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Sample records for bearbeitung dysfunktionaler schemata

  1. Adapting Classroom Schemata.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlewood, William

    1999-01-01

    Discusses schema theory in relation to the language classroom. Argues that as teachers themselves are former learners, the schemata they have developed both inside and outside the classroom will provide them assumptions about how people learn. (Author/VWL)

  2. Dual-Schemata Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Tadahiro; Sawaragi, Tetsuo

    In this paper, a new machine-learning method, called Dual-Schemata model, is presented. Dual-Schemata model is a kind of self-organizational machine learning methods for an autonomous robot interacting with an unknown dynamical environment. This is based on Piaget's Schema model, that is a classical psychological model to explain memory and cognitive development of human beings. Our Dual-Schemata model is developed as a computational model of Piaget's Schema model, especially focusing on sensori-motor developing period. This developmental process is characterized by a couple of two mutually-interacting dynamics; one is a dynamics formed by assimilation and accommodation, and the other dynamics is formed by equilibration and differentiation. By these dynamics schema system enables an agent to act well in a real world. This schema's differentiation process corresponds to a symbol formation process occurring within an autonomous agent when it interacts with an unknown, dynamically changing environment. Experiment results obtained from an autonomous facial robot in which our model is embedded are presented; an autonomous facial robot becomes able to chase a ball moving in various ways without any rewards nor teaching signals from outside. Moreover, emergence of concepts on the target movements within a robot is shown and discussed in terms of fuzzy logics on set-subset inclusive relationships.

  3. Intuitions and Schemata in Mathematical Reasoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischbein, Efraim

    1999-01-01

    Analyzes the relationship between intuitions and structural schemata. Indicates that intuitions are generally based on structural schemata and the transition from schemata to intuitions is achieved by a particular process of compression. (Contains 38 references.) (Author/ASK)

  4. Schemata and Intuitions in Combinatorial Reasoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischbein, Efraim; Grossman, Aline

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the problem in the relationship between schemata and intuitions. Analyzes the hypothesis that intuitions are always based on certain structural schemata. Concludes that intuitions, even when expressed as instantaneous guesses, are in fact manipulated behind the scenes by schemata. Contains 27 references. (Author/ASK)

  5. Critical Thinking: Schemata vs. Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandhorst, Allan R.

    1989-01-01

    Refutes the idea that critical thinking is not a skill by analyzing it from the phenomenological perspective of Edmund Husserl, and from the hermeneutic perspective of Martin Heidegger. Develops the thesis that critical thinking is a restructuring of schemata. Addresses the problem of attention or student engagement. (LS)

  6. Critical Thinking: Schemata vs. Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandhorst, Allan R.

    1989-01-01

    Refutes the idea that critical thinking is not a skill by analyzing it from the phenomenological perspective of Edmund Husserl, and from the hermeneutic perspective of Martin Heidegger. Develops the thesis that critical thinking is a restructuring of schemata. Addresses the problem of attention or student engagement. (LS)

  7. Composition, Comprehension and Text Type Schemata.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crismore, Avon

    A cognitive approach to the interrelation of writing and reading assumes that production and comprehension of written text depend upon cognitive and affective schemata used in concert by a writer or reader to produce or encode, store, and retrieve text information. Both comprehending and composing are basic, complex, interactive processes with…

  8. Variations in Family Constellation: Effects on Gender Schemata

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Phyllis A.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the possible relationships between family socialization agents and gender schemata. Focuses on the interplay of the two types of family variables--distal and proximal--and gender schemata. Distal variables discussed are: (1) socioeconomic level; (2) ethnicity; (3) intact versus one-parent families; (4) maternal employment and sibling…

  9. Self-Schemata and the Processing of Attitudinal Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidera, Joseph A.; And Others

    A two-session experiment was conducted to test the relationship of self-schemata to the processing of attitudinal information. In Session I, subjects were classified as either Religious (n=20) or Legal (n=19) in their schemata, using weighted response times to personality trait words on slides. In Session II, these subjects heard one of four…

  10. Self-Schemata and the Processing of Attitudinal Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidera, Joseph A.; And Others

    A two-session experiment was conducted to test the relationship of self-schemata to the processing of attitudinal information. In Session I, subjects were classified as either Religious (n=20) or Legal (n=19) in their schemata, using weighted response times to personality trait words on slides. In Session II, these subjects heard one of four…

  11. The Effects of Cultural Schemata on Reading Processing Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Robert

    A study examined the relationship between cultural schemata and the reading process to identify the strategies proficient readers employ to develop their understanding of culturally familiar and unfamiliar passages and to examine those strategies in relation to the cultural backgrounds of the readers and the cultural perspectives of the reading…

  12. A Hearing-Impaired Child's Acquisition of Schemata: Something's Missing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine; Downey, Doris M.

    1986-01-01

    The difficulties hearing impaired students experience in acquiring the conceptual information underlying narratives is discussed in terms of schemata development and the role of incidental learning. Principles for teaching concepts and labels, elaborating the schema, using questions to fill in conceptual gaps, and using imaginary play and…

  13. Couple Support Schemata in Couples with and without Spinal Cord Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilad, Dvorit; Lavee, Yoav

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the cognitive schemata of couples' support relationships among 65 couples in which the husband had a long-term spinal cord injury and 65 couples without disability. The structure of the support relations schemata were examined by means of smallest-space analysis. Similarities between men and women in couples with and without…

  14. Couple Support Schemata in Couples with and without Spinal Cord Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilad, Dvorit; Lavee, Yoav

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the cognitive schemata of couples' support relationships among 65 couples in which the husband had a long-term spinal cord injury and 65 couples without disability. The structure of the support relations schemata were examined by means of smallest-space analysis. Similarities between men and women in couples with and without…

  15. Schemata as Scaffolding for the Representation of Information in Connected Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Richard C.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    As predicted, foods from categories typical of most people's restaurant schemata (conceptual framework) were better recalled by undergraduates who read a restaurant narrative, than those reading about supermarkets, a less structured schemata. Findings confirm Ausubel's notion that information which fits slots in a conceptual framework is more…

  16. The Development of Cognitive Schemata in Children (Birth to 12 Years Old) of Depressed Parents: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Dean John

    One of the ways in which children of depressed parents are affected is in the area of cognitive schemata. In cognitive behavioral theory, schemata drive emotions and therefore influence behavior. Subsequently, a better understanding of the cognitive schemata of children of depressed parents is attempted in this paper. It offers a review of the…

  17. Effects of Age and Sex on the Development of Personal Space Schemata Towards Body Build

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Richard M.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    This study assessed personal space schemata of children towards stimulus figures representing male and female body build stereotypes. Greater spatial distances were used towards the Endomorph than other physique types and significant sex differences were found. (GO)

  18. Constructing the context through goals and schemata: top-down processes in comprehension and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Mazzone, Marco

    2015-01-01

    My main purpose here is to provide an account of context selection in utterance understanding in terms of the role played by schemata and goals in top-down processing. The general idea is that information is organized hierarchically, with items iteratively organized in chunks—here called “schemata”—at multiple levels, so that the activation of any items spreads to schemata that are the most accessible due to previous experience. The activation of a schema, in turn, activates its other components, so as to predict a likely context for the original item. Since each input activates its own schemata, conflicting schemata compete with (and inhibit) each other, while multiple activations of a schema raise its likelihood to win the competition. There is therefore a double movement—with bottom-up activation of schemata enabling top-down prediction of other contextual components—triggered by multiple sources. Another claim of the paper is that goals are represented by schemata placed at the highest-levels of the executive hierarchy, in accordance with Fuster’s model of the brain as a hierarchically organized perception-action cycle. This account can be considered, in part at least, a development of ideas contained in Relevance Theory, though it may imply that some other claims of the theory are in need of revision. Therefore, a secondary purpose of the paper is a contribution to the analysis of that theory. PMID:26042077

  19. Conceptual schemata for terminology: a continuum from headings to values in patient records and messages.

    PubMed Central

    Mori, A. R.; Galeazzi, E.; Consorti, F.; Bidgood, W. D.

    1997-01-01

    We developed a technique of reverse engineering to extract a conceptual schema--also called "categorial structure" in the European standard CEN ENV 12264 (MoSe)--from a set of terminological phrases. The technique was originally applied to coding systems, ie. to large value sets. We applied this technique to subsets of two new terminological resources for message standards: headings of patient record from Clinical LOINC and names of "Context Groups" for structured reporting from SNOMED DICOM Microglossary (SDM). Both sources provide context-independent names for message fields and domains of admitted values. Therefore conceptual schemata on the potential content for a field are compatible with the ones on names of the fields themselves. Both kinds of schemata can be compared and integrated with conceptual schemata for the information system that manages the patient record. This continuity in the schemata allows the coupling of applications with different organization of data, and will facilitate mapping from an application to standard messages and viceversa. Moreover, the simplified representation produced according the MoSe approach is easy to understand by healthcare operators, allowing their progressive involvement in cooperative efforts of design, discussion and validation of the schemata. PMID:9357706

  20. [The acquisition of schemata about location of urban facilities in public space].

    PubMed

    Kawai, Miho; Murakoshi, Shin

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate acquisition of schemata about location of urban facilities. Materials were photos of public space, in which one of three urban facilities (a mailbox, a public-telephone, and a coin--operated locker) were removed by photo-retouching software. The task was to choose the most suitable urban facility for each corrected-photo and to locate it at the most suitable position on the photo. Among three participant groups (primary school 3rd grade: n = 153, primary school 5th grade: n = 118, undergraduate: n = 250), undergraduates chose the most suitable urban facility, and their located position was more concentrated. The results suggest that participants acquire the schemata and use them for inference. Although even 3rd grade children have acquired the schema to some extent, the adults have more detailed schemata of urban facilities in public space.

  1. Multiresolutional schemata for unsupervised learning of autonomous robots for 3D space operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacaze, Alberto; Meystel, Michael; Meystel, Alex

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a novel approach to the development of a learning control system for autonomous space robot (ASR) which presents the ASR as a 'baby' -- that is, a system with no a priori knowledge of the world in which it operates, but with behavior acquisition techniques that allows it to build this knowledge from the experiences of actions within a particular environment (we will call it an Astro-baby). The learning techniques are rooted in the recursive algorithm for inductive generation of nested schemata molded from processes of early cognitive development in humans. The algorithm extracts data from the environment and by means of correlation and abduction, it creates schemata that are used for control. This system is robust enough to deal with a constantly changing environment because such changes provoke the creation of new schemata by generalizing from experiences, while still maintaining minimal computational complexity, thanks to the system's multiresolutional nature.

  2. Verbalization of Schemata Over Time: Investigation of Changes for Fifth Graders and Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Ruth

    Studies of 42 fifth-grade students and 36 college undergraduates were conducted to test changes in verbalizations of schemata over time and in response to informational jolts. In both experiments, subjects were asked to write everything they could think of about dinosaurs and then to put those ideas in order of importance. Two weeks later, the…

  3. The Role of Cognitive Schemata and Discrepant Stimuli in the Foreign Language Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormier, Raymond

    After a discussion of cognitive schemata, identified as representing a "gestalt" stored in human memory, this paper explores three pedagogical modes: the use of drama, humor, and suspense in the classroom. Ways that each pertain to cognitive and communication theory are discussed, and classroom examples of how each mode provides…

  4. Of a Village Bomoh and the Lottery: Content Schemata Influence on Second Language Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radzi, Amizura Hanadi Mohd.; Aziz, Noor Hashima Abd.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses a study on the aspects of content schemata in second language reading, focusing on two contemporary short stories, i.e. "A Quid of Sirih, A Bowl of Water" and "The Lottery." The study explores the cognitive processes of one UiTM Perlis degree level student, reflecting on his L2 reading processes. The…

  5. Verbalization of Schemata Over Time: Investigation of Changes for Fifth Graders and Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Ruth

    Studies of 42 fifth-grade students and 36 college undergraduates were conducted to test changes in verbalizations of schemata over time and in response to informational jolts. In both experiments, subjects were asked to write everything they could think of about dinosaurs and then to put those ideas in order of importance. Two weeks later, the…

  6. Exploring Content Schemata Influence on L2 Reading: "The Hunted Fox" and "Twelve and Not Stupid"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radzi, Amizura Hanadi Mohd; Aziz, Noor Hashima Abd

    2014-01-01

    This paper will discuss the aspects of content schemata in second language reading among diploma level students who were taking a reading course in Universiti Teknologi MARA Perlis. In this qualitative case study, the researcher had selected two short stories that are categorized as content-familiar texts, i.e. "The Hunted Fox" and…

  7. Schemata as Scaffolding for the Representation of Information in Connected Discourse. Technical Report No. 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Richard C.; And Others

    Subjects read narratives about a meal at a fine restaurant or a trip to a supermarket. The same 18 items of food, attributed to the same characters, were mentioned in the same order in the two stories. As predicted from current formulations of schema theory, foods from categories determined to be part of most people's restaurant schemata were…

  8. Excessive Intimacy: An Account Analysis of Behaviors, Cognitive Schemata, Affect, and Relational Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Peter A.

    A study used a qualitative account analysis of excessively intimate encounters to investigate behaviors commonly described by male and female receivers, cognitive schemata invoked to explain why the intimacy was excessive, and the effect of the excessively intimate episode on the relationship. Subjects, 86 female and 37 male students enrolled in…

  9. The rate of acquisition of formal operational schemata in adolescence: A secondary analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckstein, Shulamith G.; Shemesh, Michal

    A theoretical model of cognitive development is applied to the study of the acquisition of formal operational schemata by adolescents. The model predicts that the proportion of adolescents who have not yet acquired the ability to perform a a specific Piagetian-like task is an exponentially decreasing function of age. The model has been used to analyze the data of two large-scale studies performed in the United States and in Israel. The functional dependence upon age was found to be the same in both countries for tasks which are used to assess the following formal operations: proportional reasoning, probabilistic reasoning, correlations, and combinatorial analysis. Different functional dependence was found for tasks assessing conservation, control of variables, and prepositional logic. These results give support to the unity hypothesis of cognitive development, that is, the hypothesis that the various schemata of formal thought appear simultaneously.

  10. Self-stigma in depressive patients: Association of cognitive schemata, depression, and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Shimotsu, Sakie; Horikawa, Naoshi

    2016-12-01

    Many empirical studies have indicated that various psychosocial and psychiatric variables are correlated with levels of self-stigma. Treatment methods for reducing self-stigma have been investigated in recent years, especially those examining the relationship between negative cognitive schemata and self-stigma. This study examined the relationship of self-stigma with cognitive schemata, depression, and self-esteem in depressive patients. Furthermore, structural equation modeling (SEM) was conducted to evaluate three hypothetical models. Study participants were 110 patients with depression (54 men, 56 women; mean age=45.65years, SD=12.68; 83 diagnosed with mood disorders; 22 with neurotic, stress-related, or somatoform disorders; and 5 with other disorders) attending a psychiatric service. Outcomes were measured using the Japanese versions of the Devaluation-Discrimination Scale, Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and Rosenberg's Self Esteem Scale. The analysis indicated a better fit of the model that assumed self-stigma as mediator, suggesting that cognitive schemata influence self-stigma, while self-stigma affects depression and self-esteem. The tested models using SEM indicated that (1) self-stigma has the potential to mediate the relationship between cognitive schemata and depression, and (2) depression and self-stigma have a similar influence on self-esteem. Although low self-esteem is considered one of the symptoms of depression, when we aim to recover self-esteem, we do not only observe improvement in depressive symptoms; thus, approaches that focus on the reduction of self-stigma are probably valid.

  11. Enhancing the mental representations of space used by blind pedestrians, based on an image schemata model.

    PubMed

    Yaagoubi, Reda; Edwards, Geoffrey; Badard, Thierry; Mostafavi, Mir Abolfazl

    2012-11-01

    The configuration of mental representation of space plays a major role in successful navigational activities. Therefore, navigational assistance for pedestrians who are blind should help them to better configure their mental representation of the environment. In this paper, we propose and exploit a computational model for the mental representation of urban areas as an aid to orientation and navigation for visually impaired pedestrians. Our model uses image schemata to capture the spatial semantics and configural elements of urban space necessary for this purpose. These image schemata are schematic structures that are continually requested by individuals in their perception, bodily movement and interaction with surrounding objects. Our proposed model also incorporates a hierarchical structure to provide different levels of detail tied to appropriate spatial perspectives at each scale. We presume that such computational model will help us to develop an appropriate structure of spatial data used to assist the target population. At the end of the paper, we illustrate the utility of our configural model by developing a typical scenario for the navigation of a blind pedestrian in an urban area.

  12. Identifying illness perception schemata and their association with depression and quality of life in cardiac patients.

    PubMed

    Le Grande, Michael R; Elliott, Peter C; Worcester, Marian U C; Murphy, Barbara M; Goble, Alan J; Kugathasan, Vanessa; Sinha, Karan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify groups of cardiac patients who share similar perceptions about their illness and to examine the relationships between these schemata and psychosocial outcomes such as quality of life and depression. A total of 190 cardiac patients with diagnoses of myocardial infarction, stable angina pectoris or chronic heart failure, completed a battery of psychosocial questionnaires within four weeks of their admission to hospital. These included the Brief Illness Perceptions Questionnaire (BIPQ), Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI II) and The MacNew Health-related Quality of Life instrument (MacNew). BIPQ items were subjected to latent class analysis (LCA) and the resulting groups were compared according to their BDI II and MacNew scores. LCA identified a five-class model of illness perception which comprised the following: (1) Consequence focused and mild emotional impact, n = 55, 29%; (2) Low illness perceptions and low emotional impact, n = 45, 24%; (3) Control focused and mild emotional impact, n = 10, 5%; (4) Consequence focused and high emotional impact, n = 60, 32%; and (5) Consequence focused and severe emotional impact, n = 20, 10%. Gender and diagnosis did not appear to reflect class membership except that class 2 had a significantly higher proportion of AMI patients than did class 5. There were numerous significant differences between classes in regards to depression and health-related quality of life. Notably, classes 4 and 5 are distinguished by relatively high BDI II scores and low MacNew scores. Identifying classes of cardiac patients based on their illness perception schemata, in hospital or shortly afterwards, may identify those at risk of developing depressive symptoms and poor quality of life.

  13. The acquisition of formal operational schemata during adolescence: The role of the biconditional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Anton E.

    To test the hypothesis that the basic logic utilized by individuals in scientific hypothesis testing is the biconditional (if and only if), and that the biconditional is a precondition for the development of formal operations, a sample of 387 students in grades eight, ten, twelve, and college were administered eight reasoning items. Five of the items involved the formal operational schemata of probability, proportions and correlations. Two of the items involved propositions and correlations. Two of the items involved propositional logic. One item involved the biconditional. Percentages of correct responses on most of the items increased with age. A principal-component analysis revealed three factors, two of which were identified as involving operational thought, one of which involved propositional logic. As predicted, the biconditional reasoning item loaded on one of the operational thought factors. A Guttman scale analysis of the items failed to reveal a unidimensional scale, yet the biconditional reasoning item ordered first supporting the hypothesis that it is a precondition for formal operational reasoning. Implications for teaching science students how to test hypotheses are discussed.

  14. Separating emotions from consequences in muscle disease: comparing beneficial and unhelpful illness schemata to inform intervention development.

    PubMed

    Graham, Christopher D; Rose, Michael R; Hankins, Matthew; Chalder, Trudie; Weinman, John

    2013-04-01

    Muscle diseases are currently untreatable and people with muscle disease experience reduced quality of life (QoL) and low mood. Patient's illness perceptions explain large proportions of the variance in QoL and mood, even after considering the impact of disease severity. Therefore a psychological intervention which helps patients modify their illness perceptions may improve QoL and mood even as the disease progresses. However, it is unknown which profile of illness perceptions (illness schema) an intervention should seek to promote. We aimed to fully describe and compare the illness schemata of clusters associated with better and worse outcomes. Following a cluster analysis of 217 people with muscle disease, a between-cluster comparison of QoL and mood identified the clusters associated with better and worse outcomes. Functional impairment was compared between-clusters to indicate if this could account for observed differences. Inter-correlations between the illness perceptions held within each cluster were examined across the clusters. Three stable clusters holding distinct illness schemata emerged. One cluster was characterised by greater functional impairment, worse QoL and mood than the other two clusters. The other two clusters did not differ in functional impairment but differed significantly in QoL and mood. The cluster associated with better outcomes was characterised by realistic views of timeline, greater coherence, reduced emotional representation and identity, and a lack of association between emotional representation and consequences. Detailed comparison of beneficial and unhelpful illness schemata, taking into account disease-specific concerns, can help inform both the content and composition of an intervention. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Event-Related Potentials: Search for Positive and Negative Child-Related Schemata in Individuals at Low and High Risk for Child Physical Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Joel S.; Rabenhorst, Mandy M.; McCanne, Thomas R.; Crouch, Julie L.; Skowronski, John J.; Fleming, Matthew T.; Hiraoka, Regina; Risser, Heather J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The present investigation used event-related potentials (ERPs, N400 and N300) to determine the extent to which individuals at low and high risk for child physical abuse (CPA) have pre-existing positive and negative child-related schemata that can be automatically activated by ambiguous child stimuli. Methods: ERP data were obtained from…

  16. Event-Related Potentials: Search for Positive and Negative Child-Related Schemata in Individuals at Low and High Risk for Child Physical Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Joel S.; Rabenhorst, Mandy M.; McCanne, Thomas R.; Crouch, Julie L.; Skowronski, John J.; Fleming, Matthew T.; Hiraoka, Regina; Risser, Heather J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The present investigation used event-related potentials (ERPs, N400 and N300) to determine the extent to which individuals at low and high risk for child physical abuse (CPA) have pre-existing positive and negative child-related schemata that can be automatically activated by ambiguous child stimuli. Methods: ERP data were obtained from…

  17. The Theory of Industrial Society and Cultural Schemata: Does the "Cultural Myth of Stigma" Underlie the WHO Schizophrenia Paradox?

    PubMed

    Pescosolido, Bernice A; Martin, Jack K; Olafsdottir, Sigrun; Long, J Scott; Kafadar, Karen; Medina, Tait R

    2015-11-01

    The WHO's International Studies of Schizophrenia conclude that schizophrenia may have a more benign course in "developing" societies than in the West. The authors focus on this finding's most common corollary: cultural schemata are shaped by the transition from agrarian to industrial society. Developing societies are viewed as traditional, gemeinschaft cultures lacking the stigmatizing beliefs about persons with mental illness held in modern, gesellschaft cultures of developed societies. The Stigma in Global Context-Mental Health Study formalized the cultural myth of public stigma (CMPS) with propositions linking level of development to intolerant, exclusionary, and individualistic attitudes. In 17 countries, the authors find no support for the corollary; where support is found, the findings are opposite expectations, with developed societies reporting lower stigma levels. Reconceptualizing of the cultural landscape on more specific dimensions also produces null or contrary findings. This correction to nostalgic myths of cultural context in developing societies thwarts misguided treatment, policy, and stigma-reduction efforts.

  18. Schemata, Context, and Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sharon L.; And Others

    The study of schema theory as part of the inquiry into the nature of language comprehension has drawn attention to the reader's central role in the construction of text-guided meaning. Contemporary schema theory represnts a major step in the effort to move away from a reductionist view of reading comprehension. Specifically, it focuses on wbat…

  19. Mnemonic Strategies: Creating Schemata for Learning Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goll, Paulette S.

    2004-01-01

    This article investigates the process of remembering and presents techniques to improve memory retention. Examples of association, clustering, imagery, location, mnemonic devices and visualization illustrate strategies that can be used to encode and recall information from the long-term memory. Several memory games offer the opportunity to test…

  20. Mnemonic Strategies: Creating Schemata for Learning Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goll, Paulette S.

    2004-01-01

    This article investigates the process of remembering and presents techniques to improve memory retention. Examples of association, clustering, imagery, location, mnemonic devices and visualization illustrate strategies that can be used to encode and recall information from the long-term memory. Several memory games offer the opportunity to test…

  1. Chinese Formal Schemata in ESL Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alptekin, Cem

    1988-01-01

    Describes a study showing how the classical Chinese world view finds its way into Chinese students' written compositions. English teachers must help students progress from writing based on reasoning and rhetoric indigenous to their own culture, to writing in line with the thought and rhetoric patterns of the English-speaking context. (CB)

  2. Paranoid Schizophrenia: Assessing the Validity of the Diagnostic Schemata.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, James Mark

    This paper is concerned with changes which have been proposed in the major current diagnostic system regarding paranoid schizophrenia. It is noted that the proposed changes to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition (DSM-III) would remove paranoia as a schizophrenic subtype and institute a spectrum description of…

  3. PQL: a declarative query language over dynamic biological schemata.

    PubMed Central

    Mork, P.; Shaker, R.; Halevy, A.; Tarczy-Hornoch, P.

    2002-01-01

    We introduce the PQL query language (PQL) used in the GeneSeek genetic data integration project. PQL incorporates many features of query languages for semi-structured data. To this we add the ability to express metadata constraints like intended semantics and database curation approach. These constraints guide the dynamic generation of potential query plans. This allows a single query to remain relevant even in the presence of source and mediated schemas that are continually evolving, as is often the case in data integration. PMID:12463881

  4. Implicit Schemata and Categories in Memory-Based Language Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Bosch, Antal; Daelemans, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Memory-based language processing (MBLP) is an approach to language processing based on exemplar storage during learning and analogical reasoning during processing. From a cognitive perspective, the approach is attractive as a model for human language processing because it does not make any assumptions about the way abstractions are shaped, nor any…

  5. Concepts, Propositions, and Schemata: What are the Cognitive Units?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-30

    the United States government. DTIC ELECTE JUN 2 6 1980j This research was supported by the Personnel Training and Research Programs, Psychological...Services Division, Office of Naval Research , under Contract No.: N00014-78-C-0725, Contract IV Authority Identificatlon Number, NR No.: 154-399. I am...Mellon University Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 NR 154-399 66153N 11. CONTROLLING OFFIC6ENAME AND ADDRESS -D Personnel and Training Research Programs ii

  6. Schemata Training and Transfer of an Intellectual Skill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phye, Gary D.

    1989-01-01

    Advice and feedback on analogical reasoning were manipulated to produce varying conditions for college-age subjects (228 college students). Subsequent testing indicated a general transfer effect for verbal analogy solution and a procedural transfer effect for cause-effect relationships. Results are discussed within the context of schema theory.…

  7. Maladaptive plasticity: imprinting of past experiences onto phantom limb schemata.

    PubMed

    Giummarra, Melita Joy; Georgiou-Karistianis, Nellie; Nicholls, Michael E R; Gibson, Stephen J; Chou, Michael; Bradshaw, John L

    2011-10-01

    Phantom limb perception is common following amputation, and is sometimes characterised by pain that resembles the characteristics, intensity or location of past pain. We tested Flor's model that phantom pain results from memory for long-lasting znoxious input. We report a questionnaire study of 283 amputees, that explored the experience of painful, non-painful and postural somatosensory memories in the phantom. We explore the impact of pre-amputation pain and impairment duration, and complications in the limb (eg, infection, gangrene, surgery, and vascular disease). Differences in mood, coping and adjustment to amputation are also explored in those with somatosensory pain memories. Our findings support Flor's model, as amputation-related and non-amputation-related pain memories, and non-painful memories comprised pains or sensations that were either enduring/recurring pains or sensations (eg, ingrown toenail, corns, chilblains, arthritis-type pain in winter, night-cramps, or holding a tennis racquet), or resulted from a painful event with a "core-trauma" element (eg, fracture, crushing/penetration injury). Pain memories related to amputation were more common following functional impairment before amputation; infection or surgery prior to amputation; or having diabetic or vascular amputations-which are associated with multiple complications, including neuropathic changes, infection and prior surgery. Furthermore, participants with amputation-related pain memories exhibited higher sensory pain ratings, as well as poorer mood and adjustment to the limitations of amputation. We propose that somatosensory pain memories likely relate to the generation and maintenance of limb representations upon which intense or emotionally powerful past experiences have been imprinted.

  8. The Impact of Formal Schemata on L3 Reading Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmani Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali

    2010-01-01

    Rhetorical structure refers to a complex network of relationships and the way the underlying ideas are organized within a text. This study was conducted to see whether explicit instruction of descriptive and causative text organization positively affected L3 reading recall. 240 Turkish students of EFL who had Persian as their second language were…

  9. Paranoid Schizophrenia: Assessing the Validity of the Diagnostic Schemata.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, James Mark

    This paper is concerned with changes which have been proposed in the major current diagnostic system regarding paranoid schizophrenia. It is noted that the proposed changes to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition (DSM-III) would remove paranoia as a schizophrenic subtype and institute a spectrum description of…

  10. Schemata Versus Dichotomous Constructs as Organizational System in Memory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    provided by Asch ( 1946 ). In his studies of impression formation, he presented subjects with a list of attributes (assured, talkative, cold, ironical...Psychological Bulletin, 23(2), 203-231. Asch , S.E. ( 1946 ). Forming impressions of personality. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 41, 258-290. Bartlett...qualities into a single, consistent view" ( Asch , 1946 , p. 261). The repertory grid exercise is clearly a reversal of this sequence, taking the already

  11. Schemata-constructivist view of what students learn about human evolution from a museum exhibit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderon, Ismael

    1999-10-01

    The purpose of this research study was to investigate: students' schema structure for human evolution; their idiosyncratic conceptual change after visiting a museum exhibition; the role of alternative frameworks during learning; and the function of affect in learning. Thirty eleventh and twelfth grade high school students, eleven males and nineteen females, visited an exhibition on human evolution and participated in an opened-ended pre and post interview and Likert-type questionnaire. The interviews were transcribed, segmented by using shifts in natural language, and pre and post schema templates developed for each respondent using as background Rumelhart's and Ortony's active structural schema network diagrammatic representation. Analysis of the schema templates indicated that respondents possess varying idiosyncratic schema structures that are brought to bear on the construction of new information during learning. Thirty seven percent of the respondents exhibited a hierarchically organized schema, whereas sixty three percent of the respondents demonstrated a non-hierarchical schema structure. Hierarchically organized ideation allowed for greater elaboration of concepts after viewing the exhibit. The data revealed both a top-down and bottom-up type of information processing. Ninety three percent of the respondents exhibited nonscientific, alternative frameworks during the pre-interview and eighty percent displayed alternative frameworks in the post-interview. Forty seven percent of the respondents were able to modify alternative frameworks to be more scientifically consistent. The data indicated that hierarchically organized schema respondents were able to make more corrections to alternative frameworks. Sixty three percent of the time alternative frameworks were influencing the exhibition's interpretation. Fifty three percent of the respondents demonstrated an observationally-based interpretation of the exhibit, whereas forty seven percent exhibited a theory-based schema. Throughout the data analysis there was evidence for idiosyncratic schema construction. The pre and post Likert-scale questionnaire suggested that the visit to the museum exhibition had an overall positive affect gain. The research findings provided evidence for museum exhibition developers to embrace a schema-constructivist theory of knowledge and learning in the creation of exhibitions which actively engage the learner in conceptual change.

  12. The schemata of the stars. Byzantine astronomy from A.D. 1300.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paschos, E. A.; Sotiroudis, P.

    Most of the knowledge of ancient Greek science survived through Byzantine codices. A short Byzantine article, extant in three manuscripts, contains advanced astronomical ideas and pre-Copernican diagrams; it presents improvements on ancient and medieval astronomy. This important book includes the edited version and translation of the text and analyzes its content. It surveys the development of astronomical models from Ptolemy to Byzantium and compares them mathematically with several works of Arab astronomers, as well as with the heliocentric system of Copernicus and Newton.

  13. Automatic Domain Adaptation of Word Sense Disambiguation Based on Sublanguage Semantic Schemata Applied to Clinical Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Domain adaptation of natural language processing systems is challenging because it requires human expertise. While manual effort is effective in creating a high quality knowledge base, it is expensive and time consuming. Clinical text adds another layer of complexity to the task due to privacy and confidentiality restrictions that hinder the…

  14. Using Relational Schemata in a Computer Immune System to Detect Multiple-Packet Network Intrusions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-03-01

    5-8 5.2. DSniff Attack Data Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-9 5.3. Run Time Comparisons...crosschecking in an attempt to determine its potential use and value in catching such attacks as the DSniff MitM attack addressed in Chapter V, and the “Land...as the DSniff MitM attack discussed in Chapter V might be missed by these versions as they simply compare the same fields when creating a gene

  15. Self-Schemata for Movement Activities: The Influence of Race and Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Louis, Jr.; And Others

    This study investigated the influence of race and gender on students' self-schema for movement activities. Study participants were 168 male and female seventh- and eighth-grade students, both African American and Euro American, from a semi-rural school in a Southeastern state. The Physical Activity Schema Analysis (PASA) was administered to…

  16. Schemata, Cognitive Structure, and Advance Organizers: A Reply to Anderson, Spiro, and Anderson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ausubel, David P.

    1980-01-01

    Anderson, Spiro, and Anderson (EJ 189 658) assert that the author's assimilation theory of meaningful learning and retention is "hopelessly vague." Documented examination of these assertions indicates that they are unspecified, unsubstantiated, undocumented, and based on indisputable misrepresentation of published material and on logical…

  17. Prior schemata transfer as an account for assessing the intuitive use of new technology.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Sandrine; Itoh, Makoto; Inagaki, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    New devices are considered intuitive when they allow users to transfer prior knowledge. Drawing upon fundamental psychology experiments that distinguish prior knowledge transfer from new schema induction, a procedure was specified for assessing intuitive use. This procedure was tested with 31 participants who, prior to using an on-board computer prototype, studied its screenshots in reading vs. schema induction conditions. Distinct patterns of transfer or induction resulted for features of the prototype whose functions were familiar or unfamiliar, respectively. Though moderated by participants' cognitive style, these findings demonstrated a means for quantitatively assessing transfer of prior knowledge as the operation that underlies intuitive use. Implications for interface evaluation and design, as well as potential improvements to the procedure, are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Automatic Domain Adaptation of Word Sense Disambiguation Based on Sublanguage Semantic Schemata Applied to Clinical Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Domain adaptation of natural language processing systems is challenging because it requires human expertise. While manual effort is effective in creating a high quality knowledge base, it is expensive and time consuming. Clinical text adds another layer of complexity to the task due to privacy and confidentiality restrictions that hinder the…

  19. A Bibliography and Review of Building Evaluation Schemata and Practices. Exchange Bibliography No. 470.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattar, Samir G.; Fazio, Paul P.

    The present trend in architecture is primarily functionalist in nature, but this functionalism is being increasingly tempered by human factors and artistic considerations. Accordingly, there is emerging a body of doctrine and architectural expression that yields a diversity of designs that must be assessed before any critical selection of…

  20. Differently Structured Advance Organizers Lead to Different Initial Schemata and Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurlitt, Johannes; Dummel, Sebastian; Schuster, Silvia; Nuckles, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Does the specific structure of advance organizers influence learning outcomes? In the first experiment, 48 psychology students were randomly assigned to three differently structured advance organizers: a well-structured, a well-structured and key-concept emphasizing, and a less structured advance organizer. These were followed by a sorting task, a…

  1. Learning Plan Schemata From Observation: Explanation-Based Learning for Plan Recognition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    connect actions causally, fill in missing actions, resolve anaphoric refer- ences, and so on. Examples of narrative understanding systems that use schema...domain- independent EBL system (Mooney, 1990; Mooney & Bennett, 1986).’ This generalizer computes the minimal variable bindings needed to allow the...passing is a simple computational process which does not keep track of variable bindings nor examine the consistency and explanatory power of the

  2. The role of cognitive schemata in the development of posttraumatic stress disorder: results of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Dudek, Bohdan; Szymczak, Wiesław

    2011-03-01

    There are two theories (by Horowitz and by Foa) which attempt at explaining the process of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) development by information dissonance. The purpose of the present study was to verify these theories via cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. The study based on a cross-sectional design was performed on a representative group of Polish firefighters. The study using a longitudinal protocol was conducted among police officers. The level of PTSD was assessed using the Questionnaire for PTSD Measurement (K-PTSD). The sense of coherence (SOC) was measured with the Polish adaptation of the Orientation to Life Questionnaire by A. Antonovsky. In the cross-sectional study, the correlation coefficients between K-PTSD and SOC were -0.35 (p < 0.001) in the group of firefighters and -0.47 (p < 0.001) in that of police officers. In the longitudinal study, the relationship between SOC and PTSD symptoms appeared to be curvilinear and had the U-letter shape. Therefore, we used ANOVA for statistical analysis. Unfortunately, the F(2.31) = 1.900 and p > 0.05 indicated that the tendency we observed was not statistically significant. We would like to propose two possible explanations for the difference in the relationships between SOC and PTSD symptoms obtained in the studies employing the cross-sectional and the longitudinal protocols.

  3. The Role of Lad Magazines in Priming Men's Chronic and Temporary Appearance-Related Schemata: An Investigation of Longitudinal and Experimental Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubrey, Jennifer Stevens; Taylor, Laramie D.

    2009-01-01

    We present a program of research investigating the effects of lad magazines on male body self-consciousness and appearance anxiety. Study 1, based on panel data from undergraduate men, showed that lad magazine exposure in Year 1 predicted body self-consciousness in Year 2. Study 2 was an experiment that showed that men assigned to view objectified…

  4. The Role of Lad Magazines in Priming Men's Chronic and Temporary Appearance-Related Schemata: An Investigation of Longitudinal and Experimental Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubrey, Jennifer Stevens; Taylor, Laramie D.

    2009-01-01

    We present a program of research investigating the effects of lad magazines on male body self-consciousness and appearance anxiety. Study 1, based on panel data from undergraduate men, showed that lad magazine exposure in Year 1 predicted body self-consciousness in Year 2. Study 2 was an experiment that showed that men assigned to view objectified…

  5. The Theory of Industrial Society and Cultural Schemata: Does the “Cultural Myth of Stigma” Underlie the WHO Schizophrenia Paradox?

    PubMed Central

    Pescosolido, Bernice A.; Martin, Jack K.; Olafsdottir, Sigrun; Long, J. Scott; Kafadar, Karen; Medina, Tait R.

    2015-01-01

    The “Better Prognosis Hypothesis” stems from World Health Organization studies known as the International Studies of Schizophrenia (ISoS). Despite greater availability and sophistication of treatment options in the West, schizophrenia appears to have a more benign course and better outcomes in “developing” societies. We focus on this finding's most common corollary: a simplified version of sociological notions of cultural reality shaped by the transition from agrarian to industrial society. Developing societies are viewed as traditional, gemeinschaft cultures that neither develop nor endorse stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs about persons with mental illness that exist in modern, gesellschaft cultures of developed societies. Using the Stigma in Global Context-Mental Health Study (SGC-MHS), we formalize the “Cultural Myth of Stigma,” propositions linking level of development to intolerant, exclusionary, and individualistic attitudes. In 17 countries, we find no support for the corollary. Where significant associations are documented, the findings are opposite expectations: the public in more developed societies reports lower stigma levels. Extensions to reconceptualizations of the cultural landscape also reveal null or contrary findings. This correction to nostalgic myths of cultural context in developing societies thwarts misguided treatment, policy, and stigma-reduction efforts. PMID:26640277

  6. The formulaic schema in the minds of two generations of native speakers

    PubMed Central

    Van Lancker Sidtis, Diana; Cameron, Krista; Bridges, Kelly; Sidtis, John J.

    2015-01-01

    Schemata are expressions that are fixed except for slots available for novel words (I’m not a ______ person). Our goals were to quantify speakers’ knowledge, examine semantic flexibility in open slots, and compare performance data in two generations of speakers using cloze procedures in formulaic expressions, schemata open slots, fixed portions of schemata, and novel sentences. Fewer unique words appeared for the schemata-fixed and formulaic exemplars, reflecting speakers’ knowledge of these utterances; the most semantic categories appeared for schemata-open responses. Age groups did not differ. Schemata exemplify creative interplay between novel lexical retrieval and fixed formulaic expression. PMID:26392923

  7. TV News in the EFL/ESL Classroom: Criteria for Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, David M.

    2003-01-01

    Examines three broad categories for selecting television news stories for the English-as-a-Second/Foreign-Language classroom: content schemata, formal schemata, and linguistic difficulty. (Author/VWL)

  8. TV News in the EFL/ESL Classroom: Criteria for Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, David M.

    2003-01-01

    Examines three broad categories for selecting television news stories for the English-as-a-Second/Foreign-Language classroom: content schemata, formal schemata, and linguistic difficulty. (Author/VWL)

  9. Analogical Processes in Learning. Technical Report, April 1979-August 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumelhart, David E.; Norman, Donald A.

    Human knowledge consists of schemata based on the specialized procedures used to interpret events in the environment. New schemata are created by modifying models of existing schemata, i.e., learning by analogy. This means that a new situation will be interpreted in accordance with the schema most similar to it in the learner's repertoire. If the…

  10. Schema Theories as a Base for the Structural Representation of the Knowledge State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dochy, F. J. R. C.; Bouwens, M. R. J.

    From the view of schema-transfer theory, the use of schemata with their several functions gives an explanation for the facilitative effect of prior knowledge on learning processes. This report gives a theoretical exploration of the concept of schemata, underlying schema theories, and functions of schemata to indicate the importance of schema…

  11. Implications of the Concept of the Schema for Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Larissa A.

    Understanding the cognitive principles inherent in schematic concepts can enhance the practice of fundamental public relations activities. Schemata dictate what information will be attended to, what interpretations will be made of it, and how it will be remembered. Both self-schemata and other-schemata help individuals organize and interpret their…

  12. An eye for relations: eye-tracking indicates long-term negative effects of operational thinking on understanding of math equivalence.

    PubMed

    Chesney, Dana L; McNeil, Nicole M; Brockmole, James R; Kelley, Ken

    2013-10-01

    Prior knowledge in the domain of mathematics can sometimes interfere with learning and performance in that domain. One of the best examples of this phenomenon is in students' difficulties solving equations with operations on both sides of the equal sign. Elementary school children in the U.S. typically acquire incorrect, operational schemata rather than correct, relational schemata for interpreting equations. Researchers have argued that these operational schemata are never unlearned and can continue to affect performance for years to come, even after relational schemata are learned. In the present study, we investigated whether and how operational schemata negatively affect undergraduates' performance on equations. We monitored the eye movements of 64 undergraduate students while they solved a set of equations that are typically used to assess children's adherence to operational schemata (e.g., 3 + 4 + 5 = 3 + __). Participants did not perform at ceiling on these equations, particularly when under time pressure. Converging evidence from performance and eye movements showed that operational schemata are sometimes activated instead of relational schemata. Eye movement patterns reflective of the activation of relational schemata were specifically lacking when participants solved equations by adding up all the numbers or adding the numbers before the equal sign, but not when they used other types of incorrect strategies. These findings demonstrate that the negative effects of acquiring operational schemata extend far beyond elementary school.

  13. [Coping with everyday stress in different problem areas- comparison of clinically referred and healthy adolescents].

    PubMed

    Escher, Fabian; Seiffge-Krenke, Inge

    2013-09-01

    Fragestellung: In der Untersuchung klinisch auffälliger Jugendlicher fehlen bislang Studien zum Coping mit alltäglichen Stressoren im Vergleich zu gesunden Jugendlichen. Methodik: Klinisch auffällige Jugendliche mit verschiedenen Störungen (gemischten Störungen einschließlich Delinquenz, Sucht, Depression) wurden anhand des Coping across Situations Questionnaire (Seiffge-Krenke, 1995) und einer gekürzten Version des Youth Self Report (Achenbach, 1991) mit gesunden Jugendlichen verglichen. Ergebnisse: Die verschiedenen klinischen Gruppen (n = 469) zeigten spezifische Muster hinsichtlich ihres Copings. Die Gruppe der depressiven Jugendlichen zeigten insgesamt sehr geringe Werte im Coping. Die Gruppe aus den Einrichtungen der Suchthilfe hingegen bediente sich vor allem dysfunktionaler Copingstrategien. Die Jugendlichen aus Einrichtungen der Jugendhilfe (gemischte Störungen einschließlich Delinquenz) hatten sowohl in den dysfunktionalen als auch in den funktionalen Copingstrategien höhere Werte als die beiden anderen klinisch auffälligen Gruppen. Die Kontrollgruppe zeigte mehr funktionales und geringeres dysfunktionales Coping. Die klinisch auffälligen Jugendlichen differenzierten in ihrem Copingverhalten nicht in Abhängigkeit von den unterschiedlichen Problembereichen. Es zeigte sich des Weiteren ein geringer Geschlechtseffekt im Coping. Schlussfolgerungen: Klinisch auffällige Jugendliche waren nicht in der Lage adaptiv auf verschiedene Problembereiche zu reagieren, sondern wandten situationsübergreifend dysfunktionale Copingstrategien wie Rückzug und Problemmeidung an.

  14. Teaching the Language of Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harker, W. John

    Schema theories have proposed that comprehension results from the activation of generalized knowledge structures, called schemata, stored in memory. These schemata represent abstract conceptual models of reality that children construct in their minds on the basis of their experience in the world. Unfortunately the comprehension of literature…

  15. The Role of Story Schema in Comprehension: A Teacher's Perspective of the Research and Educational Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pahl, Michele M.

    Proceeding from a definition of "story schema" as an idealized internal representation of the parts of a typical story and the relationships among those parts, this paper explores the role of story schemata in reading comprehension. The paper also identifies variables that may affect the way in which schemata function and outlines the…

  16. A Schema-Based Reading Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, Beverly A.

    Schemata based notions need not replace, but should be reflected in, product-centered reading tests. The contributions of schema theory to the psycholinguistic model of reading has been thoroughly reviewed. Schemata-based reading tests provide several advantages: (1) they engage the appropriate conceptual processes for the student which frees the…

  17. Cognitive Psychology and Audience-Oriented Dramatic Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratt, David

    Cognitive psychology's most useful contribution to dramatic theory is the concept of schemata, or the mental structures that make up part of the perceptual cycle. In regard to an audience-oriented dramatic theory, this suggests that analysis of a script ought to identify the sorts of schemata that are to be aroused in the audience's minds and the…

  18. Cognitive Psychology and Audience-Oriented Dramatic Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratt, David

    Cognitive psychology's most useful contribution to dramatic theory is the concept of schemata, or the mental structures that make up part of the perceptual cycle. In regard to an audience-oriented dramatic theory, this suggests that analysis of a script ought to identify the sorts of schemata that are to be aroused in the audience's minds and the…

  19. Category Accessibility and Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCann, C. Douglas; Gotlib, Ian H.

    Cognitive processes, particularly in regard to negative content schemata, seem to play an instrumental role in the development and maintenance of depression. In order to better understand the nature of negative schemata in depressed individuals, both depressed and nondepressed subjects participated in two studies in which they were required to…

  20. Applying Schema Theory to Mass Media Information Processing: Moving toward a Formal Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wicks, Robert H.

    Schema theory may be significant in determining if and how news audiences process information. For any given news topic, people have from none to many schemata (cognitive structures that represent organized knowledge about a given concept or type of stimulus abstracted from prior experience) upon which to draw. Models of how schemata are used…

  1. The Effect of Reader Knowledge on Text Comprehension: What Real Cops and Pretend Burglars Look for in a Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Ernest T.; And Others

    Using computer controlled text presentation that permitted the measurement of reading time for individual sentences, a study tested two hypotheses concerning how schemata guide reading comprehension. The focusing hypothesis suggested that the schemata activated by the reader's perspective might identify relevant information to which additional…

  2. Narratives, Policy, and Change: The Deconstruction and Reconstruction of U.S. Narratives in Syria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-12

    International Relations: An Experimental Test of Cognitive Schemata, developed another theory for the study of images in international relations.8...but the inconsistency in narrative 84 generates a collective cognitive dissonance for the various audiences. As such, future policymakers

  3. Issues in Personality Conceptualizations of Addictive Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutker, Patricia B.; Allain, Albert N., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Describes issues and implications associated with personality conceptualizations of addictive behaviors. Directs attention toward characterizing the sociopolitical climate's effect on identification, evaluation, and management of substance abuse disorders. Explores alcohol and drug use in conceptual schemata encompassing multifactorial,…

  4. Conference Proceedings: Aptitude, Learning, and Instruction. Volume 2. Cognitive Process Analyses of Learning and Problem Solving,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    of a Complex System; 177 Albert L. Stevens and Allan Collins Introduction 177 Models 182 Conclusion 196 21. Complex Learning Processes 199 John R...have called schemata (Norman, Gentner, & Stevens , 1976), frames (Minsky, 1975), and scripts (Schank & Abelson, 1977). If these other authors are...York: McGraw-Hill. 1975. Norman, D. A.. Gcntner. D. R., & Stevens . A. L. Comments on learning schemata and memory representation. In D). K lahr (Ed

  5. A cognitive model for problem solving in computer science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parham, Jennifer R.

    According to industry representatives, computer science education needs to emphasize the processes involved in solving computing problems rather than their solutions. Most of the current assessment tools used by universities and computer science departments analyze student answers to problems rather than investigating the processes involved in solving them. Approaching assessment from this perspective would reveal potential errors leading to incorrect solutions. This dissertation proposes a model describing how people solve computational problems by storing, retrieving, and manipulating information and knowledge. It describes how metacognition interacts with schemata representing conceptual and procedural knowledge, as well as with the external sources of information that might be needed to arrive at a solution. Metacognition includes higher-order, executive processes responsible for controlling and monitoring schemata, which in turn represent the algorithmic knowledge needed for organizing and adapting concepts to a specific domain. The model illustrates how metacognitive processes interact with the knowledge represented by schemata as well as the information from external sources. This research investigates the differences in the way computer science novices use their metacognition and schemata to solve a computer programming problem. After J. Parham and L. Gugerty reached an 85% reliability for six metacognitive processes and six domain-specific schemata for writing a computer program, the resulting vocabulary provided the foundation for supporting the existence of and the interaction between metacognition, schemata, and external sources of information in computer programming. Overall, the participants in this research used their schemata 6% more than their metacognition and their metacognitive processes to control and monitor their schemata used to write a computer program. This research has potential implications in computer science education and software

  6. C2 Network Analysis: Insights into Coordination & Understanding

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    communication events. To facilitate flexibility across multiple hardware and operating systems, the SNA Observer was coded in Java and has been tested on both... Coggins , 1990), room schemata (Schvaneveldt, 1990), and problem-solving schemata (Dayton, Durso, & Shepard, 1990). The Pathfinder technique has been...Document Reproduction Service No. ED 218 245). Durso, F.T. & Coggins , K.A. (1990). Graphs in the social and psychological sciences: Empirical

  7. Antikollisionssystem PRORETA - Integrierte Lösung für ein unfallvermeidendes Fahrzeug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isermann, Rolf; Bender, Eva; Bruder, Ralph; Darms, Michael; Schorn, Matthias; Stählin, Ulrich; Winner, Hermann

    Dank einer zunehmenden Verbreitung von aktiven und passiven Sicherheitssystemen in Kraftfahrzeugen konnte die Zahl der Verkehrstoten in den letzten Jahren stetig gesenkt werden. Bei der Bearbeitung des Projekts PRORETA wurde mit der Entwicklung eines elektronischen Fahrerassistenzsystems zur Unfallvermeidung das Ziel verfolgt, durch Notbremsen und Notausweichen Unfälle zu vermeiden. Das System wurde an der TU Darmstadt in Kooperation mit der Continental AG entwickelt. Im Folgenden werden die Grundlagen des Systems, Fahrversuche und Ergebnisse einer ergonomischen Studie dargestellt.

  8. Do the coach and athlete have the same "picture" of the situation? Distributed Situation Awareness in an elite sport context.

    PubMed

    Macquet, Anne-Claire; Stanton, Neville A

    2014-05-01

    Athletes and their coach interpret the training situations differently and this can have important implications for the development of an elite athlete's performance. It is argued that, from a schema-theoretic perspective, the difference in these interpretations needs to be better understood. A post-performance, self-confrontation, interview was conducted with a number of athletes and their coaches. The interviews revealed differences between the athlete and their coach in the information they are aware of. In comparison with athletes, coaches more frequently compared the phenotype with genotype schemata rather than just describing the phenotype schemata. Results suggest SA information elements showed some common ground but also revealed some important differences between the athlete and coach. The awareness was directed externally towards the environment and internally, towards the individual, depending on his/her role. The investigation showed that the schemata used to 'frame' the information elements were different, but compatible, between athlete and coach.

  9. Suicide and the 'Poison Complex': Toxic Relationalities, Child Development, and the Sri Lankan Self-Harm Epidemic.

    PubMed

    Widger, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Suicide prevention efforts in Asia have increasingly turned to 'quick win' means restriction, while more complicated cognitive restriction and psychosocial programs are limited. This article argues the development of cognitive restriction programs requires greater consideration of suicide methods as social practices, and of how suicide cognitive schemata form. To illustrate this, the article contributes an ethnographically grounded study of how self-poisoning becomes cognitively available in Sri Lanka. I argue the overwhelming preference for poison as a method of self-harm in the country is not simply reflective of its widespread availability, but rather how cognitive schemata of poison-a 'poison complex'-develops from early childhood and is a precondition for suicide schemata. Limiting cognitive availability thus requires an entirely novel approach to suicide prevention that draws back from its immediate object (methods and causes of self-harm) to engage the wider poison complex of which suicide is just one aspect.

  10. Werkzeugverschleißdetektion beim Fräsen mittels Infrarotmesstechnik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittner, Walter

    Heute ist es praxisüblich, bei der spanenden Bearbeitung mittels definierter Schneide die Werkzeuge aus Gründen der Qualitätssicherung vorzeitig, im Allgemeinen nach Ermessen des Maschinenbedieners, zu wechseln. Dadurch entstehen zwangsläufig höhere Werkzeugkosten als notwendig, die dann an den Verbraucher weitergegeben werden. Wird jedoch ein rechtzeitiger Werkzeugwechsel verpasst, so entstehen insbesondere bei Hochleistungsbearbeitungsprozessen hohe Ausschussraten. Daher sollte die Entscheidung zum Werkzeugwechsel nicht mehr dem Maschinenbediener allein überlassen werden [1, 2].

  11. [Patterns of dysfunctional parenting styles and psychological disturbances in offspring].

    PubMed

    Kumnig, Martin; Höfer, Stefan; Huber, Alexandra; Messner, Carmen; Renn, Daniela; Mestel, Robert; Klingelhöfer, Jürgen; Kopp, Martin; Doering, Stephan; Schüßler, Gerhard; Rumpold, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Dysfunctional parenting styles represent a risk factor for the development of psychological disturbances. The present study investigated the differential validity of the German language Fragebogen zur Erfassung dysfunktionaler Erziehungsstile (FDEB; Measurement of Parental Styles, MOPS) and determined whether different forms of psychological disorders are associated with specific patterns of parenting styles. 145 inpatients, 108 outpatients and a control group of 633 representative individuals from the general population were investigated by adapting the FDEB. A comparison of dysfunctional parenting styles showed different distress levels within the diagnostic groups: Patients suffering from depression reported high levels of maternal indifference and over protectiveness together with an abusive rearing behavior on the part of both parents. Patients with anxiety disorders reported having overprotective mothers. Bulimic patients as well as those with personality disorders significantly exhibited stress in almost all areas. However, anorexic patients did not differ significantly from the control group, which appeared to be the least affected of all. The FDEB showed a satisfactory differential validity. There was evidence that specific patterns of dysfunctional parenting styles were associated with different diagnostic groups.

  12. Comparative Evaluation of Political Candidates: Implications for the Voter Decision Making Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellweg, Susan A.; King, Stephen W.

    A study was conducted to examine the evaluative criteria or schemata that voters use in making decisions about competing candidates. More specifically, the study sought to determine (1) whether the criteria that voters employ differ between the candidates, and (2) the relative importance of various candidate-specific criteria in the voting…

  13. The Globalization of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Thomas, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This special issue of a journal on language teaching and cross-cultural communication includes both regular articles and forum essays. Regular feature articles include: "Is Japanese English Education Changing?" (Yoshie Aiga); "Textual Schemata and English Language Learning" (S. Kathleen Kitao); "Visuals and…

  14. Globalization Viewed from the Periphery: The Dynamics of Teacher Identity in the Republic of Benin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welmond, Michel

    2002-01-01

    Archival research and interviews with teachers and key informants in Benin schools examined cultural schemata that define teacher identity as vessel and conveyer of special knowledge, civil servant, self-sacrificing parental surrogate, or efficient worker ensuring high test grades. Conflicts among these identities, between teachers and the state,…

  15. The Most Frequent Metacognitive Strategies Used in Reading Comprehension among ESP Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoshsima, Hooshang; Samani, Elham Amiri

    2015-01-01

    Reading strategies are plans for solving problems encountered during reading while learners are deeply engage with the text. So, comprehension is not a simple decoding of symbols, but a complex multidimensional process in which the leaner draws on previous schemata applying strategies consciously. In fact, metacognitive strategies are accessible…

  16. Cognitive Representations of the Political System in Adolescents: The Continuum from Pre-Novice to Expert.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torney-Purta, Judith

    1992-01-01

    Two groups of adolescents and a group of Coast Guard officials were interviewed about hypothetical political problems. Solutions presented were arrayed along a continuum of expertise, according to the complexity of subjects' political schemata and skills used in problem representation. (BC)

  17. The lonely road to paranoia. A path-analytic investigation of loneliness and paranoia.

    PubMed

    Lamster, Fabian; Lincoln, Tania M; Nittel, Clara M; Rief, Winfried; Mehl, Stephanie

    2017-04-01

    Loneliness and paranoia are related, but the mechanisms that link them to each other remain unclear. Systematic reviews on loneliness propose a social-cognitive model in which loneliness leads to negative evaluations of other persons and a lack of interpersonal trust. However, the data discussed in these reviews are based on healthy individuals. Building on this model, the present study investigated 1) whether negative interpersonal schemata mediate the association between loneliness and paranoia and 2) whether a low level of perceived social support and less frequent social contact are related to loneliness. Using a cross-sectional design, sixty-five participants with a diagnosis of schizophrenia were recruited online and completed questionnaire-based measures of loneliness, paranoia, negative interpersonal schemata, perceived social support and frequency of social contact. Data were analyzed taking a path-analytic approach. The association between loneliness and paranoia was significantly and fully mediated by negative schemata of others. Moreover, a low level of perceived social support was significantly associated with loneliness, whereas self-reported frequency of social contact was not. The present results highlight the potential role of interpersonal negative schemata in the formation and maintenance of paranoia and elucidate the crucial role of loneliness in the way individuals construe themselves within a social environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Effect of Career Interventions Designed to Increase Self-Knowledge on the Self-Concepts of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portnoi, Lisette; Guichard, Jean; Lallemand, Noelle

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports a study that used a quasi-experimental design to examine if a career intervention designed to increase self-knowledge enabled self-discovery or self-construction, determined by the structure of the personality inventory used. This study, situated within the theoretical model of Markus's research in self-schemata (1977), used…

  19. TV News Simulations and Their Interaction with Viewer Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Tom; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Finds that undergraduate viewers' schemata can categorize news reenactments as real despite accompanying advisories to the contrary. Finds that visual advisories are more effective than auditory advisories in helping viewers remember reenactments as reenactments, and suggests using distinctive video to draw attention to simulation advisories. (SR)

  20. A Review of Children's Use of Causal Inference Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedlak, Andrea J.; Kurtz, Susan T.

    1981-01-01

    Examines cues which guide the discovery of simple cause-effect relations, beginning with the properties (suggested by Hume) of temporal precedence, covariation and contiguity; explores variables which can influence simple causal judgments; and discusses developmental evidence regarding inference principles associated with causal schemata.…

  1. Positive Affective Priming: A Behavioral Technique to Facilitate Therapeutic Engagement by Families, Caregivers, and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Ian M.

    2010-01-01

    Affective priming is a technique used in experimental psychology to investigate the organization of emotional schemata not fully available to conscious awareness. The presentation of stimuli (the prime) with strong positive emotional valence alters the accessibility of positive stimuli within the individual's emotionally encoded cognitive system.…

  2. A Computer Simulation of Braitenberg Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    vii I. Introduction............................................ 1 II. Animal Psychological Phenomina ......................... 11...vehicles’ neurodes and the connections between them are based on schemata he knows to exist in nature . It is also likely that Braitenberg has been...Braitenberg that construction of these sorts of artificial life forms may be an excellent way to investigate properties of both natural and artificial

  3. Schema Theory: A New Twist Using Duplo Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Joe D.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a class demonstration in which students learn about Jean Piaget's concepts of schemata, assimilation, accommodation, and equilibration. Explains that students work in pairs (but cannot see one another) where one teaches the other how to make a duplicate of an already constructed block model. (CMK)

  4. Feedback and the Reconstruction of Meaning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langer, Philip; And Others

    This investigation of the impact of feedback upon scrambled discourse was intended to show the effects of idiosyncratic processing and to provide a more sensitive indicator of feedback usefulness. Learner schemata, text organization, and feedback strategies interact in processing discourse, although past research has favored limited models…

  5. A New Approach To Secure Federated Information Bases Using Agent Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weippi, Edgar; Klug, Ludwig; Essmayr, Wolfgang

    2003-01-01

    Discusses database agents which can be used to establish federated information bases by integrating heterogeneous databases. Highlights include characteristics of federated information bases, including incompatible database management systems, schemata, and frequently changing context; software agent technology; Java agents; system architecture;…

  6. Storing Simple Stories: Narrative Recall And the Chinese Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Dino; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Examines four factors in the operation of formal schemata in the recall of written narrative texts in English by students in Hong Kong: quantity of recall; temporal sequence of recall from story-schematic and input versions of stories; the effects of second language proficiency level on quantity of recall; and the quality of recall. (31…

  7. Cognitive Representations of the Political System in Adolescents: The Continuum from Pre-Novice to Expert.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torney-Purta, Judith

    1992-01-01

    Two groups of adolescents and a group of Coast Guard officials were interviewed about hypothetical political problems. Solutions presented were arrayed along a continuum of expertise, according to the complexity of subjects' political schemata and skills used in problem representation. (BC)

  8. Feedback and the Reconstruction of Meaning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langer, Philip; And Others

    This investigation of the impact of feedback upon scrambled discourse was intended to show the effects of idiosyncratic processing and to provide a more sensitive indicator of feedback usefulness. Learner schemata, text organization, and feedback strategies interact in processing discourse, although past research has favored limited models…

  9. Schema Theory: A New Twist Using Duplo Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Joe D.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a class demonstration in which students learn about Jean Piaget's concepts of schemata, assimilation, accommodation, and equilibration. Explains that students work in pairs (but cannot see one another) where one teaches the other how to make a duplicate of an already constructed block model. (CMK)

  10. Holistic Integrated Design Education: Art Education in a Complex and Uncertain World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nokes, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Learning, which is understood as a change in behavior, is a process of becoming. This monograph introduces the neologism egosystem as an amalgam of the individual, the self and its attendant ego, and socio-environmental schemata swirling around the individual. In an uncertain and probabilistic universe, the role of chaos theory in recognizing…

  11. Rule Reformulation at the Advanced Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelly, Sharon L.

    1993-01-01

    An inductive and interactive classroom technique to help advanced French language students reformulate simplified schemata into more useful insights into French grammar is described. It is proposed that, by developing the ability to revise continually structural hypotheses, students can expand syntactic repertories and improve long-term language…

  12. A Paediatrician Looks at Traditional Approaches to Emotional Development in Preschool and Primary Years. Foundation for Child and Youth Studies Selected Papers Number 46.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Susi Erika

    This discussion of the emotional development of young children is structured upon Erik Erikson's schemata of psycho-social development. Stage 1, which involves trust versus mistrust, includes references to Erikson's theory and the work of Melanie Klein, Berry Brazelton, Stella Chess and Alexander Thomas, John Bowlby, Anthony Stevens, and D. W.…

  13. Building Conceptual Understanding in a Remedial College Mathematics Classroom: A Study of Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachman, Rachel Marie

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of two remedial mathematics courses that aimed to (a) present topics conceptually, (b) construct adequate schemata, and (c) introduce students to the culture of mathematics. The topics covered during the two courses were word problems, equivalence, variables and expressions, equations and inequalities, and…

  14. An Examination of Written Expression in Bilingual Students'"Non-Academic" Language: Assessment of Sense of Story Structure and Interlinguistic Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Norbert

    2000-01-01

    Four classes of bilingual children from Grades 3 and 5, speakers of Spanish and Nahuatl, participated in a study of literacy development focused on interlinguistic transfer and the application of narrative schemata as seen in writing samples produced in both languages. Reports on a methodological approach seen to be effective in eliciting…

  15. Predictive Validity of DSM-IV and ICD-10 Criteria for ADHD and Hyperkinetic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Soyoung I.; Schachar, Russell J.; Chen, Shirley X.; Ornstein, Tisha J.; Charach, Alice; Barr, Cathy; Ickowicz, Abel

    2008-01-01

    Background: The goal of this study was to compare the predictive validity of the two main diagnostic schemata for childhood hyperactivity--attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual"-IV) and hyperkinetic disorder (HKD; "International Classification of Diseases"-10th Edition). Methods: Diagnostic criteria for…

  16. Interplay of Formal and Material Role-Taking in the Understanding of Suicide Among Adolescents and Young Adults:II. Naive Suicide Theories in the Structural Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobert, Rainer; Nunner-Winkler, Gertrud

    1985-01-01

    Constructs a tentative stage model of the development of the understanding of suicide motives, based on interview data from 14- to 22-year-old male and female subjects of different SES backgrounds. Development is characterized by these trends: extension of time perspective; differentiation and individualization of actor schemata and motive…

  17. Unwarranted Return: A Response to McVee, Dunsmore, and Gavelek's (2005) "Schema Theory Revisited"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krasny, Karen A.; Sadoski, Mark; Paivio, Allan

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the authors' response to McVee, Dunsmore, and Gavelek's "Schema Theory Revisited." In "Schema Theory Revisited," McVee, Dunsmore, and Gavelek (2005) proposed a rearticulation of schema theory intended to encompass the ideas that schemata and other cognitive processes are embodied, that knowledge is situated in the transaction…

  18. Mental Representation and Problem Solving in Work-Study Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colardyn, Danielle; White, Kathleen M.

    Transitional situations, such as those experienced by work study students, may create cognitive difficulties by requiring people to simultaneously use both a learning and a use logic. To examine this phenomenon, a problem solving task (electrical schemata of a washing machine) was administered to 43 full time students and 51 work study students…

  19. The Development of Narrative Discourse in Japanese. Papers and Reports on Child Language Development, No. 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clancy, Patricia M.

    A study is presented that considers the narrator's knowledge of conventional schemata for stories and the cognitive factors which seem to be affecting the selection and organization of material for narration. Children ranging in age from 3 years 10 months to 7 years 4 months were asked to watch a video tape cartoon and recount the story to a…

  20. Formal Schema Theory and Teaching EFL Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Barbara N; Man, Zhou

    2005-01-01

    Inquirers designed and conducted a study investigating whether or not results derived from previous research focusing on teaching and learning English as a native or foreign language would be replicated in a learning environment in which English is taught as a foreign language as in China. Because activation of formal schemata plays an important…

  1. Holistic Integrated Design Education: Art Education in a Complex and Uncertain World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nokes, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Learning, which is understood as a change in behavior, is a process of becoming. This monograph introduces the neologism egosystem as an amalgam of the individual, the self and its attendant ego, and socio-environmental schemata swirling around the individual. In an uncertain and probabilistic universe, the role of chaos theory in recognizing…

  2. From Constructivism to Dialogism in the Classroom. Theory and Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Mello, Roseli Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the move from learning theories from the industrial society to learning theories from and for dialogic societies. While in the past intrapsychological elements, such as mental schemata of prior knowledge, were the key to explain learning, today's theories point to interaction and dialogue as the main means for achieving deep…

  3. Predictive Validity of DSM-IV and ICD-10 Criteria for ADHD and Hyperkinetic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Soyoung I.; Schachar, Russell J.; Chen, Shirley X.; Ornstein, Tisha J.; Charach, Alice; Barr, Cathy; Ickowicz, Abel

    2008-01-01

    Background: The goal of this study was to compare the predictive validity of the two main diagnostic schemata for childhood hyperactivity--attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual"-IV) and hyperkinetic disorder (HKD; "International Classification of Diseases"-10th Edition). Methods: Diagnostic criteria for…

  4. The Pragmatism of Ego Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meers, Dale R.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews conceptual schemata and organizing principles that ego psychology has contributed to our understanding of emotional disturbance. Argues that ego psychology can be converted to testable, pragmatic, and usable precepts for psychotherapeutic practice. Finds theory particularly well suited to practice domain of clinical social work. (JBJ)

  5. Reading and Study Skills and Instruction: College and Adult: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," January through June 1982 (Vol. 42 Nos. 7 through 12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 19 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: (1) the effects of study guides on content retention and reading achievement among community college freshmen; (2) the effects of schemata and text structure on…

  6. Comprehension and Learning from Social Studies Textbook Passages among Elementary School Children in Korea and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huh, Hyejin

    2011-01-01

    Earlier research has shown that cultural schemata affect readers' comprehension from an expository text (e.g., Carrell, 1984, 1987; Swales, 1990). Previous research also suggested that there are shared features of well-designed text across cultures (Chambliss & Calfee, 1998) and that reader characteristics like background knowledge affect text…

  7. Negotiation of Meaning in Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trimino, Andy

    A basic principle of second language learning is the need to negotiate meaning in any language-learning situation. Once meaning is established, comprehension follows. Clusters of meaning result in schemata, which serve as the basis for sustained communication and ultimately, permanence of language learning. The comprehension approach to second…

  8. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) (15th, Assisi, Italy, June 29-July 4, 1991), Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furinghetti, Fulvia, Ed.

    This document, the first of three volumes, reports on the 15th annual conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) held in Italy 1991. Plenary addresses and speakers are: "Social Interaction and Mathematical Knowledge" (B. M. Bartolini); "Meaning: Image Schemata and Protocols" (W.…

  9. Rejecting Dialogue for Perspective: Vygotsky's Zone of Proximal Development and John Calvin's Divine Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Jeffrey Michael

    2017-01-01

    James Estep's integration of Vygotsky's work on the Zone of Proximal Development into Christian education and pedagogy falls short of a distinctly evangelical form of integration. Using Ken Badley's schemata of Integration of Faith and Learning, this article distinguishes Estep's "paradigmatic" integration from a more thoroughgoing…

  10. Teaching with Cats: Integration of Children's Interests and Literature To Enhance Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goss, Gail

    This paper discusses and demonstrates how to use children's interests combined with children's literature to make learning easier. According to the paper, the concept is to choose an area that excites children, one where they already have a developed schemata or knowledge base, then to use children's trade books about that topic to teach the…

  11. Self-Schematic Representation of the Type A and B Behavior Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strube, Michael J.; And Others

    Past research has established clear behavioral differences between Type A and Type B individuals. The manner in which these behavioral differences are represented in the self-definitions of Type As and Bs was examined in a group of 42 college students. The existence of Type A and B self-schemata was investigated using two tasks designed to measure…

  12. Comprehension and Learning from Social Studies Textbook Passages among Elementary School Children in Korea and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huh, Hyejin

    2011-01-01

    Earlier research has shown that cultural schemata affect readers' comprehension from an expository text (e.g., Carrell, 1984, 1987; Swales, 1990). Previous research also suggested that there are shared features of well-designed text across cultures (Chambliss & Calfee, 1998) and that reader characteristics like background knowledge affect text…

  13. On Cognitive Strategies for Processing Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigney, Joseph W.; Munro, Allen

    Recent developments in cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence have shown that various types of prior knowledge play important roles in understanding during text processing and have resulted in a new kind of model for conceptual processing, "procedural semantics." This paper discusses two types of units, or schemata, which,…

  14. Individual Differences in Schema Utilization during Discourse Processing. Technical Report No. 111.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiro, Rand J.; Tirre, William C.

    One hundred twelve college students participated in a study designed to determine whether students differ in their relative employment of knowledge-based processes in discourse processing and whether individuals tend to be more "text-bound" and less able to use preexisting knowledge schemata when they are more "stimulus-bound"…

  15. The Effectiveness of Advance Organizers on the Signification of Poetic Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayat, Nihat

    2007-01-01

    Advance organizers activate the most suitable schema to learn new material. Poetic images are signified in schemata and the elements which are not expressed may be called by advance organizers. The purpose of this investigation is to discern the effectiveness of advance organizers on the signification of poetic images. Pretest-posttest…

  16. Positive Affective Priming: A Behavioral Technique to Facilitate Therapeutic Engagement by Families, Caregivers, and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Ian M.

    2010-01-01

    Affective priming is a technique used in experimental psychology to investigate the organization of emotional schemata not fully available to conscious awareness. The presentation of stimuli (the prime) with strong positive emotional valence alters the accessibility of positive stimuli within the individual's emotionally encoded cognitive system.…

  17. Individual Differences in Schema Utilization during Discourse Processing. Technical Report No. 111.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiro, Rand J.; Tirre, William C.

    One hundred twelve college students participated in a study designed to determine whether students differ in their relative employment of knowledge-based processes in discourse processing and whether individuals tend to be more "text-bound" and less able to use preexisting knowledge schemata when they are more "stimulus-bound"…

  18. The Effects of Students' Computer-Based Prior Experiences and Instructional Exposures on the Application of Hypermedia-Related Mental Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, W. Michael; And Others

    1996-01-01

    University students (n=15) were asked how a hypermedia program's features reflected 4 theoretical constructs, 2 linear models (semantic networks, frames/scripts), and 2 nonlinear models (concept maps and schemata). Regardless of hypermedia experience, students cited more linear than nonlinear models, suggesting that more experience in programming,…

  19. Implications of Counselor Conceptualizations for Counselor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Anne L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Used Cognitive Mapping Task (CMT) to perform in-depth content analysis of conceptualizations of two novice and two experienced counselors about change in counseling and about specific client problems. Analysis of CMTs suggests that novices in the study lacked the domain-specific schemata that may aid experienced counselors in efficiently…

  20. A Paediatrician Looks at Traditional Approaches to Emotional Development in Preschool and Primary Years. Foundation for Child and Youth Studies Selected Papers Number 46.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Susi Erika

    This discussion of the emotional development of young children is structured upon Erik Erikson's schemata of psycho-social development. Stage 1, which involves trust versus mistrust, includes references to Erikson's theory and the work of Melanie Klein, Berry Brazelton, Stella Chess and Alexander Thomas, John Bowlby, Anthony Stevens, and D. W.…

  1. Five Contemporary Novelists' Views of Growing Up Turkish in the 1980s: A Literary Sociology. Occasional Papers. Turkish Studies Series Number Five.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Frank Andrews

    Literary sociology is a multifaceted process of analyzing texts. It moves beyond traditional literary criticism to incorporate such varied approaches as: appreciating literary schemata; textual analysis; seeking form, sound, and content regularities; examining the lasting values of the work; and contemplating the reader's own authentic life-world…

  2. Developing Reading Fluency in EFL: How Assisted Repeated Reading and Extensive Reading Affect Fluency Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taguchi, Etsuo; Takayasu-Maass, Miyoko; Gorsuch, Greta J.

    2004-01-01

    Extensive research on reading in a first language has shown the critical role fluency plays in successful reading. Fluency alone, however, does not guarantee successful reading. Cognitive and metacognitive reading strategies and schemata that readers utilize also play important roles in constructing meaning from text. Most research, however,…

  3. A New Approach To Secure Federated Information Bases Using Agent Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weippi, Edgar; Klug, Ludwig; Essmayr, Wolfgang

    2003-01-01

    Discusses database agents which can be used to establish federated information bases by integrating heterogeneous databases. Highlights include characteristics of federated information bases, including incompatible database management systems, schemata, and frequently changing context; software agent technology; Java agents; system architecture;…

  4. Gaining Insights into Teachers' Ways of Thinking via Metaphors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seferoglu, Golge; Korkmazgil, Sibel; Olcu, Zeynep

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to explore metaphorical images of pre-service and in-service teachers as windows into their schemata for thinking about "teachers". Data were gathered from three groups: 58 junior year students studying in a pre-service English teaching programme, 92 senior year students registered in the same pre-service programme, and…

  5. The Male College Underachiever: Differential Personality Patterns and Treatment Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riger, Alice L.

    This bibliographical study summarizes and synthesizes the recent (post-1960) theoretical literature on the differential diagnosis and treatment of the male college under-achiever. The three major classifying schemata which appear independently in the literature, and the seven personality patterns they collectively propose, are described. These…

  6. The Effects of Two Summarization Strategies Using Expository Text on the Reading Comprehension and Summary Writing of Fourth-and Fifth-Grade Students in an Urban, Title 1 School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braxton, Diane M.

    2009-01-01

    Using a quasi-experimental pretest/post test design, this study examined the effects of two summarization strategies on the reading comprehension and summary writing of fourth- and fifth- grade students in an urban, Title 1 school. The Strategies, "G"enerating "I"nteractions between "S"chemata and "T"ext (GIST) and Rule-based, were taught using…

  7. "What's the Gist?" Summary Writing for Struggling Adolescent Writers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Nancy; Fisher, Douglas; Hernandez, Ted

    2003-01-01

    The ability to write tight, concise, and accurate summaries of texts is often a struggle for our students. With specific focus on precis writing, the authors used the GIST (Generating Interaction between Schemata and Text) learning strategy to increase comprehension of expository texts. By breaking down texts into logical sections and writing…

  8. Cognitive and Metacognitive Interventions: Important Trends for Teachers of Students Who Are Visually Impaired.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Reusen, Anthony K.; Head, Daniel N.

    1994-01-01

    This article addresses teaching students with visual impairments metacognitive learning strategies to improve their academic performance. Topics discussed include intrinsic motivation and self-concept; structuring and activating schemata; using cognitive modeling and verbal self-instructional procedures; teaching self-regulatory procedures; and…

  9. Toward Wider Use of Literature in ESL: Why and How.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gajdusek, Linda

    1988-01-01

    Discusses English as a second language (ESL) theory as it relates to the use of literature, and presents a four-step approach to any literary text that obliges ESL students to take responsibility for building their own successively more complex schemata. This approach is illustrated with Hemingway's short story "Soldier's Home." (Author/LMO)

  10. Stories, Scripts, and Scenes: Aspects of Schema Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandler, Jean Matter

    An expansion of three lectures on schema theory given at the University of Alberta as part of the MacEachran Memorial Lecture Series, this book is intended for students and researchers interested in the schemata that organize knowledge of stories, events, and scenes, and to serve as an introduction to the elements of schema theory and the…

  11. The Development of Children's Story Telling Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieiro, Pilar

    To examine the skills and knowledge children use when they develop and tell stories, this study sought to provide an experiential demonstration of how schemata guides comprehension. Subjects were preschool, third-, and fifth-grade children described by their teachers as having average reading comprehension. Each child met with a researcher in an…

  12. A Learning Theory for 21st-Century Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sontag, Marie

    2009-01-01

    The affordances of today's digital technologies have significantly changed the way students learn. Arguing that current learning theories have failed to address this new reality, Marie Sontag proposes a new theory, social-connectedness and cognitive-connectedness schemata (SCCS) theory, that integrates key elements of other theories with gaming…

  13. The Effectiveness of Advance Organizers on the Signification of Poetic Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayat, Nihat

    2007-01-01

    Advance organizers activate the most suitable schema to learn new material. Poetic images are signified in schemata and the elements which are not expressed may be called by advance organizers. The purpose of this investigation is to discern the effectiveness of advance organizers on the signification of poetic images. Pretest-posttest…

  14. Bootstrapping Reflection on Classroom Interactions: Discourse Contexts of Novice Teachers' Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bannink, Anne; van Dam, Jet

    2007-01-01

    The powerful role of prior experiences and cultural schemata in guiding novice teachers' conceptions of how to teach is hardly contested. We report on a "reflective practicum" at the very beginning of a pre-service teacher education course that interconnects prior beliefs, reflection-in-action and reflection-on-action and that, in principle,…

  15. An Examination of Written Expression in Bilingual Students'"Non-Academic" Language: Assessment of Sense of Story Structure and Interlinguistic Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Norbert

    2000-01-01

    Four classes of bilingual children from Grades 3 and 5, speakers of Spanish and Nahuatl, participated in a study of literacy development focused on interlinguistic transfer and the application of narrative schemata as seen in writing samples produced in both languages. Reports on a methodological approach seen to be effective in eliciting…

  16. The Effect of Career Interventions Designed to Increase Self-Knowledge on the Self-Concepts of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portnoi, Lisette; Guichard, Jean; Lallemand, Noelle

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports a study that used a quasi-experimental design to examine if a career intervention designed to increase self-knowledge enabled self-discovery or self-construction, determined by the structure of the personality inventory used. This study, situated within the theoretical model of Markus's research in self-schemata (1977), used…

  17. Facilitating Case Reuse during Problem Solving in Algebra-Based Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mateycik, Frances Ann

    2010-01-01

    This research project investigates students' development of problem solving schemata while using strategies that facilitate the process of using solved examples to assist with a new problem (case reuse). Focus group learning interviews were used to explore students' perceptions and understanding of several problem solving strategies. Individual…

  18. The Image of the Performing Body

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullis, Eric C.

    2008-01-01

    This essay discusses the manner in which the human body is developed and transformed into an aesthetically expressive medium. This process entails capitalizing on functions performed by the body schema and, more specifically, on using the perceptual experience (or "image") of the body to consciously form motor schemata. Since this process is…

  19. Does Knowledge of Culture and Instruction Using Thematic Units Affect Listening Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Barbara

    To help teachers discover effective strategies appropriate for ethnic minority students, a study examined whether readers better understand material related to their own culture, and whether thematic units are an effective method for building culturally related schemata. Within a pre- and posttest design, a class of 25 Scottish pupils and a class…

  20. Consistent design schematics for biological systems: standardization of representation in biological engineering

    PubMed Central

    Matsuoka, Yukiko; Ghosh, Samik; Kitano, Hiroaki

    2009-01-01

    The discovery by design paradigm driving research in synthetic biology entails the engineering of de novo biological constructs with well-characterized input–output behaviours and interfaces. The construction of biological circuits requires iterative phases of design, simulation and assembly, leading to the fabrication of a biological device. In order to represent engineered models in a consistent visual format and further simulating them in silico, standardization of representation and model formalism is imperative. In this article, we review different efforts for standardization, particularly standards for graphical visualization and simulation/annotation schemata adopted in systems biology. We identify the importance of integrating the different standardization efforts and provide insights into potential avenues for developing a common framework for model visualization, simulation and sharing across various tools. We envision that such a synergistic approach would lead to the development of global, standardized schemata in biology, empowering deeper understanding of molecular mechanisms as well as engineering of novel biological systems. PMID:19493898

  1. The psychology of the unthinkable: taboo trade-offs, forbidden base rates, and heretical counterfactuals.

    PubMed

    Tetlock, P E; Kristel, O V; Elson, S B; Green, M C; Lerner, J S

    2000-05-01

    Five studies explored cognitive, affective, and behavioral responses to proscribed forms of social cognition. Experiments 1 and 2 revealed that people responded to taboo trade-offs that monetized sacred values with moral outrage and cleansing. Experiments 3 and 4 revealed that racial egalitarians were least likely to use, and angriest at those who did use, race-tainted base rates and that egalitarians who inadvertently used such base rates tried to reaffirm their fair-mindedness. Experiment 5 revealed that Christian fundamentalists were most likely to reject heretical counterfactuals that applied everyday causal schemata to Biblical narratives and to engage in moral cleansing after merely contemplating such possibilities. Although the results fit the sacred-value-protection model (SVPM) better than rival formulations, the SVPM must draw on cross-cultural taxonomies of relational schemata to specify normative boundaries on thought.

  2. Consistent design schematics for biological systems: standardization of representation in biological engineering.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Yukiko; Ghosh, Samik; Kitano, Hiroaki

    2009-08-06

    The discovery by design paradigm driving research in synthetic biology entails the engineering of de novo biological constructs with well-characterized input-output behaviours and interfaces. The construction of biological circuits requires iterative phases of design, simulation and assembly, leading to the fabrication of a biological device. In order to represent engineered models in a consistent visual format and further simulating them in silico, standardization of representation and model formalism is imperative. In this article, we review different efforts for standardization, particularly standards for graphical visualization and simulation/annotation schemata adopted in systems biology. We identify the importance of integrating the different standardization efforts and provide insights into potential avenues for developing a common framework for model visualization, simulation and sharing across various tools. We envision that such a synergistic approach would lead to the development of global, standardized schemata in biology, empowering deeper understanding of molecular mechanisms as well as engineering of novel biological systems.

  3. Complex Schema Match Discovery and Validation through Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleem, Khalid; Bellahsene, Zohra

    In this paper, we demonstrate an approach for the discovery and validation of n:m schema match in the hierarchical structures like the XML schemata. Basic idea is to propose an n:m node match between children (leaf nodes) of two matching non-leaf nodes of the two schemata. The similarity computation of the two non-leaf nodes is based upon the syntactic and linguistic similarity of the node labels supported by the similarity among the ancestral paths from nodes to the root. The n:m matching proposition is then validated with the help of the mini-taxonomies: hierarchical structures extracted from a large set of schema trees belonging to the same domain. The technique intuitively supports the collective intelligence of the domain users, indirectly collaborating for the validation of the complex match propositions.

  4. Understanding a technical language: A schema-based approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falzon, P.

    1984-01-01

    Workers in many job categories tend to develop technical languages, which are restricted subjects of natural language. A better knowledge of these retrictions provides guidelines for the design of the restricted languages of interactive systems. Accordingly, a technical language used by air-traffic controllers in their communications with pilots was studied. A method of analysis is presented that allows the schemata underlying each category of messages to be identified. This schematic knowledge was implemented in programs, which assume that the goal-oriented aspect of technical languages (and particularly the restricted domain of discourse) limits the processes and the data necessary in order to understand the messages (monosemy, limited vocabulary, evocation of the schemata by some command words, absence of syntax). The programs can interpret, and translate into sequences of action, the messages emitted by the controllers.

  5. Biological constraint, cultural variety, and psychological structures.

    PubMed

    Kagan, J

    2001-05-01

    Although biological processes bias humans to develop particular cognitive, affective, and behavioral forms, the cultural context of growth shapes these forms in particular ways. Psychologists have been indifferent to the nature of the mental structures that mediate the varied psychological functions that are the usual target of inquiry. This paper argues that schemata for perceptual events, motor programs, and semantic networks are distinct, although interdependent, forms that rest on different neurophysiologies. The biological constraints are weakest on the semantic networks that are influenced by the history, economy, religion, geography, and social structure of the society. These factors influence how cultures classify names for emotions, categories of self-membership, and popular metaphors for human nature. One class of schemata is derived from changes in body tone. Temperamental variation in the susceptibility to changes in body tone has relevance for understanding personality and a vulnerability to anxiety disorders.

  6. "Hochleistern über die Schulter geschaut" - Konzeption eines Lehrvideos zur Vermittlung von Problemlösekompetenz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kujath, Bertold; Schwill, Andreas

    Leistungsstarke Problemlöser zeigen ein deutlich anderes Vorgehen beim Bearbeiten von typischen Informatikproblemen als schwächere Problemlöser, das hat eine Vergleichsstudie mit Hoch- und Niedrigleistern ergeben. Auffällig war das Fehlen informatikspezifischer Herangehensweisen bei der Problembearbeitung durch Niedrigleister, obwohl die dazu notwendigen Werkzeuge wie etwa Baumstrukturen oder Rekursion durchaus bekannt waren. Aber auch viele allgemeine Empfehlungen der Problemlöseforschung, wie etwa das Zerlegen eines Problems in Teilprobleme oder das Durchführen einer Problemanalyse vor der eigentlichen Bearbeitung, bleiben bei schwachen Problemlösern unbeachtet. Die Frage, wie nun die deutlich effizienteren Strategien der Hochleister didaktisch aufgearbeitet werden können, um sie an Niedrigleister zu vermitteln, soll im vorliegen Beitrag anhand der Konzeption eines Lehrvideos beantwortet werden.

  7. Knowledge Representation Artifacts for Use in Sensemaking Support Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-12

    semantic networks, schemata, frames, scripts, logics, ontologies , etc. Fig. 1 depicts the specific knowledge representation artifacts that have been...representation schemes, which are described at a high level in the remaining of this paper. IV. ONTOLOGIES Many definitions of the term ontology have been...knowledge-based situation analysis support systems: “An ontology is a formal, explicit specification of a shared conceptualization.” During the last

  8. Laboratory for Computer Science Progress Report 16, 1 July 1978 - 30 June 1979,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    adequate for use in systematic research. An undergraduate student, Guy Vachon , will be writing a new version of these programs over the summer (he plans...Class of Data Flow Schemas March 1975 PB 237-033/AS **TM-59 Hack, Michel Decision Problems for Petri Nets and Vector Addition Systems March 1975 PB 231...Hack, Michel Henri Theodore Analysis of Production Schemata by Petri Nets, M.S. Thesis, EE Dept. February 1972 AD 740-320 *TR-95 Fateman, Richard J

  9. In-Flight Decision Making By High Time and Low Time Pilots during Instrument Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    expert performance is characterized by the use of extensive knowledge, organized as profiles or schemata. As in the medical example above, Carroll...nonsense figures. These are abstract amoeboid figures without geometrical or pictorial significance that would facilitate verbal recording. About twenty...Patterns. Identical to the previous sub-task save that the target figure may be rotated. Mirror images, however, are considered non-targets. 4. Maze

  10. Community violence: causes, prevention, and intervention.

    PubMed Central

    Bell, C. C.

    1997-01-01

    This article presents some pragmatic schemata for understanding various types and motivations for violence. This understanding is essential to frame prevention, intervention, and postvention strategies designed to reduce the phenomena of violence in our society. Each category of violence lists examples of prevention, intervention, and postvention strategies. This article is intended to broaden the understanding of violence so that strategies to address violence will become more specific and measurable. PMID:9347679

  11. Understanding the Greenhouse Effect by Embodiment - Analysing and Using Students' and Scientists' Conceptual Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niebert, Kai; Gropengießer, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, science education studies have reported that there are very different understandings among students of science regarding the key aspects of climate change. We used the cognitive linguistic framework of experientialism to shed new light on this valuable pool of studies to identify the conceptual resources of understanding climate change. In our study, we interviewed 35 secondary school students on their understanding of the greenhouse effect and analysed the conceptions of climate scientists as drawn from textbooks and research reports. We analysed all data by metaphor analysis and qualitative content analysis to gain insight into students' and scientists' resources for understanding. In our analysis, we found that students and scientists refer to the same schemata to understand the greenhouse effect. We categorised their conceptions into three different principles the conceptions are based on: warming by more input, warming by less output, and warming by a new equilibrium. By interrelating students' and scientists' conceptions, we identified the students' learning demand: First, our students were afforded with experiences regarding the interactions of electromagnetic radiation and CO2. Second, our students reflected about the experience-based schemata they use as source domains for metaphorical understanding of the greenhouse effect. By uncovering the-mostly unconscious-deployed schemata, we gave students access to their source domains. We implemented these teaching guidelines in interventions and evaluated them in teaching experiments to develop evidence-based and theory-guided learning activities on the greenhouse effect.

  12. Bartlett's schema theory: the unreplicated "portrait d'homme" series from 1932.

    PubMed

    Carbon, Claus-Christian; Albrecht, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    In 1932, Frederic Bartlett laid the foundation for the later schema theory. His key assumption of previous knowledge affecting the processing of new stimuli was illustrated in the famous "portrait d'homme" series. Sequenced reproductions of ambiguous stimuli showed progressive object-likeness. As Bartlett pointed out, activation of specific schemata, for instance "the face schema", biases memory retrieval towards such schemata. In five experiments (Experiment 1, n = 53; Experiment 2, n = 177; Experiment 3, n = 36; Experiment 4, n = 6; Experiment 5, n = 2), we tested several factors potentially influencing retrieval biases-for example, by varying the general procedure of reproduction (repeated vs. serial) and by omitting versus providing visual or semantic cues for activating face schemata. Participants inspected face-like stimuli with the caption "portrait of the human" and reproduced them repeatedly under specific conditions. None of the experiments revealed a systematic tendency towards Bartlett's described case, even when the participants were explicitly instructed to draw "a face" like the previously inspected one. In one of the "serial reproduction" experiments, we even obtained contrary effects with decreasing face-likeness over the reproduction generations. A close analysis of the original findings raises questions about the replicability of Bartlett's findings, qualifying the "portrait d'homme" series more or less as an illustrative example of the main idea of reconstructive memory.

  13. Colors, humors and evil eye: indigenous classification and treatment of childhood diarrhea in highland Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Burleigh, E; Dardano, C; Cruz, J R

    1990-11-01

    Focal group interviews on indigenous perceptions and reported management of childhood diarrhea were conducted in 1987-88 in Guatemala as a part of a prospective epidemiological field study of chronic diarrhea. Six cognitive schemata were identified, each with specific causes, a linked progression of concepts, symptoms, signs, and diagnostic characteristics. Nearly all were related to the humoral theory of disease, including the concept of evil eye. Diarrheal disease was conceptualized in the village as a set of processes which could be either "hot" or "cold" rather than as an unchanging single-symptom entity occupying only one spot on the humoral continuum. Clarification of the temporal relationship between concepts was found to be essential to the understanding of these indigenously-defined schemata. Stool color reflecting humoral theory was the primary concept used in household-level diagnosis. Reported behavior associated with these cognitive schemata (traditional treatments, pharmaceutical and dietary management) showed remarkable constancy, and adhered for the most part to the humoral concept of equilibrium. These included the use of oral rehydration solutions (ORS) and liquids. The applied importance of humoral theory to home-based use of ORS is discussed briefly as is the indigenous definition of dehydration.

  14. The narcissistic mask: an exploration of 'the defensive grandiosity hypothesis'.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Justin; Hashmi, Amani Al; Chung, Man Cheung; Morgan, Keith; Lyons, Minna

    2013-05-01

    Narcissism has been conceptualized as involving attempts to defend against negative self-schemata (implicit negative beliefs about one's own self-worth). This idea has been termed the 'mask model of narcissism'. This study explores the mask model, examining the association between extreme narcissistic personality traits and performance on a task purported to assess the influence of negative self-schemata. Participants (n = 232) from the UK and the UAE completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and also performed an incidental learning task involving the surprise recall of self-referential adjectives (traits). A greater recall of negative adjectives was viewed as indicative of negative self-schemata. Looking at the sample as a whole, there were no associations between narcissistic traits and negative adjective recall. However, amongst those scoring in the upper quartile of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, narcissism scores were positively correlated with the recall of negative adjectives even after controlling for age and memory. Narcissism may reflect self-enhancement strategies rooted in negative self-beliefs.

  15. Aspects of Piaget's cognitive developmental psychology and neurobiology of psychotic disorders - an integrative model.

    PubMed

    Gebhardt, Stefan; Grant, Phillip; von Georgi, Richard; Huber, Martin T

    2008-09-01

    Psychological, neurobiological and neurodevelopmental approaches have frequently been used to provide pathogenic concepts on psychotic disorders. However, aspects of cognitive developmental psychology have hardly been considered in current models. Using a hypothesis-generating approach an integration of these concepts was conducted. According to Piaget (1896-1980), assimilation and accommodation as forms of maintenance and modification of cognitive schemata represent fundamental processes of the brain. In general, based on the perceived input stimuli, cognitive schemata are developed resulting in a conception of the world, the realistic validity and the actuality of which is still being controlled and modified by cognitive adjustment processes. In psychotic disorders, however, a disproportion of environmental demands and the ability to activate required neuronal adaptation processes occurs. We therefore hypothesize a failure of the adjustment of real and requested output patterns. As a consequence autonomous cognitive schemata are generated, which fail to adjust with reality resulting in psychotic symptomatology. Neurobiological, especially neuromodulatory and neuroplastic processes play a central role in these perceptive and cognitive processes. In conclusion, integration of cognitive developmental psychology into the existing pathogenic concepts of psychotic disorders leads to interesting insights into basic disease mechanisms and also guides future research in the cognitive neuroscience of such disorders.

  16. Family relationships of adults with borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Allen, D M; Farmer, R G

    1996-01-01

    Current, ongoing interactions between adults exhibiting borderline personality disorder (BPD) traits and their families of origin may influence and maintain self-destructive behavior. Family interactions in such patients are often characterized by coexisting extremes of overinvolvement and underinvolvement by parental figures. Such parental behavior may trigger preexisting role relationship schemata in vulnerable individuals. Negative family reactions to new behavior patterns may make change difficult. A model for how present-day interpersonal patterns lead to self-destructive behavior, based on clinical observations, is proposed and case examples are presented.

  17. Hypnotic analgesia: a constructivist framework.

    PubMed

    Chapman, C R; Nakamura, Y

    1998-01-01

    Hypnotic analgesia remains an enigma. Recent neuroscience studies demonstrate that widespread distributed processing occurs in the brains of individuals experiencing pain. Emerging research and theory on the mechanisms of consciousness, along with this evidence, suggest that a constructivist framework may facilitate both pain research and the study of hypnosis. The authors propose that the brain constructs elements of pain experience (pain schemata) and embeds them in ongoing consciousness. The contents of immediate consciousness feed back to nonconscious, parallel distributed processes to help shape the character of future moments of consciousness. Hypnotic suggestion may interact with such processing through feedback mechanisms that prime associations and memories and thus shape the formation of future experience.

  18. Instructor Model Characteristics for Automated Speech Technology (IMCAST).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-01

    in the perceptual process. Thus we would say the process is signal-data limited. What is re- quired at this point is Perceptual Learning. LaBerge ...are kept. If the schemata fail, however, they are modified. A third stage assumed by LaBerge , which is of considerable interest for instructors, is...that of Automatic Coding. Much of LaBerge’s efforts ( LaBerge , 197 4La~rgeand Samuaels, 19741t’ LaBerge , 1976 40) are invested in this concept of

  19. Error-correction problems in autism: evidence for a monitoring impairment?

    PubMed

    Russell, J; Jarrold, C

    1998-06-01

    With a task involving the launching of missiles at targets, Malenka et al. (1982) and C. Frith and Done (1989) showed that schizophrenic patients with delusions of alien control and auditory hallucinations were likely to leave erroneous responses uncorrected whose outcomes were not visible until the missile hit or failed to hit the target, while being able to correct visible errors adequately. This is consistent with an impairment in the central monitoring of action. Using a similar task, we found that children with autism were more likely than controls to fail to correct both kinds of error. Data are interpreted in terms of difficulties with constructing visual schemata for actions.

  20. A model for the control mode man-computer interface dialogue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chafin, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    A four stage model is presented for the control mode man-computer interface dialogue. It consists of context development, semantic development syntactic development, and command execution. Each stage is discussed in terms of the operator skill levels (naive, novice, competent, and expert) and pertinent human factors issues. These issues are human problem solving, human memory, and schemata. The execution stage is discussed in terms of the operators typing skills. This model provides an understanding of the human process in command mode activity for computer systems and a foundation for relating system characteristics to operator characteristics.

  1. Reading comprehension: a language intervention target from early childhood through adolescence.

    PubMed

    Staskowski, M; Creaghead, N A

    2001-08-01

    Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) play an important role in helping children and adolescents with language impairments to construct meaning from spoken and written language. They work in collaboration with other professionals and families to provide the optimal learning experiences and to introduce strategies for seeking meaning and monitoring understanding. This article describes language intervention techniques to enhance reading comprehension, including the development and enhancement of background knowledge and schemata, vocabulary, knowledge of text structure, and strategy use. The discussion includes suggestions for young children who are developing language comprehension, as well as for elementary students and secondary students who comprehend text with increasing independence.

  2. GlycoCT-a unifying sequence format for carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Herget, S; Ranzinger, R; Maass, K; Lieth, C-W V D

    2008-08-11

    As part of the EUROCarbDB project (www.eurocarbdb.org) we have carefully analyzed the encoding capabilities of all existing carbohydrate sequence formats and the content of publically available structure databases. We have found that none of the existing structural encoding schemata are capable of coping with the full complexity to be expected for experimentally derived structural carbohydrate sequence data across all taxonomic sources. This gap motivated us to define an encoding scheme for complex carbohydrates, named GlycoCT, to overcome the current limitations. This new format is based on a connection table approach, instead of a linear encoding scheme, to describe the carbohydrate sequences, with a controlled vocabulary to name monosaccharides, adopting IUPAC rules to generate a consistent, machine-readable nomenclature. The format uses a block concept to describe frequently occurring special features of carbohydrate sequences like repeating units. It exists in two variants, a condensed form and a more verbose XML syntax. Sorting rules assure the uniqueness of the condensed form, thus making it suitable as a direct primary key for database applications, which rely on unique identifiers. GlycoCT encompasses the capabilities of the heterogeneous landscape of digital encoding schemata in glycomics and is thus a step forward on the way to a unified and broadly accepted sequence format in glycobioinformatics.

  3. Not strange but not true: self-reported interest in a topic increases false memory.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Anthony; Greene, Ciara M

    2017-09-01

    People are more likely to recall both true and false information that is consistent with their pre-existing stereotypes, schemata and desires. In addition, experts in a particular field are more likely to experience false memory in relation to their area of expertise. Here, we investigate whether level of interest, as distinct from level of knowledge, and in the absence of self-professed expertise, is associated with increased false memory. 489 participants were asked to rank 7 topics from most to least interesting. They were then asked if they remembered the events described in four news items related to the topic they selected as the most interesting and four items related to the topic selected as least interesting. In each case, three of the events depicted had really happened and one was fictional. A high level of interest in a topic increased true memories for the topic and doubled the frequency of false memories, even after controlling for level of knowledge. We interpret the results in the context of the source-monitoring framework and suggest that false memories arise as a result of interference from existing information stored in domain-related schemata.

  4. Lives of the cell.

    PubMed

    Mendelsohn, J Andrew

    2003-01-01

    What is the relation between things and theories, the material world and its scientific representations? This is a staple philosophical problem that rarely counts as historically legitimate or fruitful. In the following dialogue, the interlocutors do not argue for or against realism. Instead, they explore changing relations between theories and things, between contested objects of knowledge (like the cell) and less contested, more everyday things (like frog eggs scooped from a pond). Widely seen as the life sciences' first general theory, the cell theory underwent dramatic changes during the nineteenth century. The dialogue established that each successive version of the cell theory was formulated - each identity of the object cell was formed - around a different material: cork, cartilage, eggs in cleavage, muscle. Such things thus serve as exemplary materials, in ways not described by standard concepts like induction, theory-testing, theory-laden observation, and construction. Still, how can theories and perspective possibly be honed on things if these are apprehended differently by different observers according to their interests, training, culture, or indeed theories? The second part of the dialogue addresses this problem, partly through the verbal and visual schemata that were used by nineteenth-century microscopists and that are comparable to schemata in the visual arts. The third part of the dialogue considers the exemplary materials as a historical sequence, itself needing explanation. Theoretical change devolved partly from wider histories and geographies of the prevalence, availability, or scientific and cultural status of materials such as plants, animals, and muscle.

  5. Three-dimensional venous anatomy of the dermis observed using stereography

    PubMed Central

    Imanishi, Nobuaki; Kishi, Kazuo; Chang, Hak; Nakajima, Hideo; Aiso, Sadakazu

    2008-01-01

    Veins of the dermis have been investigated mainly by histological methods in the fields of anatomy and histology, and a large number of schemata of the veins have been depicted in a variety of textbooks. However, the schemata are usually two-dimensional and it is therefore difficult to envisage the actual vasculature of the dermal veins. In this study, we performed a stereographic study of the skin of three fresh cadavers that had been injected with radio-opaque dye, which was dispersed throughout the entire body. A venous network consisting of venous polygons of various sizes existed just under the dermis or in the deep zone of the dermis, which is generally called the subdermal venous plexus. There were many small vessels towards the inside of each venous polygon, and most of them ascended, branching off stereoscopically. Those branches anastomosed with each other, and they formed the dermal and subpapillary venous plexuses. However, there was little vascular connection between dermal venous plexuses of different venous polygons. The characteristic structure of the dermal venous plexus has been considered to bring about venous congestion of the skin in various clinical situations. PMID:18422525

  6. Development of remote surgical navigation and biopsy needle guidance system using Open-MRI and high-speed network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okura, Yasuhiko; Matsumura, Yasushi; Kuwata, Shigeki; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2004-05-01

    This study describes a remote surgical guidance and navigation system developed for surgery using "Open-MRI" and high-speed network. We connected Osaka University Hospital and Kawasaki Hospital which has deployed Open- MRI with high speed IP over ATM network. The distance between two hospitals is approximately 50 km. Two video cameras were installed with an angle of 40 degrees on an open-MRI gantry to obtain intraoperative images. Two pairs of CODEC (AD/DA converter) were equipped on the network to transfer both images and sound in real time. A pointer system to indicate a region on an image was also developed. MRI images obtained by Open-MRI were transferred to a 3D workstation in Osaka University Hospital. The system was designed for a senior surgeon in Osaka University to advise regarding accurate needle direction for a remote patient by checking the reconstructed 3D images and schemata shown by the navigation software. The schemata were also superimposed on intraoperative images from two cameras, and the superimposed images were sent back to Kawasaki Hospital. This system allowed a surgeon in the operation room at Kawasaki Hospital to accurately view navigation schema under supervision by a senior surgeon in a remote university hospital with superimposion of intraoperative images. The pointer system allowed both doctors to share intraoperative images during a virtual-real surgical operation. A successful biopsy case using this newly developed system illustrates the effectiveness of this system.

  7. Cognition of an expert tackling an unfamiliar conceptual physics problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, David; Undreiu, Adriana

    2009-11-01

    We have investigated and analyzed the cognition of an expert tackling a qualitative conceptual physics problem of an unfamiliar type. Our goal was to elucidate the detailed cognitive processes and knowledge elements involved, irrespective of final solution form, and consider implications for instruction. The basic but non-trivial problem was to find qualitatively the direction of acceleration of a pendulum bob at various stages of its motion, a problem originally studied by Reif and Allen. Methodology included interviews, introspection, retrospection and self-reported metacognition. Multiple facets of cognition were revealed, with different reasoning strategies used at different stages and for different points on the path. An account is given of the zigzag thinking paths and interplay of reasoning modes and schema elements involved. We interpret the cognitive processes in terms of theoretical concepts that emerged, namely: case-based, principle-based, experiential-intuitive and practical-heuristic reasoning; knowledge elements and schemata; activation; metacognition and epistemic framing. The complexity of cognition revealed in this case study contrasts with the tidy principle-based solutions we present to students. The pervasive role of schemata, case-based reasoning, practical heuristic strategies, and their interplay with physics principles is noteworthy, since these aspects of cognition are generally neither recognized nor taught. The schema/reasoning-mode perspective has direct application in science teaching, learning and problem-solving.

  8. Saints, Jnun, and Dreams: An essay in Moroccan ethnopsychology.

    PubMed

    Crapanzano, V

    1975-05-01

    It is with the effect of an idiom - a psychological idion - and its articulation on the subjective life of the individual that I will be concerned in this paper. My argument is necessarily hypothetical:-1 Human beings as members of a society are provided wiht an idiom by which they structure and evaluate their reality, their world, including themselves, and insofar as the experience of reality can be distinguished from the reality itself their experience of reality, of their world, of themselves. Although this idiom is necessarily expressed through language, it is more than language. Within it are sedimented traditional symbols and values which form the basis for schemata by which reality is interpreted. (These schemata can probably be reduced to a series of propositions about reality which form the basis of what anthropologists call culture.) Not only does the idiom enable the articulation of an explicit psychology but it renders possible the articulation of subjective experience. By "explicit psychology" I mean all commonly recognized assumptions about the nature of the "human psyche." These would include theories of personality, character formation, motivation, cognition, and perception.

  9. The explanatory power of Schema Theory: theoretical foundations and future applications in Ergonomics.

    PubMed

    Plant, Katherine L; Stanton, Neville A

    2013-01-01

    Schema Theory is intuitively appealing although it has not always received positive press; critics of the approach argue that the concept is too ambiguous and vague and there are inherent difficulties associated with measuring schemata. As such, the term schema can be met with scepticism and wariness. The purpose of this paper is to address the criticisms that have been levelled at Schema Theory by demonstrating how Schema Theory has been utilised in Ergonomics research, particularly in the key areas of situation awareness, naturalistic decision making and error. The future of Schema Theory is also discussed in light of its potential roles as a unifying theory in Ergonomics and in contributing to our understanding of distributed cognition. We conclude that Schema Theory has made a positive contribution to Ergonomics and with continued refinement of methods to infer and represent schemata it is likely that this trend will continue. This paper reviews the contribution that Schema Theory has made to Ergonomics research. The criticisms of the theory are addressed using examples from the areas of situation awareness, decision making and error.

  10. Using cognitive theory to facilitate medical education.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yu Qi; Shen, Jun; Liang, Xiao; Ding, Song; Chen, Fang Yuan; Shao, Li; Zheng, Qing; Ran, Zhi Hua

    2014-04-14

    Educators continue to search for better strategies for medical education. Although the unifying theme of reforms was "increasing interest in, attention to, and understanding of the knowledge base structures", it is difficult to achieve all these aspects via a single type of instruction. We used related key words to search in Google Scholar and Pubmed. Related search results on this topic were selected for discussion. Despite the range of different methods used in medical education, students are still required to memorize much of what they are taught, especially for the basic sciences. Subjects like anatomy and pathology carry a high intrinsic cognitive load mainly because of the large volume of information that must be retained. For these subjects, decreasing cognitive load is not feasible and memorizing appears to be the only strategy, yet the cognitive load makes learning a challenge for many students. Cognitive load is further increased when inappropriate use of educational methods occurs, e.g., in problem based learning which demands clinical reasoning, a high level and complex cognitive skill. It is widely known that experts are more skilled at clinical reasoning than novices because of their accumulated experiences. These experiences are based on the formation of cognitive schemata. In this paper we describe the use of cognitive schemata, developed by experts as worked examples to facilitate medical students' learning and to promote their clinical reasoning. We suggest that cognitive load theory can provide a useful framework for understanding the challenges and successes associated with education of medical professionals.

  11. Sociocultural contexts and communication about sex in China: informing HIV/STD prevention programs.

    PubMed

    Lieber, Eli; Chin, Dorothy; Li, Li; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Detels, Roger; Wu, Zunyou; Guan, Jihui

    2009-10-01

    HIV may be particularly stigmatizing in Asia because of its association with "taboo" topics, including sex, drugs, homosexuality, and death (Aoki, Ngin, Mo, & Ja, 1989). These cultural schemata expose salient boundaries and moral implications for sexual communication (Chin, 1999, Social Science and Medicine, 49, 241-251). Yet HIV/STD prevention efforts are frequently conducted in the public realm. Education strategies often involve conversations with health "experts" about condom use, safe sex, and partner communication. The gap between the public context of intervention efforts and the private and norm-bound nature of sex conversation is particularly challenging. Interviews with 32 market workers in eastern China focused on knowledge, beliefs, and values surrounding sexual practices, meanings, and communication. Sex-talk taboos, information seeking, vulnerability, partner communication, and cultural change emerged as central to understanding intervention information flow and each theme's relative influence is described. Findings illustrate the nature of how sexual communication schemata in Chinese contexts impact the effectiveness of sexual health message communication.

  12. Sociocultural Contexts and Communication About Sex in China: Informing HIV/STD Prevention Programs

    PubMed Central

    Leiber, Eli; Chin, Dorothy; Li, Li; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Detels, Roger; Wu, Zunyou; Guan, Jihui

    2010-01-01

    HIV may be particularly stigmatizing in Asia because of its association with “taboo” topics, including sex, drugs, homosexuality, and death (Aoki, Ngin, Mo, & Ja, 1989). These cultural schemata expose salient boundaries and moral implications for sexual communication (Chin, 1999, Social Science and Medicine, 49, 241-251). Yet HIV/STD prevention efforts are frequently conducted in the public realm. Education strategies often involve conversations with health “experts” about condom use, safe sex, and partner communication. The gap between the public context of intervention efforts and the private and norm-bound nature of sex conversation is particularly challenging. Interviews with 32 market workers in eastern China focused on knowledge, beliefs, and values surrounding sexual practices, meanings, and communication. Sex-talk taboos, information seeking, vulnerability, partner communication, and cultural change emerged as central to understanding intervention information flow and each theme's relative influence is described. Findings illustrate the nature of how sexual communication schemata in Chinese contexts impact the effectiveness of sexual health message communication. PMID:19842826

  13. Semantische Content Management Systeme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gams, Erich; Mitterdorfer, Daniel

    Content Management Systeme (CMS) sind in vielen Organisationen bereits seit längerer Zeit fester Bestandteil zur Verwaltung und kollaborativen Bearbeitung von Text- und Multimedia-Inhalten. Im Zuge der rasch ansteigenden Fülle an Informationen und somit auch Wissen wird die Überschaubarkeit der Datenbestände jedoch massiv eingeschränkt. Diese und zusätzliche Anforderungen, wie automatisch Datenquellen aus dem World Wide Web (WWW) zu extrahieren, lassen traditionelle CMS immer mehr an ihre Grenzen stoßen. Dieser Beitrag diskutiert die neuen Herausforderungen an traditionelle CMS und bietet Lösungsvorschläge, wie CMS kombiniert mit semantischen Technologien diesen Herausforderungen begegnen können. Die Autoren stellen eine generische Systemarchitektur für Content Management Systeme vor, die einerseits Inhalte für das Semantic Web generieren, andererseits Content aus dem Web 2.0 syndizieren können und bei der Aufbereitung des Content den User mittels semantischer Technologien wie Reasoning oder Informationsextraktion unterstützen. Dabei wird auf Erfahrungen bei der prototypischen Implementierung von semantischer Technologie in ein bestehendes CMS System zurückgegriffen.

  14. Implementing a Community-Driven Cyberinfrastructure Platform for the Paleo- and Rock Magnetic Scientific Fields that Generalizes to Other Geoscience Disciplines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minnett, R.; Jarboe, N.; Koppers, A. A.; Tauxe, L.; Constable, C.

    2013-12-01

    EarthRef.org is a geoscience umbrella website for several databases and data and model repository portals. These portals, unified in the mandate to preserve their respective data and promote scientific collaboration in their fields, are also disparate in their schemata. The Magnetics Information Consortium (http://earthref.org/MagIC/) is a grass-roots cyberinfrastructure effort envisioned by the paleo- and rock magnetic scientific community to archive their wealth of peer-reviewed raw data and interpretations from studies on natural and synthetic samples and relies on a partially strict subsumptive hierarchical data model. The Geochemical Earth Reference Model (http://earthref.org/GERM/) portal focuses on the chemical characterization of the Earth and relies on two data schemata: a repository of peer-reviewed reservoir geochemistry, and a database of partition coefficients for rocks, minerals, and elements. The Seamount Biogeosciences Network (http://earthref.org/SBN/) encourages the collaboration between the diverse disciplines involved in seamount research and includes the Seamount Catalog (http://earthref.org/SC/) of bathymetry and morphology. All of these portals also depend on the EarthRef Reference Database (http://earthref.org/ERR/) for publication reference metadata and the EarthRef Digital Archive (http://earthref.org/ERDA/), a generic repository of data objects and their metadata. The development of the new MagIC Search Interface (http://earthref.org/MagIC/search/) centers on a reusable platform designed to be flexible enough for largely heterogeneous datasets and to scale up to datasets with tens of millions of records. The HTML5 web application and Oracle 11g database residing at the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC) support the online contribution and editing of complex datasets in a spreadsheet environment and the browsing and filtering of these contributions in the context of thousands of other datasets. EarthRef.org is in the process of

  15. Constraint and loneliness in agoraphobia: an empirical investigation.

    PubMed

    Pehlivanidis, A; Koulis, S; Papakostas, Y

    2014-01-01

    While progress in the aetiopathology and treatment of panic disorder is indisputable, research regarding agoraphobia lacks behind. One significant-yet untested- theory by Guidano and Liotti, suggests the existence of inner representations of fear of "constraint" and fear of "loneliness" as two major schemata, important in the pathogenesis and manifestation of agoraphobia. Activation of these schemata may occur in situations in which the patient: (a) feels as in an inescapable trap (constraint) or (b) alone, unprotected and helpless (loneliness). Upon activation, the "constraint" schema elicits such symptoms as asphyxiation, chest pain, difficult breathing, motor agitation and muscular tension, while the "loneliness" schema elicits such symptoms as sensation of tachycardia, weakness of limbs, trembling or fainting. Activation of these schemata by content-compatible stimuli is expected to trigger various, yet distinct, response patterns, both of which are indiscriminately described within the term "agoraphobia". In order to investigate this hypothesis and its possible clinical applications, several mental and physical probes were applied to 20 patients suffering primarily from agoraphobia, and their responses and performance were recorded. Subjects also completed the "10-item Agoraphobia Questionnaire" prepared by our team aiming at assessing cognitions related to Guidano and Liotti's notion of "loneliness" and "constraint". Breath holding (BH) and Hyperventilation (HV) were selected as physical probes. BH was selected as an easily administered hypercapnea - induced clinical procedure, because of its apparent resemblance to the concept of "constraint". Subjects were instructed to hold their breath for as long as they could and stop at will. Similarly, it was hypothesized that HV might represent a physical "loneliness" probe, since it can elicit such symptoms as dizziness, paraesthesias, stiff muscles, cold hands or feet and trembling, reminiscent of a "collapsing

  16. A New Labor Theory of Value for Rational Planning Through Use of the Bourgeois Profit Rate

    PubMed Central

    Weizsäcker, C. C. Von; Samuelson, Paul A.

    1971-01-01

    To maximaze steady-state per capita consumptions, goods should be valued at their “synchronized labor requirement costs”, which are shown to deviate from Marx's schemata of “values” but to coincide with bourgeois prices calculated at dated labor requirements, marked-up by compound interest, at a profit or interest rate equal to the system's rate of exponential growth. With capitalists saving all their incomes for future profits, workers get all there is to get. Departures from such an exogenous, or endogenous, golden-rule state are the rule in history rather than the exception. In the case of exponential labor-augmenting change, it is shown that competitive prices will equal historically embodied labor content. PMID:16591926

  17. Stability and Variability in Aesthetic Experience: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, Thomas; Beudt, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Based on psychophysics’ pragmatic dualism, we trace the cognitive neuroscience of stability and variability in aesthetic experience. With regard to different domains of aesthetic processing, we touch upon the relevance of cognitive schemata for aesthetic preference. Attitudes and preferences are explored in detail. Evolutionary constraints on attitude formation or schema generation are elucidated, just as the often seemingly arbitrary influences of social, societal, and cultural nature are. A particular focus is put on the concept of critical periods during an individual’s ontogenesis. The latter contrasting with changes of high frequency, such as fashion influences. Taken together, these analyses document the state of the art in the field and, potentially, highlight avenues for future research. PMID:28223955

  18. An axis for risk management in classificatory sys-tems as a contribution to efficient clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    MELLSOP, GRAHAM; KUMAR, SHAILESH

    2008-01-01

    Comprehensive clinical assessment and patient management plans have been enhanced by the development of multiaxial classificatory systems. Assessment of risk is an essential clinical task for which the conclusions are not currently reflected in the multiaxial diagnostic schemata. Developments in the understanding of risk and its management make possible consideration of its place in multiaxial systems. The structure and principles of a potentially workable axis, summarizing current knowledge of risk in the domains of suicide, self-neglect and violence to others, are described. Clinicians are more likely to use this axis than the multiple, emerging, risk assessment guidelines. Incorporating risk management would be a practical addition to presently available axes and be very widely clinically applicable. PMID:18836545

  19. Effects of the "beauty is good" stereotype on children's information processing.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Jennifer L; Langlois, Judith H

    2002-03-01

    The authors tested schematic information processing as a function of attractiveness stereotyping in two studies. An adult experimenter read children (ages 3 to 7 years) eight different stories in which a child narrator encountered two characters who varied in level of attractiveness and displayed positive or negative traits that were either consistent or inconsistent with the "beauty is good" stereotype. Following the story, the experimenter showed each child a photograph of the two characters' faces and asked the child to point to the character who displayed the positive trait. In Experiment 1, children made more errors in identifying female characters with stereotype inconsistent traits but did just the opposite with male characters. Experiment 2 replicated the findings with female characters but found no difference in errors with male characters. The findings have implications for how attractiveness and gender stereotypes affect children's information processing, how attractiveness schemata may be organized, and why physical attractiveness stereotypes are maintained.

  20. Multiple Pathways Linking Racism to Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Harrell, Camara Jules P.; Burford, Tanisha I.; Cage, Brandi N.; Nelson, Travette McNair; Shearon, Sheronda; Thompson, Adrian; Green, Steven

    2012-01-01

    This commentary discusses advances in the conceptual understanding of racism and selected research findings in the social neurosciences. The traditional stress and coping model holds that racism constitutes a source of aversive experiences that, when perceived by the individual, eventually lead to poor health outcomes. Current evidence points to additional psychophysiological pathways linking facets of racist environments with physiological reactions that contribute to disease. The alternative pathways emphasize prenatal experiences, subcortical emotional neural circuits, conscious and preconscious emotion regulation, perseverative cognitions, and negative affective states stemming from racist cognitive schemata. Recognition of these pathways challenges change agents to use an array of cognitive and self-controlling interventions in mitigating racism’s impact. Additionally, it charges policy makers to develop strategies that eliminate deep-seated structural aspects of racism in society. PMID:22518195

  1. Perceiving dance: schematic expectations guide experts' scanning of a contemporary dance film.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Catherine; Winskel, Heather; Howell, Clare; Vidal, Lyne-Marine; Latimer, Cyril; Milne-Home, Josephine

    2010-01-01

    Eye fixations and saccades (eye movements) of expert and novice dance observers were compared to determine the effect of acquired expectations on observations of human movement, body morphology, and dance configurations. As hypothesized, measured fixation times of dance experts were significantly shorter than those of novices. In a second viewing of the same sequences, novices recorded significantly shorter fixations than those recorded during viewing session 1. Saccades recorded from experts were significantly faster than those of novices. Although both experts and novices fixated background regions, most likely making use of extrafoveal or peripheral vision to anticipate movement and configurations, novices fixated background regions significantly more than experts in viewing session 1. Their enhanced speed of visual processing suggests that dance experts are adept at anticipating movement and rapidly processing material, probably aided by acquired schemata or expectations in long-term memory and recognition of body and movement configurations.

  2. Assessing interpersonal and communication skills in emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Chan, Teresa M; Wallner, Clare; Swoboda, Thomas K; Leone, Katrina A; Kessler, Chad

    2012-12-01

    Interpersonal and communication skills (ICS) are a key component of several competency-based schemata and key competency in the set of six Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) core competencies. With the shift toward a competency-based educational framework, the importance of robust learner assessment becomes paramount. The journal Academic Emergency Medicine (AEM) hosted a consensus conference to discuss education research in emergency medicine (EM). This article summarizes the initial preparatory research that was conducted to brief consensus conference attendees and reports the results of the consensus conference breakout session as it pertains to ICS assessment of learners. The goals of this consensus conference session were to twofold: 1) to determine the state of assessment of observable learner performance and 2) to determine a research agenda within the ICS field for medical educators. The working group identified six key recommendations for medical educators and researchers. © 2012 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  3. Definition and classification of autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, Ian G

    2002-11-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) has been defined as "an unresolving, predominantly periportal hepatitis, usually with hypergammaglobulinemia and tissue autoantibodies, which is responsive to immunosuppressive therapy in most cases." It is a relatively rare disorder, with a preponderance of female patients, that can present at any age (although onset in most cases is after 40 years of age). There are no features that are pathognomonic of the condition. Diagnosis requires careful exclusion of other causes of liver disease together with the finding of a suggestive pattern of clinical and laboratory abnormalities. The marked heterogeneity of AIH with respect to presenting features, severity of disease, and response to therapy has led to several proposals for classification of the disease according to (mainly) immunologic parameters. These schemata may assist in diagnosis, and some may define different pathogenetic subgroups of the disease, but their utility for assessing prognosis or planning treatment strategies for the individual patient is still uncertain.

  4. Components of random generation by normal subjects and patients with dysexecutive syndrome.

    PubMed

    Spatt, J; Goldenberg, G

    1993-11-01

    The study presents a hypothesis on how randomness could be simulated by human subjects. Three sources of deviation from randomness are predicted: (1) the preferred application of overlearned production schemata for producing sequences of digits, (2) a wrong concept of randomness, and (3) the impossibility to monitor for redundancies of higher- than those of first-order. Deviations of random generation of digits produced by healthy subjects, patients with chronic frontal lobe damage, and patients with Parkinson's disease from random sequences produced by a computer program can be explained by the differential influence of these factors. Whereas incorrect concepts of randomness and limits on monitoring capacity distinguished all sequences produced by humans from actual random sequences, persistence on a single production strategy distinguished brain-damaged patients from controls. Random generation of digits appears to be a theoretically transparent and clinically useful test of executive function.

  5. An application of machine learning to the organization of institutional software repositories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailin, Sidney; Henderson, Scott; Truszkowski, Walt

    1993-01-01

    Software reuse has become a major goal in the development of space systems, as a recent NASA-wide workshop on the subject made clear. The Data Systems Technology Division of Goddard Space Flight Center has been working on tools and techniques for promoting reuse, in particular in the development of satellite ground support software. One of these tools is the Experiment in Libraries via Incremental Schemata and Cobweb (ElvisC). ElvisC applies machine learning to the problem of organizing a reusable software component library for efficient and reliable retrieval. In this paper we describe the background factors that have motivated this work, present the design of the system, and evaluate the results of its application.

  6. [The reciprocity rule in the construction of relationships as the key in relational processes].

    PubMed

    Fenelli, Antonio; Volpi, Cecilia; Guarracino, Emanuele; Galli, Virginia; Esposito, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Reciprocity as an expression of the therapist-patient relationship is pointed-out by Mario Reda who refers to Comparetti's studies on the mother-foetus reciprocity, mediated by the so-called "jumps". Reciprocal behaviours are clearly observable during bird and other animal courtship behaviour, whereas in the Sapiens sapiens species, we may observe the establishing of a very complex reciprocity system, which starts with gestures and bodily attitudes, subsequently activating sensory-motor emotional schemata and internal working models, thus enabling the construction of personal meanings. A relationship may result from an encounter provided that "compatible" meanings are constructed in the context of "possible reciprocity" of significant systems. The observation of reciprocity provides a concrete possibility to reduce the risk of absolute subjectivity related to the I or the you, superceding it through the us.

  7. Night and day, you are the one: on circadian mismatches and the transference effect in social perception.

    PubMed

    Kruglanski, Arie W; Pierro, Antonio

    2008-03-01

    A study examined the relation between individuals' circadian rhythm and their tendency to exhibit transference effects in social perception. Individuals tested at times of circadian mismatch (i.e., morning persons tested in the evening and evening persons tested in the morning) exhibited more pronounced transference effects than individuals tested at times of circadian match (i.e., morning persons tested in the morning and evening persons tested in the evening). These findings are compatible with the notion that transference effects represent everyday social-cognitive functioning related to activation of social schemata. Additionally, however, they suggest that transference effects are not the inevitable consequence of activating the significant other's schema. Rather, such effects might be particularly likely to occur when an individual's mental resources are limited, as might be the case during circadian mismatches. This latter suggestion differs from psychodynamic views of transference as exclusively a driven, energy-intensive phenomenon.

  8. st-Alphabets: On the Feasibility in the Explicit Use of Extended Relational Alphabets in Classifier Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledo-Suárez, Carlos D.

    It is proposed a way of increasing the cardinality of an alphabet used to write rules in a learning classifier system that extends the idea of relational schemata. Theoretical justifications regarding the possible reduction in the amount of rules for the solution of problems such extended alphabets (st-alphabets) imply are shown. It is shown that when expressed as bipolar neural networks, the matching process of rules over st-alphabets strongly resembles a gene expression mechanism applied to a system over {0,1,#}. In spite of the apparent drawbacks the explicit use of such relational alphabets would imply, their successful implementation in an information gain based classifier system (IGCS) is presented.

  9. The role of attention problems and impulsiveness in media violence effects on aggression.

    PubMed

    Swing, Edward L; Anderson, Craig A

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has established media violence as a causal risk factor for aggressive behavior. Several theoretical mechanisms have been identified to explain this effect. The present study assessed 422 undergraduate students to test the possibility that individual differences in attention problems and impulsiveness can help explain the link between violent media and aggression. Attention problems and impulsiveness proved to be a distinct construct from other processes believed to mediate aggression (aggressive beliefs, aggression related schemata, trait anger, and trait hostility). Attention problems and impulsiveness were uniquely related to both media exposure (total weekly hours and violent content) and aggression. Attention problems and impulsiveness were particularly related to impulsive (as opposed to premeditated) aggression. These results suggest that attention problems and impulsiveness may play an important role in violent media effects on aggression.

  10. Illness and morality in the Mombasa Swahili community: a metaphorical model in an Islamic culture.

    PubMed

    Swartz, M J

    1997-03-01

    The Swahili of Mombasa are Muslims, part of an ethnic group whose forebears founded East Africa's pre-colonial cities. Their cosmopolitan culture, in common with the cultures of some other, mainly Muslim, groups elsewhere includes a system of beliefs concerning the body's functioning and illness as the result of relations among the body's four humours. The Swahili version of this system and its use in curing is described and briefly compared to several others. Despite the availability of a variety of other systems, including the biomedical employed in the much patronized cost free treatment at government hospitals, the humoural system of beliefs is almost universally held. An hypothesis seeking to explain this suggests that because the Swahili schema is conceptualized by what Lakoff calls a "metaphorical model" emphasizing balance which is also used to conceptualize the values applying to key social relationships, the two schemata support one another, presumably by making the knowledge and emotions applying to one available in the other.

  11. Where genetic algorithms excel.

    PubMed

    Baum, E B; Boneh, D; Garrett, C

    2001-01-01

    We analyze the performance of a genetic algorithm (GA) we call Culling, and a variety of other algorithms, on a problem we refer to as the Additive Search Problem (ASP). We show that the problem of learning the Ising perceptron is reducible to a noisy version of ASP. Noisy ASP is the first problem we are aware of where a genetic-type algorithm bests all known competitors. We generalize ASP to k-ASP to study whether GAs will achieve "implicit parallelism" in a problem with many more schemata. GAs fail to achieve this implicit parallelism, but we describe an algorithm we call Explicitly Parallel Search that succeeds. We also compute the optimal culling point for selective breeding, which turns out to be independent of the fitness function or the population distribution. We also analyze a mean field theoretic algorithm performing similarly to Culling on many problems. These results provide insight into when and how GAs can beat competing methods.

  12. Reasoning about logical propositions and success in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piburn, Michael D.

    1990-12-01

    Students display a number of misconceptions when asked to reason about logical propositions. Rather than being random, these misconceptions are stereotypic, and relate to age, ability, and success in science. The grades in science achieved by tenth-grade general science students from two parochial single-sex schools in Australia correlated with their scores on the Propositional Logic Test. The students' ability level was consistently related to the pattern of errors they committed on that measure. Mean scores were lowest on a subtest of ability to use the biconditional and implication, higher on the disjunction, and highest on the conjunction. Success in science was predicted most strongly by the disjunction and biconditional subtests. Knowledge of the way in which a person reasons about logical propositions provides additional insights into the transformations information is subjected to as it is integrated into mental schemata.

  13. Social perception deficits, cognitive distortions, and empathy deficits in sex offenders: a brief review.

    PubMed

    Blake, Emily; Gannon, Theresa

    2008-01-01

    This literature review examines the differences between sex offenders and nonoffenders with regard to social perception skills, cognitive distortions, and empathy skills in order to investigate sex offenders' cognition. The literature on cognitive distortions is discussed, with reference to the confusion surrounding its definition, and the debate between cognitive distortions as offense-supportive beliefs or justifications is examined. In terms of social perception, particular reference is made to sex offenders' misinterpretations of women's social cues and the source of this deficit. The authors discuss possibilities for this deficit, including offense-supportive beliefs that are driven by underlying implicit theories or schemata held by offenders. The concept of empathy and its relation to both social perception skills and cognitive distortions is discussed, and the integration of these factors is represented in a new model.

  14. Automatic and effortful processing of self-statements in depression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Catharina E; Brennen, Tim; Holte, Arne

    2006-01-01

    Clark and Beck (1999) and Williams et al. (1997) have come up with quite different conclusions regarding which cognitive processes are most affected by negative self-schemata and negative knowledge structures. In order to increase the understanding of differences in effortful and automatic processing in depression, we compared never depressed (ND), previously depressed (PD) and clinically depressed (CD) individuals on free recall, recognition and fabrication of positive and negative self-statements. The results showed that: (i) overall NDs and PDs recalled more positive self-statements than CDs, whereas CDs correctly recognized more negative self-statements than NDs and PDs; and (ii) CDs and PDs fabricated more negative than positive self-statements, whereas no difference was obtained for NDs. The results seem to be in line with Clark and Beck's suggestions. However, there are several aspects of the present findings that make the picture more complicated.

  15. Unique contributions of metacognition and cognition to depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Adviye Esin; Gençöz, Tülin; Wells, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    This study attempts to examine the unique contributions of "cognitions" or "metacognitions" to depressive symptoms while controlling for their intercorrelations and comorbid anxiety. Two-hundred-and-fifty-one university students participated in the study. Two complementary hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed, in which symptoms of depression were regressed on the dysfunctional attitudes (DAS-24 subscales) and metacognition scales (Negative Beliefs about Rumination Scale [NBRS] and Positive Beliefs about Rumination Scale [PBRS]). Results showed that both NBRS and PBRS individually explained a significant amount of variance in depressive symptoms above and beyond dysfunctional schemata while controlling for anxiety. Although dysfunctional attitudes as a set significantly predicted depressive symptoms after anxiety and metacognitions were controlled for, they were weaker than metacognitive variables and none of the DAS-24 subscales contributed individually. Metacognitive beliefs about ruminations appeared to contribute more to depressive symptoms than dysfunctional beliefs in the "cognitive" domain.

  16. Interactive psychoeducational group therapy for traumatized women.

    PubMed

    Lubin, H; Johnson, D R

    1997-07-01

    A specialized form of outpatient group therapy with traumatized women is described. Interactive psychoeducational group therapy (IPGT) aims to help the survivor differentiate her self-representations from traumatic schemata that she may have assimilated since the traumatic event. Such assimilation is viewed as leading to a number of negative effects, including shame, social isolation, distorted body image, and sense of meaninglessness. Using a membership with heterogeneous trauma, cognitive-distancing techniques, corrective interpersonal enactments, and specifically designed ceremonies, IPGT attempts to encourage survivors to alter their relationship to the traumatic event and the illness of posttraumatic stress disorder. Clinical examples demonstrate members' improvement in self-image, interpersonal relationships, and sense of belonging to the community at large.

  17. Laying the foundations of well being: a creative psycho-educational program for young children.

    PubMed

    Zafiropoulou, Maria; Thanou, Angeliki

    2007-02-01

    Dysfunctional cognitive schemata and pessimistic explanatory styles are usually held responsible for some of the commonest features of depressed mood such as feelings of meaninglessness, resignation, and underachievement which seem to affect even young children. This pilot study investigates the applicability and efficacy of an interactive, creative psycho-educational program for preschoolers that aims at enhancing mastery and shaping optimistic explanatory styles. Twenty preschoolers participated in once-a-week hourly sessions which took place in their school and lasted for one school year. The intervention consisted of several playful tasks and novel creative activities specially designed to meet the needs and abilities of preschoolers, while satisfying the objectives of the school curriculum. The tasks were based on the principles of cognitive behaviour theory. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of our results support the efficacy of the intervention for preschoolers.

  18. Mediated Modeling in Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halloun, Ibrahim A.

    2007-08-01

    Following two decades of corroboration, modeling theory is presented as a pedagogical theory that promotes mediated experiential learning of model-laden theory and inquiry in science education. Students develop experiential knowledge about physical realities through interplay between their own ideas about the physical world and particular patterns in this world. Under teacher mediation, they represent each pattern with a particular model that they develop through a five-phase learning cycle, following particular modeling schemata of well-defined dimensions and rules of engagement. Significantly greater student achievement has been increasingly demonstrated under mediated modeling than under conventional instruction of lecture and demonstration, especially in secondary school and university physics courses. The improved achievement is reflected in more meaningful understanding of course materials, better learning styles, higher success rates, lower attrition rates and narrower gaps between students of different backgrounds.

  19. Images of desire: cognitive models of craving.

    PubMed

    May, Jon; Andrade, Jackie; Panabokke, Nathalie; Kavanagh, David

    2004-07-01

    Cognitive modelling of phenomena in clinical practice allows the operationalization of otherwise diffuse descriptive terms such as craving or flashbacks. This supports the empirical investigation of the clinical phenomena and the development of targeted treatment interventions. This paper focuses on the cognitive processes underpinning craving, which is recognised as a motivating experience in substance dependence. We use a high-level cognitive architecture, Interacting Cognitive Subsystems (ICS), to compare two theories of craving: Tiffany's theory, centred on the control of automated action schemata, and our own Elaborated Intrusion theory of craving. Data from a questionnaire study of the subjective aspects of everyday desires experienced by a large non-clinical population are presented. Both the data and the high-level modelling support the central claim of the Elaborated Intrusion theory that imagery is a key element of craving, providing the subjective experience and mediating much of the associated disruption of concurrent cognition.

  20. Coping with Space Neophobia in Drosophila melanogaster: The Asymmetric Dynamics of Crossing a Doorway to the Untrodden

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Shay; Benjamini, Yoav; Golani, Ilan

    2015-01-01

    We discover and examine within a wide phylogenetic perspective spatial neophobia, avoidance of untrodden terrain, in fruit flies, in an experimental setup that reduces the gap between the field and the laboratory. In our setup, fruit flies use a natal fruit as their origin, freely exploring for days their surroundings, which consists of a mixture of trodden and untrodden terrain. The interface between trodden and untrodden is, however, reduced in our setup to a wide doorway, opened within a surrounding wall. Crossing this doorway, characterized by a sharp contrast interface between trodden and untrodden, generates a behavior whose dynamics betrays the flies' space neophobia. The moment-by-moment dynamics of crossing is remarkably similar to that reported in mouse models of anxiety. This means that neophobic behavior is either homologous across arthropods and vertebrates or, not less interesting, convergent, whereby the same behavior is mediated in the two phyla by two completely different schemata. PMID:26646394

  1. The Ouroboros Model, selected facets.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Knud

    2011-01-01

    The Ouroboros Model features a biologically inspired cognitive architecture. At its core lies a self-referential recursive process with alternating phases of data acquisition and evaluation. Memory entries are organized in schemata. The activation at a time of part of a schema biases the whole structure and, in particular, missing features, thus triggering expectations. An iterative recursive monitor process termed 'consumption analysis' is then checking how well such expectations fit with successive activations. Mismatches between anticipations based on previous experience and actual current data are highlighted and used for controlling the allocation of attention. A measure for the goodness of fit provides feedback as (self-) monitoring signal. The basic algorithm works for goal directed movements and memory search as well as during abstract reasoning. It is sketched how the Ouroboros Model can shed light on characteristics of human behavior including attention, emotions, priming, masking, learning, sleep and consciousness.

  2. Object of desire self-consciousness theory.

    PubMed

    Bogaert, Anthony F; Brotto, Lori A

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss the construct of object of desire self-consciousness, the perception that one is romantically and sexually desirable in another's eyes. The authors discuss the nature of the construct, variations in its expression, and how it may function as part of a self-schemata or script related to romance and sexuality. The authors suggest that object of desire self-consciousness may be an adaptive, evolved psychological mechanism allowing sexual and romantic tactics suitable to one's mate value. The authors also suggest that it can act as a signal that one has high mate value in the sexual marketplace. The authors then review literature (e.g., on fantasies, on sexual activity preferences, on sexual dysfunctions, on language) suggesting that object of desire self-consciousness plays a particularly important role in heterosexual women's sexual/romantic functioning and desires.

  3. Suggested guidelines for treatment of phantom limb pain.

    PubMed

    Sherman, R A; Tippens, J K

    1982-12-01

    Eighty to ninety percent of amputees have been shown to suffer significant amounts of phantom limb pain in contrast to the widely accepted level of about 5%. Surveys of the literature, of physicians actively treating phantom pain, and of over 3,000 American veteran amputees have shown that most of the usual treatments are not efficacious when followups of a year or more are done. A diagnostic and therapeutic schemata is presented, which incorporates the above surveys, research, and clinical experience into a unified approach optimizing the few treatments showing a reasonable hope of long term success. Every effort is made to identify the source of pain being referred into the phantom. Stump, back, prosthetic, and other physical problems are corrected prior to initiation of other treatments, including EMG or temperature feedback from the stump, sympathetic system alteration, modulation of anxiety and depression, TENS, and ultrasound. Key indexing terms: phantom pain, treatment, amputees, referred pain.

  4. Alcohol Measurement Methodology in Epidemiology: Recent Advances and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, Thomas K.; Kerr, William C.

    2009-01-01

    Aim To review and discuss measurement issues in survey assessment of alcohol consumption for epidemiological studies. Methods The following areas are considered: implications of cognitive studies of question answering like self-referenced schemata of drinking, reference period and retrospective recall, as well as the assets and liabilities of types of current (e.g., food frequency, quantity frequency, graduated frequencies, and heavy drinking indicators) and lifetime drinking measures. Finally we consider units of measurement and improving measurement by detailing the ethanol content of drinks in natural settings. Results and conclusions Cognitive studies suggest inherent limitations in the measurement enterprise, yet diary studies show promise of broadly validating methods that assess a range of drinking amounts per occasion; improvements in survey measures of drinking in the life course are indicated; attending in detail to on and off-premise drink pour sizes and ethanol concentrations of various beverages shows promise of narrowing the coverage gap plaguing survey alcohol measurement. PMID:18422826

  5. The genetics of myelodysplastic syndrome: from clonal hematopoiesis to secondary leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Sperling, Adam S.; Gibson, Christopher J.; Ebert, Benjamin L.

    2017-01-01

    Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a clonal disease that arises from the expansion of mutated hematopoietic stem cells. In a spectrum of myeloid disorders ranging from clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP) to secondary acute myeloid leukemia (sAML), MDS is distinguished by the presence of peripheral blood cytopenias, dysplastic hematopoietic differentiation, and the absence of features that define acute leukemia. Over 50 recurrently mutated genes are involved in the pathogenesis of MDS, including genes that encode proteins involved in pre-mRNA splicing, epigenetic regulation, and transcription. In this review we discuss the molecular processes that lead to CHIP and further clonal evolution to MDS and sAML. We also highlight the ways in which these insights are shaping the clinical management of MDS, including classification schemata, prognostic scoring systems, and therapeutic approaches. PMID:27834397

  6. Ever since language and learning: afterthoughts on the Piaget-Chomsky debate.

    PubMed

    Piattelli-Palmarini, M

    1994-01-01

    The central arguments and counter-arguments presented by several participants during the debate between Piaget and Chomsky at the Royaumont Abbey in October 1975 are here reconstructed in a particularly consice chronological and "logical" sequence. Once the essential points of this important exchange are thus clearly laid out, it is easy to witness that recent developments in generative grammar, as well as new data on language acquisition, especially in the acquisition of pronouns by the congenitally deaf child, corroborate the "language specificity" thesis defended by Chomsky. By the same token these data and these new theoretical refinements refute the Piagetian hypothesis that language is constructed upon abstractions from sensorimotor schemata. Moreover, in the light of modern evolutionary theory, Piaget's basic assumptions on the biological roots of cognition, language and learning turn out to be unfounded. In hindsight, all this accrues to the validity of Fodor's seemingly "paradoxical" argument against "learning" as a transition from "less" powerful to "more" powerful conceptual systems.

  7. Emergency preparedness of Research Center for Radiation Medicine and its hospital to admit and treat the patients with signs of acute radiation sickness.

    PubMed

    Belyi, D A; Khomenko, V I; Bebeshko, V G

    2009-06-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, the Research Center for Radiation Medicine (RCRM) was established in Kiev (Ukraine). Its main task was to maintain a high level of emergency preparedness and be ready to examine and treat patients who suffer as a result of hypothetical radiation accident. Based on the previous experience, this institution's specialists worked out new diagnostic criteria and drug treatment schemata for acute radiation sickness, created a database on 75 patients with this diagnosis and improved educational programmes for medical students and physicians working in the field of radiation medicine. RCRM collaborates fruitfully with western partners through the joint research projects and connects with the World Health Organization's Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Assistance Network centre. Collaboration with Kiev Center for Bone Marrow Transplantation allows RCRM to use aseptic wards having highly filtered air for the treatment of most severely irradiated patients.

  8. Was Walter Lippmann interested in stereotyping?: Public Opinion and cognitive social psychology.

    PubMed

    Newman, Leonard S

    2009-02-01

    Walter Lippmann's Public Opinion is much cited but little read. A review of references to Public Opinion by social psychologists over the last 20 years reveals the widespread beliefs that (1) the book focuses primarily on group stereotypes and prejudice, and (2) the concept of stereotyping originated with Lippmann. However, stereotypes, as currently conceived--as opposed to schemata more generally--do not play a central role in the book, and Lippmann did not introduce the concept (although he may have broadened it). In addition, throughout his long and distinguished career, he showed little interest in stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination. Nonetheless, Public Opinion is a seminal work in the area of cognitive social psychology and (like other little read citation classics) still deserves to be read-including, ironically, by students of stereotyping and prejudice.

  9. Themes of power and betrayal in sexual abuse survivors' characterizations of interpersonal relationships.

    PubMed

    Liem, J H; O'Toole, J G; James, J B

    1996-10-01

    Consistent with the notion that childhood sexual abuse (CSA) shapes motivational dispositions and internalized schemata that are reflected in adult characterizations of self and others, we hypothesized that adult CSA survivors' characterizations of interpersonal relationships would reflect greater power motivation as defined by McClelland and Winter, and more preoccupation with themes of powerlessness and betrayal than nonabused adult's - a pattern associated with poor psychological functioning. Stories written by women with CSA histories (n = 43) reflected both a greater need for and fear of power, and contained more themes of powerlessness and betrayal than stories written by women without CSA histories (n = 43). Frequency of sexual abuse in combination with fear of power was predictive of depression and low self-esteem.

  10. Effect of the EMDR psychotherapeutic approach on emotional cognitive processing in patients with depression.

    PubMed

    Rosas Uribe, Myrna Estela; López Ramírez, Ernesto O; Jarero Mena, Ignacio

    2010-05-01

    The current investigation, framed within the emotional cognitive science field, was conducted with three patients with major depression. They participated in a therapeutic process which involved EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing). Data were obtained in the clinical practice through a longitudinal one subject study design, including: emotional valence identification within affective priming experiments; and depressive emotional representation studies, the data of which was analyzed using multidimensional scaling. The first ones had the purpose of observing the therapeutic impact over the emotional cognitive bias mechanism regarding depresogenic words related to traumatic experiences; and the second, to analyze modifications on depressive schemata. The results showed that EMDR had a positive effect both on emotional cognitive processing and on long-term memory conceptual organization. In the discussion section, interesting remarks are made on the incorporation of emotional cognitive science tools to the EMDR clinical practice.

  11. Schema generation in recurrent neural nets for intercepting a moving target.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, Andreas G

    2010-06-01

    The grasping of a moving object requires the development of a motor strategy to anticipate the trajectory of the target and to compute an optimal course of interception. During the performance of perception-action cycles, a preprogrammed prototypical movement trajectory, a motor schema, may highly reduce the control load. Subjects were asked to hit a target that was moving along a circular path by means of a cursor. Randomized initial target positions and velocities were detected in the periphery of the eyes, resulting in a saccade toward the target. Even when the target disappeared, the eyes followed the target's anticipated course. The Gestalt of the trajectories was dependent on target velocity. The prediction capability of the motor schema was investigated by varying the visibility range of cursor and target. Motor schemata were determined to be of limited precision, and therefore visual feedback was continuously required to intercept the moving target. To intercept a target, the motor schema caused the hand to aim ahead and to adapt to the target trajectory. The control of cursor velocity determined the point of interception. From a modeling point of view, a neural network was developed that allowed the implementation of a motor schema interacting with feedback control in an iterative manner. The neural net of the Wilson type consists of an excitation-diffusion layer allowing the generation of a moving bubble. This activation bubble runs down an eye-centered motor schema and causes a planar arm model to move toward the target. A bubble provides local integration and straightening of the trajectory during repetitive moves. The schema adapts to task demands by learning and serves as forward controller. On the basis of these model considerations the principal problem of embedding motor schemata in generalized control strategies is discussed.

  12. The Distancing-Embracing model of the enjoyment of negative emotions in art reception.

    PubMed

    Menninghaus, Winfried; Wagner, Valentin; Hanich, Julian; Wassiliwizky, Eugen; Jacobsen, Thomas; Koelsch, Stefan

    2017-02-20

    Why are negative emotions so central in art reception far beyond tragedy? Revisiting classical aesthetics in light of recent psychological research, we present a novel model to explain this much-discussed (apparent) paradox. We argue that negative emotions are an important resource for the arts in general rather than a special license for exceptional art forms only. The underlying rationale is that negative emotions have been shown to be particularly powerful in securing attention, intense emotional involvement, and high memorability-and hence precisely in what artworks strive for. Two groups of processing mechanisms are identified that conjointly adopt the particular powers of negative emotions for art's purposes. The first group consists of psychological distancing mechanisms that are activated along with the cognitive schemata of art, representation, and fiction. These schemata imply personal safety and control over continuing or discontinuing exposure to artworks, thereby preventing negative emotions from becoming outright incompatible with expectations of enjoyment. This distancing sets the stage for a second group of processing components that allow art recipients to positively embrace the experiencing of negative emotions, thereby rendering art reception more intense, more interesting, more emotionally moving, more profound, and occasionally even more beautiful. These components include compositional interplays of positive and negative emotions, the effects of aesthetic virtues of using the media of (re)presentation (musical sound, words/language, color, shapes) on emotion perception, and meaning-making efforts. Moreover, our Distancing-Embracing model proposes that concomitant mixed emotions often help to integrate negative emotions into altogether pleasurable trajectories.

  13. A guide to histomorphological evaluation of intestinal inflammation in mouse models.

    PubMed

    Erben, Ulrike; Loddenkemper, Christoph; Doerfel, Katja; Spieckermann, Simone; Haller, Dirk; Heimesaat, Markus M; Zeitz, Martin; Siegmund, Britta; Kühl, Anja A

    2014-01-01

    Histomorphology remains a powerful routine evaluating intestinal inflammation in animal models. Emphasizing the focus of a given animal study, histopathology can overstate differences between established models. We aimed to systematize histopathological evaluation of intestinal inflammation in mouse models facilitating inter-study comparisons. Samples of all parts of the intestinal tract from well-established mouse models of intestinal inflammation were evaluated from hematoxylin/eosin-stained sections and specific observations confirmed by subsequent immunohistochemistry. Three main categories sufficiently reflected the severity of histopathology independent of the localization and the overall extent of an inflammation: (i) quality and dimension of inflammatory cell infiltrates, (ii) epithelial changes and (iii) overall mucosal architecture. Scoring schemata were defined along specified criteria for each of the three categories. The direction of the initial hit proved crucial for the comparability of histological changes. Chemical noxes, infection with intestinal parasites or other models where the barrier was disturbed from outside, the luminal side, showed high levels of similarity and distinct differences to changes in the intestinal balance resulting from inside events like altered cytokine responses or disruption of the immune cell homeostasis. With a high degree of generalisation and maximum scores from 4-8 suitable scoring schemata accounted specific histopathological hallmarks. Truly integrating demands and experiences of gastroenterologists, mouse researchers, microbiologists and pathologists we provide an easy-to-use guideline evaluating histomorphology in mouse models of intestinal inflammation. Standard criteria and definitions facilitate classification and rating of new relevant models, allow comparison in animal studies and transfer of functional findings to comparable histopathologies in human disease.

  14. The nature of advanced reasoning and science instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Anton E.

    Although the development of reasoning is recognized as an important goal of science instruction, its nature remains somewhat of a mystery. This article discusses two key questions: Does formal thought constitute a structured whole? And what role does propositional logic play in advanced reasoning? Aspects of a model of advanced reasoning are presented in which hypothesis generation and testing are viewed as central processes in intellectual development. It is argued that a number of important advanced reasoning schemata are linked by these processes and should be made a part of science instruction designed to improve students' reasoning abilities.Concerning students' development and use of formal reasoning, Linn (1982) calls for research into practical issues such as the roles of task-specific knowledge and individual differences in performance, roles not emphasized by Piaget in his theory and research. From a science teacher's point of view, this is good advice. Accordingly, this article will expand upon some of the issues raised by Linn in a discussion of the nature of advanced reasoning which attempts to reconcile the apparent contradiction between students' differential use of advanced reasoning schemata in varying contexts with the notion of a general stage of formal thought. Two key questions will be discussed: Does formal thought constitute a structured whole? And what role does propositional logic play in advanced reasoning? The underlying assumption of the present discussion is that, among other things, science instruction should concern itself with the improvement of students' reasoning abilities (cf. Arons, 1976; Arons & Karplus, 1976; Bady, 1979; Bauman, 1976; Educational Policies Commission, 1966; Herron, 1978; Karplus, 1979; Kohlberg & Mayer, 1972; Moshman & Thompson, 1981; Lawson, 1979; Levine & linn, 1977; Pallrand, 1977; Renner & Lawson, 1973; Sayre & Ball, 1975; Schneider & Renner, 1980; Wollman, 1978). The questions are of interest because to

  15. A guide to histomorphological evaluation of intestinal inflammation in mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Erben, Ulrike; Loddenkemper, Christoph; Doerfel, Katja; Spieckermann, Simone; Haller, Dirk; Heimesaat, Markus M; Zeitz, Martin; Siegmund, Britta; Kühl, Anja A

    2014-01-01

    Histomorphology remains a powerful routine evaluating intestinal inflammation in animal models. Emphasizing the focus of a given animal study, histopathology can overstate differences between established models. We aimed to systematize histopathological evaluation of intestinal inflammation in mouse models facilitating inter-study comparisons. Samples of all parts of the intestinal tract from well-established mouse models of intestinal inflammation were evaluated from hematoxylin/eosin-stained sections and specific observations confirmed by subsequent immunohistochemistry. Three main categories sufficiently reflected the severity of histopathology independent of the localization and the overall extent of an inflammation: (i) quality and dimension of inflammatory cell infiltrates, (ii) epithelial changes and (iii) overall mucosal architecture. Scoring schemata were defined along specified criteria for each of the three categories. The direction of the initial hit proved crucial for the comparability of histological changes. Chemical noxes, infection with intestinal parasites or other models where the barrier was disturbed from outside, the luminal side, showed high levels of similarity and distinct differences to changes in the intestinal balance resulting from inside events like altered cytokine responses or disruption of the immune cell homeostasis. With a high degree of generalisation and maximum scores from 4-8 suitable scoring schemata accounted specific histopathological hallmarks. Truly integrating demands and experiences of gastroenterologists, mouse researchers, microbiologists and pathologists we provide an easy-to-use guideline evaluating histomorphology in mouse models of intestinal inflammation. Standard criteria and definitions facilitate classification and rating of new relevant models, allow comparison in animal studies and transfer of functional findings to comparable histopathologies in human disease. PMID:25197329

  16. Safety in numbers 4: The relationship between exposure to authentic and didactic environments and nursing students' learning of medication dosage calculation problem solving knowledge and skills.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Keith W; Clochesy, John M; Hutton, B Meriel; Moseley, Laurie

    2013-03-01

    Advancing the art and science of education practice requires a robust evaluation of the relationship between students' exposure to learning and assessment environments and the development of their cognitive competence (knowing that and why) and functional competence (know-how and skills). Healthcare education translation research requires specific education technology assessments and evaluations that consist of quantitative analyses of empirical data and qualitative evaluations of the lived student experience of the education journey and schemata construction (Weeks et al., 2013a). This paper focuses on the outcomes of UK PhD and USA post-doctorate experimental research. We evaluated the relationship between exposure to traditional didactic methods of education, prototypes of an authentic medication dosage calculation problem-solving (MDC-PS) environment and nursing students' construction of conceptual and calculation competence in medication dosage calculation problem-solving skills. Empirical outcomes from both UK and USA programmes of research identified highly significant differences in the construction of conceptual and calculation competence in MDC-PS following exposure to the authentic learning environment to that following exposure to traditional didactic transmission methods of education (p < 0.001). This research highlighted that for many students exposure to authentic learning environments is an essential first step in the development of conceptual and calculation competence and relevant schemata construction (internal representations of the relationship between the features of authentic dosage problems and calculation functions); and how authentic environments more ably support all cognitive (learning) styles in mathematics than traditional didactic methods of education. Functional competence evaluations are addressed in Macdonald et al. (2013) and Weeks et al. (2013e). Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Resistivity Changes Due to Precipitation Effects in Fibre Reinforced Mg-Al-Zn-Mn Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiehn, J.; Kainer, K. U.; Vostrý, P.; Stulíková, I.

    1997-05-01

    The change of electrical properties of alumina short fibre reinforced Mg-Al-Zn-Mn alloy AZ91D during isochronal annealing up to 300 °C is discussed. The Saffil® fibres were incorporated into the magnesium alloy by direct squeeze casting. The fibre distribution is random planar parallel to the flat faces of the dc four-point resistivity specimens machined from the solution treated castings. A sharp drop of resistivity between 140 and 260 °C is explained by the formation of incoherent -phase particles. Some practical recommendations concerning the use of alumina short fibre reinforced AZ91 alloy are made on the basis of the results obtained. Es werden die Änderungen der elektrischen Eigenschaften der aluminiumoxid-kurzfaserverstärkten Mg-Al-Zn-Mn Legierung AZ91D während isochroner Wärmebehandlungen bis 300 °C diskutiert. Das direkte Preßgießverfahren diente zur Herstellung der Saffil®-Faser Magnesium Verbundwerkstoffe. Die Proben zur Widerstandsmessung nach der Vier-Punkt Methode wurden durch spanende Bearbeitung aus den lösungsgeglühten Preßgußstücken herausgearbeitet, so daß sie regellose Faserverteilung in den Ebenen parallel zu den flachen Probenseiten aufwiesen. Ein starker Abfall des elektrischen Widerstands im Temperaturbereich zwischen 140 und 260 °C wird durch die Bildung inkohärenter β-Phase erklärt. Auf Grundlage der Ergebnisse werden einige Empfehlungen zur Anwendung der kurzfaserverstärkten Legierung AZ91 gegeben.

  18. SCEC Community Modeling Environment (SCEC/CME) - Data and Metadata Management Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minster, J.; Faerman, M.; Ely, G.; Maechling, P.; Gupta, A.; Xin, Q.; Kremenek, G.; Shkoller, B.; Olsen, K.; Day, S.; Moore, R.

    2003-12-01

    discipline specific extension schemata. Candidates include the FGDC spatial data standard, the ISO 19115 schema for geographic data, and the Storage Resource Broker authenticity metadata. Other candidates include various metadata schemata used in observational seismology. We are also considering metadata attributes that are being developed within the SCEC community and are specific to the requirements of that community. A comparison of the metadata attributes will be presented, along with their use in the organization of simulation output from a large-scale anelastic wave prediction simulation, The SDSC Storage Resource Broker (SRB) provides the data handling capabilities to manage the Terabyte scale simulation output, providing support for ingestion, organization, description, preservation and access of datasets. The metadata attributes include, in particular, descriptive information about the simulation run, simulation input parameters, the computational infrastructure, the physical geometry of the problem, and output structure.

  19. Onwards facing backwards: the rhetoric of science in nineteenth-century Greece.

    PubMed

    Tampakis, Kostas

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to show how the Greek men of science negotiated a role for their enterprise within the Greek public sphere, from the institution of the modern Greek state in the early 1830s to the first decades of the twentieth century. By focusing on instances where they appeared in public in their official capacity as scientific experts, I describe the rhetorical schemata and the narrative strategies with which Greek science experts engaged the discourses prevalent in nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Greece. In the end, my goal is to show how they were neither zealots of modernization nor neutral actors struggling in isolated wastelands. Rather, they appear as energetic agents who used scientific expertise, national ideals and their privileged cultural positions to construct a rhetoric that would further all three. They engaged eagerly and consistently with emerging political views, scientific subjects and cultural and political events, without presenting themselves, or being seen, as doing anything qualitatively different from their peers abroad. Greek scientists cross-contextualized the scientific enterprise, situating it in the space in which they were active.

  20. Understanding Treatment Response and Resistance in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in the Context of Cognitive Neuropsychological Model.

    PubMed

    Beşiroğlu, Lütfullah

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapies (CBT), antidepressants and neuromodulation techniques are current treatment options used in various stages of treatment procedure for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The factors that disparate treatment options from psychological approaches to invasive surgical techniques in a psychiatric disorder have in common have scarcely been described in the relevant literature. Cognitive neuropsychological model (CNM) as a novel approach offers a common framework in which psychological and neurobiological models of different psychopathologies are reconciled by means of impaired emotional processing. In this paper, an integrated approach of disrupted top-down and bottom-up emotional processing has been described to understand the efficacy of the different treatment modalities for OCD. In this model, the cognitive therapy is proposed to contribute to the gradual breakdown of schemata through the effect on top-down emotional processing instead of acting on information processing biases directly. Antidepressant drugs and behavioral therapy are proposed to alter the brain's emotion processing in a bottom-up process. Resistance to pharmacotherapy and CBT is a common problem in the patients with OCD, and a lot of factors have been described as negative predictors of these treatment options. The severity of symptoms, presence of specific symptoms, poorer insight, high level of dissociation and family accommodation are the factors associated with resistance to both pharmacotherapy and CBT. The underlying reasons establishing an association between the presence of these diverse factors and treatment resistance were discussed in the context of CNM.

  1. Deception and Cognitive Load: Expanding Our Horizon with a Working Memory Model

    PubMed Central

    Sporer, Siegfried L.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, studies on deception and its detection have increased dramatically. Many of these studies rely on the “cognitive load approach” as the sole explanatory principle to understand deception. These studies have been exclusively on lies about negative actions (usually lies of suspects of [mock] crimes). Instead, we need to re-focus more generally on the cognitive processes involved in generating both lies and truths, not just on manipulations of cognitive load. Using Baddeley’s (2000, 2007, 2012) working memory model, which integrates verbal and visual processes in working memory with retrieval from long-term memory and control of action, not only verbal content cues but also nonverbal, paraverbal, and linguistic cues can be investigated within a single framework. The proposed model considers long-term semantic, episodic and autobiographical memory and their connections with working memory and action. It also incorporates ironic processes of mental control (Wegner, 1994, 2009), the role of scripts and schemata and retrieval cues and retrieval processes. Specific predictions of the model are outlined and support from selective studies is presented. The model is applicable to different types of reports, particularly about lies and truths about complex events, and to different modes of production (oral, hand-written, typed). Predictions regarding several moderator variables and methods to investigate them are proposed. PMID:27092090

  2. Proportional reasoning and the linguistic abilities required for hypothetico-deductive reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Anton E.; Lawson, David I.; Lawson, Chester A.

    The hypothesis is advanced that a necessary, though not sufficient, condition for the acquisition of proportional reasoning during adolescence is the prior internalization of key linguistic elements of argumentation, essentially those used in hypothetico-deductive reasoning. This hypothesized internalization, which does not occur in all individuals, results in some who have acquired the ability to reflect upon the correctness of self-generated answers in a hypothetico-deductive manner, and others who have not. As an initial test of the hypothesis, 46 subjects (Ss) (mean age = 21.03 years) were classified into additive, transitional, or proportional reasoning categories based upon responses to a proportions task. Group differences were found in which proportional Ss performed better than transitional Ss who in turn performed better than additive Ss on a number of items testing Ss' abilities to identify, generate, and use the linguistic elements of argumentation. Further it was found that some Ss who were successful on the linguistic items failed the proportions task, but no Ss who were successful on the proportions task failed the linguistic items. This result supports the hypothesis that the internalization of linguistic elements of argumentation is a prerequisite for proportional reasoning and by inference other advanced reasoning schemata as well. Implications for science instruction are drawn.

  3. Anorexia nervosa: selective processing of food-related word and pictorial stimuli in recognition and free recall tests.

    PubMed

    Nikendei, C; Weisbrod, M; Schild, S; Bender, S; Walther, S; Herzog, W; Zipfel, S; Friederich, H C

    2008-07-01

    Maladaptive processing of food cues is considered pivotal in the psychopathology of anorexia nervosa. However, the influence of hunger and differences in processing because of the type of stimuli remain largely unclear. Memory bias for food-related pictorial and semantic stimuli was assessed in a recognition and a free recall test in 16 anorexia nervosa (AN) patients, 16 control participants with food intake prior to the study (CG-FI) and 16 control participants with a fasting period prior to the study (CG-NF). Compared with CG-FI participants, both AN and CG-NF participants responded faster to food-related as compared with neutral words (p < .001) in the recognition test. Differences were found for word but not for pictorial stimuli. No group differences were observed with respect to the number of correct retrievals in either the recognition or the free recall test. The present study found behavioral indications of abnormal processing of food-related and neutral stimuli in anorectic patients similar to those found in fasted healthy controls. Results are discussed in terms of self-schemata in eating disorders, competitive interference, and levels of processing. (c) 2008 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Psychoanalysis and the brain - why did freud abandon neuroscience?

    PubMed

    Northoff, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, was initially a neuroscientist but abandoned neuroscience completely after he made a last attempt to link both in his writing, "Project of a Scientific Psychology," in 1895. The reasons for his subsequent disregard of the brain remain unclear though. I here argue that one central reason may be that the approach to the brain during his time was simply not appealing to Freud. More specifically, Freud was interested in revealing the psychological predispositions of psychodynamic processes. However, he was not so much focused on the actual psychological functions themselves which though were the prime focus of the neuroscience at his time and also in current Cognitive Neuroscience. Instead, he probably would have been more interested in the brain's resting state and its constitution of a spatiotemporal structure. I here assume that the resting state activity constitutes a statistically based virtual structure extending and linking the different discrete points in time and space within the brain. That in turn may serve as template, schemata, or grid for all subsequent neural processing during stimulus-induced activity. As such the resting state' spatiotemporal structure may serve as the neural predisposition of what Freud described as "psychological structure." Hence, Freud and also current neuropsychoanalysis may want to focus more on neural predispositions, the necessary non-sufficient conditions, rather than the neural correlates, i.e., sufficient, conditions of psychodynamic processes.

  5. The Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia enables predictive modelling of anticancer drug sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Barretina, Jordi; Caponigro, Giordano; Stransky, Nicolas; Venkatesan, Kavitha; Margolin, Adam A; Kim, Sungjoon; Wilson, Christopher J; Lehár, Joseph; Kryukov, Gregory V; Sonkin, Dmitriy; Reddy, Anupama; Liu, Manway; Murray, Lauren; Berger, Michael F; Monahan, John E; Morais, Paula; Meltzer, Jodi; Korejwa, Adam; Jané-Valbuena, Judit; Mapa, Felipa A; Thibault, Joseph; Bric-Furlong, Eva; Raman, Pichai; Shipway, Aaron; Engels, Ingo H; Cheng, Jill; Yu, Guoying K; Yu, Jianjun; Aspesi, Peter; de Silva, Melanie; Jagtap, Kalpana; Jones, Michael D; Wang, Li; Hatton, Charles; Palescandolo, Emanuele; Gupta, Supriya; Mahan, Scott; Sougnez, Carrie; Onofrio, Robert C; Liefeld, Ted; MacConaill, Laura; Winckler, Wendy; Reich, Michael; Li, Nanxin; Mesirov, Jill P; Gabriel, Stacey B; Getz, Gad; Ardlie, Kristin; Chan, Vivien; Myer, Vic E; Weber, Barbara L; Porter, Jeff; Warmuth, Markus; Finan, Peter; Harris, Jennifer L; Meyerson, Matthew; Golub, Todd R; Morrissey, Michael P; Sellers, William R; Schlegel, Robert; Garraway, Levi A

    2012-03-28

    The systematic translation of cancer genomic data into knowledge of tumour biology and therapeutic possibilities remains challenging. Such efforts should be greatly aided by robust preclinical model systems that reflect the genomic diversity of human cancers and for which detailed genetic and pharmacological annotation is available. Here we describe the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE): a compilation of gene expression, chromosomal copy number and massively parallel sequencing data from 947 human cancer cell lines. When coupled with pharmacological profiles for 24 anticancer drugs across 479 of the cell lines, this collection allowed identification of genetic, lineage, and gene-expression-based predictors of drug sensitivity. In addition to known predictors, we found that plasma cell lineage correlated with sensitivity to IGF1 receptor inhibitors; AHR expression was associated with MEK inhibitor efficacy in NRAS-mutant lines; and SLFN11 expression predicted sensitivity to topoisomerase inhibitors. Together, our results indicate that large, annotated cell-line collections may help to enable preclinical stratification schemata for anticancer agents. The generation of genetic predictions of drug response in the preclinical setting and their incorporation into cancer clinical trial design could speed the emergence of 'personalized' therapeutic regimens.

  6. The Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia enables predictive modeling of anticancer drug sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Barretina, Jordi; Caponigro, Giordano; Stransky, Nicolas; Venkatesan, Kavitha; Margolin, Adam A.; Kim, Sungjoon; Wilson, Christopher J.; Lehár, Joseph; Kryukov, Gregory V.; Sonkin, Dmitriy; Reddy, Anupama; Liu, Manway; Murray, Lauren; Berger, Michael F.; Monahan, John E.; Morais, Paula; Meltzer, Jodi; Korejwa, Adam; Jané-Valbuena, Judit; Mapa, Felipa A.; Thibault, Joseph; Bric-Furlong, Eva; Raman, Pichai; Shipway, Aaron; Engels, Ingo H.; Cheng, Jill; Yu, Guoying K.; Yu, Jianjun; Aspesi, Peter; de Silva, Melanie; Jagtap, Kalpana; Jones, Michael D.; Wang, Li; Hatton, Charles; Palescandolo, Emanuele; Gupta, Supriya; Mahan, Scott; Sougnez, Carrie; Onofrio, Robert C.; Liefeld, Ted; MacConaill, Laura; Winckler, Wendy; Reich, Michael; Li, Nanxin; Mesirov, Jill P.; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Getz, Gad; Ardlie, Kristin; Chan, Vivien; Myer, Vic E.; Weber, Barbara L.; Porter, Jeff; Warmuth, Markus; Finan, Peter; Harris, Jennifer L.; Meyerson, Matthew; Golub, Todd R.; Morrissey, Michael P.; Sellers, William R.; Schlegel, Robert; Garraway, Levi A.

    2012-01-01

    The systematic translation of cancer genomic data into knowledge of tumor biology and therapeutic avenues remains challenging. Such efforts should be greatly aided by robust preclinical model systems that reflect the genomic diversity of human cancers and for which detailed genetic and pharmacologic annotation is available1. Here we describe the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE): a compilation of gene expression, chromosomal copy number, and massively parallel sequencing data from 947 human cancer cell lines. When coupled with pharmacologic profiles for 24 anticancer drugs across 479 of the lines, this collection allowed identification of genetic, lineage, and gene expression-based predictors of drug sensitivity. In addition to known predictors, we found that plasma cell lineage correlated with sensitivity to IGF1 receptor inhibitors; AHR expression was associated with MEK inhibitor efficacy in NRAS-mutant lines; and SLFN11 expression predicted sensitivity to topoisomerase inhibitors. Altogether, our results suggest that large, annotated cell line collections may help to enable preclinical stratification schemata for anticancer agents. The generation of genetic predictions of drug response in the preclinical setting and their incorporation into cancer clinical trial design could speed the emergence of “personalized” therapeutic regimens2. PMID:22460905

  7. The organization and dissolution of semantic-conceptual knowledge: is the 'amodal hub' the only plausible model?

    PubMed

    Gainotti, Guido

    2011-04-01

    In recent years, the anatomical and functional bases of conceptual activity have attracted a growing interest. In particular, Patterson and Lambon-Ralph have proposed the existence, in the anterior parts of the temporal lobes, of a mechanism (the 'amodal semantic hub') supporting the interactive activation of semantic representations in all modalities and for all semantic categories. The aim of then present paper is to discuss this model, arguing against the notion of an 'amodal' semantic hub, because we maintain, in agreement with the Damasio's construct of 'higher-order convergence zone', that a continuum exists between perceptual information and conceptual representations, whereas the 'amodal' account views perceptual informations only as a channel through which abstract semantic knowledge can be activated. According to our model, semantic organization can be better explained by two orthogonal higher-order convergence systems, concerning, on one hand, the right vs. left hemisphere and, on the other hand, the ventral vs. dorsal processing pathways. This model posits that conceptual representations may be mainly based upon perceptual activities in the right hemisphere and upon verbal mediation in the left side of the brain. It also assumes that conceptual knowledge based on the convergence of highly processed visual information with other perceptual data (and mainly concerning living categories) may be bilaterally represented in the anterior parts of the temporal lobes, whereas knowledge based on the integration of visual data with action schemata (namely knowledge of actions, body parts and artefacts) may be more represented in the left fronto-temporo-parietal areas.

  8. The relation between acquisition of a theory of mind and the capacity to hold in mind.

    PubMed

    Gordon, A C; Olson, D R

    1998-01-01

    Building on earlier work by Pascual-Leone (1970) and Case (1985), Olson (1989; 1993) set out a theory showing how a series of incremental changes in capacity for "holding in mind" could account, in part, for children's acquisition of a theory of mind. Following Piaget (1951) infants were said to employ schemata for maintaining relations with objects and events in the presence of those events. At about 18 months children became capable of holding in mind an object so as to free the perceptual system to perceive a second object and form a relation between the two, allowing for what Piaget called the "symbolic function" and what Olson described as predication. At around 4 years, the period examined in the present study, children were said to acquire the ability to represent that predicative relation as a belief or as true or false. That was the stage at which children were said to possess a theory of mind. The present study tested the hypothesized relation between development of a theory of mind and increasing computational resources. Three-, four-, and five-year-old children's performance on a pair of theory of mind tasks was compared with that on a pair of dual processing tasks designed on the basis of Baddeley's (1986) model of working memory. The resulting correlations, as high as r = .64 between the tasks, suggest that changes in capacity to hold in mind allow the expression of, and arguably the formation of, a theory of mind.

  9. Preface to QoIS 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comyn-Wattiau, Isabelle; Thalheim, Bernhard

    Quality assurance is a growing research domain within the Information Systems (IS) and Conceptual Modeling (CM) disciplines. Ongoing research on quality in IS and CM is highly diverse and encompasses theoretical aspects including quality definition and quality models, and practical/empirical aspects such as the development of methods, approaches and tools for quality measurement and improvement. Current research on quality also includes quality characteristics definitions, validation instruments, methodological and development approaches to quality assurance during software and information systems development, quality monitors, quality assurance during information systems development processes and practices, quality assurance both for data and (meta)schemata, quality support for information systems data import and export, quality of query answering, and cost/benefit analysis of quality assurance processes. Quality assurance is also depending on the application area and the specific requirements in applications such as health sector, logistics, public sector, financial sector, manufacturing, services, e-commerce, software, etc. Furthermore, quality assurance must also be supported for data aggregation, ETL processes, web content management and other multi-layered applications. Quality assurance is typically requiring resources and has therefore beside its benefits a computational and economical trade-off. It is therefore also based on compromising between the value of quality data and the cost for quality assurance.

  10. Introductory Remarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavroglu, Kostas

    Practitioners of many (sub)-disciplines in the sciences are, at times, confronted with an apparent bliss which often turns into a nightmare: they are stuck with too good and too fertile a theory. 'Normal' science is surely a rewarding practice-but for that very reason it may, at times, also become boring. Theories or theoretical schemata may make successful predictions, may clarify 'mechanisms', they may show the way to further developments, and they may be amenable to non-controversial approximations. If one is really lucky, they may even-at least in principle-be able to answer all questions. There have-especially in the history of physics-been many such theories. Laplacian physics, ether physics and superstrings have historically defined the frameworks for such utopias where everything could be answerable, at least in principle. But one is truly at a loss when one is confronted with this in principle. In principle but not in practice? In principle but never? Confronted with the deadlocks that are implicit in such utopias, scientists started to collectively display a Procrustean psychopathology. They would prepare the beds and, yet, the theories would manage to trick the tricksters: almost all theories appeared to be fitting to any Procrustean bed. They were short and tall and normal at the same time.

  11. Implicit motives and cognitive variables: specific links to vulnerability for unipolar or bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Fuhr, Kristina; Hautzinger, Martin; Meyer, Thomas Daniel

    2014-01-30

    Cognitive variables contribute to the etiology of affective disorders. With the differentiation between explicit and implicit measures some studies have indicated underlying depressogenic schemata even in bipolar disorders. We tested for differences in implicit motives and cognitive variables between patients with remitted unipolar and bipolar disorder compared to controls and in a high-risk sample. Additionally we investigated whether affective symptoms relate to those variables. We cross-sectionally examined N=164 participants (53 with bipolar disorder, 58 with major depression, and 53 without affective disorders) and a high-risk sample (N=49) of adolescent children of either parents with unipolar or bipolar disorder or of healthy parents. The Multi-Motive-Grid was used to measure the implicit motives achievement, affiliation, and power, in addition to the cognitive measures of self-esteem, dysfunctional attitudes, and perfectionism. Unipolar and bipolar groups did not differ from healthy controls in implicit motives but showed higher scores in the cognitive factors. Adolescents at high risk for unipolar disorder showed lower scores in the power and achievement motives compared to adolescents at low risk. Subsyndromal depressive symptoms were related to the cognitive variables in both samples. Our results underline the importance of cognitive-behavioral treatment for both unipolar and bipolar disorder. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. Auditory feedback in music performance: the role of transition-based similarity.

    PubMed

    Pfordresher, Peter Q

    2008-06-01

    Past research has suggested that the disruptive effect of altered auditory feedback depends on how structurally similar the sequence of feedback events is to the planned sequence of actions. Three experiments pursued one basis for similarity in musical keyboard performance: matches between sequential transitions in spatial targets for movements and the melodic contour of auditory feedback. Trained pianists and musically untrained persons produced simple tonal melodies on a keyboard while hearing feedback sequences that either matched the planned melody or were contour-preserving variations of that melody. Sequence production was disrupted among pianists when feedback events were serially shifted by one event, similarly for shifts of planned melodies and tonal variations but less so for shifts of atonal variations. Nonpianists were less likely to be disrupted by serial shifts of variations but showed similar disruption to pianists for shifts of the planned melody. Thus, transitional properties and tonal schemata may jointly determine perception-action similarity during musical sequence production, and the tendency to generalize from a planned sequence to variations of it may develop with the acquisition of skill.

  13. On the organization of the perisylvian cortex: Insights from the electrophysiology of language. Comment on "Towards a Computational Comparative Neuroprimatology: Framing the language-ready brain" by M.A. Arbib

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouwer, Harm; Crocker, Matthew W.

    2016-03-01

    The Mirror System Hypothesis (MSH) on the evolution of the language-ready brain draws upon the parallel dorsal-ventral stream architecture for vision [1]. The dorsal ;how; stream provides a mapping of parietally-mediated affordances onto the motor system (supporting preshape), whereas the ventral ;what; stream engages in object recognition and visual scene analysis (supporting pantomime and verbal description). Arbib attempts to integrate this MSH perspective with a recent conceptual dorsal-ventral stream model of auditory language comprehension [5] (henceforth, the B&S model). In the B&S model, the dorsal stream engages in time-dependent combinatorial processing, which subserves syntactic structuring and linkage to action, whereas the ventral stream performs time-independent unification of conceptual schemata. These streams are integrated in the left Inferior Frontal Gyrus (lIFG), which is assumed to subserve cognitive control, and no linguistic processing functions. Arbib criticizes the B&S model on two grounds: (i) the time-independence of the semantic processing in the ventral stream (by arguing that semantic processing is just as time-dependent as syntactic processing), and (ii) the absence of linguistic processing in the lIFG (reconciling syntactic and semantic representations is very much linguistic processing proper). Here, we provide further support for these two points of criticism on the basis of insights from the electrophysiology of language. In the course of our argument, we also sketch the contours of an alternative model that may prove better suited for integration with the MSH.

  14. Problem-solving analysis: A piagetian study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hale, James P.

    Fifty-nine second-year medical students were asked to solve 12 Piagetian formal operational tasks. The purpose was to describe the formal logical characteristics of this medical student sample (59 of a total 65 possible) in terms of their abilities to solve problems in four formal logical schemata-combinatorial logic, probabilistic reasoning, propositional logic, and proportional reasoning. These tasks were presented as videotape demonstrations or in written form, depending on whether or not equipment manipulation was required, and were scored using conventional, prespecified scoring criteria. The results of this study show approximately 96% of the sample function at the transitional (Piaget's 3A level) stage of formal operations on all tasks and approximately 4% function at the full formal (Piaget's 3B level) stage of formal operations on all tasks. This sample demonstrates formal level thinking to a much greater degree than other samples reported in the literature to date and suggests these students are adequately prepared and developed to meet the challenge of their training (i.e., medical problem solving).

  15. "I can see clearly now": the effect of cue imageability on mental time travel.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Katrine W; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2014-10-01

    Mental time travel (MTT) is the ability to mentally project oneself backward or forward in time, in order to remember an event from one's personal past or to imagine a possible event in one's personal future. Recent work has suggested that, although past and future MTT may rely on shared neurocognitive substrates, the two temporal directions may interact differently with components of this underlying system. Here, we asked 151 participants to recall or imagine past and future autobiographical events in response to high- and low-imageable cue words. The results showed that high- and low-imageable cued events differed markedly on almost all measures, suggesting that imagery acts as a facilitator when constructing both past and possible future events. In line with previous work, future events less often referred to specific events, contained fewer details, and were more positive and idyllic than past events. However, these main effects were qualified by a number of interactions. In particular, we found an increased effect of cue imageability for past as compared to future events, suggesting that the generation of past events is more sensitive to the ability of the cues to invoke the sensory components of the encoding context, whereas the construction of future events is more driven by context-independent schemata.

  16. Time-reversal and Bayesian inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debski, Wojciech

    2017-04-01

    Probabilistic inversion technique is superior to the classical optimization-based approach in all but one aspects. It requires quite exhaustive computations which prohibit its use in huge size inverse problems like global seismic tomography or waveform inversion to name a few. The advantages of the approach are, however, so appealing that there is an ongoing continuous afford to make the large inverse task as mentioned above manageable with the probabilistic inverse approach. One of the perspective possibility to achieve this goal relays on exploring the internal symmetry of the seismological modeling problems in hand - a time reversal and reciprocity invariance. This two basic properties of the elastic wave equation when incorporating into the probabilistic inversion schemata open a new horizons for Bayesian inversion. In this presentation we discuss the time reversal symmetry property, its mathematical aspects and propose how to combine it with the probabilistic inverse theory into a compact, fast inversion algorithm. We illustrate the proposed idea with the newly developed location algorithm TRMLOC and discuss its efficiency when applied to mining induced seismic data.

  17. Post-event processing in social anxiety disorder after real-life social situations - An ambulatory assessment study.

    PubMed

    Helbig-Lang, Sylvia; von Auer, Maxie; Neubauer, Karolin; Murray, Eileen; Gerlach, Alexander L

    2016-09-01

    Excessive post-mortem processing after social situations, a core symptom of social anxiety disorder (SAD), is thought to contribute to the perpetuation of social anxiety by consolidating negative self-schemata. Empirical findings on actual mechanisms underlying this so-called Post-Event Processing (PEP) are still scarce. The present study sought to identify variables associated with the experience of PEP after real-life social situations in a sample of 49 individuals diagnosed with SAD. Using an ambulatory assessment approach, individuals were asked to report on each distressing social event experienced during one week. A total of 192 events were captured. Hierarchical linear modeling indicated that next to trait social anxiety, the type of social situation (performance vs. interaction situations), self-focused attention, safety behavior use, and negative affect predicted levels of PEP after social situations. These findings add to the growing literature that emphasizes the importance of situational factors for the experience of PEP, and highlight potential venues to prevent it. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Selective Visual Attention during Mirror Exposure in Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna; Bender, Caroline; Caffier, Detlef; Klenner, Katharina; Braks, Karsten; Svaldi, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Objective Cognitive theories suggest that body dissatisfaction results from the activation of maladaptive appearance schemata, which guide mental processes such as selective attention to shape and weight-related information. In line with this, the present study hypothesized that patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are characterized by increased visual attention for the most dissatisfying/ugly body part compared to their most satisfying/beautiful body part, while a more balanced viewing pattern was expected for controls without eating disorders (CG). Method Eye movements were recorded in a group of patients with AN (n = 16), BN (n = 16) and a CG (n = 16) in an ecologically valid setting, i.e., during a 3-min mirror exposure. Results Evidence was found that patients with AN and BN display longer and more frequent gazes towards the most dissatisfying relative to the most satisfying and towards their most ugly compared to their most beautiful body parts, whereas the CG showed a more balanced gaze pattern. Discussion The results converge with theoretical models that emphasize the role of information processing in the maintenance of body dissatisfaction. Given the etiological importance of body dissatisfaction in the development of eating disorders, future studies should focus on the modification of the reported patterns. PMID:26714279

  19. Computing human image annotation.

    PubMed

    Channin, David S; Mongkolwat, Pattanasak; Kleper, Vladimir; Rubin, Daniel L

    2009-01-01

    An image annotation is the explanatory or descriptive information about the pixel data of an image that is generated by a human (or machine) observer. An image markup is the graphical symbols placed over the image to depict an annotation. In the majority of current, clinical and research imaging practice, markup is captured in proprietary formats and annotations are referenced only in free text radiology reports. This makes these annotations difficult to query, retrieve and compute upon, hampering their integration into other data mining and analysis efforts. This paper describes the National Cancer Institute's Cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid's (caBIG) Annotation and Image Markup (AIM) project, focusing on how to use AIM to query for annotations. The AIM project delivers an information model for image annotation and markup. The model uses controlled terminologies for important concepts. All of the classes and attributes of the model have been harmonized with the other models and common data elements in use at the National Cancer Institute. The project also delivers XML schemata necessary to instantiate AIMs in XML as well as a software application for translating AIM XML into DICOM S/R and HL7 CDA. Large collections of AIM annotations can be built and then queried as Grid or Web services. Using the tools of the AIM project, image annotations and their markup can be captured and stored in human and machine readable formats. This enables the inclusion of human image observation and inference as part of larger data mining and analysis activities.

  20. Business Process Modelling is an Essential Part of a Requirements Analysis. Contribution of EFMI Primary Care Working Group.

    PubMed

    de Lusignan, S; Krause, P; Michalakidis, G; Vicente, M Tristan; Thompson, S; McGilchrist, M; Sullivan, F; van Royen, P; Agreus, L; Desombre, T; Taweel, A; Delaney, B

    2012-01-01

    To perform a requirements analysis of the barriers to conducting research linking of primary care, genetic and cancer data. We extended our initial data-centric approach to include socio-cultural and business requirements. We created reference models of core data requirements common to most studies using unified modelling language (UML), dataflow diagrams (DFD) and business process modelling notation (BPMN). We conducted a stakeholder analysis and constructed DFD and UML diagrams for use cases based on simulated research studies. We used research output as a sensitivity analysis. Differences between the reference model and use cases identified study specific data requirements. The stakeholder analysis identified: tensions, changes in specification, some indifference from data providers and enthusiastic informaticians urging inclusion of socio-cultural context. We identified requirements to collect information at three levels: micro- data items, which need to be semantically interoperable, meso- the medical record and data extraction, and macro- the health system and socio-cultural issues. BPMN clarified complex business requirements among data providers and vendors; and additional geographical requirements for patients to be represented in both linked datasets. High quality research output was the norm for most repositories. Reference models provide high-level schemata of the core data requirements. However, business requirements' modelling identifies stakeholder issues and identifies what needs to be addressed to enable participation.

  1. Estimations of object frequency are frequently overestimated.

    PubMed

    Greene, Michelle R

    2016-04-01

    Real-world scenes are complex but lawful: blenders are more likely to be found in kitchens than beaches, and elephants are not generally found inside homes. Research over the past 40years has demonstrated that contextual associations influence object recognition, change eye movement distributions, and modulate brain activity. However, the majority of these studies choose object-scene pairs from experimenters' intuitions because the statistical relationships between objects and scenes had yet to be systematically quantified. How do intuitive estimations compare to actual object frequencies? Across six experiments, observers estimated the frequency with which an object is found in a particular environment, such as the frequency of "mug" in an office. Estimated frequencies were compared to observed frequencies in two fully labeled scene databases (Greene, 2013). Although inter-observer similarity was high, observers systematically overestimated object frequency by an average of 32% across experiments. Altogether, these results speak to the richness of scene schemata and to the necessity of measuring object frequencies.

  2. A mathematical framework for forcing turbulence applied to horizontally homogeneous stratified flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, K. J.; de Bruyn Kops, S. M.

    2011-06-01

    It is often desirable to study turbulent flows at steady state even if the flow has no inherent source of turbulence kinetic energy. Doing so requires a forcing schema, and various methods applicable to laboratory experiments or numerical simulations have been studied extensively for turbulence that is isotropic and homogeneous in three dimensions. A review of existing schemata for simulations is used to form a framework for more general forcing methods. In this framework, the problem of developing a forcing method is abstracted into the two problems of (1) prescribing the spectrum of the input power and (2) specifying a force that has the desired characteristics and that adds energy to the flow with the correct spectrum. The framework is used to construct three forcing methods for simulating horizontally homogeneous and isotropic, vertically stratified turbulence. They are implemented in a pseudo-spectral large-eddy simulations and their characteristics are analyzed. The framework is then used to characterize existing laboratory experiments. While no exact analogy can be drawn between forcing in esoteric pseudo-spectral simulations and forcing in physical experiments, there are many similarities. It is suggested that the forcing framework can be applied to predict and systematically test the effects of configuration choices made in the design of simulations and laboratory experiments.

  3. Living in history and living by the cultural life script: How older Germans date their autobiographical memories.

    PubMed

    Bohn, Annette; Habermas, Tilmann

    2016-01-01

    This study examines predictions from two theories on the organisation of autobiographical memory: Cultural Life Script Theory which conceptualises the organisation of autobiographical memory by cultural schemata, and Transition Theory which proposes that people organise their memories in relation to personal events that changed the fabric of their daily lives, or in relation to negative collective public transitions, called the Living-in-History effect. Predictions from both theories were tested in forty-eight-old Germans from Berlin and Northern Germany. We tested whether the Living-in-History effect exists for both negative (the Second World War) and positive (Fall of Berlin Wall) collectively experienced events, and whether cultural life script events serve as a prominent strategy to date personal memories. Results showed a powerful, long-lasting Living-in History effect for the negative, but not the positive event. Berlin participants dated 26% of their memories in relation to the Second World War. Supporting cultural life script theory, life script events were frequently used to date personal memories. This provides evidence that people use a combination of culturally transmitted knowledge and knowledge based on personal experience to navigate through their autobiographical memories, and that experiencing war has a lasting impact on the organisation of autobiographical memories across the life span.

  4. Endogenizing geopolitical boundaries with agent-based modeling

    PubMed Central

    Cederman, Lars-Erik

    2002-01-01

    Agent-based modeling promises to overcome the reification of actors. Whereas this common, but limiting, assumption makes a lot of sense during periods characterized by stable actor boundaries, other historical junctures, such as the end of the Cold War, exhibit far-reaching and swift transformations of actors' spatial and organizational existence. Moreover, because actors cannot be assumed to remain constant in the long run, analysis of macrohistorical processes virtually always requires “sociational” endogenization. This paper presents a series of computational models, implemented with the software package REPAST, which trace complex macrohistorical transformations of actors be they hierarchically organized as relational networks or as collections of symbolic categories. With respect to the former, dynamic networks featuring emergent compound actors with agent compartments represented in a spatial grid capture organizational domination of the territorial state. In addition, models of “tagged” social processes allows the analyst to show how democratic states predicate their behavior on categorical traits. Finally, categorical schemata that select out politically relevant cultural traits in ethnic landscapes formalize a constructivist notion of national identity in conformance with the qualitative literature on nationalism. This “finite-agent method”, representing both states and nations as higher-level structures superimposed on a lower-level grid of primitive agents or cultural traits, avoids reification of agency. Furthermore, it opens the door to explicit analysis of entity processes, such as the integration and disintegration of actors as well as boundary transformations. PMID:12011409

  5. Demand-driven interpretation of FP programs on a data-flow multiprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Y.H.; Gaudiot, J.L.

    1988-08-01

    The functional programming language approach has been proposed as a solution to the programmability of large scale multiprocessor systems. This paper presents a demand-driven evaluation system for the list-structure language, Backus' FP systems. It enables execution in a data-driven environment. A formal approach for transforming FP programs into lazy programs, which contains the notion of demands, is used. The superset language of FP is called DFP (demand-driven FP). The DFP lazy programs are shown to have the property of always evaluating a sufficient and necessary result. A demand reduction scheme is used to remove unnecessary demand propagations on DFP programs to reduce run-time overhead. The DFP programs are translated into data-flow graphs according to the graph schemata developed from the FP-DFP transformation rules. The execution characteristics of the DFP graphs are identified and the architecture supports for efficient execution are suggested. Due to the laziness and the least evaluation property of transformed DFP programs, the system allows programming in FP with infinite data structures and the application of partial-functional-value evaluation. Examples of these applications including an infinite sequence generation and a fast Fourier transform are used to demonstrate the transformation process, the principles of run-time interpretation, the effectiveness of the transformation, and the power of the lazy evaluation system.

  6. Safety in numbers 3: Authenticity, Building knowledge & skills and Competency development & assessment: the ABC of safe medication dosage calculation problem-solving pedagogy.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Keith W; Meriel Hutton, B; Coben, Diana; Clochesy, John M; Pontin, David

    2013-03-01

    When designing learning and assessment environments it is essential to articulate the underpinning education philosophy, theory, model and learning style support mechanisms that inform their structure and content. We elaborate on original PhD research that articulates the design rationale of authentic medication dosage calculation problem-solving (MDC-PS) learning and diagnostic assessment environments. These environments embody the principles of authenticity, building knowledge and skills and competency assessment and are designed to support development of competence and bridging of the theory-practice gap. Authentic learning and diagnostic assessment environments capture the features and expert practices that are located in real world practice cultures and recreate them in authentic virtual clinical environments. We explore how this provides students with a safe virtual authentic environment to actively experience, practice and undertake MDC-PS learning and assessment activities. We argue that this is integral to the construction and diagnostic assessment of schemata validity (mental constructions and frameworks that are an individual's internal representation of their world), bridging of the theory-practice gap and cognitive and functional competence development. We illustrate these principles through the underpinning pedagogical design of two online virtual authentic learning and diagnostic assessment environments (safeMedicate and eDose™). Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. The Asgaard project: a task-specific framework for the application and critiquing of time-oriented clinical guidelines.

    PubMed

    Shahar, Y; Miksch, S; Johnson, P

    1998-01-01

    Clinical guidelines can be viewed as generic skeletal-plan schemata that represent clinical procedural knowledge and that are instantiated and refined dynamically by care providers over significant time periods. In the Asgaard project, we are investigating a set of tasks that support the application of clinical guidelines by a care provider other than the guideline's designer. We are focusing on the application of the guideline, recognition of care providers' intentions from their actions, and critique of care providers' actions given the guideline and the patient's medical record. We are developing methods that perform these tasks in multiple clinical domains, given an instance of a properly represented clinical guideline and an electronic medical patient record. In this paper, we point out the precise domain-specific knowledge required by each method, such as the explicit intentions of the guideline designer (represented as temporal patterns to be achieved or avoided). We present a machine-readable language, called Asbru, to represent and to annotate guidelines based on the task-specific ontology. We also introduce an automated tool for the acquisition of clinical guidelines based on the same ontology, developed using the PROTEGE-II framework.

  8. Integrating Beck's cognitive model and the response style theory in an adolescent sample.

    PubMed

    Winkeljohn Black, Stephanie; Pössel, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Depression becomes more prevalent as individuals progress from childhood to adulthood. Thus, empirically supported and popular cognitive vulnerability theories to explain depression in adulthood have begun to be tested in younger age groups, particularly adolescence, a time of significant cognitive development. Beck's cognitive theory and the response style theory are well known, empirically supported theories of depression. The current, two-wave longitudinal study (N = 462; mean age = 16.01 years; SD = 0.69; 63.9% female) tested various proposed integrative models of Beck's cognitive theory and the response style theory, as well as the original theories themselves, to determine if and how these cognitive vulnerabilities begin to intertwine in adolescence. Of the integrative models tested-all with structural equation modeling in AMOS 21-the best-fitting integrative model was a moderation model wherein schemata influenced rumination, and rumination then influenced other cognitive variables in Beck's model. Findings revealed that this integrated model fit the data better than the response style theory and explained 1.2% more variance in depressive symptoms. Additionally, multigroup analyses comparing the fit of the best-fitting integrated model across adolescents with clinical and subclinical depressive symptoms revealed that the model was not stable between these two subsamples. However, of the hypotheses relevant to the integrative model, only 1 of the 18 associations was significantly different between the clinical and subclinical samples. Regardless, the integrated model was not superior to the more parsimonious model from Beck's cognitive theory. Implications and limitations are discussed.

  9. Violent video games: The effects of narrative context and reward structure on in-game and postgame aggression.

    PubMed

    Sauer, James D; Drummond, Aaron; Nova, Natalie

    2015-09-01

    The potential influence of video game violence on real-world aggression has generated considerable public and scientific interest. Some previous research suggests that playing violent video games can increase postgame aggression. The generalized aggression model (GAM) attributes this to the generalized activation of aggressive schemata. However, it is unclear whether game mechanics that contextualize and encourage or inhibit in-game violence moderate this relationship. Thus, we examined the effects of reward structures and narrative context in a violent video game on in-game and postgame aggression. Contrary to GAM-based predictions, our manipulations differentially affected in-game and postgame aggression. Reward structures selectively affected in-game aggression, whereas narrative context selectively affected postgame aggression. Players who enacted in-game violence through a heroic character exhibited less postgame aggression than players who enacted comparable levels of in-game violence through an antiheroic character. Effects were not attributable to self-activation or character-identification mechanisms, but were consistent with social-cognitive context effects on the interpretation of behavior. These results contradict the GAM's assertion that violent video games affect aggression through a generalized activation mechanism. From an applied perspective, consumer choices may be aided by considering not just game content, but the context in which content is portrayed.

  10. An architecture for linking medical decision-support applications to clinical databases and its evaluation.

    PubMed

    German, Efrat; Leibowitz, Akiva; Shahar, Yuval

    2009-04-01

    We describe and evaluate a framework, the Medical Database Adaptor (MEIDA), for linking knowledge-based medical decision-support systems (MDSSs) to multiple clinical databases, using standard medical schemata and vocabularies. Our solution involves a set of tools for embedding standard terms and units within knowledge bases (KBs) of MDSSs; a set of methods and tools for mapping the local database (DB) schema and the terms and units relevant to the KB of the MDSS into standardized schema, terms and units, using three heuristics (choice of a vocabulary, choice of a key term, and choice of a measurement unit); and a set of tools which, at runtime, automatically map standard term queries originating from the KB, to queries formulated using the local DB's schema, terms and units. The methodology was successfully evaluated by mapping three KBs to three DBs. Using a unit-domain matching heuristic reduced the number of term-mapping candidates by a mean of 71% even after other heuristics were used. Runtime access of 10,000 records required one second. We conclude that mapping MDSSs to different local clinical DBs, using the three-phase methodology and several term-mapping heuristics, is both feasible and efficient.

  11. Shared knowledge or shared affordances? Insights from an ecological dynamics approach to team coordination in sports.

    PubMed

    Silva, Pedro; Garganta, Júlio; Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith; Aguiar, Paulo

    2013-09-01

    Previous research has proposed that team coordination is based on shared knowledge of the performance context, responsible for linking teammates' mental representations for collective, internalized action solutions. However, this representational approach raises many questions including: how do individual schemata of team members become reformulated together? How much time does it take for this collective cognitive process to occur? How do different cues perceived by different individuals sustain a general shared mental representation? This representational approach is challenged by an ecological dynamics perspective of shared knowledge in team coordination. We argue that the traditional shared knowledge assumption is predicated on 'knowledge about' the environment, which can be used to share knowledge and influence intentions of others prior to competition. Rather, during competitive performance, the control of action by perceiving surrounding informational constraints is expressed in 'knowledge of' the environment. This crucial distinction emphasizes perception of shared affordances (for others and of others) as the main communication channel between team members during team coordination tasks. From this perspective, the emergence of coordinated behaviours in sports teams is based on the formation of interpersonal synergies between players resulting from collective actions predicated on shared affordances.

  12. Emotion generation and regulation in anorexia nervosa: a systematic review and meta-analysis of self-report data.

    PubMed

    Oldershaw, Anna; Lavender, Tony; Sallis, Hannah; Stahl, Daniel; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2015-07-01

    This systematic review sought to examine the generation and regulation of emotion in people with Anorexia Nervosa (AN). Key databases (Medline, Embase, PsychINFO and Web of Science) were searched for peer-reviewed articles published by March 2015 yielding 131 studies relevant to emotion generation and emotion regulation (ER) processes as defined by Gross (1998). Meta-analyses determined pooled group differences between AN and healthy control (HC) groups. More maladaptive schemata were reported by people with AN than HCs, with largest pooled effects for defectiveness/shame (d=2.81), subjugation (d=1.59) and social isolation (d=1.66). Poorer awareness of and clarity over emotion generated and some elevated emotionality (disgust and shame) were reported. A greater use of 'maladaptive' ER strategies was reported by people with AN than HCs, alongside less use of 'adaptive' strategies. Pooled differences of particularly large effect were observed for: experiential avoidance (d=1.00), negative problem-solving style (d=1.06), external/social comparison (d=1.25), submissiveness (d=1.16), attention concentration (worry/rumination; d=1.44) and emotion suppression (d=1.15), particularly to avoid conflict (d=1.54). These data support the notion that emotion regulation difficulties are a factor in AN and support use of associated cognitive-affective models. The implications of these findings for further understanding AN, and developing models and related psychological interventions are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Selective Visual Attention during Mirror Exposure in Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa.

    PubMed

    Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna; Bender, Caroline; Caffier, Detlef; Klenner, Katharina; Braks, Karsten; Svaldi, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive theories suggest that body dissatisfaction results from the activation of maladaptive appearance schemata, which guide mental processes such as selective attention to shape and weight-related information. In line with this, the present study hypothesized that patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are characterized by increased visual attention for the most dissatisfying/ugly body part compared to their most satisfying/beautiful body part, while a more balanced viewing pattern was expected for controls without eating disorders (CG). Eye movements were recorded in a group of patients with AN (n = 16), BN (n = 16) and a CG (n = 16) in an ecologically valid setting, i.e., during a 3-min mirror exposure. Evidence was found that patients with AN and BN display longer and more frequent gazes towards the most dissatisfying relative to the most satisfying and towards their most ugly compared to their most beautiful body parts, whereas the CG showed a more balanced gaze pattern. The results converge with theoretical models that emphasize the role of information processing in the maintenance of body dissatisfaction. Given the etiological importance of body dissatisfaction in the development of eating disorders, future studies should focus on the modification of the reported patterns.

  14. Discourse about menopause in selected print media.

    PubMed

    Shoebridge, A; Steed, L

    1999-10-01

    In Western societies, menopause has negative connotations with variable effects for women at midlife. To assess the power of the stereotype, selected popular print media were surveyed for their depiction of menopause. Ten years' output of two daily newspapers and four women's magazines was surveyed for menopause-related copy. Both content and discourse analyses were applied to quantify retrieved copy (using SPSS) and identify dominant discourse (using NUD.IST). A database of 302 items was analysed. No consistency in reporting trends was found although there were thematic peaks for 'menopause' in the late 1980s and 'hormone replacement therapy' three years later. With few exceptions, discourse about menopause drew on and reinforced schemata of ill-health, psychological disturbance, vulnerability, decrepitude, biological determinism and disease management. The limited discourse about menopause in the surveyed media was characterised by strong themes of illness, medical management and fear. A general perception that menopause affects women's health and competence from midlife was reflected by this public discourse. Public health awareness that menopause is not synonymous with dysfunction will contribute to a paradigmatic shift in public discourse that affords value to all of women's lifespan, not just the procreative.

  15. The metaphor-gestalt synergy underlying the self-organisation of perception as a semiotic process.

    PubMed

    Rail, David

    2013-04-01

    Recently the basis of concept and language formation has been redefined by the proposal that they both stem from perception and embodiment. The experiential revolution has lead to a far more integrated and dynamic understanding of perception as a semiotic system. The emergence of meaning in the perceptual process stems from the interaction between two key mechanisms. These are first, the generation of schemata through recurrent sensorimotor activity (SM) that underlies category and language formation (L). The second is the interaction between metaphor (M) and gestalt mechanisms (G) that generate invariant mappings beyond the SM domain that both conserve and diversify our understanding and meaning potential. We propose an important advance in our understanding of perception as a semiotic system through exploring the affect of self-organising to criticality where hierarchical behaviour becomes widely integrated through 1/f process and isomorphisms. Our proposal leads to several important implications. First, that SM and L form a functional isomorphism depicted as SM <=> L. We contend that SM <=> L is emergent, corresponding to the phenomenal self. Second, meaning structures the isomorphism SM <=>L through the synergy between M and G (M-G). M-G synergy is based on a combination of structuring and imagination. We contend that the interaction between M-G and SM <=> L functions as a macro-micro comutation that governs perception as semiosis. We discuss how our model relates to current research in fractal time and verb formation.

  16. Geometric transformations for video compression and human teleoperator display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juday, Richard D.; Fisher, Timothy E.

    1989-01-01

    A method for bandwidth-efficient processing of video imagery to be viewed by the teleoperator of a remotely-operated vehicle on which the camera is mounted is described. The method comprises image coding, transmission, and reconstruction. It is assumed that the transmission bandpass is the limiting factor rather than encoding/decoding schemata; that image coding and reconstruction will be done within the general abilities of the NASA/TI Programmable Remapper; and that the ratio of retained local detail to the operator's visual resolution is held constant throughout the large-field image that is seen. Novel features include that the compression and reconstruction address certain characteristics of the human visual system, that two-way communication controls a moving 'fovea' in the transformation, and that resolution varies over the image. Conventional motivations accommodated include the Cartesian raster-scan nature of available imagers and display devices and a need for low bandwidth in the image transmission. Unique image processing hardware, NASA's Programmable Remapper, allows demonstration of the method. Once refined, the technology could be adapted to special purpose imagers and display devices, or otherwise to dedicated image processing hardware.

  17. Utilizing temporal data abstraction for data validation and therapy planning for artificially ventilated newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Miksch, S; Horn, W; Popow, C; Paky, F

    1996-11-01

    Medical diagnosis and therapy planning at modern intensive care units (ICUs) have been refined by the technical improvement of their equipment. However, the bulk of continuous data arising from complex monitoring systems in combination with discontinuously assessed numerical and qualitative data creates a rising information management problem at neonatal ICUs (NICUs). We developed methods for data validation and therapy planning which incorporate knowledge about point and interval data, as well as expected qualitative trend descriptions to arrive at unified qualitative descriptions of parameters (temporal data abstraction). Our methods are based on schemata for data-point transformation and curve fitting which express the dynamics of and the reactions to different degrees of parameters' abnormalities as well as on smoothing and adjustment mechanisms to keep the qualitative descriptions stable. We show their applicability in detecting anomalous system behavior early, in recommending therapeutic actions, and in assessing the effectiveness of these actions within a certain period. We implemented our methods in VIE-VENT, an open-loop knowledge-based monitoring and therapy planning system for artificially ventilated newborn infants. The applicability and usefulness of our approach are illustrated by examples of VIE-VENT. Finally, we present our first experiences with using VIE-VENT in a real clinical setting.

  18. Desire thinking: what is it and what drives it?

    PubMed

    Caselli, Gabriele; Spada, Marcantonio M

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the construct of desire thinking and test a metacognitive model of desire thinking and craving, based on the work of Spada, Caselli and Wells (2012; 2013), which aims to explain the perseveration of desire thinking. We conducted two studies involving four clinical samples (total N = 493) and a community sample (N = 494) presenting with different addictive behaviors. The relationships among variables were examined by testing the fit of path models within each sample. In the model presented it was proposed that positive metacognitions about desire thinking are associated with, in turn, imaginal prefiguration and verbal perseveration, marking the activation of desire thinking. Verbal perseveration is then associated to negative metacognitions about desire thinking and craving denoting the pathological escalation of desire thinking. Finally, a direct association between positive metacognitions about desire thinking and negative metacognitions about desire thinking would mark those occasions where target-achieving behaviour runs as an automatized schemata without the experience of craving. Results indicated a good model fit in the clinical sample and a variation in the model structure in the community sample. These findings provide further support for the application of metacognitive theory to desire thinking and craving in addictive behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Three key regions for supervisory attentional control: Evidence from neuroimaging meta-analyses

    PubMed Central

    Cieslik, Edna C.; Mueller, Veronika I.; Eickhoff, Claudia R.; Langner, Robert; Eickhoff, Simon B.

    2014-01-01

    The supervisory attentional system has been proposed to mediate non-routine, goal-oriented behaviour by guiding the selection and maintenance of the goal-relevant task schema. Here, we aimed to delineate the brain regions that mediate these high-level control processes via neuroimaging meta-analysis. In particular, we investigated the core neural correlates of a wide range of tasks requiring supervisory control for the suppression of a routine action in favour of another, non-routine one. Our sample comprised n = 173 experiments employing go/no-go, stop-signal, Stroop or spatial interference tasks. Consistent convergence across all four paradigm classes was restricted to right anterior insula and inferior frontal junction, with anterior midcingulate cortex and pre-supplementary motor area being consistently involved in all but the go/no-go task. Taken together with lesion studies in patients, our findings suggest that the controlled activation and maintenance of adequate task schemata relies, across paradigms, on a right-dominant midcingulo-insular-inferior frontal core network. This also implies that the role of other prefrontal and parietal regions may be less domain-general than previously thought. PMID:25446951

  20. Dopamine Treatment and Cognitive Functioning in Individuals with Parkinson's Disease: The “Cognitive Flexibility” Hypothesis Seems to Work

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Alberto; Peppe, Antonella; Mazzù, Ilenia; Longarzo, Mariachiara; Caltagirone, Carlo; Carlesimo, Giovanni A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Previous data suggest that (i) dopamine modulates the ability to implement nonroutine schemata and update operations (flexibility processes) and that (ii) dopamine-related improvement may be related to baseline dopamine levels in target pathways (inverted U-shaped hypothesis). Objective. To investigate above hypotheses in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods. Twenty PD patients were administered tasks varying as to flexibility load in two treatment conditions: (i) “off” condition, about 18 hours after dopamine dose and (ii) “on” condition, after dopamine administration. PD patients were separated into two groups: low performers (i.e., performance on Digit Span Backward below the sample mean) and high performers (i.e., performance above the mean). Twenty healthy individuals performed the tasks in two sessions without taking drugs. Results. Passing from the “off” to the “on” state, only low performer PD patients significantly improved their performance on high-flexibility measures (interference condition of the Stroop test; P < 0.05); no significant effect was found on low-flexibility tasks. Conclusions. These findings document that high-flexibility processes are sensitive to dopamine neuromodulation in the early phases of PD. This is in line with the hypothesis that striatal dopamine pathways, affected early by PD, are precociously implicated in the expression of cognitive disorders in these individuals. PMID:24825952

  1. Body Image in Dyadic and Solitary Sexual Desire: The Role of Encoding Style and Distracting Thoughts.

    PubMed

    Dosch, Alessandra; Ghisletta, Paolo; Van der Linden, Martial

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the link between body image and desire to engage in sexual activity (dyadic and solitary desire) in adult women living in a long-term couple relationship. Moreover, it considered two psychological factors that may underlie such a link: the occurrence of body-related distracting thoughts during sexual activity and encoding style (i.e., the tendency to rely on preexisting internal schemata versus external information at encoding). A total of 53 women (29 to 47 years old) in heterosexual relationships completed questionnaires assessing sexual desire (dyadic, solitary), body image, body-related distracting thoughts during sexual activity, and encoding style. Results showed that poor body image was associated with low dyadic and solitary sexual desire. Body-related distracting thoughts during sexual activity mediated the link between body image and solitary (but not dyadic) sexual desire. Finally, the mediation of body-related distracting thoughts between body image and solitary sexual desire was moderated by encoding style. A negative body image promoted the occurrence of body-related distracting thoughts during sexual activity, especially in internal encoders. Our study highlights the importance of body image, distracting thoughts, and encoding style in women's solitary sexuality and suggests possible factors that may reduce the impact of those body-related factors in dyadic sexual desire.

  2. Exploring schema-driven differences in situation awareness between road users: an on-road study of driver, cyclist and motorcyclist situation awareness.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Paul M; Lenne, Michael G; Walker, Guy H; Stanton, Neville A; Filtness, Ashleigh

    2014-01-01

    Collisions between different road users make a substantial contribution to road trauma. Although evidence suggests that different road users interpret the same road situations differently, it is not clear how road users' situation awareness differs, nor is it clear which differences might lead to conflicts. This article presents the findings from an on-road study conducted to examine driver, motorcyclist and cyclist situation awareness in different road environments. The findings suggest that, in addition to minor differences in the structure of different road users' situation awareness (i.e. amount of information and how it is integrated), the actual content of situation awareness in terms of road user schemata, the resulting interaction with the world and the information underpinning situation awareness is markedly different. Further examination indicates that the differences are likely to be compatible along arterial roads, shopping strips and at roundabouts, but that they may create conflicts between different road users at intersections. Interventions designed to support compatible situation awareness and behaviour between different road users are discussed.

  3. Reconciling time, space and function: a new dorsal-ventral stream model of sentence comprehension.

    PubMed

    Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina; Schlesewsky, Matthias

    2013-04-01

    We present a new dorsal-ventral stream framework for language comprehension which unifies basic neurobiological assumptions (Rauschecker & Scott, 2009) with a cross-linguistic neurocognitive sentence comprehension model (eADM; Bornkessel & Schlesewsky, 2006). The dissociation between (time-dependent) syntactic structure-building and (time-independent) sentence interpretation assumed within the eADM provides a basis for the division of labour between the dorsal and ventral streams in comprehension. We posit that the ventral stream performs time-independent unifications of conceptual schemata, serving to create auditory objects of increasing complexity. The dorsal stream engages in the time-dependent combination of elements, subserving both syntactic structuring and a linkage to action. Furthermore, frontal regions accomplish general aspects of cognitive control in the service of action planning and execution rather than linguistic processing. This architecture is supported by a range of existing empirical findings and helps to resolve a number of theoretical and empirical puzzles within the existing dorsal-ventral streams literature.

  4. Molecular homogeneity of heat-stable enterotoxins produced by bovine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, A M; Magnuson, N S; Sriranganathan, N; Burger, D; Cosand, W

    1984-01-01

    Heat-stable enterotoxins (STs) from four strains of bovine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli representing four serogroups were purified to homogeneity by utilizing previously published purification schemata. Biochemical characterization of the purified STs showed that they met the basic criteria for the heat-stable enterotoxins of E. coli. Amino acid analysis of the purified STs revealed that they were peptides of identical amino acid composition. This composition consisted of 18 residues of 10 different amino acids, 6 of which were cysteine. The amino acid composition of the four ST peptides was identical to that reported for the STs of human and porcine E. coli. In addition, complete sequence analysis of two of the ST peptides and partial sequencing of several others revealed strong homology to the sequences of STs from human and porcine E. coli and to the sequence predicted from the last 18 codons of the transposon Tn1681. There was also substantial homology to the sequence predicted from the ST-coding genetic element of human E. coli, which may indicate the existence of identical bioactive configuration among ST peptides of E. coli strains of various host origins. These data support the hypothesis that STs produced by human, bovine, and porcine E. coli are coded by a closely related genetic element which may have originated from a single, widely disseminated transposon. Images PMID:6376355

  5. Accelerating the development of formal thinking in middle and high school students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adey, Philip; Shayer, Michael

    In an attempt to accelerate the development of formal operations in average young adolescents, intervention lessons relating to all formal schemata were designed in the context of school science courses. Over a period of two years, up to 30 intervention lessons were given by science teachers to their classes in eight schools. Boys who started the program aged 12+ showed a pre-posttest effect size on Piagetian tests of 0.89 SD compared with control classes. In terms of British norms for the development of operational thinking this was a mean change from the 51st to the 74th percentile. Neither the middle school students nor the 12+ girls showed greater gain than the controls. Gains were shown by girls in one 11+ class and in the two 11+ laboratory classes. In the laboratory school students given intervention lessons by the researchers maintained their gains over controls in formal operations at a delayed posttest one year after cessation of the program. There was no effect on tests of science achievement during the intervention. It was argued that the interventions needed to be accompanied by in-service training designed to enable teachers to change their teaching style in line with their students' increased operational thinking capacity.

  6. Measuring thinspiration and fear of fat indirectly. A matter of approach and avoidance.

    PubMed

    Woud, Marcella L; Anschutz, Doeschka J; Van Strien, Tatjana; Becker, Eni S

    2011-04-01

    The concepts thinspiration and fear of fat are crucial regarding the development and maintenance of body image disturbances and eating pathology. This study aimed to advance our current understanding of these two motivational concepts. Unlike previous studies that have primarily relied on self report measures to investigate thinspiration and fear of fat, we applied an indirect measure, namely a Stimulus Response Compatibility (SRC) task. During our SRC task, undergraduate female students were instructed to symbolically approach and avoid pictures of thin and chubby models. Hence, the participants' reaction times during the SRC task provided an index of the automatic affective and motivational valence of the models. Results showed that participants were faster to approach than to avoid thin models, however, there was no difference in approach-avoidance responses regarding chubby models. Analyses revealed that the approach-avoidance responses were related to important eating-related, cognitive schemata, e.g., the participants' level of drive for thinness, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction and their weight control behaviors. These findings clearly support the application of an indirect measure such as the SRC task in order to examine the concepts thinspiration and fear of fat, and highlight the need for further research that validates and extends current results.

  7. A Hierarchy of Network Performance Characteristics for Grid Applications and Services

    SciTech Connect

    Lowekamp, B

    2004-07-06

    This document describes a standard set of network characteristics that are useful for Grid applications and services as well as a classification hierarchy for these characteristics. The goal of this work is to identify the various types of network measurements according to the network characteristic they measure and the network entity on which they are taken. This document defines standard terminology to describe those measurements, but it does not attempt to define new standard measurement methodologies or attempt to define the best measurement methodologies to use for grid applications. However, it does attempt to point out the advantages and disadvantages of different measurement methodologies. This document was motivated by the need for the interchange of measurements taken by various systems in the Grid and to develop a common dictionary to facilitate discussions about and specifications for measurement systems. The application of this naming system will facilitate the creation of common schemata for describing network monitoring data in Grid Monitoring and Discovery Services, and thus help to address portability issues between the wide variety of network measurements used between sites of a Grid.

  8. [Minimal emotional dysfunction and first impression formation in personality disorders].

    PubMed

    Linden, M; Vilain, M

    2011-01-01

    "Minimal cerebral dysfunctions" are isolated impairments of basic mental functions, which are elements of complex functions like speech. The best described are cognitive dysfunctions such as reading and writing problems, dyscalculia, attention deficits, but also motor dysfunctions such as problems with articulation, hyperactivity or impulsivity. Personality disorders can be characterized by isolated emotional dysfunctions in relation to emotional adequacy, intensity and responsivity. For example, paranoid personality disorders can be characterized by continuous and inadequate distrust, as a disorder of emotional adequacy. Schizoid personality disorders can be characterized by low expressive emotionality, as a disorder of effect intensity, or dissocial personality disorders can be characterized by emotional non-responsivity. Minimal emotional dysfunctions cause interactional misunderstandings because of the psychology of "first impression formation". Studies have shown that in 100 ms persons build up complex and lasting emotional judgements about other persons. Therefore, minimal emotional dysfunctions result in interactional problems and adjustment disorders and in corresponding cognitive schemata.From the concept of minimal emotional dysfunctions specific psychotherapeutic interventions in respect to the patient-therapist relationship, the diagnostic process, the clarification of emotions and reality testing, and especially an understanding of personality disorders as impairment and "selection, optimization, and compensation" as a way of coping can be derived.

  9. Terminological aspects of data elements

    SciTech Connect

    Strehlow, R.A. ); Kenworthey, W.H. Jr. ); Schuldt, R.E. )

    1991-01-01

    The creation and display of data comprise a process that involves a sequence of steps requiring both semantic and systems analysis. An essential early step in this process is the choice, definition, and naming of data element concepts and is followed by the specification of other needed data element concept attributes. The attributes and the values of data element concept remain associated with them from their birth as a concept to a generic data element that serves as a template for final application. Terminology is, therefore, centrally important to the entire data creation process. Smooth mapping from natural language to a database is a critical aspect of database, and consequently, it requires terminology standardization from the outset of database work. In this paper the semantic aspects of data elements are analyzed and discussed. Seven kinds of data element concept information are considered and those that require terminological development and standardization are identified. The four terminological components of a data element are the hierarchical type of a concept, functional dependencies, schematas showing conceptual structures, and definition statements. These constitute the conventional role of terminology in database design. 12 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Brain injury beliefs, self-awareness, and coping: a preliminary cluster analytic study based within the self-regulatory model.

    PubMed

    Medley, Andrew R; Powell, Theresa; Worthington, Andrew; Chohan, Gagandeep; Jones, Chris

    2010-12-01

    The interplay between individuals' subjective beliefs about traumatic brain injury, their coping style and their self-awareness might provide a more helpful guide to rehabilitation goals than looking at these factors in isolation. We therefore conducted a preliminary study to determine whether the Self-Regulatory Model can identify different clusters of individuals according to belief schemata, and to explore whether clusters differed across measures of coping and self-awareness. The Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised was administered to 37 participants with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), along with the Ways of Coping Checklist-Revised and the European Brain Injury Questionnaire. Clinicians also rated clients' level of difficulties using the latter scale, and the discrepancy between client and clinician scores was used as a measure of self-awareness. Hierarchical cluster analysis distinguished three groups based on profiles of subjective beliefs about TBI, labelled "low control/ambivalent", "high salience", and "high optimism". The high salience group was characterised by beliefs about serious consequences of the injury and greater self-awareness, and reported a greater range of coping strategies. The other two groups showed lower levels of awareness but differed in coping styles, with the low control/ambivalent group showing a trend towards more avoidance coping against a background of lower perceived control.

  11. Experimental Study on the Precise Orbit Determination of the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System

    PubMed Central

    He, Lina; Ge, Maorong; Wang, Jiexian; Wickert, Jens; Schuh, Harald

    2013-01-01

    The regional service of the Chinese BeiDou satellite navigation system is now in operation with a constellation including five Geostationary Earth Orbit satellites (GEO), five Inclined Geosynchronous Orbit (IGSO) satellites and four Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) satellites. Besides the standard positioning service with positioning accuracy of about 10 m, both precise relative positioning and precise point positioning are already demonstrated. As is well known, precise orbit and clock determination is essential in enhancing precise positioning services. To improve the satellite orbits of the BeiDou regional system, we concentrate on the impact of the tracking geometry and the involvement of MEOs, and on the effect of integer ambiguity resolution as well. About seven weeks of data collected at the BeiDou Experimental Test Service (BETS) network is employed in this experimental study. Several tracking scenarios are defined, various processing schemata are designed and carried out; and then, the estimates are compared and analyzed in detail. The results show that GEO orbits, especially the along-track component, can be significantly improved by extending the tracking network in China along longitude direction, whereas IGSOs gain more improvement if the tracking network extends in latitude. The involvement of MEOs and ambiguity-fixing also make the orbits better. PMID:23529116

  12. Psychoanalysis and the Brain – Why Did Freud Abandon Neuroscience?

    PubMed Central

    Northoff, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, was initially a neuroscientist but abandoned neuroscience completely after he made a last attempt to link both in his writing, “Project of a Scientific Psychology,” in 1895. The reasons for his subsequent disregard of the brain remain unclear though. I here argue that one central reason may be that the approach to the brain during his time was simply not appealing to Freud. More specifically, Freud was interested in revealing the psychological predispositions of psychodynamic processes. However, he was not so much focused on the actual psychological functions themselves which though were the prime focus of the neuroscience at his time and also in current Cognitive Neuroscience. Instead, he probably would have been more interested in the brain’s resting state and its constitution of a spatiotemporal structure. I here assume that the resting state activity constitutes a statistically based virtual structure extending and linking the different discrete points in time and space within the brain. That in turn may serve as template, schemata, or grid for all subsequent neural processing during stimulus-induced activity. As such the resting state’ spatiotemporal structure may serve as the neural predisposition of what Freud described as “psychological structure.” Hence, Freud and also current neuropsychoanalysis may want to focus more on neural predispositions, the necessary non-sufficient conditions, rather than the neural correlates, i.e., sufficient, conditions of psychodynamic processes. PMID:22485098

  13. Good-enough linguistic representations and online cognitive equilibrium in language processing.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Hossein; Ferreira, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    We review previous research showing that representations formed during language processing are sometimes just "good enough" for the task at hand and propose the "online cognitive equilibrium" hypothesis as the driving force behind the formation of good-enough representations in language processing. Based on this view, we assume that the language comprehension system by default prefers to achieve as early as possible and remain as long as possible in a state of cognitive equilibrium where linguistic representations are successfully incorporated with existing knowledge structures (i.e., schemata) so that a meaningful and coherent overall representation is formed, and uncertainty is resolved or at least minimized. We also argue that the online equilibrium hypothesis is consistent with current theories of language processing, which maintain that linguistic representations are formed through a complex interplay between simple heuristics and deep syntactic algorithms and also theories that hold that linguistic representations are often incomplete and lacking in detail. We also propose a model of language processing that makes use of both heuristic and algorithmic processing, is sensitive to online cognitive equilibrium, and, we argue, is capable of explaining the formation of underspecified representations. We review previous findings providing evidence for underspecification in relation to this hypothesis and the associated language processing model and argue that most of these findings are compatible with them.

  14. [Cognition-correlation indices of gender schema: tests of validity].

    PubMed

    Ishida, E

    1994-02-01

    Four-hundred and seventy-seven subjects evaluated a set of traits and behaviors in terms of how masculine and feminine they were and in terms of how well they represented their real and ideal self-images. Within-individual correlation coefficients between these evaluations were proposed as measures of psychological gender schemata, because they would represent the degree of matching between the subjects' gender-image and ideal/real self-images of gender-related attributes. The present study aims at examining the construct validity of these measures, by testing them to psychological variables that are known to reflect gender identity. The individual difference variables used as criteria were (a) satisfaction with one's own sex, (b) general happiness, (c) self-esteem (d) gender-conflict, and (e) school and occupational achievement need. Correlations between the gender-schema indices and the criteria variables supported the construct validity of those measures. Advantages of the present measurement over the conventional simple trait approach, such as BSRI, or PAQ are discussed.

  15. Congenital Diaphragmatic Defects: Proposal for a New Classification Based on Observations in 234 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Kate G.; Vargas, Sara O.; Wilson, Jay A.; Jennings, Russell W.; Kozakewich, Harry P.W.; Pober, Barbara R.

    2013-01-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic defects (CDDs) are a common group of birth defects, yet we presently know little about their pathogenesis. No systematic study documenting the detailed morphology of CDD has been performed, and current classification schemata of diaphragm phenotypes incompletely capture the location and extent of diaphragmatic involvement. To define the range of CDD anatomy, diaphragmatic pathology was reviewed from an examination of 181 autopsy records of children with CDDs at Children’s Hospital Boston between 1927 and 2006. Defects were classified according to several parameters, including type (communicating versus noncommunicating) and location (anterior, posterior, etc.). The information permitted development of a phenotyping worksheet for prospective use on patients undergoing diaphragmatic repair at Children’s Hospital Boston or MassGeneral Hospital for Children. Fifty-three patients who died between 1990 and 2006 had a total of 63 defects. Thirty-nine had a “classic” CDD phenotype (64% posterolateral, 18% hemidiaphragmatic aplasia, and 18% anterior). The remaining 19 defects, not fitting classical descriptions, were located in the posteromedial, anterolateral, or lateral regions of the diaphragm. Prospective data collected during surgical repair revealed posterolateral defects in 34 of 41 cases that demonstrated wide phenotypic variability in size, location, shape, type, and extent of organ displacement. Congenital diaphragmatic defects display significant phenotypic variation. Because rigorous anatomic evaluation and documentation are important steps towards elucidating the developmental biology of these disorders, we suggest establishment of a new and more precise classification using the model presented herein. PMID:22257294

  16. A multilayer micromechanical model of the cuticle of Curculio longinasus Chittenden, 1927 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Andrew Jansen, M; Singh, Sudhanshu S; Chawla, Nikhilesh; Franz, Nico M

    2016-08-01

    Curculio longinasus Chittenden, 1927 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a weevil species common throughout the southwestern United States that uses its rostrum - a very slender, curved, beak-like projection of the head - to excavate tunnels in plant organs (such as acorns) for egg laying (oviposition). Once the apical portion of the rostrum has been inserted into the preferred substrate for oviposition, the female begins rotating around the perimeter of the hole, elevating her head by extending the fore-legs, and rotating the head in place in a drilling motion. This action causes significant elastic deformation of the rostrum, which will bend until it becomes completely straight. To better understand the mechanical behavior of the cuticle as it undergoes deformation during the preparation of oviposition sites, we develop a comprehensive micro/macro model of the micromechanical structure and properties of the cuticle, spanning across all cuticular regions, and reliably mirroring the resultant macroscale properties of the cuticle. Our modeling approach relies on the use of multi-scale, hierarchical biomaterial representation, and employs various micromechanical schemata - e.g., Mori-Tanaka, effective field, and Maxwell - to calculate the homogenized properties of representative volume elements at each level in the hierarchy. We describe the configuration and behavior of this model in detail, and discuss the theoretical implications and limitations of this approach with emphasis on future biomechanical and comparative evolutionary research. Our detailed account of this approach can thereby serve as a methodological template for exploring the biomechanical behavior of new insect structures.

  17. Addiction as excessive appetite.

    PubMed

    Orford, J

    2001-01-01

    The excessive appetite model of addiction is summarized. The paper begins by considering the forms of excessive appetite which a comprehensive model should account for: principally, excessive drinking, smoking, gambling, eating, sex and a diverse range of drugs including at least heroin, cocaine and cannabis. The model rests, therefore, upon a broader concept of what constitutes addiction than the traditional, more restricted, and arguably misleading definition. The core elements of the model include: very skewed consumption distribution curves; restraint, control or deterrence; positive incentive learning mechanisms which highlight varied forms of rapid emotional change as rewards, and wide cue conditioning; complex memory schemata; secondary, acquired emotional regulation cycles, of which 'chasing', 'the abstinence violation effect' and neuroadaptation are examples; and the consequences of conflict. These primary and secondary processes, occurring within diverse sociocultural contexts, are sufficient to account for the development of a strong attachment to an appetitive activity, such that self-control is diminished, and behaviour may appear to be disease-like. Giving up excess is a natural consequence of conflict arising from strong and troublesome appetite. There is much supportive evidence that change occurs outside expert treatment, and that when it occurs within treatment the change processes are more basic and universal than those espoused by fashionable expert theories.

  18. Gender Differences in Object of Desire Self-Consciousness Sexual Fantasies.

    PubMed

    Bogaert, Anthony F; Visser, Beth A; Pozzebon, Julie A

    2015-11-01

    In a recent review article, Bogaert and Brotto (2014) discussed "object of desire self-consciousness," a perception that one is romantically and sexually desirable in another's eyes. They argued that this perception is more relevant to women's sociosexual functioning than it is to men's. In the present study, we attempted to find direct evidence that object of desire themes are linked more to women's sexual desire and arousal than they are to men's by examining the differences in content between men's and women's sexual fantasies. A total of 198 men and women reported on arousing themes in sexual fantasies using three methodologies: endorsement of items on a sexual fantasy questionnaire, sentence completion of sexually-charged scenarios, and open-ended sexual fantasies. The men and women also rated their attractiveness and were rated for attractiveness by two female experimenters. On all three fantasy composites, women endorsed more object of desire themes than did men, and these effects occurred independent of the subjective and observer-rated attractiveness measures. The results were discussed in relation to theorizing that object of desire self-consciousness can function as part of many women's self-schemata or scripts related to romance and sexuality.

  19. Experimental study on the precise orbit determination of the BeiDou navigation satellite system.

    PubMed

    He, Lina; Ge, Maorong; Wang, Jiexian; Wickert, Jens; Schuh, Harald

    2013-03-01

    The regional service of the Chinese BeiDou satellite navigation system is now in operation with a constellation including five Geostationary Earth Orbit satellites (GEO), five Inclined Geosynchronous Orbit (IGSO) satellites and four Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) satellites. Besides the standard positioning service with positioning accuracy of about 10 m, both precise relative positioning and precise point positioning are already demonstrated. As is well known, precise orbit and clock determination is essential in enhancing precise positioning services. To improve the satellite orbits of the BeiDou regional system, we concentrate on the impact of the tracking geometry and the involvement of MEOs, and on the effect of integer ambiguity resolution as well. About seven weeks of data collected at the BeiDou Experimental Test Service (BETS) network is employed in this experimental study. Several tracking scenarios are defined, various processing schemata are designed and carried out; and then, the estimates are compared and analyzed in detail. The results show that GEO orbits, especially the along-track component, can be significantly improved by extending the tracking network in China along longitude direction, whereas IGSOs gain more improvement if the tracking network extends in latitude. The involvement of MEOs and ambiguity-fixing also make the orbits better.

  20. ["I'm not crazy!" Studies of agnosia in Alzheimer's disease].

    PubMed

    Salmon, E

    2010-01-01

    Anosognosia corresponds to a lack of awareness about the own clinical disease of a patient. Anosognosia is frequent in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Researchers explore several hypotheses, psychological (deny) or cognitive (an association of memory and executive impairment), and recently models describing the dynamics of self representation provided convincing interpretations. Self models are modular. They comprise a central executive organising information processing according to subject's objectives. The central executive takes into account personal beliefs and social schemata and it uses autobiographical memory. The analysis of information by the self system leads to decision taking that relies on two principles, self continuity and adaptation. Neuroimaging studies showed that self reflection activates specific brain regions, comprising the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, the medial parietal and posterior cingulate cortex and the inferior parietal lobule. Other studies demonstrated that the same regions are particularly affected by AD. Experimental data currently allows making relationships between regional brain involvement, diverse difficulties in self representation and different forms of anosognosia for clinical status in AD patients.

  1. PanMetaDocs - A tool for collecting and managing the long tail of "small science data"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klump, J.; Ulbricht, D.

    2011-12-01

    In the early days of thinking about cyberinfrastructure the focus was on "big science data". Today, the challenge is not anymore to store several terabytes of data, but to manage data objects in a way that facilitates their re-use. Key to re-use by a user as a data consumer is proper documentation of the data. Also, data consumers need discovery metadata to find the data they need and they need descriptive metadata to be able to use the data they retrieved. Thus, data documentation faces the challenge to extensively and completely describe these objects, hold the items easily accessible at a sustainable cost level. However, data curation and documentation do not rank high in the everyday work of a scientist as a data producer. Data producers are often frustrated by being asked to provide metadata on their data over and over again, information that seemed very obvious from the context of their work. A challenge to data archives is the wide variety of metadata schemata in use, which creates a number of maintenance and design challenges of its own. PanMetaDocs addresses these issues by allowing an uploaded files to be described by more than one metadata object. PanMetaDocs, which was developed from PanMetaWorks, is a PHP based web application that allow to describe data with any xml-based metadata schema. Its user interface is browser based and was developed to collect metadata and data in collaborative scientific projects situated at one or more institutions. The metadata fields can be filled with static or dynamic content to reduce the number of fields that require manual entries to a minimum and make use of contextual information in a project setting. In the development of PanMetaDocs the business logic of panMetaWorks is reused, except for the authentication and data management functions of PanMetaWorks, which are delegated to the eSciDoc framework. The eSciDoc repository framework is designed as a service oriented architecture that can be controlled through a

  2. Self-referent information processing in individuals with bipolar spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Molz Adams, Ashleigh; Shapero, Benjamin G.; Pendergast, Laura H.; Alloy, Lauren B.; Abramson, Lyn Y.

    2014-01-01

    Background Bipolar spectrum disorders (BSDs) are common and impairing, which has led to an examination of risk factors for their development and maintenance. Historically, research has examined cognitive vulnerabilities to BSDs derived largely from the unipolar depression literature. Specifically, theorists propose that dysfunctional information processing guided by negative self-schemata may be a risk factor for depression. However, few studies have examined whether BSD individuals also show self-referent processing biases. Methods This study examined self-referent information processing differences between 66 individuals with and 58 individuals without a BSD in a young adult sample (age M = 19.65, SD = 1.74; 62% female; 47% Caucasian). Repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was conducted to examine multivariate effects of BSD diagnosis on 4 self-referent processing variables (self-referent judgments, response latency, behavioral predictions, and recall) in response to depression-related and nondepression-related stimuli. Results Bipolar individuals endorsed and recalled more negative and fewer positive self-referent adjectives, as well as made more negative and fewer positive behavioral predictions. Many of these information-processing biases were partially, but not fully, mediated by depressive symptoms. Limitations Our sample was not a clinical or treatment-seeking sample, so we cannot generalize our results to clinical BSD samples. No participants had a bipolar I disorder at baseline. Conclusions This study provides further evidence that individuals with BSDs exhibit a negative self-referent information processing bias. This may mean that those with BSDs have selective attention and recall of negative information about themselves, highlighting the need for attention to cognitive biases in therapy. PMID:24074480

  3. Self-referent information processing in individuals with bipolar spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Molz Adams, Ashleigh; Shapero, Benjamin G; Pendergast, Laura H; Alloy, Lauren B; Abramson, Lyn Y

    2014-01-01

    Bipolar spectrum disorders (BSDs) are common and impairing, which has led to an examination of risk factors for their development and maintenance. Historically, research has examined cognitive vulnerabilities to BSDs derived largely from the unipolar depression literature. Specifically, theorists propose that dysfunctional information processing guided by negative self-schemata may be a risk factor for depression. However, few studies have examined whether BSD individuals also show self-referent processing biases. This study examined self-referent information processing differences between 66 individuals with and 58 individuals without a BSD in a young adult sample (age M=19.65, SD=1.74; 62% female; 47% Caucasian). Repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was conducted to examine multivariate effects of BSD diagnosis on 4 self-referent processing variables (self-referent judgments, response latency, behavioral predictions, and recall) in response to depression-related and nondepression-related stimuli. Bipolar individuals endorsed and recalled more negative and fewer positive self-referent adjectives, as well as made more negative and fewer positive behavioral predictions. Many of these information-processing biases were partially, but not fully, mediated by depressive symptoms. Our sample was not a clinical or treatment-seeking sample, so we cannot generalize our results to clinical BSD samples. No participants had a bipolar I disorder at baseline. This study provides further evidence that individuals with BSDs exhibit a negative self-referent information processing bias. This may mean that those with BSDs have selective attention and recall of negative information about themselves, highlighting the need for attention to cognitive biases in therapy. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The Construction of Semantic Memory: Grammar-Based Representations Learned from Relational Episodic Information

    PubMed Central

    Battaglia, Francesco P.; Pennartz, Cyriel M. A.

    2011-01-01

    After acquisition, memories underlie a process of consolidation, making them more resistant to interference and brain injury. Memory consolidation involves systems-level interactions, most importantly between the hippocampus and associated structures, which takes part in the initial encoding of memory, and the neocortex, which supports long-term storage. This dichotomy parallels the contrast between episodic memory (tied to the hippocampal formation), collecting an autobiographical stream of experiences, and semantic memory, a repertoire of facts and statistical regularities about the world, involving the neocortex at large. Experimental evidence points to a gradual transformation of memories, following encoding, from an episodic to a semantic character. This may require an exchange of information between different memory modules during inactive periods. We propose a theory for such interactions and for the formation of semantic memory, in which episodic memory is encoded as relational data. Semantic memory is modeled as a modified stochastic grammar, which learns to parse episodic configurations expressed as an association matrix. The grammar produces tree-like representations of episodes, describing the relationships between its main constituents at multiple levels of categorization, based on its current knowledge of world regularities. These regularities are learned by the grammar from episodic memory information, through an expectation-maximization procedure, analogous to the inside–outside algorithm for stochastic context-free grammars. We propose that a Monte-Carlo sampling version of this algorithm can be mapped on the dynamics of “sleep replay” of previously acquired information in the hippocampus and neocortex. We propose that the model can reproduce several properties of semantic memory such as decontextualization, top-down processing, and creation of schemata. PMID:21887143

  5. Time and Space in Tzeltal: Is the Future Uphill?

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Penelope

    2012-01-01

    Linguistic expressions of time often draw on spatial language, which raises the question of whether cultural specificity in spatial language and cognition is reflected in thinking about time. In the Mayan language Tzeltal, spatial language relies heavily on an absolute frame of reference utilizing the overall slope of the land, distinguishing an “uphill/downhill” axis oriented from south to north, and an orthogonal “crossways” axis (sunrise-set) on the basis of which objects at all scales are located. Does this absolute system for calculating spatial relations carry over into construals of temporal relations? This question was explored in a study where Tzeltal consultants produced temporal expressions and performed two different non-linguistic temporal ordering tasks. The results show that at least five distinct schemata for conceptualizing time underlie Tzeltal linguistic expressions: (i) deictic ego-centered time, (ii) time as an ordered sequence (e.g., “first”/“later”), (iii) cyclic time (times of the day, seasons), (iv) time as spatial extension or location (e.g., “entering/exiting July”), and (v) a time vector extending uphillwards into the future. The non-linguistic task results showed that the “time moves uphillwards” metaphor, based on the absolute frame of reference prevalent in Tzeltal spatial language and thinking and important as well in the linguistic expressions for time, is not strongly reflected in responses on these tasks. It is argued that systematic and consistent use of spatial language in an absolute frame of reference does not necessarily transfer to consistent absolute time conceptualization in non-linguistic tasks; time appears to be more open to alternative construals. PMID:22787451

  6. The relationship between organisational communication and perception.

    PubMed

    Marynissen, H M F

    2011-01-01

    Both researchers and managers search for the most appropriate form of organisational communication. The aim of such an organisational communication is to influence the receivers' perception to confirm, adapt or change behaviour according to the sender's intention. This paper argues that to influence the receivers' perception, a specific form of communication that is embedded in a specific organisational culture is required. It also demands prior knowledge of the existing organisational schemata and the current perception concerning the topic that has to be communicated. The rationale is that three obstacles hinder the objectives of traditional communication strategies to influence perception according to the sender's objectives. The first challenge is that a receiver of a certain message never garners one single, clearly pronounced message conveyed by one single person. Yet, few studies are based on multiple messages from various sources. This makes most of the communication strategies in use obsolete. The second strain is the dual mode of thinking that forms organisational members' perceptions: the heuristic and the cogitative (Taleb, 2010). Most organisational communication theories are based on the paradigm in which receivers of information process this information in a rational way, while research in the field of neurobiology (Lehrer, 2009) indicates that rationality is dominated by emotions. The third difficulty is that organisational members constrain to well-established, ingrained schemas (Labianca et al., 2000; Balogun and Johnson, 2004). Based on these existing schemas, the scattered information from multiple sources, and the inability to process that information through cognitive reasoning, organisational members construct perceptions that are not in line with the objectives of the sender's communication. This article reviews different communication theories, points out key concepts in the literature on individual and collective perceptions, and suggests

  7. Embodiment effects and language comprehension in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    De Scalzi, Marika; Rusted, Jennifer; Oakhill, Jane

    2015-07-01

    It has been shown that when participants are asked to make sensibility judgments on sentences that describe a transfer of an object toward or away from their body, they are faster to respond when the response requires a movement in the same direction as the transfer described in the sentence. This phenomenon is known as the action compatibility effect (ACE). This study investigates whether the ACE exists for volunteers with Alzheimer's disease (AD), whether the ACE can facilitate language comprehension, and also whether the ACE can still be produced if the order of the two events is inverted, that is, whether overt movement can prime comprehension of transfer sentences. In Study 1, participants with AD, younger, and older adults were tested on an adaptation of the ACE Paradigm. In Study 2, the same paradigm was modified to include an arm movement that participants had to perform prior to sentence exposure on screen. In Study 1, young, older adults, and individuals with AD were faster to respond when the direction of the response movement matched the directionality implied by the sentence (ACE). In Study 2, no traditional ACE was found; participants were faster when the direction of the movement immediately preceding the sentence matched the directionality of the sentence. It was found that compatibility effects generated a relative advantage, that transfer schemata are easier to process, and that an ACE-like effect can be the result of mutual priming between language and movement. Results suggested preservation in AD of the neural systems for action engaged during language comprehension, and conditions under which comprehension in AD can be facilitated in real life may be identified. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  8. Dissociating Object Directed and Non-Object Directed Action in the Human Mirror System; Implications for Theories of Motor Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Agnew, Zarinah K.; Wise, Richard J. S.; Leech, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Mirror neurons are single cells found in macaque premotor and parietal cortices that are active during action execution and observation. In non-human primates, mirror neurons have only been found in relation to object-directed movements or communicative gestures, as non-object directed actions of the upper limb are not well characterized in non-human primates. Mirror neurons provide important evidence for motor simulation theories of cognition, sometimes referred to as the direct matching hypothesis, which propose that observed actions are mapped onto associated motor schemata in a direct and automatic manner. This study, for the first time, directly compares mirror responses, defined as the overlap between action execution and observation, during object directed and meaningless non-object directed actions. We present functional MRI data that demonstrate a clear dissociation between object directed and non-object directed actions within the human mirror system. A premotor and parietal network was preferentially active during object directed actions, whether observed or executed. Moreover, we report spatially correlated activity across multiple voxels for observation and execution of an object directed action. In contrast to predictions made by motor simulation theory, no similar activity was observed for non-object directed actions. These data demonstrate that object directed and meaningless non-object directed actions are subserved by different neuronal networks and that the human mirror response is significantly greater for object directed actions. These data have important implications for understanding the human mirror system and for simulation theories of motor cognition. Subsequent theories of motor simulation must account for these differences, possibly by acknowledging the role of experience in modulating the mirror response. PMID:22505995

  9. Link maps and map meetings: Scaffolding student learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindstrøm, Christine; Sharma, Manjula D.

    2009-06-01

    With student numbers decreasing and traditional teaching methods having been found inefficient, it is widely accepted that alternative teaching methods need to be explored in tertiary physics education. In 2006 a different teaching environment was offered to 244 first year students with little or no prior formal instruction in physics. Students were invited to attend additional enrichment classes 1 h a week called map meetings. The focus of these classes was a different type of visual presentation of physics material called link maps. Link maps explicitly show the key concepts covered in lectures and how these interrelate to help novices establish their physics schemata. In each map meeting the link map for the different topic was interactively discussed by the researcher before the students worked on problems in groups using the link map. The class ended with the researcher going through one problem, talking aloud about how to logically attack it. The results were promising. Each week about 20% of the class voluntarily attended map meetings whereas 22% reported that they did not attend due to timetable clashes. Two questionnaires revealed that students thought the classes were helpful for gaining an overview of physics and for developing their problem solving abilities. In the final examination the 32 students who had attended at least eight out of ten map meetings achieved, on average, 9 points out of 90 better in the examination (p=0.004) than a comparison group (N=40) with similar academic background which had not attended map meetings. The results of this study suggest that map meetings are a valuable learning environment for physics novices. Further investigations are currently being undertaken.

  10. Cognitive Load and Self-Determination Theories Applied to E-Learning: Impact on Students' Participation and Academic Performance.

    PubMed

    de Araujo Guerra Grangeia, Tiago; de Jorge, Bruno; Franci, Daniel; Martins Santos, Thiago; Vellutini Setubal, Maria Silvia; Schweller, Marcelo; de Carvalho-Filho, Marco Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Emergency clerkships expose students to a stressful environment that require multiple tasks, which may have a direct impact on cognitive load and motivation for learning. To address this challenge, Cognitive Load Theory and Self Determination Theory provided the conceptual frameworks to the development of a Moodle-based online Emergency Medicine course, inspired by real clinical cases. Three consecutive classes (2013-2015) of sixth-year medical students (n = 304) participated in the course, during a curricular and essentially practical emergency rotation. "Virtual Rounds" provided weekly virtual patients in narrative format and meaningful schemata to chief complaints, in order to simulate real rounds at Emergency Unit. Additional activities such as Extreme Decisions, Emergency Quiz and Electrocardiographic challenge offered different views of emergency care. Authors assessed student´s participation and its correlation with their academic performance. A survey evaluated students´ opinions. Students graduating in 2015 answered an online questionnaire to investigate cognitive load and motivation. Each student produced 1965 pageviews and spent 72 hours logged on. Although Clinical Emergency rotation has two months long, students accessed the online course during an average of 5.3 months. Virtual Rounds was the most accessed activity, and there was positive correlations between the number of hours logged on the platform and final grades on Emergency Medicine. Over 90% of students felt an improvement in their clinical reasoning and considered themselves better prepared for rendering Emergency care. Considering a Likert scale from 1 (minimum load) to 7 (maximum load), the scores for total cognitive load were 4.79±2.2 for Virtual Rounds and 5.56±1.96 for real medical rounds(p<0,01). A real-world inspired online course, based on cognitive and motivational conceptual frameworks, seems to be a strong tool to engage students in learning. It may support them to manage the

  11. Common data model for natural language processing based on two existing standard information models: CDA+GrAF.

    PubMed

    Meystre, Stéphane M; Lee, Sanghoon; Jung, Chai Young; Chevrier, Raphaël D

    2012-08-01

    An increasing need for collaboration and resources sharing in the Natural Language Processing (NLP) research and development community motivates efforts to create and share a common data model and a common terminology for all information annotated and extracted from clinical text. We have combined two existing standards: the HL7 Clinical Document Architecture (CDA), and the ISO Graph Annotation Format (GrAF; in development), to develop such a data model entitled "CDA+GrAF". We experimented with several methods to combine these existing standards, and eventually selected a method wrapping separate CDA and GrAF parts in a common standoff annotation (i.e., separate from the annotated text) XML document. Two use cases, clinical document sections, and the 2010 i2b2/VA NLP Challenge (i.e., problems, tests, and treatments, with their assertions and relations), were used to create examples of such standoff annotation documents, and were successfully validated with the XML schemata provided with both standards. We developed a tool to automatically translate annotation documents from the 2010 i2b2/VA NLP Challenge format to GrAF, and automatically generated 50 annotation documents using this tool, all successfully validated. Finally, we adapted the XSL stylesheet provided with HL7 CDA to allow viewing annotation XML documents in a web browser, and plan to adapt existing tools for translating annotation documents between CDA+GrAF and the UIMA and GATE frameworks. This common data model may ease directly comparing NLP tools and applications, combining their output, transforming and "translating" annotations between different NLP applications, and eventually "plug-and-play" of different modules in NLP applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A multiple classifier system for early melanoma diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Sboner, Andrea; Eccher, Claudio; Blanzieri, Enrico; Bauer, Paolo; Cristofolini, Mario; Zumiani, Giuseppe; Forti, Stefano

    2003-01-01

    Melanoma is the most dangerous skin cancer and early diagnosis is the key factor in its successful treatment. Well-trained dermatologists reach a diagnosis via visual inspection, and reach sensitivity and specificity levels of about 80%. Several computerised diagnostic systems were reported in the literature using different classification algorithms. In this paper, we will illustrate a novel approach by which a suitable combination of different classifiers is used in order to improve the diagnostic performances of single classifiers. We used three different kinds of classifiers, namely linear discriminant analysis (LDA), k-nearest neighbour (k-NN) and a decision tree, the inputs of which are 38 geometric and colorimetric features automatically extracted from digital images of skin lesions. Multiple classifiers were generated by combining the diagnostic outputs of single classifiers with appropriate voting schemata. This approach was evaluated on a set of 152 digital skin images. We compared the performances of multiple classifiers (2- and 3-classifier groups) between them and with respect to single ones (1-classifier group). We further compared the classifiers' performances with those of eight dermatologists. Classifiers' performances were measured in terms of distance from the ideal classifier. Compared with 1- and 2-classifier groups, performances of 3-classifier systems were significantly higher (P<0.0005 and P<0.001, respectively). No statistically significant differences were found between the 1- and 2-classifier groups (P=0.352). While the dermatologists group showed a level of performances significantly higher than the 1-classifier systems (P<0.020), no differences were found between the multiple classifier groups and the dermatologists groups, indicating comparable performances. This work suggests that a suitable combination of different kinds of classifiers can improve the performances of an automatic diagnostic system.

  13. A combined model of sensory and cognitive representations underlying tonal expectations in music: from audio signals to behavior.

    PubMed

    Collins, Tom; Tillmann, Barbara; Barrett, Frederick S; Delbé, Charles; Janata, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Listeners' expectations for melodies and harmonies in tonal music are perhaps the most studied aspect of music cognition. Long debated has been whether faster response times (RTs) to more strongly primed events (in a music theoretic sense) are driven by sensory or cognitive mechanisms, such as repetition of sensory information or activation of cognitive schemata that reflect learned tonal knowledge, respectively. We analyzed over 300 stimuli from 7 priming experiments comprising a broad range of musical material, using a model that transforms raw audio signals through a series of plausible physiological and psychological representations spanning a sensory-cognitive continuum. We show that RTs are modeled, in part, by information in periodicity pitch distributions, chroma vectors, and activations of tonal space--a representation on a toroidal surface of the major/minor key relationships in Western tonal music. We show that in tonal space, melodies are grouped by their tonal rather than timbral properties, whereas the reverse is true for the periodicity pitch representation. While tonal space variables explained more of the variation in RTs than did periodicity pitch variables, suggesting a greater contribution of cognitive influences to tonal expectation, a stepwise selection model contained variables from both representations and successfully explained the pattern of RTs across stimulus categories in 4 of the 7 experiments. The addition of closure--a cognitive representation of a specific syntactic relationship--succeeded in explaining results from all 7 experiments. We conclude that multiple representational stages along a sensory-cognitive continuum combine to shape tonal expectations in music. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Movement consistency during repetitive tool use action

    PubMed Central

    Baber, Chris

    2017-01-01

    The consistency and repeatability of movement patterns has been of long-standing interest in locomotor biomechanics, but less well explored in other domains. Tool use is one of such a domain; while the complex dynamics of the human-tool-environment system have been approached from various angles, to date it remains unknown how the rhythmicity of repetitive tool-using action emerges. To examine whether the spontaneously adopted movement frequency is a variable susceptible to individual execution approaches or emerges as constant behaviour, we recorded sawing motion across a range of 14 experimental conditions using various manipulations. This was compared to free and pantomimed arm movements. We found that a mean (SD) sawing frequency of 2.0 (0.4) Hz was employed across experimental conditions. Most experimental conditions did not significantly affect the sawing frequency, signifying the robustness of this spontaneously emerging movement. Free horizontal arm translation and miming of sawing was performed at half the movement frequency with more than double the excursion distance, showing that not all arm movements spontaneously emerge at the observed sawing parameters. Observed movement frequencies across all conditions could be closely predicted from movement time reference data for generic arm movements found in the Methods Time Measurement literature, highlighting a generic biomechanical relationship between the time taken for a given distance travelled underlying the observed behaviour. We conclude that our findings lend support to the hypothesis that repetitive movements during tool use are executed according to generic and predictable musculoskeletal mechanics and constraints, albeit in the context of the general task (sawing) and environmental constraints such as friction, rather than being subject to task-specific control or individual cognitive schemata. PMID:28278273

  15. PC viruses: How do they do that

    SciTech Connect

    Pichnarczyk, K.

    1992-07-01

    The topic of PC Viruses has been an issue for a number of years now. They've been reported in every major newspaper, tabloids, television and radio. People from all fields get viruses: government, private sector businesses, home computers, schools, computer software suppliers. A definition is proposed to introduce the virus phenomenon. Virus authors come from a variety of communities. Motives and ideologies of authors are discussed, and examples of viruses are offered. Also mentioned is the growing number of viruses developed, isolated, and never distributed to the public at large, but kept within the antivirus research community. Virus examples are offered as well. Viruses are distributed not only through bulletin boards and shareware, but also from areas previously assumed to be safe, including the threat of receiving a virus through a standard in-house function, such as an in-house hardware maintenance shop. Three categories of viruses are presented: File Infecter viruses, Boot Sector Infecters, and the new category of Directory Entry Infecter virus. Also discussed are crossover viruses, that is, viruses which utilize a variety of techniques to ensure survival. An explanation of what is occurring within every stage of various viruses is given. Replication strategies common to all three types is noted, mainly the two different replication strategies of memory resident infecters and active selection infecters. A detailed definition, description and application of a stealth virus is presented. Detection strategies are discussed as each topic in this section is completed; a high level schemata of the operation of various virus detection programs ispresented. Since most eradication today is done using virus detection/eradication software, this paper attempts to reveal the techniques used by these packages.Included in the paper is the topic of manual eradication.

  16. PC viruses: How do they do that?

    SciTech Connect

    Pichnarczyk, K.

    1992-07-01

    The topic of PC Viruses has been an issue for a number of years now. They`ve been reported in every major newspaper, tabloids, television and radio. People from all fields get viruses: government, private sector businesses, home computers, schools, computer software suppliers. A definition is proposed to introduce the virus phenomenon. Virus authors come from a variety of communities. Motives and ideologies of authors are discussed, and examples of viruses are offered. Also mentioned is the growing number of viruses developed, isolated, and never distributed to the public at large, but kept within the antivirus research community. Virus examples are offered as well. Viruses are distributed not only through bulletin boards and shareware, but also from areas previously assumed to be safe, including the threat of receiving a virus through a standard in-house function, such as an in-house hardware maintenance shop. Three categories of viruses are presented: File Infecter viruses, Boot Sector Infecters, and the new category of Directory Entry Infecter virus. Also discussed are crossover viruses, that is, viruses which utilize a variety of techniques to ensure survival. An explanation of what is occurring within every stage of various viruses is given. Replication strategies common to all three types is noted, mainly the two different replication strategies of memory resident infecters and active selection infecters. A detailed definition, description and application of a stealth virus is presented. Detection strategies are discussed as each topic in this section is completed; a high level schemata of the operation of various virus detection programs ispresented. Since most eradication today is done using virus detection/eradication software, this paper attempts to reveal the techniques used by these packages.Included in the paper is the topic of manual eradication.

  17. Effects of musical expertise and boundary markers on phrase perception in music.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, Christiane; Knösche, Thomas R; Friederici, Angela D

    2006-03-01

    A neural correlate for phrase boundary perception in music has recently been identified in musicians. It is called music closure positive shift ("music CPS") and has an equivalent in the perception of speech ("language CPS"). The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of musical expertise and different phrase boundary markers on the music CPS, using event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and event-related magnetic fields (ERFs). Musicians and nonmusicians were tested while listening to binary phrased melodies. ERPs and ERFs of both subject groups differed considerably from each other. Phrased melody versions evoked an electric CPS and a magnetic CPSm in musicians, but an early negativity and a less pronounced CPSm in nonmusicians, suggesting different perceptual strategies for both subject groups. Musicians seem to process musical phrases in a structured manner similar to language. Nonmusicians, in contrast, are thought to detect primarily discontinuity in the melodic input. Variations of acoustic cues in the vicinity of the phrase boundary reveal that the CPS is influenced by a number of parameters that are considered to indicate phrasing in melodies: pause length, length of the last tone preceding the pause, and harmonic function of this last tone. This is taken as evidence that the CPS mainly reflects higher cognitive processing of phrasing, rather than mere perception of pauses. Furthermore, results suggest that the ERP and MEG methods are sensitive to different aspects within phrase perception. For both subject groups, qualitatively different ERP components (CPS and early negativity) seem to reflect a top-down activation of general but different phrasing schemata, whereas quantitatively differing MEG signals appear to reflect gradual differences in the bottom-up processing of acoustic boundary markers.

  18. Sensory modality of smoking cues modulates neural cue reactivity.

    PubMed

    Yalachkov, Yavor; Kaiser, Jochen; Görres, Andreas; Seehaus, Arne; Naumer, Marcus J

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral experiments have demonstrated that the sensory modality of presentation modulates drug cue reactivity. The present study on nicotine addiction tested whether neural responses to smoking cues are modulated by the sensory modality of stimulus presentation. We measured brain activation using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 15 smokers and 15 nonsmokers while they viewed images of smoking paraphernalia and control objects and while they touched the same objects without seeing them. Haptically presented, smoking-related stimuli induced more pronounced neural cue reactivity than visual cues in the left dorsal striatum in smokers compared to nonsmokers. The severity of nicotine dependence correlated positively with the preference for haptically explored smoking cues in the left inferior parietal lobule/somatosensory cortex, right fusiform gyrus/inferior temporal cortex/cerebellum, hippocampus/parahippocampal gyrus, posterior cingulate cortex, and supplementary motor area. These observations are in line with the hypothesized role of the dorsal striatum for the expression of drug habits and the well-established concept of drug-related automatized schemata, since haptic perception is more closely linked to the corresponding object-specific action pattern than visual perception. Moreover, our findings demonstrate that with the growing severity of nicotine dependence, brain regions involved in object perception, memory, self-processing, and motor control exhibit an increasing preference for haptic over visual smoking cues. This difference was not found for control stimuli. Considering the sensory modality of the presented cues could serve to develop more reliable fMRI-specific biomarkers, more ecologically valid experimental designs, and more effective cue-exposure therapies of addiction.

  19. Externally and internally controlled attention in infants: an EEG study.

    PubMed

    Stroganova, T A; Orekhova, E V; Posikera, I N

    1998-11-01

    This work was designed to investigate EEG indices of Internally and Externally Controlled Attention in infancy. EEG was recorded in 15 infants aged 7-8 months under three experimental conditions: (1) visual attention to a new stimulation (Externally Controlled Attention or baseline condition); (2) attention guided by internal cognitive schemata during 'anticipatory' phase of the peek-a-boo game (Internally Controlled Attention); and (3) 'reappearance' phase of the peek-a-boo game when the experimenter talked and smiled to an infant (reappearance). The relative power (RP) in 4-5 single-Hz theta sub-band increased under both phases of the peek-a-boo game. The reactive changes of 4-5 single-Hz RP at prefrontal and frontal leads under the Internally Controlled Attention condition positively correlated with the total time during which an infant was able to maintain ICA. The RP in 5-6 single-Hz theta sub-band significantly increased only under the Internally Controlled Attention condition and did not correlate with the total time of this type of attention. The results support the concept of 'Diffuse Theta-Response System' that is active during expectancy and effortfully focused attention. In contrast to theta, the RP in 6-7, 7-8, and 8-9 single-Hz bands decreased during both phases of the game. The decrease was maximal at precentral leads and most probably reflected blockage of the sensorimotor (mu) rhythm due to higher motility and muscular tension in the game situation. It is concluded that EEG is an adequate vehicle for investigation of brain mechanisms of attention and voluntary control in infants.

  20. Effect of virtual reality exposure therapy on social participation in people with a psychotic disorder (VRETp): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Pot-Kolder, Roos; Veling, Wim; Geraets, Chris; van der Gaag, Mark

    2016-01-13

    Many patients with a psychotic disorder participate poorly in society. When psychotic disorders are in partial remission, feelings of paranoia, delusions of reference, social anxiety and self-stigmatization often remain at diminished severity and may lead to avoidance of places and people. Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) is an evidence-based treatment for several anxiety disorders. For patients with a psychotic disorder, the VRETp was developed to help them experience exposure to feared social situations. The present study aims to investigate the effects of VRETp on social participation in real life among patients with a psychotic disorder. The study is a single-blind randomized controlled trial with two conditions: the active condition, in which participants receive the virtual reality treatment together with treatment as usual (TAU), and the waiting list condition, in which participants receive TAU only. The two groups are compared at baseline, at 3 months posttreatment and at 6 months follow-up. All participants on the waiting list are also offered the virtual reality treatment after the follow-up measurements are completed. The primary outcome is social participation. Secondary outcomes are quality of life, interaction anxiety, depression and social functioning in general. Moderator and mediator analyses are conducted with stigma, cognitive schemata, cognitive biases, medication adherence, simulator sickness and presence in virtual reality. If effective, a cost-effectiveness analysis will be conducted. Results from the posttreatment measurement can be considered strong empirical indicators of the effectiveness of VRETp. The 6-month follow-up data may provide reliable documentation of the long-term effects of the treatment on the outcome variables. Data from pre-treatment and mid-treatment can be used to reveal possible pathways of change. Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN12929657 . Date of registration: 8 September 2015.

  1. Neuroanatomical correlates of category-specific semantic disorders: a critical survey.

    PubMed

    Gainotti, G; Silveri, M C; Daniele, A; Giustolisi, L

    1995-01-01

    Previous studies of category-specific semantic disturbances have focused their attention on the intrinsic cognitive structure of these disorders. The present survey aims to evaluate the relationships between disrupted semantic category and localisation of the underlying brain damage, in order to establish whether the injured brain areas house just those neurophysiological mechanisms that should have critically contributed to the acquisition of the disrupted semantic categories. We took into account in our review two double dissociations concerning respectively: (1) the impairment of a specific linguistic category--we contrast those disorders selectively affecting verbs (action names) with those selectively affecting nouns (object names); (2) the impairment of a specific conceptual/semantic domain--we contrast disorders selectively affecting living beings with those preferentially affecting man-made artefacts. The hypothesis that different categories of knowledge may be closely intertwined with different sources of sensory-motor information, was substantially confirmed. The lesion preferentially encroached on the left frontal lobe when the category "verbs" was selectively affected; it involved the left temporal lobe and the posterior association areas when the category "nouns" was preferentially disrupted; it involved bilateral temporo-limbic structures and inferior temporal lobes when the category "living beings" was selectively disrupted; it usually encroached on the left fronto-parietal areas when man-made artefacts and body parts were preferentially affected. These data support the hypothesis that: (a) action schemata may critically contribute to the development of the semantic representation of verbs, (b) mechanisms of sensory integration may play an important role in establishing the semantic representation of nouns; (c) high-level visual processing and multi-modal sensory convergency may critically contribute to organising the semantic representation of

  2. Teaching science problem solving: An overview of experimental work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taconis, R.; Ferguson-Hessler, M. G. M.; Broekkamp, H.

    2001-04-01

    The traditional approach to teaching science problem solving is having the students work individually on a large number of problems. This approach has long been overtaken by research suggesting and testing other methods, which are expected to be more effective. To get an overview of the characteristics of good and innovative problem-solving teaching strategies, we performed an analysis of a number of articles published between 1985 and 1995 in high-standard international journals, describing experimental research into the effectiveness of a wide variety of teaching strategies for science problem solving. To characterize the teaching strategies found, we used a model of the capacities needed for effective science problem solving, composed of a knowledge base and a skills base. The relations between the cognitive capacities required by the experimental or control treatments and those of the model were specified and used as independent variables. Other independent variables were learning conditions such as feedback and group work. As a dependent variable we used standardized learning effects. We identified 22 articles describing 40 experiments that met the standards we deemed necessary for a meta-analysis. These experiments were analyzed both with quantitative (correlational) methods and with a systematic qualitative method. A few of the independent variables were found to characterize effective strategies for teaching science problem solving. Effective treatments all gave attention to the structure and function (the schemata) of the knowledge base, whereas attention to knowledge of strategy and the practice of problem solving turned out to have little effect. As for learning conditions, both providing the learners with guidelines and criteria they can use in judging their own problem-solving process and products, and providing immediate feedback to them were found to be important prerequisites for the acquisition of problem-solving skills. Group work did not lead to

  3. Oceans of Data: In what ways can learning research inform the development of electronic interfaces and tools for use by students accessing large scientific databases?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krumhansl, R. A.; Foster, J.; Peach, C. L.; Busey, A.; Baker, I.

    2012-12-01

    The practice of science and engineering is being revolutionized by the development of cyberinfrastructure for accessing near real-time and archived observatory data. Large cyberinfrastructure projects have the potential to transform the way science is taught in high school classrooms, making enormous quantities of scientific data available, giving students opportunities to analyze and draw conclusions from many kinds of complex data, and providing students with experiences using state-of-the-art resources and techniques for scientific investigations. However, online interfaces to scientific data are built by scientists for scientists, and their design can significantly impede broad use by novices. Knowledge relevant to the design of student interfaces to complex scientific databases is broadly dispersed among disciplines ranging from cognitive science to computer science and cartography and is not easily accessible to designers of educational interfaces. To inform efforts at bridging scientific cyberinfrastructure to the high school classroom, Education Development Center, Inc. and the Scripps Institution of Oceanography conducted an NSF-funded 2-year interdisciplinary review of literature and expert opinion pertinent to making interfaces to large scientific databases accessible to and usable by precollege learners and their teachers. Project findings are grounded in the fundamentals of Cognitive Load Theory, Visual Perception, Schemata formation and Universal Design for Learning. The Knowledge Status Report (KSR) presents cross-cutting and visualization-specific guidelines that highlight how interface design features can address/ ameliorate challenges novice high school students face as they navigate complex databases to find data, and construct and look for patterns in maps, graphs, animations and other data visualizations. The guidelines present ways to make scientific databases more broadly accessible by: 1) adjusting the cognitive load imposed by the user

  4. Serious Games for Health: The Potential of Metadata.

    PubMed

    Göbel, Stefan; Maddison, Ralph

    2017-02-01

    Numerous serious games and health games exist, either as commercial products (typically with a focus on entertaining a broad user group) or smaller games and game prototypes, often resulting from research projects (typically tailored to a smaller user group with a specific health characteristic). A major drawback of existing health games is that they are not very well described and attributed with (machine-readable, quantitative, and qualitative) metadata such as the characterizing goal of the game, the target user group, or expected health effects well proven in scientific studies. This makes it difficult or even impossible for end users to find and select the most appropriate game for a specific situation (e.g., health needs). Therefore, the aim of this article was to motivate the need and potential/benefit of metadata for the description and retrieval of health games and to describe a descriptive model for the qualitative description of games for health. It was not the aim of the article to describe a stable, running system (portal) for health games. This will be addressed in future work. Building on previous work toward a metadata format for serious games, a descriptive model for the formal description of games for health is introduced. For the conceptualization of this model, classification schemata of different existing health game repositories are considered. The classification schema consists of three levels: a core set of mandatory descriptive fields relevant for all games for health application areas, a detailed level with more comprehensive, optional information about the games, and so-called extension as level three with specific descriptive elements relevant for dedicated health games application areas, for example, cardio training. A metadata format provides a technical framework to describe, find, and select appropriate health games matching the needs of the end user. Future steps to improve, apply, and promote the metadata format in the health games

  5. Temporal similarity measures for querying clinical workflows.

    PubMed

    Combi, Carlo; Gozzi, Matteo; Oliboni, Barbara; Juarez, Jose M; Marin, Roque

    2009-05-01

    In this paper, we extend a preliminary proposal and discuss in a deeper and more formal way an approach to evaluate temporal similarity between clinical workflow cases (i.e., executions of clinical processes). More precisely, we focus on (i) the representation of clinical processes by using a temporal conceptual workflow model; (ii) the definition of ad hoc temporal constraint networks to formally represent clinical workflow cases; (iii) the definition of temporal similarity for clinical workflow cases based on the comparison of temporal constraint networks; (iv) the management of the similarity of clinical processes related to the Italian guideline for stroke prevention and management (SPREAD). Clinical processes are composed by clinical activities to be done by given actors in a given order satisfying given temporal constraints. This description means that clinical processes can be seen as organizational processes, and modeled by workflow schemata. When a workflow schema represents a clinical process, its cases represent different instances derived from dealing with different patients in different situations. With respect to all the cases related to a workflow schema, each clinical case can be different with respect to its structure and to its temporal aspects. Clinical cases can be stored in clinical databases and information retrieval can be done evaluating the similarity between workflow cases. We first describe a possible approach to the conceptual modeling of a clinical process, by using a temporally extended workflow model. Then, we define how a workflow case can be represented as a set of activities, and show how to express them through temporal constraint networks. Once we have built temporal constraint networks related to the cases to compare, we propose a similarity function able to evaluate the differences between the considered cases with respect to the order and duration of corresponding activities, and with respect to the presence/absence of some

  6. Realizing the cognitive potential of children 5-7 with a mathematics focus: post-test and long-term effects of a 2-year intervention.

    PubMed

    Shayer, Michael; Adhami, Mundher

    2010-09-01

    In the context of the British Government's policy directed on improving standards in schools, this paper presents research on the effects of a programme intended to promote the cognitive development of children in the first 2 years of primary school (Y1 & 2, aged 5-7 years). The programme is based on earlier work dealing with classroom-based interventions with older children at both primary and secondary levels of schooling. The hypothesis tested is that it is possible to increase the cognitive ability of children by assisting teachers towards that aim in the context of mathematics. A corollary hypothesis is that such an increase would result in an increase in long-term school achievement. The participants were 8 teachers in one local education authority (LEA) and 10 teachers in another. Data were analysed on 275 children present at Year 1 pre-test in 2002 and at long-term Key Stage 2 post-test in 2008. Two intervention methods were employed: a Y1 set of interactive activities designed around Piagetian concrete operational schemata, and mathematics lessons in both Y1 and Y2 designed from a theory-base derived from both Piaget and Vygotsky. At post-test in 2004, the mean effect sizes for cognitive development of the children - assessed by the Piagetian test Spatial Relations - were 0.71 SD in one LEA and 0.60 SD in the other. Five classes achieved a median increase of 1.3 SD. The mean gains over pre-test in 2002 for all children in Key Stage 1 English in 2004 were 0.51 SD, and at Key Stage 2 English in 2008 - the long-term effect - were 0.36 SD, an improvement of 14 percentile points. The main hypothesis was supported by the data on cognitive development. The corollary hypothesis is supported by the gains in English. The implications of this study are that relative intelligence can be increased and is not fixed, and that children can be led into collaborating with each other to the benefit of their own thinking, and that there does exist a theory-based methodology

  7. How semantics can inform the geological mapping process and support intelligent queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardo, Vincenzo; Piana, Fabrizio; Mimmo, Dario

    2017-04-01

    The geologic mapping process requires the organization of data according to the general knowledge about the objects, namely the geologic units, and to the objectives of a graphic representation of such objects in a map, following an established model of geotectonic evolution. Semantics can greatly help such a process in two concerns: the provision of a terminological base to name and classify the objects of the map; on the other, the implementation of a machine-readable encoding of the geologic knowledge base supports the application of reasoning mechanisms and the derivation of novel properties and relations about the objects of the map. The OntoGeonous initiative has built a terminological base of geological knowledge in a machine-readable format, following the Semantic Web tenets and the Linked Data paradigm. The major knowledge sources of the OntoGeonous initiative are GeoScience Markup Language schemata and vocabularies (through its last version, GeoSciML 4, 2015, published by the IUGS CGI Commission) and the INSPIRE "Data Specification on Geology" directives (an operative simplification of GeoSciML, published by INSPIRE Thematic Working Group Geology of the European Commission). The Linked Data paradigm has been exploited by linking (without replicating, to avoid inconsistencies) the already existing machine-readable encoding for some specific domains, such as the lithology domain (vocabulary Simple Lithology) and the geochronologic time scale (ontology "gts"). Finally, for the upper level knowledge, shared across several geologic domains, we have resorted to NASA SWEET ontology. The OntoGeonous initiative has also produced a wiki that explains how the geologic knowledge has been encoded from shared geoscience vocabularies (https://www.di.unito.it/wikigeo/). In particular, the sections dedicated to axiomatization will support the construction of an appropriate data base schema that can be then filled with the objects of the map. This contribution will discuss

  8. Dual coding: a cognitive model for psychoanalytic research.

    PubMed

    Bucci, W

    1985-01-01

    Four theories of mental representation derived from current experimental work in cognitive psychology have been discussed in relation to psychoanalytic theory. These are: verbal mediation theory, in which language determines or mediates thought; perceptual dominance theory, in which imagistic structures are dominant; common code or propositional models, in which all information, perceptual or linguistic, is represented in an abstract, amodal code; and dual coding, in which nonverbal and verbal information are each encoded, in symbolic form, in separate systems specialized for such representation, and connected by a complex system of referential relations. The weight of current empirical evidence supports the dual code theory. However, psychoanalysis has implicitly accepted a mixed model-perceptual dominance theory applying to unconscious representation, and verbal mediation characterizing mature conscious waking thought. The characterization of psychoanalysis, by Schafer, Spence, and others, as a domain in which reality is constructed rather than discovered, reflects the application of this incomplete mixed model. The representations of experience in the patient's mind are seen as without structure of their own, needing to be organized by words, thus vulnerable to distortion or dissolution by the language of the analyst or the patient himself. In these terms, hypothesis testing becomes a meaningless pursuit; the propositions of the theory are no longer falsifiable; the analyst is always more or less "right." This paper suggests that the integrated dual code formulation provides a more coherent theoretical framework for psychoanalysis than the mixed model, with important implications for theory and technique. In terms of dual coding, the problem is not that the nonverbal representations are vulnerable to distortion by words, but that the words that pass back and forth between analyst and patient will not affect the nonverbal schemata at all. Using the dual code

  9. Incidental Memory of Younger and Older Adults for Objects Encountered in a Real World Context

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Xiaoyan; Bochsler, Tiana M.; Aizpurua, Alaitz; Cheong, Allen M. Y.; Koutstaal, Wilma; Legge, Gordon E.

    2014-01-01

    Effects of context on the perception of, and incidental memory for, real-world objects have predominantly been investigated in younger individuals, under conditions involving a single static viewpoint. We examined the effects of prior object context and object familiarity on both older and younger adults’ incidental memory for real objects encountered while they traversed a conference room. Recognition memory for context-typical and context-atypical objects was compared with a third group of unfamiliar objects that were not readily named and that had no strongly associated context. Both older and younger adults demonstrated a typicality effect, showing significantly lower 2-alternative-forced-choice recognition of context-typical than context-atypical objects; for these objects, the recognition of older adults either significantly exceeded, or numerically surpassed, that of younger adults. Testing-awareness elevated recognition but did not interact with age or with object type. Older adults showed significantly higher recognition for context-atypical objects than for unfamiliar objects that had no prior strongly associated context. The observation of a typicality effect in both age groups is consistent with preserved semantic schemata processing in aging. The incidental recognition advantage of older over younger adults for the context-typical and context-atypical objects may reflect aging-related differences in goal-related processing, with older adults under comparatively more novel circumstances being more likely to direct their attention to the external environment, or age-related differences in top-down effortful distraction regulation, with older individuals’ attention more readily captured by salient objects in the environment. Older adults’ reduced recognition of unfamiliar objects compared to context-atypical objects may reflect possible age differences in contextually driven expectancy violations. The latter finding underscores the theoretical and

  10. Prospective screening study of 0.5 Tesla dedicated magnetic resonance imaging for the detection of breast cancer in young, high-risk women

    PubMed Central

    Rubinstein, Wendy S; Latimer, Jean J; Sumkin, Jules H; Huerbin, Michelle; Grant, Stephen G; Vogel, Victor G

    2006-01-01

    Background Evidence-based screening guidelines are needed for women under 40 with a family history of breast cancer, a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation, or other risk factors. An accurate assessment of breast cancer risk is required to balance the benefits and risks of surveillance, yet published studies have used narrow risk assessment schemata for enrollment. Breast density limits the sensitivity of film-screen mammography but is not thought to pose a limitation to MRI, however the utility of MRI surveillance has not been specifically examined before in women with dense breasts. Also, all MRI surveillance studies yet reported have used high strength magnets that may not be practical for dedicated imaging in many breast centers. Medium strength 0.5 Tesla MRI may provide an alternative economic option for surveillance. Methods We conducted a prospective, nonrandomized pilot study of 30 women age 25–49 years with dense breasts evaluating the addition of 0.5 Tesla MRI to conventional screening. All participants had a high quantitative breast cancer risk, defined as ≥ 3.5% over the next 5 years per the Gail or BRCAPRO models, and/or a known BRCA1 or BRCA2 germline mutation. Results The average age at enrollment was 41.4 years and the average 5-year risk was 4.8%. Twenty-two subjects had BIRADS category 1 or 2 breast MRIs (negative or probably benign), whereas no category 4 or 5 MRIs (possibly or probably malignant) were observed. Eight subjects had BIRADS 3 results, identifying lesions that were "probably benign", yet prompting further evaluation. One of these subjects was diagnosed with a stage T1aN0M0 invasive ductal carcinoma, and later determined to be a BRCA1 mutation carrier. Conclusion Using medium-strength MRI we were able to detect 1 early breast tumor that was mammographically undetectable among 30 young high-risk women with dense breasts. These results support the concept that breast MRI can enhance surveillance for young high-risk women with dense breasts, and

  11. Elementary student and prospective teachers' agri-food system literacy: Understandings of agricultural and science education's goals for learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trexler, Cary Jay

    1999-09-01

    Although rhetoric abounds in the agricultural education literature regarding the public's dearth of agri-food system literacy, problems arise when establishing educational interventions to help ameliorate illiteracy. Researchers do not fully know what individuals understand about the complex agri-food system. Hence, educational programs and curricula may focus on areas where students already possess well developed and scientifically accurate schemata, while ignoring other areas where incompatible or naive understandings persist. Democratic decisions about complex societal and environmental issues, such as trade-offs of our industrial agri-food system, require individuals to possess understandings of complex interrelationships. This exploratory qualitative study determines what two groups---elementary students and prospective elementary school teachers---understand about selected concepts foundational to agri-food system literacy. To ground the study in current national education curricular standards, a synthesis of both agricultural and science education benchmarks was developed. This helped structure interviews with the study's informants: nine elementary students and nine prospective elementary teachers. Analysis of discourse was based upon a conceptual change methodology. Findings showed that informant background and non-school experiences were linked to agri-food system literacy, while formal, in-school learning was not. For elementary students, high socio-economic status, gardening and not living in urban areas were correlates with literacy; the prospective teacher group exhibited similar trends. Informants understood that food came from farms where plants and animals were raised. For the majority, however, farms were described as large gardens. Additionally, informants lacked a clear understanding of the roles soil and fertilizers play in crop production. Further, few spoke of weeds as competitors with crops for growth requirements. Informants understood that

  12. Facilitating case reuse during problem solving in algebra-based physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateycik, Frances Ann

    This research project investigates students' development of problem solving schemata while using strategies that facilitate the process of using solved examples to assist with a new problem (case reuse). Focus group learning interviews were used to explore students' perceptions and understanding of several problem solving strategies. Individual clinical interviews were conducted and quantitative examination data were collected to assess students' conceptual understanding, knowledge organization, and problem solving performance on a variety of problem tasks. The study began with a short one-time treatment of two independent, research-based strategies chosen to facilitate case reuse. Exploration of students' perceptions and use of the strategies lead investigators to select one of the two strategies to be implemented over a full semester of focus group interviews. The strategy chosen was structure mapping. Structure maps are defined as visual representations of quantities and their associations. They were created by experts to model the appropriate mental organization of knowledge elements for a given physical concept. Students were asked to use these maps as they were comfortable while problem solving. Data obtained from this phase of our study (Phase I) offered no evidence of improved problem solving schema. The 11 contact hour study was barely sufficient time for students to become comfortable using the maps. A set of simpler strategies were selected for their more explicit facilitation of analogical reasoning, and were used together during two more semester long focus group treatments (Phase II and Phase III of this study). These strategies included the use of a step-by-step process aimed at reducing cognitive load associated with mathematical procedure, direct reflection of principles involved in a given set of problems, and the direct comparison of problem pairs designed to be void of surface similarities (similar objects or object orientations) and sharing

  13. Advances in aircraft design: Multiobjective optimization and a markup language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, Shubhangi

    communication, and to improve efficiency and productivity within a multidisciplinary, collaborative environment. An important feature of the proposed schema is the very expressive and efficient low level schemata. As a proof of concept the schema is used to encode an entire Convair B58. As the complexity of models and number of disciplines increases, the reduction in effort to exchange data models and analysis results in ADML also increases.

  14. The NERC Vocabulary Server: Version 2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leadbetter, A.; Lowry, R.; Clements, O.

    2012-04-01

    The NERC Vocabulary Server (NVS) has been used to publish controlled vocabularies of terms relevant to the marine environmental sciences domain since 2006 (version 0) with version 1 being introduced in 2007. It has been used for • metadata mark-up with verifiable content • populating dynamic drop down lists • semantic cross-walk between metadata schemata • so-called smart search • and the semantic enablement of Open Geospatial Consortium Web Processing Services in projects including: the NERC Data Grid; SeaDataNet; Geo-Seas; and the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet). The NVS is based on the Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) model and following a version change for SKOS in 2009 there was a desire to upgrade the NVS to incorporate the changes in this standard. SKOS is based on the "concept", which it defines as a "unit of thought", that is an idea or notion such as "oil spill". The latest version of SKOS introduces the ability to aggregate concepts in both collections and schemes. The design of version 2 of the NVS uses both types of aggregation: schemes for the discovery of content through hierarchical thesauri and collections for the publication and addressing of content. Other desired changes from version 1 of the NVS included: • the removal of the potential for multiple Uniform Resource Names for the same concept to ensure consistent identification of concepts • the addition of content and technical governance information in the payload documents to provide an audit trail to users of NVS content • the removal of XML snippets from concept definitions in order to correctly validate XML serializations of the SKOS • the addition of the ability to map into external knowledge organization systems in order to extend the knowledge base • a more truly RESTful approach URL access to the NVS to make the development of applications on top of the NVS easier • and support for multiple human languages to increase the user

  15. Dismissing Attachment Characteristics Dynamically Modulate Brain Networks Subserving Social Aversion

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Anna Linda; Borchardt, Viola; Li, Meng; van Tol, Marie-José; Demenescu, Liliana Ramona; Strauss, Bernhard; Kirchmann, Helmut; Buchheim, Anna; Metzger, Coraline D.; Nolte, Tobias; Walter, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Attachment patterns influence actions, thoughts and feeling through a person’s “inner working model”. Speech charged with attachment-dependent content was proposed to modulate the activation of cognitive-emotional schemata in listeners. We performed a 7 Tesla rest-task-rest functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-experiment, presenting auditory narratives prototypical of dismissing attachment representations to investigate their effect on 23 healthy males. We then examined effects of participants’ attachment style and childhood trauma on brain state changes using seed-based functional connectivity (FC) analyses, and finally tested whether subjective differences in responsivity to narratives could be predicted by baseline network states. In comparison to a baseline state, we observed increased FC in a previously described “social aversion network” including dorsal anterior cingulated cortex (dACC) and left anterior middle temporal gyrus (aMTG) specifically after exposure to insecure-dismissing attachment narratives. Increased dACC-seeded FC within the social aversion network was positively related to the participants’ avoidant attachment style and presence of a history of childhood trauma. Anxious attachment style on the other hand was positively correlated with FC between the dACC and a region outside of the “social aversion network”, namely the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which suggests decreased network segregation as a function of anxious attachment. Finally, the extent of subjective experience of friendliness towards the dismissing narrative was predicted by low baseline FC-values between hippocampus and inferior parietal lobule (IPL). Taken together, our study demonstrates an activation of networks related to social aversion in terms of increased connectivity after listening to insecure-dismissing attachment narratives. A causal interrelation of brain state changes and subsequent changes in social reactivity was further supported by

  16. Manifestation of function-follow-form in cultured neuronal networks.

    PubMed

    Volman, Vladislav; Baruchi, Itay; Ben-Jacob, Eshel

    2005-06-01

    We expose hidden function-follow-form schemata in the recorded activity of cultured neuronal networks by comparing the activity with simulation results of a new modeling approach. Cultured networks grown from an arbitrary mixture of neuron and glia cells in the absence of external stimulations and chemical cues spontaneously form networks of different sizes (from 50 to several millions of neurons) that exhibit non-arbitrary complex spatio-temporal patterns of activity. The latter is marked by formation of a sequence of synchronized bursting events (SBEs)--short time windows (approximately 200 ms) of rapid neuron firing, separated by longer time intervals (seconds) of sporadic neuron firing. The new dynamical synapse and soma (DSS) model, used here, has been successful in generating sequences of SBEs with the same statistical scaling properties (over six time decades) as those of the small networks. Large networks generate statistically distinct sub-groups of SBEs, each with its own characteristic pattern of neuronal firing ('fingerprint'). This special function (activity) motif has been proposed to emanate from a structural (form) motif--self-organization of the large networks into a fabric of overlapping sub-networks of about 1 mm in size. Here we test this function-follow-form idea by investigating the influence of the connectivity architecture of a model network (form) on the structure of its spontaneous activity (function). We show that a repertoire of possible activity states similar to the observed ones can be generated by networks with proper underlying architecture. For example, networks composed of two overlapping sub-networks exhibit distinct types of SBEs, each with its own characteristic pattern of neuron activity that starts at a specific sub-network. We further show that it is possible to regulate the temporal appearance of the different sub-groups of SBEs by an additional non-synaptic current fed into the soma of the modeled neurons. The ability to

  17. Assessing Negative Automatic Thoughts: Psychometric Properties of the Turkish Version of the Cognition Checklist

    PubMed Central

    Batmaz, Sedat; Ahmet Yuncu, Ozgur; Kocbiyik, Sibel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Beck’s theory of emotional disorder suggests that negative automatic thoughts (NATs) and the underlying schemata affect one’s way of interpreting situations and result in maladaptive coping strategies. Depending on their content and meaning, NATs are associated with specific emotions, and since they are usually quite brief, patients are often more aware of the emotion they feel. This relationship between cognition and emotion, therefore, is thought to form the background of the cognitive content specificity hypothesis. Researchers focusing on this hypothesis have suggested that instruments like the cognition checklist (CCL) might be an alternative to make a diagnostic distinction between depression and anxiety. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the CCL in a psychiatric outpatient sample. Patients and Methods: A total of 425 psychiatric outpatients 18 years of age and older were recruited. After a structured diagnostic interview, the participants completed the hospital anxiety depression scale (HADS), the automatic thoughts questionnaire (ATQ), and the CCL. An exploratory factor analysis was performed, followed by an oblique rotation. The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and concurrent and discriminant validity analyses were undertaken. Results: The internal consistency of the CCL was excellent (Cronbach’s α = 0.95). The test-retest correlation coefficients were satisfactory (r = 0.80, P < 0.001 for CCL-D, and r = 0.79, P < 0.001 for CCL-A). The exploratory factor analysis revealed that a two-factor solution best fit the data. This bidimensional factor structure explained 51.27 % of the variance of the scale. The first factor consisted of items related to anxious cognitions, and the second factor of depressive cognitions. The CCL subscales significantly correlated with the ATQ (rs 0.44 for the CCL-D, and 0.32 for the CCL-A) as well as the other measures of

  18. Pathological 43-kDa Transactivation Response DNA-Binding Protein in Older Adults With and Without Severe Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Geser, Felix; Robinson, John L.; Malunda, Joseph A.; Xie, Sharon X.; Clark, Chris M.; Kwong, Linda K.; Moberg, Paul J.; Moore, Erika M.; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M.; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Arnold, Steven E.; Trojanowski, John Q.

    2011-01-01

    GRN variant of unknown significance (c.620T>C, p.Met207Thr) was found in 1 patient with schizophrenia with TDP-43 pathology. No known TARDBP mutations or other variants were found in any of the subjects studied herein. Conclusions The similar findings of TDP-43 pathology in elderly patients with severe mental illness and controls suggest common age-dependent TDP-43 changes in limbic brain areas that may signify that these regions are affected early in the course of a cerebral TDP-43 multisystem proteinopathy. Finally, our data provide an age-related baseline for the development of whole-brain pathological TDP-43 evolution schemata. PMID:20937952

  19. The clinician in the driver's seat: part 2 - intelligent uses of space in a drag/drop user-composable electronic health record.

    PubMed

    Senathirajah, Yalini; Kaufman, David; Bakken, Suzanne

    2014-12-01

    User-composable approaches provide clinicians with the control to design and assemble information elements on screen via drag/drop. They hold considerable promise for enhancing the electronic-health-records (EHRs) user experience. We previously described this novel approach to EHR design and our illustrative system, MedWISE. The purpose of this paper is to describe clinician users' intelligent uses of space during completion of real patient case studies in a laboratory setting using MedWISE. Thirteen clinicians at a quaternary academic medical center used the system to review four real patient cases. We analyzed clinician utterances, behaviors, screen layouts (i.e., interface designs), and their perceptions associated with completing patient case studies. Clinicians effectively used the system to review all cases. Two coding schemata pertaining to human-computer interaction and diagnostic reasoning were used to analyze the data. Users adopted three main interaction strategies: rapidly gathering items on screen and reviewing ('opportunistic selection' approach); creating highly structured screens ('structured' approach); and interacting with small groups of items in sequence as their case review progressed ('dynamic stage' approach). They also used spatial arrangement in ways predicted by theory and research on workplace spatial arrangement. This includes assignment of screen regions for particular purposes (24% of spatial codes), juxtaposition to facilitate calculation or other cognitive tasks ('epistemic action'), and grouping elements with common meanings or relevance to the diagnostic facets of the case (20.3%). A left-to-right progression of orienting materials, data, and action items or reflection space was a commonly observed pattern. Widget selection was based on user assessment of what information was useful or relevant. We developed and tested an illustrative system that gives clinicians greater control of the EHR, and demonstrated its feasibility for case

  20. Neural Correlates of Learning from Induced Insight: A Case for Reward-Based Episodic Encoding

    PubMed Central

    Kizilirmak, Jasmin M.; Thuerich, Hannes; Folta-Schoofs, Kristian; Schott, Björn H.; Richardson-Klavehn, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Experiencing insight when solving problems can improve memory formation for both the problem and its solution. The underlying neural processes involved in this kind of learning are, however, thus far insufficiently understood. Here, we conceptualized insight as the sudden understanding of a novel relationship between known stimuli that fits into existing knowledge and is accompanied by a positive emotional response. Hence, insight is thought to comprise associative novelty, schema congruency, and intrinsic reward, all of which are separately known to enhance memory performance. We examined the neural correlates of learning from induced insight with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) using our own version of the compound-remote-associates-task (CRAT) in which each item consists of three clue words and a solution word. (Pseudo-)Solution words were presented after a brief period of problem-solving attempts to induce either sudden comprehension (CRA items) or continued incomprehension (control items) at a specific time point. By comparing processing of the solution words of CRA with control items, we found induced insight to elicit activation of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex/medial prefrontal cortex (rACC/mPFC) and left hippocampus. This pattern of results lends support to the role of schema congruency (rACC/mPFC) and associative novelty (hippocampus) in the processing of induced insight. We propose that (1) the mPFC not only responds to schema-congruent information, but also to the detection of novel schemata, and (2) that the hippocampus responds to a form of associative novelty that is not just a novel constellation of familiar items, but rather comprises a novel meaningful relationship between the items—which was the only difference between our insight and no insight conditions. To investigate episodic long-term memory encoding, we compared CRA items whose solution word was recognized 24 h after encoding to those with forgotten solutions. We

  1. Visual-spatial thinking: An aspect of science overlooked by educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathewson, James H.

    1999-01-01

    mental schemata employed by self-aware human beings is a basic goal of education. The current attempt to impose integration using themes is criticized on the grounds that the required underpinning in cognitive skills and content knowledge by teachers and students may be absent. Teaching strategies that employ visual-spatial thinking are reviewed. Master images are recommended as a novel point of departure for a systematic development of programs on visual-spatial thinking in research, teacher education, curriculum, and classroom practice.

  2. CWRML: representing crop wild relative conservation and use data in XML

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Jonathan D; Kell, Shelagh P; Iriondo, Jose M; Ford-Lloyd, Brian V; Maxted, Nigel

    2008-01-01

    Background Crop wild relatives are wild species that are closely related to crops. They are valuable as potential gene donors for crop improvement and may help to ensure food security for the future. However, they are becoming increasingly threatened in the wild and are inadequately conserved, both in situ and ex situ. Information about the conservation status and utilisation potential of crop wild relatives is diverse and dispersed, and no single agreed standard exists for representing such information; yet, this information is vital to ensure these species are effectively conserved and utilised. The European Community-funded project, European Crop Wild Relative Diversity Assessment and Conservation Forum, determined the minimum information requirements for the conservation and utilisation of crop wild relatives and created the Crop Wild Relative Information System, incorporating an eXtensible Markup Language (XML) schema to aid data sharing and exchange. Results Crop Wild Relative Markup Language (CWRML) was developed to represent the data necessary for crop wild relative conservation and ensure that they can be effectively utilised for crop improvement. The schema partitions data into taxon-, site-, and population-specific elements, to allow for integration with other more general conservation biology schemata which may emerge as accepted standards in the future. These elements are composed of sub-elements, which are structured in order to facilitate the use of the schema in a variety of crop wild relative conservation and use contexts. Pre-existing standards for data representation in conservation biology were reviewed and incorporated into the schema as restrictions on element data contents, where appropriate. Conclusion CWRML provides a flexible data communication format for representing in situ and ex situ conservation status of individual taxa as well as their utilisation potential. The development of the schema highlights a number of instances where

  3. Prospective screening study of 0.5 Tesla dedicated magnetic resonance imaging for the detection of breast cancer in young, high-risk women.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, Wendy S; Latimer, Jean J; Sumkin, Jules H; Huerbin, Michelle; Grant, Stephen G; Vogel, Victor G

    2006-06-26

    Evidence-based screening guidelines are needed for women under 40 with a family history of breast cancer, a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation, or other risk factors. An accurate assessment of breast cancer risk is required to balance the benefits and risks of surveillance, yet published studies have used narrow risk assessment schemata for enrollment. Breast density limits the sensitivity of film-screen mammography but is not thought to pose a limitation to MRI, however the utility of MRI surveillance has not been specifically examined before in women with dense breasts. Also, all MRI surveillance studies yet reported have used high strength magnets that may not be practical for dedicated imaging in many breast centers. Medium strength 0.5 Tesla MRI may provide an alternative economic option for surveillance. We conducted a prospective, nonrandomized pilot study of 30 women age 25-49 years with dense breasts evaluating the addition of 0.5 Tesla MRI to conventional screening. All participants had a high quantitative breast cancer risk, defined as > or = 3.5% over the next 5 years per the Gail or BRCAPRO models, and/or a known BRCA1 or BRCA2 germline mutation. The average age at enrollment was 41.4 years and the average 5-year risk was 4.8%. Twenty-two subjects had BIRADS category 1 or 2 breast MRIs (negative or probably benign), whereas no category 4 or 5 MRIs (possibly or probably malignant) were observed. Eight subjects had BIRADS 3 results, identifying lesions that were "probably benign", yet prompting further evaluation. One of these subjects was diagnosed with a stage T1aN0M0 invasive ductal carcinoma, and later determined to be a BRCA1 mutation carrier. Using medium-strength MRI we were able to detect 1 early breast tumor that was mammographically undetectable among 30 young high-risk women with dense breasts. These results support the concept that breast MRI can enhance surveillance for young high-risk women with dense breasts, and further suggest that a medium

  4. Molecular conformation of clusters by genetic algorithm using spatial operators and unlabeled distance data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherba, David M.

    based on a schemata like set of building blocks constructed from subgraphs of limited size where the bonds represent edges and the atoms are nodes. From this analysis, it is possible to show the construction of larger and more numerous building blocks by crossover and at the same time extract the requirements for good exploration. Local search will be utilized, so that the genetic algorithm operators focus on the construction of building blocks and exploration.

  5. Cognitive Load and Self-Determination Theories Applied to E-Learning: Impact on Students' Participation and Academic Performance

    PubMed Central

    de Araujo Guerra Grangeia, Tiago; de Jorge, Bruno; Franci, Daniel; Martins Santos, Thiago; Vellutini Setubal, Maria Silvia; Schweller, Marcelo; de Carvalho-Filho, Marco Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Background Emergency clerkships expose students to a stressful environment that require multiple tasks, which may have a direct impact on cognitive load and motivation for learning. To address this challenge, Cognitive Load Theory and Self Determination Theory provided the conceptual frameworks to the development of a Moodle-based online Emergency Medicine course, inspired by real clinical cases. Methods Three consecutive classes (2013–2015) of sixth-year medical students (n = 304) participated in the course, during a curricular and essentially practical emergency rotation. “Virtual Rounds” provided weekly virtual patients in narrative format and meaningful schemata to chief complaints, in order to simulate real rounds at Emergency Unit. Additional activities such as Extreme Decisions, Emergency Quiz and Electrocardiographic challenge offered different views of emergency care. Authors assessed student´s participation and its correlation with their academic performance. A survey evaluated students´ opinions. Students graduating in 2015 answered an online questionnaire to investigate cognitive load and motivation. Results Each student produced 1965 pageviews and spent 72 hours logged on. Although Clinical Emergency rotation has two months long, students accessed the online course during an average of 5.3 months. Virtual Rounds was the most accessed activity, and there was positive correlations between the number of hours logged on the platform and final grades on Emergency Medicine. Over 90% of students felt an improvement in their clinical reasoning and considered themselves better prepared for rendering Emergency care. Considering a Likert scale from 1 (minimum load) to 7 (maximum load), the scores for total cognitive load were 4.79±2.2 for Virtual Rounds and 5.56±1.96 for real medical rounds(p<0,01). Conclusions A real-world inspired online course, based on cognitive and motivational conceptual frameworks, seems to be a strong tool to engage students in

  6. The XML Metadata Editor of GFZ Data Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulbricht, Damian; Elger, Kirsten; Tesei, Telemaco; Trippanera, Daniele

    2017-04-01

    Following the FAIR data principles, research data should be Findable, Accessible, Interoperable and Reuseable. Publishing data under these principles requires to assign persistent identifiers to the data and to generate rich machine-actionable metadata. To increase the interoperability, metadata should include shared vocabularies and crosslink the newly published (meta)data and related material. However, structured metadata formats tend to be complex and are not intended to be generated by individual scientists. Software solutions are needed that support scientists in providing metadata describing their data. To facilitate data publication activities of 'GFZ Data Services', we programmed an XML metadata editor that assists scientists to create metadata in different schemata popular in the earth sciences (ISO19115, DIF, DataCite), while being at the same time usable by and understandable for scientists. Emphasis is placed on removing barriers, in particular the editor is publicly available on the internet without registration [1] and the scientists are not requested to provide information that may be generated automatically (e.g. the URL of a specific licence or the contact information of the metadata distributor). Metadata are stored in browser cookies and a copy can be saved to the local hard disk. To improve usability, form fields are translated into the scientific language, e.g. 'creators' of the DataCite schema are called 'authors'. To assist filling in the form, we make use of drop down menus for small vocabulary lists and offer a search facility for large thesauri. Explanations to form fields and definitions of vocabulary terms are provided in pop-up windows and a full documentation is available for download via the help menu. In addition, multiple geospatial references can be entered via an interactive mapping tool, which helps to minimize problems with different conventions to provide latitudes and longitudes. Currently, we are extending the metadata editor

  7. Ontological Encoding of GeoSciML and INSPIRE geological standard vocabularies and schemas: application to geological mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardo, Vincenzo; Piana, Fabrizio; Mimmo, Dario; Fubelli, Giandomenico; Giardino, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Encoding of geologic knowledge in formal languages is an ambitious task, aiming at the interoperability and organic representation of geological data, and semantic characterization of geologic maps. Initiatives such as GeoScience Markup Language (last version is GeoSciML 4, 2015[1]) and INSPIRE "Data Specification on Geology" (an operative simplification of GeoSciML, last version is 3.0 rc3, 2013[2]), as well as the recent terminological shepherding of the Geoscience Terminology Working Group (GTWG[3]) have been promoting information exchange of the geologic knowledge. There have also been limited attempts to encode the knowledge in a machine-readable format, especially in the lithology domain (see e.g. the CGI_Lithology ontology[4]), but a comprehensive ontological model that connect the several knowledge sources is still lacking. This presentation concerns the "OntoGeonous" initiative, which aims at encoding the geologic knowledge, as expressed through the standard vocabularies, schemas and data models mentioned above, through a number of interlinked computational ontologies, based on the languages of the Semantic Web and the paradigm of Linked Open Data. The initiative proceeds in parallel with a concrete case study, concerning the setting up of a synthetic digital geological map of the Piemonte region (NW Italy), named "GEOPiemonteMap" (developed by the CNR Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources, CNR IGG, Torino), where the description and classification of GeologicUnits has been supported by the modeling and implementation of the ontologies. We have devised a tripartite ontological model called OntoGeonous that consists of: 1) an ontology of the geologic features (in particular, GeologicUnit, GeomorphologicFeature, and GeologicStructure[5], modeled from the definitions and UML schemata of CGI vocabularies[6], GeoScienceML and INSPIRE, and aligned with the Planetary realm of NASA SWEET ontology[7]), 2) an ontology of the Earth materials (as defined by the

  8. SU-C-BRE-02: BED Vs. Local Control: Radiobiological Effect of Tumor Volume in Monte Carlo (MC) Lung SBRT Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Pokhrel, D; Badkul, R; Jiang, H; Estes, C; Park, J; Kumar, P; Wang, F

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: SBRT with hypofractionated dose schemata has emerged a compelling treatment modality for medically inoperable early stage lung cancer patients. It requires more accurate dose calculation and treatment delivery technique. This report presents the relationship between tumor control probability(TCP) and size-adjusted biological effective dose(sBED) of tumor volume for MC lung SBRT patients. Methods: Fifteen patients who were treated with MC-based lung SBRT to 50Gy in 5 fractions to PTVV100%=95% were studied. ITVs were delineated on MIP images of 4DCT-scans. PTVs diameter(ITV+5mm margins) ranged from 2.7–4.9cm (mean 3.7cm). Plans were generated using non-coplanar conformal arcs/beams using iPlan XVMC algorithm (BrainLABiPlan ver.4.1.2) for Novalis-TX with HD-MLCs and 6MVSRS(1000MU/min) mode, following RTOG-0813 dosimetric guidelines. To understand the known uncertainties of conventional heterogeneities-corrected/uncorrected pencil beam (PBhete/ PB-homo) algorithms, dose distributions were re-calculated with PBhete/ PB-homo using same beam configurations, MLCs and monitor units. Biologically effective dose(BED10) was computed using LQ-model with α/β=10Gy for meanPTV and meanITV. BED10-c*L, gave size-adjusted BED(sBED), where c=10Gy/cm and L=PTV diameter in centimeter. The TCP model was adopted from Ohri et al.(IJROBP, 2012): TCP = exp[sBEDTCD50]/ k /(1.0 + exp[sBED-TCD50]/k), where k=31Gy corresponding to TCD50=0Gy; and more realistic MC-based TCP was computed for PTV(V99%). Results: Mean PTV PB-hete TCP value was 6% higher, but, mean PTV PB-homo TCP value was 4% lower compared to mean PTV MC TCP. Mean ITV PB-hete/PB-homo TCP values were comparable (within ±3.0%) to mean ITV MC TCP. The mean PTV(V99%)had BED10=90.9±3.7%(median=92.2%),sBED=54.1±8.2%(median=53.5%) corresponding to mean MC TCP value of 84.8±3.3%(median=84.9%) at 2- year local control. Conclusion: The TCP model which incorporates BED10 and tumor diameter indicates that radiobiological

  9. The NERC Vocabulary Server: Version 2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leadbetter, A. M.; Lowry, R. K.

    2012-12-01

    The Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) Vocabulary Server (NVS) has been used to publish controlled vocabularies of terms relevant to marine environmental sciences since 2006 (version 0) with version 1 being introduced in 2007. It has been used for - metadata mark-up with verifiable content - populating dynamic drop down lists - semantic cross-walk between metadata schemata - so-called smart search - and the semantic enablement of Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Processing Services in the NERC Data Grid and the European Commission SeaDataNet, Geo-Seas, and European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) projects. The NVS is based on the Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) model. SKOS is based on the "concept", which it defines as a "unit of thought", that is an idea or notion such as "oil spill". Following a version change for SKOS in 2009 there was a desire to upgrade the NVS to incorporate the changes. This version of SKOS introduces the ability to aggregate concepts in both collections and schemes. The design of version 2 of the NVS uses both types of aggregation: schemes for the discovery of content through hierarchical thesauri and collections for the publication and addressing of content. Other desired changes from version 1 of the NVS included: - the removal of the potential for multiple identifiers for the same concept to ensure consistent addressing of concepts - the addition of content and technical governance information in the payload documents to provide an audit trail to users of NVS content - the removal of XML snippets from concept definitions in order to correctly validate XML serializations of the SKOS - the addition of the ability to map into external knowledge organization systems in order to extend the knowledge base - a more truly RESTful approach URL access to the NVS to make the development of applications on top of the NVS easier - and support for multiple human languages to increase the user base of the NVS

  10. Development of the Large-Scale Statistical Analysis System of Satellites Observations Data with Grid Datafarm Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, K.; Murata, K.; Kimura, E.; Honda, R.

    2006-12-01

    number of files and the elapsed time, parallel and distributed processing shorten the elapsed time to 1/5 than sequential processing. On the other hand, sequential processing times were shortened in another experiment, whose file size is smaller than 100KB. In this case, the elapsed time to scan one file is within one second. It implies that disk swap took place in case of parallel processing by each node. We note that the operation became unstable when the number of the files exceeded 1000. To overcome the problem (iii), we developed an original data class. This class supports our reading of data files with various data formats since it converts them into an original data format since it defines schemata for every type of data and encapsulates the structure of data files. In addition, since this class provides a function of time re-sampling, users can easily convert multiple data (array) with different time resolution into the same time resolution array. Finally, using the Gfarm, we achieved a high performance environment for large-scale statistical data analyses. It should be noted that the present method is effective only when one data file size is large enough. At present, we are restructuring the new Gfarm environment with 8 nodes: CPU is Athlon 64 x2 Dual Core 2GHz, 2GB memory and 1.2TB disk (using RAID0) for each node. Our original class is to be implemented on the new Gfarm environment. In the present talk, we show the latest results with applying the present system for data analyses with huge number of satellite observation data files.

  11. Re-using the DataCite Metadata Store as DOI registration proxy and IGSN registry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klump, J.; Ulbricht, D.

    2012-12-01

    Currently a lot of work is done to stimulate the reuse of data. In joint efforts research institutions establish infrastructure to facilitate the publication of scientific datasets. To create a citable reference, these datasets must be tagged with persistent identifiers (DOIs) and described with metadata. As most data in the geosciences are derived from samples, it is crucial to be able to uniquely identify the samples from which a set of data were derived. Incomplete documentation of samples in publications, use of ambiguous sample names are major obstacles for synthesis studies and re-use of data. Access to samples for re-analysis and re-appraisal is limited due to the lack of a central catalogue that allows finding a sample's archiving location. The International Geo Sample Number (IGSN) [1] provides solutions to the questions of unique sample identification and discovery. Use of the IGSN in digital data systems allows building linkages between the digital representation of samples in sample registries, e.g. SESAR [2], and their related data in the literature and in web accessible digital data repositories. DataCite recently decided to publish their metadata store (DataCite MDS) and accompanying software online [3]. The DataCite software allows registration of handles, deposition of metadata in an XML format, it offers a search interface, and is able to disseminate metadata via OAI-PMH. Its, REST interface allows an easy integration into institutional data work flows. For our applications at GFZ Potsdam we modified the DataCite MDS software for reuse it in two different contexts: as the DOIDB web service for data publications and as the IGSN registry web service for the registration of geological samples. The DOIDB acts as a proxy service to the DataCite Metadata Store and uses its REST-Interface for registration of DataCite DOI and associated DOI metadata. Metadata can be deposited in the DataCite or NASA DIF schema. Both schemata can be disseminated via OAI

  12. Bottom-up capacity building for data providers in RITMARE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepe, Monica; Basoni, Anna; Bastianini, Mauro; Fugazza, Cristiano; Menegon, Stefano; Oggioni, Alessandro; Pavesi, Fabio; Sarretta, Alessandro; Carrara, Paola

    2014-05-01

    defined for the specific category of data (WMS, WFS, WCS, and SOS). Resources are annotated by fine-grained metadata that is compliant with standards (e.g., INSPIRE, SensorML) and also semantically enriched by leveraging controlled vocabularies and RDF-based data structures (e.g., the FOAF description of the project's organisation). The Starter Kit is packaged as an off-the-shelf virtual machine and is made available under an open license (GPL v.3) and with extensive support tools. Among the most innovative features of the architecture is the user-friendly, extensible approach to metadata creation. On the one hand, the number of metadata items that need to be provided by the user is reduced to the minimum by recourse to controlled vocabularies and context information. The semantic underpinning of these data structures enables advanced discovery functionalities. On the other hand, the templating mechanism adopted in metadata editing allows to easily plug-in further schemata. The Starter Kit provides a consistent framework for capacity building that brings the heterogeneous actors in the project under the same umbrella, while preserving the individual practices, formats, and workflows. At the same time, users are empowered with standard-compliant web services that can be discovered and accessed both locally and remotely, such as the RITMARE infrastructure itself. [1] Carrara, P., Sarretta, A., Giorgetti, A., Ribera D'Alcalà, M., Oggioni, A., & Partescano, E. (2013). An interoperable infrastructure for the Italian Marine Research. IMDIS 2013 [2] European Commission, "Establishing an Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community (INSPIRE)" Directive 2007/2/EC, Official J. European Union, vol. 50, no. L 108, 2007, pp. 1-14.

  13. Life history strategies in zooplankton communities: The significance of female gonad morphology and maturation types for the reproductive biology of marine calanoid copepods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niehoff, Barbara

    2007-07-01

    species, Clausocalanus farrani and C. furcatus. In contrast, other calanoid species exhibit reproductive cycles, either related to temperature ( Ctenocalanus vanus) or to ontogenetic migration ( Rhincalanus nasutus). The information gained from studies of morphology and reproductive traits contributes to standardization of methods in reproductive studies. Based on detailed knowledge of gonad morphology and its changes during maturation and due to food supply, classification schemata have been developed allowing the identification of females ready to spawn. In a next step, egg production may be estimated from preserved females by assessing clutch size through the number of maturing oocytes in the gonads. This approach, however, is as yet applicable only to the species best studied, Calanus finmarchicus. The present review shows that morphological studies on gonad maturation processes may provide significant contributions to fundamental ecological questions. Thus, they extend our knowledge of reproductive ecology from simply relating reproductive traits to abiotic and biotic factors toward a mechanistic understanding of how reproduction is regulated in calanoid copepods.