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Sample records for bearbeitung dysfunktionaler schemata

  1. Using Schemata for Diagnosis*

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Roy M.

    1988-01-01

    Medical diagnosis is a planning task in which the operators are actions such as asking for information and drawing an inference. Diagnosis involves interleaving planning and plan execution, since information gathered by the diagnostician may change the future course of diagnosis. In this paper we present an approach to computer-based medical diagnosis called schema-based reasoning. This approach represents the reasoner's planning knowledge as packets of procedural information called schemata; each schema can be applied to achieve a goal. Schemata are retrieved using the goals and other features of a consultation. To facilitate opportunism and reactive planning, several schemata can be active at once. The reasoner switches between them as needed, using information about the consultation and using strategies that are represented as strategic schemata. Our approach is implemented in the MEDIO program, a schema-based diagnostic reasoner whose domain is pulmonology.

  2. Reformulating Children's Gender Schemata.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liben, Lynn S.; Bigler, Rebecca S.

    1987-01-01

    Takes the position that despite changes in society and in the ways that researchers conceptualize gender schemata, stereotypes about occupations persist. Questions to what extent experimental interventions have been successful, and considers how intervention and intervention goals should be reformulated for the future. (Author/RWB)

  3. Dual-Schemata Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Tadahiro; Sawaragi, Tetsuo

    In this paper, a new machine-learning method, called Dual-Schemata model, is presented. Dual-Schemata model is a kind of self-organizational machine learning methods for an autonomous robot interacting with an unknown dynamical environment. This is based on Piaget's Schema model, that is a classical psychological model to explain memory and cognitive development of human beings. Our Dual-Schemata model is developed as a computational model of Piaget's Schema model, especially focusing on sensori-motor developing period. This developmental process is characterized by a couple of two mutually-interacting dynamics; one is a dynamics formed by assimilation and accommodation, and the other dynamics is formed by equilibration and differentiation. By these dynamics schema system enables an agent to act well in a real world. This schema's differentiation process corresponds to a symbol formation process occurring within an autonomous agent when it interacts with an unknown, dynamically changing environment. Experiment results obtained from an autonomous facial robot in which our model is embedded are presented; an autonomous facial robot becomes able to chase a ball moving in various ways without any rewards nor teaching signals from outside. Moreover, emergence of concepts on the target movements within a robot is shown and discussed in terms of fuzzy logics on set-subset inclusive relationships.

  4. Critical Thinking: Schemata vs. Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandhorst, Allan R.

    1989-01-01

    Refutes the idea that critical thinking is not a skill by analyzing it from the phenomenological perspective of Edmund Husserl, and from the hermeneutic perspective of Martin Heidegger. Develops the thesis that critical thinking is a restructuring of schemata. Addresses the problem of attention or student engagement. (LS)

  5. Self-Schemata and the Processing of Attitudinal Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidera, Joseph A.; And Others

    A two-session experiment was conducted to test the relationship of self-schemata to the processing of attitudinal information. In Session I, subjects were classified as either Religious (n=20) or Legal (n=19) in their schemata, using weighted response times to personality trait words on slides. In Session II, these subjects heard one of four…

  6. Controllability in Temporal Conceptual Workflow Schemata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combi, Carlo; Posenato, Roberto

    Workflow technology has emerged as one of the leading technologies in modelling, redesigning, and executing business processes. Currently available workflow management systems (WfMS) and research prototypes offer a very limited support for the definition, detection, and management of temporal constraints over business processes. In this paper, we propose a new advanced workflow conceptual model for expressing time constraints in business processes and, in particular, we introduce and discuss the concept of controllability for workflow schemata and its evaluation at process design time. Controllability refers to the capability of executing a workflow for any possible duration of tasks. Since in several situations durations of tasks cannot be decided by WfMSs, even tough the minimum and the maximum durations for each task are known, checking controllability is stronger than verifying the consistency of the workflow temporal constraints.

  7. Healthcare Informatics Schemata: A Paradigm Shift over Time.

    PubMed

    Erdley, W Scott

    2016-01-01

    The schemata "A paradigm shift over time©" (Sackett & Erdley, 2006) a graphic model, visualizes development and progression of informatics in health over time. The model portrays information technology trends, from computers as resource through computational ubiquity, and the shift to social networking and e-Health. The discrepancy between "real" and "proposed" suggests gaps involving issues such as value, interoperability and ontology requiring attention, development and ultimately adoption, hinging on a universal standards framework. The workshop objective is to review previous and current models of healthcare informatics to springboard revisions of the schemata for current and future use. PMID:27332341

  8. Content Schemata, Linguistic Simplification, and EFL Readers' Comprehension and Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keshavarz, Mohammad Hossein; Atai, Mahmoud Reza; Ahmadi, Hossein

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of linguistic simplification and content schemata on reading comprehension and recall. The participants, 240 Iranian male students of English as a foreign language (EFL), were divided into 4 homogeneous groups, each consisting of 60 participants (30 with high proficiency and 30 with low proficiency). To elicit…

  9. Cultural Schemata--Yardstick for Measuring Others: Implications for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plata, Maximino

    2011-01-01

    Classroom teachers' cultural schemata become important factors when they use them as the standard or yardstick to instruct culturally, linguistically, and economically diverse (CLED) students. However, when teachers' yardstick is comprised of limited cross-cultural knowledge and experiences, they cannot gauge the true learning potential of CLED…

  10. Couple Support Schemata in Couples with and without Spinal Cord Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilad, Dvorit; Lavee, Yoav

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the cognitive schemata of couples' support relationships among 65 couples in which the husband had a long-term spinal cord injury and 65 couples without disability. The structure of the support relations schemata were examined by means of smallest-space analysis. Similarities between men and women in couples with and without…

  11. The Development of Cognitive Schemata in Children (Birth to 12 Years Old) of Depressed Parents: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Dean John

    One of the ways in which children of depressed parents are affected is in the area of cognitive schemata. In cognitive behavioral theory, schemata drive emotions and therefore influence behavior. Subsequently, a better understanding of the cognitive schemata of children of depressed parents is attempted in this paper. It offers a review of the…

  12. Constructing the context through goals and schemata: top-down processes in comprehension and beyond.

    PubMed

    Mazzone, Marco

    2015-01-01

    My main purpose here is to provide an account of context selection in utterance understanding in terms of the role played by schemata and goals in top-down processing. The general idea is that information is organized hierarchically, with items iteratively organized in chunks-here called "schemata"-at multiple levels, so that the activation of any items spreads to schemata that are the most accessible due to previous experience. The activation of a schema, in turn, activates its other components, so as to predict a likely context for the original item. Since each input activates its own schemata, conflicting schemata compete with (and inhibit) each other, while multiple activations of a schema raise its likelihood to win the competition. There is therefore a double movement-with bottom-up activation of schemata enabling top-down prediction of other contextual components-triggered by multiple sources. Another claim of the paper is that goals are represented by schemata placed at the highest-levels of the executive hierarchy, in accordance with Fuster's model of the brain as a hierarchically organized perception-action cycle. This account can be considered, in part at least, a development of ideas contained in Relevance Theory, though it may imply that some other claims of the theory are in need of revision. Therefore, a secondary purpose of the paper is a contribution to the analysis of that theory.

  13. Constructing the context through goals and schemata: top-down processes in comprehension and beyond.

    PubMed

    Mazzone, Marco

    2015-01-01

    My main purpose here is to provide an account of context selection in utterance understanding in terms of the role played by schemata and goals in top-down processing. The general idea is that information is organized hierarchically, with items iteratively organized in chunks-here called "schemata"-at multiple levels, so that the activation of any items spreads to schemata that are the most accessible due to previous experience. The activation of a schema, in turn, activates its other components, so as to predict a likely context for the original item. Since each input activates its own schemata, conflicting schemata compete with (and inhibit) each other, while multiple activations of a schema raise its likelihood to win the competition. There is therefore a double movement-with bottom-up activation of schemata enabling top-down prediction of other contextual components-triggered by multiple sources. Another claim of the paper is that goals are represented by schemata placed at the highest-levels of the executive hierarchy, in accordance with Fuster's model of the brain as a hierarchically organized perception-action cycle. This account can be considered, in part at least, a development of ideas contained in Relevance Theory, though it may imply that some other claims of the theory are in need of revision. Therefore, a secondary purpose of the paper is a contribution to the analysis of that theory. PMID:26042077

  14. Comments on "The Acquisition of Propositional Logic and Formal Operational Schemata during the Secondary School Years."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treagust, David F.

    1979-01-01

    Comments on the study reported by Lawson, Karplus, and Adi (1978) which indicated that formal schemata and propositional logic are not part of the same structured unity of mental operations proposed by Piaget. (HM)

  15. Constructing the context through goals and schemata: top-down processes in comprehension and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Mazzone, Marco

    2015-01-01

    My main purpose here is to provide an account of context selection in utterance understanding in terms of the role played by schemata and goals in top-down processing. The general idea is that information is organized hierarchically, with items iteratively organized in chunks—here called “schemata”—at multiple levels, so that the activation of any items spreads to schemata that are the most accessible due to previous experience. The activation of a schema, in turn, activates its other components, so as to predict a likely context for the original item. Since each input activates its own schemata, conflicting schemata compete with (and inhibit) each other, while multiple activations of a schema raise its likelihood to win the competition. There is therefore a double movement—with bottom-up activation of schemata enabling top-down prediction of other contextual components—triggered by multiple sources. Another claim of the paper is that goals are represented by schemata placed at the highest-levels of the executive hierarchy, in accordance with Fuster’s model of the brain as a hierarchically organized perception-action cycle. This account can be considered, in part at least, a development of ideas contained in Relevance Theory, though it may imply that some other claims of the theory are in need of revision. Therefore, a secondary purpose of the paper is a contribution to the analysis of that theory. PMID:26042077

  16. Multiresolutional schemata for unsupervised learning of autonomous robots for 3D space operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacaze, Alberto; Meystel, Michael; Meystel, Alex

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a novel approach to the development of a learning control system for autonomous space robot (ASR) which presents the ASR as a 'baby' -- that is, a system with no a priori knowledge of the world in which it operates, but with behavior acquisition techniques that allows it to build this knowledge from the experiences of actions within a particular environment (we will call it an Astro-baby). The learning techniques are rooted in the recursive algorithm for inductive generation of nested schemata molded from processes of early cognitive development in humans. The algorithm extracts data from the environment and by means of correlation and abduction, it creates schemata that are used for control. This system is robust enough to deal with a constantly changing environment because such changes provoke the creation of new schemata by generalizing from experiences, while still maintaining minimal computational complexity, thanks to the system's multiresolutional nature.

  17. Verbalization of Schemata Over Time: Investigation of Changes for Fifth Graders and Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Ruth

    Studies of 42 fifth-grade students and 36 college undergraduates were conducted to test changes in verbalizations of schemata over time and in response to informational jolts. In both experiments, subjects were asked to write everything they could think of about dinosaurs and then to put those ideas in order of importance. Two weeks later, the…

  18. Racial versus Sexual Differentiation in Social Schemata of Children Attending Integrated and Nonintegrated Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Dewitt C.

    1978-01-01

    Racial and sexual distinctions in social schemata of 328 second grade children were examined in this study. Photographs of Black and White male and female children were presented in three-picture sets, and subjects were asked to pair two of the pictures and separate the third. All groups paired photographs more often on race than on sex. (SE)

  19. Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms, Perceived Stress, and Well-Being: The Role of Early Maladaptive Schemata.

    PubMed

    Miklósi, Mónika; Máté, Orsolya; Somogyi, Klára; Szabó, Marianna

    2016-05-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent chronic neuropsychiatric disorders, severely affecting the emotional well-being of children as well as of adults. It has been suggested that individuals who experience symptoms of ADHD develop maladaptive schemata of failure, impaired self-discipline, social isolation, and shame. These schemata may then contribute to impaired emotional well-being by increasing unhelpful responses to stressful life events. However, to date, no empirical research has tested this theoretical proposition. In a sample of 204 nonclinical adults, we conducted a serial multiple mediator analysis, which supported the proposed model. More severe ADHD symptoms were associated with higher levels of perceived stress both directly and indirectly through stronger maladaptive schemata, which, in turn, were related to lower levels of emotional well-being. Results suggest that identifying and modifying maladaptive schemata may be an important addition to psychotherapy for adult ADHD patients. PMID:26825377

  20. The rate of acquisition of formal operational schemata in adolescence: A secondary analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckstein, Shulamith G.; Shemesh, Michal

    A theoretical model of cognitive development is applied to the study of the acquisition of formal operational schemata by adolescents. The model predicts that the proportion of adolescents who have not yet acquired the ability to perform a a specific Piagetian-like task is an exponentially decreasing function of age. The model has been used to analyze the data of two large-scale studies performed in the United States and in Israel. The functional dependence upon age was found to be the same in both countries for tasks which are used to assess the following formal operations: proportional reasoning, probabilistic reasoning, correlations, and combinatorial analysis. Different functional dependence was found for tasks assessing conservation, control of variables, and prepositional logic. These results give support to the unity hypothesis of cognitive development, that is, the hypothesis that the various schemata of formal thought appear simultaneously.

  1. Patients' illness schemata of hypertension: the role of beliefs for the choice of treatment.

    PubMed

    Figueiras, Maria; Marcelino, Dalia Silva; Claudino, Adelaide; Cortes, Maria Armanda; Maroco, Joao; Weinman, John

    2010-04-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to investigate what are the illness perceptions of hypertensive patients and their relationship with beliefs about specific medicines, and (2) to identify different illness schemata and how they relate to the choice of medication. This was a cross-sectional study in which 191 Portuguese patients (59% females), with a hypertension diagnosis, aged over 18 years old, were recruited from a hospital clinic in the Lisbon Metropolitan area. The questionnaire included measures of choice of medication, beliefs about specific medicines (BMQ-Specific), illness perception (Brief-IPQ), and socio-demographic information. The results indicated that the components of the illness perceptions were associated with patients' beliefs about necessity and concerns about medication. Patients seem to differ in their choice of medication (generic or brand names) according to the three illness schemata identified. Patients with more negative illness schemata were more likely to choose a brand medicine, whereas patients with a more positive perception of hypertension were more likely to choose a generic medicine. Our findings support the argument that illness perceptions and beliefs about medicines play a role in influencing patients' preferences of medicines for the treatment of hypertension. PMID:20204931

  2. Effects of Cultural Schemata on Students' Test-Taking Processes for Cloze Tests: A Multiple Data Source Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasaki, Miyuki

    2000-01-01

    Investigates how schemata activated by culturally familiar words might have influenced students' cloze test-taking processes. Subjects were Japanese English-as-a-foreign-language students. Results demonstrate that students who read culturally familiar cloze texts tried to solve more items and generally understood the text better, which resulted in…

  3. Pain tolerance, pain sensitivity, and accessibility of aggression-related schemata in parents at-risk for child physical abuse.

    PubMed

    Hiraoka, Regina; Crouch, Julie L; Reo, Gim; Wagner, Michael; Milner, Joel S; Skowronski, John J

    2014-11-01

    This study examined whether parents with varying degrees of child physical abuse (CPA) risk differed in pain tolerance, pain sensitivity, and accessibility of aggression-related schemata. Participants included 91 (51 low CPA risk and 40 high CPA risk) general population parents. Participants were randomly assigned to complete either an easy or a difficult anagram task. Pain tolerance and pain sensitivity were assessed using a cold pressor task. Accessibility of aggression-related schemata was assessed at the outset of the data collection session and at the end of the session using a word completion task. Parents' self-reported negative affect was assessed three times over the course of the study: baseline, after the anagram task, and after the cold pressor task. As expected, high-risk (compared to low-risk) parents reported higher levels of negative affect at each time point. Moreover, after completing the difficult anagram task, high-risk (compared to low-risk) parents exhibited higher pain sensitivity during the cold pressor task. Following completion of the cold pressor task, high-risk (compared to low-risk) parents exhibited greater accessibility of aggression-related schemata. Collectively, these findings indicate that under certain conditions, high-risk parents experience a confluence of aggression-related risk factors (i.e., negative affect, pain sensitivity, and aggression-related information processes) that may predispose them to aggressive behavior.

  4. The acquisition of formal operational schemata during adolescence: The role of the biconditional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Anton E.

    To test the hypothesis that the basic logic utilized by individuals in scientific hypothesis testing is the biconditional (if and only if), and that the biconditional is a precondition for the development of formal operations, a sample of 387 students in grades eight, ten, twelve, and college were administered eight reasoning items. Five of the items involved the formal operational schemata of probability, proportions and correlations. Two of the items involved propositions and correlations. Two of the items involved propositional logic. One item involved the biconditional. Percentages of correct responses on most of the items increased with age. A principal-component analysis revealed three factors, two of which were identified as involving operational thought, one of which involved propositional logic. As predicted, the biconditional reasoning item loaded on one of the operational thought factors. A Guttman scale analysis of the items failed to reveal a unidimensional scale, yet the biconditional reasoning item ordered first supporting the hypothesis that it is a precondition for formal operational reasoning. Implications for teaching science students how to test hypotheses are discussed.

  5. The acquisition of plural marking in English and German revisited: schemata versus rules.

    PubMed

    Köpcke, K M

    1998-06-01

    This article contributes to a debate in the linguistic and psychological literature that centres around the representation of morphologically complex words in the grammar and in the lexicon. The issue is whether inflectional morphology is rule-based (i.e. symbolically represented), or whether the assumption of pattern association is more adequate to account for the facts. On the basis of the analysis of acquisitional data the article strongly argues for the latter alternative. In a classic experiment that helped shape the development of acquisition theory Berko (1958) reported substantial support for ITEM-AND-PROCESS rules in the acquisition of plural morphology in English. A large part of her results were zero responses (repetition of the stimulus). A reinterpretation of these zero responses in light of schema theory and the cue strength hypothesis shows a striking departure from randomness. Berko's subjects tended to repeat stimuli just to the extent that these already resembled a plural schema. A reinterpretation of data reported in Innes (1974) achieved compatible results. This data set is far more extensive than Berko's and is used in the present study to put the schema model to a more stringent test. A reinterpretation of a parallel experiment with German children, using the cue strength analysis of the more complex plural morphology of German yielded parallel results. Finally, natural acquisitional data obtained from seven German speaking children aged between 2;1 and 2;9 are analysed. Again, strong support is found for the schema model. It is suggested that a schema-learning mechanism may underlie the acquisition of morphology, even when the end product of the learning process involves item-and-process rules, as in the case of English plural formation. In a schema-learning model, the child builds schematic representations for possible singular and plural lexical items as whole gestalts, and attempts to map concrete forms onto these schemata in deciding

  6. Safety in numbers 7: Veni, vidi, duci: a grounded theory evaluation of nursing students' medication dosage calculation problem-solving schemata construction.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Keith W; Higginson, Ray; Clochesy, John M; Coben, Diana

    2013-03-01

    This paper evaluates nursing students' transition through schemata construction and competence development in medication dosage calculation problem-solving (MDC-PS). We advance a grounded theory from interview data that reflects the experiences and perceptions of two groups of undergraduate pre-registration nursing students: eight students exposed to a prototype authentic MDC-PS environment and didactic transmission methods of education and 15 final year students exposed to the safeMedicate authentic MDC-PS environment. We advance a theory of how classroom-based 'chalk and talk' didactic transmission environments offered multiple barriers to accurate MDC-PS schemata construction among novice students. While conversely it was universally perceived by all students that authentic learning and assessment environments enabled MDC-PS schemata construction through facilitating: 'seeing' the authentic features of medication dosage problems; context-based and situational learning; learning within a scaffolded environment that supported construction of cognitive links between the concrete world of clinical MDC-PS and the abstract world of mathematics; and confidence-building in their cognitive and functional competence ability. Drawing on the principle of veni, vidi, duci (I came, I saw, I calculated), we combined the two sets of evaluations to offer a grounded theoretical basis for schemata construction and competence development within this critical domain of professional practice. PMID:23287565

  7. Safety in numbers 7: Veni, vidi, duci: a grounded theory evaluation of nursing students' medication dosage calculation problem-solving schemata construction.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Keith W; Higginson, Ray; Clochesy, John M; Coben, Diana

    2013-03-01

    This paper evaluates nursing students' transition through schemata construction and competence development in medication dosage calculation problem-solving (MDC-PS). We advance a grounded theory from interview data that reflects the experiences and perceptions of two groups of undergraduate pre-registration nursing students: eight students exposed to a prototype authentic MDC-PS environment and didactic transmission methods of education and 15 final year students exposed to the safeMedicate authentic MDC-PS environment. We advance a theory of how classroom-based 'chalk and talk' didactic transmission environments offered multiple barriers to accurate MDC-PS schemata construction among novice students. While conversely it was universally perceived by all students that authentic learning and assessment environments enabled MDC-PS schemata construction through facilitating: 'seeing' the authentic features of medication dosage problems; context-based and situational learning; learning within a scaffolded environment that supported construction of cognitive links between the concrete world of clinical MDC-PS and the abstract world of mathematics; and confidence-building in their cognitive and functional competence ability. Drawing on the principle of veni, vidi, duci (I came, I saw, I calculated), we combined the two sets of evaluations to offer a grounded theoretical basis for schemata construction and competence development within this critical domain of professional practice.

  8. The Theory of Industrial Society and Cultural Schemata: Does the "Cultural Myth of Stigma" Underlie the WHO Schizophrenia Paradox?

    PubMed

    Pescosolido, Bernice A; Martin, Jack K; Olafsdottir, Sigrun; Long, J Scott; Kafadar, Karen; Medina, Tait R

    2015-11-01

    The WHO's International Studies of Schizophrenia conclude that schizophrenia may have a more benign course in "developing" societies than in the West. The authors focus on this finding's most common corollary: cultural schemata are shaped by the transition from agrarian to industrial society. Developing societies are viewed as traditional, gemeinschaft cultures lacking the stigmatizing beliefs about persons with mental illness held in modern, gesellschaft cultures of developed societies. The Stigma in Global Context-Mental Health Study formalized the cultural myth of public stigma (CMPS) with propositions linking level of development to intolerant, exclusionary, and individualistic attitudes. In 17 countries, the authors find no support for the corollary; where support is found, the findings are opposite expectations, with developed societies reporting lower stigma levels. Reconceptualizing of the cultural landscape on more specific dimensions also produces null or contrary findings. This correction to nostalgic myths of cultural context in developing societies thwarts misguided treatment, policy, and stigma-reduction efforts. PMID:26640277

  9. Schema change without schema therapy: the role of early maladaptive schemata for a successful treatment of major depression.

    PubMed

    Wegener, Ingo; Alfter, Susanne; Geiser, Franziska; Liedtke, Reinhard; Conrad, Rupert

    2013-01-01

    Early maladaptive schemata (EMS) have repeatedly been shown to be associated with several psychopathological conditions, including depression. Schema therapy proposes interventions that aim at altering EMS. In the present study, we examined the effect of an integrative psychodynamic inpatient therapy without explicit focus on EMS in a sample with major depression. Forty-seven (38 female, 9 male) patients filled out the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90-R) and the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ) at the beginning and end of the treatment. Results revealed that EMS were significantly reduced in three out of five schema domains. Strong endorsement of EMS at the beginning of treatment tended to predict symptom reduction. More importantly, the reduction of symptom distress during treatment was strongly associated with a reduction in EMS of the schema domain Impaired Autonomy/Performance. We discuss that changes in EMS are highly relevant for changes in symptom distress but that EMS can not only be changed by schema therapy but also by other approaches, like psychodynamic therapy. PMID:23458112

  10. Schema change without schema therapy: the role of early maladaptive schemata for a successful treatment of major depression.

    PubMed

    Wegener, Ingo; Alfter, Susanne; Geiser, Franziska; Liedtke, Reinhard; Conrad, Rupert

    2013-01-01

    Early maladaptive schemata (EMS) have repeatedly been shown to be associated with several psychopathological conditions, including depression. Schema therapy proposes interventions that aim at altering EMS. In the present study, we examined the effect of an integrative psychodynamic inpatient therapy without explicit focus on EMS in a sample with major depression. Forty-seven (38 female, 9 male) patients filled out the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90-R) and the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ) at the beginning and end of the treatment. Results revealed that EMS were significantly reduced in three out of five schema domains. Strong endorsement of EMS at the beginning of treatment tended to predict symptom reduction. More importantly, the reduction of symptom distress during treatment was strongly associated with a reduction in EMS of the schema domain Impaired Autonomy/Performance. We discuss that changes in EMS are highly relevant for changes in symptom distress but that EMS can not only be changed by schema therapy but also by other approaches, like psychodynamic therapy.

  11. Narrative Schemata in Hearing-Impaired Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, David L.

    The study involving 82 hearing and 78 hearing impaired undergraduates was undertaken to test the hypothesis that hearing impaired Ss would cluster prepositions into different sentence groups when operating from scrambled story presentations than would hearing Ss. It was also hypothesized that hearing impaired Ss would show different cluster…

  12. Mnemonic Strategies: Creating Schemata for Learning Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goll, Paulette S.

    2004-01-01

    This article investigates the process of remembering and presents techniques to improve memory retention. Examples of association, clustering, imagery, location, mnemonic devices and visualization illustrate strategies that can be used to encode and recall information from the long-term memory. Several memory games offer the opportunity to test…

  13. Paranoid Schizophrenia: Assessing the Validity of the Diagnostic Schemata.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, James Mark

    This paper is concerned with changes which have been proposed in the major current diagnostic system regarding paranoid schizophrenia. It is noted that the proposed changes to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition (DSM-III) would remove paranoia as a schizophrenic subtype and institute a spectrum description of…

  14. Sex-Role Identity, Gender Identity, and Self-Schemata.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hungerford, Joan K.; Sobolow-Shubin, Alexandria P.

    1987-01-01

    Used slides of masculine and feminine phrases controlled for social desirability, sex-linked content, syllable length, and negative semantic construction to evaluate schematic processing on the dimensions of masculinity and femininity. Subjects were categorized as masculine, feminine, androgynous, and undifferentiated. Results suggest that…

  15. Implicit schemata and categories in memory-based language processing.

    PubMed

    van den Bosch, Antal; Daelemans, Walter

    2013-09-01

    Memory-based language processing (MBLP) is an approach to language processing based on exemplar storage during learning and analogical reasoning during processing. From a cognitive perspective, the approach is attractive as a model for human language processing because it does not make any assumptions about the way abstractions are shaped, nor any a priori distinction between regular and exceptional exemplars, allowing it to explain fluidity of linguistic categories, and both regularization and irregularization in processing. Schema-like behaviour and the emergence of categories can be explained in MBLP as by-products of analogical reasoning over exemplars in memory. We focus on the reliance of MBLP on local (versus global) estimation, which is a relatively poorly understood but unique characteristic that separates the memory-based approach from globally abstracting approaches in how the model deals with redundancy and parsimony. We compare our model to related analogy-based methods, as well as to example-based frameworks that assume some systemic form of abstraction.

  16. PERSPECTIVE: Physical schemata underlying biological pattern formation—examples, issues and strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, Herbert; Ben-Jacob, Eshel

    2004-06-01

    Biological systems excel at building spatial structures on scales ranging from nanometres to kilometres and exhibit temporal patterning from milliseconds to years. One approach that nature has taken to accomplish this relies on the harnessing of pattern-forming processes of non-equilibrium physics and chemistry. For these systems, the study of biological pattern formation starts with placing a biological phenomenon of interest within the context of the proper pattern-formation schema and then focusing on the ways in which control is exerted to adapt the pattern to the needs of the organism. This approach is illustrated by several examples, notably bacterial colonies (diffusive-growth schema) and intracellular calcium waves (excitable-media schema).

  17. Physical schemata underlying biological pattern formation-examples, issues and strategies.

    PubMed

    Levine, Herbert; Ben-Jacob, Eshel

    2004-06-01

    Biological systems excel at building spatial structures on scales ranging from nanometers to kilometers and exhibit temporal patterning from milliseconds to years. One approach that nature has taken to accomplish this relies on the harnessing of pattern-forming processes of non-equilibrium physics and chemistry. For these systems, the study of biological pattern formation starts with placing a biological phenomenon of interest within the context of the proper pattern-formation schema and then focusing on the ways in which control is exerted to adapt the pattern to the needs of the organism. This approach is illustrated by several examples, notably bacterial colonies (diffusive-growth schema) and intracellular calcium waves (excitable-media schema). PMID:16204813

  18. The schemata of the stars. Byzantine astronomy from A.D. 1300.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paschos, E. A.; Sotiroudis, P.

    Most of the knowledge of ancient Greek science survived through Byzantine codices. A short Byzantine article, extant in three manuscripts, contains advanced astronomical ideas and pre-Copernican diagrams; it presents improvements on ancient and medieval astronomy. This important book includes the edited version and translation of the text and analyzes its content. It surveys the development of astronomical models from Ptolemy to Byzantium and compares them mathematically with several works of Arab astronomers, as well as with the heliocentric system of Copernicus and Newton.

  19. A Bibliography and Review of Building Evaluation Schemata and Practices. Exchange Bibliography No. 470.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattar, Samir G.; Fazio, Paul P.

    The present trend in architecture is primarily functionalist in nature, but this functionalism is being increasingly tempered by human factors and artistic considerations. Accordingly, there is emerging a body of doctrine and architectural expression that yields a diversity of designs that must be assessed before any critical selection of…

  20. Differently Structured Advance Organizers Lead to Different Initial Schemata and Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurlitt, Johannes; Dummel, Sebastian; Schuster, Silvia; Nuckles, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Does the specific structure of advance organizers influence learning outcomes? In the first experiment, 48 psychology students were randomly assigned to three differently structured advance organizers: a well-structured, a well-structured and key-concept emphasizing, and a less structured advance organizer. These were followed by a sorting task, a…

  1. Prior schemata transfer as an account for assessing the intuitive use of new technology.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Sandrine; Itoh, Makoto; Inagaki, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    New devices are considered intuitive when they allow users to transfer prior knowledge. Drawing upon fundamental psychology experiments that distinguish prior knowledge transfer from new schema induction, a procedure was specified for assessing intuitive use. This procedure was tested with 31 participants who, prior to using an on-board computer prototype, studied its screenshots in reading vs. schema induction conditions. Distinct patterns of transfer or induction resulted for features of the prototype whose functions were familiar or unfamiliar, respectively. Though moderated by participants' cognitive style, these findings demonstrated a means for quantitatively assessing transfer of prior knowledge as the operation that underlies intuitive use. Implications for interface evaluation and design, as well as potential improvements to the procedure, are discussed.

  2. The Acquisition of Plural Marking in English and German Revisited: Schemata Versus Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopcke, Klaus-Michael

    1998-01-01

    Investigates whether inflectional morphology is rule-based or whether the assumption of pattern association is more adequate to account for the facts, arguing for the latter based on analysis of acquisitional data. Review of earlier literature on the subject examines experiments with German- and English-speaking children and supports the schema…

  3. Schemata-constructivist view of what students learn about human evolution from a museum exhibit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderon, Ismael

    1999-10-01

    The purpose of this research study was to investigate: students' schema structure for human evolution; their idiosyncratic conceptual change after visiting a museum exhibition; the role of alternative frameworks during learning; and the function of affect in learning. Thirty eleventh and twelfth grade high school students, eleven males and nineteen females, visited an exhibition on human evolution and participated in an opened-ended pre and post interview and Likert-type questionnaire. The interviews were transcribed, segmented by using shifts in natural language, and pre and post schema templates developed for each respondent using as background Rumelhart's and Ortony's active structural schema network diagrammatic representation. Analysis of the schema templates indicated that respondents possess varying idiosyncratic schema structures that are brought to bear on the construction of new information during learning. Thirty seven percent of the respondents exhibited a hierarchically organized schema, whereas sixty three percent of the respondents demonstrated a non-hierarchical schema structure. Hierarchically organized ideation allowed for greater elaboration of concepts after viewing the exhibit. The data revealed both a top-down and bottom-up type of information processing. Ninety three percent of the respondents exhibited nonscientific, alternative frameworks during the pre-interview and eighty percent displayed alternative frameworks in the post-interview. Forty seven percent of the respondents were able to modify alternative frameworks to be more scientifically consistent. The data indicated that hierarchically organized schema respondents were able to make more corrections to alternative frameworks. Sixty three percent of the time alternative frameworks were influencing the exhibition's interpretation. Fifty three percent of the respondents demonstrated an observationally-based interpretation of the exhibit, whereas forty seven percent exhibited a theory-based schema. Throughout the data analysis there was evidence for idiosyncratic schema construction. The pre and post Likert-scale questionnaire suggested that the visit to the museum exhibition had an overall positive affect gain. The research findings provided evidence for museum exhibition developers to embrace a schema-constructivist theory of knowledge and learning in the creation of exhibitions which actively engage the learner in conceptual change.

  4. Automatic Domain Adaptation of Word Sense Disambiguation Based on Sublanguage Semantic Schemata Applied to Clinical Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Domain adaptation of natural language processing systems is challenging because it requires human expertise. While manual effort is effective in creating a high quality knowledge base, it is expensive and time consuming. Clinical text adds another layer of complexity to the task due to privacy and confidentiality restrictions that hinder the…

  5. Self-Schemata for Movement Activities: The Influence of Race and Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Louis, Jr.; And Others

    This study investigated the influence of race and gender on students' self-schema for movement activities. Study participants were 168 male and female seventh- and eighth-grade students, both African American and Euro American, from a semi-rural school in a Southeastern state. The Physical Activity Schema Analysis (PASA) was administered to…

  6. Knowledge Gaps, Social Locators, and Media Schemata: Gaps, Reverse Gaps, and Gaps of Disaffection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredin, Eric S.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Studies a public school controversy and finds a knowledge gap--a gap of disaffection. Finds that, among women only, higher education leads to greater knowledge but does so partly through reduced trust of government and lower perceived fairness of the news media. Shows similar findings with other less powerful groups. (SR)

  7. The Functions of Cultural Schemata in the Chinese Reading Comprehension and Reading Time of College Students in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Chen-Hong; Lai, Shu-Fen

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the effects of cultural familiarity with a text on Chinese students' reading comprehension performance and reading time. In the first phase of the study, participants were required to read a culturally familiar text, write down the time they spent reading the passage, and immediately complete a cloze test without referring back…

  8. The Theory of Industrial Society and Cultural Schemata: Does the “Cultural Myth of Stigma” Underlie the WHO Schizophrenia Paradox?

    PubMed Central

    Pescosolido, Bernice A.; Martin, Jack K.; Olafsdottir, Sigrun; Long, J. Scott; Kafadar, Karen; Medina, Tait R.

    2015-01-01

    The “Better Prognosis Hypothesis” stems from World Health Organization studies known as the International Studies of Schizophrenia (ISoS). Despite greater availability and sophistication of treatment options in the West, schizophrenia appears to have a more benign course and better outcomes in “developing” societies. We focus on this finding's most common corollary: a simplified version of sociological notions of cultural reality shaped by the transition from agrarian to industrial society. Developing societies are viewed as traditional, gemeinschaft cultures that neither develop nor endorse stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs about persons with mental illness that exist in modern, gesellschaft cultures of developed societies. Using the Stigma in Global Context-Mental Health Study (SGC-MHS), we formalize the “Cultural Myth of Stigma,” propositions linking level of development to intolerant, exclusionary, and individualistic attitudes. In 17 countries, we find no support for the corollary. Where significant associations are documented, the findings are opposite expectations: the public in more developed societies reports lower stigma levels. Extensions to reconceptualizations of the cultural landscape also reveal null or contrary findings. This correction to nostalgic myths of cultural context in developing societies thwarts misguided treatment, policy, and stigma-reduction efforts. PMID:26640277

  9. The Role of Lad Magazines in Priming Men's Chronic and Temporary Appearance-Related Schemata: An Investigation of Longitudinal and Experimental Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubrey, Jennifer Stevens; Taylor, Laramie D.

    2009-01-01

    We present a program of research investigating the effects of lad magazines on male body self-consciousness and appearance anxiety. Study 1, based on panel data from undergraduate men, showed that lad magazine exposure in Year 1 predicted body self-consciousness in Year 2. Study 2 was an experiment that showed that men assigned to view objectified…

  10. The formulaic schema in the minds of two generations of native speakers

    PubMed Central

    Van Lancker Sidtis, Diana; Cameron, Krista; Bridges, Kelly; Sidtis, John J.

    2015-01-01

    Schemata are expressions that are fixed except for slots available for novel words (I’m not a ______ person). Our goals were to quantify speakers’ knowledge, examine semantic flexibility in open slots, and compare performance data in two generations of speakers using cloze procedures in formulaic expressions, schemata open slots, fixed portions of schemata, and novel sentences. Fewer unique words appeared for the schemata-fixed and formulaic exemplars, reflecting speakers’ knowledge of these utterances; the most semantic categories appeared for schemata-open responses. Age groups did not differ. Schemata exemplify creative interplay between novel lexical retrieval and fixed formulaic expression. PMID:26392923

  11. Implications of the Concept of the Schema for Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Larissa A.

    Understanding the cognitive principles inherent in schematic concepts can enhance the practice of fundamental public relations activities. Schemata dictate what information will be attended to, what interpretations will be made of it, and how it will be remembered. Both self-schemata and other-schemata help individuals organize and interpret their…

  12. Schema Theories as a Base for the Structural Representation of the Knowledge State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dochy, F. J. R. C.; Bouwens, M. R. J.

    From the view of schema-transfer theory, the use of schemata with their several functions gives an explanation for the facilitative effect of prior knowledge on learning processes. This report gives a theoretical exploration of the concept of schemata, underlying schema theories, and functions of schemata to indicate the importance of schema…

  13. Recognition mechanisms for schema-based knowledge representations

    SciTech Connect

    Havens, W.S.

    1983-01-01

    The author considers generalizing formal recognition methods from parsing theory to schemata knowledge representations. Within artificial intelligence, recognition tasks include aspects of natural language understanding, computer vision, episode understanding, speech recognition, and others. The notion of schemata as a suitable knowledge representation for these tasks is discussed. A number of problems with current schemata-based recognition systems are presented. To gain insight into alternative approaches, the formal context-free parsing method of earley is examined. It is shown to suggest a useful control structure model for integrating top-down and bottom-up search in schemata representations. 46 references.

  14. [Coping with everyday stress in different problem areas- comparison of clinically referred and healthy adolescents].

    PubMed

    Escher, Fabian; Seiffge-Krenke, Inge

    2013-09-01

    Fragestellung: In der Untersuchung klinisch auffälliger Jugendlicher fehlen bislang Studien zum Coping mit alltäglichen Stressoren im Vergleich zu gesunden Jugendlichen. Methodik: Klinisch auffällige Jugendliche mit verschiedenen Störungen (gemischten Störungen einschließlich Delinquenz, Sucht, Depression) wurden anhand des Coping across Situations Questionnaire (Seiffge-Krenke, 1995) und einer gekürzten Version des Youth Self Report (Achenbach, 1991) mit gesunden Jugendlichen verglichen. Ergebnisse: Die verschiedenen klinischen Gruppen (n = 469) zeigten spezifische Muster hinsichtlich ihres Copings. Die Gruppe der depressiven Jugendlichen zeigten insgesamt sehr geringe Werte im Coping. Die Gruppe aus den Einrichtungen der Suchthilfe hingegen bediente sich vor allem dysfunktionaler Copingstrategien. Die Jugendlichen aus Einrichtungen der Jugendhilfe (gemischte Störungen einschließlich Delinquenz) hatten sowohl in den dysfunktionalen als auch in den funktionalen Copingstrategien höhere Werte als die beiden anderen klinisch auffälligen Gruppen. Die Kontrollgruppe zeigte mehr funktionales und geringeres dysfunktionales Coping. Die klinisch auffälligen Jugendlichen differenzierten in ihrem Copingverhalten nicht in Abhängigkeit von den unterschiedlichen Problembereichen. Es zeigte sich des Weiteren ein geringer Geschlechtseffekt im Coping. Schlussfolgerungen: Klinisch auffällige Jugendliche waren nicht in der Lage adaptiv auf verschiedene Problembereiche zu reagieren, sondern wandten situationsübergreifend dysfunktionale Copingstrategien wie Rückzug und Problemmeidung an.

  15. Cognitive Psychology and Audience-Oriented Dramatic Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratt, David

    Cognitive psychology's most useful contribution to dramatic theory is the concept of schemata, or the mental structures that make up part of the perceptual cycle. In regard to an audience-oriented dramatic theory, this suggests that analysis of a script ought to identify the sorts of schemata that are to be aroused in the audience's minds and the…

  16. Story Structure in a Sample of African-American Children: Evidence for a Cyclical Story Schema.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bidell, Thomas R.; Hubbard, Lady June; Weaver, Monica

    A study examined the scripts or schemata--cognitive structures that represent story prototypes--used by African-American children and how they differ from story telling patterns of White middle-class children using a Western, linear "problem solving" story schemata. Samples of oral narratives were collected from 50 African-American children, ages…

  17. Issues in Personality Conceptualizations of Addictive Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutker, Patricia B.; Allain, Albert N., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Describes issues and implications associated with personality conceptualizations of addictive behaviors. Directs attention toward characterizing the sociopolitical climate's effect on identification, evaluation, and management of substance abuse disorders. Explores alcohol and drug use in conceptual schemata encompassing multifactorial,…

  18. A cognitive model for problem solving in computer science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parham, Jennifer R.

    According to industry representatives, computer science education needs to emphasize the processes involved in solving computing problems rather than their solutions. Most of the current assessment tools used by universities and computer science departments analyze student answers to problems rather than investigating the processes involved in solving them. Approaching assessment from this perspective would reveal potential errors leading to incorrect solutions. This dissertation proposes a model describing how people solve computational problems by storing, retrieving, and manipulating information and knowledge. It describes how metacognition interacts with schemata representing conceptual and procedural knowledge, as well as with the external sources of information that might be needed to arrive at a solution. Metacognition includes higher-order, executive processes responsible for controlling and monitoring schemata, which in turn represent the algorithmic knowledge needed for organizing and adapting concepts to a specific domain. The model illustrates how metacognitive processes interact with the knowledge represented by schemata as well as the information from external sources. This research investigates the differences in the way computer science novices use their metacognition and schemata to solve a computer programming problem. After J. Parham and L. Gugerty reached an 85% reliability for six metacognitive processes and six domain-specific schemata for writing a computer program, the resulting vocabulary provided the foundation for supporting the existence of and the interaction between metacognition, schemata, and external sources of information in computer programming. Overall, the participants in this research used their schemata 6% more than their metacognition and their metacognitive processes to control and monitor their schemata used to write a computer program. This research has potential implications in computer science education and software

  19. Elektronenmikroskopie an Alzheimer-Fibrillen

    PubMed Central

    Sachse, Carsten; Grigorieff, Nikolaus; Fändrich, Marcus

    2009-01-01

    Zusammenfassung Amyloidfibrillen sind fadenförmige Eiweißablagerungen, die im Gehirn von Alzheimerpatienten auftreten. Durch Verwendung verbesserter, computergestützter Verfahren zur Bearbeitung elektronenmikroskopischer Aufnahmen gelang es nun erstmals, bei Alzheimer-Amyloidfibrillen strukturelle Details mit einer Auflösung von unter 1 nm darzustellen. Langfristig könnten diese Methoden auch zu neuen medikamentösen Strategien führen. PMID:20126429

  20. Types of planning: can artificial intelligence yield insights into prefrontal function?

    PubMed

    Hendler, J A

    1995-12-15

    In this paper, some of the features of models of planning emerging from the area of artificial intelligence (AI) are explored. The goal of this exposition is to explain how researchers are getting machines to attack problems that appear to be similar to those handled in the human prefrontal cortex. In particular, I tried to explain some of the features of AI models that might help explain how planned behavior can occur, with an eye toward examining the specific information-processing constraints necessary for computational models of planning. I described how some AI researchers are converging on a model in which (1) a memory of complex planning information is used in guiding long-term behavior, (2) hierarchically ordered schemata are used to represent this information, (3) activation spreading-like effects occur both in the choice of the memory schemata to use and in monitoring the processing during the execution of those schemata, (4) schemata processing is activated and/or affected by environmental stimuli, and (5) multiple schemata with differing temporal extent are active in parallel. A specific AI planning model, developed in conjunction with Dr. Lee Spector of Hampshire College, was also presented; it was shown how it uses the features above to give rise to interesting planning behaviors for robotic systems.

  1. Cognitive-cultural model of identity and violence prevention for African American youth.

    PubMed

    Whaley, Arthur L

    2003-05-01

    The author introduces a cognitive-cultural model of identity development to explain the elevated risk for violence among African American youth. The model is an extension of previous conceptual frameworks that address the dynamic interplay among cognition, culture, and self-systems. Specifically, the self is conceptualized as a cognitive structure known as schemata that contain individual and cultural elements corresponding to those aspects of identity. The model has three major components: the individual self, the cultural self, and social roles. The cognitive-cultural model posits that maladaptative behaviors such as violence are a consequence of underdevelopment or imbalance in some aspect of the self or the adoption of social roles that undermine integration of the individual self-schemata and cultural self-schemata. The implications of this cognitive-cultural model for prevention efforts, particularly Afrocentric socialization interventions targeting African American youth, are discussed.

  2. Suicide and the 'Poison Complex': Toxic Relationalities, Child Development, and the Sri Lankan Self-Harm Epidemic.

    PubMed

    Widger, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Suicide prevention efforts in Asia have increasingly turned to 'quick win' means restriction, while more complicated cognitive restriction and psychosocial programs are limited. This article argues the development of cognitive restriction programs requires greater consideration of suicide methods as social practices, and of how suicide cognitive schemata form. To illustrate this, the article contributes an ethnographically grounded study of how self-poisoning becomes cognitively available in Sri Lanka. I argue the overwhelming preference for poison as a method of self-harm in the country is not simply reflective of its widespread availability, but rather how cognitive schemata of poison-a 'poison complex'-develops from early childhood and is a precondition for suicide schemata. Limiting cognitive availability thus requires an entirely novel approach to suicide prevention that draws back from its immediate object (methods and causes of self-harm) to engage the wider poison complex of which suicide is just one aspect.

  3. Five Contemporary Novelists' Views of Growing Up Turkish in the 1980s: A Literary Sociology. Occasional Papers. Turkish Studies Series Number Five.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Frank Andrews

    Literary sociology is a multifaceted process of analyzing texts. It moves beyond traditional literary criticism to incorporate such varied approaches as: appreciating literary schemata; textual analysis; seeking form, sound, and content regularities; examining the lasting values of the work; and contemplating the reader's own authentic life-world…

  4. Putting Readers in Their Places: Some Alternatives to Cloning Stanley Fish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purves, Alan C.

    The reader has replaced the text as the central figure in the teaching of literature. Three techniques that psychologists and educational researchers believe produce better reading comprehension are: the concept of schemata, or the kind of mental outline a reader has when perceiving something; the acquisition or development of an appropriate…

  5. Teaching Persuasion as Consensus in Business Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blyler, Nancy Roundy

    1993-01-01

    Suggests that understanding the "tools of rhetorical analysis" in relation to persuasion can help business communication teachers better incorporate the concept of consensus building into their courses. Discusses incorporating rhetorical techniques (using metaphors, calling on readers' schemata, and using narratives) into a business communication…

  6. An Examination of Written Expression in Bilingual Students'"Non-Academic" Language: Assessment of Sense of Story Structure and Interlinguistic Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Norbert

    2000-01-01

    Four classes of bilingual children from Grades 3 and 5, speakers of Spanish and Nahuatl, participated in a study of literacy development focused on interlinguistic transfer and the application of narrative schemata as seen in writing samples produced in both languages. Reports on a methodological approach seen to be effective in eliciting…

  7. A Learning Theory for 21st-Century Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sontag, Marie

    2009-01-01

    The affordances of today's digital technologies have significantly changed the way students learn. Arguing that current learning theories have failed to address this new reality, Marie Sontag proposes a new theory, social-connectedness and cognitive-connectedness schemata (SCCS) theory, that integrates key elements of other theories with gaming…

  8. Developing Reading Fluency in EFL: How Assisted Repeated Reading and Extensive Reading Affect Fluency Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taguchi, Etsuo; Takayasu-Maass, Miyoko; Gorsuch, Greta J.

    2004-01-01

    Extensive research on reading in a first language has shown the critical role fluency plays in successful reading. Fluency alone, however, does not guarantee successful reading. Cognitive and metacognitive reading strategies and schemata that readers utilize also play important roles in constructing meaning from text. Most research, however,…

  9. Interpersonal Control in Psychotherapy: A Comparison of Two Definitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracey, Terence J.; Miars, Russell D.

    1986-01-01

    Compared the two definitions used to study therapist interpersonal control: The relational coding scheme of Ericson and Rogers and the topic initiation/topic following schema of Tracey and Ray as they apply to actual therapy dyads. Both schemata were moderately correlated, but the two models attributed control to different participants.…

  10. A Developmental Study of Recognition and Recall of Complex Pictures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luczcz, M. A.

    Three experiments using the same overall design were conducted to address problems associated with repeated measurement designs employed to assess retention of information in complex pictures and to assess the developmental course of schemata-guided retention efforts. Forty-eight subjects, ages 6, 10, and 20 years, were shown scenes whose forms…

  11. Rhetorical Problem Solving: Cognition and Professional Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flower, Linda

    The task of teaching writing to students in business, engineering, design, computer science, accounting, and other professional areas raises the question of what knowledge the writers call upon to create a rhetorically effective writing plan. Research suggests three plausible answers: their knowledge of schemata, the structure of their topic…

  12. Predictive Validity of DSM-IV and ICD-10 Criteria for ADHD and Hyperkinetic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Soyoung I.; Schachar, Russell J.; Chen, Shirley X.; Ornstein, Tisha J.; Charach, Alice; Barr, Cathy; Ickowicz, Abel

    2008-01-01

    Background: The goal of this study was to compare the predictive validity of the two main diagnostic schemata for childhood hyperactivity--attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual"-IV) and hyperkinetic disorder (HKD; "International Classification of Diseases"-10th Edition). Methods: Diagnostic criteria for…

  13. IELTS: Global Implications of Curriculum and Materials Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Craig

    1997-01-01

    Questions the removal of a link between reading and writing tasks in the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) examinations on two grounds: that this removal is prejudicial to those students whose native cultures may not provide the appropriate schemata to effectively write; and that it is unrealistic in terms of the measurement of…

  14. Globalization Viewed from the Periphery: The Dynamics of Teacher Identity in the Republic of Benin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welmond, Michel

    2002-01-01

    Archival research and interviews with teachers and key informants in Benin schools examined cultural schemata that define teacher identity as vessel and conveyer of special knowledge, civil servant, self-sacrificing parental surrogate, or efficient worker ensuring high test grades. Conflicts among these identities, between teachers and the state,…

  15. Effects of Cultural Familiarity on Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasaki, Yoshinori; And Others

    A study investigated the effect of cultural background on reading comprehension, specifically examining content knowledge (schemata) and overall familiarity with the setting. It tested the hypothesis that when a setting is familiar to readers, the text will be most readable, and will yield the shortest time to read, the best comprehension, and the…

  16. Comprehension and Learning from Social Studies Textbook Passages among Elementary School Children in Korea and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huh, Hyejin

    2011-01-01

    Earlier research has shown that cultural schemata affect readers' comprehension from an expository text (e.g., Carrell, 1984, 1987; Swales, 1990). Previous research also suggested that there are shared features of well-designed text across cultures (Chambliss & Calfee, 1998) and that reader characteristics like background knowledge affect…

  17. The Globalization of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Thomas, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This special issue of a journal on language teaching and cross-cultural communication includes both regular articles and forum essays. Regular feature articles include: "Is Japanese English Education Changing?" (Yoshie Aiga); "Textual Schemata and English Language Learning" (S. Kathleen Kitao); "Visuals and Imagination" (Alan Maley); "Oral…

  18. The Effects of Students' Computer-Based Prior Experiences and Instructional Exposures on the Application of Hypermedia-Related Mental Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, W. Michael; And Others

    1996-01-01

    University students (n=15) were asked how a hypermedia program's features reflected 4 theoretical constructs, 2 linear models (semantic networks, frames/scripts), and 2 nonlinear models (concept maps and schemata). Regardless of hypermedia experience, students cited more linear than nonlinear models, suggesting that more experience in programming,…

  19. A Paediatrician Looks at Traditional Approaches to Emotional Development in Preschool and Primary Years. Foundation for Child and Youth Studies Selected Papers Number 46.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Susi Erika

    This discussion of the emotional development of young children is structured upon Erik Erikson's schemata of psycho-social development. Stage 1, which involves trust versus mistrust, includes references to Erikson's theory and the work of Melanie Klein, Berry Brazelton, Stella Chess and Alexander Thomas, John Bowlby, Anthony Stevens, and D. W.…

  20. Effects of Discourse Type on Recall by Young, Middle, and Old Adults with High and Average Vocabulary Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Bonnie J. F.; Rice, G. Elizabeth

    Discourse can be organized in many different ways, two of these being comparison and a collection of descriptions. These two discourse types correspond to schemata that vary in their organizational components, and these differences can be expected to produce differences in the processing of text. For example, research has shown that for young…

  1. Comparative Evaluation of Political Candidates: Implications for the Voter Decision Making Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellweg, Susan A.; King, Stephen W.

    A study was conducted to examine the evaluative criteria or schemata that voters use in making decisions about competing candidates. More specifically, the study sought to determine (1) whether the criteria that voters employ differ between the candidates, and (2) the relative importance of various candidate-specific criteria in the voting…

  2. Development of Knowledge Frameworks and Higher Order Cognitive Operations among Secondary School Students Who Studied a Unit on Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bischoff, Paul J.; Anderson, O. Roger

    2001-01-01

    Interviews 9th and 10th grade students (n=13) who studied an ecology unit and analyzed tape-recorded data for changes in organization of knowledge, represented by ideational networks and the development of higher cognitive operations. Provides insights into how students developed knowledge schemata, ideational networks, and the capacity to express…

  3. African Americans: Race as a Self-Schema Affecting Physical Activity Choices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Louis Jr.

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines theoretical and empirical contributions to racial differences in spot performance and describes a framework for viewing race as a movement self-schema. The roles of television, modeling, expectation theory, and sociological influences are discussed as possible activators of racial movement self-schemata. (JB)

  4. Feedback and the Reconstruction of Meaning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langer, Philip; And Others

    This investigation of the impact of feedback upon scrambled discourse was intended to show the effects of idiosyncratic processing and to provide a more sensitive indicator of feedback usefulness. Learner schemata, text organization, and feedback strategies interact in processing discourse, although past research has favored limited models…

  5. The Effects of Two Summarization Strategies Using Expository Text on the Reading Comprehension and Summary Writing of Fourth-and Fifth-Grade Students in an Urban, Title 1 School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braxton, Diane M.

    2009-01-01

    Using a quasi-experimental pretest/post test design, this study examined the effects of two summarization strategies on the reading comprehension and summary writing of fourth- and fifth- grade students in an urban, Title 1 school. The Strategies, "G"enerating "I"nteractions between "S"chemata and "T"ext (GIST) and Rule-based, were taught using…

  6. A New Approach To Secure Federated Information Bases Using Agent Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weippi, Edgar; Klug, Ludwig; Essmayr, Wolfgang

    2003-01-01

    Discusses database agents which can be used to establish federated information bases by integrating heterogeneous databases. Highlights include characteristics of federated information bases, including incompatible database management systems, schemata, and frequently changing context; software agent technology; Java agents; system architecture;…

  7. Teaching with Cats: Integration of Children's Interests and Literature To Enhance Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goss, Gail

    This paper discusses and demonstrates how to use children's interests combined with children's literature to make learning easier. According to the paper, the concept is to choose an area that excites children, one where they already have a developed schemata or knowledge base, then to use children's trade books about that topic to teach the…

  8. Formal Schema Theory and Teaching EFL Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Barbara N; Man, Zhou

    2005-01-01

    Inquirers designed and conducted a study investigating whether or not results derived from previous research focusing on teaching and learning English as a native or foreign language would be replicated in a learning environment in which English is taught as a foreign language as in China. Because activation of formal schemata plays an important…

  9. The Image of the Performing Body

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullis, Eric C.

    2008-01-01

    This essay discusses the manner in which the human body is developed and transformed into an aesthetically expressive medium. This process entails capitalizing on functions performed by the body schema and, more specifically, on using the perceptual experience (or "image") of the body to consciously form motor schemata. Since this process is…

  10. From Constructivism to Dialogism in the Classroom. Theory and Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Mello, Roseli Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the move from learning theories from the industrial society to learning theories from and for dialogic societies. While in the past intrapsychological elements, such as mental schemata of prior knowledge, were the key to explain learning, today's theories point to interaction and dialogue as the main means for achieving deep…

  11. Cognitive Representations of the Political System in Adolescents: The Continuum from Pre-Novice to Expert.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torney-Purta, Judith

    1992-01-01

    Two groups of adolescents and a group of Coast Guard officials were interviewed about hypothetical political problems. Solutions presented were arrayed along a continuum of expertise, according to the complexity of subjects' political schemata and skills used in problem representation. (BC)

  12. Relationships between Perceptions of Personal and Family Functioning, Defensive Functioning, and Working Models of Caregiving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Steven A.; And Others

    Current psychological literature suggests that positive representations of self and others are associated with sensitivity of caregiving. This study was designed to examine the relationship among self-perceptions, perceptions of family functioning, and caregiving schemata in 618 undergraduates (437 females, 181 males) enrolled in Introductory…

  13. Teacher Perspectives as a Tool for Reflection, Partnerships and Professional Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Christine I.

    This paper describes the theoretical framework that underlies the Teachers as Decision Maker Program (TADMP) at Indiana University and the development of a conceptual framework of seven teacher perspectives. The four components of the theoretical framework guiding both TADMP research and the program itself are pedagogical schemata, professional…

  14. The Effectiveness of Advance Organizers on the Signification of Poetic Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayat, Nihat

    2007-01-01

    Advance organizers activate the most suitable schema to learn new material. Poetic images are signified in schemata and the elements which are not expressed may be called by advance organizers. The purpose of this investigation is to discern the effectiveness of advance organizers on the signification of poetic images. Pretest-posttest…

  15. Self-Talk of Group Therapists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Peggy L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Explored group leader cognitions and the function experience plays in leaders' cognitive schemas. Participants (n=60) wrote down their thoughts while viewing a 20-minute videotape of a group session. Examination of the 1,299 thoughts revealed a cognitive-behavior schemata that involved all the elements necessary for effective cognitive skill…

  16. Positive Affective Priming: A Behavioral Technique to Facilitate Therapeutic Engagement by Families, Caregivers, and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Ian M.

    2010-01-01

    Affective priming is a technique used in experimental psychology to investigate the organization of emotional schemata not fully available to conscious awareness. The presentation of stimuli (the prime) with strong positive emotional valence alters the accessibility of positive stimuli within the individual's emotionally encoded cognitive system.…

  17. Unwarranted Return: A Response to McVee, Dunsmore, and Gavelek's (2005) "Schema Theory Revisited"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krasny, Karen A.; Sadoski, Mark; Paivio, Allan

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the authors' response to McVee, Dunsmore, and Gavelek's "Schema Theory Revisited." In "Schema Theory Revisited," McVee, Dunsmore, and Gavelek (2005) proposed a rearticulation of schema theory intended to encompass the ideas that schemata and other cognitive processes are embodied, that knowledge is situated in the transaction…

  18. Self-complexity and Self-integration: Theory and Therapy in Clinical-Developmental Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noam, Gil G.

    1988-01-01

    Proposes a new theory of self, based on the principles defined by Lawrence Kohlberg in his theory of moral development. The model sets forth self complexity (schemata) and biography (themata) as dimensions of self. Describes normal and atypical development arising from interaction of these components and assesses implications for practice. (KO)

  19. Schema Theory: A New Twist Using Duplo Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Joe D.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a class demonstration in which students learn about Jean Piaget's concepts of schemata, assimilation, accommodation, and equilibration. Explains that students work in pairs (but cannot see one another) where one teaches the other how to make a duplicate of an already constructed block model. (CMK)

  20. Gender Schema Processing Effects on Performance, Memory and Evaluative Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Carol J.

    Schemata is one example of a cognitive construct used extensively by social and personality psychologists to explain some of the biases that emerge when people process information about themselves and others. Recently gender has also been seen as a cognitive schema. Sex and gender schema processing were examined in 40 male and 40 female college…

  1. Purpose and Structure: Learner-Centered Reform in a Multi-Functional System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Paul; Francis, John Bruce

    This paper describes a conceptual framework that can order the host of changes occuring in institutional structure as a consequence of recent learner-centered reform in postsecondary education. Several schemata are examined, and a functional systematization of structures suggested; however, none of these purports to be a completely satisfactory…

  2. Facilitating Case Reuse during Problem Solving in Algebra-Based Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mateycik, Frances Ann

    2010-01-01

    This research project investigates students' development of problem solving schemata while using strategies that facilitate the process of using solved examples to assist with a new problem (case reuse). Focus group learning interviews were used to explore students' perceptions and understanding of several problem solving strategies. Individual…

  3. Learning Unfamiliar Cultural Beliefs: A Descriptive Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeSourd, Sandra J.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a descriptive study of the influence of the learner's cultural schemata on instruction. Finds that students interpret new information in the light of cultural knowledge already possessed. Implications are that instructional designs that ignore the influence of background knowledge take a naive approach to the development of a…

  4. Typicality and Misinformation: Two Sources of Distortion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luna, Karlos; Migueles, Malen

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effect of two sources of memory error: exposure to post-event information and extracting typical contents from schemata. Participants were shown a video of a bank robbery and presented with high-and low-typicality misinformation extracted from two normative studies. The misleading suggestions consisted of either changes in…

  5. Holistic Integrated Design Education: Art Education in a Complex and Uncertain World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nokes, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Learning, which is understood as a change in behavior, is a process of becoming. This monograph introduces the neologism egosystem as an amalgam of the individual, the self and its attendant ego, and socio-environmental schemata swirling around the individual. In an uncertain and probabilistic universe, the role of chaos theory in recognizing…

  6. Garry Disher's "Bamboo Flute": Negotiating Multiple Aesthetic Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Karen S.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the integration of photographs and text in fictional works specifically regarding Garry Disher's "Bamboo Flute." Introduces the story and explores questions in detail regarding the presentation of its photographs in American publications. Attempts to make the readers become aware of alternative reading strategies that expand schemata and…

  7. Building Conceptual Understanding in a Remedial College Mathematics Classroom: A Study of Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachman, Rachel Marie

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of two remedial mathematics courses that aimed to (a) present topics conceptually, (b) construct adequate schemata, and (c) introduce students to the culture of mathematics. The topics covered during the two courses were word problems, equivalence, variables and expressions, equations and inequalities, and…

  8. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) (15th, Assisi, Italy, June 29-July 4, 1991), Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furinghetti, Fulvia, Ed.

    This document, the first of three volumes, reports on the 15th annual conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) held in Italy 1991. Plenary addresses and speakers are: "Social Interaction and Mathematical Knowledge" (B. M. Bartolini); "Meaning: Image Schemata and Protocols" (W. Dorfler); "On the Status…

  9. The Effects of Learning Style and Task Type on Hypermedia-Based Mental Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, W. Michael; Ayersman, David J.; Kraus, Lee A.

    1997-01-01

    Investigates the effects of context-weak versus context-strong tasks and learning style on the citation-frequencies and citation-percentages of four mental models (semantic networks, concept maps, frames/scripts, and schemata) students perceived to be inherent in a hypermedia learning environment. (Author/AEF)

  10. "What's the Gist?" Summary Writing for Struggling Adolescent Writers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Nancy; Fisher, Douglas; Hernandez, Ted

    2003-01-01

    The ability to write tight, concise, and accurate summaries of texts is often a struggle for our students. With specific focus on precis writing, the authors used the GIST (Generating Interaction between Schemata and Text) learning strategy to increase comprehension of expository texts. By breaking down texts into logical sections and writing…

  11. Visual attentional capture predicts belief in a meaningful world.

    PubMed

    Bressan, Paola; Kramer, Peter; Germani, Mara

    2008-01-01

    Here we show that the automatic, involuntary process of attentional capture is predictive of beliefs that are typically considered as much more complex and higher-level. Whereas some beliefs are well supported by evidence, others, such as the belief that coincidences occur for a reason, are not. We argue that the tendency to assign meaning to coincidences is a byproduct of an adaptive system that creates and maintains cognitive schemata, and automatically directs attention to violations of a currently active schema. Earlier studies have shown that, within subjects, attentional capture increases with schema strength. Yet, between-subjects effects could exist too: whereas each of us has schemata of various strengths, most likely different individuals are differently inclined to maintain strong or weak ones. Since schemata can be interpreted as beliefs, we predict more attentional capture for subjects with stronger beliefs than for subjects with weaker ones. We measured visual attentional capture in a reaction time experiment, and correlated it with scores on questionnaires about religious and other beliefs and about meaningfulness and surprisingness of coincidences. We found that visual attentional capture predicts a belief in meaningfulness of coincidences, and that this belief mediates a relationship between visual attentional capture and religiosity. Remarkably, strong believers were more disturbed by schema violations than weak believers, and yet appeared less aware of the disrupting events. We conclude that (a) religious people have a stronger belief in meaningfulness of coincidences, indicative of a more general tendency to maintain strong schemata, and that (b) this belief leads them to suppress, ignore, or forget information that has demonstrably captured their attention, but happens to be inconsistent with their schemata.

  12. Structured programming in symbolic multiprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Tseitlin, G.E.

    1984-05-01

    This article applies Glushkov's systems of algorithmic algebras (SAA) to symbolic multiprocessing. Regular schemata on abstract memory types are used to formalize the main control techniques for parallel computations in slipway and pipeline multiprocessing. The expressive power of the proposed SAA apparatus is demonstrated for the reader-writer problem, the dynamic communication problem, the firing line problem, and parallel parsing. Structured design grammars combining the SAA apparatus with formal language models are applied for direct and inverse transformation from synchronous to asynchronous regular schemata and back. It is determined that program design based on structured design grammars preserves all the advantages of structured programming and enables partial program verification using top-down, bottom-up, and mixed parsers, the optimization of programs by prespecified criteria using the apparatus of identity transformations developed within the framework of SAA theory, and the joint multilevel (top-down, bottom-up, and mixed) design of structured algorithms and programs.

  13. Intercultural misunderstandings about health care. Recall of descriptions of illness and treatment.

    PubMed

    Steffensen, M S; Colker, L

    1982-01-01

    Noncompliance with medical instructions is a major problem in health care. In areas of the world where traditional and Western systems co-exist, failure to follow medical directives has been attributed to the conscious rejection of Western medical beliefs and values by the indigenous population. This study provides evidence that the absence of shared concepts between practitioners and patients may impede even willing compliance. When patients do not possess the background knowledge, or schemata, undergirding the Western practitioners' conclusions and proposed treatment, they are unable to fully understand what is communicated because they lack the conceptual framework for integrating and holding the information presented. Matched groups of Australian Aboriginal and American women heard and recalled two stories incorporating Aboriginal and Western conceptions of illness and treatment. Analysis of the recall protocols reveals the effect of culture-based schemata on comprehension of the two stories. Implications for health care delivery are discussed. PMID:7157028

  14. Consistent design schematics for biological systems: standardization of representation in biological engineering

    PubMed Central

    Matsuoka, Yukiko; Ghosh, Samik; Kitano, Hiroaki

    2009-01-01

    The discovery by design paradigm driving research in synthetic biology entails the engineering of de novo biological constructs with well-characterized input–output behaviours and interfaces. The construction of biological circuits requires iterative phases of design, simulation and assembly, leading to the fabrication of a biological device. In order to represent engineered models in a consistent visual format and further simulating them in silico, standardization of representation and model formalism is imperative. In this article, we review different efforts for standardization, particularly standards for graphical visualization and simulation/annotation schemata adopted in systems biology. We identify the importance of integrating the different standardization efforts and provide insights into potential avenues for developing a common framework for model visualization, simulation and sharing across various tools. We envision that such a synergistic approach would lead to the development of global, standardized schemata in biology, empowering deeper understanding of molecular mechanisms as well as engineering of novel biological systems. PMID:19493898

  15. Schema theory for genetic programming with one-point crossover and point mutation.

    PubMed

    Poli, R; Langdon, W B

    1998-01-01

    We review the main results obtained in the theory of schemata in genetic programming (GP), emphasizing their strengths and weaknesses. Then we propose a new, simpler definition of the concept of schema for GP, which is closer to the original concept of schema in genetic algorithms (GAs). Along with a new form of crossover, one-point crossover, and point mutation, this concept of schema has been used to derive an improved schema theorem for GP that describes the propagation of schemata from one generation to the next. We discuss this result and show that our schema theorem is the natural counterpart for GP of the schema theorem for GAs, to which it asymptotically converges.

  16. Understanding a technical language: A schema-based approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falzon, P.

    1984-01-01

    Workers in many job categories tend to develop technical languages, which are restricted subjects of natural language. A better knowledge of these retrictions provides guidelines for the design of the restricted languages of interactive systems. Accordingly, a technical language used by air-traffic controllers in their communications with pilots was studied. A method of analysis is presented that allows the schemata underlying each category of messages to be identified. This schematic knowledge was implemented in programs, which assume that the goal-oriented aspect of technical languages (and particularly the restricted domain of discourse) limits the processes and the data necessary in order to understand the messages (monosemy, limited vocabulary, evocation of the schemata by some command words, absence of syntax). The programs can interpret, and translate into sequences of action, the messages emitted by the controllers.

  17. Why We Remember and What We Remember: Culture and Autobiographical Memory.

    PubMed

    Ross, Michael; Wang, Qi

    2010-07-01

    We examine cultural (mainly East and West) differences in the functions and contents of autobiographical memory. We discuss how cultural differences in physical environments, self-views, the motivation to self-enhance, concerns for behavioral and emotional regulation, socialization, and language affect the contents and use of memory. Cultural influences take place at the individual level of cognitive schemata and memory strategies, as well as the interpersonal sphere of daily mnemonic practices and exchanges. Autobiographical memory is categorically cultural.

  18. The narcissistic mask: an exploration of 'the defensive grandiosity hypothesis'.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Justin; Hashmi, Amani Al; Chung, Man Cheung; Morgan, Keith; Lyons, Minna

    2013-05-01

    Narcissism has been conceptualized as involving attempts to defend against negative self-schemata (implicit negative beliefs about one's own self-worth). This idea has been termed the 'mask model of narcissism'. This study explores the mask model, examining the association between extreme narcissistic personality traits and performance on a task purported to assess the influence of negative self-schemata. Participants (n = 232) from the UK and the UAE completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and also performed an incidental learning task involving the surprise recall of self-referential adjectives (traits). A greater recall of negative adjectives was viewed as indicative of negative self-schemata. Looking at the sample as a whole, there were no associations between narcissistic traits and negative adjective recall. However, amongst those scoring in the upper quartile of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, narcissism scores were positively correlated with the recall of negative adjectives even after controlling for age and memory. Narcissism may reflect self-enhancement strategies rooted in negative self-beliefs. PMID:24343942

  19. Can Beck's theory of depression and the response style theory be integrated?

    PubMed

    Pössel, Patrick

    2011-10-01

    There are obvious similarities between the cognitive constructs of A. T. Beck's (1976) cognitive theory and the response style theory (S. Nolen-Hoeksema & J. Morrow, 1991). Different propositions of J. A. Ciesla and J. E. Roberts (2007) and S. Lyubomirsky and S. Nolen-Hoeksema (1993, 1995) concerning associations of 2 response styles, brooding and reflection, with constructs of Beck's cognitive theory (schemata, cognitive errors, cognitive triad, automatic thoughts) were tested. Model comparisons were based on a 4-week study in which 397 participants completed self-report instruments at 2 time points. A model allowing schemata to influence brooding and reflection that influence the other cognitive variables of Beck's cognitive theory fits the data better than the other integrated models. However, although schemata were significant predictors of both response styles, neither response style did significantly predict other cognitive variables. A comparison of the integrated model with Beck's original cognitive theory revealed that Beck's original theory fits the data better than the integrated model, whereas both models explain about the same amount of variance. Thus, an integration of Beck's theory and the response style theory are not supported.

  20. Aspects of Piaget's cognitive developmental psychology and neurobiology of psychotic disorders - an integrative model.

    PubMed

    Gebhardt, Stefan; Grant, Phillip; von Georgi, Richard; Huber, Martin T

    2008-09-01

    Psychological, neurobiological and neurodevelopmental approaches have frequently been used to provide pathogenic concepts on psychotic disorders. However, aspects of cognitive developmental psychology have hardly been considered in current models. Using a hypothesis-generating approach an integration of these concepts was conducted. According to Piaget (1896-1980), assimilation and accommodation as forms of maintenance and modification of cognitive schemata represent fundamental processes of the brain. In general, based on the perceived input stimuli, cognitive schemata are developed resulting in a conception of the world, the realistic validity and the actuality of which is still being controlled and modified by cognitive adjustment processes. In psychotic disorders, however, a disproportion of environmental demands and the ability to activate required neuronal adaptation processes occurs. We therefore hypothesize a failure of the adjustment of real and requested output patterns. As a consequence autonomous cognitive schemata are generated, which fail to adjust with reality resulting in psychotic symptomatology. Neurobiological, especially neuromodulatory and neuroplastic processes play a central role in these perceptive and cognitive processes. In conclusion, integration of cognitive developmental psychology into the existing pathogenic concepts of psychotic disorders leads to interesting insights into basic disease mechanisms and also guides future research in the cognitive neuroscience of such disorders.

  1. Understanding the Greenhouse Effect by Embodiment - Analysing and Using Students' and Scientists' Conceptual Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niebert, Kai; Gropengießer, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, science education studies have reported that there are very different understandings among students of science regarding the key aspects of climate change. We used the cognitive linguistic framework of experientialism to shed new light on this valuable pool of studies to identify the conceptual resources of understanding climate change. In our study, we interviewed 35 secondary school students on their understanding of the greenhouse effect and analysed the conceptions of climate scientists as drawn from textbooks and research reports. We analysed all data by metaphor analysis and qualitative content analysis to gain insight into students' and scientists' resources for understanding. In our analysis, we found that students and scientists refer to the same schemata to understand the greenhouse effect. We categorised their conceptions into three different principles the conceptions are based on: warming by more input, warming by less output, and warming by a new equilibrium. By interrelating students' and scientists' conceptions, we identified the students' learning demand: First, our students were afforded with experiences regarding the interactions of electromagnetic radiation and CO2. Second, our students reflected about the experience-based schemata they use as source domains for metaphorical understanding of the greenhouse effect. By uncovering the-mostly unconscious-deployed schemata, we gave students access to their source domains. We implemented these teaching guidelines in interventions and evaluated them in teaching experiments to develop evidence-based and theory-guided learning activities on the greenhouse effect.

  2. Hochproduktive Werkzeugbeschichtungen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruszynski, Jacek

    Trotz vielfältiger Bemühungen, die Near Net Shape Technologie in weiten Produktionsbereichen zu etablieren, ist die spanabhebende Bearbeitung nach wie vor ein wesentlicher Faktor im Produktionsprozess und kann als solcher die Produktivität entscheidend beeinflussen. Allerdings haben sich die Anforderungen an den Zerspanungsprozess im Laufe der letzten Jahre stark gewandelt. Die Reduktion von Taktzeiten und die Erhöhung der Schnittgeschwindigkeiten bedeuten eine verstärkte mechanische und thermische Belastung für die Schneidstoffe. Hinzu kommt die Forderung nach Einengung der Toleranzen und Einsparung von Arbeitsgängen. Diese neuen Rahmenbedingungen führen dazu, dass eine stetige Anpassung der Werkzeuge sowohl hinsichtlich der Schneidengeometrie als auch im Bereich der Schneidstoffe selbst notwendig ist.

  3. Mass-media and the transplantation crisis: the example of Poland.

    PubMed

    Misterska, Ewa; Glowacki, Maciej; Wlodarczyk, Zbigniew

    2010-08-01

    Organ transplantation is a treatment method that is very sensitive to public opinion. Information regarding misconduct in the recovery and transplant of organs very often leads to a definite decrease in the numbers of operations. In 2007 in Poland, the national media reported numerous controversial transplantation incidents. Directly after these occurrences, the number of transplantations fell sharply. Public opinion worsened as did the level of trust placed in doctors. Social psychology explains the mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon through the notion of cognitive schemata. Their permanence is explained through selective perception, memory and the effect of persistence.

  4. A model for the control mode man-computer interface dialogue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chafin, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    A four stage model is presented for the control mode man-computer interface dialogue. It consists of context development, semantic development syntactic development, and command execution. Each stage is discussed in terms of the operator skill levels (naive, novice, competent, and expert) and pertinent human factors issues. These issues are human problem solving, human memory, and schemata. The execution stage is discussed in terms of the operators typing skills. This model provides an understanding of the human process in command mode activity for computer systems and a foundation for relating system characteristics to operator characteristics.

  5. [Survivors of pediatric cancer. Developmental paths and outcomes between trauma and resilience].

    PubMed

    Noeker, M

    2012-04-01

    In Europe and North America, about 80% of all patients with cancer in childhood and adolescence survive their leukemia, lymphomas or tumors. Therefore, neuropsychological impairments, psychopathological comorbidity and health-related quality of life become relevant parameters for treatment evaluation and conceptualization of future therapy protocols. During the last decade, a number of patient registries, multicenter studies and meta-analyses have analyzed the interaction of disease- and treatment-associated risk factors with pre-existing socio-demographic and psychosocial vulnerability factors. Brain tumors and treatment strategies including CNS surgery, cranial radiotherapy and intrathecal chemotherapy carry an increased risk for neurological and neuropsychological long-term outcomes, which in turn also threatens the patients' psychosocial and vocational participation. In the area of psychosocial adaptation, a wide range of developmental paths results, ranging from increased psychological comorbidity, to subclinical impairments in quality of life, to normal courses to resilient outcomes, even with a developmental benefit. A hypothetical model is presented to explain this enormous variance in outcomes. Protective cognitive-emotional schemata already established at the premorbid stage predispose patients to be able to cope successfully with cancer-related challenges and thus further enhance the patients' future adaptability. In contrast, dysfunctional schemata at the premorbid level increase risks of coping failure and thus intensify the long-term risk for psychopathological comorbidity in terms of post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety disorder or depression.

  6. Sociocultural Contexts and Communication About Sex in China: Informing HIV/STD Prevention Programs

    PubMed Central

    Leiber, Eli; Chin, Dorothy; Li, Li; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Detels, Roger; Wu, Zunyou; Guan, Jihui

    2010-01-01

    HIV may be particularly stigmatizing in Asia because of its association with “taboo” topics, including sex, drugs, homosexuality, and death (Aoki, Ngin, Mo, & Ja, 1989). These cultural schemata expose salient boundaries and moral implications for sexual communication (Chin, 1999, Social Science and Medicine, 49, 241-251). Yet HIV/STD prevention efforts are frequently conducted in the public realm. Education strategies often involve conversations with health “experts” about condom use, safe sex, and partner communication. The gap between the public context of intervention efforts and the private and norm-bound nature of sex conversation is particularly challenging. Interviews with 32 market workers in eastern China focused on knowledge, beliefs, and values surrounding sexual practices, meanings, and communication. Sex-talk taboos, information seeking, vulnerability, partner communication, and cultural change emerged as central to understanding intervention information flow and each theme's relative influence is described. Findings illustrate the nature of how sexual communication schemata in Chinese contexts impact the effectiveness of sexual health message communication. PMID:19842826

  7. Sociocultural contexts and communication about sex in China: informing HIV/STD prevention programs.

    PubMed

    Lieber, Eli; Chin, Dorothy; Li, Li; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Detels, Roger; Wu, Zunyou; Guan, Jihui

    2009-10-01

    HIV may be particularly stigmatizing in Asia because of its association with "taboo" topics, including sex, drugs, homosexuality, and death (Aoki, Ngin, Mo, & Ja, 1989). These cultural schemata expose salient boundaries and moral implications for sexual communication (Chin, 1999, Social Science and Medicine, 49, 241-251). Yet HIV/STD prevention efforts are frequently conducted in the public realm. Education strategies often involve conversations with health "experts" about condom use, safe sex, and partner communication. The gap between the public context of intervention efforts and the private and norm-bound nature of sex conversation is particularly challenging. Interviews with 32 market workers in eastern China focused on knowledge, beliefs, and values surrounding sexual practices, meanings, and communication. Sex-talk taboos, information seeking, vulnerability, partner communication, and cultural change emerged as central to understanding intervention information flow and each theme's relative influence is described. Findings illustrate the nature of how sexual communication schemata in Chinese contexts impact the effectiveness of sexual health message communication. PMID:19842826

  8. Cognition of an expert tackling an unfamiliar conceptual physics problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, David; Undreiu, Adriana

    2009-11-01

    We have investigated and analyzed the cognition of an expert tackling a qualitative conceptual physics problem of an unfamiliar type. Our goal was to elucidate the detailed cognitive processes and knowledge elements involved, irrespective of final solution form, and consider implications for instruction. The basic but non-trivial problem was to find qualitatively the direction of acceleration of a pendulum bob at various stages of its motion, a problem originally studied by Reif and Allen. Methodology included interviews, introspection, retrospection and self-reported metacognition. Multiple facets of cognition were revealed, with different reasoning strategies used at different stages and for different points on the path. An account is given of the zigzag thinking paths and interplay of reasoning modes and schema elements involved. We interpret the cognitive processes in terms of theoretical concepts that emerged, namely: case-based, principle-based, experiential-intuitive and practical-heuristic reasoning; knowledge elements and schemata; activation; metacognition and epistemic framing. The complexity of cognition revealed in this case study contrasts with the tidy principle-based solutions we present to students. The pervasive role of schemata, case-based reasoning, practical heuristic strategies, and their interplay with physics principles is noteworthy, since these aspects of cognition are generally neither recognized nor taught. The schema/reasoning-mode perspective has direct application in science teaching, learning and problem-solving.

  9. Sociocultural contexts and communication about sex in China: informing HIV/STD prevention programs.

    PubMed

    Lieber, Eli; Chin, Dorothy; Li, Li; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Detels, Roger; Wu, Zunyou; Guan, Jihui

    2009-10-01

    HIV may be particularly stigmatizing in Asia because of its association with "taboo" topics, including sex, drugs, homosexuality, and death (Aoki, Ngin, Mo, & Ja, 1989). These cultural schemata expose salient boundaries and moral implications for sexual communication (Chin, 1999, Social Science and Medicine, 49, 241-251). Yet HIV/STD prevention efforts are frequently conducted in the public realm. Education strategies often involve conversations with health "experts" about condom use, safe sex, and partner communication. The gap between the public context of intervention efforts and the private and norm-bound nature of sex conversation is particularly challenging. Interviews with 32 market workers in eastern China focused on knowledge, beliefs, and values surrounding sexual practices, meanings, and communication. Sex-talk taboos, information seeking, vulnerability, partner communication, and cultural change emerged as central to understanding intervention information flow and each theme's relative influence is described. Findings illustrate the nature of how sexual communication schemata in Chinese contexts impact the effectiveness of sexual health message communication.

  10. Integument und Anhangsorgane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schliemann, Harald

    Das Integument umhüllt den Wirbeltierkörper lückenlos. In der embryonalen Mundbucht (Stomodaeum) und der Afterbucht (Proctodaeum) grenzt es an die Auskleidung des Darmrohres. Über die generelle Bedeutung einer Haut als Abgrenzung zwischen Körperinnenraum und Außenmedium hinaus hat es bei Schädeltieren ein breites Spektrum von Funktionen. Die wichtigsten sind: Mechanischer Schutz durch Verhornungen und Verknöch erungen; Wundheilung; Schutz vor Wasserverlust; Schutz vor Infektionen durch bakterizide Drüsensekrete und immunkompetente Zellen; Schutz vor kurzwelliger Strahlung durch Pigmente; Schutz vor Überwärmung durch Schweißdrüsensekrete und Schutz vor Wärmeverlust durch Federn und Haare; Ausbildung lokomotorisch wichtiger Strukturen wie Federn, Flug- und Schwimmhäute, Krallen und Hufe; Redukt ion des Strömungswiderstandes durch Dämpfungshaut; Abgabe von Sekreten zur Ernährung (Milch); Ausbildung von Strukturen zu Nahrungserwerb und_-bearbeitung, z. B. Zähne, Barten;

  11. Implementing a Community-Driven Cyberinfrastructure Platform for the Paleo- and Rock Magnetic Scientific Fields that Generalizes to Other Geoscience Disciplines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minnett, R.; Jarboe, N.; Koppers, A. A.; Tauxe, L.; Constable, C.

    2013-12-01

    EarthRef.org is a geoscience umbrella website for several databases and data and model repository portals. These portals, unified in the mandate to preserve their respective data and promote scientific collaboration in their fields, are also disparate in their schemata. The Magnetics Information Consortium (http://earthref.org/MagIC/) is a grass-roots cyberinfrastructure effort envisioned by the paleo- and rock magnetic scientific community to archive their wealth of peer-reviewed raw data and interpretations from studies on natural and synthetic samples and relies on a partially strict subsumptive hierarchical data model. The Geochemical Earth Reference Model (http://earthref.org/GERM/) portal focuses on the chemical characterization of the Earth and relies on two data schemata: a repository of peer-reviewed reservoir geochemistry, and a database of partition coefficients for rocks, minerals, and elements. The Seamount Biogeosciences Network (http://earthref.org/SBN/) encourages the collaboration between the diverse disciplines involved in seamount research and includes the Seamount Catalog (http://earthref.org/SC/) of bathymetry and morphology. All of these portals also depend on the EarthRef Reference Database (http://earthref.org/ERR/) for publication reference metadata and the EarthRef Digital Archive (http://earthref.org/ERDA/), a generic repository of data objects and their metadata. The development of the new MagIC Search Interface (http://earthref.org/MagIC/search/) centers on a reusable platform designed to be flexible enough for largely heterogeneous datasets and to scale up to datasets with tens of millions of records. The HTML5 web application and Oracle 11g database residing at the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC) support the online contribution and editing of complex datasets in a spreadsheet environment and the browsing and filtering of these contributions in the context of thousands of other datasets. EarthRef.org is in the process of

  12. Constraint and loneliness in agoraphobia: an empirical investigation.

    PubMed

    Pehlivanidis, A; Koulis, S; Papakostas, Y

    2014-01-01

    While progress in the aetiopathology and treatment of panic disorder is indisputable, research regarding agoraphobia lacks behind. One significant-yet untested- theory by Guidano and Liotti, suggests the existence of inner representations of fear of "constraint" and fear of "loneliness" as two major schemata, important in the pathogenesis and manifestation of agoraphobia. Activation of these schemata may occur in situations in which the patient: (a) feels as in an inescapable trap (constraint) or (b) alone, unprotected and helpless (loneliness). Upon activation, the "constraint" schema elicits such symptoms as asphyxiation, chest pain, difficult breathing, motor agitation and muscular tension, while the "loneliness" schema elicits such symptoms as sensation of tachycardia, weakness of limbs, trembling or fainting. Activation of these schemata by content-compatible stimuli is expected to trigger various, yet distinct, response patterns, both of which are indiscriminately described within the term "agoraphobia". In order to investigate this hypothesis and its possible clinical applications, several mental and physical probes were applied to 20 patients suffering primarily from agoraphobia, and their responses and performance were recorded. Subjects also completed the "10-item Agoraphobia Questionnaire" prepared by our team aiming at assessing cognitions related to Guidano and Liotti's notion of "loneliness" and "constraint". Breath holding (BH) and Hyperventilation (HV) were selected as physical probes. BH was selected as an easily administered hypercapnea - induced clinical procedure, because of its apparent resemblance to the concept of "constraint". Subjects were instructed to hold their breath for as long as they could and stop at will. Similarly, it was hypothesized that HV might represent a physical "loneliness" probe, since it can elicit such symptoms as dizziness, paraesthesias, stiff muscles, cold hands or feet and trembling, reminiscent of a "collapsing

  13. NeuroLOG: sharing neuroimaging data using an ontology-based federated approach.

    PubMed

    Gibaud, Bernard; Kassel, Gilles; Dojat, Michel; Batrancourt, Bénédicte; Michel, Franck; Gaignard, Alban; Montagnat, Johan

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the design of the NeuroLOG middleware data management layer, which provides a platform to share heterogeneous and distributed neuroimaging data using a federated approach. The semantics of shared information is captured through a multi-layer application ontology and a derived Federated Schema used to align the heterogeneous database schemata from different legacy repositories. The system also provides a facility to translate the relational data into a semantic representation that can be queried using a semantic search engine thus enabling the exploitation of knowledge embedded in the ontology. This work shows the relevance of the distributed approach for neurosciences data management. Although more complex than a centralized approach, it is also more realistic when considering the federation of large data sets, and open strong perspectives to implement multi-centric neurosciences studies.

  14. Hierarchical Bayesian models of cognitive development.

    PubMed

    Glassen, Thomas; Nitsch, Verena

    2016-06-01

    This article provides an introductory overview of the state of research on Hierarchical Bayesian Modeling in cognitive development. First, a brief historical summary and a definition of hierarchies in Bayesian modeling are given. Subsequently, some model structures are described based on four examples in the literature. These are models for the development of the shape bias, for learning ontological kinds and causal schemata as well as for the categorization of objects. The Bayesian modeling approach is then compared with the connectionist and nativist modeling paradigms and considered in view of Marr's (1982) three description levels of information-processing mechanisms. In this context, psychologically plausible algorithms and ideas of their neural implementation are presented. In addition to criticism and limitations of the approach, research needs are identified. PMID:27222110

  15. The role of attention problems and impulsiveness in media violence effects on aggression.

    PubMed

    Swing, Edward L; Anderson, Craig A

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has established media violence as a causal risk factor for aggressive behavior. Several theoretical mechanisms have been identified to explain this effect. The present study assessed 422 undergraduate students to test the possibility that individual differences in attention problems and impulsiveness can help explain the link between violent media and aggression. Attention problems and impulsiveness proved to be a distinct construct from other processes believed to mediate aggression (aggressive beliefs, aggression related schemata, trait anger, and trait hostility). Attention problems and impulsiveness were uniquely related to both media exposure (total weekly hours and violent content) and aggression. Attention problems and impulsiveness were particularly related to impulsive (as opposed to premeditated) aggression. These results suggest that attention problems and impulsiveness may play an important role in violent media effects on aggression. PMID:24452487

  16. Unique contributions of metacognition and cognition to depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Adviye Esin; Gençöz, Tülin; Wells, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    This study attempts to examine the unique contributions of "cognitions" or "metacognitions" to depressive symptoms while controlling for their intercorrelations and comorbid anxiety. Two-hundred-and-fifty-one university students participated in the study. Two complementary hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed, in which symptoms of depression were regressed on the dysfunctional attitudes (DAS-24 subscales) and metacognition scales (Negative Beliefs about Rumination Scale [NBRS] and Positive Beliefs about Rumination Scale [PBRS]). Results showed that both NBRS and PBRS individually explained a significant amount of variance in depressive symptoms above and beyond dysfunctional schemata while controlling for anxiety. Although dysfunctional attitudes as a set significantly predicted depressive symptoms after anxiety and metacognitions were controlled for, they were weaker than metacognitive variables and none of the DAS-24 subscales contributed individually. Metacognitive beliefs about ruminations appeared to contribute more to depressive symptoms than dysfunctional beliefs in the "cognitive" domain.

  17. Multiple Pathways Linking Racism to Health Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Harrell, Camara Jules P; Burford, Tanisha I; Cage, Brandi N; Nelson, Travette McNair; Shearon, Sheronda; Thompson, Adrian; Green, Steven

    2011-04-15

    This commentary discusses advances in the conceptual understanding of racism and selected research findings in the social neurosciences. The traditional stress and coping model holds that racism constitutes a source of aversive experiences that, when perceived by the individual, eventually lead to poor health outcomes. Current evidence points to additional psychophysiological pathways linking facets of racist environments with physiological reactions that contribute to disease. The alternative pathways emphasize prenatal experiences, subcortical emotional neural circuits, conscious and preconscious emotion regulation, perseverative cognitions, and negative affective states stemming from racist cognitive schemata. Recognition of these pathways challenges change agents to use an array of cognitive and self-controlling interventions in mitigating racism's impact. Additionally, it charges policy makers to develop strategies that eliminate deep-seated structural aspects of racism in society.

  18. An application of machine learning to the organization of institutional software repositories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailin, Sidney; Henderson, Scott; Truszkowski, Walt

    1993-01-01

    Software reuse has become a major goal in the development of space systems, as a recent NASA-wide workshop on the subject made clear. The Data Systems Technology Division of Goddard Space Flight Center has been working on tools and techniques for promoting reuse, in particular in the development of satellite ground support software. One of these tools is the Experiment in Libraries via Incremental Schemata and Cobweb (ElvisC). ElvisC applies machine learning to the problem of organizing a reusable software component library for efficient and reliable retrieval. In this paper we describe the background factors that have motivated this work, present the design of the system, and evaluate the results of its application.

  19. The role of attention problems and impulsiveness in media violence effects on aggression.

    PubMed

    Swing, Edward L; Anderson, Craig A

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has established media violence as a causal risk factor for aggressive behavior. Several theoretical mechanisms have been identified to explain this effect. The present study assessed 422 undergraduate students to test the possibility that individual differences in attention problems and impulsiveness can help explain the link between violent media and aggression. Attention problems and impulsiveness proved to be a distinct construct from other processes believed to mediate aggression (aggressive beliefs, aggression related schemata, trait anger, and trait hostility). Attention problems and impulsiveness were uniquely related to both media exposure (total weekly hours and violent content) and aggression. Attention problems and impulsiveness were particularly related to impulsive (as opposed to premeditated) aggression. These results suggest that attention problems and impulsiveness may play an important role in violent media effects on aggression.

  20. Themes of power and betrayal in sexual abuse survivors' characterizations of interpersonal relationships.

    PubMed

    Liem, J H; O'Toole, J G; James, J B

    1996-10-01

    Consistent with the notion that childhood sexual abuse (CSA) shapes motivational dispositions and internalized schemata that are reflected in adult characterizations of self and others, we hypothesized that adult CSA survivors' characterizations of interpersonal relationships would reflect greater power motivation as defined by McClelland and Winter, and more preoccupation with themes of powerlessness and betrayal than nonabused adult's - a pattern associated with poor psychological functioning. Stories written by women with CSA histories (n = 43) reflected both a greater need for and fear of power, and contained more themes of powerlessness and betrayal than stories written by women without CSA histories (n = 43). Frequency of sexual abuse in combination with fear of power was predictive of depression and low self-esteem.

  1. Achieving intersubjective understanding: examples from an occupational therapy treatment session.

    PubMed

    Crepeau, E B

    1991-11-01

    Occupational therapists, like other health care professionals, must balance their application of treatment techniques with an understanding of their patients' life experiences. This paper reviews the literature from interpretive and medical sociology regarding the interplay between professional power and the achievement of an understanding of another person. It analyzes how an occupational therapist, during a single treatment session, enters into her patient's life-world and simultaneously controls and manages the treatment process. The concepts of knowledge schemata (the expectations and beliefs people bring to a situation) and footings (the shifts in alignment, or focus, that occur during interaction) are central to this analysis. The process of achieving a balance between professional power and an understanding of the patient's experience may be fostered in education and in clinical supervision through increased emphasis on the importance of understanding the values and beliefs of patients and on the development and refinement of interactive skills.

  2. Ever since language and learning: afterthoughts on the Piaget-Chomsky debate.

    PubMed

    Piattelli-Palmarini, M

    1994-01-01

    The central arguments and counter-arguments presented by several participants during the debate between Piaget and Chomsky at the Royaumont Abbey in October 1975 are here reconstructed in a particularly consice chronological and "logical" sequence. Once the essential points of this important exchange are thus clearly laid out, it is easy to witness that recent developments in generative grammar, as well as new data on language acquisition, especially in the acquisition of pronouns by the congenitally deaf child, corroborate the "language specificity" thesis defended by Chomsky. By the same token these data and these new theoretical refinements refute the Piagetian hypothesis that language is constructed upon abstractions from sensorimotor schemata. Moreover, in the light of modern evolutionary theory, Piaget's basic assumptions on the biological roots of cognition, language and learning turn out to be unfounded. In hindsight, all this accrues to the validity of Fodor's seemingly "paradoxical" argument against "learning" as a transition from "less" powerful to "more" powerful conceptual systems.

  3. Object of desire self-consciousness theory.

    PubMed

    Bogaert, Anthony F; Brotto, Lori A

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss the construct of object of desire self-consciousness, the perception that one is romantically and sexually desirable in another's eyes. The authors discuss the nature of the construct, variations in its expression, and how it may function as part of a self-schemata or script related to romance and sexuality. The authors suggest that object of desire self-consciousness may be an adaptive, evolved psychological mechanism allowing sexual and romantic tactics suitable to one's mate value. The authors also suggest that it can act as a signal that one has high mate value in the sexual marketplace. The authors then review literature (e.g., on fantasies, on sexual activity preferences, on sexual dysfunctions, on language) suggesting that object of desire self-consciousness plays a particularly important role in heterosexual women's sexual/romantic functioning and desires. PMID:23905711

  4. Looming vulnerability to threat: a cognitive paradigm for anxiety.

    PubMed

    Riskind, J H

    1997-08-01

    The concept that perceived threat or danger is a cognitive antecedent of anxiety is central in clinical psychology, personality psychology, and social psychology. The aim in the current article is to review this concept and present a new conception called the looming vulnerability model. Looming vulnerability is conceptualized as an important cognitive component of threat or danger that elicits anxiety, sensitizes the individual to signs of movement and threat, biases cognitive processing, and makes the anxiety more persistent and less likely to habituate. In addition, it is postulated as a principal theme that discriminates anxiety and focal fears from depression. The looming vulnerability model integrates a disparate collection of findings and integrates the conceptualization of anxiety and fear with ethological and developmental observations. The social-cognitive and evolutionary basis of the sense of looming vulnerability are discussed, as well as its roots in cognitive schemata (fear scripts), its state elicitation by several potential classes of antecedent conditions, and possible treatment implications.

  5. [Effect of components and some protocols of anti-ulcer therapy on content and activity of monooxigenase system enzymes of the stomach mucosa in experimental stomach ulcer].

    PubMed

    Iakubov, A V; Pattakhova, M Kh

    2009-01-01

    The influence of components and some schemata of antiulcerous therapy on content and activity of monooxigenase system's enzymes in mucous membrane of stomach are studied on the model of experimental stomach ulcer in rats. It is established, that among components of antiulcerous therapy such as omeprazole, clarithromycin and metronidazole inhibit content and activity of MOS enzymes. Tinidazol, amoxicillin and azithromycin do not affect the function of MOS. Rifampicin and pantoprazole induce enzyme system of monooxigenase. In triple therapy with omeprazole, clarithromycin and metronidazole the inhibit effect of preparations to system of MOS is exponentiated and it leads to suppression of mucous cytoprotaction of gastro duodenal zone. Triple therapy of ulcerous disease with pantoprazole, rifampicin and azithromycin is effective planning to stimulate defense mechanisms of the organism.

  6. Reasoning about logical propositions and success in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piburn, Michael D.

    1990-12-01

    Students display a number of misconceptions when asked to reason about logical propositions. Rather than being random, these misconceptions are stereotypic, and relate to age, ability, and success in science. The grades in science achieved by tenth-grade general science students from two parochial single-sex schools in Australia correlated with their scores on the Propositional Logic Test. The students' ability level was consistently related to the pattern of errors they committed on that measure. Mean scores were lowest on a subtest of ability to use the biconditional and implication, higher on the disjunction, and highest on the conjunction. Success in science was predicted most strongly by the disjunction and biconditional subtests. Knowledge of the way in which a person reasons about logical propositions provides additional insights into the transformations information is subjected to as it is integrated into mental schemata.

  7. Homeostatic disturbances and human aggression.

    PubMed

    Naisberg, Y

    1997-04-01

    A new model on the nature of human aggression is presented. It rests on the assumption that a pre-established organismic homeostatic modification, based on a decrease in neuronal membrane electric threshold, causes neural facilitation. In turn, this influences the cut-off phenomenon, in particular, neuronal network and therefore either inherited schemata representation, or acquired engram linkage programs run inadequately. These programs adjust the response to working loads of the eight normal serial stages in the body's operational regime activity. The effect of facilitation on these programs is: (1) loss of discrimination when approaching involuntary multi-stimuli; (2) the corruption of acquired engram linkage portions used in neural networks; (3) significant reduction of the voluntary degrees of freedom of response, thus narrowing the body's operational regime activity. This results in damage to certain cognitive links from some acquired engram linkages, enhancing impulse-like program mismatches and causing a unilateral 'fight' response of an aggressive nature.

  8. Alcohol Measurement Methodology in Epidemiology: Recent Advances and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, Thomas K.; Kerr, William C.

    2009-01-01

    Aim To review and discuss measurement issues in survey assessment of alcohol consumption for epidemiological studies. Methods The following areas are considered: implications of cognitive studies of question answering like self-referenced schemata of drinking, reference period and retrospective recall, as well as the assets and liabilities of types of current (e.g., food frequency, quantity frequency, graduated frequencies, and heavy drinking indicators) and lifetime drinking measures. Finally we consider units of measurement and improving measurement by detailing the ethanol content of drinks in natural settings. Results and conclusions Cognitive studies suggest inherent limitations in the measurement enterprise, yet diary studies show promise of broadly validating methods that assess a range of drinking amounts per occasion; improvements in survey measures of drinking in the life course are indicated; attending in detail to on and off-premise drink pour sizes and ethanol concentrations of various beverages shows promise of narrowing the coverage gap plaguing survey alcohol measurement. PMID:18422826

  9. Describing sport grounds: an investigation of 'functional' and 'acquaintance' familiarity.

    PubMed

    Peron, E M; Baroni, M R; Falchero, S

    1991-10-01

    The present research was designed to investigate the concept of familiarity and how different kinds of familiarity could affect the coding and memory of places having specific and strong functional significance, i.e., sport courts. Tennis and basketball were selected. Users and nonusers of such sport courts had first to describe a sport court taking the necessary information from their stored schematic knowledge and then to describe a sport court previously seen in a photograph. Subjects' verbal reports showed a certain superiority of users' performance, a commonly found place effect, and the presence of errors only on the second task and mainly by the users group. The results are discussed in terms of the environmental schemata theory and of the different kinds of familiarity considered. PMID:1766791

  10. Effects of the "beauty is good" stereotype on children's information processing.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Jennifer L; Langlois, Judith H

    2002-03-01

    The authors tested schematic information processing as a function of attractiveness stereotyping in two studies. An adult experimenter read children (ages 3 to 7 years) eight different stories in which a child narrator encountered two characters who varied in level of attractiveness and displayed positive or negative traits that were either consistent or inconsistent with the "beauty is good" stereotype. Following the story, the experimenter showed each child a photograph of the two characters' faces and asked the child to point to the character who displayed the positive trait. In Experiment 1, children made more errors in identifying female characters with stereotype inconsistent traits but did just the opposite with male characters. Experiment 2 replicated the findings with female characters but found no difference in errors with male characters. The findings have implications for how attractiveness and gender stereotypes affect children's information processing, how attractiveness schemata may be organized, and why physical attractiveness stereotypes are maintained.

  11. Dissociation as complex adaptation.

    PubMed

    Sel, R

    1997-03-01

    In this article the general theory of complex adaptive systems, substantiated by non-linear dynamics, will be used to put the dissociative disorders into a theoretical framework and clarify their genesis and presentation. When a system is far out of equilibrium, dissipative structures may be formed ('order out of chaos', as Prigogine (1) has put it). These structures provide the starting point for further evolution and co-evolution of competing groups of functional schemata divided on a bifurcation surface. Complex adaptation is almost inevitable in a complicated system (such as the brain) driven by non-linear dynamics. Dissociation is thus regarded as a consequence of adaptation to a chaotic environment rich in contrasts. In a sufficiently complex environment a person with dissociative identity disorder is more adapted and thus more likely to occur than a 'normal' monopersonality individual.

  12. The Ouroboros Model, selected facets.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Knud

    2011-01-01

    The Ouroboros Model features a biologically inspired cognitive architecture. At its core lies a self-referential recursive process with alternating phases of data acquisition and evaluation. Memory entries are organized in schemata. The activation at a time of part of a schema biases the whole structure and, in particular, missing features, thus triggering expectations. An iterative recursive monitor process termed 'consumption analysis' is then checking how well such expectations fit with successive activations. Mismatches between anticipations based on previous experience and actual current data are highlighted and used for controlling the allocation of attention. A measure for the goodness of fit provides feedback as (self-) monitoring signal. The basic algorithm works for goal directed movements and memory search as well as during abstract reasoning. It is sketched how the Ouroboros Model can shed light on characteristics of human behavior including attention, emotions, priming, masking, learning, sleep and consciousness.

  13. Describing sport grounds: an investigation of 'functional' and 'acquaintance' familiarity.

    PubMed

    Peron, E M; Baroni, M R; Falchero, S

    1991-10-01

    The present research was designed to investigate the concept of familiarity and how different kinds of familiarity could affect the coding and memory of places having specific and strong functional significance, i.e., sport courts. Tennis and basketball were selected. Users and nonusers of such sport courts had first to describe a sport court taking the necessary information from their stored schematic knowledge and then to describe a sport court previously seen in a photograph. Subjects' verbal reports showed a certain superiority of users' performance, a commonly found place effect, and the presence of errors only on the second task and mainly by the users group. The results are discussed in terms of the environmental schemata theory and of the different kinds of familiarity considered.

  14. Social perception deficits, cognitive distortions, and empathy deficits in sex offenders: a brief review.

    PubMed

    Blake, Emily; Gannon, Theresa

    2008-01-01

    This literature review examines the differences between sex offenders and nonoffenders with regard to social perception skills, cognitive distortions, and empathy skills in order to investigate sex offenders' cognition. The literature on cognitive distortions is discussed, with reference to the confusion surrounding its definition, and the debate between cognitive distortions as offense-supportive beliefs or justifications is examined. In terms of social perception, particular reference is made to sex offenders' misinterpretations of women's social cues and the source of this deficit. The authors discuss possibilities for this deficit, including offense-supportive beliefs that are driven by underlying implicit theories or schemata held by offenders. The concept of empathy and its relation to both social perception skills and cognitive distortions is discussed, and the integration of these factors is represented in a new model.

  15. Schema generation in recurrent neural nets for intercepting a moving target.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, Andreas G

    2010-06-01

    The grasping of a moving object requires the development of a motor strategy to anticipate the trajectory of the target and to compute an optimal course of interception. During the performance of perception-action cycles, a preprogrammed prototypical movement trajectory, a motor schema, may highly reduce the control load. Subjects were asked to hit a target that was moving along a circular path by means of a cursor. Randomized initial target positions and velocities were detected in the periphery of the eyes, resulting in a saccade toward the target. Even when the target disappeared, the eyes followed the target's anticipated course. The Gestalt of the trajectories was dependent on target velocity. The prediction capability of the motor schema was investigated by varying the visibility range of cursor and target. Motor schemata were determined to be of limited precision, and therefore visual feedback was continuously required to intercept the moving target. To intercept a target, the motor schema caused the hand to aim ahead and to adapt to the target trajectory. The control of cursor velocity determined the point of interception. From a modeling point of view, a neural network was developed that allowed the implementation of a motor schema interacting with feedback control in an iterative manner. The neural net of the Wilson type consists of an excitation-diffusion layer allowing the generation of a moving bubble. This activation bubble runs down an eye-centered motor schema and causes a planar arm model to move toward the target. A bubble provides local integration and straightening of the trajectory during repetitive moves. The schema adapts to task demands by learning and serves as forward controller. On the basis of these model considerations the principal problem of embedding motor schemata in generalized control strategies is discussed.

  16. A proposal for a drug information database and text templates for generating package inserts.

    PubMed

    Okuya, Ryo; Kimura, Masaomi; Ohkura, Michiko; Tsuchiya, Fumito

    2013-01-01

    To prevent prescription errors caused by information systems, a database to store complete and accurate drug information in a user-friendly format is needed. In previous studies, the primary method for obtaining data stored in a database is to extract drug information from package inserts by employing pattern matching or more sophisticated methods such as text mining. However, it is difficult to obtain a complete database because there is no strict rule concerning expressions used to describe drug information in package inserts. The authors' strategy was to first build a database and then automatically generate package inserts by embedding data in the database using templates. To create this database, the support of pharmaceutical companies to input accurate data is required. It is expected that this system will work, because these companies can earn merit for newly developed drugs to decrease the effort to create package inserts from scratch. This study designed the table schemata for the database and text templates to generate the package inserts. To handle the variety of drug-specific information in the package inserts, this information in drug composition descriptions was replaced with labels and the replacement descriptions utilizing cluster analysis were analyzed. To improve the method by which frequently repeated ingredient information and/or supplementary information are stored, the method was modified by introducing repeat tags in the templates to indicate repetition and improving the insertion of data into the database. The validity of this method was confirmed by inputting the drug information described in existing package inserts and checking that the method could regenerate the descriptions in the original package insert. In future research, the table schemata and text templates will be extended to regenerate other information in the package inserts.

  17. Safety in numbers 4: The relationship between exposure to authentic and didactic environments and nursing students' learning of medication dosage calculation problem solving knowledge and skills.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Keith W; Clochesy, John M; Hutton, B Meriel; Moseley, Laurie

    2013-03-01

    Advancing the art and science of education practice requires a robust evaluation of the relationship between students' exposure to learning and assessment environments and the development of their cognitive competence (knowing that and why) and functional competence (know-how and skills). Healthcare education translation research requires specific education technology assessments and evaluations that consist of quantitative analyses of empirical data and qualitative evaluations of the lived student experience of the education journey and schemata construction (Weeks et al., 2013a). This paper focuses on the outcomes of UK PhD and USA post-doctorate experimental research. We evaluated the relationship between exposure to traditional didactic methods of education, prototypes of an authentic medication dosage calculation problem-solving (MDC-PS) environment and nursing students' construction of conceptual and calculation competence in medication dosage calculation problem-solving skills. Empirical outcomes from both UK and USA programmes of research identified highly significant differences in the construction of conceptual and calculation competence in MDC-PS following exposure to the authentic learning environment to that following exposure to traditional didactic transmission methods of education (p < 0.001). This research highlighted that for many students exposure to authentic learning environments is an essential first step in the development of conceptual and calculation competence and relevant schemata construction (internal representations of the relationship between the features of authentic dosage problems and calculation functions); and how authentic environments more ably support all cognitive (learning) styles in mathematics than traditional didactic methods of education. Functional competence evaluations are addressed in Macdonald et al. (2013) and Weeks et al. (2013e).

  18. The nature of advanced reasoning and science instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Anton E.

    Although the development of reasoning is recognized as an important goal of science instruction, its nature remains somewhat of a mystery. This article discusses two key questions: Does formal thought constitute a structured whole? And what role does propositional logic play in advanced reasoning? Aspects of a model of advanced reasoning are presented in which hypothesis generation and testing are viewed as central processes in intellectual development. It is argued that a number of important advanced reasoning schemata are linked by these processes and should be made a part of science instruction designed to improve students' reasoning abilities.Concerning students' development and use of formal reasoning, Linn (1982) calls for research into practical issues such as the roles of task-specific knowledge and individual differences in performance, roles not emphasized by Piaget in his theory and research. From a science teacher's point of view, this is good advice. Accordingly, this article will expand upon some of the issues raised by Linn in a discussion of the nature of advanced reasoning which attempts to reconcile the apparent contradiction between students' differential use of advanced reasoning schemata in varying contexts with the notion of a general stage of formal thought. Two key questions will be discussed: Does formal thought constitute a structured whole? And what role does propositional logic play in advanced reasoning? The underlying assumption of the present discussion is that, among other things, science instruction should concern itself with the improvement of students' reasoning abilities (cf. Arons, 1976; Arons & Karplus, 1976; Bady, 1979; Bauman, 1976; Educational Policies Commission, 1966; Herron, 1978; Karplus, 1979; Kohlberg & Mayer, 1972; Moshman & Thompson, 1981; Lawson, 1979; Levine & linn, 1977; Pallrand, 1977; Renner & Lawson, 1973; Sayre & Ball, 1975; Schneider & Renner, 1980; Wollman, 1978). The questions are of interest because to

  19. SCEC Community Modeling Environment (SCEC/CME) - Data and Metadata Management Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minster, J.; Faerman, M.; Ely, G.; Maechling, P.; Gupta, A.; Xin, Q.; Kremenek, G.; Shkoller, B.; Olsen, K.; Day, S.; Moore, R.

    2003-12-01

    discipline specific extension schemata. Candidates include the FGDC spatial data standard, the ISO 19115 schema for geographic data, and the Storage Resource Broker authenticity metadata. Other candidates include various metadata schemata used in observational seismology. We are also considering metadata attributes that are being developed within the SCEC community and are specific to the requirements of that community. A comparison of the metadata attributes will be presented, along with their use in the organization of simulation output from a large-scale anelastic wave prediction simulation, The SDSC Storage Resource Broker (SRB) provides the data handling capabilities to manage the Terabyte scale simulation output, providing support for ingestion, organization, description, preservation and access of datasets. The metadata attributes include, in particular, descriptive information about the simulation run, simulation input parameters, the computational infrastructure, the physical geometry of the problem, and output structure.

  20. Auditory feedback in music performance: the role of transition-based similarity.

    PubMed

    Pfordresher, Peter Q

    2008-06-01

    Past research has suggested that the disruptive effect of altered auditory feedback depends on how structurally similar the sequence of feedback events is to the planned sequence of actions. Three experiments pursued one basis for similarity in musical keyboard performance: matches between sequential transitions in spatial targets for movements and the melodic contour of auditory feedback. Trained pianists and musically untrained persons produced simple tonal melodies on a keyboard while hearing feedback sequences that either matched the planned melody or were contour-preserving variations of that melody. Sequence production was disrupted among pianists when feedback events were serially shifted by one event, similarly for shifts of planned melodies and tonal variations but less so for shifts of atonal variations. Nonpianists were less likely to be disrupted by serial shifts of variations but showed similar disruption to pianists for shifts of the planned melody. Thus, transitional properties and tonal schemata may jointly determine perception-action similarity during musical sequence production, and the tendency to generalize from a planned sequence to variations of it may develop with the acquisition of skill. PMID:18505333

  1. Safety in numbers 3: Authenticity, Building knowledge & skills and Competency development & assessment: the ABC of safe medication dosage calculation problem-solving pedagogy.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Keith W; Meriel Hutton, B; Coben, Diana; Clochesy, John M; Pontin, David

    2013-03-01

    When designing learning and assessment environments it is essential to articulate the underpinning education philosophy, theory, model and learning style support mechanisms that inform their structure and content. We elaborate on original PhD research that articulates the design rationale of authentic medication dosage calculation problem-solving (MDC-PS) learning and diagnostic assessment environments. These environments embody the principles of authenticity, building knowledge and skills and competency assessment and are designed to support development of competence and bridging of the theory-practice gap. Authentic learning and diagnostic assessment environments capture the features and expert practices that are located in real world practice cultures and recreate them in authentic virtual clinical environments. We explore how this provides students with a safe virtual authentic environment to actively experience, practice and undertake MDC-PS learning and assessment activities. We argue that this is integral to the construction and diagnostic assessment of schemata validity (mental constructions and frameworks that are an individual's internal representation of their world), bridging of the theory-practice gap and cognitive and functional competence development. We illustrate these principles through the underpinning pedagogical design of two online virtual authentic learning and diagnostic assessment environments (safeMedicate and eDose™).

  2. A multilayer micromechanical model of the cuticle of Curculio longinasus Chittenden, 1927 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Andrew Jansen, M; Singh, Sudhanshu S; Chawla, Nikhilesh; Franz, Nico M

    2016-08-01

    Curculio longinasus Chittenden, 1927 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a weevil species common throughout the southwestern United States that uses its rostrum - a very slender, curved, beak-like projection of the head - to excavate tunnels in plant organs (such as acorns) for egg laying (oviposition). Once the apical portion of the rostrum has been inserted into the preferred substrate for oviposition, the female begins rotating around the perimeter of the hole, elevating her head by extending the fore-legs, and rotating the head in place in a drilling motion. This action causes significant elastic deformation of the rostrum, which will bend until it becomes completely straight. To better understand the mechanical behavior of the cuticle as it undergoes deformation during the preparation of oviposition sites, we develop a comprehensive micro/macro model of the micromechanical structure and properties of the cuticle, spanning across all cuticular regions, and reliably mirroring the resultant macroscale properties of the cuticle. Our modeling approach relies on the use of multi-scale, hierarchical biomaterial representation, and employs various micromechanical schemata - e.g., Mori-Tanaka, effective field, and Maxwell - to calculate the homogenized properties of representative volume elements at each level in the hierarchy. We describe the configuration and behavior of this model in detail, and discuss the theoretical implications and limitations of this approach with emphasis on future biomechanical and comparative evolutionary research. Our detailed account of this approach can thereby serve as a methodological template for exploring the biomechanical behavior of new insect structures. PMID:27189867

  3. Deception and Cognitive Load: Expanding Our Horizon with a Working Memory Model

    PubMed Central

    Sporer, Siegfried L.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, studies on deception and its detection have increased dramatically. Many of these studies rely on the “cognitive load approach” as the sole explanatory principle to understand deception. These studies have been exclusively on lies about negative actions (usually lies of suspects of [mock] crimes). Instead, we need to re-focus more generally on the cognitive processes involved in generating both lies and truths, not just on manipulations of cognitive load. Using Baddeley’s (2000, 2007, 2012) working memory model, which integrates verbal and visual processes in working memory with retrieval from long-term memory and control of action, not only verbal content cues but also nonverbal, paraverbal, and linguistic cues can be investigated within a single framework. The proposed model considers long-term semantic, episodic and autobiographical memory and their connections with working memory and action. It also incorporates ironic processes of mental control (Wegner, 1994, 2009), the role of scripts and schemata and retrieval cues and retrieval processes. Specific predictions of the model are outlined and support from selective studies is presented. The model is applicable to different types of reports, particularly about lies and truths about complex events, and to different modes of production (oral, hand-written, typed). Predictions regarding several moderator variables and methods to investigate them are proposed. PMID:27092090

  4. Exploring schema-driven differences in situation awareness between road users: an on-road study of driver, cyclist and motorcyclist situation awareness.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Paul M; Lenne, Michael G; Walker, Guy H; Stanton, Neville A; Filtness, Ashleigh

    2014-01-01

    Collisions between different road users make a substantial contribution to road trauma. Although evidence suggests that different road users interpret the same road situations differently, it is not clear how road users' situation awareness differs, nor is it clear which differences might lead to conflicts. This article presents the findings from an on-road study conducted to examine driver, motorcyclist and cyclist situation awareness in different road environments. The findings suggest that, in addition to minor differences in the structure of different road users' situation awareness (i.e. amount of information and how it is integrated), the actual content of situation awareness in terms of road user schemata, the resulting interaction with the world and the information underpinning situation awareness is markedly different. Further examination indicates that the differences are likely to be compatible along arterial roads, shopping strips and at roundabouts, but that they may create conflicts between different road users at intersections. Interventions designed to support compatible situation awareness and behaviour between different road users are discussed. PMID:24444299

  5. Terminological aspects of data elements

    SciTech Connect

    Strehlow, R.A. ); Kenworthey, W.H. Jr. ); Schuldt, R.E. )

    1991-01-01

    The creation and display of data comprise a process that involves a sequence of steps requiring both semantic and systems analysis. An essential early step in this process is the choice, definition, and naming of data element concepts and is followed by the specification of other needed data element concept attributes. The attributes and the values of data element concept remain associated with them from their birth as a concept to a generic data element that serves as a template for final application. Terminology is, therefore, centrally important to the entire data creation process. Smooth mapping from natural language to a database is a critical aspect of database, and consequently, it requires terminology standardization from the outset of database work. In this paper the semantic aspects of data elements are analyzed and discussed. Seven kinds of data element concept information are considered and those that require terminological development and standardization are identified. The four terminological components of a data element are the hierarchical type of a concept, functional dependencies, schematas showing conceptual structures, and definition statements. These constitute the conventional role of terminology in database design. 12 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Good-enough linguistic representations and online cognitive equilibrium in language processing.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Hossein; Ferreira, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    We review previous research showing that representations formed during language processing are sometimes just "good enough" for the task at hand and propose the "online cognitive equilibrium" hypothesis as the driving force behind the formation of good-enough representations in language processing. Based on this view, we assume that the language comprehension system by default prefers to achieve as early as possible and remain as long as possible in a state of cognitive equilibrium where linguistic representations are successfully incorporated with existing knowledge structures (i.e., schemata) so that a meaningful and coherent overall representation is formed, and uncertainty is resolved or at least minimized. We also argue that the online equilibrium hypothesis is consistent with current theories of language processing, which maintain that linguistic representations are formed through a complex interplay between simple heuristics and deep syntactic algorithms and also theories that hold that linguistic representations are often incomplete and lacking in detail. We also propose a model of language processing that makes use of both heuristic and algorithmic processing, is sensitive to online cognitive equilibrium, and, we argue, is capable of explaining the formation of underspecified representations. We review previous findings providing evidence for underspecification in relation to this hypothesis and the associated language processing model and argue that most of these findings are compatible with them.

  7. Emotion generation and regulation in anorexia nervosa: a systematic review and meta-analysis of self-report data.

    PubMed

    Oldershaw, Anna; Lavender, Tony; Sallis, Hannah; Stahl, Daniel; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2015-07-01

    This systematic review sought to examine the generation and regulation of emotion in people with Anorexia Nervosa (AN). Key databases (Medline, Embase, PsychINFO and Web of Science) were searched for peer-reviewed articles published by March 2015 yielding 131 studies relevant to emotion generation and emotion regulation (ER) processes as defined by Gross (1998). Meta-analyses determined pooled group differences between AN and healthy control (HC) groups. More maladaptive schemata were reported by people with AN than HCs, with largest pooled effects for defectiveness/shame (d=2.81), subjugation (d=1.59) and social isolation (d=1.66). Poorer awareness of and clarity over emotion generated and some elevated emotionality (disgust and shame) were reported. A greater use of 'maladaptive' ER strategies was reported by people with AN than HCs, alongside less use of 'adaptive' strategies. Pooled differences of particularly large effect were observed for: experiential avoidance (d=1.00), negative problem-solving style (d=1.06), external/social comparison (d=1.25), submissiveness (d=1.16), attention concentration (worry/rumination; d=1.44) and emotion suppression (d=1.15), particularly to avoid conflict (d=1.54). These data support the notion that emotion regulation difficulties are a factor in AN and support use of associated cognitive-affective models. The implications of these findings for further understanding AN, and developing models and related psychological interventions are discussed. PMID:26043394

  8. Psychoanalysis and the Brain – Why Did Freud Abandon Neuroscience?

    PubMed Central

    Northoff, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, was initially a neuroscientist but abandoned neuroscience completely after he made a last attempt to link both in his writing, “Project of a Scientific Psychology,” in 1895. The reasons for his subsequent disregard of the brain remain unclear though. I here argue that one central reason may be that the approach to the brain during his time was simply not appealing to Freud. More specifically, Freud was interested in revealing the psychological predispositions of psychodynamic processes. However, he was not so much focused on the actual psychological functions themselves which though were the prime focus of the neuroscience at his time and also in current Cognitive Neuroscience. Instead, he probably would have been more interested in the brain’s resting state and its constitution of a spatiotemporal structure. I here assume that the resting state activity constitutes a statistically based virtual structure extending and linking the different discrete points in time and space within the brain. That in turn may serve as template, schemata, or grid for all subsequent neural processing during stimulus-induced activity. As such the resting state’ spatiotemporal structure may serve as the neural predisposition of what Freud described as “psychological structure.” Hence, Freud and also current neuropsychoanalysis may want to focus more on neural predispositions, the necessary non-sufficient conditions, rather than the neural correlates, i.e., sufficient, conditions of psychodynamic processes. PMID:22485098

  9. Interactions among affect, cognition, and visuomotor coordination as measured in words and symbols.

    PubMed

    Pack, D R; Cadet, B; Pons, L

    1989-04-01

    The associative frequencies of responses to stimulus words during free and controlled forced-choice word-association tests correlate well with each other and with assessments of the affective character (emotional content) of the stimulus words for the test subjects (Osgood Index) for three samples of volunteer French undergraduate students (ns = 200, 64, and 72). These indices correlate negatively with the subjects' performance on Digit Symbol Substitution tests. Neisser's theory of schemata and Edelman's theory of neuronal group selection may provide insight into this relationship. If the associative frequency of a subject's response decreased, the affective content of the word stimulus (as perceived by the subject) diminished as well. This relationship was associated with a relatively higher score on Digit Symbol Substitution. Conversely, it was observed that subjects whose responses were characterized by high associative frequencies (whether the response was spontaneous or forced-choice) rated the stimulus words as having a relatively stronger affective content or emotional character and performed less well on Digit Symbol Substitution. PMID:2710885

  10. Geometric transformations for video compression and human teleoperator display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juday, Richard D.; Fisher, Timothy E.

    1989-01-01

    A method for bandwidth-efficient processing of video imagery to be viewed by the teleoperator of a remotely-operated vehicle on which the camera is mounted is described. The method comprises image coding, transmission, and reconstruction. It is assumed that the transmission bandpass is the limiting factor rather than encoding/decoding schemata; that image coding and reconstruction will be done within the general abilities of the NASA/TI Programmable Remapper; and that the ratio of retained local detail to the operator's visual resolution is held constant throughout the large-field image that is seen. Novel features include that the compression and reconstruction address certain characteristics of the human visual system, that two-way communication controls a moving 'fovea' in the transformation, and that resolution varies over the image. Conventional motivations accommodated include the Cartesian raster-scan nature of available imagers and display devices and a need for low bandwidth in the image transmission. Unique image processing hardware, NASA's Programmable Remapper, allows demonstration of the method. Once refined, the technology could be adapted to special purpose imagers and display devices, or otherwise to dedicated image processing hardware.

  11. The metaphor-gestalt synergy underlying the self-organisation of perception as a semiotic process.

    PubMed

    Rail, David

    2013-04-01

    Recently the basis of concept and language formation has been redefined by the proposal that they both stem from perception and embodiment. The experiential revolution has lead to a far more integrated and dynamic understanding of perception as a semiotic system. The emergence of meaning in the perceptual process stems from the interaction between two key mechanisms. These are first, the generation of schemata through recurrent sensorimotor activity (SM) that underlies category and language formation (L). The second is the interaction between metaphor (M) and gestalt mechanisms (G) that generate invariant mappings beyond the SM domain that both conserve and diversify our understanding and meaning potential. We propose an important advance in our understanding of perception as a semiotic system through exploring the affect of self-organising to criticality where hierarchical behaviour becomes widely integrated through 1/f process and isomorphisms. Our proposal leads to several important implications. First, that SM and L form a functional isomorphism depicted as SM <=> L. We contend that SM <=> L is emergent, corresponding to the phenomenal self. Second, meaning structures the isomorphism SM <=>L through the synergy between M and G (M-G). M-G synergy is based on a combination of structuring and imagination. We contend that the interaction between M-G and SM <=> L functions as a macro-micro comutation that governs perception as semiosis. We discuss how our model relates to current research in fractal time and verb formation.

  12. Three key regions for supervisory attentional control: Evidence from neuroimaging meta-analyses

    PubMed Central

    Cieslik, Edna C.; Mueller, Veronika I.; Eickhoff, Claudia R.; Langner, Robert; Eickhoff, Simon B.

    2014-01-01

    The supervisory attentional system has been proposed to mediate non-routine, goal-oriented behaviour by guiding the selection and maintenance of the goal-relevant task schema. Here, we aimed to delineate the brain regions that mediate these high-level control processes via neuroimaging meta-analysis. In particular, we investigated the core neural correlates of a wide range of tasks requiring supervisory control for the suppression of a routine action in favour of another, non-routine one. Our sample comprised n = 173 experiments employing go/no-go, stop-signal, Stroop or spatial interference tasks. Consistent convergence across all four paradigm classes was restricted to right anterior insula and inferior frontal junction, with anterior midcingulate cortex and pre-supplementary motor area being consistently involved in all but the go/no-go task. Taken together with lesion studies in patients, our findings suggest that the controlled activation and maintenance of adequate task schemata relies, across paradigms, on a right-dominant midcingulo-insular-inferior frontal core network. This also implies that the role of other prefrontal and parietal regions may be less domain-general than previously thought. PMID:25446951

  13. Psychoanalysis and the brain - why did freud abandon neuroscience?

    PubMed

    Northoff, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, was initially a neuroscientist but abandoned neuroscience completely after he made a last attempt to link both in his writing, "Project of a Scientific Psychology," in 1895. The reasons for his subsequent disregard of the brain remain unclear though. I here argue that one central reason may be that the approach to the brain during his time was simply not appealing to Freud. More specifically, Freud was interested in revealing the psychological predispositions of psychodynamic processes. However, he was not so much focused on the actual psychological functions themselves which though were the prime focus of the neuroscience at his time and also in current Cognitive Neuroscience. Instead, he probably would have been more interested in the brain's resting state and its constitution of a spatiotemporal structure. I here assume that the resting state activity constitutes a statistically based virtual structure extending and linking the different discrete points in time and space within the brain. That in turn may serve as template, schemata, or grid for all subsequent neural processing during stimulus-induced activity. As such the resting state' spatiotemporal structure may serve as the neural predisposition of what Freud described as "psychological structure." Hence, Freud and also current neuropsychoanalysis may want to focus more on neural predispositions, the necessary non-sufficient conditions, rather than the neural correlates, i.e., sufficient, conditions of psychodynamic processes.

  14. On the organization of the perisylvian cortex: Insights from the electrophysiology of language. Comment on "Towards a Computational Comparative Neuroprimatology: Framing the language-ready brain" by M.A. Arbib

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouwer, Harm; Crocker, Matthew W.

    2016-03-01

    The Mirror System Hypothesis (MSH) on the evolution of the language-ready brain draws upon the parallel dorsal-ventral stream architecture for vision [1]. The dorsal "how" stream provides a mapping of parietally-mediated affordances onto the motor system (supporting preshape), whereas the ventral "what" stream engages in object recognition and visual scene analysis (supporting pantomime and verbal description). Arbib attempts to integrate this MSH perspective with a recent conceptual dorsal-ventral stream model of auditory language comprehension [5] (henceforth, the B&S model). In the B&S model, the dorsal stream engages in time-dependent combinatorial processing, which subserves syntactic structuring and linkage to action, whereas the ventral stream performs time-independent unification of conceptual schemata. These streams are integrated in the left Inferior Frontal Gyrus (lIFG), which is assumed to subserve cognitive control, and no linguistic processing functions. Arbib criticizes the B&S model on two grounds: (i) the time-independence of the semantic processing in the ventral stream (by arguing that semantic processing is just as time-dependent as syntactic processing), and (ii) the absence of linguistic processing in the lIFG (reconciling syntactic and semantic representations is very much linguistic processing proper). Here, we provide further support for these two points of criticism on the basis of insights from the electrophysiology of language. In the course of our argument, we also sketch the contours of an alternative model that may prove better suited for integration with the MSH.

  15. Experimental study on the precise orbit determination of the BeiDou navigation satellite system.

    PubMed

    He, Lina; Ge, Maorong; Wang, Jiexian; Wickert, Jens; Schuh, Harald

    2013-01-01

    The regional service of the Chinese BeiDou satellite navigation system is now in operation with a constellation including five Geostationary Earth Orbit satellites (GEO), five Inclined Geosynchronous Orbit (IGSO) satellites and four Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) satellites. Besides the standard positioning service with positioning accuracy of about 10 m, both precise relative positioning and precise point positioning are already demonstrated. As is well known, precise orbit and clock determination is essential in enhancing precise positioning services. To improve the satellite orbits of the BeiDou regional system, we concentrate on the impact of the tracking geometry and the involvement of MEOs, and on the effect of integer ambiguity resolution as well. About seven weeks of data collected at the BeiDou Experimental Test Service (BETS) network is employed in this experimental study. Several tracking scenarios are defined, various processing schemata are designed and carried out; and then, the estimates are compared and analyzed in detail. The results show that GEO orbits, especially the along-track component, can be significantly improved by extending the tracking network in China along longitude direction, whereas IGSOs gain more improvement if the tracking network extends in latitude. The involvement of MEOs and ambiguity-fixing also make the orbits better.

  16. Endogenizing geopolitical boundaries with agent-based modeling

    PubMed Central

    Cederman, Lars-Erik

    2002-01-01

    Agent-based modeling promises to overcome the reification of actors. Whereas this common, but limiting, assumption makes a lot of sense during periods characterized by stable actor boundaries, other historical junctures, such as the end of the Cold War, exhibit far-reaching and swift transformations of actors' spatial and organizational existence. Moreover, because actors cannot be assumed to remain constant in the long run, analysis of macrohistorical processes virtually always requires “sociational” endogenization. This paper presents a series of computational models, implemented with the software package REPAST, which trace complex macrohistorical transformations of actors be they hierarchically organized as relational networks or as collections of symbolic categories. With respect to the former, dynamic networks featuring emergent compound actors with agent compartments represented in a spatial grid capture organizational domination of the territorial state. In addition, models of “tagged” social processes allows the analyst to show how democratic states predicate their behavior on categorical traits. Finally, categorical schemata that select out politically relevant cultural traits in ethnic landscapes formalize a constructivist notion of national identity in conformance with the qualitative literature on nationalism. This “finite-agent method”, representing both states and nations as higher-level structures superimposed on a lower-level grid of primitive agents or cultural traits, avoids reification of agency. Furthermore, it opens the door to explicit analysis of entity processes, such as the integration and disintegration of actors as well as boundary transformations. PMID:12011409

  17. Congenital Diaphragmatic Defects: Proposal for a New Classification Based on Observations in 234 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Kate G.; Vargas, Sara O.; Wilson, Jay A.; Jennings, Russell W.; Kozakewich, Harry P.W.; Pober, Barbara R.

    2013-01-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic defects (CDDs) are a common group of birth defects, yet we presently know little about their pathogenesis. No systematic study documenting the detailed morphology of CDD has been performed, and current classification schemata of diaphragm phenotypes incompletely capture the location and extent of diaphragmatic involvement. To define the range of CDD anatomy, diaphragmatic pathology was reviewed from an examination of 181 autopsy records of children with CDDs at Children’s Hospital Boston between 1927 and 2006. Defects were classified according to several parameters, including type (communicating versus noncommunicating) and location (anterior, posterior, etc.). The information permitted development of a phenotyping worksheet for prospective use on patients undergoing diaphragmatic repair at Children’s Hospital Boston or MassGeneral Hospital for Children. Fifty-three patients who died between 1990 and 2006 had a total of 63 defects. Thirty-nine had a “classic” CDD phenotype (64% posterolateral, 18% hemidiaphragmatic aplasia, and 18% anterior). The remaining 19 defects, not fitting classical descriptions, were located in the posteromedial, anterolateral, or lateral regions of the diaphragm. Prospective data collected during surgical repair revealed posterolateral defects in 34 of 41 cases that demonstrated wide phenotypic variability in size, location, shape, type, and extent of organ displacement. Congenital diaphragmatic defects display significant phenotypic variation. Because rigorous anatomic evaluation and documentation are important steps towards elucidating the developmental biology of these disorders, we suggest establishment of a new and more precise classification using the model presented herein. PMID:22257294

  18. Preface to QoIS 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comyn-Wattiau, Isabelle; Thalheim, Bernhard

    Quality assurance is a growing research domain within the Information Systems (IS) and Conceptual Modeling (CM) disciplines. Ongoing research on quality in IS and CM is highly diverse and encompasses theoretical aspects including quality definition and quality models, and practical/empirical aspects such as the development of methods, approaches and tools for quality measurement and improvement. Current research on quality also includes quality characteristics definitions, validation instruments, methodological and development approaches to quality assurance during software and information systems development, quality monitors, quality assurance during information systems development processes and practices, quality assurance both for data and (meta)schemata, quality support for information systems data import and export, quality of query answering, and cost/benefit analysis of quality assurance processes. Quality assurance is also depending on the application area and the specific requirements in applications such as health sector, logistics, public sector, financial sector, manufacturing, services, e-commerce, software, etc. Furthermore, quality assurance must also be supported for data aggregation, ETL processes, web content management and other multi-layered applications. Quality assurance is typically requiring resources and has therefore beside its benefits a computational and economical trade-off. It is therefore also based on compromising between the value of quality data and the cost for quality assurance.

  19. Deception and Cognitive Load: Expanding Our Horizon with a Working Memory Model.

    PubMed

    Sporer, Siegfried L

    2016-01-01

    Recently, studies on deception and its detection have increased dramatically. Many of these studies rely on the "cognitive load approach" as the sole explanatory principle to understand deception. These studies have been exclusively on lies about negative actions (usually lies of suspects of [mock] crimes). Instead, we need to re-focus more generally on the cognitive processes involved in generating both lies and truths, not just on manipulations of cognitive load. Using Baddeley's (2000, 2007, 2012) working memory model, which integrates verbal and visual processes in working memory with retrieval from long-term memory and control of action, not only verbal content cues but also nonverbal, paraverbal, and linguistic cues can be investigated within a single framework. The proposed model considers long-term semantic, episodic and autobiographical memory and their connections with working memory and action. It also incorporates ironic processes of mental control (Wegner, 1994, 2009), the role of scripts and schemata and retrieval cues and retrieval processes. Specific predictions of the model are outlined and support from selective studies is presented. The model is applicable to different types of reports, particularly about lies and truths about complex events, and to different modes of production (oral, hand-written, typed). Predictions regarding several moderator variables and methods to investigate them are proposed. PMID:27092090

  20. A mathematical framework for forcing turbulence applied to horizontally homogeneous stratified flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, K. J.; de Bruyn Kops, S. M.

    2011-06-01

    It is often desirable to study turbulent flows at steady state even if the flow has no inherent source of turbulence kinetic energy. Doing so requires a forcing schema, and various methods applicable to laboratory experiments or numerical simulations have been studied extensively for turbulence that is isotropic and homogeneous in three dimensions. A review of existing schemata for simulations is used to form a framework for more general forcing methods. In this framework, the problem of developing a forcing method is abstracted into the two problems of (1) prescribing the spectrum of the input power and (2) specifying a force that has the desired characteristics and that adds energy to the flow with the correct spectrum. The framework is used to construct three forcing methods for simulating horizontally homogeneous and isotropic, vertically stratified turbulence. They are implemented in a pseudo-spectral large-eddy simulations and their characteristics are analyzed. The framework is then used to characterize existing laboratory experiments. While no exact analogy can be drawn between forcing in esoteric pseudo-spectral simulations and forcing in physical experiments, there are many similarities. It is suggested that the forcing framework can be applied to predict and systematically test the effects of configuration choices made in the design of simulations and laboratory experiments.

  1. Implicit motives and cognitive variables: specific links to vulnerability for unipolar or bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Fuhr, Kristina; Hautzinger, Martin; Meyer, Thomas Daniel

    2014-01-30

    Cognitive variables contribute to the etiology of affective disorders. With the differentiation between explicit and implicit measures some studies have indicated underlying depressogenic schemata even in bipolar disorders. We tested for differences in implicit motives and cognitive variables between patients with remitted unipolar and bipolar disorder compared to controls and in a high-risk sample. Additionally we investigated whether affective symptoms relate to those variables. We cross-sectionally examined N=164 participants (53 with bipolar disorder, 58 with major depression, and 53 without affective disorders) and a high-risk sample (N=49) of adolescent children of either parents with unipolar or bipolar disorder or of healthy parents. The Multi-Motive-Grid was used to measure the implicit motives achievement, affiliation, and power, in addition to the cognitive measures of self-esteem, dysfunctional attitudes, and perfectionism. Unipolar and bipolar groups did not differ from healthy controls in implicit motives but showed higher scores in the cognitive factors. Adolescents at high risk for unipolar disorder showed lower scores in the power and achievement motives compared to adolescents at low risk. Subsyndromal depressive symptoms were related to the cognitive variables in both samples. Our results underline the importance of cognitive-behavioral treatment for both unipolar and bipolar disorder. PMID:24182545

  2. Selective Visual Attention during Mirror Exposure in Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna; Bender, Caroline; Caffier, Detlef; Klenner, Katharina; Braks, Karsten; Svaldi, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Objective Cognitive theories suggest that body dissatisfaction results from the activation of maladaptive appearance schemata, which guide mental processes such as selective attention to shape and weight-related information. In line with this, the present study hypothesized that patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are characterized by increased visual attention for the most dissatisfying/ugly body part compared to their most satisfying/beautiful body part, while a more balanced viewing pattern was expected for controls without eating disorders (CG). Method Eye movements were recorded in a group of patients with AN (n = 16), BN (n = 16) and a CG (n = 16) in an ecologically valid setting, i.e., during a 3-min mirror exposure. Results Evidence was found that patients with AN and BN display longer and more frequent gazes towards the most dissatisfying relative to the most satisfying and towards their most ugly compared to their most beautiful body parts, whereas the CG showed a more balanced gaze pattern. Discussion The results converge with theoretical models that emphasize the role of information processing in the maintenance of body dissatisfaction. Given the etiological importance of body dissatisfaction in the development of eating disorders, future studies should focus on the modification of the reported patterns. PMID:26714279

  3. Encoding style and its relationships with schizotypal traits and impulsivity during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Badoud, Deborah; Billieux, Joël; Van der Linden, Martial; Eliez, Stephan; Debbané, Martin

    2013-12-30

    This study intends to explore how individual differences in encoding style (i.e. how encoding is implicitly affected by pre-existing schemata, so called an internal style, versus by cues from the outside world, so called an external style) are associated with schizotypal traits and impulsivity expression during adolescence. Moreover, we aim to provide first evidence reliability for the encoding style questionnaire with an adolescent sample. 101 French-speaking community adolescents (Mage=16.06, S.D.age=2.01; 57 girls; primarily Caucasian) participated in a cross-sectional study. The whole sample filled out a battery of self-report questionnaires. Our data supports a positive association between a predominant internal encoding style, the level of positive and disorganized schizotypal traits, and a higher degree of urgency and sensation seeking impulsivity components. On the one hand, these results have clinical implications in the sense that a low level in implicit processing, namely encoding style, is involved in positive and disorganized schizotypal traits as well as in impulsivity. Schizotypal traits and impulsivity are two sets of traits that put youth at risk for the development of severe psychopathological states in adulthood. On the other hand, this research enables an increased understanding of encoding style by providing the first reliable assessment tool for French-speaking adolescents.

  4. Emotion generation and regulation in anorexia nervosa: a systematic review and meta-analysis of self-report data.

    PubMed

    Oldershaw, Anna; Lavender, Tony; Sallis, Hannah; Stahl, Daniel; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2015-07-01

    This systematic review sought to examine the generation and regulation of emotion in people with Anorexia Nervosa (AN). Key databases (Medline, Embase, PsychINFO and Web of Science) were searched for peer-reviewed articles published by March 2015 yielding 131 studies relevant to emotion generation and emotion regulation (ER) processes as defined by Gross (1998). Meta-analyses determined pooled group differences between AN and healthy control (HC) groups. More maladaptive schemata were reported by people with AN than HCs, with largest pooled effects for defectiveness/shame (d=2.81), subjugation (d=1.59) and social isolation (d=1.66). Poorer awareness of and clarity over emotion generated and some elevated emotionality (disgust and shame) were reported. A greater use of 'maladaptive' ER strategies was reported by people with AN than HCs, alongside less use of 'adaptive' strategies. Pooled differences of particularly large effect were observed for: experiential avoidance (d=1.00), negative problem-solving style (d=1.06), external/social comparison (d=1.25), submissiveness (d=1.16), attention concentration (worry/rumination; d=1.44) and emotion suppression (d=1.15), particularly to avoid conflict (d=1.54). These data support the notion that emotion regulation difficulties are a factor in AN and support use of associated cognitive-affective models. The implications of these findings for further understanding AN, and developing models and related psychological interventions are discussed.

  5. Proportional reasoning and the linguistic abilities required for hypothetico-deductive reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Anton E.; Lawson, David I.; Lawson, Chester A.

    The hypothesis is advanced that a necessary, though not sufficient, condition for the acquisition of proportional reasoning during adolescence is the prior internalization of key linguistic elements of argumentation, essentially those used in hypothetico-deductive reasoning. This hypothesized internalization, which does not occur in all individuals, results in some who have acquired the ability to reflect upon the correctness of self-generated answers in a hypothetico-deductive manner, and others who have not. As an initial test of the hypothesis, 46 subjects (Ss) (mean age = 21.03 years) were classified into additive, transitional, or proportional reasoning categories based upon responses to a proportions task. Group differences were found in which proportional Ss performed better than transitional Ss who in turn performed better than additive Ss on a number of items testing Ss' abilities to identify, generate, and use the linguistic elements of argumentation. Further it was found that some Ss who were successful on the linguistic items failed the proportions task, but no Ss who were successful on the proportions task failed the linguistic items. This result supports the hypothesis that the internalization of linguistic elements of argumentation is a prerequisite for proportional reasoning and by inference other advanced reasoning schemata as well. Implications for science instruction are drawn.

  6. Violent video games: The effects of narrative context and reward structure on in-game and postgame aggression.

    PubMed

    Sauer, James D; Drummond, Aaron; Nova, Natalie

    2015-09-01

    The potential influence of video game violence on real-world aggression has generated considerable public and scientific interest. Some previous research suggests that playing violent video games can increase postgame aggression. The generalized aggression model (GAM) attributes this to the generalized activation of aggressive schemata. However, it is unclear whether game mechanics that contextualize and encourage or inhibit in-game violence moderate this relationship. Thus, we examined the effects of reward structures and narrative context in a violent video game on in-game and postgame aggression. Contrary to GAM-based predictions, our manipulations differentially affected in-game and postgame aggression. Reward structures selectively affected in-game aggression, whereas narrative context selectively affected postgame aggression. Players who enacted in-game violence through a heroic character exhibited less postgame aggression than players who enacted comparable levels of in-game violence through an antiheroic character. Effects were not attributable to self-activation or character-identification mechanisms, but were consistent with social-cognitive context effects on the interpretation of behavior. These results contradict the GAM's assertion that violent video games affect aggression through a generalized activation mechanism. From an applied perspective, consumer choices may be aided by considering not just game content, but the context in which content is portrayed. PMID:26121373

  7. Living in history and living by the cultural life script: How older Germans date their autobiographical memories.

    PubMed

    Bohn, Annette; Habermas, Tilmann

    2016-01-01

    This study examines predictions from two theories on the organisation of autobiographical memory: Cultural Life Script Theory which conceptualises the organisation of autobiographical memory by cultural schemata, and Transition Theory which proposes that people organise their memories in relation to personal events that changed the fabric of their daily lives, or in relation to negative collective public transitions, called the Living-in-History effect. Predictions from both theories were tested in forty-eight-old Germans from Berlin and Northern Germany. We tested whether the Living-in-History effect exists for both negative (the Second World War) and positive (Fall of Berlin Wall) collectively experienced events, and whether cultural life script events serve as a prominent strategy to date personal memories. Results showed a powerful, long-lasting Living-in History effect for the negative, but not the positive event. Berlin participants dated 26% of their memories in relation to the Second World War. Supporting cultural life script theory, life script events were frequently used to date personal memories. This provides evidence that people use a combination of culturally transmitted knowledge and knowledge based on personal experience to navigate through their autobiographical memories, and that experiencing war has a lasting impact on the organisation of autobiographical memories across the life span.

  8. Violent video games: The effects of narrative context and reward structure on in-game and postgame aggression.

    PubMed

    Sauer, James D; Drummond, Aaron; Nova, Natalie

    2015-09-01

    The potential influence of video game violence on real-world aggression has generated considerable public and scientific interest. Some previous research suggests that playing violent video games can increase postgame aggression. The generalized aggression model (GAM) attributes this to the generalized activation of aggressive schemata. However, it is unclear whether game mechanics that contextualize and encourage or inhibit in-game violence moderate this relationship. Thus, we examined the effects of reward structures and narrative context in a violent video game on in-game and postgame aggression. Contrary to GAM-based predictions, our manipulations differentially affected in-game and postgame aggression. Reward structures selectively affected in-game aggression, whereas narrative context selectively affected postgame aggression. Players who enacted in-game violence through a heroic character exhibited less postgame aggression than players who enacted comparable levels of in-game violence through an antiheroic character. Effects were not attributable to self-activation or character-identification mechanisms, but were consistent with social-cognitive context effects on the interpretation of behavior. These results contradict the GAM's assertion that violent video games affect aggression through a generalized activation mechanism. From an applied perspective, consumer choices may be aided by considering not just game content, but the context in which content is portrayed.

  9. The Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia enables predictive modelling of anticancer drug sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Barretina, Jordi; Caponigro, Giordano; Stransky, Nicolas; Venkatesan, Kavitha; Margolin, Adam A; Kim, Sungjoon; Wilson, Christopher J; Lehár, Joseph; Kryukov, Gregory V; Sonkin, Dmitriy; Reddy, Anupama; Liu, Manway; Murray, Lauren; Berger, Michael F; Monahan, John E; Morais, Paula; Meltzer, Jodi; Korejwa, Adam; Jané-Valbuena, Judit; Mapa, Felipa A; Thibault, Joseph; Bric-Furlong, Eva; Raman, Pichai; Shipway, Aaron; Engels, Ingo H; Cheng, Jill; Yu, Guoying K; Yu, Jianjun; Aspesi, Peter; de Silva, Melanie; Jagtap, Kalpana; Jones, Michael D; Wang, Li; Hatton, Charles; Palescandolo, Emanuele; Gupta, Supriya; Mahan, Scott; Sougnez, Carrie; Onofrio, Robert C; Liefeld, Ted; MacConaill, Laura; Winckler, Wendy; Reich, Michael; Li, Nanxin; Mesirov, Jill P; Gabriel, Stacey B; Getz, Gad; Ardlie, Kristin; Chan, Vivien; Myer, Vic E; Weber, Barbara L; Porter, Jeff; Warmuth, Markus; Finan, Peter; Harris, Jennifer L; Meyerson, Matthew; Golub, Todd R; Morrissey, Michael P; Sellers, William R; Schlegel, Robert; Garraway, Levi A

    2012-03-28

    The systematic translation of cancer genomic data into knowledge of tumour biology and therapeutic possibilities remains challenging. Such efforts should be greatly aided by robust preclinical model systems that reflect the genomic diversity of human cancers and for which detailed genetic and pharmacological annotation is available. Here we describe the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE): a compilation of gene expression, chromosomal copy number and massively parallel sequencing data from 947 human cancer cell lines. When coupled with pharmacological profiles for 24 anticancer drugs across 479 of the cell lines, this collection allowed identification of genetic, lineage, and gene-expression-based predictors of drug sensitivity. In addition to known predictors, we found that plasma cell lineage correlated with sensitivity to IGF1 receptor inhibitors; AHR expression was associated with MEK inhibitor efficacy in NRAS-mutant lines; and SLFN11 expression predicted sensitivity to topoisomerase inhibitors. Together, our results indicate that large, annotated cell-line collections may help to enable preclinical stratification schemata for anticancer agents. The generation of genetic predictions of drug response in the preclinical setting and their incorporation into cancer clinical trial design could speed the emergence of 'personalized' therapeutic regimens.

  10. Estimations of object frequency are frequently overestimated.

    PubMed

    Greene, Michelle R

    2016-04-01

    Real-world scenes are complex but lawful: blenders are more likely to be found in kitchens than beaches, and elephants are not generally found inside homes. Research over the past 40years has demonstrated that contextual associations influence object recognition, change eye movement distributions, and modulate brain activity. However, the majority of these studies choose object-scene pairs from experimenters' intuitions because the statistical relationships between objects and scenes had yet to be systematically quantified. How do intuitive estimations compare to actual object frequencies? Across six experiments, observers estimated the frequency with which an object is found in a particular environment, such as the frequency of "mug" in an office. Estimated frequencies were compared to observed frequencies in two fully labeled scene databases (Greene, 2013). Although inter-observer similarity was high, observers systematically overestimated object frequency by an average of 32% across experiments. Altogether, these results speak to the richness of scene schemata and to the necessity of measuring object frequencies. PMID:26774103

  11. Introductory Remarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavroglu, Kostas

    Practitioners of many (sub)-disciplines in the sciences are, at times, confronted with an apparent bliss which often turns into a nightmare: they are stuck with too good and too fertile a theory. 'Normal' science is surely a rewarding practice-but for that very reason it may, at times, also become boring. Theories or theoretical schemata may make successful predictions, may clarify 'mechanisms', they may show the way to further developments, and they may be amenable to non-controversial approximations. If one is really lucky, they may even-at least in principle-be able to answer all questions. There have-especially in the history of physics-been many such theories. Laplacian physics, ether physics and superstrings have historically defined the frameworks for such utopias where everything could be answerable, at least in principle. But one is truly at a loss when one is confronted with this in principle. In principle but not in practice? In principle but never? Confronted with the deadlocks that are implicit in such utopias, scientists started to collectively display a Procrustean psychopathology. They would prepare the beds and, yet, the theories would manage to trick the tricksters: almost all theories appeared to be fitting to any Procrustean bed. They were short and tall and normal at the same time.

  12. Gender Differences in Object of Desire Self-Consciousness Sexual Fantasies.

    PubMed

    Bogaert, Anthony F; Visser, Beth A; Pozzebon, Julie A

    2015-11-01

    In a recent review article, Bogaert and Brotto (2014) discussed "object of desire self-consciousness," a perception that one is romantically and sexually desirable in another's eyes. They argued that this perception is more relevant to women's sociosexual functioning than it is to men's. In the present study, we attempted to find direct evidence that object of desire themes are linked more to women's sexual desire and arousal than they are to men's by examining the differences in content between men's and women's sexual fantasies. A total of 198 men and women reported on arousing themes in sexual fantasies using three methodologies: endorsement of items on a sexual fantasy questionnaire, sentence completion of sexually-charged scenarios, and open-ended sexual fantasies. The men and women also rated their attractiveness and were rated for attractiveness by two female experimenters. On all three fantasy composites, women endorsed more object of desire themes than did men, and these effects occurred independent of the subjective and observer-rated attractiveness measures. The results were discussed in relation to theorizing that object of desire self-consciousness can function as part of many women's self-schemata or scripts related to romance and sexuality. PMID:25567072

  13. Post-event processing in social anxiety disorder after real-life social situations - An ambulatory assessment study.

    PubMed

    Helbig-Lang, Sylvia; von Auer, Maxie; Neubauer, Karolin; Murray, Eileen; Gerlach, Alexander L

    2016-09-01

    Excessive post-mortem processing after social situations, a core symptom of social anxiety disorder (SAD), is thought to contribute to the perpetuation of social anxiety by consolidating negative self-schemata. Empirical findings on actual mechanisms underlying this so-called Post-Event Processing (PEP) are still scarce. The present study sought to identify variables associated with the experience of PEP after real-life social situations in a sample of 49 individuals diagnosed with SAD. Using an ambulatory assessment approach, individuals were asked to report on each distressing social event experienced during one week. A total of 192 events were captured. Hierarchical linear modeling indicated that next to trait social anxiety, the type of social situation (performance vs. interaction situations), self-focused attention, safety behavior use, and negative affect predicted levels of PEP after social situations. These findings add to the growing literature that emphasizes the importance of situational factors for the experience of PEP, and highlight potential venues to prevent it.

  14. Addiction as excessive appetite.

    PubMed

    Orford, J

    2001-01-01

    The excessive appetite model of addiction is summarized. The paper begins by considering the forms of excessive appetite which a comprehensive model should account for: principally, excessive drinking, smoking, gambling, eating, sex and a diverse range of drugs including at least heroin, cocaine and cannabis. The model rests, therefore, upon a broader concept of what constitutes addiction than the traditional, more restricted, and arguably misleading definition. The core elements of the model include: very skewed consumption distribution curves; restraint, control or deterrence; positive incentive learning mechanisms which highlight varied forms of rapid emotional change as rewards, and wide cue conditioning; complex memory schemata; secondary, acquired emotional regulation cycles, of which 'chasing', 'the abstinence violation effect' and neuroadaptation are examples; and the consequences of conflict. These primary and secondary processes, occurring within diverse sociocultural contexts, are sufficient to account for the development of a strong attachment to an appetitive activity, such that self-control is diminished, and behaviour may appear to be disease-like. Giving up excess is a natural consequence of conflict arising from strong and troublesome appetite. There is much supportive evidence that change occurs outside expert treatment, and that when it occurs within treatment the change processes are more basic and universal than those espoused by fashionable expert theories. PMID:11177517

  15. Gender Differences in Object of Desire Self-Consciousness Sexual Fantasies.

    PubMed

    Bogaert, Anthony F; Visser, Beth A; Pozzebon, Julie A

    2015-11-01

    In a recent review article, Bogaert and Brotto (2014) discussed "object of desire self-consciousness," a perception that one is romantically and sexually desirable in another's eyes. They argued that this perception is more relevant to women's sociosexual functioning than it is to men's. In the present study, we attempted to find direct evidence that object of desire themes are linked more to women's sexual desire and arousal than they are to men's by examining the differences in content between men's and women's sexual fantasies. A total of 198 men and women reported on arousing themes in sexual fantasies using three methodologies: endorsement of items on a sexual fantasy questionnaire, sentence completion of sexually-charged scenarios, and open-ended sexual fantasies. The men and women also rated their attractiveness and were rated for attractiveness by two female experimenters. On all three fantasy composites, women endorsed more object of desire themes than did men, and these effects occurred independent of the subjective and observer-rated attractiveness measures. The results were discussed in relation to theorizing that object of desire self-consciousness can function as part of many women's self-schemata or scripts related to romance and sexuality.

  16. The metaphor-gestalt synergy underlying the self-organisation of perception as a semiotic process.

    PubMed

    Rail, David

    2013-04-01

    Recently the basis of concept and language formation has been redefined by the proposal that they both stem from perception and embodiment. The experiential revolution has lead to a far more integrated and dynamic understanding of perception as a semiotic system. The emergence of meaning in the perceptual process stems from the interaction between two key mechanisms. These are first, the generation of schemata through recurrent sensorimotor activity (SM) that underlies category and language formation (L). The second is the interaction between metaphor (M) and gestalt mechanisms (G) that generate invariant mappings beyond the SM domain that both conserve and diversify our understanding and meaning potential. We propose an important advance in our understanding of perception as a semiotic system through exploring the affect of self-organising to criticality where hierarchical behaviour becomes widely integrated through 1/f process and isomorphisms. Our proposal leads to several important implications. First, that SM and L form a functional isomorphism depicted as SM <=> L. We contend that SM <=> L is emergent, corresponding to the phenomenal self. Second, meaning structures the isomorphism SM <=>L through the synergy between M and G (M-G). M-G synergy is based on a combination of structuring and imagination. We contend that the interaction between M-G and SM <=> L functions as a macro-micro comutation that governs perception as semiosis. We discuss how our model relates to current research in fractal time and verb formation. PMID:23517606

  17. PanMetaDocs - A tool for collecting and managing the long tail of "small science data"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klump, J.; Ulbricht, D.

    2011-12-01

    In the early days of thinking about cyberinfrastructure the focus was on "big science data". Today, the challenge is not anymore to store several terabytes of data, but to manage data objects in a way that facilitates their re-use. Key to re-use by a user as a data consumer is proper documentation of the data. Also, data consumers need discovery metadata to find the data they need and they need descriptive metadata to be able to use the data they retrieved. Thus, data documentation faces the challenge to extensively and completely describe these objects, hold the items easily accessible at a sustainable cost level. However, data curation and documentation do not rank high in the everyday work of a scientist as a data producer. Data producers are often frustrated by being asked to provide metadata on their data over and over again, information that seemed very obvious from the context of their work. A challenge to data archives is the wide variety of metadata schemata in use, which creates a number of maintenance and design challenges of its own. PanMetaDocs addresses these issues by allowing an uploaded files to be described by more than one metadata object. PanMetaDocs, which was developed from PanMetaWorks, is a PHP based web application that allow to describe data with any xml-based metadata schema. Its user interface is browser based and was developed to collect metadata and data in collaborative scientific projects situated at one or more institutions. The metadata fields can be filled with static or dynamic content to reduce the number of fields that require manual entries to a minimum and make use of contextual information in a project setting. In the development of PanMetaDocs the business logic of panMetaWorks is reused, except for the authentication and data management functions of PanMetaWorks, which are delegated to the eSciDoc framework. The eSciDoc repository framework is designed as a service oriented architecture that can be controlled through a

  18. A combined model of sensory and cognitive representations underlying tonal expectations in music: from audio signals to behavior.

    PubMed

    Collins, Tom; Tillmann, Barbara; Barrett, Frederick S; Delbé, Charles; Janata, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Listeners' expectations for melodies and harmonies in tonal music are perhaps the most studied aspect of music cognition. Long debated has been whether faster response times (RTs) to more strongly primed events (in a music theoretic sense) are driven by sensory or cognitive mechanisms, such as repetition of sensory information or activation of cognitive schemata that reflect learned tonal knowledge, respectively. We analyzed over 300 stimuli from 7 priming experiments comprising a broad range of musical material, using a model that transforms raw audio signals through a series of plausible physiological and psychological representations spanning a sensory-cognitive continuum. We show that RTs are modeled, in part, by information in periodicity pitch distributions, chroma vectors, and activations of tonal space--a representation on a toroidal surface of the major/minor key relationships in Western tonal music. We show that in tonal space, melodies are grouped by their tonal rather than timbral properties, whereas the reverse is true for the periodicity pitch representation. While tonal space variables explained more of the variation in RTs than did periodicity pitch variables, suggesting a greater contribution of cognitive influences to tonal expectation, a stepwise selection model contained variables from both representations and successfully explained the pattern of RTs across stimulus categories in 4 of the 7 experiments. The addition of closure--a cognitive representation of a specific syntactic relationship--succeeded in explaining results from all 7 experiments. We conclude that multiple representational stages along a sensory-cognitive continuum combine to shape tonal expectations in music. PMID:24490788

  19. A sphere-cut-splice crossover for the evolution of cluster structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhanghui; Jiang, Xiangwei; Li, Jingbo; Li, Shushen

    2013-06-01

    A new crossover operator is proposed to evolve the structures of the atomic clusters. It uses a sphere rather than a plane to cut and splice the parent structures. The child cluster is constructed by the atoms of one parent which lie inside the sphere, and the atoms of the other parent which lie outside the sphere. It can reliably produce reasonable offspring and preserve the good schemata in parent structures, avoiding the drawbacks of the classical plane-cut-splice crossover in the global searching ability and the local optimization speed. Results of Lennard-Jones clusters (30 ⩽ N ⩽ 500) show that at the same settings the genetic algorithm with the sphere-cut-splice crossover exhibits better performance than the one with the plane-cut-splice crossover. The average number of local minimizations needed to find the global minima and the average number of energy evaluation of each local minimization in the sphere scheme is 0.8075 and 0.8386 of that in the plane scheme, respectively. The mean speed-up ratio for the entire testing clusters reaches 1.8207. Moreover, the sphere scheme is particularly suitable for large clusters and the mean speed-up ratio reaches 2.3520 for the clusters with 110 ⩽ N ⩽ 500. The comparison with other successful methods in previous studies also demonstrates its good performance. Finally, a further analysis is presented on the statistical features of the cutting sphere and a modified strategy that reduces the probability of using tiny and large spheres exhibits better global search.

  20. The relationship between organisational communication and perception.

    PubMed

    Marynissen, H M F

    2011-01-01

    Both researchers and managers search for the most appropriate form of organisational communication. The aim of such an organisational communication is to influence the receivers' perception to confirm, adapt or change behaviour according to the sender's intention. This paper argues that to influence the receivers' perception, a specific form of communication that is embedded in a specific organisational culture is required. It also demands prior knowledge of the existing organisational schemata and the current perception concerning the topic that has to be communicated. The rationale is that three obstacles hinder the objectives of traditional communication strategies to influence perception according to the sender's objectives. The first challenge is that a receiver of a certain message never garners one single, clearly pronounced message conveyed by one single person. Yet, few studies are based on multiple messages from various sources. This makes most of the communication strategies in use obsolete. The second strain is the dual mode of thinking that forms organisational members' perceptions: the heuristic and the cogitative (Taleb, 2010). Most organisational communication theories are based on the paradigm in which receivers of information process this information in a rational way, while research in the field of neurobiology (Lehrer, 2009) indicates that rationality is dominated by emotions. The third difficulty is that organisational members constrain to well-established, ingrained schemas (Labianca et al., 2000; Balogun and Johnson, 2004). Based on these existing schemas, the scattered information from multiple sources, and the inability to process that information through cognitive reasoning, organisational members construct perceptions that are not in line with the objectives of the sender's communication. This article reviews different communication theories, points out key concepts in the literature on individual and collective perceptions, and suggests

  1. PC viruses: How do they do that

    SciTech Connect

    Pichnarczyk, K.

    1992-07-01

    The topic of PC Viruses has been an issue for a number of years now. They've been reported in every major newspaper, tabloids, television and radio. People from all fields get viruses: government, private sector businesses, home computers, schools, computer software suppliers. A definition is proposed to introduce the virus phenomenon. Virus authors come from a variety of communities. Motives and ideologies of authors are discussed, and examples of viruses are offered. Also mentioned is the growing number of viruses developed, isolated, and never distributed to the public at large, but kept within the antivirus research community. Virus examples are offered as well. Viruses are distributed not only through bulletin boards and shareware, but also from areas previously assumed to be safe, including the threat of receiving a virus through a standard in-house function, such as an in-house hardware maintenance shop. Three categories of viruses are presented: File Infecter viruses, Boot Sector Infecters, and the new category of Directory Entry Infecter virus. Also discussed are crossover viruses, that is, viruses which utilize a variety of techniques to ensure survival. An explanation of what is occurring within every stage of various viruses is given. Replication strategies common to all three types is noted, mainly the two different replication strategies of memory resident infecters and active selection infecters. A detailed definition, description and application of a stealth virus is presented. Detection strategies are discussed as each topic in this section is completed; a high level schemata of the operation of various virus detection programs ispresented. Since most eradication today is done using virus detection/eradication software, this paper attempts to reveal the techniques used by these packages.Included in the paper is the topic of manual eradication.

  2. PC viruses: How do they do that?

    SciTech Connect

    Pichnarczyk, K.

    1992-07-01

    The topic of PC Viruses has been an issue for a number of years now. They`ve been reported in every major newspaper, tabloids, television and radio. People from all fields get viruses: government, private sector businesses, home computers, schools, computer software suppliers. A definition is proposed to introduce the virus phenomenon. Virus authors come from a variety of communities. Motives and ideologies of authors are discussed, and examples of viruses are offered. Also mentioned is the growing number of viruses developed, isolated, and never distributed to the public at large, but kept within the antivirus research community. Virus examples are offered as well. Viruses are distributed not only through bulletin boards and shareware, but also from areas previously assumed to be safe, including the threat of receiving a virus through a standard in-house function, such as an in-house hardware maintenance shop. Three categories of viruses are presented: File Infecter viruses, Boot Sector Infecters, and the new category of Directory Entry Infecter virus. Also discussed are crossover viruses, that is, viruses which utilize a variety of techniques to ensure survival. An explanation of what is occurring within every stage of various viruses is given. Replication strategies common to all three types is noted, mainly the two different replication strategies of memory resident infecters and active selection infecters. A detailed definition, description and application of a stealth virus is presented. Detection strategies are discussed as each topic in this section is completed; a high level schemata of the operation of various virus detection programs ispresented. Since most eradication today is done using virus detection/eradication software, this paper attempts to reveal the techniques used by these packages.Included in the paper is the topic of manual eradication.

  3. Two dopamine receptors: biochemistry, physiology and pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Stoof, J C; Kebabian, J W

    1984-12-01

    In 1979, two categories of dopamine (DA) receptors (designated as D-1 and D-2) were identified on the basis of the ability of a limited number of agonists and antagonists to discriminate between these two entities. In the past 5 years agonists and antagonists selective for each category of receptor have been identified. Using these selective drugs it has been possible to attribute the effects of DA upon physiological and biochemical processes to the stimulation of either a D-1 or a D-2 receptor. Thus, DA-induced enhancement of both hormone release from bovine parathyroid gland and firing of neurosecretory cells in the CNS of Lymnaea stagnalis has been attributed to stimulation of a D-1 receptor. Likewise, the DA-induced inhibition of the release of prolactin and alpha-MSH from the pituitary gland, as well as of acetylcholine, DA and beta-endorphin from brain, the DA-induced inhibition of chemo-sensory discharge in rabbit carotid body and the DA-induced hyperpolarization of neurosecretory cells in the CNS of Lymnaea stagnalis have been attributed to stimulation of a D-2 receptor. Independently two categories of DA receptors (designated as DA-1 and DA-2) were identified in the cardiovascular system. Stimulation of a DA-1 receptor increases the vascular cyclic AMP content and causes a relaxation of vascular smooth muscle in renal blood vessels, whereas stimulation of a DA-2 receptor inhibits the release of norepinephrine from certain postganglionic sympathetic neurons. Recent studies with the newly developed drugs discriminating between D-1 and D-2 receptors suggest however that the independently developed schemata for classification of dopamine receptors in either the central nervous and endocrine systems or the cardiovascular system are similar although maybe not completely identical. PMID:6390056

  4. The relationship between organisational communication and perception.

    PubMed

    Marynissen, H M F

    2011-01-01

    Both researchers and managers search for the most appropriate form of organisational communication. The aim of such an organisational communication is to influence the receivers' perception to confirm, adapt or change behaviour according to the sender's intention. This paper argues that to influence the receivers' perception, a specific form of communication that is embedded in a specific organisational culture is required. It also demands prior knowledge of the existing organisational schemata and the current perception concerning the topic that has to be communicated. The rationale is that three obstacles hinder the objectives of traditional communication strategies to influence perception according to the sender's objectives. The first challenge is that a receiver of a certain message never garners one single, clearly pronounced message conveyed by one single person. Yet, few studies are based on multiple messages from various sources. This makes most of the communication strategies in use obsolete. The second strain is the dual mode of thinking that forms organisational members' perceptions: the heuristic and the cogitative (Taleb, 2010). Most organisational communication theories are based on the paradigm in which receivers of information process this information in a rational way, while research in the field of neurobiology (Lehrer, 2009) indicates that rationality is dominated by emotions. The third difficulty is that organisational members constrain to well-established, ingrained schemas (Labianca et al., 2000; Balogun and Johnson, 2004). Based on these existing schemas, the scattered information from multiple sources, and the inability to process that information through cognitive reasoning, organisational members construct perceptions that are not in line with the objectives of the sender's communication. This article reviews different communication theories, points out key concepts in the literature on individual and collective perceptions, and suggests

  5. Pneumoconiosis from Agricultural Dust Exposure among Young California Farmworkers

    PubMed Central

    Schenker, Marc B.; Pinkerton, Kent E.; Mitchell, Diane; Vallyathan, Val; Elvine-Kreis, Brenda; Green, Francis H.Y.

    2009-01-01

    Background Agricultural workers are exposed to airborne pollutants, including organic and inorganic (mineral) dusts. Objectives Lung autopsy specimens from consecutive coroner’s cases of Hispanic males in Fresno County, California, (n = 112) were obtained to determine whether mineral dust exposure in agricultural work leads to pneumoconiosis. Methods The left lung was fixed by inflation. We evaluated airway and parenchymal pathology using standardized diagnostic criteria and semiquantitative grading schemata, including the grading of small airways for fibrosis and birefringent mineral dust particles. We analyzed lung dust burden on a subset of 37 lungs following bleach digestion, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray spectrometry (XRS) and image analysis, and by X-ray diffraction for crystalline silica (CSi). Farmworkers comprised 51.5% and nonfarmworkers 48.5% of the samples. Results Proximal airways demonstrated little mineral dust accumulation, but membranous and respiratory bronchioles had wall thickening, remodeling, and inflammation associated with carbonaceous and mineral dust deposition. These changes were independently associated with agricultural work, cigarette smoking, and increased age. Mineral dust small airways disease, pneumoconiosis (macules and nodules), and pathologic changes consistent with chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and interstitial fibrosis predominated in farmworkers compared with nonfarmworkers. CSi, determined gravimetrically, and aluminum silicate particles, determined by SEM/XRS, were increased in the lungs of farmworkers compared with nonfarmworkers and were significantly (p < 0.05) associated with small airway disease and pneumoconiosis. Conclusion Mineral dust exposure is associated with increased small airway disease and pneumoconiosis among California farmworkers; however, the clinical significance and natural history of these changes remains to be determined. PMID:19590695

  6. Aging and response conflict solution: Behavioural and functional connectivity changes

    PubMed Central

    Cieslik, Edna C.; Behrwind, Simone D.; Roski, Christian; Caspers, Svenja; Amunts, Katrin; Eickhoff, Simon B.

    2014-01-01

    Healthy aging has been found associated with less efficient response conflict solution, but the cognitive and neural mechanisms remain elusive. In a two-experiment study, we first examined the behavioural consequences of this putative age-related decline for conflicts induced by spatial stimulus–response incompatibility. We then used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from a large, independent sample of adults (n = 399; 18–85 years) to investigate age differences in functional connectivity between the nodes of a network previously found associated with incompatibility-induced response conflicts in the very same paradigm. As expected, overcoming interference from conflicting response tendencies took longer in older adults, even after accounting for potential mediator variables (general response speed and accuracy, motor speed, visuomotor coordination ability, and cognitive flexibility). Experiment 2 revealed selective age-related decreases in functional connectivity between bilateral anterior insula, pre-supplementary motor area, and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Importantly, these age effects persisted after controlling for regional gray-matter atrophy assessed by voxel-based morphometry. Meta-analytic functional profiling using the BrainMap database showed these age-sensitive nodes to be more strongly linked to highly abstract cognition, as compared with the remaining network nodes, which in turn were more strongly linked to action-related processing. These findings indicate changes in interregional coupling with age among task-relevant network nodes that are not specifically associated with conflict resolution per se. Rather, our behavioural and neural data jointly suggest that healthy aging is associated with difficulties in properly activating non-dominant but relevant task schemata necessary to exert efficient cognitive control over action. PMID:24718622

  7. In the eye of the beholder: eye-tracking assessment of social information processing in aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Horsley, Tako A; de Castro, Bram Orobio; Van der Schoot, Menno

    2010-07-01

    Acording to social information processing theories, aggressive children are hypersensitive to cues of hostility and threat in other people's behavior. However, even though there is ample evidence that aggressive children over-interpret others' behaviors as hostile, it is unclear whether this hostile attribution tendency does actually result from overattending to hostile and threatening cues. Since encoding is posited to consist of rapid automatic processes, it is hard to assess with the self report measures that have been used so far. Therefore, we used a novel approach to investigate visual encoding of social information. The eye movements of thirty 10-13 year old children with lower levels and thirty children with higher levels of aggressive behavior were monitored in real time with an eyetracker, as the children viewed ten different cartoon series of ambiguous provocation situations. In addition, participants answered questions concerning encoding and interpretation. Aggressive children did not attend more to hostile cues, nor attend less to non-hostile cues than non-aggressive children. Contrary, aggressive children looked longer at non-hostile cues, but nonetheless attributed more hostile intent than their non-aggressive peers. These findings contradict the traditional bottom-up processing hypotheses that aggressive behavior would be related with failure to attend to non-hostile cues. The findings seem best explained by topdown information processing, where aggressive children's pre-existing hostile intent schemata (1) direct attention towards schema inconsistent non-hostile cues, (2) prevent further processing and recall of such schema-inconsistent information, and (3) lead to hostile intent attribution and aggressive responding, disregarding the schema-inconsistent non-hostile information. PMID:19823928

  8. Effects of musical expertise and boundary markers on phrase perception in music.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, Christiane; Knösche, Thomas R; Friederici, Angela D

    2006-03-01

    A neural correlate for phrase boundary perception in music has recently been identified in musicians. It is called music closure positive shift ("music CPS") and has an equivalent in the perception of speech ("language CPS"). The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of musical expertise and different phrase boundary markers on the music CPS, using event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and event-related magnetic fields (ERFs). Musicians and nonmusicians were tested while listening to binary phrased melodies. ERPs and ERFs of both subject groups differed considerably from each other. Phrased melody versions evoked an electric CPS and a magnetic CPSm in musicians, but an early negativity and a less pronounced CPSm in nonmusicians, suggesting different perceptual strategies for both subject groups. Musicians seem to process musical phrases in a structured manner similar to language. Nonmusicians, in contrast, are thought to detect primarily discontinuity in the melodic input. Variations of acoustic cues in the vicinity of the phrase boundary reveal that the CPS is influenced by a number of parameters that are considered to indicate phrasing in melodies: pause length, length of the last tone preceding the pause, and harmonic function of this last tone. This is taken as evidence that the CPS mainly reflects higher cognitive processing of phrasing, rather than mere perception of pauses. Furthermore, results suggest that the ERP and MEG methods are sensitive to different aspects within phrase perception. For both subject groups, qualitatively different ERP components (CPS and early negativity) seem to reflect a top-down activation of general but different phrasing schemata, whereas quantitatively differing MEG signals appear to reflect gradual differences in the bottom-up processing of acoustic boundary markers.

  9. The construction of semantic memory: grammar-based representations learned from relational episodic information.

    PubMed

    Battaglia, Francesco P; Pennartz, Cyriel M A

    2011-01-01

    After acquisition, memories underlie a process of consolidation, making them more resistant to interference and brain injury. Memory consolidation involves systems-level interactions, most importantly between the hippocampus and associated structures, which takes part in the initial encoding of memory, and the neocortex, which supports long-term storage. This dichotomy parallels the contrast between episodic memory (tied to the hippocampal formation), collecting an autobiographical stream of experiences, and semantic memory, a repertoire of facts and statistical regularities about the world, involving the neocortex at large. Experimental evidence points to a gradual transformation of memories, following encoding, from an episodic to a semantic character. This may require an exchange of information between different memory modules during inactive periods. We propose a theory for such interactions and for the formation of semantic memory, in which episodic memory is encoded as relational data. Semantic memory is modeled as a modified stochastic grammar, which learns to parse episodic configurations expressed as an association matrix. The grammar produces tree-like representations of episodes, describing the relationships between its main constituents at multiple levels of categorization, based on its current knowledge of world regularities. These regularities are learned by the grammar from episodic memory information, through an expectation-maximization procedure, analogous to the inside-outside algorithm for stochastic context-free grammars. We propose that a Monte-Carlo sampling version of this algorithm can be mapped on the dynamics of "sleep replay" of previously acquired information in the hippocampus and neocortex. We propose that the model can reproduce several properties of semantic memory such as decontextualization, top-down processing, and creation of schemata.

  10. The clinician in the driver's seat: part 2 - intelligent uses of space in a drag/drop user-composable electronic health record.

    PubMed

    Senathirajah, Yalini; Kaufman, David; Bakken, Suzanne

    2014-12-01

    User-composable approaches provide clinicians with the control to design and assemble information elements on screen via drag/drop. They hold considerable promise for enhancing the electronic-health-records (EHRs) user experience. We previously described this novel approach to EHR design and our illustrative system, MedWISE. The purpose of this paper is to describe clinician users' intelligent uses of space during completion of real patient case studies in a laboratory setting using MedWISE. Thirteen clinicians at a quaternary academic medical center used the system to review four real patient cases. We analyzed clinician utterances, behaviors, screen layouts (i.e., interface designs), and their perceptions associated with completing patient case studies. Clinicians effectively used the system to review all cases. Two coding schemata pertaining to human-computer interaction and diagnostic reasoning were used to analyze the data. Users adopted three main interaction strategies: rapidly gathering items on screen and reviewing ('opportunistic selection' approach); creating highly structured screens ('structured' approach); and interacting with small groups of items in sequence as their case review progressed ('dynamic stage' approach). They also used spatial arrangement in ways predicted by theory and research on workplace spatial arrangement. This includes assignment of screen regions for particular purposes (24% of spatial codes), juxtaposition to facilitate calculation or other cognitive tasks ('epistemic action'), and grouping elements with common meanings or relevance to the diagnostic facets of the case (20.3%). A left-to-right progression of orienting materials, data, and action items or reflection space was a commonly observed pattern. Widget selection was based on user assessment of what information was useful or relevant. We developed and tested an illustrative system that gives clinicians greater control of the EHR, and demonstrated its feasibility for case

  11. Neuroanatomical correlates of category-specific semantic disorders: a critical survey.

    PubMed

    Gainotti, G; Silveri, M C; Daniele, A; Giustolisi, L

    1995-01-01

    Previous studies of category-specific semantic disturbances have focused their attention on the intrinsic cognitive structure of these disorders. The present survey aims to evaluate the relationships between disrupted semantic category and localisation of the underlying brain damage, in order to establish whether the injured brain areas house just those neurophysiological mechanisms that should have critically contributed to the acquisition of the disrupted semantic categories. We took into account in our review two double dissociations concerning respectively: (1) the impairment of a specific linguistic category--we contrast those disorders selectively affecting verbs (action names) with those selectively affecting nouns (object names); (2) the impairment of a specific conceptual/semantic domain--we contrast disorders selectively affecting living beings with those preferentially affecting man-made artefacts. The hypothesis that different categories of knowledge may be closely intertwined with different sources of sensory-motor information, was substantially confirmed. The lesion preferentially encroached on the left frontal lobe when the category "verbs" was selectively affected; it involved the left temporal lobe and the posterior association areas when the category "nouns" was preferentially disrupted; it involved bilateral temporo-limbic structures and inferior temporal lobes when the category "living beings" was selectively disrupted; it usually encroached on the left fronto-parietal areas when man-made artefacts and body parts were preferentially affected. These data support the hypothesis that: (a) action schemata may critically contribute to the development of the semantic representation of verbs, (b) mechanisms of sensory integration may play an important role in establishing the semantic representation of nouns; (c) high-level visual processing and multi-modal sensory convergency may critically contribute to organising the semantic representation of

  12. A combined model of sensory and cognitive representations underlying tonal expectations in music: from audio signals to behavior.

    PubMed

    Collins, Tom; Tillmann, Barbara; Barrett, Frederick S; Delbé, Charles; Janata, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Listeners' expectations for melodies and harmonies in tonal music are perhaps the most studied aspect of music cognition. Long debated has been whether faster response times (RTs) to more strongly primed events (in a music theoretic sense) are driven by sensory or cognitive mechanisms, such as repetition of sensory information or activation of cognitive schemata that reflect learned tonal knowledge, respectively. We analyzed over 300 stimuli from 7 priming experiments comprising a broad range of musical material, using a model that transforms raw audio signals through a series of plausible physiological and psychological representations spanning a sensory-cognitive continuum. We show that RTs are modeled, in part, by information in periodicity pitch distributions, chroma vectors, and activations of tonal space--a representation on a toroidal surface of the major/minor key relationships in Western tonal music. We show that in tonal space, melodies are grouped by their tonal rather than timbral properties, whereas the reverse is true for the periodicity pitch representation. While tonal space variables explained more of the variation in RTs than did periodicity pitch variables, suggesting a greater contribution of cognitive influences to tonal expectation, a stepwise selection model contained variables from both representations and successfully explained the pattern of RTs across stimulus categories in 4 of the 7 experiments. The addition of closure--a cognitive representation of a specific syntactic relationship--succeeded in explaining results from all 7 experiments. We conclude that multiple representational stages along a sensory-cognitive continuum combine to shape tonal expectations in music.

  13. Time and Space in Tzeltal: Is the Future Uphill?

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Penelope

    2012-01-01

    Linguistic expressions of time often draw on spatial language, which raises the question of whether cultural specificity in spatial language and cognition is reflected in thinking about time. In the Mayan language Tzeltal, spatial language relies heavily on an absolute frame of reference utilizing the overall slope of the land, distinguishing an “uphill/downhill” axis oriented from south to north, and an orthogonal “crossways” axis (sunrise-set) on the basis of which objects at all scales are located. Does this absolute system for calculating spatial relations carry over into construals of temporal relations? This question was explored in a study where Tzeltal consultants produced temporal expressions and performed two different non-linguistic temporal ordering tasks. The results show that at least five distinct schemata for conceptualizing time underlie Tzeltal linguistic expressions: (i) deictic ego-centered time, (ii) time as an ordered sequence (e.g., “first”/“later”), (iii) cyclic time (times of the day, seasons), (iv) time as spatial extension or location (e.g., “entering/exiting July”), and (v) a time vector extending uphillwards into the future. The non-linguistic task results showed that the “time moves uphillwards” metaphor, based on the absolute frame of reference prevalent in Tzeltal spatial language and thinking and important as well in the linguistic expressions for time, is not strongly reflected in responses on these tasks. It is argued that systematic and consistent use of spatial language in an absolute frame of reference does not necessarily transfer to consistent absolute time conceptualization in non-linguistic tasks; time appears to be more open to alternative construals. PMID:22787451

  14. Oceans of Data: In what ways can learning research inform the development of electronic interfaces and tools for use by students accessing large scientific databases?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krumhansl, R. A.; Foster, J.; Peach, C. L.; Busey, A.; Baker, I.

    2012-12-01

    The practice of science and engineering is being revolutionized by the development of cyberinfrastructure for accessing near real-time and archived observatory data. Large cyberinfrastructure projects have the potential to transform the way science is taught in high school classrooms, making enormous quantities of scientific data available, giving students opportunities to analyze and draw conclusions from many kinds of complex data, and providing students with experiences using state-of-the-art resources and techniques for scientific investigations. However, online interfaces to scientific data are built by scientists for scientists, and their design can significantly impede broad use by novices. Knowledge relevant to the design of student interfaces to complex scientific databases is broadly dispersed among disciplines ranging from cognitive science to computer science and cartography and is not easily accessible to designers of educational interfaces. To inform efforts at bridging scientific cyberinfrastructure to the high school classroom, Education Development Center, Inc. and the Scripps Institution of Oceanography conducted an NSF-funded 2-year interdisciplinary review of literature and expert opinion pertinent to making interfaces to large scientific databases accessible to and usable by precollege learners and their teachers. Project findings are grounded in the fundamentals of Cognitive Load Theory, Visual Perception, Schemata formation and Universal Design for Learning. The Knowledge Status Report (KSR) presents cross-cutting and visualization-specific guidelines that highlight how interface design features can address/ ameliorate challenges novice high school students face as they navigate complex databases to find data, and construct and look for patterns in maps, graphs, animations and other data visualizations. The guidelines present ways to make scientific databases more broadly accessible by: 1) adjusting the cognitive load imposed by the user

  15. The Construction of Semantic Memory: Grammar-Based Representations Learned from Relational Episodic Information

    PubMed Central

    Battaglia, Francesco P.; Pennartz, Cyriel M. A.

    2011-01-01

    After acquisition, memories underlie a process of consolidation, making them more resistant to interference and brain injury. Memory consolidation involves systems-level interactions, most importantly between the hippocampus and associated structures, which takes part in the initial encoding of memory, and the neocortex, which supports long-term storage. This dichotomy parallels the contrast between episodic memory (tied to the hippocampal formation), collecting an autobiographical stream of experiences, and semantic memory, a repertoire of facts and statistical regularities about the world, involving the neocortex at large. Experimental evidence points to a gradual transformation of memories, following encoding, from an episodic to a semantic character. This may require an exchange of information between different memory modules during inactive periods. We propose a theory for such interactions and for the formation of semantic memory, in which episodic memory is encoded as relational data. Semantic memory is modeled as a modified stochastic grammar, which learns to parse episodic configurations expressed as an association matrix. The grammar produces tree-like representations of episodes, describing the relationships between its main constituents at multiple levels of categorization, based on its current knowledge of world regularities. These regularities are learned by the grammar from episodic memory information, through an expectation-maximization procedure, analogous to the inside–outside algorithm for stochastic context-free grammars. We propose that a Monte-Carlo sampling version of this algorithm can be mapped on the dynamics of “sleep replay” of previously acquired information in the hippocampus and neocortex. We propose that the model can reproduce several properties of semantic memory such as decontextualization, top-down processing, and creation of schemata. PMID:21887143

  16. General schema theory for genetic programming with subtree-swapping crossover: Part II.

    PubMed

    Poli, Riccardo; McPhee, Nicholas Freitag

    2003-01-01

    This paper is the second part of a two-part paper which introduces a general schema theory for genetic programming (GP) with subtree-swapping crossover (Part I (Poli and McPhee, 2003)). Like other recent GP schema theory results, the theory gives an exact formulation (rather than a lower bound) for the expected number of instances of a schema at the next generation. The theory is based on a Cartesian node reference system, introduced in Part I, and on the notion of a variable-arity hyperschema, introduced here, which generalises previous definitions of a schema. The theory includes two main theorems describing the propagation of GP schemata: a microscopic and a macroscopic schema theorem. The microscopic version is applicable to crossover operators which replace a subtree in one parent with a subtree from the other parent to produce the offspring. Therefore, this theorem is applicable to Koza's GP crossover with and without uniform selection of the crossover points, as well as one-point crossover, size-fair crossover, strongly-typed GP crossover, context-preserving crossover and many others. The macroscopic version is applicable to crossover operators in which the probability of selecting any two crossover points in the parents depends only on the parents' size and shape. In the paper we provide examples, we show how the theory can be specialised to specific crossover operators and we illustrate how it can be used to derive other general results. These include an exact definition of effective fitness and a size-evolution equation for GP with subtree-swapping crossover.

  17. Externally and internally controlled attention in infants: an EEG study.

    PubMed

    Stroganova, T A; Orekhova, E V; Posikera, I N

    1998-11-01

    This work was designed to investigate EEG indices of Internally and Externally Controlled Attention in infancy. EEG was recorded in 15 infants aged 7-8 months under three experimental conditions: (1) visual attention to a new stimulation (Externally Controlled Attention or baseline condition); (2) attention guided by internal cognitive schemata during 'anticipatory' phase of the peek-a-boo game (Internally Controlled Attention); and (3) 'reappearance' phase of the peek-a-boo game when the experimenter talked and smiled to an infant (reappearance). The relative power (RP) in 4-5 single-Hz theta sub-band increased under both phases of the peek-a-boo game. The reactive changes of 4-5 single-Hz RP at prefrontal and frontal leads under the Internally Controlled Attention condition positively correlated with the total time during which an infant was able to maintain ICA. The RP in 5-6 single-Hz theta sub-band significantly increased only under the Internally Controlled Attention condition and did not correlate with the total time of this type of attention. The results support the concept of 'Diffuse Theta-Response System' that is active during expectancy and effortfully focused attention. In contrast to theta, the RP in 6-7, 7-8, and 8-9 single-Hz bands decreased during both phases of the game. The decrease was maximal at precentral leads and most probably reflected blockage of the sensorimotor (mu) rhythm due to higher motility and muscular tension in the game situation. It is concluded that EEG is an adequate vehicle for investigation of brain mechanisms of attention and voluntary control in infants.

  18. Molecular and genetic inflammation networks in major human diseases.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yongzhong; Forst, Christian V; Sayegh, Camil E; Wang, I-Ming; Yang, Xia; Zhang, Bin

    2016-07-19

    It has been well-recognized that inflammation alongside tissue repair and damage maintaining tissue homeostasis determines the initiation and progression of complex diseases. Albeit with the accomplishment of having captured the most critical inflammation-involved molecules, genetic susceptibilities, epigenetic factors, and environmental factors, our schemata on the role of inflammation in complex diseases remain largely patchy, in part due to the success of reductionism in terms of research methodology per se. Omics data alongside the advances in data integration technologies have enabled reconstruction of molecular and genetic inflammation networks which shed light on the underlying pathophysiology of complex diseases or clinical conditions. Given the proven beneficial role of anti-inflammation in coronary heart disease as well as other complex diseases and immunotherapy as a revolutionary transition in oncology, it becomes timely to review our current understanding of the molecular and genetic inflammation networks underlying major human diseases. In this review, we first briefly discuss the complexity of infectious diseases and then highlight recently uncovered molecular and genetic inflammation networks in other major human diseases including obesity, type II diabetes, coronary heart disease, late onset Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and sporadic cancer. The commonality and specificity of these molecular networks are addressed in the context of genetics based on genome-wide association study (GWAS). The double-sword role of inflammation, such as how the aberrant type 1 and/or type 2 immunity leads to chronic and severe clinical conditions, remains open in terms of the inflammasome and the core inflammatome network features. Increasingly available large Omics and clinical data in tandem with systems biology approaches have offered an exciting yet challenging opportunity toward reconstruction of more comprehensive and dynamic molecular and genetic

  19. Embodiment effects and language comprehension in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    De Scalzi, Marika; Rusted, Jennifer; Oakhill, Jane

    2015-07-01

    It has been shown that when participants are asked to make sensibility judgments on sentences that describe a transfer of an object toward or away from their body, they are faster to respond when the response requires a movement in the same direction as the transfer described in the sentence. This phenomenon is known as the action compatibility effect (ACE). This study investigates whether the ACE exists for volunteers with Alzheimer's disease (AD), whether the ACE can facilitate language comprehension, and also whether the ACE can still be produced if the order of the two events is inverted, that is, whether overt movement can prime comprehension of transfer sentences. In Study 1, participants with AD, younger, and older adults were tested on an adaptation of the ACE Paradigm. In Study 2, the same paradigm was modified to include an arm movement that participants had to perform prior to sentence exposure on screen. In Study 1, young, older adults, and individuals with AD were faster to respond when the direction of the response movement matched the directionality implied by the sentence (ACE). In Study 2, no traditional ACE was found; participants were faster when the direction of the movement immediately preceding the sentence matched the directionality of the sentence. It was found that compatibility effects generated a relative advantage, that transfer schemata are easier to process, and that an ACE-like effect can be the result of mutual priming between language and movement. Results suggested preservation in AD of the neural systems for action engaged during language comprehension, and conditions under which comprehension in AD can be facilitated in real life may be identified.

  20. The clinician in the driver's seat: part 2 - intelligent uses of space in a drag/drop user-composable electronic health record.

    PubMed

    Senathirajah, Yalini; Kaufman, David; Bakken, Suzanne

    2014-12-01

    User-composable approaches provide clinicians with the control to design and assemble information elements on screen via drag/drop. They hold considerable promise for enhancing the electronic-health-records (EHRs) user experience. We previously described this novel approach to EHR design and our illustrative system, MedWISE. The purpose of this paper is to describe clinician users' intelligent uses of space during completion of real patient case studies in a laboratory setting using MedWISE. Thirteen clinicians at a quaternary academic medical center used the system to review four real patient cases. We analyzed clinician utterances, behaviors, screen layouts (i.e., interface designs), and their perceptions associated with completing patient case studies. Clinicians effectively used the system to review all cases. Two coding schemata pertaining to human-computer interaction and diagnostic reasoning were used to analyze the data. Users adopted three main interaction strategies: rapidly gathering items on screen and reviewing ('opportunistic selection' approach); creating highly structured screens ('structured' approach); and interacting with small groups of items in sequence as their case review progressed ('dynamic stage' approach). They also used spatial arrangement in ways predicted by theory and research on workplace spatial arrangement. This includes assignment of screen regions for particular purposes (24% of spatial codes), juxtaposition to facilitate calculation or other cognitive tasks ('epistemic action'), and grouping elements with common meanings or relevance to the diagnostic facets of the case (20.3%). A left-to-right progression of orienting materials, data, and action items or reflection space was a commonly observed pattern. Widget selection was based on user assessment of what information was useful or relevant. We developed and tested an illustrative system that gives clinicians greater control of the EHR, and demonstrated its feasibility for case

  1. Incidental Memory of Younger and Older Adults for Objects Encountered in a Real World Context

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Xiaoyan; Bochsler, Tiana M.; Aizpurua, Alaitz; Cheong, Allen M. Y.; Koutstaal, Wilma; Legge, Gordon E.

    2014-01-01

    Effects of context on the perception of, and incidental memory for, real-world objects have predominantly been investigated in younger individuals, under conditions involving a single static viewpoint. We examined the effects of prior object context and object familiarity on both older and younger adults’ incidental memory for real objects encountered while they traversed a conference room. Recognition memory for context-typical and context-atypical objects was compared with a third group of unfamiliar objects that were not readily named and that had no strongly associated context. Both older and younger adults demonstrated a typicality effect, showing significantly lower 2-alternative-forced-choice recognition of context-typical than context-atypical objects; for these objects, the recognition of older adults either significantly exceeded, or numerically surpassed, that of younger adults. Testing-awareness elevated recognition but did not interact with age or with object type. Older adults showed significantly higher recognition for context-atypical objects than for unfamiliar objects that had no prior strongly associated context. The observation of a typicality effect in both age groups is consistent with preserved semantic schemata processing in aging. The incidental recognition advantage of older over younger adults for the context-typical and context-atypical objects may reflect aging-related differences in goal-related processing, with older adults under comparatively more novel circumstances being more likely to direct their attention to the external environment, or age-related differences in top-down effortful distraction regulation, with older individuals’ attention more readily captured by salient objects in the environment. Older adults’ reduced recognition of unfamiliar objects compared to context-atypical objects may reflect possible age differences in contextually driven expectancy violations. The latter finding underscores the theoretical and

  2. The NERC Vocabulary Server: Version 2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leadbetter, A.; Lowry, R.; Clements, O.

    2012-04-01

    The NERC Vocabulary Server (NVS) has been used to publish controlled vocabularies of terms relevant to the marine environmental sciences domain since 2006 (version 0) with version 1 being introduced in 2007. It has been used for • metadata mark-up with verifiable content • populating dynamic drop down lists • semantic cross-walk between metadata schemata • so-called smart search • and the semantic enablement of Open Geospatial Consortium Web Processing Services in projects including: the NERC Data Grid; SeaDataNet; Geo-Seas; and the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet). The NVS is based on the Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) model and following a version change for SKOS in 2009 there was a desire to upgrade the NVS to incorporate the changes in this standard. SKOS is based on the "concept", which it defines as a "unit of thought", that is an idea or notion such as "oil spill". The latest version of SKOS introduces the ability to aggregate concepts in both collections and schemes. The design of version 2 of the NVS uses both types of aggregation: schemes for the discovery of content through hierarchical thesauri and collections for the publication and addressing of content. Other desired changes from version 1 of the NVS included: • the removal of the potential for multiple Uniform Resource Names for the same concept to ensure consistent identification of concepts • the addition of content and technical governance information in the payload documents to provide an audit trail to users of NVS content • the removal of XML snippets from concept definitions in order to correctly validate XML serializations of the SKOS • the addition of the ability to map into external knowledge organization systems in order to extend the knowledge base • a more truly RESTful approach URL access to the NVS to make the development of applications on top of the NVS easier • and support for multiple human languages to increase the user

  3. Elementary student and prospective teachers' agri-food system literacy: Understandings of agricultural and science education's goals for learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trexler, Cary Jay

    1999-09-01

    Although rhetoric abounds in the agricultural education literature regarding the public's dearth of agri-food system literacy, problems arise when establishing educational interventions to help ameliorate illiteracy. Researchers do not fully know what individuals understand about the complex agri-food system. Hence, educational programs and curricula may focus on areas where students already possess well developed and scientifically accurate schemata, while ignoring other areas where incompatible or naive understandings persist. Democratic decisions about complex societal and environmental issues, such as trade-offs of our industrial agri-food system, require individuals to possess understandings of complex interrelationships. This exploratory qualitative study determines what two groups---elementary students and prospective elementary school teachers---understand about selected concepts foundational to agri-food system literacy. To ground the study in current national education curricular standards, a synthesis of both agricultural and science education benchmarks was developed. This helped structure interviews with the study's informants: nine elementary students and nine prospective elementary teachers. Analysis of discourse was based upon a conceptual change methodology. Findings showed that informant background and non-school experiences were linked to agri-food system literacy, while formal, in-school learning was not. For elementary students, high socio-economic status, gardening and not living in urban areas were correlates with literacy; the prospective teacher group exhibited similar trends. Informants understood that food came from farms where plants and animals were raised. For the majority, however, farms were described as large gardens. Additionally, informants lacked a clear understanding of the roles soil and fertilizers play in crop production. Further, few spoke of weeds as competitors with crops for growth requirements. Informants understood that

  4. Advances in aircraft design: Multiobjective optimization and a markup language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, Shubhangi

    communication, and to improve efficiency and productivity within a multidisciplinary, collaborative environment. An important feature of the proposed schema is the very expressive and efficient low level schemata. As a proof of concept the schema is used to encode an entire Convair B58. As the complexity of models and number of disciplines increases, the reduction in effort to exchange data models and analysis results in ADML also increases.

  5. Cognitive ontologies for neuropsychiatric phenomics research.

    PubMed

    Bilder, Robert M; Sabb, Fred W; Parker, D Stott; Kalar, Donald; Chu, Wesley W; Fox, Jared; Freimer, Nelson B; Poldrack, Russell A

    2009-01-01

    Now that genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are dominating the landscape of genetic research on neuropsychiatric syndromes, investigators are being faced with complexity on an unprecedented scale. It is now clear that phenomics, the systematic study of phenotypes on a genome-wide scale, comprises a rate-limiting step on the road to genomic discovery. To gain traction on the myriad paths leading from genomic variation to syndromal manifestations, informatics strategies must be deployed to navigate increasingly broad domains of knowledge and help researchers find the most important signals. The success of the Gene Ontology project suggests the potential benefits of developing schemata to represent higher levels of phenotypic expression. Challenges in cognitive ontology development include the lack of formal definitions of key concepts and relations among entities, the inconsistent use of terminology across investigators and time, and the fact that relations among cognitive concepts are not likely to be well represented by simple hierarchical "tree" structures. Because cognitive concept labels are labile, there is a need to represent empirical findings at the cognitive test indicator level. This level of description has greater consistency, and benefits from operational definitions of its concepts and relations to quantitative data. Considering cognitive test indicators as the foundation of cognitive ontologies carries several implications, including the likely utility of cognitive task taxonomies. The concept of cognitive "test speciation" is introduced to mark the evolution of paradigms sufficiently unique that their results cannot be "mated" productively with others in meta-analysis. Several projects have been initiated to develop cognitive ontologies at the Consortium for Neuropsychiatric Phenomics (www.phenomics.ucla.edu), in the hope that these ultimately will enable more effective collaboration, and facilitate connections of information about cognitive

  6. Visual-spatial thinking: An aspect of science overlooked by educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathewson, James H.

    1999-01-01

    mental schemata employed by self-aware human beings is a basic goal of education. The current attempt to impose integration using themes is criticized on the grounds that the required underpinning in cognitive skills and content knowledge by teachers and students may be absent. Teaching strategies that employ visual-spatial thinking are reviewed. Master images are recommended as a novel point of departure for a systematic development of programs on visual-spatial thinking in research, teacher education, curriculum, and classroom practice.

  7. Dismissing Attachment Characteristics Dynamically Modulate Brain Networks Subserving Social Aversion.

    PubMed

    Krause, Anna Linda; Borchardt, Viola; Li, Meng; van Tol, Marie-José; Demenescu, Liliana Ramona; Strauss, Bernhard; Kirchmann, Helmut; Buchheim, Anna; Metzger, Coraline D; Nolte, Tobias; Walter, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Attachment patterns influence actions, thoughts and feeling through a person's "inner working model". Speech charged with attachment-dependent content was proposed to modulate the activation of cognitive-emotional schemata in listeners. We performed a 7 Tesla rest-task-rest functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-experiment, presenting auditory narratives prototypical of dismissing attachment representations to investigate their effect on 23 healthy males. We then examined effects of participants' attachment style and childhood trauma on brain state changes using seed-based functional connectivity (FC) analyses, and finally tested whether subjective differences in responsivity to narratives could be predicted by baseline network states. In comparison to a baseline state, we observed increased FC in a previously described "social aversion network" including dorsal anterior cingulated cortex (dACC) and left anterior middle temporal gyrus (aMTG) specifically after exposure to insecure-dismissing attachment narratives. Increased dACC-seeded FC within the social aversion network was positively related to the participants' avoidant attachment style and presence of a history of childhood trauma. Anxious attachment style on the other hand was positively correlated with FC between the dACC and a region outside of the "social aversion network", namely the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which suggests decreased network segregation as a function of anxious attachment. Finally, the extent of subjective experience of friendliness towards the dismissing narrative was predicted by low baseline FC-values between hippocampus and inferior parietal lobule (IPL). Taken together, our study demonstrates an activation of networks related to social aversion in terms of increased connectivity after listening to insecure-dismissing attachment narratives. A causal interrelation of brain state changes and subsequent changes in social reactivity was further supported by our observation of

  8. A regulated telemedicine system for day to day application in remote areas.

    PubMed

    Samiotakis, Y; Anagnostopoulou, S; Alexakis, A

    2000-01-01

    The NIVEMES project creates an international network of Health Service providers which offer Telemedicine-Teleconsultation services to Remote, Isolated places and to ship vessels for both routine and emergency situations. The base of the system is the powerful Multimedia Health Record, with the ability to manage conventional data, images, videos and biosignals, acquired directly from the medical device. National and international medical codification schemata are employed such as ICD-X and WHO standards. Telemedicine and Computing in Health Care are rapidly covering a pending gap, not fulfilled by current bureaucratic and telematic procedures. However even from the first test fields conducted during the past year, it is obvious that a variety of new training needs has arisen. The users of such systems need to be instructed new ways of conducting their business, of taking advantage of the services, even a new way of perceiving health care provision. The user interface of the software is kept simple, thus getting acquainted with it requires minimum effort; however there are other issues on which training is required to best exploit the advantages the system offers. The telemedical networks spawned in each country must be co-ordinated, and the user needs to know where and how he/she will acquire the necessary support. Home-cared patients will have to operate medical devices and telemedical software, a task which although made easy from today's technology, it still requires some basic training, specially as far as elderly users are concerned. The NIVEMES system uncovers a set of new training needs, but it offers at the same time a vehicle for educating the professional health-carers. The Health Record comprises a multimedia, explicit account of the patient history, which can be used for detailed and integrated study from trainee health carers of all levels (as well as from officers on board, people taking care of home-confined patients and others), on real data or in a

  9. Cognitive Load and Self-Determination Theories Applied to E-Learning: Impact on Students' Participation and Academic Performance

    PubMed Central

    de Araujo Guerra Grangeia, Tiago; de Jorge, Bruno; Franci, Daniel; Martins Santos, Thiago; Vellutini Setubal, Maria Silvia; Schweller, Marcelo; de Carvalho-Filho, Marco Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Background Emergency clerkships expose students to a stressful environment that require multiple tasks, which may have a direct impact on cognitive load and motivation for learning. To address this challenge, Cognitive Load Theory and Self Determination Theory provided the conceptual frameworks to the development of a Moodle-based online Emergency Medicine course, inspired by real clinical cases. Methods Three consecutive classes (2013–2015) of sixth-year medical students (n = 304) participated in the course, during a curricular and essentially practical emergency rotation. “Virtual Rounds” provided weekly virtual patients in narrative format and meaningful schemata to chief complaints, in order to simulate real rounds at Emergency Unit. Additional activities such as Extreme Decisions, Emergency Quiz and Electrocardiographic challenge offered different views of emergency care. Authors assessed student´s participation and its correlation with their academic performance. A survey evaluated students´ opinions. Students graduating in 2015 answered an online questionnaire to investigate cognitive load and motivation. Results Each student produced 1965 pageviews and spent 72 hours logged on. Although Clinical Emergency rotation has two months long, students accessed the online course during an average of 5.3 months. Virtual Rounds was the most accessed activity, and there was positive correlations between the number of hours logged on the platform and final grades on Emergency Medicine. Over 90% of students felt an improvement in their clinical reasoning and considered themselves better prepared for rendering Emergency care. Considering a Likert scale from 1 (minimum load) to 7 (maximum load), the scores for total cognitive load were 4.79±2.2 for Virtual Rounds and 5.56±1.96 for real medical rounds(p<0,01). Conclusions A real-world inspired online course, based on cognitive and motivational conceptual frameworks, seems to be a strong tool to engage students in

  10. Dismissing Attachment Characteristics Dynamically Modulate Brain Networks Subserving Social Aversion

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Anna Linda; Borchardt, Viola; Li, Meng; van Tol, Marie-José; Demenescu, Liliana Ramona; Strauss, Bernhard; Kirchmann, Helmut; Buchheim, Anna; Metzger, Coraline D.; Nolte, Tobias; Walter, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Attachment patterns influence actions, thoughts and feeling through a person’s “inner working model”. Speech charged with attachment-dependent content was proposed to modulate the activation of cognitive-emotional schemata in listeners. We performed a 7 Tesla rest-task-rest functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-experiment, presenting auditory narratives prototypical of dismissing attachment representations to investigate their effect on 23 healthy males. We then examined effects of participants’ attachment style and childhood trauma on brain state changes using seed-based functional connectivity (FC) analyses, and finally tested whether subjective differences in responsivity to narratives could be predicted by baseline network states. In comparison to a baseline state, we observed increased FC in a previously described “social aversion network” including dorsal anterior cingulated cortex (dACC) and left anterior middle temporal gyrus (aMTG) specifically after exposure to insecure-dismissing attachment narratives. Increased dACC-seeded FC within the social aversion network was positively related to the participants’ avoidant attachment style and presence of a history of childhood trauma. Anxious attachment style on the other hand was positively correlated with FC between the dACC and a region outside of the “social aversion network”, namely the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which suggests decreased network segregation as a function of anxious attachment. Finally, the extent of subjective experience of friendliness towards the dismissing narrative was predicted by low baseline FC-values between hippocampus and inferior parietal lobule (IPL). Taken together, our study demonstrates an activation of networks related to social aversion in terms of increased connectivity after listening to insecure-dismissing attachment narratives. A causal interrelation of brain state changes and subsequent changes in social reactivity was further supported by

  11. Facilitating case reuse during problem solving in algebra-based physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateycik, Frances Ann

    This research project investigates students' development of problem solving schemata while using strategies that facilitate the process of using solved examples to assist with a new problem (case reuse). Focus group learning interviews were used to explore students' perceptions and understanding of several problem solving strategies. Individual clinical interviews were conducted and quantitative examination data were collected to assess students' conceptual understanding, knowledge organization, and problem solving performance on a variety of problem tasks. The study began with a short one-time treatment of two independent, research-based strategies chosen to facilitate case reuse. Exploration of students' perceptions and use of the strategies lead investigators to select one of the two strategies to be implemented over a full semester of focus group interviews. The strategy chosen was structure mapping. Structure maps are defined as visual representations of quantities and their associations. They were created by experts to model the appropriate mental organization of knowledge elements for a given physical concept. Students were asked to use these maps as they were comfortable while problem solving. Data obtained from this phase of our study (Phase I) offered no evidence of improved problem solving schema. The 11 contact hour study was barely sufficient time for students to become comfortable using the maps. A set of simpler strategies were selected for their more explicit facilitation of analogical reasoning, and were used together during two more semester long focus group treatments (Phase II and Phase III of this study). These strategies included the use of a step-by-step process aimed at reducing cognitive load associated with mathematical procedure, direct reflection of principles involved in a given set of problems, and the direct comparison of problem pairs designed to be void of surface similarities (similar objects or object orientations) and sharing

  12. Salivary mucoepidermoid carcinoma: a multi-institutional review of 76 patients.

    PubMed

    Bai, Shuting; Clubwala, Rashna; Adler, Esther; Sarta, Cathy; Schiff, Bradley; Smith, Richard V; Gnepp, Douglas R; Brandwein-Gensler, Margaret

    2013-06-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is a relatively common salivary tumor with varying potential for aggressive behavior. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma grading has evolved from descriptive two-tiered schemata to more objective three-tiered systems. In 2001, we published a grading system Brandwein et al. in Am J Surg Pathol 25:835-845, (2001) which modified the prevailing criteria of Auclair et al. in Cancer 69:2021-2030 (1992), and included additional features of aggressive MEC. Here we seek to validate our modified grading system in a new multicenter cohort. The retrospective cohort consisted of 76 patients with confirmed MEC and known outcome data. The resection specimens were reviewed and uniformly graded according to our modified criteria Brandwein et al. in Am J Surg Pathol 25:835-845 (2001), and the Auclair criteria Auclair et al. in Cancer 69:2021-2030, (1992), Goode et al. in Cancer 82:1217-1224, (1998). Case distribution was as follows: Montefiore Medical Center: 41 (1977-2009), University of Alabama at Birmingham: 21 (1999-2010), and Rhode Island Hospital: 14, (1995-2011). Patient age ranged from 7 to 81 years (mean 51 years). The female to male ratio was 3:1. The most commonly involved sites were: parotid: n = 39 (51%), palate: n = 10 (13%), retromolar trigone: n = 6 (8%), buccal: n = 5 (7%), and submandibular gland: n = 5 (7%). The modified criteria upgraded 41% MEC; 20/25 MEC from AFIP Grade 1 to Grade 2 and 5/25 from AFIP grade 1 to grade 3. Eleven patients had positive lymph nodes; the AFIP MEC grade for cases were: grade 1-3/11, Grade 2-1/11, and grade 3-7/11; the modified grading criteria distribution for these cases were Grade 1: 0/11, grade 2: 1/11, and grade 3: 10/11. Nine patients developed disease progression after definitive treatment. High-stage and positive lymph node status were significantly associated with disease progression (p = 0.0003 and p < 0.0001, respectively). For the nine patients with disease progression, the modified grading schema

  13. Assessing Negative Automatic Thoughts: Psychometric Properties of the Turkish Version of the Cognition Checklist

    PubMed Central

    Batmaz, Sedat; Ahmet Yuncu, Ozgur; Kocbiyik, Sibel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Beck’s theory of emotional disorder suggests that negative automatic thoughts (NATs) and the underlying schemata affect one’s way of interpreting situations and result in maladaptive coping strategies. Depending on their content and meaning, NATs are associated with specific emotions, and since they are usually quite brief, patients are often more aware of the emotion they feel. This relationship between cognition and emotion, therefore, is thought to form the background of the cognitive content specificity hypothesis. Researchers focusing on this hypothesis have suggested that instruments like the cognition checklist (CCL) might be an alternative to make a diagnostic distinction between depression and anxiety. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the CCL in a psychiatric outpatient sample. Patients and Methods: A total of 425 psychiatric outpatients 18 years of age and older were recruited. After a structured diagnostic interview, the participants completed the hospital anxiety depression scale (HADS), the automatic thoughts questionnaire (ATQ), and the CCL. An exploratory factor analysis was performed, followed by an oblique rotation. The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and concurrent and discriminant validity analyses were undertaken. Results: The internal consistency of the CCL was excellent (Cronbach’s α = 0.95). The test-retest correlation coefficients were satisfactory (r = 0.80, P < 0.001 for CCL-D, and r = 0.79, P < 0.001 for CCL-A). The exploratory factor analysis revealed that a two-factor solution best fit the data. This bidimensional factor structure explained 51.27 % of the variance of the scale. The first factor consisted of items related to anxious cognitions, and the second factor of depressive cognitions. The CCL subscales significantly correlated with the ATQ (rs 0.44 for the CCL-D, and 0.32 for the CCL-A) as well as the other measures of

  14. Re-using the DataCite Metadata Store as DOI registration proxy and IGSN registry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klump, J.; Ulbricht, D.

    2012-12-01

    Currently a lot of work is done to stimulate the reuse of data. In joint efforts research institutions establish infrastructure to facilitate the publication of scientific datasets. To create a citable reference, these datasets must be tagged with persistent identifiers (DOIs) and described with metadata. As most data in the geosciences are derived from samples, it is crucial to be able to uniquely identify the samples from which a set of data were derived. Incomplete documentation of samples in publications, use of ambiguous sample names are major obstacles for synthesis studies and re-use of data. Access to samples for re-analysis and re-appraisal is limited due to the lack of a central catalogue that allows finding a sample's archiving location. The International Geo Sample Number (IGSN) [1] provides solutions to the questions of unique sample identification and discovery. Use of the IGSN in digital data systems allows building linkages between the digital representation of samples in sample registries, e.g. SESAR [2], and their related data in the literature and in web accessible digital data repositories. DataCite recently decided to publish their metadata store (DataCite MDS) and accompanying software online [3]. The DataCite software allows registration of handles, deposition of metadata in an XML format, it offers a search interface, and is able to disseminate metadata via OAI-PMH. Its, REST interface allows an easy integration into institutional data work flows. For our applications at GFZ Potsdam we modified the DataCite MDS software for reuse it in two different contexts: as the DOIDB web service for data publications and as the IGSN registry web service for the registration of geological samples. The DOIDB acts as a proxy service to the DataCite Metadata Store and uses its REST-Interface for registration of DataCite DOI and associated DOI metadata. Metadata can be deposited in the DataCite or NASA DIF schema. Both schemata can be disseminated via OAI

  15. Development of the Large-Scale Statistical Analysis System of Satellites Observations Data with Grid Datafarm Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, K.; Murata, K.; Kimura, E.; Honda, R.

    2006-12-01

    number of files and the elapsed time, parallel and distributed processing shorten the elapsed time to 1/5 than sequential processing. On the other hand, sequential processing times were shortened in another experiment, whose file size is smaller than 100KB. In this case, the elapsed time to scan one file is within one second. It implies that disk swap took place in case of parallel processing by each node. We note that the operation became unstable when the number of the files exceeded 1000. To overcome the problem (iii), we developed an original data class. This class supports our reading of data files with various data formats since it converts them into an original data format since it defines schemata for every type of data and encapsulates the structure of data files. In addition, since this class provides a function of time re-sampling, users can easily convert multiple data (array) with different time resolution into the same time resolution array. Finally, using the Gfarm, we achieved a high performance environment for large-scale statistical data analyses. It should be noted that the present method is effective only when one data file size is large enough. At present, we are restructuring the new Gfarm environment with 8 nodes: CPU is Athlon 64 x2 Dual Core 2GHz, 2GB memory and 1.2TB disk (using RAID0) for each node. Our original class is to be implemented on the new Gfarm environment. In the present talk, we show the latest results with applying the present system for data analyses with huge number of satellite observation data files.

  16. The NERC Vocabulary Server: Version 2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leadbetter, A. M.; Lowry, R. K.

    2012-12-01

    The Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) Vocabulary Server (NVS) has been used to publish controlled vocabularies of terms relevant to marine environmental sciences since 2006 (version 0) with version 1 being introduced in 2007. It has been used for - metadata mark-up with verifiable content - populating dynamic drop down lists - semantic cross-walk between metadata schemata - so-called smart search - and the semantic enablement of Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Processing Services in the NERC Data Grid and the European Commission SeaDataNet, Geo-Seas, and European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) projects. The NVS is based on the Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) model. SKOS is based on the "concept", which it defines as a "unit of thought", that is an idea or notion such as "oil spill". Following a version change for SKOS in 2009 there was a desire to upgrade the NVS to incorporate the changes. This version of SKOS introduces the ability to aggregate concepts in both collections and schemes. The design of version 2 of the NVS uses both types of aggregation: schemes for the discovery of content through hierarchical thesauri and collections for the publication and addressing of content. Other desired changes from version 1 of the NVS included: - the removal of the potential for multiple identifiers for the same concept to ensure consistent addressing of concepts - the addition of content and technical governance information in the payload documents to provide an audit trail to users of NVS content - the removal of XML snippets from concept definitions in order to correctly validate XML serializations of the SKOS - the addition of the ability to map into external knowledge organization systems in order to extend the knowledge base - a more truly RESTful approach URL access to the NVS to make the development of applications on top of the NVS easier - and support for multiple human languages to increase the user base of the NVS

  17. Ontological Encoding of GeoSciML and INSPIRE geological standard vocabularies and schemas: application to geological mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardo, Vincenzo; Piana, Fabrizio; Mimmo, Dario; Fubelli, Giandomenico; Giardino, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Encoding of geologic knowledge in formal languages is an ambitious task, aiming at the interoperability and organic representation of geological data, and semantic characterization of geologic maps. Initiatives such as GeoScience Markup Language (last version is GeoSciML 4, 2015[1]) and INSPIRE "Data Specification on Geology" (an operative simplification of GeoSciML, last version is 3.0 rc3, 2013[2]), as well as the recent terminological shepherding of the Geoscience Terminology Working Group (GTWG[3]) have been promoting information exchange of the geologic knowledge. There have also been limited attempts to encode the knowledge in a machine-readable format, especially in the lithology domain (see e.g. the CGI_Lithology ontology[4]), but a comprehensive ontological model that connect the several knowledge sources is still lacking. This presentation concerns the "OntoGeonous" initiative, which aims at encoding the geologic knowledge, as expressed through the standard vocabularies, schemas and data models mentioned above, through a number of interlinked computational ontologies, based on the languages of the Semantic Web and the paradigm of Linked Open Data. The initiative proceeds in parallel with a concrete case study, concerning the setting up of a synthetic digital geological map of the Piemonte region (NW Italy), named "GEOPiemonteMap" (developed by the CNR Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources, CNR IGG, Torino), where the description and classification of GeologicUnits has been supported by the modeling and implementation of the ontologies. We have devised a tripartite ontological model called OntoGeonous that consists of: 1) an ontology of the geologic features (in particular, GeologicUnit, GeomorphologicFeature, and GeologicStructure[5], modeled from the definitions and UML schemata of CGI vocabularies[6], GeoScienceML and INSPIRE, and aligned with the Planetary realm of NASA SWEET ontology[7]), 2) an ontology of the Earth materials (as defined by the

  18. Bottom-up capacity building for data providers in RITMARE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepe, Monica; Basoni, Anna; Bastianini, Mauro; Fugazza, Cristiano; Menegon, Stefano; Oggioni, Alessandro; Pavesi, Fabio; Sarretta, Alessandro; Carrara, Paola

    2014-05-01

    defined for the specific category of data (WMS, WFS, WCS, and SOS). Resources are annotated by fine-grained metadata that is compliant with standards (e.g., INSPIRE, SensorML) and also semantically enriched by leveraging controlled vocabularies and RDF-based data structures (e.g., the FOAF description of the project's organisation). The Starter Kit is packaged as an off-the-shelf virtual machine and is made available under an open license (GPL v.3) and with extensive support tools. Among the most innovative features of the architecture is the user-friendly, extensible approach to metadata creation. On the one hand, the number of metadata items that need to be provided by the user is reduced to the minimum by recourse to controlled vocabularies and context information. The semantic underpinning of these data structures enables advanced discovery functionalities. On the other hand, the templating mechanism adopted in metadata editing allows to easily plug-in further schemata. The Starter Kit provides a consistent framework for capacity building that brings the heterogeneous actors in the project under the same umbrella, while preserving the individual practices, formats, and workflows. At the same time, users are empowered with standard-compliant web services that can be discovered and accessed both locally and remotely, such as the RITMARE infrastructure itself. [1] Carrara, P., Sarretta, A., Giorgetti, A., Ribera D'Alcalà, M., Oggioni, A., & Partescano, E. (2013). An interoperable infrastructure for the Italian Marine Research. IMDIS 2013 [2] European Commission, "Establishing an Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community (INSPIRE)" Directive 2007/2/EC, Official J. European Union, vol. 50, no. L 108, 2007, pp. 1-14.

  19. SU-C-BRE-02: BED Vs. Local Control: Radiobiological Effect of Tumor Volume in Monte Carlo (MC) Lung SBRT Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Pokhrel, D; Badkul, R; Jiang, H; Estes, C; Park, J; Kumar, P; Wang, F

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: SBRT with hypofractionated dose schemata has emerged a compelling treatment modality for medically inoperable early stage lung cancer patients. It requires more accurate dose calculation and treatment delivery technique. This report presents the relationship between tumor control probability(TCP) and size-adjusted biological effective dose(sBED) of tumor volume for MC lung SBRT patients. Methods: Fifteen patients who were treated with MC-based lung SBRT to 50Gy in 5 fractions to PTVV100%=95% were studied. ITVs were delineated on MIP images of 4DCT-scans. PTVs diameter(ITV+5mm margins) ranged from 2.7–4.9cm (mean 3.7cm). Plans were generated using non-coplanar conformal arcs/beams using iPlan XVMC algorithm (BrainLABiPlan ver.4.1.2) for Novalis-TX with HD-MLCs and 6MVSRS(1000MU/min) mode, following RTOG-0813 dosimetric guidelines. To understand the known uncertainties of conventional heterogeneities-corrected/uncorrected pencil beam (PBhete/ PB-homo) algorithms, dose distributions were re-calculated with PBhete/ PB-homo using same beam configurations, MLCs and monitor units. Biologically effective dose(BED10) was computed using LQ-model with α/β=10Gy for meanPTV and meanITV. BED10-c*L, gave size-adjusted BED(sBED), where c=10Gy/cm and L=PTV diameter in centimeter. The TCP model was adopted from Ohri et al.(IJROBP, 2012): TCP = exp[sBEDTCD50]/ k /(1.0 + exp[sBED-TCD50]/k), where k=31Gy corresponding to TCD50=0Gy; and more realistic MC-based TCP was computed for PTV(V99%). Results: Mean PTV PB-hete TCP value was 6% higher, but, mean PTV PB-homo TCP value was 4% lower compared to mean PTV MC TCP. Mean ITV PB-hete/PB-homo TCP values were comparable (within ±3.0%) to mean ITV MC TCP. The mean PTV(V99%)had BED10=90.9±3.7%(median=92.2%),sBED=54.1±8.2%(median=53.5%) corresponding to mean MC TCP value of 84.8±3.3%(median=84.9%) at 2- year local control. Conclusion: The TCP model which incorporates BED10 and tumor diameter indicates that radiobiological

  20. Life history strategies in zooplankton communities: The significance of female gonad morphology and maturation types for the reproductive biology of marine calanoid copepods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niehoff, Barbara

    2007-07-01

    species, Clausocalanus farrani and C. furcatus. In contrast, other calanoid species exhibit reproductive cycles, either related to temperature ( Ctenocalanus vanus) or to ontogenetic migration ( Rhincalanus nasutus). The information gained from studies of morphology and reproductive traits contributes to standardization of methods in reproductive studies. Based on detailed knowledge of gonad morphology and its changes during maturation and due to food supply, classification schemata have been developed allowing the identification of females ready to spawn. In a next step, egg production may be estimated from preserved females by assessing clutch size through the number of maturing oocytes in the gonads. This approach, however, is as yet applicable only to the species best studied, Calanus finmarchicus. The present review shows that morphological studies on gonad maturation processes may provide significant contributions to fundamental ecological questions. Thus, they extend our knowledge of reproductive ecology from simply relating reproductive traits to abiotic and biotic factors toward a mechanistic understanding of how reproduction is regulated in calanoid copepods.