that the application of sulfur fertilization has the potential to enhance the levels of health-promoting compounds in radish sprouts.

  8. Genetic characterization and specific detection of beer-spoilage Lactobacillus sp. LA2 and related strains.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, K; Koyanagi, M; Yamashita, H

    2004-01-01

    Lactobacillus sp. LA2 (DSM15502) and related strains (LA2 group) possess strong beer-spoilage ability. The 16S rDNA sequence of LA2 strain is virtually indistinguishable from that of L. collinoides, generally considered to be nonbeer-spoilage bacteria. The aim of this study was to identify the genetic marker to distinguish between Lactobacillus sp. LA2 group and L. collinoides and to provide a rapid means of identifying beer-spoilage strains belonging to Lactobacillus sp. LA2 group. The 16-23S rDNA intergenic spacer (ITS) regions of Lactobacillus sp. LA2 and L. collinoides JCM1123T were sequenced to identify a genetic marker to distinguish between the two groups. As a result, 300 and 500 bp ITS regions of Lactobacillus sp. LA2 were found to be almost identical with those of L. collinoides JCM1123T. Sequence comparison analysis between Lactobacillus sp. LA2 and L. collinoides JCM1123T revealed that the two contiguously located nucleotides are absent in both ITS regions of Lactobacillus sp. LA2. Based on the sequence difference, we have designed specific PCR primers with a minor modification to the primer sequence that can differentiate between beer-spoilage Lactobacillus sp. LA2 group and nonbeer-spoilage L. collinoides. The PCR-based method has been developed to identify Lactobacillus sp. LA2 group, providing a rapid and sensitive means of determining the beer-spoilage ability of detected bacterial strains. The substitution of one nucleotide, located at the third position to the 3'-end in the primer sequence, enhanced the specificity of the PCR method while retaining sufficient sensitivity. The nucleotide gap identified in this study appeared to serve as a useful genetic marker that can differentiate 12 beer-spoilage Lactobacillus sp. LA2 group strains from its close relatives that exhibit no beer-spoilage ability.

  9. Starch characteristics of bean extrudates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are one of the significant sources of food in the world. They are a rich source of carbohydrates (28-35%), even though they are better known for proteins (23-27%), fiber (2-5%), and minerals (4.21-5.17%). United States is the sixth-leading producer of dry edible...

  10. Environmental factors during seed development and their influence on pre-harvest sprouting in wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciha, A. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The problem of pre-harvest sprouting of wheat is surveyed and a literature review of the effects of environmental conditions on pre-harvest sprouting is presenting. Physiological, biochemical, and morphological changes occurring within the wheat seed during germination, harvest, and storage are discussed. The effects of moisture, humidity, and temperature, particularly on seed dormancy, are considered. Procedures used in Europe for predicting the potential for sprouting are evaluated.

  11. Effects of storage conditions on sprouting of microtubers of yam (Dioscorea cayenensis-D. rotundata complex).

    PubMed

    Ovono, Paul Ondo; Kevers, Claire; Dommes, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    The control of field tuber dormancy in the yam (Dioscorea cayenensis-D. rotundata complex) is poorly understood. Although studies have examined single environmental factors and chemical treatments that might prolong tuber dormancy and storage, only a few were focused on further tuber sprouting. The present study concerns microtubers obtained by in vitro culture. When microtubers were harvested (after 9 months of culture) and directly transferred on a new medium without hormones, the tubers rapidly sprouted in in vitro conditions. No dormancy was observed in this case. Harvested microtubers were also stored dry in jars in sterile conditions during 2 to 18 weeks before in vitro sprouting. In this case, microtubers stored during 18 weeks sprouted more rapidly than those stored 8 weeks. A constant "dormancy-like period" (storage duration+sprouting delay) was observed, between 20 and 28 weeks respectively for the more rapid and the slower microtubers. The size of the tubers used for the storage had great influence on further sprouting. The larger they were, the better they sprouted. Light during storage had no effect on the sprouting delay while a temperature of 25 degrees C permit a quicker sprouting than 18 degrees C. The medium used to obtain microtubers could also have an effect on sprouting rate. Ex vitro sprouting was not a problem. There was a delay in sprouting in contrast to in vitro conditions but the rate of 100% was kept. This fact is very important for an agronomical application of this technique to the production of "seeds" directly usable in the field or after culture in the greenhouse.

  12. Prevention of Yeast Spoilage in Feed and Food by the Yeast Mycocin HMK

    PubMed Central

    Lowes, K. F.; Shearman, C. A.; Payne, J.; MacKenzie, D.; Archer, D. B.; Merry, R. J.; Gasson, M. J.

    2000-01-01

    The yeast Williopsis mrakii produces a mycocin or yeast killer toxin designated HMK; this toxin exhibits high thermal stability, high pH stability, and a broad spectrum of activity against other yeasts. We describe construction of a synthetic gene for mycocin HMK and heterologous expression of this toxin in Aspergillus niger. Mycocin HMK was fused to a glucoamylase protein carrier, which resulted in secretion of biologically active mycocin into the culture media. A partial purification protocol was developed, and a comparison with native W. mrakii mycocin showed that the heterologously expressed mycocin had similar physiological properties and an almost identical spectrum of biological activity against a number of yeasts isolated from silage and yoghurt. Two food and feed production systems prone to yeast spoilage were used as models to assess the ability of mycocin HMK to act as a biocontrol agent. The onset of aerobic spoilage in mature maize silage was delayed by application of A. niger mycocin HMK on opening because the toxin inhibited growth of the indigenous spoilage yeasts. This helped maintain both higher lactic acid levels and a lower pH. In yoghurt spiked with dairy spoilage yeasts, A. niger mycocin HMK was active at all of the storage temperatures tested at which yeast growth occurred, and there was no resurgence of resistant yeasts. The higher the yeast growth rate, the more effective the killing action of the mycocin. Thus, mycocin HMK has potential applications in controlling both silage spoilage and yoghurt spoilage caused by yeasts. PMID:10698773

  13. The spoilage microflora of cured, cooked turkey breasts prepared commercially with or without smoking.

    PubMed

    Samelis, J; Kakouri, A; Rementzis, J

    2000-06-01

    Lactobacillus sakei subsp. carnosus was predominant in the spoilage flora of sliced, vacuum-packed, smoked, oven-cooked turkey breast fillets which developed mild, sour spoilage flavors after 4 weeks storage at 4 degrees C. In contrast, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides predominated in the spoilage flora of sliced, vacuum-packed, unsmoked, boiled turkey breast fillets from the same plant which were also stored at 4 degrees C. The spoilage flora of the unsmoked breasts grew faster than that of the smoked breasts and was more diverse. Lactobacillus sakei, Weissella viridescens and an atypical group of leuconostoc-like bacteria were also members of the unsmoked turkey breasts flora. Consequently, the unsmoked breasts spoiled after 2 weeks at 4 degrees C: the packs swelled and the meat developed strong sour odors and flavors and abundant slime. Except for the unidentified leuconostocs, which apparently survived boiling of the unsmoked turkey, all the spoilage organisms contaminated the meats during the slicing and vacuum packaging operations. From their biochemical reactions and cellular fatty acid profiles, the atypical leuconostocs were more closely related to Leuconostoc carnosum than W. viridescens. Carnobacteria and Brochothrix thermosphacta were present in relatively large numbers on the raw turkey, but were not numerous in the spoilage flora of the cooked, vacuum-packed meat products.

  14. Genetic marker for differentiating beer-spoilage ability of Lactobacillus paracollinoides strains.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, K; Ozaki, K; Yamashita, H

    2004-01-01

    To determine whether the beer-spoilage ability is an intrinsic character of Lactobacillus paracollinoides and identify a genetic marker for differentiating the beer-spoilage ability of strains belonging to this species. The ribotype of a nonspoilage strain, Lact. brevis ATCC8291, was found to be identical with that of Lact. paracollinoides LA7. The 16S rDNA sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization study indicates that nonspoilage ATCC8291 should belong to Lact. paracollinoides. We further isolated nonspoilage variants from Lact. paracollinoides LA2(T) and LA9 by incubating these strains at 30 degrees C. To identify a genetic marker for differentiating the beer-spoilage ability of Lact. paracollinoides, open reading frames 5 (ORF5), the previously reported genetic marker for Lact. brevis, was evaluated. As a result, ORF5 homologues were detected in all of the 12 beer-spoilage strains of Lact. paracollinoides, while this ORF was not found in ATCC8291 or the two nonspoilage variants obtained from LA2(T) and LA9. Lactobacillus paracollinoides is not an intrinsic beer-spoiler and the nonspoilage strain Lact. brevis ATCC8291 should be reclassified as Lact. paracollinoides. ORF5 was found to be useful for differentiating beer-spoilage ability of this species. The finding that Lact. paracollinoides includes nonspoilage strains necessitates brewers to use a genetic marker that is associated with the beer-spoilage ability of this species.

  15. Exploring lot-to-lot variation in spoilage bacterial communities on commercial modified atmosphere packaged beef.

    PubMed

    Säde, Elina; Penttinen, Katri; Björkroth, Johanna; Hultman, Jenni

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the factors influencing meat bacterial communities is important as these communities are largely responsible for meat spoilage. The composition and structure of a bacterial community on a high-O2 modified-atmosphere packaged beef product were examined after packaging, on the use-by date and two days after, to determine whether the communities at each stage were similar to those in samples taken from different production lots. Furthermore, we examined whether the taxa associated with product spoilage were distributed across production lots. Results from 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing showed that while the early samples harbored distinct bacterial communities, after 8-12 days storage at 6 °C the communities were similar to those in samples from different lots, comprising mainly of common meat spoilage bacteria Carnobacterium spp., Brochothrix spp., Leuconostoc spp. and Lactococcus spp. Interestingly, abundant operational taxonomic units associated with product spoilage were shared between the production lots, suggesting that the bacteria enable to spoil the product were constant contaminants in the production chain. A characteristic succession pattern and the distribution of common spoilage bacteria between lots suggest that both the packaging type and the initial community structure influenced the development of the spoilage bacterial community.

  16. Acute O 3 damage on first year coppice sprouts of aspen and maple sprouts in an open-air experiment.

    PubMed

    Darbah, Joseph N T; Jones, Wendy S; Burton, Andrew J; Nagy, John; Kubiske, Mark E

    2011-09-01

    We studied the effect of high ozone (O(3)) concentration (110-490 nmol mol(-1)) on regenerating aspen (Populus tremuloides) and maple (Acer saccharum) trees at an open-air O(3) pollution experiment near Rhinelander WI USA. This study is the first of its kind to examine the effects of acute O(3) exposure on aspen and maple sprouts after the parent trees, which were grown under elevated O(3) and/or CO(2) for 12 years, were harvested. Acute O(3) damage was not uniform within the crowns of aspen suckers; it was most severe in the mature, fully expanded photosynthesizing leaves. Young expanding leaves showed no visible signs of acute O(3) damage contrary to expectations. Stomatal conductance played a primary role in the severity of acute O(3) damage as it directly controlled O(3) uptake. Maple sprouts, which had lower stomatal conductance, smaller stomatal aperture, higher stomatal density and larger leaf surface area, were tolerant of acute O(3) exposure. Moreover, elevated CO(2) did not ameliorate the adverse effects of acute O(3) dose on aspen and maple sprouts, in contrast to its ability to counteract the effects of long-term chronic exposure to lower O(3) levels.

  17. Acute O3 damage on first year coppice sprouts of aspen and maple sprouts in an open-air experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Darbah, J.N.; Nagy, J.; Jones, W. S.; Burton, A. J.; Kubiske, M. E.

    2011-10-01

    We studied the effect of high ozone (O{sub 3}) concentration (110-490 nmol mol{sup -1}) on regenerating aspen (Populus tremuloides) and maple (Acer saccharum) trees at an open-air O{sub 3} pollution experiment near Rhinelander WI USA. This study is the first of its kind to examine the effects of acute O{sub 3} exposure on aspen and maple sprouts after the parent trees, which were grown under elevated O{sub 3} and/or CO{sub 2} for 12 years, were harvested. Acute O{sub 3} damage was not uniform within the crowns of aspen suckers; it was most severe in the mature, fully expanded photosynthesizing leaves. Young expanding leaves showed no visible signs of acute O{sub 3} damage contrary to expectations. Stomatal conductance played a primary role in the severity of acute O{sub 3} damage as it directly controlled O{sub 3} uptake. Maple sprouts, which had lower stomatal conductance, smaller stomatal aperture, higher stomatal density and larger leaf surface area, were tolerant of acute O{sub 3} exposure. Moreover, elevated CO{sub 2} did not ameliorate the adverse effects of acute O{sub 3} dose on aspen and maple sprouts, in contrast to its ability to counteract the effects of long-term chronic exposure to lower O{sub 3} levels.

  18. Matrix density mediates polarization and lumen formation of endothelial sprouts in VEGF gradients.

    PubMed

    Shamloo, Amir; Heilshorn, Sarah C

    2010-11-21

    Endothelial cell (EC) sprouting morphogenesis is a critical step during angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from existing conduits. Here, three-dimensional sprouting morphogenesis was examined using in vitro microfluidic devices that enabled the separate and simultaneous tuning of biomechanical and soluble biochemical stimuli. Quantitative analysis of endothelial sprout formation demonstrated that the ability of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to regulate stable sprout formation was mediated by the density of the surrounding collagen/fibronectin matrix. The coordinated migration and proliferation of multiple ECs to form stable sprouts were enhanced at intermediate matrix densities (1.2-1.9 mg ml(-1)), while lower densities resulted in uncoordinated migration (0.3-0.7 mg ml(-1)) and higher densities resulted in broad cell clusters that did not elongate (2.7 mg ml(-1)). Within the permissive range of matrix biomechanics, higher density matrices resulted in shorter, thicker, and slower-growing sprouts. The sprouts in higher density matrices also were more likely to polarize towards higher VEGF concentrations, included more cells per cross-sectional area, and demonstrated more stable lumen formation compared to sprouts in lower density matrices. These results quantitatively demonstrate that matrix density mediates VEGF-induced sprout polarization and lumen formation, potentially by regulating the balance between EC migration rate and proliferation rate.

  19. Mechanisms of vascular endothelial growth factor-induced pathfinding by endothelial sprouts in biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Shamloo, Amir; Xu, Hui; Heilshorn, Sarah

    2012-02-01

    A critical property of biomaterials for use in regenerative medicine applications is the ability to promote angiogenesis, the formation of new vascular networks, to support regenerating tissues. Recent studies have demonstrated that a complex interplay exists between biomechanical and biochemical regulators of endothelial cell sprouting, an early step in angiogenesis. Here, we use a microfluidic platform to study the pathfinding behaviors induced by various stable vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gradients during sprouting morphogenesis within biomaterials. Quantitative, time-lapse analysis of endothelial sprouting demonstrated that the ability of VEGF to regulate sprout orientation during several stages of sprouting morphogenesis (initiation, elongation, and turning navigation) was biomaterial dependent. Identical VEGF gradients induced different types of coordinated cell movements depending on the density of the surrounding collagen/fibronectin matrix. In denser matrices, sprouts were more likely to have an initial orientation aligned parallel to the VEGF gradient. In contrast, in less dense matrices, sprouts were more likely to initially misalign with the VEGF gradient; however, these sprouts underwent significant turning and navigation to eventually reorient to be parallel to the VEGF gradient. These less dense matrices required shallower VEGF gradients and demonstrated lower activating VEGF thresholds to induce proper sprout alignment and pathfinding. These results encourage the future use of microfluidic platforms to probe fundamental aspects of matrix effects on angiogenesis, to screen biomaterials for angiogenic potential, and to design ex vivo tissues with aligned vascular networks.

  20. Mechanisms of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-Induced Pathfinding by Endothelial Sprouts in Biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Shamloo, Amir; Xu, Hui

    2012-01-01

    A critical property of biomaterials for use in regenerative medicine applications is the ability to promote angiogenesis, the formation of new vascular networks, to support regenerating tissues. Recent studies have demonstrated that a complex interplay exists between biomechanical and biochemical regulators of endothelial cell sprouting, an early step in angiogenesis. Here, we use a microfluidic platform to study the pathfinding behaviors induced by various stable vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gradients during sprouting morphogenesis within biomaterials. Quantitative, time-lapse analysis of endothelial sprouting demonstrated that the ability of VEGF to regulate sprout orientation during several stages of sprouting morphogenesis (initiation, elongation, and turning navigation) was biomaterial dependent. Identical VEGF gradients induced different types of coordinated cell movements depending on the density of the surrounding collagen/fibronectin matrix. In denser matrices, sprouts were more likely to have an initial orientation aligned parallel to the VEGF gradient. In contrast, in less dense matrices, sprouts were more likely to initially misalign with the VEGF gradient; however, these sprouts underwent significant turning and navigation to eventually reorient to be parallel to the VEGF gradient. These less dense matrices required shallower VEGF gradients and demonstrated lower activating VEGF thresholds to induce proper sprout alignment and pathfinding. These results encourage the future use of microfluidic platforms to probe fundamental aspects of matrix effects on angiogenesis, to screen biomaterials for angiogenic potential, and to design ex vivo tissues with aligned vascular networks. PMID:21888475

  1. Inhibition of Salmonella typhimurium on radish sprouts using nitrogen-cold plasma.

    PubMed

    Oh, Yeong Ji; Song, A Young; Min, Sea C

    2017-05-16

    This study investigated the effects of cold plasma treatment (CPT) on the inhibition of Salmonella typhimurium on radish sprouts and the quality attributes of the sprouts. Radish sprouts were treated with nitrogen (N2)-cold plasma at 900W and 667Pa for 0, 2, 5, 10, and 20min using a microwave-powered CPT system. The sensory attributes of the radish sprouts, appearance and odor, were evaluated before and after the treatment. The effects of N2-CPT for 10min on microbial growth and the quality attributes of the radish sprouts were evaluated during storage for 12days at 4 and 10°C. N2-CPT at 900W and 667Pa for 20min reduced the number of S. typhimurium by 2.6±0.4logCFU/g. The moisture content of the radish sprouts decreased with treatment time. The appearance and odor of the radish sprouts were not altered by CPT (p>0.05) and this treatment did not affect the quality attributes of the sprouts in terms of color, ascorbic acid concentration, or antioxidant activity during storage at both 4 and 10°C. These findings suggest that CPT has the potential to improve the microbiological safety of radish sprouts with reference to S. typhimurium during cold storage without significant detriment to its quality properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A rapid and automated fiber optic-based biosensor assay for the detection of Salmonella in spent irrigation water used in the sprouting of sprout seeds.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Marianne F; Lim, Daniel V

    2004-01-01

    Recent outbreaks of foodborne illness have been linked to the consumption of contaminated sprouts. The spent irrigation water used to irrigate sprouts can carry many microorganisms, including pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. These pathogens are believed to originate from the seeds. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration recommends that sprout producers conduct microbiological testing of spent irrigation water from each production lot at least 48 h after seeds have germinated. Microbial analysis for the detection of Salmonella is labor-intensive and takes days to complete. A rapid and automated fiber-optic biosensor assay for the detection of Salmonella in sprout rinse water was developed in this study. Alfalfa seeds contaminated with various concentrations of Salmonella Typhimurium were sprouted. The spent irrigation water was assayed 67 h after alfalfa seed germination with the RAPTOR (Research International, Monroe, Wash.), an automated fiber optic-based detector. Salmonella Typhimurium could be positively identified in spent irrigation water when seeds were contaminated with 50 CFU/g. Viable Salmonella Typhimurium cells were also recovered from the waveguides after the assay. This biosensor assay system has the potential to be directly connected to water lines within the sprout-processing facility and to operate automatically, requiring manual labor only for preventative maintenance. Therefore, the presence of Salmonella Typhimurium in spent irrigation water could be continuously and rapidly detected 3 to 5 days before the completion of the sprouting process.

  3. Protein Quality of Irradiated Brazilian Beans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna-Lucia C. H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    1998-06-01

    Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil. However, high losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. To combat these losses, radiation processing of beans offers promise as an alternative to chemical treatment, provided the nutritional quality of beans is not impaired by the radiation treatment. Conflicting results have been published about the effect of radiation on the biological value of legume proteins. Therefore, two varieties of Brazilian beans were studied: 1) Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and 2) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macaçar. The beans were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. Since irradiated beans will be consumed after appropriate storage, the beans under study were stored for 6 months at ambient temperature. Protein quality was measured by a biological assay employing the nitrogen balance approach in weanling rats. The animals were fed with optimally cooked beans, which were the only source of protein (˜10%). Nitrogen contents of legumes, diets, animal urine and faeces were determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The indices for apparent protein quality: net protein utilisation, digestibility and biological value were not influenced by irradiation. Thus, radiation treatment of Brazilian beans offers considerable promise as an effective insect disinfection process, without impairing the biological quality of the valuable bean protein.

  4. Intercropping Corn with Lablab bean, Velvet Bean, and Scarlet Runner Bean for Forage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Low crude protein (CP) concentration in corn (Zea mays L.) forage is its major limitation in dairy rations. This experiment was designed to determine if intercropping corn with climbing beans is a viable option to increase CP concentration in forage rather than purchasing costly CP supplements for ...

  5. 76 FR 16700 - Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya Into the United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD39 Importation of French Beans and... regulations to allow the importation of French beans and runner beans from the Republic of Kenya into the... action would allow for the importation of French beans and runner beans from the Republic of Kenya...

  6. Reducing Salt in Raw Pork Sausages Increases Spoilage and Correlates with Reduced Bacterial Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Fougy, Lysiane; Desmonts, Marie-Hélène; Coeuret, Gwendoline; Fassel, Christine; Hamon, Erwann; Hézard, Bernard; Champomier-Vergès, Marie-Christine

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Raw sausages are perishable foodstuffs; reducing their salt content raises questions about a possible increased spoilage of these products. In this study, we evaluated the influence of salt reduction (from 2.0% to 1.5% [wt/wt]), in combination with two types of packaging (modified atmosphere [50% mix of CO2-N2] and vacuum packaging), on the onset of spoilage and on the diversity of spoilage-associated bacteria. After 21 days of storage at 8°C, spoilage was easily observed, characterized by noticeable graying of the products and the production of gas and off-odors defined as rancid, sulfurous, or sour. At least one of these types of spoilage occurred in each sample, and the global spoilage intensity was more pronounced in samples stored under modified atmosphere than under vacuum packaging and in samples with the lower salt content. Metagenetic 16S rRNA pyrosequencing revealed that vacuum-packaged samples contained a higher total bacterial richness (n = 69 operational taxonomic units [OTUs]) than samples under the other packaging condition (n = 46 OTUs). The core community was composed of 6 OTUs (Lactobacillus sakei, Lactococcus piscium, Carnobacterium divergens, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Serratia proteamaculans, and Brochothrix thermosphacta), whereas 13 OTUs taxonomically assigned to the Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcaceae, and Leuconostocaceae families comprised a less-abundant subpopulation. This subdominant community was significantly more abundant when 2.0% salt and vacuum packaging were used, and this correlated with a lower degree of spoilage. Our results demonstrate that salt reduction, particularly when it is combined with CO2-enriched packaging, promotes faster spoilage of raw sausages by lowering the overall bacterial diversity (both richness and evenness). IMPORTANCE Our study takes place in the context of raw meat product manufacturing and is linked to a requirement for salt reduction. Health guidelines are calling for a reduction in

  7. Spoilage potential of Pseudomonas species isolated from goat milk.

    PubMed

    Scatamburlo, T M; Yamazi, A K; Cavicchioli, V Q; Pieri, F A; Nero, L A

    2015-02-01

    Pseudomonas spp. are usually associated with spoilage microflora of dairy products due to their proteolytic potential. This is of particular concern for protein-based products, such as goat milk cheeses and fermented milks. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to characterize the proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. isolated from goat milk. Goat milk samples (n=61) were obtained directly from bulk tanks on dairy goat farms (n=12), and subjected to a modified International Organization for Standardization (ISO) protocol to determine the number and proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. Isolates (n=82) were obtained, identified by PCR, and subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with XbaI macro-restriction. Then, the isolates were subjected to PCR to detect the alkaline protease gene (apr), and phenotypic tests were performed to check proteolytic activity at 7°C, 25°C, and 35°C. Mean Pseudomonas spp. counts ranged from 2.9 to 4.8 log cfu/mL, and proteolytic Pseudomonas spp. counts ranged from 1.9 to 4.6 log cfu/mL. All isolates were confirmed to be Pseudomonas spp., and 41 were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens, which clustered into 5 groups sharing approximately 82% similarity. Thirty-six isolates (46.9%) were positive for the apr gene; and 57 (69.5%) isolates presented proteolytic activity at 7°C, 82 (100%) at 25°C, and 64 (78%) at 35°C. The isolates were distributed ubiquitously in the goat farms, and no relationship among isolates was observed when the goat farms, presence of apr, pulsotypes, and proteolytic activity were taken into account. We demonstrated proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. present in goat milk by phenotypic and genotypic tests and indicated their spoilage potential at distinct temperatures. Based on these findings and the ubiquity of Pseudomonas spp. in goat farm environments, proper monitoring and control of Pseudomonas spp. during production are critical.

  8. [Fungal spoilage of foods and its risk assessment].

    PubMed

    Udagawa, Shun-ichi

    2005-01-01

    From the second half of the 1990s, an increased regard has been given to the fungal spoilage of foods as follows: 1) post-harvest diseases and losses of fruits and vegetables, 2) deterioration of low water activity foods by xerophilic fungi, 3) contamination of psychrotolerant or psychrophilic fungi on foodstuffs and processed foods during storage and distribution at low temperature, and 4) spoilage of heat processed foods and soft drinks by heat-resistant fungi. In accordance with an international concern about food safety, mycotoxin contamination of foods has gained much global attention in recent times owing to its potential health hazards. The evaluation of mycotoxin hazards is principally based on the determination of a no-observed effect level (NOEL) in long-term toxicological studies, and the application of a safety factor (usually 100). In addition to hazard assessment, data on the natural occurrence of mycotoxins in various commodities and food intake data are needed to enable exposure assessment. Thus risk assessment of mycotoxins is, in fact, the product of hazard assessment and exposure assessment. In 1997, the FAO/WHO Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) considered estimates of the carcinogenic potency of aflatoxins and the potential risks associated with their intake. Recently the Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex) has established standards for aflatoxin M1 in milk and for patulin in apple juice. The Codex is an international organization, supported by FAO/WHO, aiming at facilitating world trade and protecting the health of the consumer by developing international standards for food and feeds. Apart from aflatoxins, the JECFA has measured a provisional tolerable daily intake (TDI) for ochratoxin A, patulin, deoxynivalenol, T-2/HT-2 toxins, zearalenone and fumonisins. In 2001, the mycotoxins evaluated or re-evaluated at the JECFA meeting included ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, T-2/HT-2 toxins, fumonisins, and aflatoxin M1. In Japan

  9. Contamination of salmon fillets and processing plants with spoilage bacteria.

    PubMed

    Møretrø, Trond; Moen, Birgitte; Heir, Even; Hansen, Anlaug Å; Langsrud, Solveig

    2016-11-21

    The processing environment of salmon processing plants represents a potential major source of bacteria causing spoilage of fresh salmon. In this study, we have identified major contamination routes of important spoilage associated species within the genera Pseudomonas, Shewanella and Photobacterium in pre-rigor processing of salmon. Bacterial counts and culture-independent 16S rRNA gene analysis on salmon fillet from seven processing plants showed higher levels of Pseudomonas spp. and Shewanella spp. in industrially processed fillets compared to salmon processed under strict hygienic conditions. Higher levels of Pseudomonas spp. and Shewanella spp. were found on fillets produced early on the production day compared to later processed fillets. The levels of Photobacterium spp. were not dependent on the processing method or time of processing. In follow-up studies of two plants, bacterial isolates (n=2101) from the in-plant processing environments (sanitized equipment/machines and seawater) and from salmon collected at different sites in the production were identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Pseudomonas spp. dominated in equipment/machines after sanitation with 72 and 91% of samples from the two plants being Pseudomonas-positive. The phylogenetic analyses, based on partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing, showed 48 unique sequence profiles of Pseudomonas of which two were dominant. Only six profiles were found on both machines and in fillets in both plants. Shewanella spp. were found on machines after sanitation in the slaughter department while Photobacterium spp. were not detected after sanitation in any parts of the plants. Shewanella spp. and Photobacterium spp. were found on salmon in the slaughter departments. Shewanella was frequently present in seawater tanks used for bleeding/short term storage. In conclusion, this study provides new knowledge on the processing environment as a source of contamination of salmon fillets with Pseudomonas spp. and

  10. Behavior of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 on alfalfa sprouts during the sprouting process as influenced by treatments with various chemicals.

    PubMed

    Taormina, P J; Beuchat, L R

    1999-08-01

    The behavior of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on alfalfa seeds subjected to conditions similar to those used commercially to grow and market sprouts as it is affected by applications of NaOCl, Ca(OCl)2, acidified NaClO2, acidified ClO2, Na3PO4, Vegi-Clean, Tsunami, Vortexx, or H2O2 at various stages of the sprouting process was determined. Application of 2,000 ppm of NaOCl, 200 and 2,000 ppm of Ca(OCl)2, 500 ppm of acidified ClO2, 10,000 ppm of Vegi-Clean, 80 ppm of Tsunami, or 40 and 80 ppm of Vortexx to germinated seeds significantly reduced the population of E. coli O157:H7. With the exception of acidified NaOCl2 at 1,200 ppm, spray applications of these chemicals did not significantly reduce populations or control the growth of E. coli O157:H7 on alfalfa sprouts during the sprouting process. Populations of E. coli on alfalfa sprouts peaked at 6 to 7 log10 CFU/g 48 h after initiation of the sprouting process and remained stable despite further spraying with chemicals. The population of E. coli O157:H7 on sprouts as they entered cold storage at 9 +/- 2 degrees C remained essentially unchanged for up to 6 days. None of the chemical treatments evaluated was able to eliminate or satisfactorily reduce E. coli O157:H7 on alfalfa seeds and sprouts. Observations on the ability of E. coli O157:H7 to grow during production of alfalfa sprouts not subjected to chemical treatments are similar to those from a previous study in our laboratory on the behavior of Salmonella Stanley. Our results do not reveal a chemical treatment method to eliminate the pathogen from alfalfa sprouts. We have demonstrated that currently recommended procedures for sanitizing alfalfa seeds fail to eliminate E. coli O157:H7 and that the pathogen can grow to populations exceeding 7 1og10 CFU/g of sprouts produced using techniques not dissimilar to those used in the sprout industry.

  11. Mint essential oil can induce or inhibit potato sprouting by differential alteration of apical meristem.

    PubMed

    Teper-Bamnolker, Paula; Dudai, Nativ; Fischer, Ravit; Belausov, Eduard; Zemach, Hanita; Shoseyov, Oded; Eshel, Dani

    2010-06-01

    Sprouting of potatoes during storage, due to tuber dormancy release, is associated with weight loss and softening. Sprout-preventing chemicals, such as chlorpropham (CIPC), can negatively impact the environment and human health. Monthly thermal fogging with mint (Mentha spicata L.) essential oil (MEO) inhibited sprouting in eight potato cultivars during large-volume 6-month storage: the tubers remained firm with 38% lower weight loss after 140 days of storage. The sprout-inhibitory action may be nullified: treated tubers washed with water resumed sprouting within days, with reduced apical dominance. MEO application caused local necrosis of the bud meristem, and a few weeks later, axillary bud (AX) growth was induced in the same sprouting eye. MEO components analysis showed that 73% of its content is the monoterpene R-carvone. Tubers treated with synthetic R-carvone in equivalent dose, 4.5 microl l(-1), showed an inhibitory effect similar to that of MEO. Surprisingly, 0.5 microl l(-1) of MEO or synthetic R-carvone catalyzed AX sprouting in the tuber. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an essential oil vapor inducing early sprouting of potato tubers. R-carvone caused visible damage to the meristem membrane at sprout-inhibiting, but not sprout-inducing doses, suggesting different underlying mechanisms. After 5 days' exposure to R-carvone, its derivatives transcarveol and neo-dihydrocarveol were found in buds of tubers treated with the inhibitory dose, suggesting biodegradation. These experiments demonstrate the potential of MEO vapor as an environmentally friendly alternative to CIPC in stored potatoes and as a research tool for the control of sprouting in plants.

  12. Ultrastructural features of sprouted mossy fiber synapses in kindled and kainic acid-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Cavazos, José E; Zhang, Peisu; Qazi, Romena; Sutula, Thomas P

    2003-04-07

    The mossy fiber pathway in the dentate gyrus undergoes sprouting and synaptic reorganization in response to seizures. The types of new synapses, their location and number, and the identity of their postsynaptic targets determine the functional properties of the reorganized circuitry. The goal of this study was to characterize the types and proportions of sprouted mossy fiber synapses in kindled and kainic acid-treated rats. In normal rats, synapses labeled by Timm histochemistry or dynorphin immunohistochemistry were rarely observed in the supragranular region of the inner molecular layer when examined by electron microscopy. In epileptic rats, sprouted mossy fiber synaptic terminals were frequently observed. The ultrastructural analysis of the types of sprouted synapses revealed that 1) in the supragranular region, labeled synaptic profiles were more frequently axospinous than axodendritic, and many axospinous synapses were perforated; 2) sprouted mossy fiber synaptic terminals formed exclusively asymmetric, putatively excitatory synapses with dendritic spines and shafts in the supragranular region and with the soma of granule cells in the granule cell layer; 3) in contrast to the large sprouted mossy fiber synapses in resected human epileptic hippocampus, the synapses formed by sprouted mossy fibers in rats were smaller; and 4) in several cases, the postsynaptic targets of sprouted synapses were identified as granule cells, but, in one case, a sprouted synaptic terminal formed a synapse with an inhibitory interneuron. The results demonstrate that axospinous asymmetric synapses are the most common type of synapse formed by sprouted mossy fiber terminals, supporting the viewpoint that most sprouted mossy fibers contribute to recurrent excitation in epilepsy.

  13. Accumulation of phenylpropanoids and correlated gene expression during the development of tartary buckwheat sprouts.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaohua; Thwe, Aye Aye; Park, Nam Il; Suzuki, Tatsuro; Kim, Sun Ju; Park, Sang Un

    2012-06-06

    Buckwheat sprouts are considered an excellent dietary source of phenolic compounds. The time duration and amount of light for sprouting strongly affect the nutritional quality of sprouts. In this study, these two factors were investigated in two cultivars of tartary buckwheat sprouts: Hokkai T8 and T10. The transcriptional levels of flavonoid biosynthetic genes were investigated in light/dark- and dark-treated sprouts. Among the main flavonoid biosynthesis structural genes, FtPAL, Ft4CL, FtF3H, FtDFR, and FtANS exhibited higher transcriptional levels than others as compared to that of a housekeeping gene (histone H3) during sprouting; FtF3'H1, FtF3'H2, FtFLS2, and FtANS were substantially upregulated at 2, 4, and 6 days in light/dark-treated T10 sprouts than in dark-treated ones. However, FtDFR was downregulated in 8 and 10 day old light/dark-treated sprouts of both cultivars. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed that increasing the culture time did not affect the accumulation of flavonoids or anthocyanins. However, light contributed the production of anthocyanins in Hokkai T10 sprouts. The anthocyanins included cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside, and delphinidin-3-O-coumarylglucoside, which were identified by HPLC and electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Instead of anthocyanins, Hokkai T8 sprouts produced large amounts of 4 flavonoid C-glycosylflavone compounds in both light/dark and dark conditions: orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, and isovitexin. These results indicate that these two types of tartary buckwheat sprouts have different mechanisms for flavonoid and anthocyanin biosynthesis that also vary in light/dark and dark conditions.

  14. Rapid detection and identification of beer-spoilage lactic acid bacteria by microcolony method.

    PubMed

    Asano, Shizuka; Iijima, Kazumaru; Suzuki, Koji; Motoyama, Yasuo; Ogata, Tomoo; Kitagawa, Yasushi

    2009-08-01

    We evaluated a microcolony method for the detection and identification of beer-spoilage lactic acid bacteria (LAB). In this approach, bacterial cells were trapped on a polycarbonate membrane filter and cultured on ABD medium, a medium that allows highly specific detection of beer-spoilage LAB strains. After short-time incubation, viable cells forming microcolonies were stained with carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFDA) and counted with muFinder Inspection System. In our study, we first investigated the growth behavior of various beer-spoilage LAB by traditional culture method, and Lactobacillus lindneri and several L. paracollinoides strains were selected as slow growers on ABD medium. Then the detection speeds were evaluated by microcolony method, using these slowly growing strains. As a result, all of the slowly growing beer-spoilage LAB strains were detected within 3 days of incubation. The specificity of this method was found to be exceptionally high and even discriminated intra-species differences in beer-spoilage ability of LAB strains upon detection. These results indicate that our microcolony approach allows rapid and specific detection of beer-spoilage LAB strains with inexpensive CFDA staining. For further confirmation of species status of detected strains, subsequent treatment with species-specific fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes was shown as effective for identifying the CFDA-detected microcolonies to the species level. In addition, no false-positive results arising from noise signals were recognized for CFDA staining and FISH methods. Taken together, the developed microcolony method was demonstrated as a rapid and highly specific countermeasure against beer-spoilage LAB, and compared favorably with the conventional culture methods.

  15. Selenium enrichment of broccoli sprout extract increases chemosensitivity and apoptosis of LNCaP prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Broccoli is a Brassica vegetable that is believed to possess chemopreventive properties. Selenium also shows promise as an anticancer agent. Thus, selenium enrichment of broccoli has the potential to enhance the anticancer properties of broccoli sprouts. Method Selenium-enriched broccoli sprouts were prepared using a sodium selenite solution. Their anticancer properties were evaluated in human prostate cancer cell lines and compared with those of a control broccoli sprout extract. Results Selenium-enriched broccoli sprouts were superior to normal broccoli sprouts in inhibiting cell proliferation, decreasing prostate-specific antigen secretion, and inducing apoptosis of prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, selenium-enriched broccoli sprouts but, not normal broccoli sprouts, induced a downregulation of the survival Akt/mTOR pathway. Conclusion Our results suggest that selenium-enriched broccoli sprouts could potentially be used as an alternative selenium source for prostate cancer prevention and therapy. PMID:19943972

  16. Evaluation of Probiotic Diversity from Soybean (Glycine max) Seeds and Sprouts Using Illumina-Based Sequencing Method.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yali; Zhang, Miaomiao; Deng, Zujun; Cao, Lixiang

    2017-07-24

    There is increasing interest in the use of plant probiotics as environmental-friendly and healthy biofertilizers. The study aimed at selecting for novel probiotic candidates of soybean (Glycine max). The bacteriome and mycobiome of soybean sprouts and seeds were analyzed by Illumina-based sequencing. Seeds contained more diverse bacteria than those in sprouts. The seeds contained similar fungal diversity with sprouts. Total 15 bacterial OTUs and 4 fungal OTUs were detected in seeds and sprouts simultaneously, suggesting that the sprouts contained bacterial and fungal taxa transmitted from seeds. The Halothiobacillus was the most dominant bacterial genus observed and coexisted in seeds and sprouts. The OTUs belonged to Ascomycota were the most dominant fungal taxa observed in seeds and sprouts. Halothiobacillus was firstly identified as endophytic probiotics of soybean. The results suggested that sprouts might contain diverse plant probiotics of mature plants and Illumina-based sequencing can be used to screen for probiotic candidates.

  17. Successful introgression of abiotic stress tolerance from wild tepary bean to common bean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production is severely limited due to abiotic stresses, including drought and sub-zero temperatures. Tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius Gray), a relative of common bean, has demonstrated tolerance to these stresses. Preliminary studies screening tepary accessions ...

  18. Kinetics model development of cocoa bean fermentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Gunawan, Agus Yodi; Muliyadini, Winny

    2015-12-01

    Although Indonesia is one of the biggest cocoa beans producers in the world, Indonesian cocoa beans are oftenly of low quality and thereby frequently priced low in the world market. In order to improve the quality, adequate post-harvest cocoa processing techniques are required. Fermentation is the vital stage in series of cocoa beans post harvest processing which could improve the quality of cocoa beans, in particular taste, aroma, and colours. During the fermentation process, combination of microbes grow producing metabolites that serve as the precursors for cocoa beans flavour. Microbial composition and thereby their activities will affect the fermentation performance and influence the properties of cocoa beans. The correlation could be reviewed using a kinetic model that includes unstructured microbial growth, substrate utilization and metabolic product formation. The developed kinetic model could be further used to design cocoa bean fermentation process to meet the expected quality. Further the development of kinetic model of cocoa bean fermentation also serve as a good case study of mixed culture solid state fermentation, that has rarely been studied. This paper presents the development of a kinetic model for solid-state cocoa beans fermentation using an empirical approach. Series of lab scale cocoa bean fermentations, either natural fermentations without starter addition or fermentations with mixed yeast and lactic acid bacteria starter addition, were used for model parameters estimation. The results showed that cocoa beans fermentation can be modelled mathematically and the best model included substrate utilization, microbial growth, metabolites production and its transport. Although the developed model still can not explain the dynamics in microbial population, this model can sufficiently explained the observed changes in sugar concentration as well as metabolic products in the cocoa bean pulp.

  19. Aerobic sugar metabolism in the spoilage yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii.

    PubMed

    Merico, Annamaria; Capitanio, Daniele; Vigentini, Ileana; Ranzi, Bianca Maria; Compagno, Concetta

    2003-12-01

    Despite the importance of some Zygosaccharomyces species as agents causing spoilage of food, the carbon and energy metabolism of most of them is yet largely unknown. This is the case with Zygosaccharomyces bailii. In this study the occurrence of the Crabtree effect in the petite-negative yeast Z. bailii ATCC 36947 was investigated. In this yeast the aerobic ethanol production is strictly dependent on the carbon source utilised. In glucose-limited continuous cultures a very low level of ethanol was produced. In fructose-limited continuous cultures ethanol was produced at a higher level and its production increased with the dilution rate. As a consequence, on fructose the onset of respiro-fermentative metabolism caused a reduction in biomass yield. An immediate aerobic alcoholic fermentation in Z. bailii was observed during the transition from sugar limitation to sugar excess, both on glucose and on fructose. The analysis of some key enzymes of the fermentative metabolism showed a high level of acetyl-CoA synthetase in Z. bailii growing on fructose. At high dilution rates, the activities of glucose- and fructose-phosphorylating enzymes, as well as of pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase, were higher in cells during growth on fructose than on glucose.

  20. Recall costs balanced against spoilage control in Dutch custard.

    PubMed

    Velthuis, A G J; Reij, M W; Baritakis, K; Dang, M; van Wagenberg, C P A

    2010-06-01

    The relation between the moment at which a recall of Dutch custard is initiated and the direct costs of this recall was investigated. A simulation model of the custard supply chain was developed to compare scenarios with and without a quarantine of 48 h at the storage of the production plant. The model consists of 3 parts: 1) the distribution of a 24,000-L batch of custard over the supply chain over time is simulated; 2) the time to detect spoilage bacteria with a recontamination test procedure is simulated; and 3) the direct recall costs of custard over the different parts of the supply chain are calculated. Direct recall costs increase from about 25,000 euros/batch to 36,171 euros/batch from 57 to 135 h in the situation without quarantine and from 25,000 euros/batch to 36,648 euros/batch from 123 h to 163 h for the situation with quarantine. Then costs decrease because more and more custard is at the consumer level and only 0.13% of the consumers will ask for a refund. With low true contamination probabilities quarantine is not profitable, but at later detection moments with high probabilities it is. We conclude that a simulation model is a helpful tool to evaluate the efficiency of risk management strategies like end product testing and a quarantine situation. 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of a colorimetric sensor array for squid spoilage assessment.

    PubMed

    Zaragozá, Patricia; Fuentes, Ana; Ruiz-Rico, María; Vivancos, José-Luis; Fernández-Segovia, Isabel; Ros-Lis, José V; Barat, José M; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón

    2015-05-15

    The aim of this work was to develop and evaluate a rapid, easy-to-use optoelectronic system for the shelf-life assessment of squid in cold storage. For this purpose, an optoelectronic nose was designed, which consisted of an array containing six sensing materials prepared by combining different dyes and two inorganic supports (aluminium oxide and silica gel). Samples were packaged with the colorimetric array and kept in cold storage for 12 days. Squid spoilage was monitored simultaneously by the colorimetric array and by the physico-chemical and microbial analyses during storage. Samples exceeded the acceptability limits for microbial counts on the third day. PCA analysis carried out with CIELab showed that the colorimetric array was able to discriminate between fresh squid fit for consumption and spoiled squid. The statistical models obtained by PLS, with the optoelectronic nose, successfully predicted CO2 and O2 content in the headspace as well as microbial growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Choroid Sprouting Assay: An Ex Vivo Model of Microvascular Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Zhuo; Friedlander, Mollie; Hurst, Christian G.; Cui, Zhenghao; Pei, Dorothy T.; Evans, Lucy P.; Juan, Aimee M.; Tahir, Houda; Duhamel, François; Chen, Jing; Sapieha, Przemyslaw; Chemtob, Sylvain; Joyal, Jean-Sébastien; Smith, Lois E. H.

    2013-01-01

    Angiogenesis of the microvasculature is central to the etiology of many diseases including proliferative retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration and cancer. A mouse model of microvascular angiogenesis would be very valuable and enable access to a wide range of genetically manipulated tissues that closely approximate small blood vessel growth in vivo. Vascular endothelial cells cultured in vitro are widely used, however, isolating pure vascular murine endothelial cells is technically challenging. A microvascular mouse explant model that is robust, quantitative and can be reproduced without difficulty would overcome these limitations. Here we characterized and optimized for reproducibility an organotypic microvascular angiogenesis mouse and rat model from the choroid, a microvascular bed in the posterior of eye. The choroidal tissues from C57BL/6J and 129S6/SvEvTac mice and Sprague Dawley rats were isolated and incubated in Matrigel. Vascular sprouting was comparable between choroid samples obtained from different animals of the same genetic background. The sprouting area, normalized to controls, was highly reproducible between independent experiments. We developed a semi-automated macro in ImageJ software to allow for more efficient quantification of sprouting area. Isolated choroid explants responded to manipulation of the external environment while maintaining the local interactions of endothelial cells with neighboring cells, including pericytes and macrophages as evidenced by immunohistochemistry and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis. This reproducible ex vivo angiogenesis assay can be used to evaluate angiogenic potential of pharmacologic compounds on microvessels and can take advantage of genetically manipulated mouse tissue for microvascular disease research. PMID:23922736

  3. Dendrites of rod bipolar cells sprout in normal aging retina.

    PubMed

    Liets, Lauren C; Eliasieh, Kasra; van der List, Deborah A; Chalupa, Leo M

    2006-08-08

    The aging nervous system is known to manifest a variety of degenerative and regressive events. Here we report the unexpected growth of dendrites in the retinas of normal old mice. The dendrites of many rod bipolar cells in aging mice were observed to extend well beyond their normal strata within the outer plexiform layer to innervate the outer nuclear layer where they appeared to form contacts with the spherules of rod photoreceptors. Such dendritic sprouting increased with age and was evident at all retinal eccentricities. These results provide evidence of retinal plasticity associated with normal aging.

  4. Crown Release Increases Diameter Growth and Bole Sprouting of Pole-Size Yellow Birch

    Treesearch

    Gayne G. Erdmann; Ralph M. Jr. Peterson

    1971-01-01

    During the second and third years after release, dominant, codominant, and intermediate pole-size yellow birch grew nearly twice as fast in diameter as unreleased poles. Growth rates were also related to foliage density. Epicormic sprouting was increased by crown release but most sprouting occured in the second log.

  5. Stump sprout dominance probabilities of five oak species in southern Indiana 25 years after clearcut harvesting

    Treesearch

    Dale R. Weigel; Daniel C. Dey; Callie J. Schweitzer; Chao-Ying Joanne. Peng

    2017-01-01

    When regenerating oak or mixed-hardwood forests in southern Indiana, oak (Quercus spp.) stump sprouts are vital to sustaining their presence and long-term dominance. In 1987, a study began in the Hoosier National Forest in southern Indiana. The study goal was to predict the sprouting potential and dominance probability of oaks. Before clearcut...

  6. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Salmonella enterica Strains Isolated from Sprouted Chia and Flax Seed Powders.

    PubMed

    Ronholm, Jennifer; Petronella, Nicholas; Tamber, Sandeep

    2016-09-22

    A 2014 foodborne salmonellosis outbreak in Canada and the United States implicated, for the first time, sprouted chia seed powder as the vehicle of transmission. Here, we report the draft whole genome sequences of two Salmonella enterica strains isolated from sprouted powders related to the aforementioned outbreak. © Crown copyright 2016.

  7. Preliminary report on decay in sprout northern hardwoods in relation to timber stand improvement

    Treesearch

    W.A. Campbell

    1938-01-01

    Trees of sprout origin are generally considered inferior to trees of seedling origin for the production of sawtimber, owing to form defect and the tendency for decay to enter through the parent stumps. Since most of the valuable hardwood species sprout readily over large areas of the northern hardwood region, clear-cutting of immature stands has resulted in the...

  8. Factors affecting the sprouting of shortleaf pine rootstock following prescribed fire

    Treesearch

    Curtis J. Lilly; Rodney E. Will; Charles G. Tauer; James M. Guldin; Martin A. Spetich

    2012-01-01

    Shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata) is a fire dependent species that is declining across the southeastern US. Its unique basal crook is an adaptation that protects dormant buds from fire and facilitates prolific sprouting of seedling rootstocks following top-kill. Understanding what influences shortleaf pine sprouting after fire could greatly increase success of natural...

  9. Role of sprouts in regeneration of a whole-tree clearcut in central hardwoods of Connecticut

    Treesearch

    C.W. Martin; L.M. Tritton

    1991-01-01

    Stump sprouts were the single most important type of regeneration in a central hardwood forest in Connecticut during the first 5 years after whole-tree clearcuttting. Herbs, shrubs, tree seedlings, and stump sprouts were inventoried using stratified permanent plots on a 6-ha watershed during the first, third, and fifth years after harvest.

  10. The Sprouting Potential of Dormant Buds on the Bole of Pole-Size Sugar Maple

    Treesearch

    Richard M. Godman; Gilbert A. Mattson

    1970-01-01

    A study of epicormic sprouting in pole-size sugar maples showed that all visible dormant buds on the bole were capable of producing epicormic shoots. The buds were induced to break dormancy by applying four methods of crown removal known to stimulate sprouting. The amount of crown removed determined the year that the buds broke dormancy; this may be accounted for by...

  11. Growth and quality of soybean sprouts (Glycine max L. Merrill) as affected by gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Juan; Li, Xihong; Fan, Xuetong; Li, Weili; Jiang, Yuqian

    2013-01-01

    In this study, soybean seeds and sprouts (Glycine max L. Merrill) were exposed to radiation doses up to 3.0 kGy. The irradiated and non-irradiated seeds were germinated, and then germination rate, sprouts length, vitamin C content, antioxidants and visual and olfactory quality were determined after irradiation. Results indicated that there was no significant difference in the germination rate and sprouts length between the control and 0.3 kGy treated soybeans, however, the reductions in sprouts length of the 1.0 kGy and 3.0 kGy treated samples were quite significant with reductions of 20.4% and 58.8%, respectively. Irradiated sprouts had similar visual and olfactory quality as the non-irradiated one. Therefore, irradiation of seeds alone would have limited value in terms of commercial use due to reduced germination and length of sprouts. However, irradiation of sprouts at doses up to 3.0 kGy was feasible to enhance microbial safety of sprouts.

  12. Sprouting of axonal collaterals after spinal cord injury is prevented by delayed axonal degeneration.

    PubMed

    Collyer, E; Catenaccio, A; Lemaitre, D; Diaz, P; Valenzuela, V; Bronfman, F; Court, F A

    2014-11-01

    After an incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI), partial recovery of locomotion is accomplished with time. Previous studies have established a functional link between extension of axon collaterals from spared spinal tracts and locomotor recovery after SCI, but the tissular signals triggering collateral sprouting have not been identified. Here, we investigated whether axonal degeneration after SCI contributes to the sprouting of collaterals from axons spared after injury. To this end, we evaluated collateral sprouting from BDA-labeled uninjured corticospinal axons after spinal cord hemisection (SCI(H)) in wild type (WT) mouse and Wld(S) mouse strains, which shows a significant delay in Wallerian degeneration after injury. After SCI(H), spared fibers of WT mice extend collateral sprouts to both intact and denervated sides of the spinal cord distant from the injury site. On the contrary, in the Wld(S) mice collateral sprouting from spared fibers was greatly reduced after SCI(H). Consistent with a role for collateral sprouting in functional recovery after SCI, locomotor recovery after SCI(H) was impaired in Wld(S) mice compared to WT animals. In conclusion, our results identify axonal degeneration as one of the triggers for collateral sprouting from the contralesional uninjured fibers after an SCI(H). These results open the path for identifying molecular signals associated with tissular changes after SCI that promotes collateral sprouting and functional recovery.

  13. Kinetics of sulforaphane in mice after consumption of sulforaphane-enriched broccoli sprout preparation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanyan; Zhang, Tao; Li, Xiaoqin; Zou, Peng; Schwartz, Steven J; Sun, Duxin

    2013-12-01

    Sulforaphane (SF) is a natural isothiocyanate in broccoli sprouts with cancer chemopreventive activity. This study is aimed to use different methods to develop broccoli sprout preparations to compare their ability to deliver SF to the mice and to evaluate the kinetics and biodistribution of SF. The SF-enriched sprout preparation generated by two-step procedure (quick-steaming followed by myrosinase treatment) contained the highest level of SF, which was 11 and 5 times higher than the freeze-dried fresh broccoli sprouts and the quick-steamed, freeze-dried broccoli sprouts, respectively. After oral administration of 2.5 mg/g body weight of the broccoli sprout preparations, SF was quickly absorbed and distributed throughout the tissues. The SF-rich preparation resulted in the highest exposure, with peak plasma SF concentration of 337 ng/mL, which is 6.0 times and 2.6 times higher compared to the other two preparations. A whole body physiologically based pharmacokinetic model (developed with ADAPT 5 software) suggests that distribution of SF is perfusion-limited in all organs. This study provides a broccoli sprout preparation that can serve as a good source of SF, and the model can be utilized to guide the dose designed for the use of broccoli sprout preparation in chemoprevention. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Stump sprout dominance probabilities of five oak species in southern Indiana 20 years after clearcut harvesting

    Treesearch

    Dale R. Weigel; Daniel C. Dey; Chao-Ying Joanne. Peng

    2011-01-01

    Oak (Quercus spp.) stump sprouts are vital to sustaining oak's presence and long-term dominance when regenerating oak or mixed-hardwood forests in southern Indiana. A study was initiated on the Hoosier National Forest in southern Indiana in 1987 to predict the sprouting potential and dominance probability of oaks. Before clearcut harvesting, we...

  15. Stump sprout dominance probabilities of five oak species in southern Indiana 15 years after clearcut harvesting

    Treesearch

    Dale R. Weigel; Daniel C. Dey; Chao-Ying Joanne Peng

    2006-01-01

    Oak stump sprouts are vital to sustaining oak's presence and long-term dominance when regenerating oak-, mixed-hardwood forests. A study was initiated on the Hoosier National Forest in southern Indiana in 1987 to predict the sprouting potential and dominance probability of oaks. Before clearcutting, we sampled 2,188 trees of 5 oak species: white oak (...

  16. Microbiological Safety and Food Handling Practices of Seed Sprout Products in the Australian State of Victoria.

    PubMed

    Symes, Sally; Goldsmith, Paul; Haines, Heather

    2015-07-01

    Seed sprouts have been implicated as vehicles for numerous foodborne outbreaks worldwide. Seed sprouts pose a unique food safety concern because of the ease of microbiological seed contamination, the inherent ability of the sprouting process to support microbial growth, and their consumption either raw or lightly cooked. To examine seed sprout safety in the Australian state of Victoria, a survey was conducted to detect specific microbes in seed sprout samples and to investigate food handling practices relating to seed sprouts. A total of 298 seed sprout samples were collected from across 33 local council areas. Escherichia coli was detected in 14.8%, Listeria spp. in 12.3%, and Listeria monocytogenes in 1.3% of samples analyzed. Salmonella spp. were not detected in any of the samples. A range of seed sprout handling practices were identified as potential food safety issues in some food businesses, including temperature control, washing practices, length of storage, and storage in proximity to unpackaged ready-to-eat potentially hazardous foods.

  17. Effects of yeast polysaccharide on growth and flavonoid accumulation in Fagopyrum tataricum sprout cultures.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gang; Zhao, Jianglin; Peng, Lianxin; Zou, Liang; Wang, Jingbo; Zhong, Lingyun; Xiang, Dabing

    2012-09-25

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of yeast polysaccharide (YPS) on growth and flavonoid accumulation in sprout cultures of Fagopyrum tataricum (tartary buckwheat). Without obvious change in the appearance of the sprouts, the exogenous YPS notably stimulated the production of functional metabolites in F. tataricum sprouts, and the stimulation effect was concentration-dependent. With 400 mg/L of YPS applied to the sprout cultures on day 6, the total rutin and quercentin content was effectively increased to 42.8 mg/gdw, or about 1.4-fold in comparison with the control of 31.2 mg/gdw. Feeding with 800 mg/L of YPS on day 9, the sprouts biomass was increased by about 8% compared to the control culture (0.99 gdw/100 sprouts versus 0.92 gdw/100 sprouts). Moreover, the present study revealed that the accumulation of these bioactive metabolites resulted from the stimulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway by YPS treatment. It could be an effective strategy for improving the functional quality of the F. tataricum sprouts provided with YPS.

  18. Development of epicormic sprouts in Sitka spruce following thinning and pruning in south-east Alaska.

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Deal; R. James Barbour; Michael H. McClellan; Dean L. Parry

    2003-01-01

    The frequency and size of epicormic sprouts in Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) were assessed in five 23-29 year-old mixed Sitka spruce-western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) stands that were uniformly thinned and pruned to 2.4, 3.7 and 5.2 m lift heights. Six to nine years after treatment sprouts were...

  19. Evaluation of oak stump sprouting in the Missouri Ozarks ten years after harvest

    Treesearch

    Randy G. Jensen; Daniel C. Dey

    2008-01-01

    Managers in Missouri often want to manage forests to retain oak in the future. Oaks are valuable for timber and many wildlife species depend on acorns. Large advance reproduction and stump sprouts are the most competitive sources of regeneration. It is well known that oak stump sprouts contribute to future stands in even-age clearcuts in the Missouri Ozarks, but there...

  20. Predicting stump sprouting and competitive success of five oak species in southern Indiana

    Treesearch

    Dale R. Weigel; Chao-Ying Joanne Peng

    2002-01-01

    We measured 2188 oak trees (Quercus spp.) on the Hoosier National Forest in southern Indiana before and 1, 5, and 10 years after clear-cutting to determine the influence of parent tree age, diameter breast height, and site index on the probability that there was one or more living sprouts per stump: (i) 1 year after clear-cutting (sprouting...

  1. Early Stump Sprout Development after Two Levels of Harvest in a Midwestern Bottomland Hardwood Forest

    Treesearch

    Benjamin O. Knapp; Matthew G. Olson; Daniel C. Dey

    2017-01-01

    Sprouting is an important source of regeneration for hardwood trees but has not been studied extensively in bottomland hardwood forests. We quantified the sprouting responses of 11 bottomland hardwood species or species groups after two levels of overstory harvest, including clearcutting with reserves (CCR) (residual basal area ∼2.0 m2/ha) and...

  2. Sprouting characteristics and associated changes in nutritional composition of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    PubMed

    Devi, Chingakham Basanti; Kushwaha, Archana; Kumar, Anil

    2015-10-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), is an important arid legume with a good source of energy, protein, vitamins, minerals and dietary fibre. Sprouting of legumes enhances the bioavailability and digestibility of nutrients and therefore plays an important role in human nutrition. Improved varieties of grain cowpea viz. Pant Lobia-1 (PL-1) and Pant Lobia-2 (PL-2) and Pant Lobia-3 (PL-3) were examined for sprouting characteristics and associated changes in nutritional quality. Soaking time, sprouting time and sprouting temperature combinations for desirable sprout length of ¼ to ½ inch for cowpea seed samples were standardized. All the observations were taken in triplicate except soaking time, where six observations were taken in a completely randomized design of three treatments. Results revealed that optimum soaking time of PL-1 and PL-2 seed was 3 h whereas PL-3 required 9 h. Sprouting period of 24 h at 25 °C was found to be desirable for obtaining good sprouts. Significant improvement in nutritional quality was observed after sprouting at 25 °C for 24 h; protein increased by 9-12 %, vitamin C increased by 4-38 times, phytic acid decreased by 4-16 times, trypsin inhibitor activity decreased by 28-55 % along with an increase of 8-20 % in in-vitro protein digestibility.

  3. Barley Sprouts Extract Attenuates Alcoholic Fatty Liver Injury in Mice by Reducing Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yun-Hee; Kim, Joung-Hee; Kim, Sou Hyun; Oh, Ji Youn; Seo, Woo Duck; Kim, Kyung-Mi; Jung, Jae-Chul; Jung, Young-Suk

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that barley leaves possess beneficial properties such as antioxidant, hypolipidemic, antidepressant, and antidiabetic. Interestingly, barley sprouts contain a high content of saponarin, which showed both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. In this study, we evaluated the effect of barley sprouts on alcohol-induced liver injury mediated by inflammation and oxidative stress. Raw barley sprouts were extracted, and quantitative and qualitative analyses of its components were performed. The mice were fed a liquid alcohol diet with or without barley sprouts for four weeks. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were used to study the effect of barley sprouts on inflammation. Alcohol intake for four weeks caused liver injury, evidenced by an increase in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels. The accumulation of lipid in the liver was also significantly induced, whereas the glutathione (GSH) level was reduced. Moreover, the inflammation-related gene expression was dramatically increased. All these alcohol-induced changes were effectively prevented by barley sprouts treatment. In particular, pretreatment with barley sprouts significantly blocked inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7. This study suggests that the protective effect of barley sprouts against alcohol-induced liver injury is potentially attributable to its inhibition of the inflammatory response induced by alcohol. PMID:27455313

  4. Comparison of the Stress Response of Listeria monocytogenes Strains with Sprout Colonization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seventeen strains of the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes were tested for their ability to colonize alfalfa, radish, and broccoli sprouts, as well as their capacity to withstand acid and oxidative stress, two stresses common to the sprout growth environment. Whereas large variations in dif...

  5. Barley Sprouts Extract Attenuates Alcoholic Fatty Liver Injury in Mice by Reducing Inflammatory Response.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun-Hee; Kim, Joung-Hee; Kim, Sou Hyun; Oh, Ji Youn; Seo, Woo Duck; Kim, Kyung-Mi; Jung, Jae-Chul; Jung, Young-Suk

    2016-07-21

    It has been reported that barley leaves possess beneficial properties such as antioxidant, hypolipidemic, antidepressant, and antidiabetic. Interestingly, barley sprouts contain a high content of saponarin, which showed both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. In this study, we evaluated the effect of barley sprouts on alcohol-induced liver injury mediated by inflammation and oxidative stress. Raw barley sprouts were extracted, and quantitative and qualitative analyses of its components were performed. The mice were fed a liquid alcohol diet with or without barley sprouts for four weeks. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were used to study the effect of barley sprouts on inflammation. Alcohol intake for four weeks caused liver injury, evidenced by an increase in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels. The accumulation of lipid in the liver was also significantly induced, whereas the glutathione (GSH) level was reduced. Moreover, the inflammation-related gene expression was dramatically increased. All these alcohol-induced changes were effectively prevented by barley sprouts treatment. In particular, pretreatment with barley sprouts significantly blocked inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7. This study suggests that the protective effect of barley sprouts against alcohol-induced liver injury is potentially attributable to its inhibition of the inflammatory response induced by alcohol.

  6. Transcriptional profile of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Weltevreden during alfalfa sprout colonization

    PubMed Central

    Brankatschk, Kerstin; Kamber, Tim; Pothier, Joël F; Duffy, Brion; Smits, Theo H M

    2014-01-01

    Sprouted seeds represent a great risk for infection by human enteric pathogens because of favourable growth conditions for pathogens during their germination. The aim of this study was to identify mechanisms of interactions of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Weltevreden with alfalfa sprouts. RNA-seq analysis of S. Weltevreden grown with sprouts in comparison with M9-glucose medium showed that among a total of 4158 annotated coding sequences, 177 genes (4.3%) and 345 genes (8.3%) were transcribed at higher levels with sprouts and in minimal medium respectively. Genes that were higher transcribed with sprouts are coding for proteins involved in mechanisms known to be important for attachment, motility and biofilm formation. Besides gene expression required for phenotypic adaption, genes involved in sulphate acquisition were higher transcribed, suggesting that the surface on alfalfa sprouts may be poor in sulphate. Genes encoding structural and effector proteins of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2, involved in survival within macrophages during infection of animal tissue, were higher transcribed with sprouts possibly as a response to environmental conditions. This study provides insight on additional mechanisms that may be important for pathogen interactions with sprouts. PMID:24308841

  7. Kinetics of Sulforaphane in Mice after Consumption of Sulforaphane-Enriched Broccoli Sprout Preparation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanyan; Zhang, Tao; Li, Xiaoqin; Zou, Peng; Schwartz, Steven J.; Sun, Duxin

    2013-01-01

    Scope Sulforaphane is a natural isothiocyanate in broccoli sprouts with cancer chemopreventive activity. This study is aimed to to use different methods to develop broccoli sprout preparations to compare their ability to deliver sulforaphane to the mice and to evaluate the kinetics and biodistribution of sulforaphane. Methods and Results The sulforaphane-enriched sprout preparation generated by two-step procedure (quick-steaming followed by myrosinase treatment) contained the highest level of sulforaphane, which was 11 and 5 times higher than the freeze-dried fresh broccoli sprouts and the quick-steamed, freeze-dried broccoli sprouts, respectively. After oral administration of 2.5 mg/g body weight of the broccoli sprout preparations, sulforaphane was quickly absorbed and distributed throughout the tissues. The sulforaphane-rich preparation resulted in the highest exposure, with peak plasma sulforaphane concentration of 337 ng/ml, which is 6.0 times and 2.6 times higher compared to the other two preparations. A whole body physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model (developed with ADAPT 5 software) suggests that distribution of sulforaphane is perfusion-limited in all organs. Conclusion This study provides a broccoli sprout preparation that can serve as a good source of sulforaphane, and the model can be utilized to guide the dose design for the use of broccoli sprout preparation in chemoprevention. PMID:23929742

  8. Cloning and characterization of a critical regulator for pre-harvest sprouting in Wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sprouting of grains in mature spikes before harvest is a major problem in wheat (Triticum aestivum) production worldwide. We cloned and characterized a gene underlying a wheat quantitative trait locus (QTL) on the short arm of chromosome 3A for pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) resistance in white wheat u...

  9. Visible and near-infrared instruments for detection and quantification of individual sprouted wheat kernels

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pre-harvest sprouting of wheat kernels within the grain head presents serious problems as it can greatly affect end use quality. Functional properties of wheat flour made from sprouted wheat result in poor dough and bread-making quality. This research examined the ability of two instruments to estim...

  10. Effect of sodium selenite on isoflavonoid contents and antioxidant capacity of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) sprouts.

    PubMed

    Guardado-Félix, Daniela; Serna-Saldivar, Sergio O; Cuevas-Rodríguez, Edith O; Jacobo-Velázquez, Daniel A; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A

    2017-07-01

    Isoflavonoid compositions, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity and antioxidant capacity were evaluated in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) sprouts germinated after soaking with different sodium selenite (Na2SeO3) concentrations (0, 1 and 2mg/100g seeds). Chickpea seeds were germinated during four days at 24°C and the isoflavonoid profiles and concentrations evaluated by HPLC-UV daily during four days of germination. Eleven isoflavones and two pterocarpan phytoalexins forms were identified in sprouts, being malonylated formononetin glycoside, formononetin, isoformononetin glycoside and malonylated biochanin A glycoside the major compounds. Compared to untreated sprouts, total isoflavonoid, PAL activity and antioxidant capacity showed a remarkable increase of 83%, 56%, and 33%, respectively in chickpea sprouts that were treated with a high sodium selenite content (2mg/100g seeds). Results suggest that Se-enriched chickpea sprouts could represent a good source of dietary Se and as an upgraded source of isoflavonoids.

  11. Antioxidant activity of tartary (Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn.) and common (Fagopyrum esculentum moench) buckwheat sprouts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chia-Ling; Chen, Yih-Shyuan; Yang, Joan-Hwa; Chiang, Been-Huang

    2008-01-09

    This study compared the differences of two types of buckwheat sprouts, namely, common buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) and tartary buckwheat ( Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn.), in general composition, functional components, and antioxidant capacity. The ethanol extracts of tartary buckwheat sprouts (TBS) had higher reducing power, free radical scavenging activity, and superoxide anion scavenging activity than those of common buckwheat sprouts (CBS). As for chelating effects on ferrous ions, CBS had higher values than TBS. Rutin was the major flavonoid found in these two types of buckwheat sprouts, and TBS was 5 fold higher in rutin than CBS. The antioxidant effects of buckwheat sprouts on human hepatoma HepG2 cells revealed that both of TBS and CBS could decrease the production of intracellular peroxide and remove the intracellular superoxide anions in HepG2 cells, but TBS reduced the cellular oxidative stress more effectively than CBS, possibly because of its higher rutin (and quercetin) content.

  12. Microbiological safety evaluations and recommendations on sprouted seeds. National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods.

    PubMed

    1999-11-15

    In 1997, the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods (NACMCF/the Committee) was asked to review the current literature on sprout-associated outbreaks: identify the organisms and production practices of greatest public health concern: prioritize research needs: and provide recommendations on intervention and prevention strategies. In response to this charge, the Fresh Produce Work Group (FPWG) documented the relevant epidemiology and microbial ecology of sprout-associated outbreaks and reviewed current industry practices and initiatives related to the growing of seed and the production of sprouts. Sprouts have been identified as a special problem because of the potential for pathogen growth during the sprouting process. If pathogens are present on or in the seed, sprouting conditions may favor their proliferation. There is no inherent step in the production of raw sprouts to reduce or eliminate pathogens. Contaminated seed is the likely source for most reported sprout-associated outbreaks. Research has been initiated on methods to reduce or eliminate pathogenic bacteria on seeds and sprouts and some treatments show promise. However, to date, no single treatment has been shown to completely eliminate pathogens under experimental conditions used. Finally, the Committee found that, at the time of the charge, there was a lack of fundamental food safety knowledge along the continuum from seed production through sprout consumption. More recently, many have become aware of the potential for this food to be a vehicle for foodborne illness and the need for appropriate controls: however, such awareness is not universal. Although seed appears to be the most likely source of contamination in sprout associated outbreaks, practices and conditions at the sprouting facility may also impact on the safety of the finished product. In recent sprout-associated outbreak investigations, facilities associated with outbreaks did not consistently apply seed

  13. CIPC and 1,4-Dimethylnaphthalene Inhibit Sprout Growth Through Different Mechanisms and Do Not Extend Tuber Dormancy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chlorpropham (CIPC) and 1,4-dimethylnaphthalene (DMN) are sprout inhibitors used to control sprouting in commercial potato storages. CIPC interferes with microtubule function and is thought to suppress sprouting by inhibiting cell division. DMN is a natural product produced by potato tubers whose sp...

  14. Rooting stem cuttings of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) utilizing hedged stump sprouts formed on recently felled trees

    Treesearch

    Matthew H. Gocke; Daniel J. Robinson

    2010-01-01

    The ability to root stem cuttings collected from hedged stump sprouts formed on recently felled trees was evaluated for 26 codominant northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) trees growing in Durham County, NC. Sprouting occurred, the same year as felling, on 23 of the 26 tree stumps and sprout number was significantly and positively correlated with stump diameter. The...

  15. Prediction of spoilage of tropical shrimp (Penaeus notialis) under dynamic temperature regimes.

    PubMed

    Dabadé, D Sylvain; Azokpota, Paulin; Nout, M J Robert; Hounhouigan, D Joseph; Zwietering, Marcel H; den Besten, Heidy M W

    2015-10-01

    The spoilage activity of Pseudomonas psychrophila and Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, two tropical shrimp (Penaeus notialis) spoilage organisms, was assessed in cooked shrimps stored at 0 to 28 °C. Microbiological, chemical and sensory analyses were performed during storage. P. psychrophila had a higher growth rate and showed a higher spoilage activity at temperatures from 0 to 15 °C, while at 28 °C, C. maltaromaticum had a higher growth rate. The spoilage activity of P. psychrophila was found to be higher in cooked shrimp than in fresh shrimp. Observed shelf-life data of shrimps stored at constant temperatures were used to validate a previously developed model that predicts tropical shrimp shelf-life at constant storage temperatures. Models predicting the growth of the spoilage organisms as a function of temperature were constructed. The validation of these models under dynamic storage temperatures simulating temperature fluctuation in the shrimp supply chain showed that they can be used to predict the shelf-life of cooked and fresh tropical shrimps. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Efficacy of lactoferricin B in controlling ready-to-eat vegetable spoilage caused by Pseudomonas spp.

    PubMed

    Federico, Baruzzi; Pinto, Loris; Quintieri, Laura; Carito, Antonia; Calabrese, Nicola; Caputo, Leonardo

    2015-12-23

    The microbial content of plant tissues has been reported to cause the spoilage of ca. 30% of chlorine-disinfected fresh vegetables during cold storage. The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of antimicrobial peptides in controlling microbial vegetable spoilage under cold storage conditions. A total of 48 bacterial isolates were collected from ready-to-eat (RTE) vegetables and identified as belonging to Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Aeromonas media, Pseudomonas cichorii, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas jessenii, Pseudomonas koreensis, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas simiae and Pseudomonas viridiflava species. Reddish or brownish pigmentation was found when Pseudomonas strains were inoculated in wounds on leaves of Iceberg and Trocadero lettuce and escarole chicory throughout cold storage. Bovine lactoferrin (BLF) and its hydrolysates (LFHs) produced by pepsin, papain and rennin, were assayed in vitro against four Pseudomonas spp. strains selected for their heavy spoiling ability. As the pepsin-LFH showed the strongest antimicrobial effect, subsequent experiments were carried out using the peptide lactoferricin B (LfcinB), well known to be responsible for its antimicrobial activity. LfcinB significantly reduced (P ≤ 0.05) spoilage by a mean of 36% caused by three out of four inoculated spoiler pseudomonads on RTE lettuce leaves after six days of cold storage. The reduction in the extent of spoilage was unrelated to viable cell density in the inoculated wounds. This is the first paper providing direct evidence regarding the application of an antimicrobial peptide to control microbial spoilage affecting RTE leafy vegetables during cold storage.

  17. Study on spoilage capability and VBNC state formation and recovery of Lactobacillus plantarum.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junyan; Li, Lin; Li, Bing; Peters, Brian M; Deng, Yang; Xu, Zhenbo; Shirtliff, Mark E

    2017-09-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the capability of L. plantarum strain BM-LP14723 to enter into and recover from the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state and to cause beer spoilage. VBNC state was induced by incubating in beer with subculturing or low temperature treatment. Culturable, total, and viable cells numbers were assessed by MRS agar plate counting, acridine orange direct counting, and Live/Dead BacLight bacterial viability kit, respectively. Organic acids concentrations were measured by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. VBNC L. plantarum cells were detected after 189 ± 1.9 days low temperature treatment or 29 ± 0.7 subcultures in beer. The VBNC L. plantarum retained spoilage capability. Addition of catalase is an effective method for the recovery of the VBNC L. plantarum cells. L. plantarum strain BM-LP14723 is capable of entering into and recovery from the VBNC state and maintained spoilage capability. The current study presented that beer-spoilage L. plantarum can hide both in breweries and during transporting and marketing process and thus lead to beer-spoilage incidents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of a food spoilage indicator for monitoring freshness of skinless chicken breast.

    PubMed

    Rukchon, Chompoonoot; Nopwinyuwong, Atchareeya; Trevanich, Sudsai; Jinkarn, Tunyarut; Suppakul, Panuwat

    2014-12-01

    A colorimetric mixed-pH dye-based indicator with potential for the development of intelligent packaging, as a "chemical barcode" for real-time monitoring of skinless chicken breast spoilage, is described. Also investigated was the relationship between the numbers of microorganisms and the amount of volatile compounds. This on-package indicator contains two groups of pH-sensitive dyes, one of which is a mixture of bromothymol blue and methyl red, while the other is a mixture of bromothymol blue, bromocresol green and phenol red. Carbon dioxide (CO2) was used as a spoilage metabolite because the degree of spoilage was related to the amount of increased CO2, and which was more than the level of total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) during the storage period. Characteristics of the two groups of indicator solutions were studied, as well as their response to CO2. A kinetic approach was used to correlate the response of the indicator label to the changes in skinless chicken breast spoilage. Color changes, in terms of total color difference of a mixed-pH dye-based indicator, correlated well with CO2 levels of skinless chicken breast. Trials on skinless chicken breast samples have verified that the indicator response correlates with microbial growth patterns, thus enabling real-time monitoring of spoilage either at various constant temperatures or with temperature fluctuation.

  19. Spoilage characteristics of traditionally packaged ground beef with added lactic acid bacteria displayed at abusive temperatures.

    PubMed

    Hoyle Parks, A R; Brashears, M M; Woerner, W D; Martin, J N; Thompson, L D; Brooks, J C

    2012-02-01

    Growth of pathogenic organisms such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. can be inhibited in ground beef through the addition of certain lactic acid-producing bacteria (LAB; Lactobacillus acidophilus NP51, Lactobacillus crispatus NP35, Pediococcus acidilactici, and Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis). This study evaluated the effects of LAB inclusion on the organoleptic and biochemical properties typically associated with spoilage in traditionally packaged ground beef displayed at abusive (10°C) temperatures for 36 h. Trained and untrained panelist evaluations of lean color and off-odor, as well as instrumental color analyses, did not indicate an effect on spoilage traits due to LAB utilization (P > 0.05). However, display length affected each variable independently and was indicative of decreased stability and acceptability as display time (h) increased (P < 0.05). Thiobarbituric acid values were decreased for ground beef with added LAB (P < 0.05), but likely can be related to bacterial degradation of lipid oxidation by-products because no reduction in organoleptic traits due to oxidation was noted between treatments. Overall, LAB did not adversely influence the spoilage characteristics of traditionally packaged ground beef displayed at abusive temperatures for up to 36 h. Furthermore, biochemical and sensory indicators of spoilage were present for all treatments at the conclusion of display. Therefore, LAB can be added to ground beef in traditional packaging as a processing intervention without masking or delaying the expected spoilage characteristics.

  20. Effects of sodium selenite and germination on the sprouting of chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L.) and its content of selenium, formononetin and biochanin A in the sprouts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Li, Qing; Yang, Xiaoda; Xia, Zuoli

    2012-06-01

    To improve the nutritional value of chickpea food, selenium (Se)-rich chickpea sprouts were produced by germination of chickpea seeds for 6 days at 28 centigrade in the presence of various concentrations of Na(2)SeO(3) in germination solution. High concentrations of selenite were found to inhibit the growth of chickpea sprout and the biosynthesis of isoflavones formononetin and biochanin A. However, chickpea sprouts could tolerate up to ~50 mg/L of Na(2)SeO(3), under which condition the product chickpea sprouts contained a high Se content (2.14 μg/g dry weight) and a moderate high content of isoflavones (601.56 μg biochanin A/g dry weight and 578.11 μg formononetin/g dry weight). Se was incorporated in chickpea sprout in the form of selenomethionine. Thus, Se-enriched chickpea sprouts may serve as a convenient dietary source of Se and of isoflavones, including formononetin and biochanin A.

  1. [Establishment of sprouting embryoid body model mimicking early embryonic vasculogenesis in human embryo].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hua; Feng, You-Ji; Xie, Yi; Han, Jin-Lan; Wang, Zack; Chen, Tong

    2008-10-14

    To establish a sprouting embryoid body model mimicking early embryonic vasculogenesis in human embryo. Human embryonic stem were (hESCs) were cultured on the mouse embryo fibroblasts and then were induced to differentiate to form three-dimensional EB. The hEBs were cultured in media containing various angiogenesis-related factors: vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), endostatin, angiostatin, and platelet factor (PF)-4 of different concentrations for 3 days to observe the sprouting of the hEBs. 3, 3, 3', 3'-tetramethylindo-carbocyanine perchlorate labeled acetylated low density lipoprotein (Dil-AcLDL) was added onto the hEBs foe 4 h Immunofluorescence assay was used to observe if Dil-AcLDL was absorbed and if CD31 was expressed so as to determine the existence of embryonic endothelial cells in the sprouting structures. The ideal culturing condition was analyzed. The differentiated EBs formed sprouting structures in the collagen I matrix containing VEGF and FGF. The sprouts among individual EBs were able to link to each other and form vascular network-like structures. In the presence of VEGF and FGF, the sprouts branching from the EBs assimilated Dil-AcLDL, expressed CD31 and formed a 3-dimensional cylindrical organization. The concentrations of growth factors ideally stimulating sprouting growth were 100 ng/ml of VEGF and 50 ng/ml of FGF. The networks among the EBs were abolished by the angiostatin, endostatin, and PF4. The sprouting from hEBs accumulates embryonic endothelial cells and the sprouting network-like structures are indeed endothelial in nature. Inducing of sprouting EBs is an ideal model that mimics early embryonic vasculogenesis in humans.

  2. Assessing the Public Health Impact and Effectiveness of Interventions To Prevent Salmonella Contamination of Sprouts.

    PubMed

    Ding, Hongliu; Fu, Tong-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Sprouts have been a recurring public health challenge due to microbiological contamination, and Salmonella has been the major cause of sprout-associated outbreaks. Although seed treatment and microbiological testing have been applied as risk reduction measures during sprout production, the extent to which their effectiveness in reducing the public health risks associated with sprouts has not been well investigated. We conducted a quantitative risk assessment to measure the risk posed by Salmonella contamination in sprouts and to determine whether and how mitigation strategies can achieve a satisfactory risk reduction based on the assumption that the risk reduction achieved by a microbiological sampling and testing program at a given sensitivity is equivalent to that achieved by direct inactivation of pathogens. Our results indicated that if the sprouts were produced without any risk interventions, the health impact caused by sprouts contaminated with Salmonella would be very high, with a median annual estimated loss of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) of 691,412. Seed treatment (with 20,000 ppm of calcium hypochlorite) or microbiological sampling and testing of spent irrigation water (SIW) alone could reduce the median annual impact to 734 or 4,856 DALYs, respectively. Combining seed treatment with testing of the SIW would further decrease the risk to 58 DALYs. This number could be dramatically lowered to 3.99 DALYs if sprouts were produced under conditions that included treating seeds with 20,000 ppm of calcium hypochlorite plus microbiological testing of seeds, SIW, and finished products. Our analysis shows that the public health impact due to Salmonella contamination in sprouts could be controlled if seeds are treated to reduce pathogens and microbiological sampling and testing is implemented. Future advances in intervention strategies would be important to improve sprout safety further.

  3. Improvement of the nutraceutical quality of broccoli sprouts by elicitation.

    PubMed

    Natella, Fausta; Maldini, Mariateresa; Nardini, Mirella; Azzini, Elena; Foddai, Maria Stella; Giusti, Anna Maria; Baima, Simona; Morelli, Giorgio; Scaccini, Cristina

    2016-06-15

    Epidemiological studies show an inverse association between Brassica consumption and chronic diseases. Phytochemicals are thought to be beneficial for human health and therefore responsible for this protective effect. Increasing their levels into Brassica food is considered an expedient nutritional strategy that can be achieved through the manipulation of growth conditions by elicitors. In this work we systematically evaluated the influence of treatment with different elicitors (sucrose, mannitol, NaCl, 1-aminocyclopropane-L-carboxylic acid, salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate) on the phytochemical composition of broccoli sprouts. The content of total and single glucosinolates, total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, total anthocyanins, vitamin C and E and β-carotene was assessed. The exposure to different elicitors produced concentration- and elicitor-dependent specific changes in the content of all the phytochemicals considered. Sucrose, identified as the most effective elicitor by principal component analysis, induced a significant increase of total and specific glucosinolates, vitamin C, total anthocyanins and polyphenols. Sucrose is likely to represent an effective tool to increase the nutritional value of broccoli sprouts.

  4. Potential Properties of Plant Sprout Extracts on Amyloid β

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Mizue; Okada, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the amyloid β (Aβ) inhibition mechanism of plant sprouts' aqueous extracts (PSAE). In this study, we screened the effects of five plant sprouts' extracts on Aβ (1–42) structure modification using gel electrophoresis. In PSAE, no band of Aβ monomer was recognized in Japanese butterbur. Similarly, the Aβ monomer band became light in buckwheat, red cabbage, broccoli, and brussels. The neuroprotective effects of PSAE were evaluated by measuring levels of Aβ in mixtures (Aβ  and PSAE) with Aβ ELISA assay. The treatment with PSAE decreased Aβ levels. The results indicated that the levels of red cabbage, Japanese butterbur, and broccoli were 9.6, 28.0, and 44.0%, respectively. The lowest value was observed with buckwheat. Furthermore, we carried out a Congo Red (CR) and Aβ binding experiment of PSAE to confirm the modification mechanism of PSAE. The correlation coefficient for the absorption spectrum peak of CR was found to be bigger than 0.8 (r = 0.882) which proved that the Aβ levels could be attributed to the peak of CR. In conclusion, we demonstrated that treatment with PSAE effectively decreases Aβ concentration. Thus, the mechanism that decreased the Aβ levels may be modification by PSAE. PMID:27429807

  5. Potential Properties of Plant Sprout Extracts on Amyloid β.

    PubMed

    Okada, Mizue; Okada, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the amyloid β (Aβ) inhibition mechanism of plant sprouts' aqueous extracts (PSAE). In this study, we screened the effects of five plant sprouts' extracts on Aβ (1-42) structure modification using gel electrophoresis. In PSAE, no band of Aβ monomer was recognized in Japanese butterbur. Similarly, the Aβ monomer band became light in buckwheat, red cabbage, broccoli, and brussels. The neuroprotective effects of PSAE were evaluated by measuring levels of Aβ in mixtures (Aβ  and PSAE) with Aβ ELISA assay. The treatment with PSAE decreased Aβ levels. The results indicated that the levels of red cabbage, Japanese butterbur, and broccoli were 9.6, 28.0, and 44.0%, respectively. The lowest value was observed with buckwheat. Furthermore, we carried out a Congo Red (CR) and Aβ binding experiment of PSAE to confirm the modification mechanism of PSAE. The correlation coefficient for the absorption spectrum peak of CR was found to be bigger than 0.8 (r = 0.882) which proved that the Aβ levels could be attributed to the peak of CR. In conclusion, we demonstrated that treatment with PSAE effectively decreases Aβ concentration. Thus, the mechanism that decreased the Aβ levels may be modification by PSAE.

  6. Tortuous Microvessels Contribute to Wound Healing via Sprouting Angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chong, Diana C; Yu, Zhixian; Brighton, Hailey E; Bear, James E; Bautch, Victoria L

    2017-10-01

    Wound healing is accompanied by neoangiogenesis, and new vessels are thought to originate primarily from the microcirculation; however, how these vessels form and resolve during wound healing is poorly understood. Here, we investigated properties of the smallest capillaries during wound healing to determine their spatial organization and the kinetics of formation and resolution. We used intravital imaging and high-resolution microscopy to identify a new type of vessel in wounds, called tortuous microvessels. Longitudinal studies showed that tortuous microvessels increased in frequency after injury, normalized as the wound healed, and were closely associated with the wound site. Tortuous microvessels had aberrant cell shapes, increased permeability, and distinct interactions with circulating microspheres, suggesting altered flow dynamics. Moreover, tortuous microvessels disproportionately contributed to wound angiogenesis by sprouting exuberantly and significantly more frequently than nearby normal capillaries. A new type of transient wound vessel, tortuous microvessels, sprout dynamically and disproportionately contribute to wound-healing neoangiogenesis, likely as a result of altered properties downstream of flow disturbances. These new findings suggest entry points for therapeutic intervention. © 2017 The Authors.

  7. Notch signaling controls sprouting angiogenesis of endometriotic lesions.

    PubMed

    Körbel, Christina; Gerstner, Miriam D; Menger, Michael D; Laschke, Matthias W

    2017-10-09

    Angiogenesis is essential for the engraftment and growth of endometriotic lesions. In this study, we analyzed whether this process is regulated by Notch signaling. Endometriotic lesions were induced by endometrial tissue transplantation into dorsal skinfold chambers of C57BL/6 mice, which were treated with the γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT or vehicle. Vascularization, morphology, and proliferation of the newly developing lesions were analyzed using intravital fluorescence microscopy, histology, and immunohistochemistry over 14 days. Inhibition of Notch signaling by DAPT significantly increased the number of angiogenic sprouts within the endometrial grafts during the first days after transplantation when compared to vehicle-treated controls. This was associated with an accelerated vascularization, as indicated by a higher functional microvessel density of DAPT-treated lesions on day 6. However, inhibition of Notch signaling did not affect the morphology and proliferating activity of the lesions, as previously described for tumors. Both DAPT- and vehicle-treated lesions finally consisted of cyst-like dilated glands, which were surrounded by a well-vascularized stroma and contained comparable numbers of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cells. These findings demonstrate that sprouting angiogenesis in endometriotic lesions is controlled by Notch signaling. However, inhibition of Notch signaling does not have beneficial therapeutic effects on lesion development.

  8. Enhancing mung bean hydration using the ultrasound technology: description of mechanisms and impact on its germination and main components.

    PubMed

    Miano, Alberto Claudio; Pereira, Jessica da Costa; Castanha, Nanci; Júnior, Manoel Divino da Matta; Augusto, Pedro Esteves Duarte

    2016-12-19

    The ultrasound technology was successfully used to improve the mass transfer processes on food. However, the study of this technology on the grain hydration and on its main components properties was still not appropriately described. This work studied the application of the ultrasound technology on the hydration process of mung beans (Vigna radiata). This grain showed sigmoidal hydration behavior with a specific water entrance pathway. The ultrasound reduced ~25% of the hydration process time. In addition, this technology caused acceleration of the seed germination - and some hypothesis for this enhancement were proposed. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the ultrasound did not change both structure and pasting properties of the bean starch. Finally, the flour rheological properties proved that the ultrasound increased its apparent viscosity, and as the starch was not modified, this alteration was attributed to the proteins. All these results are very desirable for industry since the ultrasound technology improves the hydration process without altering the starch properties, accelerates the germination process (that is important for the malting and sprouting process) and increases the flour apparent viscosity, which is desirable to produce bean-based products that need higher consistency.

  9. Enhancing mung bean hydration using the ultrasound technology: description of mechanisms and impact on its germination and main components

    PubMed Central

    Miano, Alberto Claudio; Pereira, Jessica da Costa; Castanha, Nanci; Júnior, Manoel Divino da Matta; Augusto, Pedro Esteves Duarte

    2016-01-01

    The ultrasound technology was successfully used to improve the mass transfer processes on food. However, the study of this technology on the grain hydration and on its main components properties was still not appropriately described. This work studied the application of the ultrasound technology on the hydration process of mung beans (Vigna radiata). This grain showed sigmoidal hydration behavior with a specific water entrance pathway. The ultrasound reduced ~25% of the hydration process time. In addition, this technology caused acceleration of the seed germination – and some hypothesis for this enhancement were proposed. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the ultrasound did not change both structure and pasting properties of the bean starch. Finally, the flour rheological properties proved that the ultrasound increased its apparent viscosity, and as the starch was not modified, this alteration was attributed to the proteins. All these results are very desirable for industry since the ultrasound technology improves the hydration process without altering the starch properties, accelerates the germination process (that is important for the malting and sprouting process) and increases the flour apparent viscosity, which is desirable to produce bean-based products that need higher consistency. PMID:27991545

  10. Enhancing mung bean hydration using the ultrasound technology: description of mechanisms and impact on its germination and main components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miano, Alberto Claudio; Pereira, Jessica Da Costa; Castanha, Nanci; Júnior, Manoel Divino Da Matta; Augusto, Pedro Esteves Duarte

    2016-12-01

    The ultrasound technology was successfully used to improve the mass transfer processes on food. However, the study of this technology on the grain hydration and on its main components properties was still not appropriately described. This work studied the application of the ultrasound technology on the hydration process of mung beans (Vigna radiata). This grain showed sigmoidal hydration behavior with a specific water entrance pathway. The ultrasound reduced ~25% of the hydration process time. In addition, this technology caused acceleration of the seed germination - and some hypothesis for this enhancement were proposed. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the ultrasound did not change both structure and pasting properties of the bean starch. Finally, the flour rheological properties proved that the ultrasound increased its apparent viscosity, and as the starch was not modified, this alteration was attributed to the proteins. All these results are very desirable for industry since the ultrasound technology improves the hydration process without altering the starch properties, accelerates the germination process (that is important for the malting and sprouting process) and increases the flour apparent viscosity, which is desirable to produce bean-based products that need higher consistency.

  11. Antidiabetic activity of Mung bean extracts in diabetic KK-Ay mice.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yang; Chen, Feng; Wang, Mingfu; Wang, Jiashi; Ren, Guixing

    2008-10-08

    The antidiabetic effects of Mung bean sprout (MBS) extracts and Mung bean seed coat (MBSC) extracts were investigated in type 2 diabetic mice. Male KK-A (y) mice and C57BL/6 mice were used in this study. In KK-A (y) mice, the blood glucose, plasma C-peptide, glucagon, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels were significantly higher than those in the C57BL/6 mice ( P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.01, P < 0.001, P < 0.01, and P < 0.01). In addition, KK-A (y) mice showed an obvious decrease in insulin immunoreactivity in pancreas as well. MBS and MBSC were orally administrated to KK-A (y) mice for 5 weeks. It was found that MBS (2 g/kg) and MBSC (3 g/kg) lowered blood glucose, plasma C-peptide, glucagon, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and BUN levels and at the same time markedly improved glucose tolerance and increased insulin immunoreactive levels. These results suggest that MBS and MBSC exert an antidiabetic effect in type 2 diabetic mice.

  12. Metabolism of lactic acid in fermented cucumbers by Lactobacillus buchneri and related species, potential spoilage organisms in reduced salt fermentations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent evidence suggests that Lactobacillus buchneri may play an important role in spoilage-associated secondary fermentation of cucumbers. Lactic acid degradation during fermented cucumber spoilage is influenced by sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration, pH, and presence of oxygen. Objectives were to...

  13. Molecular comparisons for identification of food spoilage yeasts and prediction of species that may develop in different food products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Spoilage of foods and beverages by yeasts is often characterized by objectionable odors, appearance, taste, texture or build-up of gas in packaging containers, resulting in loss of the product. Seldom is human health compromised by products spoiled by yeasts even though some spoilage is caused by sp...

  14. Microbial community analysis of food-spoilage bacteria in commercial custard creams using culture-dependent and independent methods.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, K; Kawai, Y; Iioka, H; Tanioka, M; Nishimura, J; Kitazawa, H; Tsurumi, K; Saito, T

    2008-08-01

    Custard cream is made from highly nutritive raw materials such as milk and sugar and is easily spoiled by the multiplication of specific microbial contaminants or residents. However, this spoilage microbial community has not been studied. We determined the spoilage microbiota in commercial custard creams using culture-dependent and independent methods. Using the culture-dependent analysis with various agar media, 185 bacterial colonies and 43 eukaryal colonies were isolated from 7 commercial custard cream products. All bacterial isolates were morphologically, physiologically, and genetically identified as bacilli, staphylococci, lactic acid bacteria, and psychrotrophic gram-negative rods. Using culture-independent molecular analysis, the PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis technique, spoilage of the commercial custard creams was found to be caused by bacilli, staphylococci, lactic acid bacteria, psychrotrophic gram-negative rods, Anoxybacillus sp., Caurobacter sp., and Streptococcus sp. bacteria. The detected spoilage bacteria were the same species as previously detected in spoiled milk products and shown in other reports, suggesting that spoilage bacteria in a raw material easily grow in processed foods made from milk. We determined the spoilage microbial communities in commercial custard creams, and these are the first data concerning spoilage microbiota in nonfermented processed foods using a culture-independent analysis. Our study will be useful for the manufacture and safe preservation of dairy products because the first step toward safe food preservation by food manufacturers is to understand the spoilage microbiota in a target food to select optimal preservatives and to reduce the use of food additives.

  15. Introduction to the Microbiological Spoilage of Foods and Beverages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperber, William H.

    Though direct evidence of ancient food-handling practices is difficult to obtain and examine, it seems safe to assume that over the span of several million years, prehistoric humans struggled to maintain an adequate food supply. Their daily food needed to be hunted or harvested and consumed before it spoiled and became unfit to eat. Freshly killed animals, for example, could not have been kept for very long periods of time. Moreover, many early humans were nomadic, continually searching for food. We can imagine that, with an unreliable food supply, their lives must have often been literally "feast or famine." Yet, our ancestors gradually learned by accident, or by trial and error, simple techniques that could extend the storage time of their food (Block, 1991). Their brain capacity was similar to that of modern humans; therefore, some of them were likely early scientists and technologists. They would have learned that primitive cereal grains, nuts and berries, etc. could be stored in covered vessels to keep them dry and safer from mold spoilage. Animal products could be kept in cool places or dried and smoked over a fire, as the controlled use of fire by humans is thought to have begun about 400,000 years ago. Quite likely, naturally desiccated or fermented foods were also noticed and produced routinely to provide a more stable supply of edible food. Along with the development of agricultural practices for crop and animal production, the "simple" food-handling practices developed during the relatively countless millennia of prehistory paved the way for human civilizations.

  16. The genetics of domestication of rice bean, Vigna umbellata

    PubMed Central

    Isemura, Takehisa; Kaga, Akito; Tomooka, Norihiko; Shimizu, Takehiko; Vaughan, Duncan Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims The Asian genus Vigna, to which four cultivated species (rice bean, azuki bean, mung bean and black gram) belong, is suitable for comparative genomics. The aims were to construct a genetic linkage map of rice bean, to identify the genomic regions associated with domestication in rice bean, and to compare these regions with those in azuki bean. Methods A genetic linkage map was constructed by using simple sequence repeat and amplified fragment length polymorphism markers in the BC1F1 population derived from a cross between cultivated and wild rice bean. Using this map, 31 domestication-related traits were dissected into quantitative trait loci (QTLs). The genetic linkage map and QTLs of rice bean were compared with those of azuki bean. Key Results A total of 326 markers converged into 11 linkage groups (LGs), corresponding to the haploid number of rice bean chromosomes. The domestication-related traits in rice bean associated with a few major QTLs distributed as clusters on LGs 2, 4 and 7. A high level of co-linearity in marker order between the rice bean and azuki bean linkage maps was observed. Major QTLs in rice bean were found on LG4, whereas major QTLs in azuki bean were found on LG9. Conclusions This is the first report of a genetic linkage map and QTLs for domestication-related traits in rice bean. The inheritance of domestication-related traits was so simple that a few major QTLs explained the phenotypic variation between cultivated and wild rice bean. The high level of genomic synteny between rice bean and azuki bean facilitates QTL comparison between species. These results provide a genetic foundation for improvement of rice bean; interchange of major QTLs between rice bean and azuki bean might be useful for broadening the genetic variation of both species. PMID:20880934

  17. Isolation of a virulent Lactobacillus brevis phage and its application in the control of beer spoilage.

    PubMed

    Deasy, Therese; Mahony, Jennifer; Neve, Horst; Heller, Knut J; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2011-12-01

    Beer quality can be compromised by the growth of certain lactobacilli, in particular Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus plantarum, and various strategies have been used to control such bacterial spoilage. Biocontrol by means of bacteriophage is a reemerging approach for the suppression of spoilage bacteria in food and beverage matrices. A virulent phage capable of infecting L. brevis beer-spoilage strains was isolated and morphologically assessed by electron microscopy. The myophage SA-C12 was shown to be stable in beer and capable of controlling the growth of its host, L. brevis strain 56, in commercial beer. The results of this study indicate that bacteriophage-based treatments may be used as an alternative and natural strategy for the control of bacterial contamination of beer.

  18. beta-Glucanases as a tool for the control of wine spoilage yeasts.

    PubMed

    Enrique, M; Ibáñez, A; Marcos, J F; Yuste, M; Martínez, M; Vallés, S; Manzanares, P

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the antimicrobial activity of a commercial beta-glucanase preparation against wine spoilage yeasts such as Cryptococcus albidus, Dekkera bruxellensis, Pichia membranifaciens, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, and Zygosaccharomyces bisporus has been evaluated. Yeast species tested showed different sensitivities to the enzyme preparation. In vitro assays in laboratory medium (GPY) showed inhibition by the beta-glucanase preparation of D. bruxellensis and Z. bailii growth with IC(50) and MIC values approximately 3 to 4-fold greater than the recommended dose for improving wine filtration. Wine spoilage experiments showed antimicrobial action against D. bruxellensis and Z. bailii although with reduced effectiveness to that showed in laboratory medium. Under the conditions tested, the addition of beta-glucanase did not affect wine enological parameters. Our data suggest the potential use of beta-glucanases as antimicrobial agents in wine and indicate that the application of antimicrobial enzymes for yeast spoilage control deserves further investigation.

  19. Comparison of pathogenic and spoilage bacterial levels on refrigerated poultry parts following treatment with trisodium phosphate.

    PubMed

    del Río, Elena; Capita, Rosa; Prieto, Miguel; Alonso-Calleja, Carlos

    2006-04-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether trisodium phosphate decontamination of poultry could give a competitive advantage to pathogens and increase microbiological risk to consumers. Chicken legs were co-inoculated with similar concentrations of pathogenic (Salmonella Enteritidis or Listeria monocytogenes) and spoilage (Pseudomonas fluorescens or Brochothrix thermosphacta) bacteria. Samples were dipped in TSP (12%, 15 min) or were non-treated (control). Microbiological analyses were carried out at 0, 1, 3 and 5 days of storage (3 degrees C). Levels of spoilage bacteria were higher than those of S. Enteritidis on both treated and non-treated legs. Similar bacterial loads were observed for L. monocytogenes and B. thermosphacta. However, P. fluorescens counts on TSP-treated samples were significantly lower than those of L. monocytogenes at all sampling times. Our results found that P. fluorescens (a spoilage organism) was more susceptible to TSP treatment than L. monocytogenes when inoculated at 10(6) cfu g(-1).

  20. FOLATE CONTENT IN SELECT DRY BEAN GENOTYPES

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dry edible beans are a good natural source of folate (½-cup serving of cooked beans provide 35% daily value of folate). Recognized healthful benefits of folate in the human diet include reduced birth defects, decreased plasma homocysteine level which is a risk factor in cardiovascular disease, reduc...

  1. Astronaut Alan Bean shaves while aboard Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Skylab 3 commander, uses battery powered shaver while in the crew quarters of the Skylab space station's Orbital Workshop (OWS) crew quarters. This photograph was taken with a 35mm Nikon camera held by one of Bean's fellow crewmen during the 56.5 day second manned Skylab mission in Earth orbit.

  2. Registration of ‘Samurai’ Otebo Bean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ‘Samurai’ otebo bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (Reg. no. CV- , PI ), developed by Michigan State University AgBioResearch was released in 2015 as an upright, full-season cultivar with virus [caused by Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV)] resistance and high-yield potential. Samurai was developed using ped...

  3. Common beans, diseases: ecology and control

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, is one of the most important edible legume crops worldwide, nutritionally and economically. Diseases caused by pathogens that affect beans can have catastrophic effects, destroying entire crops in some instances. There are more than 200 pathogens (bacterial, fungal,...

  4. Astronaut Bean - Acrobatics - Orbital Workshop (OWS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-08-20

    S73-32632 (19 Aug. 1973) --- Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Skylab 3 commander, performs acrobatics and simulated gymnastics in the dome area of the Orbital Workshop in this photographic reproduction taken from a television transmission made by a color TV camera aboard the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. Bean appears to be floating in a diving position. Photo credit: NASA

  5. Bean Samples The Ocean of Storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Lunar Module pilot for the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission, holds a Special Environmental Sample Container filled with lunar soil collected during the extravehicular activity (EVA) in which Astronauts Charles Conrad Jr., commander, and Bean participated. Connrad, who took this picture, is reflected in the helmet visor of the Lunar Module pilot.

  6. Extraction and analysis of coffee bean allergens.

    PubMed

    Lehrer, S B; Karr, R M; Salvaggio, J E

    1978-05-01

    Workers in the coffee industry can develop occupational allergic disease upon exposure to dust associated with coffee manufacturing. Since controversy exists as to the source or chemical nature of these allergens, the mouse model of reaginic antibody production was used to assess the potential sources of allergens in samples obtained from a local coffee manufacturing plant. Mice were immunized with extracts of coffee dust and beans and the resulting reaginic antibody response determined by the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction. Cross-reacting allergens were detected in samples of coffee dust, cleaner can debris and green coffee beans, but not in chaff or roasted coffee beans. None of the allergens detected in coffee samples cross-reacted with extract of castor beans, although these extracts contained the potent castor bean allergen. Green coffee bean allergens partially purified by gel filtration were heterogeneous with respect to molecular size, although quite similar in their reactivity with reaginic antiserum. These results suggest that the green coffee bean is the major source of allergen in coffee manufacturing plants. This allergen is heterogeneous with respect to size and heat lability, and is immunochemically different from the castor bean allergen.

  7. Accessing spoilage features of osmotolerant yeasts identified from kiwifruit plantation and processing environment in Shaanxi, China.

    PubMed

    Niu, Chen; Yuan, Yahong; Hu, Zhongqiu; Wang, Zhouli; Liu, Bin; Wang, Huxuan; Yue, Tianli

    2016-09-02

    Osmotolerant yeasts originating from kiwifruit industrial chain can result in spoilage incidences, while little information is available about their species and spoilage features. This work identified possible spoilage osmotolerant yeasts from orchards and a manufacturer (quick-freeze kiwifruit manufacturer) in main producing areas in Shaanxi, China and further characterized their spoilage features. A total of 86 osmotolerant isolates dispersing over 29 species were identified through 26S rDNA sequencing at the D1/D2 domain, among which Hanseniaspora uvarum occurred most frequently and have intimate relationships with kiwifruit. RAPD analysis indicated a high variability of this species from sampling regions. The correlation of genotypes with origins was established except for isolates from Zhouzhi orchards, and the mobility of H. uvarum from orchard to the manufacturer can be speculated and contributed to spoilage sourcing. The manufacturing environment favored the inhabitance of osmotolerant yeasts more than the orchard by giving high positive sample ratio or osmotolerant yeast ratio. The growth curves under various glucose levels were fitted by Grofit R package and the obtained growth parameters indicated phenotypic diversity in the H. uvarum and the rest species. Wickerhamomyces anomalus (OM14) and Candida glabrata (OZ17) were the most glucose tolerant species and availability of high glucose would assist them to produce more gas. The test osmotolerant species were odor altering in kiwifruit concentrate juice. 3-Methyl-1-butanol, phenylethyl alcohol, phenylethyl acetate, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) and ethyl acetate were the most altered compound identified by GC/MS in the juice. Particularly, W. anomalus produced 4-vinylguaiacol and M. guilliermondii produced 4-ethylguaiacol that would imperil product acceptance. The study determines the target spoilers as well as offering a detailed spoilage features, which will be instructive in implementing preventative

  8. Proteome Characterization of Leaves in Common Bean

    PubMed Central

    Robison, Faith M.; Heuberger, Adam L.; Brick, Mark A.; Prenni, Jessica E.

    2015-01-01

    Dry edible bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a globally relevant food crop. The bean genome was recently sequenced and annotated allowing for proteomics investigations aimed at characterization of leaf phenotypes important to agriculture. The objective of this study was to utilize a shotgun proteomics approach to characterize the leaf proteome and to identify protein abundance differences between two bean lines with known variation in their physiological resistance to biotic stresses. Overall, 640 proteins were confidently identified. Among these are proteins known to be involved in a variety of molecular functions including oxidoreductase activity, binding peroxidase activity, and hydrolase activity. Twenty nine proteins were found to significantly vary in abundance (p-value < 0.05) between the two bean lines, including proteins associated with biotic stress. To our knowledge, this work represents the first large scale shotgun proteomic analysis of beans and our results lay the groundwork for future studies designed to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in pathogen resistance. PMID:28248269

  9. Insight into the Genome of Brochothrix thermosphacta, a Problematic Meat Spoilage Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Fegan, Narelle; Powell, Shane M.; Tamplin, Mark; Chandry, P. Scott

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Brochothrix thermosphacta is a dominant but poorly studied meat spoilage organism. It is a close relative of the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, and Brochothrix constitutes the second genus in the Listeriaceae family. Here, the genomes of 12 B. thermosphacta strains were sequenced, assembled into draft genomes, characterized, and compared with the genomes of Brochothrix campestris and L. monocytogenes. Phenotypic properties including biogenic amine production and antibiotic and heavy metal susceptibilities were tested. Comparative genomic analyses revealed a high degree of similarity among the B. thermosphacta strains, with bacteriophage genes constituting a significant proportion of the accessory genome. Genes for the production of the malodorous compounds acetate, acetoin, butanediol, and fatty acids were found, as were stress response regulatory genes, which likely play important roles in the spoilage process. Amino acid decarboxylases were not identified in the genomes, and phenotypic testing confirmed their absence. Orthologs of Listeria virulence proteins involved in virulence regulation, intracellular survival, and surface protein anchoring were found; however, key virulence genes were absent. Analysis of antibiotic susceptibility showed that strains were sensitive to the four tested antibiotics, except for one tetracycline-resistant isolate with plasmid-mediated tetracycline resistance genes. Strains tolerated higher levels of copper and cobalt than of cadmium although not at concentrations high enough to categorize the strains as being resistant. This study provides insight into the Brochothrix genome, links previous phenotypic data and data provided here to the gene inventory, and identifies genes that may contribute to the persistence of this organism in the food chain. IMPORTANCE Despite increasing knowledge and advances in food preservation techniques, microbial spoilage of foods causes substantial losses, with negative social and

  10. Proteases of germinating winged-bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus) seeds: purification and characterization of an acidic protease.

    PubMed

    Usha, R; Singh, M

    1996-01-15

    Two major classes of protease are shown to occur in germinating winged-bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus) seeds, by assaying extracts at pH 8.0 and pH 5.1 with [14C]gelatin as substrate. At pH 8.0, the activity profile of the enzyme shows a steady rise throughout the period of germination, whereas the activity at the acidic pH is very low up to day 5 and then increases sharply reaching a peak on day 11, followed by an equally sharp decline. The winged-bean acidic protease (WbAP) has been purified to apparent homogeneity, as attested by a single protein band on both PAGE and SDS/PAGE. WbAP is a monomeric enzyme with a molecular mass of 35 kDa and a pH optimum of 6.0. It is a thiol protease that does not belong to the papain family and it has tightly bound Ca2+ as shown by 45Ca(2+)-exchange studies. Besides gelatin and casein, it hydrolyses a 29 kDa winged-bean protein, indicating a prospective physiological role for it in storage-protein mobilization. Immunoblot analysis shows that it occurs only in the seeds and sprouting tubers of this plant and also that it is synthesized in developing seeds just before desiccation. It appears that the newly synthesized enzyme is inactive, and activation takes place around day 6 of germination. However, neither the mechanism of activation nor the signal that triggers it is clearly understood.

  11. Total polyphenols and bioactivity of seeds and sprouts in several legumes.

    PubMed

    Chon, Sang-Uk

    2013-01-01

    Seeds and sprouts from legume crop plants have received attention as functional foods, because of their nutritive values including amino acid, fiber, trace elements, vitamins, flavonoids, and phenolic acids. Consumption of seeds and sprouts has become increasingly popular among people interested in improving and maintaining their health status by changing dietary habits. The seeds and sprouts are excellent examples of functional food defined as lowering the risk of various diseases and/or exerting health promoting effects in addition to its nutritive value. Phenolic compounds are considered as secondary metabolites that are synthesized by plants during normal development and in response to stress conditions, and the compounds occur ubiquitously in plants as the diversified group of phytochemicals derived from phenylalanine and tyrosine. Plant phenolics include simple phenols, phenolic acids, coumarins, flavonoids, stilbenes, hydrolyzable and condensed tannins, lignans, and lignins. In plant, phenolics may act as phytoalexins, antifeedants, attractants for pollinators, contributors to the plant pigmentation, antioxidants, and protective agents against UV light, among others. In food, phenolics may contribute to the bitterness, astringency, color, flavor, odor, and oxidative stability of products. In addition, health-protecting capacity of some and antinutritional properties of other plant phenolics are of great importance to producers, processors and consumers. Several researches were conducted to compare the content of phenolics and flavonoids, antioxidant activity and antioxidant enzyme activity from seeds and sprouts of legume plants. Total phenolics (TP) content and total flavonoids (TF) level were highest in soybean sprout extracts, followed by cowpea and mungbean sprout extracts (p < 0.05). DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical) free radical scavenging activity was higher in cowpea or mungbean sprouts than in soybean sprouts. Among antioxidant enzymes

  12. Effect of NaCl treatments on glucosinolate metabolism in broccoli sprouts*

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Rong-fang; Yuan, Gao-feng; Wang, Qiao-mei

    2013-01-01

    To understand the regulation mechanism of NaCl on glucosinolate metabolism in broccoli sprouts, the germination rate, fresh weight, contents of glucosinolates and sulforaphane, as well as myrosinase activity of broccoli sprouts germinated under 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mmol/L of NaCl were investigated in our experiment. The results showed that glucoerucin, glucobrassicin, and 4-hydroxy glucobrassicin in 7-d-old broccoli sprouts were significantly enhanced and the activity of myrosinase was inhibited by 100 mmol/L of NaCl. However, the total glucosinolate content in 7-d-old broccoli sprouts was markedly decreased although the fresh weight was significantly increased after treatment with NaCl at relatively low concentrations (20, 40, and 60 mmol/L). NaCl treatment at the concentration of 60 mmol/L for 5 d maintained higher biomass and comparatively higher content of glucosinolates in sprouts of broccoli with decreased myrosinase activity. A relatively high level of NaCl treatment (100 mmol/L) significantly increased the content of sulforaphane in 7-d-old broccoli sprouts compared with the control. These results indicate that broccoli sprouts grown under a suitable concentration of NaCl could be desirable for human nutrition. PMID:23365011

  13. Regenerating sprouts of axotomized cat muscle afferents express characteristic firing patterns to mechanical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R D; Munson, J B

    1991-12-01

    1. In cats, we studied the physiological properties of regenerating sprouts of muscle afferent fibers and compared them with sprouts from cutaneous afferent fibers. 2. Muscle nerves to the triceps surae and cutaneous sural nerves were axotomized in the popliteal fossa, and the proximal ends were inserted into nerve cuffs. Six days later, we recorded action potentials from single Groups I and II muscle and mostly Group II cutaneous afferents driven by mechanostimulation of the cuff. 3. Most muscle afferent sprouts (91%) had a regular slowly adapting discharge in response to sustained mechanical displacement of the cuff, particularly to sustained stretch stimuli, whereas most cutaneous afferents (92%) did not. Muscle afferents were more likely to have a spontaneous discharge and afterdischarge. 4. Group II muscle afferent sprouts had lower stretch thresholds and a higher incidence of spontaneous discharge compared with Group I fiber sprouts, whereas Group I fibers had a higher incidence of high-frequency afterdischarge to mechanical stimuli. 5. We conclude that, 6 days after axotomy, regenerating sprouts of muscle afferents, particularly Group II afferents, have become mechanosensitive in the absence of a receptor target and exhibit physiological properties similar to those found when innervating their native muscle but significantly different from sprouts of cutaneous afferents. Expression of these native muscle afferent firing patterns after the inappropriate reinnervation of hairy skin may be due to inherent properties of the muscle afferent fiber.

  14. Effect of salinity stress on phenolic compounds and carotenoids in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.) sprout.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jeong-Ho; Park, Kee-Jai; Kim, Bum-Keun; Jeong, Jin-Woong; Kim, Hyun-Jin

    2012-12-01

    The effect of salinity stress on the nutritional quality of buckwheat sprouts cultivated for 1, 3, 5, and 7d was investigated by analysis of the antioxidant activity and levels of phenolic compounds and carotenoids. Treatment with various concentrations of NaCl (10, 50, 100, and 200mM) resulted in an increase in the amount of phenolic compounds and carotenoids in the sprouts compared with the control (0mM). The phenolic contents of sprouts treated with 10, 50, and 100mM after 7d of cultivation were 57%, 121%, and 153%, respectively, higher than that of the control (0mM NaCl). Moreover, the accumulation of phenolic compounds was primarily caused by an increase in the levels of 4 compounds: isoorientin, orientin, rutin, and vitexin. The carotenoid content of sprouts treated with 50 and 100mM NaCl was twice higher than that of the control. In addition, the antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts of the sprouts was increased by NaCl treatment. Although the growth rate of sprouts decreased with >50mM NaCl, these results suggest that treatment of an appropriate concentration of NaCl improves the nutritional quality of sprouts, including the level of phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Endophytic bacterial and fungal communities transmitted from cotyledons and germs in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) sprouts.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yali; Kuang, Zaoyuan; Deng, Zujun; Zhang, Ren; Cao, Lixiang

    2017-07-01

    Seed-borne endophytes could be transmitted into sprouts. Whether this happened in peanuts and the difference between microbial taxa in peanut germs and cotyledons remain unknown. In this research, Illumina-based sequencing was employed to investigate the microbial taxa in peanut germs, cotyledons, and sprouts. Sulfur-oxidizing bacteria was isolated and inoculated into peanut sprouts, and then, the growth of peanut seedlings was measured. The results illustrated that diverse bacteria and fungi were detected in peanut germs, cotyledons, and sprouts. The number of bacterial OTUs declined with the germination from germs and cotyledons to sprouts. However, the number of fungal OTUs increased during the seedling procedure. Seed-borne dominant bacterial genera Halothiobacillus and Synechococcus and fungal genera Humicola, Emericella, and Penicillium were detected in sprouts. Based on the endophytic community information, the Halothiobacillus strains were isolated from sprouts. Pot experiments that illustrated the growth of peanut seedlings inoculated with the strain were promoted. These results provide new understanding into plant-microbe interactions in peanut and suggest that the selection for biocontrol agents based on mycobiome and bacteriome analysis is reliable and feasible compared with the present greenhouse selection.

  16. Seizure-Induced Axonal Sprouting: Assessing Connections Between Injury, Local Circuits, and Epileptogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sutula, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Neurons and neural circuits undergo extensive structural and functional remodeling in response to seizures. Sprouting of axons in the mossy fiber pathway of the hippocampus is a prominent example of a seizure-induced structural alteration which has received particular attention because it is easily detected, is induced by intense or repeated brief seizures in focal chronic models of epilepsy, and is also observed in the human epileptic hippocampus. During the last decade the association of mossy fiber sprouting with seizures and epilepsy has been firmly established. Many anatomical features of mossy fiber sprouting have been described in considerable detail, and there is evidence that sprouting occurs in a variety of other pathways in association with seizures and injury. There is uncertainty, however, about how or when mossy fiber sprouting may contribute to hippocampal dysfunction and generation of seizures. Study of mossy fiber sprouting has provided a strong theoretical and conceptual framework for efforts to understand how seizures and injury may contribute to epileptogenesis and its consequences. It is likely that investigation of mossy fiber sprouting will continure to offer significant opportunities for insights into seizure-induced plasticity of neural circuits at molecular, cellular, and systems levels. PMID:15309153

  17. Effect of sprouting and light cycle on antioxidant activity of Brassica oleracea varieties.

    PubMed

    Vale, Ana Paula; Cidade, Honorina; Pinto, Madalena; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2014-12-15

    The antioxidant activity of sprouts from four Brassica oleracea varieties was evaluated using "in vitro" methods (total phenolic and flavonoid content; radical scavenging assays: DPPH, hydroxyl and peroxyl; and Ferrous Ion-chelating Ability Assay). Light cycles and sprouting influenced the potential antioxidant activity of sprouts and significant differences were observed between varieties. Generally, antioxidant activity decreased with sprouting and increased in the presence of light, whose discriminant effect was highly significant (P<0.001). Red cabbage sprouts produced under light cycles showed the highest antioxidant activity (57.11 μg mL(-1) Ferrous Ion-chelating Ability, 221.46 μg mL(-1) Hydroxyl radical scavenging, 279.02 μg mL(-1) Peroxyl radical scavenging). Among the traditional Portuguese brassica varieties, Penca cabbage sprouts produced under light presented higher antioxidant capacity, and also higher phenolic and flavonoid content (54.04 mg GAEg(-1) d.w. extract and 21.33 QEg(-1) d.w. extract, respectively) than Galega kale. The phenolic content of Brassica sprouts had a significant contribution to the antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Isoflavone content and composition in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) sprouts germinated under different conditions.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yue; Yao, Yang; Zhu, Yingying; Ren, Guixing

    2015-03-18

    The influence of different germination conditions on isoflavone contents in chickpea sprouts was investigated in this study. Chickpea sprouts were germinated under different experimental conditions, including germination in the dark (GD), in the light (GL), under ethanol stress (GE), or under salt stress (GS) in the dark. The results demonstrated that the isoflavone contents in chickpea sprouts germinated with these various conditions significantly increased (p<0.05) compared to those in untreated chickpea seeds. The maximum amount of total isoflavones was obtained from chickpea sprouts in the GL group on day 8. The contents of formononetin and biochanin A in this group were 154 and 130 times higher, respectively, than in untreated seeds and 1.2 times higher than in sprouts in the GD group. Moreover, the isoflavone contents of chickpea sprouts in the GE and GS groups were also higher (p<0.05) than those in the GD group. A solution of 3% ethanol and 0.03 mol/L salt seemed to be the most optimal for isoflavone production among the solutions selected for this study. Most of the isoflavone contents significantly increased (p<0.05), especially formononetin and biochanin A, while the genistein content decreased with germination. Ononin, pseudobaptigenin, and glycitein glucoside acetylated were only detected in germinated chickpeas. This finding could expand the potential for the development of chickpea sprouts as a functional food.

  19. Nutritional and Antioxidant Potential of Lentil Sprouts Affected by Elicitation with Temperature Stress.

    PubMed

    Swieca, Michał; Baraniak, Barbara

    2014-03-28

    The influences of temperature stress on antioxidant potential and nutritional quality of lentil sprouts were studied. Temperature treatments (TC, 1 h at 4 °C; TH, 1 h at 40 °C) significantly improved the nutraceutical potential without any negative effect on nutritional quality. In comparison to control, elicited sprouts were characterized by elevated content of condensed tannins, flavonoids, and total phenolics. The highest content of total phenolics and flavonoids was determined for 6-day-old TH sprouts -23.7 ± 0.87 and 2.50 ± 0.07 mg/(g of dry weight (DW)), respectively. The general trend of antiradical, lipid preventing, and reducing properties in elicited sprouts indicates a significantly improvement of these activities. The highest reducing power was determined for 6-day-old sprouts induced at TH (0.43 ± 0.02 mmol of Trolox/(g of DW)), while the lowest for 3-day-old sprouts elicited at TC (0.29 ± 0.02 mmol of Trolox/(g of DW)). Both modifications effectively elevated the ability to prevent lipids against oxidation (in 3-day-old sprouts a 3.3- and 4-fold increase for TC and TH, respectively).

  20. Effect of NaCl treatments on glucosinolate metabolism in broccoli sprouts.

    PubMed

    Guo, Rong-fang; Yuan, Gao-feng; Wang, Qiao-mei

    2013-02-01

    To understand the regulation mechanism of NaCl on glucosinolate metabolism in broccoli sprouts, the germination rate, fresh weight, contents of glucosinolates and sulforaphane, as well as myrosinase activity of broccoli sprouts germinated under 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mmol/L of NaCl were investigated in our experiment. The results showed that glucoerucin, glucobrassicin, and 4-hydroxy glucobrassicin in 7-d-old broccoli sprouts were significantly enhanced and the activity of myrosinase was inhibited by 100 mmol/L of NaCl. However, the total glucosinolate content in 7-d-old broccoli sprouts was markedly decreased although the fresh weight was significantly increased after treatment with NaCl at relatively low concentrations (20, 40, and 60 mmol/L). NaCl treatment at the concentration of 60 mmol/L for 5 d maintained higher biomass and comparatively higher content of glucosinolates in sprouts of broccoli with decreased myrosinase activity. A relatively high level of NaCl treatment (100 mmol/L) significantly increased the content of sulforaphane in 7-d-old broccoli sprouts compared with the control. These results indicate that broccoli sprouts grown under a suitable concentration of NaCl could be desirable for human nutrition.

  1. Breeding black beans for Haiti with multiple virus resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Black bean production in the lowlands of Central America and the Caribbean is threatened by Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) and Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV). Therefore, the objective of this research was to develop, test and release tropically-adapted black bean lines with resis...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1343 - Locust (carob) bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Locust (carob) bean gum. 184.1343 Section 184.1343... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1343 Locust (carob) bean gum. (a) Locust (carob) bean gum is primarily the macerated endosperm of the seed of the locust (carob) bean tree, Ceratonia...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1343 - Locust (carob) bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Locust (carob) bean gum. 184.1343 Section 184.1343... GRAS § 184.1343 Locust (carob) bean gum. (a) Locust (carob) bean gum is primarily the macerated endosperm of the seed of the locust (carob) bean tree, Ceratonia siliqua (Linne), a leguminous evergreen...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1343 - Locust (carob) bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Locust (carob) bean gum. 184.1343 Section 184.1343... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1343 Locust (carob) bean gum. (a) Locust (carob) bean gum is primarily the macerated endosperm of the seed of the locust (carob) bean tree, Ceratonia...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1343 - Locust (carob) bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Locust (carob) bean gum. 184.1343 Section 184.1343... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1343 Locust (carob) bean gum. (a) Locust (carob) bean gum is primarily the macerated endosperm of the seed of the locust (carob) bean tree, Ceratonia...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1343 - Locust (carob) bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Locust (carob) bean gum. 184.1343 Section 184.1343... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1343 Locust (carob) bean gum. (a) Locust (carob) bean gum is primarily the macerated endosperm of the seed of the locust (carob) bean tree, Ceratonia...

  7. Development, release and dissemination of "Sankara" black bean in Haiti

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production in the Caribbean is threatened by Bean Golden Yellow Mosaic Virus (BGYMV), Bean Common Mosaic Virus (BCMV) and Bean Common Mosaic Necrosis Virus (BCMNV). The University of Puerto Rico, the University of Nebraska, the USDA-ARS, Zamorano and the National ...

  8. Key odorants in cured Madagascar vanilla beans (Vanilla planiforia) of differing bean quality.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Makoto; Inai, Yoko; Miyazawa, Norio; Kurobayashi, Yoshiko; Fujita, Akira

    2013-01-01

    The odor-active volatiles in Madagascar vanilla beans (Vanilla planiforia) of two grades, red whole beans as standard quality and cuts beans as substandard quality, were characterized by instrumental and sensory analyses. The higher contents of vanillin and β-damascenone in red whole beans than in cuts beans respectively contributed to significant differences in the sweet and dried fruit-like notes, while the higher contents of guaiacol and 3-phenylpropanoic acid in cuts beans than in red whole beans respectively contributed to significant differences in the phenolic and metallic notes. A sensory evaluation to compare red whole beans and their reconstituted aroma characterized both samples as being similar, while in respect of the phenolic note, the reconstituted aroma significantly differed from the reconstituted aroma with guaiacol added at the concentration ratio of vanillin and guaiacol in cuts beans. It is suggested from these results that the concentration ratio of vanillin and guaiacol could be used as an index for the quality of Madagascar vanilla beans.

  9. Recycled palm oil spoilage: Correlation between physicochemical properties and oleophilicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadir, Ili Afiqa Ab; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan; Jurid, Lailatul Syema

    2016-11-01

    Palm oil is widely used for domestic and commercial frying due to its techno-economic advantages as compared to other vegetable oils. However, if the oil is used beyond its recommended usage cycle, it might lead to oil spoilage. Therefore this study focuses on the comprehensive analysis of chemical and physical properties of recycled palm oil. Recycled palm oil was prepared by frying potato strips up to 4 batches; 5 cycles for each batch) was carried out with potato (g)-to-oil (ml) ratio of 3/20 prior to physico-chemical analysis (moisture content, color measurement, viscosity, density and iodine value. From 5 tests used to indicate physico-chemical properties of recycled palm oil, only color measurement, viscosity and IV shows results accordingly to theories. Whereas moisture content and density were not comply to theories. With increasing frying times, recycled palm oil color has been darker due to chemical reaction that occurs during frying. The trend line illustrates that with increasing frying times, recycled palm oil lightness decreases. It also means that its color has been darker. Meanwhile, b* rate increase indicating that recycled palm oil show tendency towards green color. Whereas, a* rate decreased, showing low tendency towards red color. Viscosity and moisture content increase with frying cycle. This situation occurred might be due to formation of hydrolysis products which are volatile while frying process. But the remaining non-volatile compounds among the hydrolysis products might also accumulate in palm oil and thus affect the total oil/fat chemical changes. Meanwhile the density of palm oil was quite constant at 0.15 g/cm3 except for cycle 2 with 0.17 g/cm3. The result obtained from this experiment were comply with previous study that stated frying batch number is a significant variable (a = 0.05) affecting the density of oil only after 20 frying batch. The contact angle of recycled palm oil on PHBV thin film was more than 90 °. Hence it shows

  10. Spoilage evaluation, shelf-life prediction, and potential spoilage organisms of tropical brackish water shrimp (Penaeus notialis) at different storage temperatures.

    PubMed

    Dabadé, D Sylvain; den Besten, Heidy M W; Azokpota, Paulin; Nout, M J Robert; Hounhouigan, D Joseph; Zwietering, Marcel H

    2015-06-01

    Maintaining the freshness of shrimp is a concern to shrimp stakeholders. To improve shrimp quality management, it is of importance to evaluate shrimp spoilage characteristics. Therefore, microbiological, sensory, and chemical changes of naturally contaminated tropical brackish water shrimp (Penaeus notialis) during storage at 28 °C, 7 °C and 0 °C were assessed. H2S-producing bacteria were the dominant group of microorganisms at 28 °C and 7 °C whereas Pseudomonas spp. were dominant at 0 °C. Total volatile basic nitrogen and trimethylamine correlated well (R(2) > 0.90) with the sensory scores. An empirical model to predict the shelf-life of naturally contaminated tropical shrimp as a function of storage temperature was developed. Specific groups of organisms were isolated at the sensory rejection times and assessed for spoilage potential in shrimps of which the endogenous flora was heat inactivated. Isolates capable of producing strong off-odor identified by 16S rRNA sequencing were mainly lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Enterobacteriaceae at 28 °C or 7 °C and Pseudomonas spp. and LAB at 0 °C. The study contributes to the knowledge about tropical shrimp spoilage and provides a basis for the development of methods and tools to improve shrimp quality management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Natural antioxidants in purple sprouting broccoli under Mediterranean climate.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Hernández, María del Carmen; Moreno, Diego A; Carvajal, Micaela; García-Viguera, Cristina; Martínez-Ballesta, María del Carmen

    2012-10-01

    Broccoli, (Brassica oleracea var. Italica), is generally recognized as a nutritive food rich in natural antioxidants, including vitamins and phenolics compounds. Phytochemical composition of 3 different purple sprouting broccoli varieties according with their production cycle: EEP (Extra Early), EP (Early), and LP (Late) were determined. The 3 cultivars tested were grown under the same conditions in an experimental field (SE Spain) where they were not previously cultivated since these cultivars are typical of cold, Northern-European areas. EP variety showed greater growth according to the photosynthetic rate and C assimilation. However, it was not possible to obtain inflorescences for variety LP. The health-promoting compounds (vitamin C, phenolic compounds, and glucosinolates) were higher in purple broccolis than in traditionally grown green broccolis and showed differences according to the variety. With respect to the use of broccoli byproducts as source of antioxidants, any variety would be suitable although the leaves of EP variety seems the richest in total phenolic acids, whereas the amount of anthocyanins was higher in LP variety, followed by EP and EEP varieties. Under our experimental conditions, the levels of glucosinolates were higher in purple broccoli than in green cultivars and also higher than other purple broccolis grown under different climate conditions. Therefore, the results reported data for production of the EEP and EP varieties in the Mediterranean climate with potential to obtain vegetables with improved nutritional quality. The results of this study reported data of the health-promoting nutrients and natural antioxidants of EEP, EP, and LP purple sprouting broccoli varieties grown under the Mediterranean climate. The vitamin C, phenolic compounds, and glucosinolates in these purple varieties were higher than in traditionally grown green broccolis and other purple broccolis grown under different climate conditions. © 2012 Institute of Food

  12. Vascular sprouts induce local attraction of proangiogenic neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Christoffersson, Gustaf; Lomei, Jalal; O'Callaghan, Paul; Kreuger, Johan; Engblom, Stefan; Phillipson, Mia

    2017-09-01

    Angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels, is a complex process requiring the orchestration of numerous different cell types, growth factors, and chemokines. Some of the recently acknowledged actors in this process are immune cells. They accumulate at hypoxic sites, but the kinetics, dynamics, and regulation of that trafficking are unknown. In this study, we used intravital and live cell imaging to understand how neutrophils and macrophages migrate and behave at angiogenic sites. We developed two reproducible models of angiogenesis: one by transplanting isolated and hypoxic pancreatic islets into the cremaster muscles of mice, and another by in vitro coculturing of mouse aortic rings with neutrophils. In vivo imaging of the hypoxic site revealed recruitment of neutrophils and macrophages, which occurred in parallel, with depletion of one subset not affecting the accumulation of the other. We found, by cell tracking and statistical analyses, that neutrophils migrated in a directional manner to "angiogenic hotspots" around the islet where endothelial sprouting occurs, which was confirmed in the in vitro model of angiogenesis and is dependent on CXCL12 signaling. Intimate interactions between neutrophils and neovessels were prevalent, and neutrophil depletion greatly hampered vessel growth. Macrophages were less motile and attained supportive positions around the neovessels. Here, we present two novel in vivo and in vitro imaging models to study leukocyte behavior and actions during angiogenesis. These models unveiled that neutrophil migration at a hypoxic site was guided by signals emanating from sprouting endothelium where these immune cells gathered at "angiogenic hotspots" at which vascular growth occurred. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  13. Cardiac fibroblasts support endothelial cell proliferation and sprout formation but not the development of multicellular sprouts in a fibrin gel co-culture model.

    PubMed

    Twardowski, Rachel L; Black, Lauren D

    2014-05-01

    A primary impediment to cardiac tissue engineering lies in the inability to adequately vascularize the constructs to optimize survival upon implantation. During normal angiogenesis, endothelial cells (ECs) require a support cell to form mature patent lumens and it has been demonstrated that pericytes, vascular smooth muscle cells and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are all able to support the formation of mature vessels. In the heart, cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) provide important electrical and mechanical functions, but to date have not been sufficiently studied for their role in angiogenesis. To study CFs role in angiogenesis, we co-cultured different concentrations of various cell types in fibrin hemispheres with appropriate combinations of their specific media, to determine the optimal conditions for EC growth and sprout formation through DNA analysis, flow cytometry and immunohistology. ECs proliferated best when co-cultured with CFs and analysis of immunohistological images demonstrated that ECs formed the longest and most numerous sprouts with CFs as compared to MSCs. However, ECs were able to produce more multicellular sprouts when in culture with the MSCs. Moreover, these effects were dependent on the ratio of support cell to EC in co-culture. Overall, CFs provide a good support system for EC proliferation and sprout formation; however, MSCs allow for more multicellular sprouts, which is more indicative of the in vivo process.

  14. Cardiac Fibroblasts Support Endothelial Cell Proliferation and Sprout Formation but not the Development of Multicellular Sprouts in a Fibrin Gel Co-Culture Model

    PubMed Central

    Twardowski, Rachel L.; Black, Lauren D.

    2014-01-01

    A primary impediment to cardiac tissue engineering lies in the inability to adequately vascularize the constructs to optimize survival upon implantation. During normal angiogenesis, endothelial cells (ECs) require a support cell to form mature patent lumens and it has been demonstrated that pericytes, vascular smooth muscle cells and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are all able to support the formation of mature vessels. In the heart, cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) provide important electrical and mechanical functions, but to date have not been sufficiently studied for their role in angiogenesis. To study CFs role in angiogenesis, we co-cultured different concentrations of various cell types in fibrin hemispheres with appropriate combinations of their specific media, to determine the optimal conditions for EC growth and sprout formation through DNA analysis, flow cytometry and immunohistology. ECs proliferated best when co-cultured with CFs and analysis of immunohistological images demonstrated that ECs formed the longest and most numerous sprouts with CFs as compared to MSCs. However, ECs were able to produce more multicellular sprouts when in culture with the MSCs. Moreover, these effects were dependent on the ratio of support cell to EC in co-culture. Overall, CFs provide a good support system for EC proliferation and sprout formation; however, MSCs allow for more multicellular sprouts, which is more indicative of the in vivo process. PMID:24435656

  15. Photocatalytic disinfection of spoilage bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens and Macrococcus caseolyticus by nano-TiO2

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Photocatalytic disinfection of spoilage bacteria gram-negative (G-) P. fluorescens and gram-positive (G+) M. caseolyticus by nano-TiO2 under different experimental conditions and the disinfection mechanism were investigated. The experimental conditions included the initial bacterial populations, nan...

  16. Spoilage of sous vide cooked salmon (Salmo salar) stored under refrigeration.

    PubMed

    Díaz, P; Garrido, M D; Bañón, S

    2011-02-01

    The spoilage of Sous Vide 'SV' cooked salmon stored under refrigeration was studied. Samples were packaged under vacuum in polyamide-polypropylene pouches, cooked at an oven temperature/time of 80 (°)C/45 min, quickly chilled at 3 (°)C and stored at 2 (°)C for 0, 5 or 10 weeks for catering use. Microbial (aerobic and anaerobic psychrotrophs, lactic acid bacteria, molds and yeasts and Enterobacteriaceae), physical-chemical (pH, water activity, TBARS, acidity, L*a*b* color, texture profile analysis and shear force) and sensory (appearance, odor, flavor, texture and overall quality) parameters were determined. SV processing prevented the growth of aerobic and anaerobic psychrotrophs, lactic acid bacteria, molds and yeasts and Enterobacteriaceae. There were no relevant changes in pH, water activity, TBARS, CIELab color associated with cooked salmon spoilage. Instrumental texture data were contradictory. Slight decrease in lactic acid levels was found. In contrast, the SV cooked salmon suffered considerable sensory deterioration during its refrigerated storage, consisting of severe losses of cooked salmon odor and flavor, slight rancidity, discoloration associated with white precipitation, and moderates softness, and loss of chewiness and juiciness. No acidification, putrefaction or relevant rancidity was detected. The sensory spoilage preceded microbiological and physical-chemical spoilage, suggesting that microbiological quality alone may overestimate the shelf life of SV cooked salmon.

  17. Inactivation of spoilage bacteria in package by dielectric barrier discharge atmospheric cold plasma - treatment time effects

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective was to investigate the effect of treatment time of dielectric barrier discharge atmospheric cold plasma (DBD-ACP) on inactivation of spoilage bacteria, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Macrococcus caseolyticus. P. fluorescens and M. caseolyticus were isolated from spoiled chicken carcasses ...

  18. Diversity and Control of Spoilage Fungi in Dairy Products: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Valence, Florence; Mounier, Jérôme

    2017-01-01

    Fungi are common contaminants of dairy products, which provide a favorable niche for their growth. They are responsible for visible or non-visible defects, such as off-odor and -flavor, and lead to significant food waste and losses as well as important economic losses. Control of fungal spoilage is a major concern for industrials and scientists that are looking for efficient solutions to prevent and/or limit fungal spoilage in dairy products. Several traditional methods also called traditional hurdle technologies are implemented and combined to prevent and control such contaminations. Prevention methods include good manufacturing and hygiene practices, air filtration, and decontamination systems, while control methods include inactivation treatments, temperature control, and modified atmosphere packaging. However, despite technology advances in existing preservation methods, fungal spoilage is still an issue for dairy manufacturers and in recent years, new (bio) preservation technologies are being developed such as the use of bioprotective cultures. This review summarizes our current knowledge on the diversity of spoilage fungi in dairy products and the traditional and (potentially) new hurdle technologies to control their occurrence in dairy foods. PMID:28788096

  19. Oligonucleotide microarrays for the detection and identification of viable beer spoilage bacteria.

    PubMed

    Weber, D G; Sahm, K; Polen, T; Wendisch, V F; Antranikian, G

    2008-10-01

    The design and evaluation of an oligonucleotide microarray in order to detect and identify viable bacterial species that play a significant role in beer spoilage. These belong to the species of the genera Lactobacillus, Megasphaera, Pediococcus and Pectinatus. Oligonucleotide probes specific to beer spoilage bacteria were designed. In order to detect viable bacteria, the probes were designed to target the intergenic spacer regions (ISR) between 16S and 23S rRNA. Prior to hybridization the ISR were amplified by combining reverse transcriptase and polymerase chain reactions using a designed consenus primer. The developed oligonucleotide microarrays allows the detection of viable beer spoilage bacteria. This method allows the detection and discrimination of single bacterial species in a sample containing complex microbial community. Furthermore, microarrays using oligonucleotide probes targeting the ISR allow the distinction between viable bacteria with the potential to grow and non growing bacteria. The results demonstrate the feasibility of oligonucleotide microarrays as a contamination control in food industry for the detection and identification of spoilage micro-organisms within a mixed population.

  20. Development of a novel colorimetric indicator label for monitoring freshness of intermediate-moisture dessert spoilage.

    PubMed

    Nopwinyuwong, Atchareeya; Trevanich, Sudsai; Suppakul, Panuwat

    2010-05-15

    A colorimetric mixed pH dye-based indicator with potential for the development of intelligent packaging, as a "chemical barcode" for real-time monitoring of intermediate-moisture dessert spoilage, is described. This on-package indicator contains mixed pH-sensitive dyes, bromothymol blue and methyl red, that respond through visible color change to carbon dioxide (CO(2)) as a spoilage metabolite. Both indicator solution and indicator label characteristics were studied, as well as their response to CO(2). A kinetic approach was used to correlate the response of the indicator label to the changes in intermediate-moisture dessert spoilage. Color changes, in terms of total color difference of a mixed pH dye-based indicator, correlated well with CO(2) levels of intermediate-moisture dessert. Trials on golden drop have verified that the indicator response correlates with microbial growth patterns in dessert samples, thus enabling the real-time monitoring of spoilage either at various constant temperatures or with temperature fluctuation.

  1. Characterisation of biofilms formed by Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 and food spoilage isolates.

    PubMed

    Fernández Ramírez, Mónica D; Smid, Eddy J; Abee, Tjakko; Nierop Groot, Masja N

    2015-08-17

    Lactobacillus plantarum has been associated with food spoilage in a wide range of products and the biofilm growth mode has been implicated as a possible source of contamination. In this study we analysed the biofilm forming capacity of L. plantarum WCFS1 and six food spoilage isolates. Biofilm formation as quantified by crystal violet staining and colony forming units was largely affected by the medium composition, growth temperature and maturation time and by strain specific features. All strains showed highest biofilm formation in Brain Heart Infusion medium supplemented with manganese and glucose. For L. plantarum biofilms the crystal violet (CV) assay, that is routinely used to quantify total biofilm formation, correlates poorly with the number of culturable cells in the biofilm. This can in part be explained by cell death and lysis resulting in CV stainable material, conceivably extracellular DNA (eDNA), contributing to the extracellular matrix. The strain to strain variation may in part be explained by differences in levels of eDNA, likely as result of differences in lysis behaviour. In line with this, biofilms of all strains tested, except for one spoilage isolate, were sensitive to DNase treatment. In addition, biofilms were highly sensitive to treatment with Proteinase K suggesting a role for proteins and/or proteinaceous material in surface colonisation. This study shows the impact of a range of environmental factors and enzyme treatments on biofilm formation capacity for selected L. plantarum isolates associated with food spoilage, and may provide clues for disinfection strategies in food industry.

  2. Characterization of cucumber fermentation spoilage bacteria by enrichment culture and 16S rDNA cloning

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Commercial cucumber fermentations are typically carried out in 40000 L fermentation tanks. A secondary fermentation can occur after sugars are consumed that results in the formation of acetic, propionic, and butyric acids, concomitantly with the loss of lactic acid and an increase in pH. Spoilage fe...

  3. Immunological detection of bean common mosaic virus in French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Verma, Poonam; Gupta, U P

    2010-09-01

    Bean common mosaic potyvirus (BCMV) is an important seed borne pathogen of French bean. Differential inoculation with bean common mosaic virus at cotylodonary trifoliate leaf stage and pre-flowering stage of crop growth revealed that cotyledonary leaf infection favored maximum disease expression. Under immunosorbent electron microscopy (ISEM) the virus particles of filamentous structure having a diameter of 750 nm (l) and 15 nm (w) were observed. These particles gave positive precipitin tests with polyclonal antiserum of Potato virus Y.

  4. Reflective Polyethylene Mulch Reduces Mexican Bean Beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Densities and Damage in Snap Beans.

    PubMed

    Nottingham, L B; Kuhar, T P

    2016-08-01

    Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis Mulsant, is a serious pest of snap beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., in the eastern United States. These beetles are intolerant to direct sunlight, explaining why individuals are typically found on the undersides of leaves and in the lower portion of the plant canopy. We hypothesized that snap beans grown on reflective, agricultural polyethylene (plastic mulch) would have fewer Mexican bean beetles and less injury than those grown on black plastic or bare soil. In 2014 and 2015, beans were seeded into beds of metallized, white, and black plastic, and bare soil, in field plots near Blacksburg, VA. Mexican bean beetle density, feeding injury, predatory arthropods, and snap bean yield were sampled. Reflected light intensity, temperature, and humidity were monitored using data loggers. Pyranometer readings showed that reflected light intensity was highest over metallized plastic and second highest over white plastic; black plastic and bare soil were similarly low. Temperature and humidity were unaffected by treatments. Significant reductions in Mexican bean beetle densities and feeding injury were observed in both metallized and white plastic plots compared to black plastic and bare soil, with metallized plastic having the fewest Mexican bean beetle life stages and injury. Predatory arthropod densities were not reduced by reflective plastic. Metallized plots produced the highest yields, followed by white. The results of this study suggest that growing snap beans on reflective plastic mulch can suppress the incidence and damage of Mexican bean beetle, and increase yield in snap beans. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Microbial spoilage of date rutab collected from the markets of Al-Hofuf city in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Hamad, Siddig Hussein

    2008-07-01

    Microbial spoilage was monitored in 520 samples of dates in the rutab stage purchased from retail outlets in Al-Hofuf City, Saudi Arabia, and incubated in the laboratory under different conditions. No spoilage was observed in 130 samples incubated in open containers at 5 or 30 degrees C for up to 60 days. Spoilage occurred in 42 of 130 samples incubated in covered containers at 5 degrees C after about 80 days and was caused mainly by Penicillium spp. and Cladosporium spp. Mixed populations of lactic acid bacteria, yeasts, and molds were mostly responsible for spoilage in about 10 to 14 days of the 130 samples incubated in covered containers at 30 degrees C. The dominant spoilage organisms under these conditions were Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii, Lactobacillus fructivorans, Lactobacillus collinoides, Lactobacillus salivarius, Zygosaccharomyces mellis or Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Candida sphaerica, Candida rugosa, Candida colliculosa, Candida pelliculosa, Candida famata, Pichia anomala, Aspergillus niger, and Penicillium spp. Although some variations among date cultivars in susceptibility to microbial spoilage were observed, moisture content and storage temperature were the most critical factors affecting spoilage.

  6. Astronaut Alan L. Bean - Family - Houston, TX

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-07-05

    S73-31104 (17 July 1973) --- The wife and children of astronaut Alan L. Bean are photographed at their home near the Johnson Space Center (JSC), where their husband and father is preparing for NASA?s second manned Skylab mission. Bean is commander of the Skylab 3 Earth-orbital mission and will be joined by scientist-astronaut Owen K. Garriott, science pilot, and astronaut Jack R. Lousma, pilot for the schedule two-month mission. With Mrs. Sue Bean are the couple?s children Clay, 17, and Amy Sue, 10; and the family?s pet dog. Photo credit: NASA

  7. The effect of the germination temperature on the phytochemical content of broccoli and rocket sprouts.

    PubMed

    Ragusa, Lucia; Picchi, Valentina; Tribulato, Alessandro; Cavallaro, Chiara; Lo Scalzo, Roberto; Branca, Ferdinando

    2017-06-01

    This study investigates the effect of different germination temperatures (10, 20 and 30 °C) on the phytochemical content as well as reducing and antioxidant capacity of broccoli and rocket sprouts. In both seeds and sprouts, the total glucosinolates and ascorbic acid contents did not differ between vegetables, while broccoli exhibited exceptionally higher polyphenols and greater reducing and antioxidant capacity compared to rocket. In both species, an increase in germination temperature positively affected the glucosinolate content. Ascorbic acid increased during germination without a difference among the three tested temperatures. The phenol content in broccoli sprouts increased when they were grown at 30 °C, but the amount decreased at the highest temperatures in rocket. The reducing and antioxidant capacities increased with germination, and higher indexes were detected at 10 °C, particularly in rocket. Different germination temperatures differentiate the health-promoting phytochemical content and antioxidant properties in broccoli and rocket sprouts.

  8. Effects of alternative silviculture on stump sprouting in the southern Appalachians

    Treesearch

    Chad Atwood; Thomas Fox; David L. Loftis

    2009-01-01

    Stump sprouts are an important form of regeneration for a number of species in the southernAppalachians, especially the oaks (Quercus spp.). Alternative regeneration systems to clearcutting suchas shelterwood and leave-tree systems are being implemented...

  9. Trace element water improves the antioxidant activity of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) sprouts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chia-Ling; Chen, Yih-Shyuan; Yang, Joan-Hwa; Chiang, Been-Huang; Hsu, Cheng-Kuang

    2007-10-31

    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) was grown in trace element water (TEW) (100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 ppm) and deionized water (DIW) to evaluate whether the beneficial effects of trace elements on the antioxidant activity could be accomplished with the supplement of TEW. At 300 ppm, TEW significantly increased the Cu, Zn, Mn, and Fe contents in buckwheat sprout but not the Se content. However, the levels of rutin, isoorientin, vitexin, and isovitexin did not differ between buckwheat sprouts grown in TEW and DIW. The ethanolic extract from buckwheat sprout grown in 300 ppm of TEW showed higher ferrous ion chelating activity and inhibitory activity toward lipid peroxidation than that grown in DIW. The extract in the TEW group also enhanced intracellular superoxide dismutase activity and lowered reactive oxygen species and superoxide anion in the human Hep G2 cell. It was concluded that TEW could increase the antioxidant activities of buckwheat sprouts.

  10. Polyphenol oxidase expression in potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers inhibited to sprouting by treatment with iodine atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Eolini, Francesco; Hochkoeppler, Alejandro; Credi, Andrea; Rodríguez, Antonio Gonzàlez Vara Y; Poggi, Valeria

    2004-08-01

    Iodine-saturated atmosphere was found to inhibit the sprouting of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers. The iodine concentration in tuber tissues increased as a function of exposure length, and the onset of inhibition of sprouting was found to depend on tubers genotype. During the time-course of the treatment, the transcription of polyphenol oxidases (EC 1.10.3.1 and EC 1.14.18.1) was undetectable in tuber peel, whereas in bud tissues featured an increase, followed by a decrease occurring simultaneously with the suppression of sprouting. The treatment of tubers with iodine strongly affected the expression of polyphenol oxidases at the transcriptional level. Polyphenol oxidase activity in buds poorly reflected the corresponding level of transcription; similarly, little differences were found among the enzyme isoforms expressed in buds as a function of length of exposure to iodine. These findings suggest that the induction of polyphenol oxidases mRNAs transcription could probe the inhibition of sprouting by iodine.

  11. Breeding Increases the Efficacy of Chondrostereum purpureum in the Sprout Control of Birch

    PubMed Central

    Hamberg, Leena; Vartiamäki, Henna; Hantula, Jarkko

    2015-01-01

    We tested whether the pairing of selected isolates could be used to increase the efficiency of a decay fungus Chondrostereum purpureum (Pers. Ex Fr.) Pouzar to control hardwood sprouting in Finland. We paired C. purpureum strains efficient in sprout control or highly active in laccase production, and tested the efficacy of their progeny in spout control experiments. This procedure resulted in a strain with an efficacy superior to that of the parental strains. The mortality of birch (Betula pendula Roth. and B. pubescens Ehrh.) 1 cm in stump diameter was 78%, 56% and 9% for the best progeny, the best parental strain and the control, respectively. Mortality was only slightly higher for B. pendula than for B. pubescens but no significant differences were found between the number or maximum height of stump sprouts. Our results showed that cross breeding of this decay fungus is a good alternative in attempts to produce efficient biocontrol agents against hardwood sprouting. PMID:25674794

  12. Breeding increases the efficacy of Chondrostereum purpureum in the sprout control of birch.

    PubMed

    Hamberg, Leena; Vartiamäki, Henna; Hantula, Jarkko

    2015-01-01

    We tested whether the pairing of selected isolates could be used to increase the efficiency of a decay fungus Chondrostereum purpureum (Pers. Ex Fr.) Pouzar to control hardwood sprouting in Finland. We paired C. purpureum strains efficient in sprout control or highly active in laccase production, and tested the efficacy of their progeny in spout control experiments. This procedure resulted in a strain with an efficacy superior to that of the parental strains. The mortality of birch (Betula pendula Roth. and B. pubescens Ehrh.) 1 cm in stump diameter was 78%, 56% and 9% for the best progeny, the best parental strain and the control, respectively. Mortality was only slightly higher for B. pendula than for B. pubescens but no significant differences were found between the number or maximum height of stump sprouts. Our results showed that cross breeding of this decay fungus is a good alternative in attempts to produce efficient biocontrol agents against hardwood sprouting.

  13. Three-Dimensional Characterization of Mechanical Interactions between Endothelial Cells and Extracellular Matrix during Angiogenic Sprouting

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yue; Herath, Sahan C. B.; Wang, Qing-guo; Wang, Dong-an; Asada, H. Harry; Chen, Peter C. Y.

    2016-01-01

    We studied the three-dimensional cell-extracellular matrix interactions of endothelial cells that form multicellular structures called sprouts. We analyzed the data collected in-situ from angiogenic sprouting experiments and identified the differentiated interaction behavior exhibited by the tip and stalk cells. Moreover, our analysis of the tip cell lamellipodia revealed the diversity in their interaction behavior under certain conditions (e.g., when the heading of a sprout is switched approximately between the long-axis direction of two different lamellipodia). This study marks the first time that new characteristics of such interactions have been identified with shape changes in the sprouts and the associated rearrangements of collagen fibers. Clear illustrations of such changes are depicted in three-dimensional views. PMID:26903154

  14. Germination under Moderate Salinity Increases Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity in Rapeseed (Brassica napus var oleifera Del.) Sprouts.

    PubMed

    Falcinelli, Beatrice; Sileoni, Valeria; Marconi, Ombretta; Perretti, Giuseppe; Quinet, Muriel; Lutts, Stanley; Benincasa, Paolo

    2017-08-19

    The use of sprouts in the human diet is becoming more and more widespread because they are tasty and high in bioactive compounds and antioxidants, with related health benefits. In this work, we sprouted rapeseed under increasing salinity to investigate the effect on free and bound total phenolics (TP), non-flavonoids (NF), tannins (TAN), phenolic acids (PAs), and antioxidant activity. Seeds were incubated at 0, 25, 50, 100, 200 mM NaCl until early or late sprout stage, i.e., before or after cotyledon expansion, respectively. Sprouting and increasing salinity slightly decreased the bound fractions of TP, NF, TAN, PAs, while it increased markedly the free ones and their antioxidant activity. Further increases were observed in late sprouts. Moderate salinity (25-50 mM NaCl) caused the highest relative increase in phenolic concentration while it slightly affected sprout growth. On the contrary, at higher NaCl concentrations, sprouts grew slowly (100 mM NaCl) or even died before reaching the late sprout stage (200 mM). Overall, moderate salinity was the best compromise to increase phenolic content of rapeseed sprouts. The technique may be evaluated for transfer to other species as a cheap and feasible way to increase the nutritional value of sprouts.

  15. The Force at the Tip--Modelling Tension and Proliferation in Sprouting Angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Santos-Oliveira, Patrícia; Correia, António; Rodrigues, Tiago; Ribeiro-Rodrigues, Teresa M; Matafome, Paulo; Rodríguez-Manzaneque, Juan Carlos; Seiça, Raquel; Girão, Henrique; Travasso, Rui D M

    2015-08-01

    Sprouting angiogenesis, where new blood vessels grow from pre-existing ones, is a complex process where biochemical and mechanical signals regulate endothelial cell proliferation and movement. Therefore, a mathematical description of sprouting angiogenesis has to take into consideration biological signals as well as relevant physical processes, in particular the mechanical interplay between adjacent endothelial cells and the extracellular microenvironment. In this work, we introduce the first phase-field continuous model of sprouting angiogenesis capable of predicting sprout morphology as a function of the elastic properties of the tissues and the traction forces exerted by the cells. The model is very compact, only consisting of three coupled partial differential equations, and has the clear advantage of a reduced number of parameters. This model allows us to describe sprout growth as a function of the cell-cell adhesion forces and the traction force exerted by the sprout tip cell. In the absence of proliferation, we observe that the sprout either achieves a maximum length or, when the traction and adhesion are very large, it breaks. Endothelial cell proliferation alters significantly sprout morphology, and we explore how different types of endothelial cell proliferation regulation are able to determine the shape of the growing sprout. The largest region in parameter space with well formed long and straight sprouts is obtained always when the proliferation is triggered by endothelial cell strain and its rate grows with angiogenic factor concentration. We conclude that in this scenario the tip cell has the role of creating a tension in the cells that follow its lead. On those first stalk cells, this tension produces strain and/or empty spaces, inevitably triggering cell proliferation. The new cells occupy the space behind the tip, the tension decreases, and the process restarts. Our results highlight the ability of mathematical models to suggest relevant hypotheses

  16. The Force at the Tip - Modelling Tension and Proliferation in Sprouting Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Santos-Oliveira, Patrícia; Correia, António; Rodrigues, Tiago; Ribeiro-Rodrigues, Teresa M; Matafome, Paulo; Rodríguez-Manzaneque, Juan Carlos; Seiça, Raquel; Girão, Henrique; Travasso, Rui D. M.

    2015-01-01

    Sprouting angiogenesis, where new blood vessels grow from pre-existing ones, is a complex process where biochemical and mechanical signals regulate endothelial cell proliferation and movement. Therefore, a mathematical description of sprouting angiogenesis has to take into consideration biological signals as well as relevant physical processes, in particular the mechanical interplay between adjacent endothelial cells and the extracellular microenvironment. In this work, we introduce the first phase-field continuous model of sprouting angiogenesis capable of predicting sprout morphology as a function of the elastic properties of the tissues and the traction forces exerted by the cells. The model is very compact, only consisting of three coupled partial differential equations, and has the clear advantage of a reduced number of parameters. This model allows us to describe sprout growth as a function of the cell-cell adhesion forces and the traction force exerted by the sprout tip cell. In the absence of proliferation, we observe that the sprout either achieves a maximum length or, when the traction and adhesion are very large, it breaks. Endothelial cell proliferation alters significantly sprout morphology, and we explore how different types of endothelial cell proliferation regulation are able to determine the shape of the growing sprout. The largest region in parameter space with well formed long and straight sprouts is obtained always when the proliferation is triggered by endothelial cell strain and its rate grows with angiogenic factor concentration. We conclude that in this scenario the tip cell has the role of creating a tension in the cells that follow its lead. On those first stalk cells, this tension produces strain and/or empty spaces, inevitably triggering cell proliferation. The new cells occupy the space behind the tip, the tension decreases, and the process restarts. Our results highlight the ability of mathematical models to suggest relevant hypotheses

  17. Biofortified black beans in a maize and bean diet provide more bioavailable iron to piglets than standard black beans.

    PubMed

    Tako, Elad; Laparra, J Moises; Glahn, Raymond P; Welch, Ross M; Lei, Xin Gen; Beebe, Steve; Miller, Dennis D

    2009-02-01

    Our objective was to compare the capacities of biofortified and standard black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to deliver iron (Fe) for hemoglobin (Hb) synthesis. Two lines of black beans, one standard and the other biofortified (high) in Fe (71 and 106 microg Fe/g, respectively), were used. Maize-based diets containing the beans were formulated to meet the nutrient requirements for swine except for Fe (Fe concentrations in the 2 diets were 42.9 +/- 1.2 and 54.6 +/- 0.9 mg/kg). At birth, pigs were injected with 50 mg of Fe as Fe dextran. At age 28 d, pigs were allocated to the experimental diets (n = 10). They were fed 2 times per day for 5 wk and given free access to water at all times. Body weights and Hb concentrations were measured weekly. Hb repletion efficiencies (means +/- SEM) did not differ between groups and, after 5 wk, were 20.8 +/- 2.1% for the standard Fe group and 20.9 +/- 2.1% for the high Fe group. Final total body Hb Fe contents did not differ between the standard [539 +/- 39 mg (9.7 +/- 0.7 micromol)] and high Fe [592 +/- 28 mg (10.6 +/- 0.5 micromol)] bean groups (P = 0.15). The increase in total body Hb Fe over the 5-wk feeding period was greater in the high Fe bean group [429 +/- 24 mg (7.7 +/- 0.4 micromol)] than in the standard Fe bean group [361 +/- 23 mg (6.4 +/- 0.4 micromol)] (P = 0.034). We conclude that the biofortified beans are a promising vehicle for increasing intakes of bioavailable Fe in human populations that consume beans as a dietary staple.

  18. Spoilage and safety characteristics of ground beef treated with lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hoyle, A R; Brooks, J C; Thompson, L D; Palmore, W; Stephens, T P; Brashears, M M

    2009-11-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can decrease numbers of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in ground beef during storage. Two dose-titration studies were conducted in ground beef to determine dose levels of LAB needed to inhibit the pathogens. A second study evaluated whether LAB masked changes typically associated with the spoilage of ground beef displayed under refrigerated (0 degrees C) or abusive (10 degrees C) temperatures packaged in both traditional overwrap (TOP) and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP; 80% O(2)-20% CO(2)). Microbial analyses were conducted to determine spoilage endpoints and pathogen reduction. In the dose-titration study, Salmonella was reduced by 3 log cycles at all doses (10(6), 10(7), and 10(8) LAB per g) after 3 days of storage and was eliminated after 5 days of storage. E. coli O157:H7 was reduced by 2 log cycles at all dosages after 3 days of storage and by 3 log cycles after 5 days of storage. In the spoilage studies, as expected, total aerobic plate counts and LAB populations in LAB-inoculated samples were higher than the controls initially, but the counts were similar near the end of the study. While total spoilage bacteria generally increased over time, very few differences existed between treatments stored at 0 degrees C and 10 degrees C in coliforms, Brochothrix thermosphacta, yeasts and molds, and Pseudomonas spp. counts for both the TOP and MAP samples. We conclude that LAB could potentially be added to ground beef in TOP and MAP as a processing intervention for E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella without masking microbial spoilage characteristics.

  19. Changes in the spoilage-related microbiota of beef during refrigerated storage under different packaging conditions.

    PubMed

    Ercolini, Danilo; Russo, Federica; Torrieri, Elena; Masi, Paolo; Villani, Francesco

    2006-07-01

    The microbial spoilage of beef was monitored during storage at 5 degrees C under three different conditions of modified-atmosphere packaging (MAP): (i) air (MAP1), (ii) 60% O2 and 40% CO2 (MAP2), and (iii) 20% O2 and 40% CO2 (MAP3). Pseudomonas, Enterobacteriaceae, Brochothrix thermosphacta, and lactic acid bacteria were monitored by viable counts and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis during 14 days of storage. Moreover, headspace gas composition, weight loss, and beef color change were also determined at each sampling time. Overall, MAP2 was shown to have the best protective effect, keeping the microbial loads and color change to acceptable levels in the first 7 days of refrigerated storage. The microbial colonies from the plate counts of each microbial group were identified by PCR-DGGE of the variable V6-V8 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Thirteen different genera and at least 17 different species were identified after sequencing of DGGE fragments that showed a wide diversity of spoilage-related bacteria taking turns during beef storage in the function of the packaging conditions. The countable species for each spoilage-related microbial group were different according to packaging conditions and times of storage. In fact, the DGGE profiles displayed significant changes during time and depending on the initial atmosphere used. The spoilage occurred between 7 and 14 days of storage, and the microbial species found in the spoiled meat varied according to the packaging conditions. Rahnella aquatilis, Rahnella spp., Pseudomonas spp., and Carnobacterium divergens were identified as acting during beef storage in air (MAP1). Pseudomonas spp. and Lactobacillus sakei were found in beef stored under MAP conditions with high oxygen content (MAP2), while Rahnella spp. and L. sakei were the main species found during storage using MAP3. The identification of the spoilage-related microbiota by molecular methods can help in the effective establishment of

  20. Chondroitinase ABC Enhances Pericontusion Axonal Sprouting But Does Not Confer Robust Improvements in Behavioral Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Mironova, Yevgeniya A.; Hovda, David A.; Sutton, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in enduring functional deficits. Strategies aimed at promoting plasticity within the injured brain may aid in enhancing functional outcome. We have previously shown that spontaneous pericontusional axon sprouting occurs within 7–14 days after controlled cortical impact injury in the adult rat, but ultimately fails due to an increasingly growth-inhibitory environment. We therefore sought to determine whether acute infusion of chondroitinase ABC into the site of the cortical contusion, to further reduce pericontusional growth-inhibitory chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), would enhance and prolong the sprouting response. We also wanted to determine if chondroitinase-enhanced sprouting would ameliorate the behavioral deficits in forelimb function that occur in this model. Acute chondroitinase infusion decreased intact CSPGs and significantly increased pericontusional cortical grey and white matter growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43)-positive axon sprouting at 7 days post-injury. A return of intact CSPGs at later time points likely contributed to the absence of persistently increased levels of axon sprouting by 14–21 days post-injury. There was no overall benefit on forelimb function during the time of maximal sprouting or at any subsequent times in three of four behavioral outcome measures. However, there was a chondroitinase-induced improvement in recovery from unskilled limb use deficits on the staircase forelimb reaching test toward sham-injured values at 28 days, which was not achieved by the vehicle-treated rats, indicating that there is some minor functional benefit of the increased sprouting induced by chondroitinase treatment. The current results, together with data from spinal cord injury models after chondroitinase intervention, suggest that a combinatorial approach with the addition of neurotrophins and rehabilitation would result in more robust axon sprouting and consequently improve behavioral

  1. Macronutrients, Phytochemicals, and Antioxidant Activity of Soybean Sprout Germinated with or without Light Exposure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yeming; Chang, Sam K C

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the macronutrients, phytochemicals, and antioxidant activities of yellow soybean sprout (YSS) and green soybean sprout (GSS) with different germination days. YSS and GSS were obtained by sprouting soybean in darkness or with light exposure at 21 °C. Lipid, protein, carbohydrate, and ash contents were analyzed before and after soybean germination. Phytochemicals (total phenolic compounds, saponin, and isoflavone) were also determined. DPPH, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) were determined to examine the antioxidant activities of soybean sprout. Results showed YSS had a higher yield than GSS. Based on dry mass composition, 7-d germination of GSS decreased 14% protein, 37% lipid, 22% carbohydrate, and 16% ash, whereas 7-d germination of YSS decreased 6% protein and 47% lipid. Carbohydrate did not change and ash significantly increased for the 7-d germinated YSS. Lipid was greatly metabolized in germination, which explained why the protein relative percentage in dried soybean sprout was higher than that in the corresponding soybean. Total phenolic compounds and saponin (mg/g soybean sprout, dry basis) had the same accumulation trend in soybean sprout with the increases in germination days. Aglycone isoflavones (genistein, glycitein, and daidzein) and daidzin showed an increased trend, whereas malonylgenistin and malonylglycitin showed a decreased trend with germination days for both GSS and YSS. The change in other isoflavones did not show definite trends. GSS had 20% more antioxidant activities than YSS (7-d germinated soybean sprout). The increases in ORAC antioxidant activity suggest eating GSS may be more beneficial than GSS for promoting human health.

  2. Growth Enhancement of Radish Sprouts Induced by Low Pressure O2 Radio Frequency Discharge Plasma Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitazaki, Satoshi; Koga, Kazunori; Shiratani, Masaharu; Hayashi, Nobuya

    2012-01-01

    We studied growth enhancement of radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus L.) induced by low pressure O2 radio frequency (RF) discharge plasma irradiation. The average length of radish sprouts cultivated for 7 days after O2 plasma irradiation is 30-60% greater than that without irradiation. O2 plasma irradiation does not affect seed germination. The experimental results reveal that oxygen related radicals strongly enhance growth, whereas ions and photons do not.

  3. Influence of sodium chloride, pH, and lactic acid bacteria on anaerobic lactic acid utilization during fermented cucumber spoilage.

    PubMed

    Johanningsmeier, Suzanne D; Franco, Wendy; Perez-Diaz, Ilenys; McFeeters, Roger F

    2012-07-01

    Cucumbers are preserved commercially by natural fermentations in 5% to 8% sodium chloride (NaCl) brines. Occasionally, fermented cucumbers spoil after the primary fermentation is complete. This spoilage has been characterized by decreases in lactic acid and a rise in brine pH caused by microbial instability. Objectives of this study were to determine the combined effects of NaCl and pH on fermented cucumber spoilage and to determine the ability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) spoilage isolates to initiate lactic acid degradation in fermented cucumbers. Cucumbers fermented with 0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% NaCl were blended into slurries (FCS) and adjusted to pH 3.2, 3.8, 4.3, and 5.0 prior to centrifugation, sterile-filtration, and inoculation with spoilage organisms. Organic acids and pH were measured initially and after 3 wk, 2, 6, 12, and 18 mo anaerobic incubation at 25 °C. Anaerobic lactic acid degradation occurred in FCS at pH 3.8, 4.3, and 5.0 regardless of NaCl concentration. At pH 3.2, reduced NaCl concentrations resulted in increased susceptibility to spoilage, indicating that the pH limit for lactic acid utilization in reduced NaCl fermented cucumbers is 3.2 or lower. Over 18 mo incubation, only cucumbers fermented with 6% NaCl to pH 3.2 prevented anaerobic lactic acid degradation by spoilage bacteria. Among several LAB species isolated from fermented cucumber spoilage, Lactobacillus buchneri was unique in its ability to metabolize lactic acid in FCS with concurrent increases in acetic acid and 1,2-propanediol. Therefore, L. buchneri may be one of multiple organisms that contribute to development of fermented cucumber spoilage. Microbial spoilage of fermented cucumbers during bulk storage causes economic losses for producers. Current knowledge is insufficient to predict or control these losses. This study demonstrated that in the absence of oxygen, cucumbers fermented with 6% sodium chloride to pH 3.2 were not subject to spoilage. However, lactic acid was degraded

  4. Analysis of Growth Inhibition and Metabolism of Hydroxycinnamic Acids by Brewing and Spoilage Strains of Brettanomyces Yeast.

    PubMed

    Lentz, Michael; Harris, Chad

    2015-10-15

    Brettanomyces yeasts are well-known as spoilage organisms in both the wine and beer industries, but also contribute important desirable characters to certain beer styles. These properties are mediated in large part by Brettanomyces' metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) present in beverage raw materials. Here we compare growth inhibition by, and metabolism of, HCAs among commercial brewing strains and spoilage strains of B. bruxellensis and B. anomalus. These properties vary widely among the different strains tested and between the HCAs analyzed. Brewing strains showed more efficient metabolism of ferulic acid over p-coumaric acid, a trait not shared among the spoilage strains.

  5. Analysis of Growth Inhibition and Metabolism of Hydroxycinnamic Acids by Brewing and Spoilage Strains of Brettanomyces Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Lentz, Michael; Harris, Chad

    2015-01-01

    Brettanomyces yeasts are well-known as spoilage organisms in both the wine and beer industries, but also contribute important desirable characters to certain beer styles. These properties are mediated in large part by Brettanomyces’ metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) present in beverage raw materials. Here we compare growth inhibition by, and metabolism of, HCAs among commercial brewing strains and spoilage strains of B. bruxellensis and B. anomalus. These properties vary widely among the different strains tested and between the HCAs analyzed. Brewing strains showed more efficient metabolism of ferulic acid over p-coumaric acid, a trait not shared among the spoilage strains. PMID:28231223

  6. Development of Lipophilic Antioxidants and Chloroplasts during the Sprouting of Diverse Triticum spp.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Jochen U; Flockerzie, Miriam; Longin, C Friedrich H; Würschum, Tobias; Carle, Reinhold; Schweiggert, Ralf M

    2016-02-03

    The influence of sprouting times and illumination conditions on lipophilic antioxidants (carotenoids, tocochromanols, alkylresorcinols, and steryl ferulates), chlorophylls, and α-amylase activity was investigated using four varieties each of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. aestivum), spelt (T. aestivum ssp. spelta), durum (T. durum), emmer (T. dicoccum), and einkorn (T. monococcum). Carotenoid levels significantly increased during sprouting, particularly, under light exposure. In contrast, concentrations of other lipophilic antioxidants were affected to a lesser extent. Moreover, the quantitative development of lipophilic antioxidants was evidently determined by genotype. On the basis of the levels of carotenoids newly synthesized during sprouting, a chloroplast development index indicated that chloroplast ontogenesis during sprouting occurred at different species-dependent rates. Thermal degradation of carotenoids, tocochromanols, chlorophylls, and α-amylase activity was observed during the drying of sprouts at 40 and 90 °C, while alkylresorcinol and steryl ferulate levels remained unaffected. Wheat sprouts were shown to be potential functional ingredients to increase the nutritional value of cereal products.

  7. Variation of unsaturated fatty acids in soybean sprout of high oleic acid accessions.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, Krishna Hari; Jung, Ki-Hwal; Chae, Jong-Hyun; Shannon, J Grover; Lee, Jeong-Dong

    2014-12-01

    Oleic acid and oleic acid rich foods may have beneficial health effects in humans. Soybeans with high oleic acid (around 80% in seed oil) have been developed. Soybean sprouts are an important vegetable in Korea, Japan and China. The objective of this study was to investigate the variation of unsaturated fatty acids, oleic, linoleic and α-linolenic acids, in sprouts from soybeans with normal and high oleic acid concentration. Twelve soybean accessions with six high oleic acid lines, three parents of high oleic acid lines, and three checks with normal and high oleic acid concentration were used in this study. The unsaturated fatty acid concentration in sprouts from each genotype was similar to the concentration in the ungerminated seed. The oleic acid concentration in the sprouts of high oleic acid lines (up to 80%) was still high (>70%) compared to the ungerminated seed. Thus, high oleic soybean varieties developed for sprout production could add valuable health benefits to sprouts and the individuals who consume this vegetable.

  8. Endophytic bacterial and fungal microbiota in sprouts, roots and stems of rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenfeng; Zhai, Yanyan; Cao, Lixiang; Tan, Hongming; Zhang, Renduo

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to elucidate the endophytic microbiota in rice sprouts, roots, and stems, and their transmission in the plant development. Prior to DNA extraction, roots and stems were treated with 36% formaldehyde and 0.1M NaOH solutions to remove epiphytic bacterial whole 16S rRNA genes. Bacterial and fungal taxa in the sprout, root, and stem samples were analyzed using Illumina-based sequencing of the V3-V4 hyper variable regions of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and the ITS2 regions of fungal rRNA genes, respectively. Results showed that more diverse bacterial OTUs were detected in roots than in stems, while more diverse fungal OTUs were detected in stems than in roots. Compared with the endophytic microbiota in sprouts, the bacterial OTUs increased in roots but decreased in stems, whereas the fungal OTUs in both stems and roots decreased. Sprout-borne bacterial genera Sphingomonas and Pseudomonus, and fungal genera Fusarium, Pestalotiopsis, and Penicillium were detected in stems and roots. The coexistence of these indigenous bacterial and fungal taxa in sprouts, roots, and stems indicated their transmission during the development from sprouts to mature plants. The results from this study should be useful to better understand the plant-microbe interactions and to select suitable microbial taxa for rice production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Accumulation of anthocyanin and associated gene expression in radish sprouts exposed to light and methyl jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Park, Woo Tae; Kim, Yeon Bok; Seo, Jeong Min; Kim, Sun-Ju; Chung, Eunsook; Lee, Jai-Heon; Park, Sang Un

    2013-05-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus) sprouts have received attention as an important dietary vegetable in Asian countries. The flavonoid pathway leading to anthocyanin biosynthesis in radishes is induced by multiple regulatory genes as well as various developmental and environmental factors. This study investigated anthocyanin accumulation and the transcript level of associated genes in radish sprouts exposed to light and methyl jasmonate (MeJA). The anthocyanin content of sprouts exposed to light and treated with MeJA was higher than that of sprouts grown under dark conditions without MeJA, and the highest anthocyanin content was observed within 6-9 days after sowing (DAS). Transcript levels of almost all genes were increased in radish sprouts grown in light conditions with 100 μM MeJA relative to sprouts grown under dark conditions with or without MeJA treatment, especially at 3 DAS. The results suggest that light and MeJA treatment applied together during radish seedling development enhance anthocyanin accumulation.

  10. Portrait of Astronaut Alan L. Bean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Portrait of Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Prime Crew Lunar Module Pilot of the Apollo 12 Lunar Landing Mission, in his space suit minus the helmet. He is standing outside beside a mock-up of the Lunar Lander.

  11. Portrait of Astronaut Alan L. Bean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Portrait of Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Prime Crew Lunar Module Pilot of the Apollo 12 Lunar Landing Mission, in his space suit minus the helmet. He is standing outside beside a mock-up of the Lunar Lander.

  12. The "white kidney bean incident" in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Haruko; Date, Kimie

    2014-01-01

    Lectin poisoning occurred in Japan in 2006 after a TV broadcast that introduced a new diet of eating staple foods with powdered toasted white kidney beans, seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris. Although the method is based on the action of a heat-stable α-amylase inhibitor in the beans, phaseolamin, more than 1,000 viewers who tried the method suffered from acute intestinal symptoms and 100 people were hospitalized. Lectins in the white kidney beans were suspected to be the cause of the trouble. We were asked to investigate the lectin activity remaining in the beans after the heat treatment recommended on the TV program. The test suggested that the heat treatment was insufficient to inactivate the lectin activity, which, combined with our ignorance of carbohydrate signaling in the intestine, was the cause of the problem.

  13. Phenotyping common beans for adaptation to drought

    PubMed Central

    Beebe, Stephen E.; Rao, Idupulapati M.; Blair, Matthew W.; Acosta-Gallegos, Jorge A.

    2013-01-01

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) originated in the New World and are the grain legume of greatest production for direct human consumption. Common bean production is subject to frequent droughts in highland Mexico, in the Pacific coast of Central America, in northeast Brazil, and in eastern and southern Africa from Ethiopia to South Africa. This article reviews efforts to improve common bean for drought tolerance, referring to genetic diversity for drought response, the physiology of drought tolerance mechanisms, and breeding strategies. Different races of common bean respond differently to drought, with race Durango of highland Mexico being a major source of genes. Sister species of P. vulgaris likewise have unique traits, especially P. acutifolius which is well adapted to dryland conditions. Diverse sources of tolerance may have different mechanisms of plant response, implying the need for different methods of phenotyping to recognize the relevant traits. Practical considerations of field management are discussed including: trial planning; water management; and field preparation. PMID:23507928

  14. Locust bean gum: a versatile biopolymer.

    PubMed

    Prajapati, Vipul D; Jani, Girish K; Moradiya, Naresh G; Randeria, Narayan P; Nagar, Bhanu J

    2013-05-15

    Biopolymers or natural polymers are an attractive class of biodegradable polymers since they are derived from natural sources, easily available, relatively cheap and can be modified by suitable reagent. Locust bean gum is one of them that have a wide potentiality in drug formulations due to its extensive application as food additive and its recognized lack of toxicity. It can be tailored to suit its demands of applicants in both the pharmaceutical and biomedical areas. Locust bean gum has a wide application either in the field of novel drug delivery system as rate controlling excipients or in tissue engineering as scaffold formation. Through keen references of reported literature on locust bean gum, in this review, we have described critical aspects of locust bean gum, its manufacturing process, physicochemical properties and applications in various drug delivery systems.

  15. Effect of processing on ochratoxin A content in dried beans.

    PubMed

    Iha, M H; Trucksess, M W; Tournas, V H

    2009-10-01

    Dried pink beans naturally contaminated with ochratoxin A (OTA) and dried carioca beans artificially contaminated with OTA by inoculation with Aspergillus ochraceus (ATCC 22947) were tested for ochratoxin A levels as follows: dried beans were washed with water for 2, 60 or 120 min, soaked in water for 60, 120 min or 10 h, and cooked for 60 or 120 min. At each step, test water and beans were separated. Test water, raw beans and cooked beans were analyzed for OTA. The amount of OTA partitioned into water and in residual beans was determined by methanol-sodium bicarbonate extraction, buffer dilution, immunoaffinity column cleanup, liquid chromatographic separation and fluorescence detection. The results demonstrated that the distribution of OTA in processing water and beans depends on the method of preparation. All treatments (washing, soaking and cooking) when applied individually reduced the amounts of OTA retained in bean flour and whole beans. Higher amounts of OTA remained in whole beans than in bean flour after removing the processing water. The combination of the three treatments eliminated about 50% of the toxin from whole beans. This study provides evidence that discarding the washing, soaking and cooking water leads to a significant reduction in OTA contamination in dried beans.

  16. Bean Type Modifies Larval Competition in Zabrotes subfasciatus (Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, S O D; Rodrigues, A S; Vieira, J L; Rosi-Denadai, C A; Guedes, N M P; Guedes, R N C

    2015-08-01

    Larval competition is particularly prevalent among grain beetles that remain within their mother-selected grain throughout development, and the behavioral process of competition is usually inferred by the competition outcome. The Mexican bean weevil Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) is subjected to resource availability variation because of the diversity of common bean types and sizes, from small (e.g., kidney beans) to large (e.g., cranberry beans). The competition process was identified in the Mexican bean weevil reared on kidney and cranberry beans by inference from the competition outcome and by direct observation through digital X-ray imaging. Increased larval density negatively affected adult emergence in kidney beans and reduced adult body mass in both kidney and cranberry beans. Developmental time was faster in cranberry beans. The results allowed for increased larval fitness (i.e., higher larval biomass produced per grain), with larval density reaching a maximum plateau >5 hatched larvae per kidney bean, whereas in cranberry beans, larval fitness linearly increased with density to 13 hatched larvae per bean. These results, together with X-ray imaging without evidence of direct aggressive interaction among larvae, indicate scramble competition, with multiple larvae emerging per grain. However, higher reproductive output was detected for adults from lower density competition with better performance on cranberry beans. Larger populations and fitter adults are expected in intermediate larval densities primarily in cranberry beans where grain losses should be greater.

  17. Comparison of assurance gold salmonella EIA, BAX for screening/Salmonella, and GENE-TRAK Salmonella DLP rapid assays for detection of Salmonella in alfalfa sprouts and sprout irrigation water.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Diana S; Reineke, Karl F; Tortorello, Mary L

    2002-01-01

    The Assurance Gold Salmonella EIA, BAX for Screening/Salmonella, and GENE-TRAK Salmonella DLP rapid assays were compared with official cultural methods described in the Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) for analysis of alfalfa sprouts and sprout irrigation water for the presence of Salmonella. The lower limits of detection of 4 serovars of Salmonella cells (S. tennessee, S. muenchen, S. mbandanka, and S. cubana) in pure culture were determined as approximately log10 2, 5, and 6 for the BAX, GENE-TRAK, and Gold EIA, respectively. Despite its low detection limit, the BAX did not perform as well as the other assays in analyzing contaminated sprouts and sprout irrigation water. For 4 different lots of sprouts and sprout irrigation water samples inoculated with the 4 serovars at low [1-2 colony forming units (CFU/g)] and high (68-180 CFU/g) levels, the BAX detected Salmonella in 58/64 (90.6%) of the samples, compared with 64/64 (100%) by the GENE-TRAK, Gold EIA, and BAM methods. Assay performance was also compared for analysis of naturally contaminated sprouts and sprout irrigation water with 3 lots of alfalfa sprouted seeds associated with different salmonellosis outbreaks. Positive assay results for the naturally contaminated samples were Gold EIA 41, GENE-TRAK 36, BAM 33, and BAX 13.

  18. Isolation and identification of spoilage microorganisms using food-based media combined with rDNA sequencing: ranch dressing as a model food.

    PubMed

    Waite, Joy G; Jones, Joseph M; Yousef, Ahmed E

    2009-05-01

    Investigating microbial spoilage of food is hampered by the lack of suitable growth media and protocols to characterize the causative agents. Microbial spoilage of salad dressing is sporadic and relatively unpredictable, thus processors struggle to develop strategies to minimize or prevent spoilage of this product. The objectives of this study were to (i) induce and characterize spoilage events in ranch-style dressing as a model food, and (ii) isolate and identify the causative microorganisms using traditional and food-based media, coupled with rDNA sequence analysis. Ranch dressing (pH 4.4) was prepared and stored at 25 degrees C for 14 d and microbial populations were recovered on MRS agar and ranch dressing agar (RDA), a newly formulated food-based medium. When isolates suspected as the spoilage agents were inoculated into ranch dressing and held at 25 degrees C for 9-10 d, three unique spoilage events were characterized. Using rDNA sequence comparisons, spoilage organisms were identified as Lactobacillus brevis, Pediococcus acidilactici, and Torulaspora delbrueckii. P. acidilactici produced flat-sour spoilage, whereas Lb. brevis resulted in product acidification and moderate gas production. The RDA medium allowed for optimum recovery of the excessive gas-producing spoilage yeast, T. delbrueckii. The isolation and identification strategy utilized in this work should assist in the characterization of spoilage organisms in other food systems.

  19. A rapid method for the evaluation of both extrinsic and intrinsic contamination and resulting spoilage of water-in-oil emulsions.

    PubMed

    O'May, G A; Allison, D G; Gilbert, P

    2004-01-01

    To develop a method for studying the microbial spoilage of water-in-oil emulsions and to use this to investigate (i) the intrinsic stability of water-in-oil formulations and (ii) Pseudomonas aeruginosa SP1-induced spoilage of a proprietary emulsion. Aliquots of test emulsion were placed into wells of a microtitre plate and the opacity (492 nm) monitored at 120-min intervals over several hours. Cracking of the emulsion was associated with marked reductions in opacity. Rate and extent of change in O.D. could be used as indicators of spoilage. Spoilage of a laboratory emulsion formulation was investigated where microorganisms with demonstrated spoilage potential were incorporated either into the water phase prior to emulsification or where the proportion of contaminated water droplets was varied by dilution of contaminated emulsion with a sterile formulation. Results suggested that the route of introduction was a critical determinant of the probability of gross spoilage. Ps. aeruginosa SP1-induced spoilage of a proprietary formulation was found to be independent of growth in the formulation; rather it was attributed to the presence of a heat-labile extracellular spoilage-factor that was protease labile and possessed both lipase and polysorbate hydrolytic activity. Such spoilage potential was unique to one Ps. aeruginosa culture filtrate amongst five pseudomonads tested. The method is both rapid and reproducible, enables evaluation of the effects of route of contamination upon emulsion spoilage and has potential application in formulation development for cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food products.

  20. APOE-Sensitive Cholinergic Sprouting Compensates for Hippocampal Dysfunctions Due to Reduced Entorhinal Input.

    PubMed

    Bott, Jean-Bastien; Héraud, Céline; Cosquer, Brigitte; Herbeaux, Karine; Aubert, Julien; Sartori, Maxime; Goutagny, Romain; Mathis, Chantal

    2016-10-05

    Brain mechanisms compensating for cerebral lesions may mitigate the progression of chronic neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Mild cognitive impairment (MCI), which often precedes AD, is characterized by neuronal loss in the entorhinal cortex (EC). This loss leads to a hippocampal disconnection syndrome that drives clinical progression. The concomitant sprouting of cholinergic terminals in the hippocampus has been proposed to compensate for reduced EC glutamatergic input. However, in absence of direct experimental evidence, the compensatory nature of the cholinergic sprouting and its putative mechanisms remain elusive. Transgenic mice expressing the human APOE4 allele, the main genetic risk factor for sporadic MCI/AD, display impaired cholinergic sprouting after EC lesion. Using these mice as a tool to manipulate cholinergic sprouting in a disease-relevant way, we showed that this sprouting was necessary and sufficient for the acute compensation of EC lesion-induced spatial memory deficit before a slower glutamatergic reinnervation took place. We also found that partial EC lesion generates abnormal hyperactivity in EC/dentate networks. Dentate hyperactivity was abolished by optogenetic stimulation of cholinergic fibers. Therefore, control of dentate hyperactivity by cholinergic sprouting may be involved in functional compensation after entorhinal lesion. Our results also suggest that dentate hyperactivity in MCI patients may be directly related to EC neuronal loss. Impaired sprouting during the MCI stage may contribute to the faster cognitive decline reported in APOE4 carriers. Beyond the amyloid contribution, the potential role of both cholinergic sprouting and dentate hyperactivity in AD symptomatogenesis should be considered in designing new therapeutic approaches. Currently, curative treatment trials for Alzheimer's disease (AD) have failed. The endogenous ability of the brain to cope with neuronal loss probably represents one of the

  1. 21 CFR 155.120 - Canned green beans and canned wax beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canned green beans and canned wax beans. 155.120 Section 155.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED VEGETABLES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned...

  2. Preharvest herbicide treatments affect black bean desiccation, yield, and canned bean color

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A field trial was conducted near Richville, Michigan in 2013 and 2014 to evaluate the effects of preharvest herbicide treatments on desiccation, yield, and canned black bean quality and color. Three Type II black bean varieties, Zorro, Eclipse, and Zenith, were planted on two different dates in each...

  3. Dynamic transcriptome profiling of Bean Common Mosaic Virus (BCMV) infection in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) is widespread, with Phaseolus species as the primary host plants. Numerous BCMV strains have been identified on the basis of a panel of bean varieties that distinguish the pathogenicity types with respect to the viral strains. Here, we report the transcriptional respo...

  4. Latest about Spoilage by Yeasts: Focus on the Deterioration of Beverages and Other Plant-Derived Products.

    PubMed

    Krisch, Judit; Chandrasekaran, Muthusamy; Kadaikunnan, Shine; Alharbi, Naiyf S; Vágvölgyi, Csaba

    2016-05-01

    Food and beverage deterioration by spoilage yeasts is a serious problem that causes substantial financial losses each year. Yeasts are able to grow under harsh environmental conditions in foods with low pH, low water activity, and high sugar and/or salt content. Some of them are extremely resistant to the traditional preservatives used in the food industry. The search for new methods and agents for prevention of spoilage by yeasts is ongoing, but most of these are still at laboratory scale. This minireview gives an overview of the latest research issues relating to spoilage by yeasts, with a focus on wine and other beverages, following the interest of the research groups. It seems that a better understanding of the mechanisms to combat food-related stresses, the characteristics leading to resistance, and rapid identification of strains of yeasts in foods are the tools that can help control spoilage yeasts.

  5. Draft genome sequence and annotation of Lactobacillus acetotolerans BM-LA14527, a beer-spoilage bacteria.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junyan; Li, Lin; Peters, Brian M; Li, Bing; Deng, Yang; Xu, Zhenbo; Shirtliff, Mark E

    2016-09-01

    Lactobacillus acetotolerans is a hard-to-culture beer-spoilage bacterium capable of entering into the viable putative nonculturable (VPNC) state. As part of an initial strategy to investigate the phenotypic behavior of L. acetotolerans, draft genome sequencing was performed. Results demonstrated a total of 1824 predicted annotated genes, with several potential VPNC- and beer-spoilage-associated genes identified. Importantly, this is the first genome sequence of L. acetotolerans as beer-spoilage bacteria and it may aid in further analysis of L. acetotolerans and other beer-spoilage bacteria, with direct implications for food safety control in the beer brewing industry. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Quorum sensing signals affect spoilage of refrigerated large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) by Shewanella baltica.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Junli; Zhao, Aifei; Feng, Lifang; Gao, Haichun

    2016-01-18

    In this work we investigated the specific spoilage organism (SSO) of large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) stored at 4°C and role of quorum sensing (QS) system of SSO isolated from the spoiled fish. According to microbial count and 16S rRNA gene of the isolated pure strains, Shewanella, mainly Shewanella baltica and Shewanella putrefaciens, was predominant genera at the end of shelf-life of P. crocea. Among Shewanella isolates, S.baltica02 was demonstrated as SSO in spoilage potential characteristics by inoculation into sterile fish juice using sensory and chemical analyses. Autoinducer 2 and two cyclic dipeptides (DKPs) including cyclo-(l-Pro-l-Leu) and cyclo-(l-Pro-l-Phe), no any AHLs, were detected in cell-free S. baltica culture. Interestingly, S.baltica02 had the highest QS activity among three spoilers of S. baltica. The production of biofilm, trimethylamines (TMA) and putrescine in these spoilers significantly increased in the presence of cyclo-(l-Pro-l-Leu), rather than cyclo-(l-Pro-l-Phe) and 4,5-dihydroxy-2,3-pentanedione (the AI-2 precursor, DPD). In accordance with the effect of signal molecules on the spoilage phenotype, exposure to exogenous cyclo-(l-Pro-l-Leu) was also showed to up-regulate the transcription levels of luxR, torA and ODC, and no effect of luxS indicated that S. baltica could sense cyclo-(l-Pro-l-Leu). In the fish homogenate, exogenous cyclo-(l-Pro-l-Leu) shortened lag phase durations and enhanced growth rates of the dominant bacteria, H2S producing bacteria, under refrigerated storage, while exogenous DPD retarded growth of competing bacteria, such as Enterobacteriaceae. Meanwhile, cyclo-(l-Pro-l-Leu) also promoted the accumulation of metabolites on the spoilage process of homogenate. S.baltica02 luxS mutant preliminarily proved that AI-2 might not play a signaling role in the spoilage. The present study suggested that the spoilage potential of S. baltica in P. crocea might be regulated by DKP-based quorum sensing.

  7. Influence of calcium lactate on the fate of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms in orange juice.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Jui-Yueh; Hoogetoorn, Ellis; Chen, Jinru

    2004-07-01

    Calcium lactate is used by the beverage industry as a source of calcium to fortify fruit juice. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of various concentrations of calcium lactate on the fate of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms in orange juice. Commercial nonfortified orange juice was supplemented with calcium lactate at a concentration equivalent to 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, or 30% dietary reference intake. The pH of each fortified juice was adjusted to 3.6 or 4.1. The prepared juice samples were inoculated separately with a three-strain mixture of salmonellae, a three-strain mixture of spoilage yeasts, and three single strains of spoilage bacteria including Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus sake. The contaminated juice was stored at 4 and 10 degrees C, respectively, for 6 to 7 weeks and assayed once a week for populations of salmonellae, spoilage yeasts, or spoilage bacteria. The results indicated that A. acidoterrestris was inhibited in all juice stored at 4 degrees C and low-pH juice stored at 10 degrees C. The bacterium, however, was able to grow at 10 degrees C in the high-pH juice with calcium lactate concentrations equivalent to 0 and 5% dietary reference intake. The cells of L. sake declined and eventually died off in low-pH juice stored at 4 and 10 degrees C and in high pH stored at 4 degrees C. But the organism flourished at 10 degrees C in the high-pH juice containing 0, 10, and 20% dietary reference intake of calcium lactate. The populations of L. plantarum remained approximately stable in low- as well as in high-pH juice stored at both 4 and 10 degrees C. While inhibited at 4 degrees C, the spoilage yeasts grew at 10 degrees C. Salmonellae died off in all juice stored at 4 degrees C and in low-pH juice stored at 10 degrees C. However, they persisted in the high-pH juice stored at 10 degrees C except in the samples that contained 20 to 30% dietary reference intake of calcium lactate.

  8. Antioxidant capacity of broccoli sprouts subjected to gastrointestinal digestion.

    PubMed

    Rychlik, Joanna; Olejnik, Anna; Olkowicz, Mariola; Kowalska, Katarzyna; Juzwa, Wojciech; Myszka, Kamila; Dembczyński, Radosław; Moyer, Mary Pat; Grajek, Włodzimierz

    2015-07-01

    Broccoli is a common vegetable recognized as a rich source of antioxidants. To date, research on the antioxidant properties of broccoli, predominantly conducted on extracts, has not considered the lesions of composition and this activity after gastrointestinal digestion. Here the stability of antioxidants during gastrointestinal digestion was evaluated in conjunction with the protective effects of broccoli sprouts (BS) against oxidative stress in human colon cells. The obtained data suggest that, among the biocompounds identified in BS, glucosinolates were mainly degraded under gastrointestinal digestion, while phenolics, particularly hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, were the most resistant constituents. The antioxidant capacity of BS extract subjected to gastrointestinal digestion was similar to or higher than that determined for non-digested BS. Gastrointestinal digested BS extract exhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS)-inhibitory capacity in NCM460 human colon cells, with 1 mg mL(-1) showing an ROS clearance of 76.59%. A 57.33% reduction in oxidative DNA damage in NCM460 cells due to treatment with digested BS extract was observed. The results lend support to the possible application of BS as a rich source of antioxidants to improve the defensive system against oxidative stress in the human colon mucosa. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Anticancer and Antioxidant Activity of Bread Enriched with Broccoli Sprouts

    PubMed Central

    Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Świeca, Michał; Dziki, Dariusz; Sęczyk, Łukasz; Złotek, Urszula; Różyło, Renata; Kaszuba, Kinga; Ryszawy, Damian; Czyż, Jarosław

    2014-01-01

    This study is focused on antioxidant and anticancer capacity of bread enriched with broccoli sprouts (BS) in the light of their potential bioaccessibility and bioavailability. Generally, bread supplementation elevated antioxidant potential of product (both nonenzymatic and enzymatic antioxidant capacities); however, the increase was not correlated with the percent of BS. A replacement up to 2% of BS gives satisfactory overall consumers acceptability and desirable elevation of antioxidant potential. High activity was especially found for extracts obtained after simulated digestion, which allows assuming their protective effect for upper gastrointestinal tract; thus, the anticancer activity against human stomach cancer cells (AGS) was evaluated. A prominent cytostatic response paralleled by the inhibition of AGS motility in the presence of potentially mastication-extractable phytochemicals indicates that phenolic compounds of BS retain their biological activity in bread. Importantly, the efficient phenolics concentration was about 12 μM for buffer extract, 13 μM for extracts after digestion in vitro, and 7 μM for extract after absorption in vitro. Our data confirm chemopreventive potential of bread enriched with BS and indicate that BS comprise valuable food supplement for stomach cancer chemoprevention. PMID:25050366

  10. Viral mediated gene transfer to sprouting blood vessels during angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Alian, Akram; Eldor, Amiram; Falk, Haya; Panet, Amos

    2002-08-01

    Several experimental systems have been applied to investigate the development of new blood vessels. Angiogenesis can be followed ex-vivo by culturing explants of rat aorta 'rings' in biomatrix gels. This angiogenesis system was modified for the study of viral vector mediated gene transfer, using adenovirus, vaccinia- and retroviral vectors. Two modifications were introduced to the model in order to facilitate efficient viral mediated gene transfer, (i) placing the aorta ring on top of a thin layer of collagen such that the angiogenic tissue will be accessible to the viral vector; and (ii) infection of the aorta rings prior to embedding them into the collagen matrix. While adenovirus and vaccinia vectors infected efficiently the aorta rings they induced cell death. Subsequent gene transfer experiments were, therefore, carried with retroviral vectors containing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the beta-interferon (IFN) genes. Overexpression of VEGF enhanced significantly microvessel sprouting, while overexpression of IFN-beta induced an antiviral effect. The experimental system described in this study can facilitate the application of other viral vectors to the study of genes that may regulate the complex angiogenic process and thereby open new avenues for vascular gene therapy.

  11. horC confers beer-spoilage ability on hop-sensitive Lactobacillus brevis ABBC45cc.

    PubMed

    Iijima, K; Suzuki, K; Ozaki, K; Yamashita, H

    2006-06-01

    To determine whether horC confers beer-spoilage ability and to evaluate the validity of horC as a trans-species genetic marker for differentiating the beer-spoilage ability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Hop-sensitive Lactobacillus brevis ABBC45cc was transformed with an expression plasmid, pHYchorBC, containing putative multidrug resistance gene horC and its putative regulator horB, and the transformant was designated as ABBC45cc/pHYchorBC. As a control, ABBC45cc was transformed with pHYchorB that contains horB, and the transformed strain was designated as ABBC45cc/pHYchorB. As a result of beer-spoilage assay of these transformants, ABBC45cc/pHYchorBC exhibited beer-spoilage ability, whereas ABBC45cc/pHYchorB did not. Furthermore ABBC45cc/pHYchorBC showed higher hop resistance than ABBC45cc/pHYchorB, accounting for the differences in beer-spoilage ability observed between the two transformants. ABBC45cc/pHYchorBC also exhibited higher resistance to various structurally unrelated drugs, compared with ABBC45cc/pHYchorB. horC was shown to confer hop resistance and beer-spoilage ability on ABBC45cc by presumably encoding a multidrug transporter. The finding that horC plays an important role in hop resistance and beer-spoilage ability supports the validity of horC as a trans-species genetic marker for differentiating the beer-spoilage ability of LAB.

  12. Influence of elicitation with H₂O₂ on phenolics content, antioxidant potential and nutritional quality of Lens culinaris sprouts.

    PubMed

    Świeca, Michał; Baraniak, Barbara

    2014-02-01

    The use of lentil sprouts as bioreactors for obtaining low-processed food with modified composition and biological activity was studied. Special emphasis was placed on the nutritional quality. Sprouts metabolism was elicited with 20 mmol L⁻¹ and 200 mmol L⁻¹ H₂O₂. The polyphenolics content and antioxidative abilities at different germination stages of lentil were studied. Both sprouting and elicitation significantly influenced the nutritional and nutraceutical quality of sprouts. In comparison to control conditions both treatments gave an increase in caffeic, salicylic acid and genistein contents in 4-day-old sprouts and p-hydroxybenzoic, chlorogenic, o-coumaric, p-coumaric acids and naringenin, (+)-catechin contents for 6-day-old sprouts. Elicitation significantly increased the ability to prevent lipid against peroxidation. The antioxidant potential was the most effectively elevated in 6-day-old sprouts. Elicitation caused a significant decrease in protein content associated with a significant elevation in the non-protein nitrogen content. Induction of sprout metabolism caused a decrease of bioavailable starch and subsequent elevation of resistant starch content. The significantly elevated antioxidant potential, high content of resistant starch and low starch bioaccessibility of sprouts elicited with H₂O₂ indicated that this technology allows the production of functional food products with particular characteristics. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Absorption and chemopreventive targets of sulforaphane in humans following consumption of broccoli sprouts or a myrosinase-treated broccoli sprout extract

    PubMed Central

    Atwell, Lauren L.; Hsu, Anna; Wong, Carmen P.; Stevens, Jan F.; Bella, Deborah; Yu, Tian-Wei; Pereira, Clifford B.; Löhr, Christiane V.; Christensen, John Mark; Dashwood, Roderick H.; Williams, David E.; Shannon, Jackilen; Ho, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Scope Sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate derived from crucifers, has numerous health benefits. SFN bioavailability from dietary sources is a critical determinant of its efficacy in humans. A key factor in SFN absorption is the release of SFN from its glucosinolate precursor, glucoraphanin, by myrosinase. Dietary supplements are used in clinical trials to deliver consistent SFN doses, but myrosinase is often inactivated in available supplements. We evaluated SFN absorption from a myrosinase-treated broccoli sprout extract (BSE) and are the first to report effects of twice daily, oral dosing on SFN exposure in healthy adults. Methods and results Subjects consumed fresh broccoli sprouts or the BSE, each providing 200 μmol SFN daily, as a single dose and as two 100-μmol doses taken 12 h apart. Using HPLC-MS/MS, we detected ~3 x higher SFN metabolite levels in plasma and urine of sprout consumers, indicating enhanced SFN absorption from sprouts. Twelve-hour dosing retained higher plasma SFN metabolite levels at later time points than 24-hour dosing. No dose responses were observed for molecular targets of SFN (i.e. heme oxygenase-1, histone deacetylase activity, p21). Conclusion We conclude that the dietary form and dosing schedule of SFN may impact SFN absorption and efficacy in human trials. PMID:25522265

  14. Effect of sprouting of soybean on the chemical composition and quality of soymilk and tofu.

    PubMed

    Murugkar, D Agrahar

    2014-05-01

    The effect of sprouting of soybean and preparing soymilk and tofu on the yield, nutritional quality, anti-nutritional profile, colour attributes, organoleptic quality and texture profile (tofu) of four commonly used varieties of India were studied to assess the feasibility of using sprouting as a non-chemical, non-thermal tool to improve quality of soy products. Soymilk was prepared from sprouted and unsprouted seeds with process parameters of 121 °C for 25 min. Coagulation of soymilk was done with 3% CaSO4 at 80 °C. Products from sprouted varieties showed an increase in protein (fb) of 7% in milk and 13% in tofu across varieties; a reduction in fat (fb) of 24% in milk and 12% in tofu; in trypsin inhibitor (db) of 73% in milk and 81% in tofu; in phytic acid (db) of 59% in milk and 56% in tofu across varieties. Tofu from sprouted seeds had higher protein and whiteness index but tofu strength was around 43% lesser than its unsprouted counterpart. Taste acceptability showed an increase of 10% and 6.3%; flavour of 23.2% and 11.6% and overall acceptability of 9.9% and 4.4% in milk and in tofu respectively from sprouted varieties. The improvements in composition and quality parameters was seen in all the varieties tested showing that sprouting could be beneficial for product development across varieties. The time and temperature used for production of soymilk was conventional (121 °C for 25 min). Evaluation of time and/temperature reductions could be tried out to reduce the heat requirement and intensity, which could result in better nutritional and functional quality products.

  15. German outbreak of Escherichia coli O104:H4 associated with sprouts.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Udo; Bernard, Helen; Werber, Dirk; Böhmer, Merle M; Remschmidt, Cornelius; Wilking, Hendrik; Deleré, Yvonne; an der Heiden, Matthias; Adlhoch, Cornelia; Dreesman, Johannes; Ehlers, Joachim; Ethelberg, Steen; Faber, Mirko; Frank, Christina; Fricke, Gerd; Greiner, Matthias; Höhle, Michael; Ivarsson, Sofie; Jark, Uwe; Kirchner, Markus; Koch, Judith; Krause, Gérard; Luber, Petra; Rosner, Bettina; Stark, Klaus; Kühne, Michael

    2011-11-10

    A large outbreak of the hemolytic-uremic syndrome caused by Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 occurred in Germany in May 2011. The source of infection was undetermined. We conducted a matched case-control study and a recipe-based restaurant cohort study, along with environmental, trace-back, and trace-forward investigations, to determine the source of infection. The case-control study included 26 case subjects with the hemolytic-uremic syndrome and 81 control subjects. The outbreak of illness was associated with sprout consumption in univariable analysis (matched odds ratio, 5.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2 to 29) and with sprout and cucumber consumption in multivariable analysis. Among case subjects, 25% reported having eaten sprouts, and 88% reported having eaten cucumbers. The recipe-based study among 10 groups of visitors to restaurant K included 152 persons, among whom bloody diarrhea or diarrhea confirmed to be associated with Shiga-toxin-producing E. coli developed in 31 (20%). Visitors who were served sprouts were significantly more likely to become ill (relative risk, 14.2; 95% CI, 2.6 to ∞). Sprout consumption explained 100% of cases. Trace-back investigation of sprouts from the distributor that supplied restaurant K led to producer A. All 41 case clusters with known trading connections could be explained by producer A. The outbreak strain could not be identified on seeds from the implicated lot. Our investigations identified sprouts as the most likely outbreak vehicle, underlining the need to take into account food items that may be overlooked during subjects' recall of consumption.

  16. Synergy between broccoli sprout extract and selenium in the upregulation of thioredoxin reductase in human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Wu, Kun; Howie, A Forbes; Beckett, Geoffrey J; Wang, Wei; Bao, Yongping

    2008-09-01

    Dietary isothiocyanates and selenium (Se) can up-regulate thioredoxin reductase 1 (TR1) in cultured human HepG2 and MCF-7 cells [Zhang et al. (2003). Synergy between sulforaphane and selenium in the induction of thioredoxin reductase 1 requires both transcriptional and translational modulation. Carcinogenesis, 24, 497-503; Wang et al. (2005). Sulforaphane, erucin and iberin up-regulate thioredoxin reductase expression in human MCF-7 cells. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53, 1417-1421] at both the protein and mRNA levels. In this study, broccoli sprout extract (a rich source of the isothiocyanates sulforaphane and iberin) and Se interacted synergistically to induce TR1 in immortalised human hepatocytes. Broccoli sprout extracts containing 1.6, 4 and 8μM isothiocyanates were tested for their ability to induce TR1 at the protein and mRNA level. Although induction of TR1 mRNA by broccoli sprout extract (1.6-8μM) was only 1.7-2.2-fold, co-treatment with Se (0.2-1μM) enhanced the expression of TR1 mRNA (3.0-3.3-fold). Moreover, broccoli sprout extract induced the cellular concentration of TR1 and TR enzymatic activity, an induction that was augmented by Se addition. Thus, broccoli sprout extract (8μM) and Se induced cellular TR1 concentration and enzymatic activity 3.7- and 5-fold respectively, whereas, Se or broccoli sprout extract alone produced an induction of only approximately 2-fold. These data suggest that dietary isothiocyanates from broccoli sprouts and Se are important agents in the regulation of redox status in human liver cells. The synergistic effect between isothiocyanates and Se at physiologically-relevant concentrations on the induction of TR1 may play an important role in protection against oxidative stress.

  17. Metabolism of lactic acid in fermented cucumbers by Lactobacillus buchneri and related species, potential spoilage organisms in reduced salt fermentations.

    PubMed

    Johanningsmeier, Suzanne D; McFeeters, Roger F

    2013-09-01

    Recent evidence suggests that Lactobacillus buchneri may play an important role in spoilage-associated secondary fermentation of cucumbers. Lactic acid degradation during fermented cucumber spoilage is influenced by sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration, pH, and presence of oxygen. Objectives were to evaluate these factors on lactic acid utilization by L. buchneri, and to compare the biochemical changes to those which occur during fermented cucumber spoilage. Effects of NaCl (0, 2, 4, and 6% w/w), pH (3.8 vs 5.0), and aerobic environment were investigated using fermented cucumber media (FC) inoculated with spoilage microorganisms. At pH 3.8, L. buchneri degraded lactic acid in all NaCl concentrations. The highest rate of lactic acid utilization occurred in FC with 2% NaCl (P < 0.05). Lactic acid utilization was nearly identical under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, indicating that oxygen does not influence lactate metabolism by L. buchneri. Lactic acid utilization was accompanied by increases in acetic acid and 1,2-propanediol, and Lactobacillus rapi was able to convert 1,2-propanediol to propionic acid and propanol. L. buchneri initiated spoilage in a wide range of environmental conditions that may be present in commercial cucumber fermentations, and L. rapi may act syntrophically with L. buchneri to produce the commonly observed spoilage metabolites.

  18. Evaluation of the spoilage potential of bacteria isolated from spoiled raw salmon (Salmo salar) fillets stored under modified atmosphere packaging.

    PubMed

    Macé, Sabrina; Joffraud, Jean-Jacques; Cardinal, Mireille; Malcheva, Mariya; Cornet, Josiane; Lalanne, Valérie; Chevalier, Frédérique; Sérot, Thierry; Pilet, Marie-France; Dousset, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    The spoilage potential of eight bacterial groups/species (Serratia spp., Hafnia alvei, Brochothrix thermosphacta, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Shewanella baltica, Lactococcus piscium, Photobacterium phosphoreum, "other Enterobacteriaceae" [containing one strain of Moellerella sp., Morganella sp. and Pectobacterium sp.]) isolated from spoiled raw salmon fillets stored under modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) was evaluated by inoculation into sterile raw salmon cubes followed by storage for 12days at 8°C. Microbial growth and sensory changes were monitored during the storage period. The dominant spoilage bacteria were C. maltaromaticum, H. alvei and P. phosphoreum. In order to further characterize their spoilage potential and to study the effect of their interactions, each of these 3 specific spoilage organisms (SSO) and two mixed-cultures, C. maltaromaticum/H. alvei and C. maltaromaticum/P. phosphoreum were tested in the sterile salmon model system using a combination of complementary methods: molecular (PCR-TTGE), sensory, chemical and conventional microbiological analyses. It was concluded that, in the mixed-culture inoculated samples, the dominant species determined the spoilage characteristics. The volatile fraction of P. phosphoreum inoculated samples was analyzed by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Among the specific volatile compounds present on P. phosphoreum spoiled inoculated samples, acetic acid was correlated with sensory analysis and can be proposed as a raw salmon spoilage marker.

  19. Broth and agar hop-gradient plates used to evaluate the beer-spoilage potential of Lactobacillus and Pediococcus isolates.

    PubMed

    Haakensen, M; Schubert, A; Ziola, B

    2009-03-15

    Identification of the beer-spoilage Lactobacillus and Pediococcus bacteria has largely taken two approaches; identification of spoilage-associated genes or identification of specific species of bacteria regardless of ability to grow in beer. The problem with these two approaches is that they are either overly inclusive (i.e., detect all bacteria of a given species regardless of spoilage potential) or overly selective (i.e., rely upon individual, putative spoilage-associated genes). Our goal was to design a method to assess the ability of Lactobacillus and Pediococcus to spoil beer that is independent of speciation or genetic background. In searching for a method by which to differentiate between beer-spoilage bacteria and bacteria that cannot grow in beer, we explored the ability of lactobacilli and pediococci isolates to grow in the presence of varying concentrations of hop-compounds and ethanol in broth medium versus on agar medium. The best method for differentiating between bacteria that can grow in beer and bacteria that do not pose a threat as beer-spoilage organisms was found to be a hop-gradient agar plate containing ethanol. This hop-gradient agar plate technique provides a rapid and simple solution to the dilemma of assessing the ability of Lactobacillus and Pediococcus isolates to grow in beer, and provides new insights into the different strategies used by these bacteria to survive under the stringent conditions of beer.

  20. 32. Coffee bean sluiceway on ground floor showing chute bringing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Coffee bean sluiceway on ground floor showing chute bringing beans from first floor hopper. HAER PR, 6-MAGU, 1B-17 - Hacienda Buena Vista, PR Route 10 (Ponce to Arecibo), Magueyes, Ponce Municipio, PR